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Sample records for gum arabic acacia

  1. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food....780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic)...

  8. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  9. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  10. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried...

  11. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... regulations to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia (gum arabic) in foods. This action is in response... ] additive regulations in Sec. 172.780, Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded safe...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  17. Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    These ingredients are derived from various species of the acacia plant. Only material derived from Acacia senegal are in current use according to industry data. The concentration at which these ingredients are reported to be used ranges from 9% in mascara to 0.0001% in tonics, dressings, and other hair-grooming aids. Gum arabic is a technical name for Acacia Senegal Gum. Gum arabic is comprised of various sugars and glucuronic acid residues in a long chain of galactosyl units with branched oligosaccharides. Gum arabic is generally recognized as safe as a direct food additive. Little information is available to characterize the extracts of other Acacia plant parts or material from other species. Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract was generally described as containing saponins, alkaloids, and malic acid with parabens and potassium sorbate added as preservatives. Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review. Toxicity data on gum arabic indicates little or no acute, short-term, or subchronic toxicity. Gum arabic is negative in several genotoxicity assays, is not a reproductive or developmental toxin, and is not carcinogenic when given intraperitoneally or orally. Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic. The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. It was not possible, however, to relate the data on gum arabic to the crude Acacias and their extracts from species other than Acacia senegal. Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens

  18. Renal and extrarenal effects of gum arabic ( Acacia senegal )--what can be learned from animal experiments?

    PubMed

    Nasir, Omaima

    2013-01-01

    Gum arabic (GA), a water-soluble dietary fiber rich in Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+), is used in Middle Eastern countries for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Recent animal experiments shed some light into mechanisms involved in the therapeutic action of GA. According to experiments in healthy mice, GA treatment increases creatinine clearance, enhances renal excretion of ADH, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), decreases plasma phosphate concentration as well as urinary excretion of phosphate and Na(+). In diabetic mice GA treatment increases urinary Ca(2+) excretion, and decreases plasma phosphate concentration, plasma urea concentration, urinary flow rate, natriuresis, phosphaturia, glucosuria, proteinuria as well as blood pressure. Extrarenal effects of GA treatment in mice include decreased expression of intestinal Na(+) coupled glucose carrier SGLT1 with subsequent delay of electrogenic intestinal glucose transport, glucose-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and body weight gain. GA treatment decreases colonic transcription of the angiogenetic factors angiogenin 1, angiogenin 3 and angiogenin 4, of CD38 antigen, aquaporin4, interleukin18, vav-3-oncogene, y(+)-amino acid-transporter, sulfatase1, ubiquitinD and chemokine ligand5. Moreover, GA treatment decreases angiogenin and ß-catenin protein expression. Accordingly, GA treatment counteracts the development of tumors following chemical cancerogenesis. In mouse dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells linking innate and adaptive immunity, GA treatment modifies maturation and cytokine release. GA treatment further favourably influences the course of murine malaria. The effects of GA treatment on plasma phosphate concentration, blood pressure and proteinuria may prove beneficial in chronic renal failure and diabetic nephropathy. The effect of GA on intestinal glucose transport may be useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes, the effect of GA on angiogenin and ß-catenin expression

  19. Identification of the Properties of Gum Arabic Used as a Binder in 7.62-mm Ammunition Primers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    from the trees of Acacia Senegal. Because the gum arabic comes from natural sources, the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of this...Inorganic acidity The acacia shall have no inorganic acidity when tested as specified in 4.3.10.1 3.11.2 Organic acidity No more than 0.4 percent as...10522388, Rev. AD. 2. "Technical Acacia (Gum Arabic)," U.S. Government Dwg. 12990883, Rev. B. 3. " Acacia , Technical (Gum Arabic)," Federal Specification

  20. Identification of intestinal bacteria responsible for fermentation of gum arabic in pig model.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Akio; Ushida, Kazunari; Phillips, Glyn O; Ogasawara, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi

    2006-09-01

    Acacia spp. produce gum exudates, traditionally called gum arabic or gum acacia, which are widely used in the food industry such as emulsifiers, adhesives, and stabilizers. The traditional gum arabic is highly variable with average molecular weights varying from 300,000-800,000. For this reason a standardized sample was used for the present experiments, based on a specific species of gum arabic (Acacia(sen)SUPER GUMEM2). The literature indicates that gum arabic can be fermented by the intestinal bacteria to short chain fatty acid, particularly propionate. However, the bacteria responsible for the fermentation have not been determined. In this study, we used enrichment culture of pig cecal bacteria from the selected high molecular weight specific gum arabic of (M(W )1.77 x 10(6)). We found Prevotella ruminicola-like bacterium as a predominant bacterium that is most likely to be responsible for fermentation of the gum arabic used to propionate.

  1. Anti-malarial effect of gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Adil; Bobbala, Diwakar; Qadri, Syed M; Föller, Michael; Kempe, Daniela; Nasir, Omaima; Saeed, Amal; Lang, Florian

    2011-05-20

    Gum Arabic (GA), a nonabsorbable nutrient from the exudate of Acacia senegal, exerts a powerful immunomodulatory effect on dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand GA degradation delivers short chain fatty acids, which in turn have been shown to foster the expression of foetal haemoglobin in erythrocytes. Increased levels of erythrocyte foetal haemoglobin are known to impede the intraerythrocytic growth of Plasmodium and thus confer some protection against malaria. The present study tested whether gum arabic may influence the clinical course of malaria. Human erythrocytes were in vitro infected with Plasmodium falciparum in the absence and presence of butyrate and mice were in vivo infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA by injecting parasitized murine erythrocytes (1 × 10⁶) intraperitoneally. Half of the mice received gum arabic (10% in drinking water starting 10 days before the day of infection). According to the in vitro experiments butyrate significantly blunted parasitaemia only at concentrations much higher (3 mM) than those encountered in vivo following GA ingestion (<1 μM). According to the in vivo experiments the administration of gum arabic slightly but significantly decreased the parasitaemia and significantly extended the life span of infected mice. GA moderately influences the parasitaemia and survival of Plasmodium-infected mice. The underlying mechanism remained, however, elusive. Gum arabic favourably influences the course of murine malaria.

  2. Anti-malarial effect of gum arabic

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gum Arabic (GA), a nonabsorbable nutrient from the exudate of Acacia senegal, exerts a powerful immunomodulatory effect on dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells involved in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand GA degradation delivers short chain fatty acids, which in turn have been shown to foster the expression of foetal haemoglobin in erythrocytes. Increased levels of erythrocyte foetal haemoglobin are known to impede the intraerythrocytic growth of Plasmodium and thus confer some protection against malaria. The present study tested whether gum arabic may influence the clinical course of malaria. Methods Human erythrocytes were in vitro infected with Plasmodium falciparum in the absence and presence of butyrate and mice were in vivo infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA by injecting parasitized murine erythrocytes (1 × 106) intraperitoneally. Half of the mice received gum arabic (10% in drinking water starting 10 days before the day of infection). Results According to the in vitro experiments butyrate significantly blunted parasitaemia only at concentrations much higher (3 mM) than those encountered in vivo following GA ingestion (<1 μM). According to the in vivo experiments the administration of gum arabic slightly but significantly decreased the parasitaemia and significantly extended the life span of infected mice. Discussion GA moderately influences the parasitaemia and survival of Plasmodium-infected mice. The underlying mechanism remained, however, elusive. Conclusions Gum arabic favourably influences the course of murine malaria. PMID:21599958

  3. Thaumatin and gum arabic allergy in chewing gum factory workers.

    PubMed

    Tschannen, Mattias P; Glück, Ulrich; Bircher, Andreas J; Heijnen, Ingmar; Pletscher, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Thaumatin is a sweetener and flavor modifier commonly used in the food industry. Likewise, gum arabic is widely used as a food stabilizer and thickening agent. We report here that a powder mixture composed of 10% thaumatin and 90% gum arabic led to allergic symptoms in the upper airways in occupationally exposed individuals: four of eight workers of a chewing gum factory exposed to this powder mixture had pronounced rhinitis. A positive skin prick test result for pure thaumatin was obtained in all four individuals with rhinitis of whom two also had a positive skin prick test result for pure gum arabic and gum arabic-specific IgE. Subsitution of a powdered thaumatin with a liquid form reduced symptoms among the rhinitic workers. Although gum arabic is a well-known potential allergen, we were unable to find prior documentation of allergic symptoms to thaumatin when it is used in the food industry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Remineralization effects of gum arabic on caries-like enamel lesions.

    PubMed

    Onishi, T; Umemura, S; Yanagawa, M; Matsumura, M; Sasaki, Y; Ogasawara, T; Ooshima, T

    2008-03-01

    Gum arabic is a natural polysaccharide exudate from Acacia senegal and other related African species of Acacia. Gum arabic is considered to have an ability to enhance remineralization, because of its high concentration of Ca(2+). However, the caries preventive capacity of gum arabic has been scarcely investigated. We evaluated the cariostatic activities of gum arabic using histopathological methods to determine its effects on remineralization. Following incubation in demineralization solution, human third molars were exposed to 10 mg/ml of gum arabic, sodium fluoride at 1000 ppm (NaF), or double distilled water (DW, negative control), then subjected to demineralization-remineralization cycles. Before and after demineralization-remineralization cycles, contact microradiographs of each sample were taken and mineral distribution quantities were calculated. The remineralization ratio of the molars exposed to gum arabic was similar to that of those exposed to NaF, while the ratios of both were significantly greater than that of those exposed to DW. Gum arabic enhanced the remineralization of caries-like enamel lesions in vitro, suggesting its inhibitory effects towards dental caries.

  5. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  6. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Fingerprinting for Identification of Acacia Gum in Microsamples from Works of Art.

    PubMed

    Granzotto, Clara; Sutherland, Ken

    2017-03-07

    This paper reports an improved method for the identification of Acacia gum in cultural heritage samples using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharide component. The analytical strategy was optimized using a reference Acacia gum (gum arabic, sp. A. senegal) and provided an unambiguous MS profile of the gum, characterized by specific and recognized oligosaccharides, from as little as 0.1 μg of material. The enhanced experimental approach with reduced detection limit was successfully applied to the analysis of naturally aged (∼80 year) gum arabic samples, pure and mixed with lead white pigment, and allowed the detection of gum arabic in samples from a late painting (1949/1954) by Georges Braque in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. This first application of the technique to characterize microsamples from a painting, in conjunction with analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), provided important insights into Braque's unusual mixed paint media that are also helpful to inform appropriate conservation treatments for his works. The robustness of the analytical strategy due to the reproducibility of the gum MS profile, even in the presence of other organic and inorganic components, together with the minimal sample size required, demonstrate the value of this new MALDI-TOF MS method as an analytical tool for the identification of gum arabic in microsamples from museum artifacts.

  7. Immunological and functional properties of the exudate gum from northwestern Mexican mesquite (Prosopis spp.) in comparison with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Goycoolea, F M; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Balderrama, J R; Valenzuela, J R

    1997-08-01

    A comparison between the fine structural features of exudate gum from mesquite (Prosopis spp.) indigenous to NW Mexico and commercial gum arabic from Acacia spp. was achieved by means of immunological techniques. Their functional properties were compared from the ability to form oil-in-water emulsions and encapsulate cold press orange peel essential oil by spray drying. Fine comparison of the antigenic compounds in both materials against polyclonal rabbit antibodies, showed that the carbohydrate-rich components with slow mobility of mesquite gum are closely related to the faster ones of gum arabic. Also, close identity was observed for the components in the proteic fraction of both gums. Similar tannin concentrations were found in both materials (approximately 0.43%) with only dark coloured samples bearing higher amounts (approximately 1.9%). Gum arabic retained nearly 100% of the quantity of orange peel essential oil emulsified in water before spray drying, while mesquite gum did so for 90.6% of the citrus oil. From these results it is believed that mesquite gum might be a suitable replacement of gum arabic in arid regions of the world were Prosopis trees have widespread occurrence.

  8. Irradiation depolymerized guar gum as partial replacement of gum Arabic for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-06

    Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(1/2) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Structure of Gum Arabic in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, Yael; Yerushalmi-Rozen, Rachel

    2005-03-01

    Gum arabic (GA), a natural composite polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees, is commonly used in food hydrocolloids. It was shown to effectively disperse carbon nanotubes in water. GA consists mainly of a highly branched polysaccharide and a protein-polysaccharide complex (GAGP) as a minor component. In this work the microstructure of the gum in water was studied by small angle x-ray and neutron scattering combined with cryo-transmission electrons microscopy. An intricate structure is revealed, composed of many spheroidal polysaccharide aggregates and a small amount of large coils of GAGP. Inter-aggregate correlations result in a scattering peak, the spacing of which exhibits a -1/3 power-law dependence on concentration, and which diminishes with increased ionic strength. Changes in the conformation of the large GAGP coils can be followed at very low scattering vectors (q). A coil to rod transition with decreasing concentration is indicated by a change from -2 to -1 in the power-law q-dependence of the scattering intensity. It is suggested that the concentration of the GA in solution affects the structural correlations between the polysaccharide and the GAGP complex, and thus may also affect the surface activity of the gum.

  10. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  11. ESR spectroscopic properties of irradiated gum Arabic.

    PubMed

    Leonor, S J; Gómez, J A; Kinoshita, A; Calandreli, I; Tfouni, E; Baffa, O

    2013-12-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of irradiated gum Arabic with doses between 0.5 and 5 kGy were studied. A linear relationship between the absorbed dose and the intensities of the ESR spectra was observed. ESR spectra of irradiated gum Arabic showed a decay of relative concentrations of free radicals originated by radiation and the production of at least two species of free radicals with half-times: 3.3 and 125.4 h. The results of spectral simulations for these radical groups were giso=2.0046; A=1.2 mT and gx=gy=2.0062, gz=2.0025. Hydration and dehydration of irradiated gum Arabic returns the ESR spectrum to its initial state before irradiation. The results show that ESR can be used as simple and reliable method to detect irradiated gum Arabic up to 60 days after initial radiation with doses on the order of 5 kGy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and chemical reduction on the emulsification properties of gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fanyi; Bell, Alan E; Davis, Fred J; Chai, Yunxi

    2015-04-15

    Gum arabic is widely used in the food industry as an additive, both as a thickener and an emulsifier. This study has compared the emulsification properties of two types of gums, KLTA (Acacia senegal) and GCA (Acacia seyal), both in their native/untreated forms and after exposure to high pressure (800 MPa). Further studies were undertaken to chemically modify the disulphide linkages present and to investigate the effects of their reduction on the diffusion of the carbohydrate materials. The emulsification properties of the gum samples were examined by determining the droplet size distribution in a "model" oil-in-water system. Results showed that high pressure treatment and chemical reduction of gums changed the emulsification properties of both gums. The high molecular weight component in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGP/GP), and more "branched" carbohydrates present in gum arabic, may be responsible for the emulsification properties of GCA gum, indicating that the emulsification mechanisms for KLTA and GCA were different. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse copper nanoparticles using gum acacia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chunfa; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Xianglin; Cao, Chuanliang

    2014-03-01

    A simple method was put forward in this paper for preparing colloidal copper nanoparticles in aqueous solutions using copper sulfate, gum acacia and hydrazine hydrate as copper precursor, capping agents and reducing agents, respectively, without any inert gas. The formation of nanosized copper was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at 604 nm in UV-vis spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the as-synthesized copper fine spherical particles are distributed uniformly with a narrow distribution from 3 nm to 9 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles are single crystalline copper nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopic data suggested that the copper nanoparticles are coated with gum acacia. The effects of the quantity of gum acacia on the particle size were investigated by the UV-vis spectra and TEM images. The growth process of the nanoparticles was monitored by the UV-vis spectra. The mechanism of the formation copper nanoparticles was discussed. The process raised in this study can be served as an excellent candidate for the preparation of copper nanoparticles in a large scale production.

  14. Multi-temporal and Change Analysis of Land Use Land Cover in the Gum Arabic Belt in Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan Elnour; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2012-07-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. The belt has suffered from deforestation and degradation due to natural hazards and human activities. The research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The research investigated the possibility of identification, monitoring and mapping of the land use land cover changes and dynamics in the gum arabic belt during the last 35 years. Also a newly approach of object-based classification was applied for image classification. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season (November). The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data in gum arabic belt demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% and 24% in the year 2007 for areas A and B, respectively. The land use land cover structure in the gum arabic belt has obvious changes and reciprocal conversions between the classes indicating the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. The study revealed a drastic loss of Acacia senegal cover by 25% during the period of 1972 to 2007. The study come out with some valuable recommendations and comments which could contribute positively in using remotely sensed imagery and GIS techniques to explore management tools of Acacia senegal stands in gum Arabic belt.

  15. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Viinanen, Arja; Salokannel, Maija; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2011-01-01

    Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria. PMID:21747872

  16. Material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum with reference to official acacia gum.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi T; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the material and tableting properties of Azadirachta indica gum (NMG) relative to acacia gum (ACA). The morphological properties were assessed with size and shape factors of aspect ratio, roundness, irregularity and equivalent-circle-diameter. The tableting properties of the gums were determined using compressional characteristics, tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI) and crushing-strength-friability/disintegration-time ratio (CSFR/DT). The results suggest that NMG possesses larger, irregular and more elongated particles than ACA. The onset and amount of plastic deformation occurring in NMG was faster and higher, respectively, than in ACA. The result shows that, although ACA tablets were stronger, their tendency to cap/laminate was higher than in NMG tablets. The NMG tablets possess lower DT than those of ACA, while the CSFR/DT result suggests that a better balance exists between the strength and weakness of NMG tablets. The study concluded that NMG can be a useful excipient in tablet formulation.

  17. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  18. New structural features of Acacia tortuosa gum exudate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Maritza; Beltrán, Olga; Rincón, Fernando; León de Pinto, Gladys; Igartuburu, José Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Acacia tortuosa produces a clear gum, very soluble in water. Previous reports showed that it was constituted by four fractions, one of them an arabinogalactan-protein complex. The elucidation of the A. tortuosa gum structure by the combination of classical chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, was the objective of this investigation. The data obtained show that the heteropolysaccharide is an arabinogalactan type II, highly ramified, with lateral chains at C-2 as well as at C-6 of the galactose 3-O residues; mono-O-substituted galactoses were not detected. There are residues of mannose, the arabinose, pyranose predominantly, is terminal and 2-O-linked. The abundance of the 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid was not previously reported. The proteic fraction is probably represented by an arabinogalactan-protein complex that binds poorly with β-glucosyl Yariv reagent, and two glycoproteins. The NMR spectra suggest that the carbohydrate links to hydroxyproline through the galactose (galactosylation).

  19. Acacia Senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate ,Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA+CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  20. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Kinetic release studies of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate from gum acacia crosslinked hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Aderibigbe, B A; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S S; Mbianda, X Y; Fotsing, M C; Owonubi, S J; Agwuncha, S C

    2015-02-01

    Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region.

  2. Iodine derivatives of chemically modified gum Arabic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat A; Ali, Akbar; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2015-09-20

    Acetylated gum Arabic (AGA) derivatives with different degrees of substitution (DS 0.97-2.74) were synthesized using acetyl chloride and a base under varying reaction conditions. The AGA derivatives were obtained in the form of microspheres and thereafter stable iodine products were prepared by doping the microspheres with an iodinating agent, iodine monochloride (ICl). The reaction between electrophilic iodine and polar carbonyl groups was studied by FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The products were also characterized by DSC, TGA and SEM studies. The incorporated iodine was released in aqueous medium as iodide ions (I(-)). A reaction scheme has been proposed for the iodination and de-iodination of the gum derivatives. This work suggests that the iodine derivatives of modified gum Arabic could be used as a source of iodide ions which is the nutritional form of iodine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interfacial rheology of surface-active biopolymers: Acacia senegal gum versus hydrophobically modified starch.

    PubMed

    Erni, Philipp; Windhab, Erich J; Gunde, Rok; Graber, Muriel; Pfister, Bruno; Parker, Alan; Fischer, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Acacia gum is a hybrid polyelectrolyte containing both protein and polysaccharide subunits. We study the interfacial rheology of its adsorption layers at the oil/water interface and compare it with adsorbed layers of hydrophobically modified starch, which for economic and political reasons is often used as a substitute for Acacia gum in technological applications. Both the shear and the dilatational rheological responses of the interfaces are considered. In dilatational experiments, the viscoelastic response of the starch derivative is just slightly weaker than that for Acacia gum, whereas we found pronounced differences in shear flow: The interfaces covered with the plant gum flow like a rigid, solidlike material with large storage moduli and a linear viscoelastic regime limited to small shear deformations, above which we observe apparent yielding behavior. In contrast, the films formed by hydrophobically modified starch are predominantly viscous, and the shear moduli are only weakly dependent on the deformation. Concerning their most important technological use as emulsion stabilizers, the dynamic interfacial responses imply not only distinct interfacial dynamics but also different stabilizing mechanisms for these two biopolymers.

  4. Gum Arabic as novel anti-oxidant agent in sickle cell anemia, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Kaddam, Lamis; Fadl-Elmula, Imad; Eisawi, Omer Ali; Abdelrazig, Haydar Awad; Salih, Mohammed Abdelraman; Lang, Florian; Saeed, Amal M

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia patients suffer from oxidative stress due to chronic inflammation and self-oxidation of sickle hemoglobin (Hb S). Chronic oxidative stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and multiple organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Thus, antioxidant medication may favorably influence the disease. Gum Arabic (GA), edible, dried, gummy exudates from Acacia Senegal tree, has been claimed to act as an anti-oxidant and cytoprotective agent, protecting against experimental hepatic, renal and cardiac toxicities in rats. We hypothesized that regular intake of GA increases anti-oxidant capacity and reduce oxidative stress. Forty-seven patients (5-42 years) carrying hemoglobin SS were recruited. Patients received 30 g/day GA for 12 weeks. Total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods before and after GA intake. Complete blood count was measured by sysmex. Gum Arabic significantly increased TAC level P < 0.001and decreased the oxidative markers MDA (P < 0.05) and H2O2 (P < 0.005). GA has potent anti- oxidative properties in sickle cell anemia. The anti-oxidant effect of GA may thus favorably influence the clinical condition of this and further diseases characterized by oxidative stress. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02467257. Registered 3rd June 2015. Retrospective registration.

  5. The Yariv reagent: behaviour in different solvents and interaction with a gum arabic arabinogalactan-protein.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, B S; Craik, D J; Dunstan, D E; Stone, B A; Bacic, A

    2014-06-15

    The β-D-Glc Yariv reagent is frequently used to isolate and to study the structure of arabinogalactan-proteins with the arabinogalactan type II structure. The present paper describes the aggregation features of the Yariv reagent in water, salt solutions and in organic solvents as determined by NMR, absorption spectroscopy and light scattering experiments. The results indicate that in water the Yariv reagent forms aggregates of up to 300 units and in 1% aqueous NaCl the degree of aggregation is approx. 150. The aggregates are formed both by H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions, the former appearing to be of most importance in water. The interaction between the Yariv reagent and an AGP fraction from gum arabic, showed a degree of aggregation of the Yariv reagent when using 1% NaCl to be of approx. 150 units, whereas disruption of the aggregate took place in 10% NaCl with an aggregation number of approx. 100. Partial acid hydrolysis of an AGP from gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) and analyses of the linkage types remaining indicated that a certain length of (1→3)-β-linked galactose units was necessary for binding between the Yariv reagent and the AGP. This is in accordance to what also was recently observed by Kitazawa et al. (2013). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N.; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0–25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes. PMID:27656192

  7. Rhizobial Inoculation Increases Soil Microbial Functioning and Gum Arabic Production of 13-Year-Old Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Trees in the North Part of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, Dioumacor; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Nourou Sall, Saïdou; Zoubeirou, Alzouma Mayaki; Sylla, Samba N; Diouf, Diegane

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has been widely used in controlled conditions as a substitute for chemical fertilizers to increase plants growth and productivity. However, very little is known about such effects on mature trees in natural habitats. In this study, we investigated the effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil total microbial biomass, mineral nitrogen content, potential CO2 respiration, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), acid phosphatase activities, and gum arabic production by 13-year-old Senegalia senegal (synonym: Acacia senegal) under natural conditions in the north part of Senegal during two consecutive years. Rhizobial inoculation was performed at the beginning of the rainy season (July) for both years with a cocktail of four strains (CIRADF 300, CIRADF 301, CIRADF 302, and CIRADF 303). Rhizospheric soils were collected in both dry and rainy seasons to a depth of 0-25 cm under uninoculated and inoculated trees. Trees were tapped in November (beginning of dry season) using traditional tools. Gum arabic was harvested every 15 days from December to March. The results obtained from both years demonstrated that rhizobial inoculation increased significantly the percentage of trees producing gum arabic, gum arabic production per tree, soil microbial biomass, FDA, and acid phosphatase activities. However, there was no significant effect on C mineralization and mineral nitrogen (N) content. Gum arabic production was positively correlated to rainfall, soil microbial biomass, and mineral nitrogen content. Our results showed a positive effect of rhizobial inoculation on soil microbial functioning and gum arabic production by mature S. senegal trees. These important findings deserve to be conducted in several contrasting sites in order to improve gum arabic production and contribute to increase rural population incomes.

  8. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the physicochemical and functional properties of gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yau-Hoong; Bhat, Rajeev; Senan, Chandra; Williams, Peter A; Karim, Alias A

    2009-10-14

    The impact of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the physicochemical and functional properties of gum arabic was investigated. Gum arabic samples were exposed to UV irradiation for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min; gum arabic was also treated with formaldehyde for comparison. Molecular weight analysis using gel permeation chromatography indicated that no significant changes occurred on the molecular structure on the samples exposed to UV irradiation. Free amino group analysis indicated that mild UV irradiation (30 min) could induce cross-linking on gum arabic; this result was comparable with that of samples treated with formaldehyde. However, viscosity break down was observed for samples exposed to UV irradiation for longer times (90 and 120 min). All irradiated and formaldehyde-treated samples exhibited better emulsification properties than unirradiated samples. These results indicate that UV-irradiated gum arabic could be a better emulsifier than the native (unmodified) gum arabic and could be exploited commercially.

  9. Acacia senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; El-Azab, Adel S

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  10. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  11. Glycinin-gum arabic complex formation: Turbidity measurement and charge neutralization analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Die; Hua, Yufei

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between glycinin and anionic polysaccharides has gained considerable attention recently because of its scientific impact on the stability of acid soymilk systems. In this study, the formation of glycinin/gum arabic complexes driven by electrostatic interactions was investigated. Turbidity titrations at different glycinin/gum arabic ratios were conducted and critical pH values (pHφ1) where insoluble complexes began forming were determined firstly. The corresponding pHφ1 values at glycinin/gum arabic ratios of 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1 and 8:1 were 2.85, 3.25, 3.70, 4.40, 4.85 and 5.35, respectively. Afterwards, electromobilities for glycinin and gum arabic at the pH values between 4.1 and 2.6 were measured, and charge densities (ZN) for glycinin and gum arabic were calculated based on the soft particle analysis theory. Further analysis indicated that the product of glycinin/gum arabic ratio (ρ) and ZN ratio of glycinin/gum arabic was approximate 1 at any pHφ1 values. It was revealed that charge neutralization was achieved when glycinin/gum arabic insoluble complexes began forming. NaCl displayed multiple effects on glycinin/gum arabic complex formation according to turbidity and compositional analysis. The present study could provide basic guidance in acid soymilk designing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The identification of Combretum gums which are not permitted food additives, II.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Morrison, N A

    1990-01-01

    Combretum gums, readily available at low prices in East and West Africa, may be offered for sale as 'gum arabic'. Vigilance is necessary to detect such misrepresentations because Combretum gums differ greatly from gum arabic (Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.) in terms of quality, solution properties and value. Moreover, because there is no toxicological evidence for their safety in use, Combretum gums are not included in any of the international lists of permitted food additives. Food manufacturers and regulatory authorities therefore require data that characterize Combretum gums so that their use in foodstuffs can be prevented. This paper presents such data for the gums from a further six Combretum species. All of these have negative optical rotations similar to that of food grade gum arabic. It is no longer sufficient, therefore, to rely solely on an optical rotation measurement to confirm the identity of gum arabic. The additional analyses necessary to differentiate between Combretum gums and gum arabic are discussed.

  13. Enterocutaneous Fistula: Different Surgical Intervention Techniques for Closure along with Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Paint, Karaya Gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia for Peristomal Skin Care

    PubMed Central

    Namrata; Ahmad, Shabi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal fistulas are serious complications and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In majority of the patients, fistulas are treatable. However, the treatment is very complex and often multiple therapies are required. These highly beneficial treatment options which could shorten fistula closure time also result in considerable hospital cost savings. Aim This study was planned to study aetiology, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of enterocutaneous fistula and to evaluate the different surgical intervention techniques for closure of enterocutaneous fistula along with a comparative evaluation of different techniques for management of peristomal skin with special emphasis on aluminum paint, Karaya gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad and its associated hospital (S.R.N. Hospital, Allahabad) for a period of five years. Results Majority of enterocutaneous fistula were of small bowel and medium output fistulas (500-1000 ml/24hours). Most of the patients were treated with conservative treatment as compared to surgical intervention. Large bowel fistula has maximum spontaneous closure rate compare to small bowel and duodenum. Number of orifice whether single or multiple does not appear to play statistically significant role in spontaneous closure of fistula. Serum Albumin is a significantly important predictor of spontaneous fistula closure and mortality. Surgical management appeared to be the treatment of choice in distal bowel fistula. The application of karaya gum (Hollister kit), Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint gave similar outcome. Conclusion Postoperative fistulas are the most common aetiology of enterocutaneous fistula and various factors do play role in management. Peristomal skin care done with Karaya Gum, Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint has almost equal efficiency in management of skin

  14. Gum arabic glycoprotein is a twisted hairy rope. A new model based on O-galactosylhydroxyproline as the polysaccharide attachment site

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qi ); Fong, C. ); Lamport, D.T.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Separation of the wound exudate from Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., gum arabic, on a preparative Superose-6 column gave two major fractions: a high molecular weight gum arabic glyco-protein (GAGP) containing about 90% carbohydrate and a lower molecular weight heterogeneous gum arabic polysaccharide fraction. Hydrogen fluoride-deglycosylation of GAGP gave a large hydroxyproline-rich polypeptide backbone (dGAGP). Alkaline hydrolysis of GAGP showed that most of the carbohydrate was attached to the polypeptide backbone as small hydroxyproline (Hyp)-polysaccharide substituents. The data imply a rodlike molecule with numerous small polysaccharide substituents (attached to 24% of the Hyp residues), regularly arranged along a highly periodic polypeptide backbone based, hypothetically, on a 10 to 12 residue repetitive peptide motif. Thus, a simple statistical model of the gum arabic glycoprotein predicts a repeating polysaccharide substituents will maximize intramolecular hydrogen bonding if aligned along the long axis of the molecule, forming in effect a twisted hairy rope. Electron micrographs of rotary shadowed GAGP molecules support that prediction and may also explain show such apparently large molecules can exit the cell by endwise reptation through the small pores of the primary cell wall.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(SA) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Tiwari, Seema

    2016-11-20

    In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ within the gum acacia/poly (acrylate) hydrogel network using hydrothermal approach. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of ZnO/GA/poly(SA) hydrogels was investigated in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The water uptake data were analyzed with the help of various kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial action of nanocomposites was studied using E. coli as model bacteria.

  16. Hydrophobic derivatives of guar gum hydrolyzate and gum Arabic as matrices for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2013-06-05

    Guar gum hydrolyzate (GGH) modified with n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and oleic acid having induced hydrophobicity was evaluated for encapsulation of mint oil and compared with gum Arabic (GA) and GA-OSA as wall material. Spray dried microcapsules prepared with these wall materials were evaluated for qualitative changes by principal component analysis and for percent retention of mint oil during 8-week storage. Results revealed that microcapsules with GGH-OSA and GGH-oleate showed slightly lower retention of mint oil as compared to GA. GA-OSA microcapsules showed better retention of mint oil than GA itself, as observed from the t1/2, the time required for the mint oil to come down to 50% of its original content. The t1/2 of mint oil in microcapsules of GA, GGH-oleate, GGH-OSA and GA-OSA was 26.12, 23.50, 24.11 and 29.67 weeks, respectively. The results suggested that GGH-OSA has the potential to replace gum Arabic for encapsulation of mint oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacillus thermoamylovorans Strains Isolated from Milk and Acacia Gum, a Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Antonina O; Berendsen, Erwin M; Eijlander, Robyn T; de Jong, Anne; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-03-26

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus thermoamylovorans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can contaminate food products, leading to their spoilage. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. thermoamylovorans strains, isolated from milk and acacia gum.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacillus thermoamylovorans Strains Isolated from Milk and Acacia Gum, a Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Antonina O.; Berendsen, Erwin M.; Eijlander, Robyn T.; de Jong, Anne; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus thermoamylovorans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can contaminate food products, leading to their spoilage. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. thermoamylovorans strains, isolated from milk and acacia gum. PMID:25814599

  20. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Gum Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Darryl N.; Gold, Katie A.; Holoman, Tracey R. Pulliam; Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Wilson, Otto C.

    2006-10-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized by coating the particle surfaces with gum arabic (GA) to improve particle stability in aqueous suspensions (i.e. biological media). Particle characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the morphology and quantify the size distribution of the nanoparticles, respectively. The results from DLS indicated that the GA-treated nanoparticles formed smaller agglomerates as compared to the untreated samples over a 30-h time frame. Thermogravimetric analyses indicated an average weight loss of 23%, showing that GA has a strong affinity toward the iron oxide surface. GA most likely contributes to colloid stability via steric stabilization. It was determined that the adsorption of GA onto magnetite exhibits Langmuir behavior.

  1. Microencapsulation of oils using whey protein/gum Arabic coacervates.

    PubMed

    Weinbreck, F; Minor, M; de Kruif, C G

    2004-09-01

    Microencapsulating sunflower oil, lemon and orange oil flavour was investigated using complex coacervation of whey protein/gum arabic (WP/GA). At pH 3.0-4.5, WP and GA formed electrostatic complexes that could be successfully used for microencapsulation purposes. The formation of a smooth biopolymer shell around the oil droplets was achieved at a specific pH (close to 4.0) and the payload of oil (i.e. amount of oil in the capsule) was higher than 80%. Small droplets were easier to encapsulate within a coacervate matrix than large ones, which were present in a typical shell/core structure. The stability of the emulsion made of oil droplets covered with coacervates was strongly pH-dependent. At pH 4.0, the creaming rate of the emulsion was much higher than at other pH values. This phenomenon was investigated by carrying out zeta potential measurements on the mixtures. It seemed that, at this specific pH, the zeta potential was close to zero, highlighting the presence of neutral coacervate at the oil/water interface. The influence of pH on the capsule formation was in accordance with previous results on coacervation of whey proteins and gum arabic, i.e. WP/GA coacervates were formed in the same pH window with and without oil and the pH where the encapsulation seemed to be optimum corresponded to the pH at which the coacervate was the most viscous. Finally, to illustrate the applicability of these new coacervates, the release of flavoured capsules incorporated within Gouda cheese showed that large capsules gave stronger release and the covalently cross-linked capsules showed the lowest release, probably because of a tough dense biopolymer wall which was difficult to break by chewing.

  2. Strong Band-Edge Emission from ZnS Quantum Dots Stabilized by Gum Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatim, Dirar Mohamed El-Khair

    2008-12-01

    ZnS quantum dots (QDs), prepared by soft-condensation, exhibit robust structure of a quantum size equal 3.13 nm mediated two-dimensional gum Arabic surfactant as characterized by scan tunnelling microscope (STM). Strong blue-shifted absorption and emission bands are depicted by optical characterization even for the sample stored under ambient condition for two weeks. These enhancements can be attributed to the completely passivated surface trap states by Gum Arabic.

  3. Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga

    2014-01-30

    The effects of the partial or total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch, maltodextrin and inulin on the characteristics of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying were evaluated in this study. The lowest level of water absorption under conditions of high relative humidity was observed in treatments containing inulin. The wettability property of the powders was improved by the addition of inulin. The total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch or a mixture of modified starch and maltodextrin (1:1, m/m) did not significantly affect the efficiency of encapsulation, although higher Tg values were exhibited by microcapsules prepared using pure gum arabic or gum arabic and inulin. 1,8-cineol, camphor and α-pinene were the main components identified by gas chromatography in the oils extracted from the microcapsules. The particles had smoother surfaces and more folds when gum arabic or inulin was present. Larger particles were observed in the powders prepared with pure gum arabic or modified starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of gum acacia inspired silica hybrid xerogels for mercury(II) adsorption.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Singh, Somit Kumar

    2011-04-01

    In a sol-gel process, gum acacia inspired silica xerogels have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate. Besides showing photoluminescence under ultraviolet excitation, the hybrid xerogels were very efficient in capturing mercury(II) from synthetic solution. To synthesize the optimum sample (in terms of Hg(II) uptake), different ratios of H(2)O:TEOS:EtOH were taken at fixed GA and catalyst concentrations where 4:1:1 ratio was found to be most favorable. Calcination in air further enhanced the mercury binding capacity of this sample. Optimum sample (H4) was obtained on calcination of the gel at 600°C. The hybrids have been structurally characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. In a preliminary batch adsorption experiment, H4 was evaluated to be highly efficient in the removal Hg(II) from synthetic aqueous solution.

  5. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas

    2016-04-20

    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    PubMed

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India.

  7. Effect of Calcium Chloride on Release Behavior of Babul (Acacia nilotica) gum Microbeads.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Malviya, Rishabha

    2015-01-01

    Oral delivery of drugs is the most common method, but due to the inability of drugs to restrain and localize in the gastro-intestinal tract, oral administration of drugs in conventional dosage forms have short-term limitations. Carrier technology may provide many approaches for the delivery of drugs by coupling the drug to a carrier particle, such as Microspheres, nanoparticles and liposomes, which modulate the release and absorption characteristics of the drug. The aim of this study was to prepare Diclofenac sodium microspheres using a natural polymer and show the effect of calcium chloride on the release behavior of microspheres. The microspheres of Diclofenac sodium were successfully developed by ionic gelation technique using natural polymer babul gum with sodium alginate. Diclofenac Sodium was received as a gift sample from Aegis Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Roorkee. Acacia nilotica gum was purchased from Ghaziabad and purification was done in the laboratory. All other excipients used analytical grade method. The microspheres of diclofenac sodium were prepared by Ionic gelation method using a natural polimer, i.e. Acacia nilotica. Calcium chloride (5% solution) was used as a cross-linking agent. In this research article all the data was presented as averages and standard deviations. Five formulations were successfully prepared, i.e. F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5. All the formulations were evaluated for micromeritic properties, particle size analysis, percentage yield, drug content, drug entrapment efficacy, percent moisture loss, swelling index and in vitro dissolution studies. The size of the microspheres varied between 14.55 ± 0.29 to 20.18 ± 0.15 μm and as high as 81.51 ± 0.14% entrapment efficiency for babul gum was obtained. Batch F1 and F5 was found to release the drug 91.35% and 75.48% respectively for 6 hrs. The formulations were found to be effective in providing controlled release of drug for a prolonged period of time.

  8. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Raguvaran, R; Manuja, Balvinder K; Chopra, Meenu; Thakur, Rajesh; Anand, Taruna; Kalia, Anu; Manuja, Anju

    2017-03-01

    An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. We synthesized ZnONPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels (SAGA-ZnONPs) by cross linking hydroxyl groups of the polymers sodium alginate and gum acacia with the aldehyde group of gluteradehyde. Here, we report the wound healing properties of sodium alginate/gum acacia/ZnONPs, circumventing the toxicity of ZnONPs simultaneously. We demonstrated the concentration-dependent zones of inhibition in treated cultures of Pseudomonas aerigunosa and Bacillus cereus and biocompatability on peripheral blood mononuclear/fibroblast cells. SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels showed a healing effect at a low concentration of ZnONPs using sheep fibroblast cells. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ZnONPs were toxic to cells but SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels significantly reduced the toxicity and preserved the beneficial antibacterial and healing effect.

  9. Formation of redispersible polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles from gallic acid-chitosan conjugate and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaobin; Wang, Taoran; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-11-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles between chitosan (CS) and biomacromolecules offer better physicochemical properties as delivery vehicles for nutrients than other CS-based nanoparticles. Our major objective was to fabricate PEC nanoparticles between water soluble gallic acid-chitosan conjugate (GA-CS) and gum arabic. The optimal fabrication method, physicochemical characteristics and stability were investigated. Furthermore, we also evaluated the effects of nano spray drying technology on the morphology and redispersibility of nanoparticle powders using Buchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer. Results showed that the mass ratio between GA-CS and gum arabic and the preparation pH had significant contributions in determining the particle size and count rate of the nanoparticles, with the ratio of 3:1 and pH 5.0 being the optimal conditions that resulted in 112.2nm and 122.9kcps. The polyethylene glycol (PEG) played a vital role in forming the well-separated spray dried nanoparticles. The most homogeneous nanoparticles with the smoothest surface were obtained when the mass ratio of GA-CS and PEG was 1:0.5. In addition, the GA-CS/gum arabic spray dried nanoparticles exhibited excellent water-redispersibiliy compared to native CS/gum arabic nanoparticles. Our results demonstrated GA-CS/gum arabic nanoparticles were successfully fabricated with promising physicochemical properties and great potential for their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Interaction of gum arabic with fatty acid studied using electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yapeng; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Phillips, Glyn O; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Williams, Peter A

    2010-05-10

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is here used to study the interaction between gum arabic and a fatty acid. The EPR spectra of 5-doxyl stearic acid (5-DSA), a spin-labeled fatty acid analog, displayed increasingly anisotropic line features upon addition of gum arabic, indicating a strong immobilization of the nitroxyl moiety when the fatty acid is bound to gum arabic. To understand the nature of the interaction, EPR measurements were carried out at different pHs and using two fractions of gum arabic separated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). 5-DSA bound favorably to the hydrophobic fraction, which contains mainly glycoprotein, and a small amount of high molecular weight arabinogalactan protein (AGP). Binding occurred to a less extent to the hydrophilic fraction, which contains essentially arabinogalactan (AG). Such a hydrophobic binding mechanism is further supported by a sharp drop in the binding when pH is raised above the pK(a) value of 5-DSA (approximately pH 5). This is because the ionization of carboxylic groups would lead to increased polarity and hydrophilicity of the fatty acid. A secondary effect involving the formation of ionic hydrogen bonds between carboxylic groups in fatty acid and lysine residues in gum arabic might also contribute. This is consistent with the reduction in binding ability when the pH was elevated above the pK(a) value of lysine residue (approximately pH 10). The biological significance of these findings is considered.

  11. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A; Anilkumar, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gum arabic establishes prebiotic functionality in healthy human volunteers in a dose-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Calame, Wim; Weseler, Antje R; Viebke, Christer; Flynn, Cal; Siemensma, André D

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prebiotic efficacy of gum arabic upon consumption by man for up to 4 weeks and, if any, to establish the dose-effect relationship. Human healthy volunteers consumed various daily doses (5, 10, 20, 40 g) of gum arabic (EmulGold) in water for up to 4 weeks. Daily consumption of water was taken as the negative control and that of 10 g inulin as the positive control. At 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks quantification of bacterial numbers in stool samples was performed via real time-PCR techniques and questionnaires were filled in to account for potential drawbacks. The genera of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli were taken as potentially beneficial bacteria and those of Bacteroides, Clostridium difficile and Enterococci as potentially non-beneficial, this distinction was dependent on the issue of these numbers being or becoming out of balance in the host. Compared with the negative control the numbers of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli 4 weeks after consumption were significantly higher for gum arabic: the optimal dose being around 10 g. Moreover, at this dose the numbers of Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and Bacteroides were significantly higher for gum arabic than for inulin. No significant drawback was encountered during the study. It is concluded that gum arabic establishes prebiotic efficacy, at least as good as inulin. The optimal daily dose was found to be 10 g.

  13. Emulsification properties of a novel hydrocolloid (Angum gum) for d-limonene droplets compared with Arabic gum.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Beheshti, Peyman; Assadpour, Elham

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the emulsification properties of a native biopolymer namely Angum gum (Ang) for use as a food flavor encapsulant in spray drying encapsulation was investigated and the results were compared with Arabic gum (Arg) stabilized emulsions. After gum extraction, gum dispersions with maltodextrin were prepared in water (in 1-5% concentrations) and emulsified with 5 and 10% d-limonene using high pressure homogenization. Statistical analysis of emulsion droplet size data revealed a significant difference between flavor level, gum type and droplet size at α=0.05. The results showed that increasing the Arg level leads to a decrease in emulsion droplet size, while increasing Ang content results in bigger droplet sizes. However, no significant differences were observed in droplet size. Also, droplet size data revealed that Ang-emulsified droplets at 2% gum and 5% flavor level had the lowest d32, d43 and the highest specific surface area by high-pressure homogenizer which could be mentioned as the optimum level of this native gum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gum Arabic as fetal hemoglobin inducing agent in sickle cell anemia; in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kaddam, Lamis; FdleAlmula, Imad; Eisawi, Omer Ali; Abdelrazig, Haydar Awad; Elnimeiri, Mustafa; Lang, Florian; Saeed, Amal M

    2015-01-01

    High levels of fetal haemoglobin (HbF) decrease sickle cell anaemia (SCA) severity and leads to improved survival. According to in vivo and in vitro studies, butyrate increases HbF production. Its utilization in clinical practice is hampered, however, by its short half-life. Serum butyrate concentrations could be enhanced by colonic bacterial fermentation of Gum Arabic (GA), edible, dried, gummy exudates from Acacia Senegal tree. We hypothesized that regular intake of GA increases serum butyrate levels, thus inducing HbF production and ameliorating symptoms of sickle cell anemia. Fourty seven patients (5-42 years) carrying hemoglobin SS were recruited from April 2014 to January 2015. Patients received 30 g/day GA for 12 weeks. HbF, blood count and erythropoietin level were measured. The main outcome of interest was the level of HbF after 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes were improvement in clinical and laboratory results. The study was ethically approved by Alneelain University IRB. The study revealed significant increase in HbF level P.V0.000 [95 % CI, 0.43-1.02], MCV P.V:000 [95 % CI, 2.312-6.058] and Hematocrit level P.V:0.026 [95 % CI, 0.124-1.902]. No significant difference was encountered in platelets count P.V: 0.346 [95 % CI,-25.76-71.94], and WBCs count P.V:0.194 [95 % CI,-8.035-1.68]. Thirty seven percent of patients experienced minor side effects which resolved within a week. These findings reveal a novel effect of GA, which may be used to foster fetal hemoglobin production. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02467257. Registered 3rd June 2015.

  15. Preliminary study on aluminum-air battery applying disposable soft drink cans and Arabic gum polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Wijaya, H. F.; Majlan, E. H.; Sudaryanto; Arwati, I. G. A.; Sebayang, D.

    2017-09-01

    This study is in relation to preliminary investigation of aluminium-air battery using disposable soft drink cans as aluminium source for anode. The cathode uses commercial porous carbon sheet to trap oxygen from air. This work applies a commercial cashing to place carbon cathode, electrolyte, Arabic gum polymer, and aluminium anode in a sandwich-like arrangement to form the aluminium-air battery. The Arabic gum as electrolyte polymer membrane protects anode surface from corrosion due to aluminium oxide formation. The study result shows that the battery discharge test using constant current loading of 0.25 mA yields battery capacity of 0.437 mAh with over 100 minute battery life times at 4M NaOH electrolyte and 20 % Arabic gum polymer as the best performance in this investigation. This study gives significant advantage in association with beneficiation of disposable soft drink cans from municipal solid waste as aluminium source for battery anode.

  16. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  17. Acacia gum as modifier of thermal stability, solubility and emulsifying properties of α-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; Dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; de Oliveira, Eduardo Basílio; Rodrigues, Marina Quadrio Raposo Branco; Sabioni, Rachel Campos; de Souza, Bartolomeu Warlene Silva; Santos, Igor José Boggione

    2015-03-30

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugates often display improved techno-functional properties when compared to their individual involved biomolecules. α-Lactalbumin:acacia gum (α-la:AG) conjugates were prepared via Maillard reaction by the dry-heating method. Conjugate formation was confirmed using results of absorbance, o-phthalaldehyde test, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography. Techno-functional properties (emulsifying characteristics, solubility, and thermal stability) were evaluated for α-la, α-la/AG mixtures and α-la:AG conjugates. Conjugate thermal stability was improved compared to pure α-la treated at the same conditions of conjugate formation. Response surface methodology was used to establish models to predict solubility and emulsifying activity as functions of the salt concentration, pH and reaction time. α-la:AG conjugate solubility is affected in a complex manner by the three factors analyzed. Emulsifying activity index (EAI) of α-la is significantly affected by pH, while the α-la:AG EAI is affected by the three analyzed factors. Both solubility and EAI are maximized with pH 8.0, NaCl concentration of 0.3 mol L(-1) and two days of Maillard reaction.

  18. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    PubMed

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (P<0.05) affected the studied parameters with the order of protection in both extracts being as follows: MD>GA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Composition of the gum from Combretum paniculatum and four other gums which are not permitted food additives.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Wang, W P

    1990-01-01

    Only three gum exudates are permitted for pharmaceutical and food use by international regulatory authorities, viz. gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.), gum karaya (Sterculia spp.) and gum arabic [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.], but a wide range of other tree exudates is used for a variety of uses in their countries of origin. This paper presents analytical data for the gum exudates from Atalaya hemiglauca, Cassine aethiopica, Combretum paniculatum, Sclerocarya birrea, and Pseudocedrela kotschyi. These gums may have local technological applications, but are not recommended for addition to foodstuffs.

  20. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2.

  1. Diffusivity of whey protein and gum arabic in their coacervates.

    PubMed

    Weinbreck, Fanny; Rollema, Harry S; Tromp, R Hans; de Kruif, Cornelis G

    2004-07-20

    Structural properties of whey protein (WP)/gum arabic (GA) coacervates were investigated by measuring the diffusivity of WP and GA in their coacervate phase as a function of pH by means of three different complementary techniques. The combination of these measurements revealed new insights into the structure of coacervates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measured the self-diffusion coefficient of the GA in the coacervate phase prepared at various pH values. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was measured using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The WP and GA were covalently labeled with two different dyes. The time of fluorescence recovery, related to the inverse of the diffusion coefficient, was evaluated from the measurements, and the diffusivity of the WP and GA on a long time scale could be individually estimated at each pH value. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) combined with transmission measurement was carried out in the coacervate phase, and the diffusion coefficient, corresponding to the averaged diffusion of all particles that scattered in the system, was calculated as a function of pH. Independently of the technique used, the results showed that the diffusion of the WP and GA within the coacervate phase was reduced as compared to a diluted biopolymer mixture. NMR, DWS, and FRAP measurements gave similar results, indicating that the biopolymers moved the slowest in the coacervate matrix at pH 4.0-4.2. It is assumed that the diffusion of the WP and GA is reduced because of a higher electrostatic interaction between the biopolymers. Furthermore, FRAP results showed that in the coacervate phase WP molecules diffused 10 times faster than GA molecules. This result is very relevant because it shows that WP and GA move independently in the liquid coacervate phase. Finally, DWS measurements revealed that the coacervate phase rearranged with time, as evidenced by a decrease of the diffusion coefficient and a loss of the turbidity of the sample

  2. Composition and structure of whey protein/gum arabic coacervates.

    PubMed

    Weinbreck, F; Tromp, R H; de Kruif, C G

    2004-01-01

    Complex coacervation in whey protein/gum arabic (WP/GA) mixtures was studied as a function of three main key parameters: pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps)(ini), and ionic strength. Previous studies had already revealed under which conditions a coacervate phase was obtained. This study is aimed at understanding how these parameters influence the phase separation kinetics, the coacervate composition, and the internal coacervate structure. At a defined (Pr:Ps)(ini), an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found (pH(opt)), at which the strength of electrostatic interaction was maximum. For (Pr:Ps)(ini) = 2:1, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate volume was the largest at pH(opt) = 4.0. The composition of the coacervate phase was determined after 48 h of phase separation and revealed that, at pH(opt), the coacervate phase was the most concentrated. Varying the (Pr:Ps)(ini) shifted the pH(opt) to higher values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was increased and to lower values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was decreased. This phenomenon was due to the level of charge compensation of the WP/GA complexes. Finally, the structure of the coacervate phase was studied with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS data confirmed that at pH(opt) the coacervate phase was dense and structured. Model calculations revealed that the structure factor of WP induced a peak at Q = 0.7 nm(-1), illustrating that the coacervate phase was more structured, inducing the stronger correlation length of WP molecules. When the pH was changed to more acidic values, the correlation peak faded away, due to a more open structure of the coacervate. A shoulder in the scattering pattern of the coacervates was visible at small Q. This peak was attributed to the presence of residual charges on the GA. The peak intensity was reduced when the strength of interaction was increased, highlighting a greater charge compensation of the polyelectrolyte. Finally, increasing the ionic

  3. A comparison of corn fiber gum, hydrophobically modified starch, gum arabic and soybean soluble polysaccharide: interfacial dynamics, viscoelastic response at oil/water interfaces and emulsion stabilization mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interfacial rheology of polysaccharide adsorption layers of corn fiber gum (CFG), octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), gum arabic (GA) and soybean soluble polysaccharides (SSPS) at the oil/water interface and their emulsifying properties in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were compa...

  4. Enhancement of colour stability of anthocyanins in model beverages by gum arabic addition.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheryl; Rojanasasithara, Thananunt; Mutilangi, William; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the potential of gum arabic to improve the stability of anthocyanins that are used in commercial beverages as natural colourants. The degradation of purple carrot anthocyanin in model beverage systems (pH 3.0) containing L-ascorbic acid proceeded with a first-order reaction rate during storage (40 °C for 5 days in light). The addition of gum arabic (0.05-5.0%) significantly enhanced the colour stability of anthocyanin, with the most stable systems observed at intermediate levels (1.5%). A further increase in concentration (>1.5%) reduced its efficacy due to a change in the conformation of the gum arabic molecules that hindered their exposure to the anthocyanins. Fluorescence quenching measurements showed that the anthocyanin could have interacted with the glycoprotein fractions of the gum arabic through hydrogen bonding, resulting in enhanced stability. Overall, this study provides valuable information about enhancing the stability of anthocyanins in beverage systems using natural ingredients.

  5. Chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic polyelectrolyte complex: process-dependent appearance, microstructure analysis and its application.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ruei-Yi; Chen, Pin-Wen; Kuo, Ting-Yun; Lin, Che-Min; Wang, Da-Ming; Hsien, Tzu-Yang; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen

    2014-01-30

    Novel chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) solutions and membranes with various compositions were prepared for biomedical applications. The appearance of the PEC solutions, either clear or turbid, was process-dependent and depended on how the three components were dissolved and mixed. The addition of gum Arabic to the chitosan and pectin significantly decreased the viscosities of the resultant PEC solutions due to the formation of globe-like microstructures that was accompanied by network-like microstructures and other molecular entanglements. The mechanical strength and hydrophilicity of the PEC membranes manufactured from the PEC solutions, especially for a weight ratio of 84/8/8 (chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic), were enhanced compared to pure chitosan membranes. Moreover, the use of the 84/8/8 PEC membranes as a drug carrier exhibited steady and fairly complete release of a drug (insulin) for 6h. Based on these promising results, the chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic PEC membranes have great potential in controlled drug release applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of rheological, thermal and functional properties of tapioca starch using gum arabic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of gum arabic (GA) to native tapioca starch (TS) to modify the functionality of TS was investigated. GA is well known for its stabilizing, emulsifying, and thickening properties. The effects of adding GA (0.1-1.0%) on pasting, rheological and solubility properties of TS (5%) were analy...

  7. Does Swimming Exercise Affect Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats Treated with Gum Acacia?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Salam, Suhail; Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Balushi, Khalid A.; Ramkumar, Aishwarya; Waly, Mostafa I.; Yasin, Javid; Adham, Sirin A.; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2014-01-01

    Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA). Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE) on adenine –induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w) to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v), or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments), during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation. PMID:25048380

  8. Covalent coupling of gum arabic onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI cell labeling: physicochemical and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Palma, Susana I C J; Carvalho, Alexandra; Silva, Joana; Martins, Pedro; Marciello, Marzia; Fernandes, Alexandra R; del Puerto Morales, Maria; Roque, Ana C A

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic (GA) is a hydrophilic composite polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. It is biocompatible, possesses emulsifying and stabilizing properties and has been explored as coating agent of nanomaterials for biomedical applications, namely magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Previous studies focused on the adsorption of GA onto MNPs produced by co-precipitation methods. In this work, MNPs produced by a thermal decomposition method, known to produce uniform particles with better crystalline properties, were used for the covalent coupling of GA through its free amine groups, which increases the stability of the coating layer. The MNPs were produced by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in organic solvent and, after ligand-exchange with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), GA coating was achieved by the establishment of a covalent bond between DMSA and GA moieties. Clusters of several magnetic cores entrapped in a shell of GA were obtained, with good colloidal stability and promising magnetic relaxation properties (r2 /r1 ratio of 350). HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell line was used for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and cell-labeling efficiency studies. We show that, upon administration at the respective IC50 , GA coating enhances MNP cellular uptake by 19 times compared to particles bearing only DMSA moieties. Accordingly, in vitro MR images of cells incubated with increasing concentrations of GA-coated MNP present dose-dependent contrast enhancement. The obtained results suggest that the GA magnetic nanosystem could be used as a MRI contrast agent for cell-labeling applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23241359

  10. Effects of Gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Babiker, Rasha; Merghani, Tarig H; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Badi, Rehab M; Lang, Florian; Saeed, Amal M

    2012-12-15

    Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions.

  12. Structural and oxidative stabilization of spray dried fish oil microencapsulates with gum arabic and sage polyphenols: Characterization and release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Jeyakumari, A; Muhamed Ashraf, P; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-03-15

    The synergistic efficacy of gum arabic and sage polyphenols in stabilising capsule wall and protecting fish oil encapsulates from heat induced disruption and oxidative deterioration during spray drying was assessed. The emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate as wall polymer, gum arabic as wall co-polymer and sage extract as wall stabiliser was spray dried using a single fluid nozzle. Fish oil encapsulates stabilised with gum arabic and sage extract (SOE) exhibited significantly higher encapsulation efficiency compared to encapsulates containing gum arabic alone (FOE). Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images revealed uniform encapsulates with good sphericity and smooth surface for SOE, compared to FOE powder. In vitro oil release of microencapsulates indicated negligible oil release in buffered saline whereas more than 80% of the oil loaded in encapsulates were released in simulated GI fluids. The encapsulates containing sage extract showed a lower rate of lipid oxidation during storage.

  13. The effect of Arabic gum on frozen dough properties and the sensory assessments of the bread produced.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Hamedi, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    The use of hydrocolloids in frozen dough has become frequent as bread improvers due to their anti-staling effect. Nevertheless, the impact of both different frozen storage and Arabic gum level in non-prefermented flat dough with following thawing procedure have not been studied. This work intended to study the effect of three different ratio of Arabic gum on rheological properties of 1, 7, and 30 days of frozen storage and the quality of the bread made from. In order to gain the least detrimental effects on gluten network, we used rapid rate freezing and microwave heating in thawing stage. Rheological results showed that the unfrozen samples to which Arabic gum had been added rendered the highest resistance to extension. The resistance of gum fortified samples were less than fresh dough, however the decline was not significant in 3.0% Arabic gum dough kept in a month storage (p > .05). The similar findings were obtained for extensibility and adhesiveness; in which the maximum incorporation of Arabic gum lessen the destructive impact of long freezing storage. Addition of 3% gum could be able to retard staling through an increment in hydrophilic bonds between water molecules and amylose during thawing (p < .05). The overall rating of Arabic gum enriched samples was similar with bread made from non-frozen dough, even after 30 days of storage as indicated by the sensory evaluation of breads. Producing a chapatti-like fermented bread without long fermentation period. Formulation a frozen dough without using chemical additives. Introducing a proper use of a new defrosting method with the aim of achieving a better texture. Improvement in retarding staling by the use of Gum Arabic after 7 days. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Addition of Cyanoacrylate, Epoxy Resin, and Gum Arabic on Surface Hardness of Die Stone.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Arvind; Gupta, Ashutosh; Bagchi, Soumyojeet; Mishra, Lallan; Gautam, Abhina; Madhok, Riti

    2016-04-01

    To observe the effects of incorporating cyanoacrylate, epoxy resins, and gum arabic on the abrasion resistance of type IV gypsum die materials. Forty specimens were prepared and divided into four groups (10 specimens in each group), namely group A (control), group B (die stone mixed with cyanoacrylate), group C (die stone mixed with epoxy resin), group D (die stone mixed with gum arabic). All the specimens were subjected to abrasion testing, wear volume analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Abrasion testing showed maximum wear in the control group and minimum wear in the gum arabic group. Intergroup differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The largest mean difference was between control and gum arabic. The lowest was between cyanoacrylate and the control group. The mean wear volume was lowest in the gum arabic group (4.23 mm(3) ) and highest in the control group (6.78 mm(3) ). The FT-IR graphs of the gum arabic models showed the presence of CH2 , which is responsible for its binding activity. SEM revealed that the irregular particles of gum arabic display an interlocking arrangement. This jigsaw puzzle pattern results in stronger physical bond formation. Observations from this study showed that the addition of gum arabic increases resistance to abrasion in type IV gypsum. Cyanoacrylates are good adhesives as well, but a major drawback is that they have very low resistance to chemical action with water and physical actions such as sunlight. Epoxy resins are powerful adhesives, but they attain their full efficiency when cured with heat. Cyanoacrylate and epoxy resin displayed poor physical bonding, primarily because of inhomogeneity. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Effect of gum arabic on glucose levels and microbial short-chain fatty acid production in white rice porridge model and mixed grain porridge model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Na; Min, Fang-Fang; Li, Chang; Gong, Deming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-07-09

    White rice porridge and mixed grain porridge, which are often consumed in many countries, were used as two models to evaluate the effects of gum arabic on glucose levels and microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Gum arabic was incorporated into the two porridges individually. Apparent viscosity of the two porridges was significantly increased, and their glucose productions during gastrointestinal digestion were notably lowered (p < 0.05). Diffused glucose amount was significantly decreased after gum arabic addition (p < 0.05). Furthermore, blood glucose rise after oral administration of porridges in mice was considerably lowered after fortified with gum arabic (p < 0.05). Microbial SCFA production during in vitro fermentation of porridges was significantly increased after gum arabic addition, which may also have beneficial effects on reducing postprandial glycemic response. Therefore, gum arabic may be a helpful ingredient, which could be added in porridges to have benefits for the reduction of postprandial glycemic response.

  16. A novel analytical ultracentrifugation based approach to the low resolution structure of gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Richard B; Adams, Gary G; Alzahrani, Qushmua; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-09-01

    Under investigation are the structural properties of gum arabic, an industrially important biopolymer for use as a stabilizer or in drug delivery, using Analytical Ultracentrifugation-a well-established, matrix-free probe for macromolecular size and shape. These results are combined with chromatographically-coupled methods (multi-angle light scattering, differential press imbalance viscometry) to provide a global analysis of its structure in varying ionic strength conditions. This analysis indicates that gum Arabic may have a compact, elliptical structure in solution, the significance of which for biotechnological use is indicated. This modelling method can be applied to other biopolymers and synthetic polymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 618-625, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High yield production and purification of few layer graphene by Gum Arabic assisted physical sonication

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Victor; Kim, Brian; Sloper, Brent; Tzoganakis, Costas; Yu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting the emulsification properties of low cost, environmentally safe Gum Arabic we demonstrate a high yield process to produce a few layer graphene with a low defect ratio, maintaining the pristine graphite structure. In addition, we demonstrate the need for and efficacy of an acid hydrolysis treatment to remove the polymer residues to produce 100% pure graphene. The scalable process gives yield of up to 5 wt% graphene based on 10 g starting graphite. The graphene product is compared with reduced graphene oxide produced through Hummer's method using UV-visible spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The two graphene materials show significant difference in these characterizations. Further, the film fabricated from this graphene exhibits 20 times higher electrical conductivity than that of the reduced graphene oxide. Sonication processing of graphite with environmentally approved biopolymers such as Gum Arabic opens up a scalable avenue for production of cheap graphene. PMID:23478744

  18. Gum Arabic enhances paracellular transport of water in amphibian everted small intestinal segments.

    PubMed

    Pai, M Kirtana; Chetan, S; Rao, J Prakasa; Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, Vikas; Kumar, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Gum Arabic (GA) is known for its proabsorbent activity in normal intestine as well as in animal models of diarrhea. The aim of the study was to find the effect of GA on intestinal transport of water and possible route of absorption in frog everted gut sacs. D-Mannitol was used as a marker of paracellular transport to find the route of absorption. Everted gut sacs (n = 4,5) were placed in Ringer containing GA (2.5 g/L) with or without D-Mannitol (0.5 g/L), incubated for 1 hour and analysed for change in weights of the sacs and D-Mannitol uptake. There was significant increase in uptake of water and D-Mannitol in the presence of GA compared to controls (P < 0.05). Gum Arabic improves water uptake by the intestinal mucosa, possibly by opening the paracellular pathways.

  19. Calcium alginate/gum Arabic beads containing glibenclamide: development and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Das, Biswarup; Maji, Ruma

    2012-12-01

    This work investigates the development, optimization and in vitro characterization of calcium alginate/gum Arabic beads by an ionotropic gelation method for prolonged sustained release of glibenclamide. The effects of amount of sodium alginate and gum Arabic as independent process variables on the drug encapsulation efficiency and drug release were optimized and analyzed based on central composite design and response surface methodology. Increment in drug encapsulation efficiency and decrease in drug release were found with the increase of both the amounts of sodium alginate and gum Arabic, used as polymer-blend. These optimized beads showed high drug encapsulation efficiency (86.02±2.97%), and suitable sustained drug release pattern over prolonged period (cumulative drug release after 7 h of 35.68±1.38%). The average size of these formulated dried beads containing glibenclamide ranged from 1.15±0.11 to 1.55±0.19 mm. The in vitro dissolution of these beads showed prolonged sustained release of glibenclamide over 7 h, which followed first-order model (R(2)=0.9886-0.9985) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism (release exponent, n=0.72-0.81). The swelling and degradation of the optimized beads were influenced by pH of test mediums. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy for surface morphology and excipients-drug interaction analysis, respectively. These developed calcium alginate/gum Arabic beads containing glibenclamide could possibly be advantageous in terms of advanced patient compliance with reduced dosing interval. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photoprotection of vitamins in skimmed milk by an aqueous soluble lycopene-gum Arabic microcapsule.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mariana A; Nunes, Itaciara L; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2007-01-24

    Riboflavin (Rf)-mediated photosensitized degradation of vitamins A and D3 in skimmed milk under illumination with a white fluorescence lamp was studied by using the HPLC technique. The photosensitized degradation of both vitamins followed first-order kinetics, and the temperature effect on the observed photodegradation rate constant allowed the determination of the activation energy Ea as being 4 and 16 kcal/mol for vitamins A and D3, respectively. The addition of lycopene microencapsulated by spray-drying with a gum arabic-sucrose (8:2) mixture (MIC) produced a reduction of ca. 45% in the photosensitized degradation rate of both vitamins. Front-face fluorescence experiments showed the same photoprotection factor in the degradation of Rf itself, indicating that the photodegradation mechanism involved Rf-mediated reactive species, such as the excited triplet state of Rf, 3Rf*, and/or singlet molecular oxygen, 1O2. The interaction of both 3Rf* and 1O2 with MIC was evaluated in aqueous solutions by using laser-induced time-resolved absorption or emission spectroscopy, and the contribution of an inner-filter effect in the presence of MIC in skimmed milk was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The main operating mechanism of photoprotection is due to the deactivation of 3Rf* by the proteic component of gum arabic; thus, gum arabic based microcapsules could be used to improve the photostability of milk during its storage and/or processing under light.

  1. Starch-based edible film with gum arabic for fruits coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Aqeela Salfarina; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. The introduction of biodegradable materials such as edible film and coating which can be disposed directly into the soil, can be one possible solution to this problem. Edible coating is defined as a thin layer of edible material form as a film on the surface of the fruits and vegetables. This coating can affect the respiration and moisture loss. In this study, edible film and coating were used as fruit coating. The edible film were prepared with different ratios which is 2:2, 3:1, and 1:3 of starch and gum Arabic with 10% of glycerol and sorbitol as plasticiser. A study of practical application for the edible film and coating from starch with gum Arabic for fruit coating was conducted. Banana were coated with an aqueous solution of starch with gum Arabic and stored at ambient temperature (26 ± 1°C; 70 ± 10% RH). The results indicate that with the coating application, the fruits lost about 30% less weight than the uncoated fruits. The coating application was also effective in retaining the firmness of the banana and slow down the ripening process.

  2. Complex coacervates obtained from peptide leucine and gum arabic: formation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Gulão, Eliana da S; de Souza, Clitor J F; Andrade, Cristina T; Garcia-Rojas, Edwin E

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interactions between polypeptide-leucine (0.2% w/w) and gum arabic (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15% w/w) were examined at concentrations of NaCl (0, 0.01, 0.25, 0.3, 0.5mol/l) and at different pH values (from 1.0 to 12.0). Formation of insoluble complex coacervates was highest at pH 4.0. At pH 2.0, which is the pKa of the gum Arabic, the dissociation of precipitate occurred. The pHØ2 positively shifted with the addition of higher concentrations of salt. Samples containing 0.2% PL and 0.03% GA and no salt had higher turbidity and increased formation of precipitates showing greater turbidity and particle sizes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the complex coacervate formation of leucine and gum arabic, and rheological measurements suggest the elastic behavior of 0.2% PL and 0.03% GA complex. Overall, the study suggests that complex coacervates of PLs could be one feasible ways of incorporating amino acids in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frying of rice flour dough strands containing gum Arabic: texture, sensory attributes and microstructure of products.

    PubMed

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2017-04-01

    The effects of rice flour (50-56%, w/w) and gum Arabic (0-5%, w/w) on the physical, sensory and structural features of the fried dough strands were investigated. Up to 25.8% reduction in oil was possible by the incorporation of gum Arabic. The wide variations in failure force (13.8-25.3 N) and failure strain (11.0-28.6%) indicated the formation of snacks varying in texture from a soft-to-bite brittle product to a hard-to-eat less brittle sample. The snacks possessed a porous microstructure with air cells, pores and vacuoles; the cell walls were more than 100 μm in thickness. The textural parameters like failure force, failure energy and failure stress behaved in a similar manner in the principal component analysis biplot. High moisture content in the dough decreased the sensory acceptance of the fried snacks. The high desirability index of 0.9 could be achieved with a high level of rice flour (56%, w/w) while gum Arabic content was between 3.50 and 3.75% (w/w).

  4. Application of image processing to assess emulsion stability and emulsification properties of Arabic gum.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Abdullah; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Asghari, Ali; Akhavan, Sahar

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an effective methodology to determine the optimum levels of independent variables leading to maximize stability of O/W emulsions containing Arabic gum, as a natural emulsifier and stabilizer. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the effect of Arabic gum content (2%, 5%, and 8% (w/w)), homogenization time (5, 12.5, and 20 min) and storage temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C). Image processing was used to determine emulsion stability based on responses including creaming index, centrifugal stability, viscosity, color parameters, and D32 and D43 indices. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) values ranging from 0.95 to 0.989 was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The optimization results showed that the overall optimum region with the highest stability was found to be at the combined levels of 5.81% (w/w) Arabic gum content, 5 min homogenization time, and 22 °C for storage temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of gum arabic-stabilized selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kong, Huiling; Yang, Jixin; Zhang, Yifeng; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2014-04-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were prepared by using gum arabic (GA) as the stabilizer in a facile synthetic approach. The size, morphology, stability and antioxidant activity in vitro of the gum arabic-selenium nanocomposites (GA-SeNPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis). SeNPs (particle size of ∼34.9 nm) can be stabilized in gum arabic aqueous solutions for approximately 30 days. FTIR results show that SeNPs were combined to the hydroxyl groups of GA. In the present work, the alkali-hydrolyzed GA (AHGA) was also prepared and its efficiency in stabilizing SeNPs was compared with GA. It was concluded that the branched structure of GA was a significant factor for the functionality. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and DPPH scavenging ability of GA-SeNPs were higher than those of AHGA-SeNPs and could reach 85.3±2.6%, 85.3±1.9% at a concentration of 4 mg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gum arabic-curcumin conjugate micelles with enhanced loading for curcumin delivery to hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel; Kumar, P R Anil; Raj, Deepa K; Kumary, T V

    2015-12-10

    Curcumin is conjugated to gum arabic, a highly water soluble polysaccharide to enhance the solubility and stability of curcumin. Conjugation of curcumin to gum arabic is confirmed by (1)H NMR, fluorescence and UV spectroscopy studies. The conjugate self assembles to spherical nano-micelles (270 ± 5 nm) spontaneously, when dispersed in aqueous medium. Spherical morphology of the self assembled conjugate is evidenced by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The self assembly of the amphiphilic conjugate into micelle in aqueous medium significantly enhances the solubility (900 fold of that of free curcumin) and stability of curcumin in physiological pH. The anticancer activity of the conjugate micelles is found to be higher in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells than in human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The conjugate exhibits enhanced accumulation and toxicity in HepG2 cells due to the targeting efficiency of the galactose groups present in gum arabic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid nanomaterials based on gum Arabic and magnetite for hyperthermia treatments.

    PubMed

    Horst, M Fernanda; Coral, Diego F; Fernández van Raap, Marcela B; Alvarez, Mariana; Lassalle, Verónica

    2017-05-01

    In this study, one-step co-precipitation method was conveniently adapted to obtain novel nanomaterials based on Gum Arabic and magnetite. Two synthesis procedures were evaluated: one employing the solid biopolymer in the co-precipitation media; a second using an aqueous solution of the polysaccharide. An exhaustive characterization of both formulations was performed using several specific techniques. The obtained data confirmed the successful incorporation of the gum Arabic on the magnetic core. Values of hydrodynamic diameters, measured by dynamic light scattering, in aqueous dispersions were about 70-80nm, while sizes lower than 20nm were registered by TEM microscopy. Surface charge of gum Arabic coated magnetic nanoparticles was significantly different from the corresponding to raw materials (magnetite and GA). This fact confirmed the formation of hybrid nanosystems with novel and specific properties. The potential utility of these materials was tested regarding to magnetic hyperthermia therapy under radiofrequency fields. Magnetocalorimetric measurements were performed in a wide range of field amplitude and frequency. Specific absorption rate of 218W/gFe was determined at field frequency of 260kHz and amplitude of 52kA/m. These results demonstrate their viability to be applied in tumor ablation treatments. Using the linear response theory and restricting field parameters to the accepted biomedical window, maximum useful value of 74w/gFe is predicted at 417kHz and 12kA/m. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative evaluation of gum arabic coating and vacuum packaging on chilled storage characteristics of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta).

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Sahu, Upali; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2016-04-01

    The effect of edible coating using gum arabic on biochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory characteristics of fresh gutted mackerel stored at 4 °C was investigated. The results were further compared against the samples packed under vacuum (VP) and conventional polyethylene pouches (CP). Coating with gum arabic (GC) markedly retarded lipid oxidation process in gutted mackerel compared to VP and CP samples. Moreover, VP and CP samples showed higher degree of textural deterioration compared to GC samples. Microbiologically, the shelf life of chilled gutted Indian mackerel was estimated to be 7-8, 17 and 19-20 days for CP, GC and VP samples, respectively. The sensory analysis scores confirmed the efficacy of gum coating in retarding the spoilage process during chilled storage. The current study identifies the potential of edible coating with gum arabic to improve the overall quality of Indian mackerel and extend its storage life during chilled storage.

  9. Contribution of lipids, phenolic acids, and protein rich components to emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum and acacia gum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is an arabinoxylan enriched fraction obtained by the extraction of corn bran/fiber using a proprietary alkaline hydrogen peroxide process. When purified CFG prepared by this process was hydrolyzed with concentrated base (1.5 N methanolic KOH at 70 °C for one hour) considerable ...

  10. Understanding the stability of silver nanoparticles bio-fabricated using Acacia arabica (Babool gum) and its hostile effect on microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-05-01

    We report green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from Acacia arabica gum and its anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. UV-Vis spectral analysis of synthesized SNPs showed maximum peak at 462 nm initially and 435 nm after 24 h. Using Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of synthesised SNPs was found to be ˜35 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed the crystalline nature of SNPs. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag° was calculated using ICP-AES and was found to be 94%. By calculating flocculation parameter, we could see that these SNPs are extremely stable under the influence of very high NaCl concentration up to 4.16 M. These stable SNPs can be used in various industrial and medical applications.

  11. Evaluation of gentamicin and lidocaine release profile from gum acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-27

    In this manuscript an attempt has been made to incorporate both, antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into the gum acacia-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogel for wound dressing application. Drug release, gel strength, network parameter, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation properties of hydrogel have been evaluated. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. The release of these drugs occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile of the drugs was best fitted in first order kinetic model.

  12. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  13. Novel calcified gum Arabic porous nano-composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, M; Hasannia, S; Faghihi, Sh; Mashayekhi, F; Zadeh, H H; Mostofi, S B

    2017-07-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical and biological properties of a nanocomposite scaffold containing both mineral and polysaccharide constituents. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) was synthesized from dead abra ovata shells using wet chemical methods and was used in different ratios in concert with gum Arabic, a branched plant polysaccharide. N-HA/gum nanocomposite was fabricated with freeze-drying process and characterized by FTIR and SEM for chemical structure and morphology. Porosity was estimated using liquid substitution method. The scaffold mechanical properties were evaluated by compressive test measurement. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using alkaline phosphatase production and biomineralization was evaluated using Alizarin red assay. Results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/gum Arabic nanocomposite had favorable biocompatibility and a similar structure to natural bone matrix. Porous nanocomposite possessed macropore networks with a porosity 87-93% and mean pore size ranging between 164 and 230 μm. The gum/HA with a ratio of 50% w/w HA had the highest compressive modulus of ∼75.3 MPa Pa (MPa) and the ultimate compressive stress of ∼16.6 MPa. C2C12 cells cultured on a scaffold with higher percentage (40 and 50 w/w) of HA demonstrated increased ALP levels and calcium deposition. The data from the present study demonstrated significant changes to the biomechanical properties and osteoconductivity of the nanocomposite scaffold by modulating its mineral content. Nanocomposite scaffolds containing gum and n-HA of 40-50% exhibited highest mechanical properties, as well as supported increased biomineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  15. Native and structurally modified gum arabic: exploring the effect of the gum's microstructure in obtaining electroactive nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Patricia A; Quintanilha, Ronaldo C; Vidotti, Marcio; Gorin, Philip A J; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C

    2015-03-30

    Electroactive nanoparticles combining gum arabic (GA) and polyaniline (PANI) were prepared by chemical synthesis. The gum consists of highly branched anionic polysaccharides with some protein content. GA was structurally modified by Smith controlled degradation, in order to reduce its degree of branching (GAD), aiming the elucidation of the relationship between the structure and the properties of complex polysaccharides. The modification was studied by SEC, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and colorimetric methods. GAD has lower molecular mass, lower degree of branching and lower uronic acid content. Besides it is enriched in galactose and protein when compared with GA. The obtained composites (GA-PANI and GAD-PANI) were thoroughly characterized. Although the use of both polysaccharides (GA and GAD) produced highly stable electroactive nanoparticles, the best combination of properties was achieved for GA-PANI. The sample GAD was not able to prevent the occurrence of crosslinking between PANI chains, possibly due to its lower microstructural complexity which diminishes the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between the polymers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping Land Use Land Cover Using NDVI in a Semi-arid Areas in Gum Arabic Belt, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    Gum arabic belt is most important region in Sudan with producing gum arabic in global level. Each land cover type has different spectral characteristics, absorbing some frequencies of light and reflecting others. With an understanding of the reflectance characteristics and some ground observations, it is possible to use remotely sensed data to make inferences about the type of land cover and land use. The objective of this study is to measure and classify the vegetation cover in semi-arid area in gum arbic belt in Sudan using NDVI. The remotely sensed data used in this study were NDVI images created from Terra-ASTER (2007), ETM+ (1999) and TM (1985) images of the study area (35x35 km) in the gum arabic in Kordofan region, Sudan. The values of the NDVI were examined and evaluated on pixel-by-pixel using ERDAS software and the training points collected from the field work. Supervised classification of a multi-temporal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data set was used to analyse the temporal land-cover changes. The magnitude of green vegetation was quantified to several levels and separated from other classes using the advantage of the stratification of cover classes as a function of the NDVI. Using this stratification, the study found many similarities in the value of NDVI in land use land cover classes in gum arabic belt region. Four LULC classes were indicated using the range (0.184 and below) to represent the bare and farm lands, (0.185 -0.254) represents the grass and bush lands, (0.255 -0.334) represents forest dominated by Hashab trees (0.335 and high) represents mixed woodlands. Maximum NDVI values (0.90) were found in images 1972. Further research is needed to fully determine the spatial and temporal range of the NDVI values over non-vegetated and partially vegetated areas in semi-arid areas. Key words: vegetation cover, NDVI, gum arabic belt, mapping

  17. Value added product recovery from sludge generated during gum arabic refining process by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Das, Veena; Satyanarayan, Sanjeev; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-09-01

    Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting. Results were excellent with volatile solid reduction of 51.34 %; C/N ratio reduced to 16.31 % indicating efficient loss of carbon as carbon dioxide during vermicomposting period. Manurial value, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the range, required for the plants also increased. Porosity of 67.74 % and water holding capacity of 65.75 % were observed. The maturity of the vermicompost was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy wherein the complete conversion of large raw material particles into finer particles forming a uniform matrix with more surface area was observed indicating its efficient conversion. Microbial quality of vermicompost was also studied. The final vermicompost is free of fungal cells and pathogenic bacteria.

  18. Preparation and characterisation of gelatin-gum arabic aldehyde nanogels via inverse miniemulsion technique.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin-gum arabic aldehyde nanogels designed by a nanoreactor concept using inverse miniemulsion technique were reported. Stable separate miniemulsions were prepared from gelatin (Gel) and gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). These emulsions were intermixed under sonication to obtain cross-linked nanogels. During fusion, cross-linking occurred between aldehyde groups of GAA and amino groups of gelatin. The concentration of the surfactant and weight fraction of water in the inverse miniemulsion was optimised so as to yield nanogels with controlled particle size. Properties of the nanogels were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy, particle size analysis and XRD. Surface morphology of the nanogels was established by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM and particle size analysis confirmed that nanogels possess spherical morphology with an average diameter of 151 ± 6 nm. Hemolysis property of the nanogels was examined and the results indicated that the nanogels were hemocompatible. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the nanogels towards MCF-7 cells was evaluated by MTT assay and the nanogels showed nontoxic behaviour towards the cells. All these studies confirm that these nanogels are potential candidates in applications such as drug and gene delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of microcapsules by complex coacervation of gum Arabic and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Butstraen, Chloé; Salaün, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Gum Arabic-chitosan microcapsules containing a commercially available blend of triglycerides (Miglyol 812 N) as core phase were synthesized by complex coacervation. This study was conducted to clarify the influence of different parameters on the encapsulation process, i.e. during the emulsion formation steps and during the shell formation, using conductometry, zeta potential, surface and interface tension measurement and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. By carefully analyzing the influencing factors including phase volume ratio, stirring rate and time, pH, reaction time, biopolymer ratio and crosslinking effect, the optimum synthetic conditions were found out. For the emulsion step, the optimum phase volume ratio chosen was 0.10 and an emulsion time of 15 min at 11,000 rpm was selected. The results also indicated that the optimum formation of these complexes appears at a pH value of 3.6 and a weight ratio of chitosan to gum Arabic mixtures of 0.25. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption and controlled release of potassium, phosphate and ammonia from modified Arabic gum-based hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Zonatto, Fernanda; Muniz, Edvani C; Tambourgi, Elias B; Paulino, Alexandre T

    2017-07-11

    In this work, a modified Arabic gum-based hydrogel copolymerized with acrylamide was synthesized and characterized for application in adsorption and controlled release of potassium, phosphate and ammonia. From FT-IR results, it would be reasonable to assume that the hydrogel was effectively synthesized. The degree of swelling at pure water with pH 6.0 was 21.0g water per g dried hydrogel whereas the degrees of swelling at buffer solutions with pH 4.5 and 7.0 were 7.2 and 9.2g water per g dried hydrogel, respectively. The water diffusion mechanism was governed by Fickian transport with tendency to occur macromolecular relaxation. The adsorption capacities of potassium, phosphate and ammonia were higher by increasing the initial concentrations due to availability of active sites in the hydrogel network, nutrient size and ionic charge. Potassium, phosphate and ammonia concentrations released from the modified Arabic gum-based hydrogel increased by increasing the release time from 0 to 1440min. Release profiles indicated that this hydrogel could be applied for the enrichment and hydration of deserted soil, avoiding losses of nutrients by leaching and percolation, with an advantage of being constituted by an eco-friendly polysaccharide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial eugenol nanoemulsion prepared by gum arabic and lecithin and evaluation of drying technologies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaobin; Gerhard, Hannah; Upadhyaya, Indu; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of present work was to develop eugenol oil nanoemulsions using gum arabic and lecithin as food grade natural emulsifiers, and study their antimicrobial activity. In addition, our study also evaluated different drying techniques (spray drying and freeze drying) on the morphology and redispersibility of nanoemulsion powders. The optimal fabrication method, physicochemical and structural characterization, stability, and antimicrobial activity were investigated. Results showed that nanoemusions with a particle size of 103.6±7.5nm were obtained by mixing aqueous phase (0.5% gum arabic, 0.5% lecithin, w/v) and eugenol oil (1.25%, w/v), which was premixed with ethanol (as a co-surfactant), followed by high speed homogenization process. The molecular interactions among emulsifiers and eugenol were evidenced by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Buchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer was evaluated as a powerful tool to obtain ultrafine spherical powders with a size of less than 500nm, compared to flake-like aggregation obtained by freeze-drying. The dried powders exhibited excellent re-dispersibility in water and maintained their physicochemical properties after re-hydration. The nanoemulsions did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of eugenol against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Therefore, the nanoemulsions have the potential to be applied in the food industry as a food preservative or sanitizer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gum arabic and Fe²⁺ synergistically improve the heat and acid stability of norbixin at pH 3.0-5.0.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-12-31

    Thermal and acid stabilities of norbixin are challenges for its application as a food colorant. In this work, gum arabic and Fe(2+) were studied for the possibility to improve the thermal and acid stabilities of norbixin. Norbixin was dissolved at 0.004% w/v in deionized water with and without 0.2% w/v gum arabic and/or 0.15 mM ferrous chloride, adjusted to pH 3.0-5.0, and heated at 90 or 126 °C for 30 min. Before heating, norbixin precipitated at pH 3.0-4.0, which was prevented by gum arabic. The thermal stability of norbixin was improved by the combination of gum arabic and Fe(2+). Fluorescence analyses indicated the complex formation between norbixin and gum arabic with and without Fe(2+). Particle size and atomic force microscopy results suggested Fe(2+) and gum arabic synergistically prevented the aggregation of norbixin at acidic pH and during heating. It was hypothesized that the core of gum arabic-norbixin complexes was strengthened by Fe(2+) to enable the synergy.

  3. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-06-19

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles.

  4. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-06-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles.

  5. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles. PMID:22713480

  6. Novel reverse osmosis membranes composed of modified PVA/Gum Arabic conjugates: Biofouling mitigation and chlorine resistance enhancement.

    PubMed

    Falath, Wail; Sabir, Aneela; Jacob, Karl I

    2017-01-02

    A novel crosslinked Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) reverse osmosis (RO) thin film membrane conjugated with Gum Arabic (GA) with superb performance and features was synthesized for water desalination. RO membrane desalination parameters, such as hydrophilicity, surface roughness, water permeability, salt rejection, Chlorine resistance and biofouling resistance were evaluated using a dead end RO filtration unit. The incorporation of Pluronic F127 and the conjugation of Gum Arabic improved the overall RO performance of the membranes. This study has shown that the membrane PVA-GA-5 that contains 0.9wt% Gum Arabic provided excellent permeation, salt rejection, Chlorine and biofouling resistance and mechanical strength. The most remarkable result to arise from this research is that the overall RO performance enhancement has been achieved while utilizing PVA/Gum Arabic as a separation layer without the use of a substrate, which eliminates negative effects associated with the use of a substrate like internal concentration polarization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Macromolecular dimensions and mechanical properties of monolayer films of Sonorean mesquite gum.

    PubMed

    López-Franco, Yolanda L; Valdez, Miguel A; Hernández, Javier; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Goycoolea, Francisco M

    2004-09-16

    Mesquite gum sourced from Prosopis velutina trees and gum arabic (Acacia spp.) were characterized using light scattering and Langmuir isotherms. Both gum materials were fractionated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, yielding four fractions for both gums: FI, FIIa, FIIb and FIII in mesquite gum and FI, FII, FIIIa and FIIIb in gum arabic. In mesquite gum, the obtained fractions had different protein content (7.18-38.60 wt.-%) and macromolecular dimensions (M approximately 3.89 x 10(5)-8.06 x 10(5) g.mol(-1), RG approximately 48.83-71.11 nm, RH approximately 9.61-24.06 nm) and architecture given by the structure factor (RG/RH ratio approximately 2.96-5.27). The mechanical properties of Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface were very different on each gum and their fractions. For mesquite gum, the most active species at the interface were those comprised in Fractions IIa and IIb and III, while Fraction I the pi/A isotherm lied below that of the whole gum. In gum arabic only Fraction III developed greater surface pressure at the same surface per milligram of material than whole gum. This is rationalized in terms of structural differences in both materials. Mesquite gum tertiary structure seems to fit best with an elongated polydisperse macrocoil in agreement with the "twisted hairy rope" proposal for arabinogalactan proteoglycans.

  8. Release properties of chemical and enzymatic crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles containing a fluorescent probe plus vetiver essential oil.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ana S; Zanin, Maria H A; Ré, Maria I; Grosso, Carlos R F

    2008-12-01

    Oil-containing gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde or transglutaminase. A fluorescent mixture, khusimyl dansylate (KD) as the fluorescent compound mixed to the vetiver essential oil, was used as oil model. The effect of the type of crosslinking of the coacervated gelatin-gum Arabic membrane, the physical state of microparticles, wet or freeze-dried and the type of release media, aqueous with surfactants, Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (sds) or Tween 80 (tw) and anhydrous ethanol as organic media on the release rate of the KD from the microparticles, was experimentally investigated. It was shown that the oil was dispersed uniformly throughout the microparticles and the chemical crosslinked microparticles were more resistant to swelling, presenting smaller sizes after hydration. Also the crosslinking effect, transglutaminase or glutaraldehyde, could be confirmed by the integrity of the crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles after incubation in the aqueous sds media, compared to complete dissolution of the uncrosslinked microparticles in this media. The cumulative fluorescent KD release from the gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles decreased in the following order of dissolution media: anhydrous ethanol>tw>sds and the wet microparticles have shown a faster KD release than freeze-dried ones. A mathematical model was used to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D). The chemically crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles ensured a pronounced retard effect in the KD diffusion, presenting a D varying from 0.02 to 0.6 x 10(-11)cm(2)/s, mainly in an aqueous media, against D varying from 1.05 to 13.9 x 10(-11)cm(2)/s from the enzymatic crosslinked microparticles.

  9. Tests for mutagenic effects of ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum arabic in roden germ cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, C.W.; Cain, K.T.; Rushbrook, C.J.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Generoso, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum Arabic are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances that are used primarily as additives in foods. These substances were incorporated into rodent diets and fed to male rats and mice for 10 and 8 wk, respectively. The treated male mice and rats were then tested for dominant lethal effects. The mice were also tested for induced heritable translocation. Results of the rat studies indicated a statistically significant dominant lethal effect of each of the compounds tested; however, the biological significance of this response is not known. Results of the mouse dominant lethal and heritable translocation studies, on the other hand, indicated no adverse effects of the compounds tested.

  10. Cytocompatibility evaluation of gum Arabic-coated ultra-pure boron nitride nanotubes on human cells.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni; Del Turco, Serena; Rocca, Antonella; de Vito, Giuseppe; Cappello, Valentina; Yamaguchi, Maho; Li, Xia; Mazzolai, Barbara; Basta, Giuseppina; Gemmi, Mauro; Piazza, Vincenzo; Golberg, Dmitri; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2014-05-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are tubular nanoparticles with a structure analogous to that of carbon nanotubes, but with B and N atoms that completely replace the C atoms. Many favorable results indicate BNNTs as safe nanomaterials; however, important concerns have recently been raised about ultra-pure, long (~10 µm) BNNTs tested on several cell types. Here, we propose additional experiments with the same BNNTs, but shortened (~1.5 µm) with a homogenization/sonication treatment that allows for their dispersion in gum Arabic aqueous solutions. Obtained BNNTs are tested on human endothelial and neuron-like cells with several independent biocompatibility assays. Moreover, for the first time, their strong sum-frequency generation signal is exploited to assess the cellular uptake. Our data demonstrate no toxic effects up to concentrations of 20 µg/ml, once more confirming biosafety of BNNTs, and again highlighting that nanoparticle aspect ratio plays a key role in the biocompatibility evaluation.

  11. Phase separation induced molecular fractionation of gum arabic--sugar beet pectin systems.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peng; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Fan; Fang, Yapeng; Phillips, Glyn O; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Jiang, Fatang

    2013-10-15

    This paper investigates the phase separation and phase separation-induced fractionation of gum arabic (GA)/sugar beet pectin (SBP) mixed solutions. A phase diagram, including cloud and binodal curves, was established by visual observation and phase composition analysis. The deviation of the binodal curve from the cloud curve was a result of phase separation-induced fractionation of polydisperse GA and SBP molecules. Fractionation of GA increased the content of arabinogalactan-protein complex (AGP) from ca. 13% to 27%. The fractionated GA (FGA) showed improved emulsifying functionality, whereas the fractionated SBP (FSBP) had a reduced emulsifying functionality. The changes in emulsifying efficiency can be explained by interfacial adsorption behaviors at the oil-water interface as indicated by interfacial tension measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical and antimicrobial properties of thyme oil emulsions stabilized by ovalbumin and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fuge; Pan, Weichun; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2016-12-01

    Natural biopolymer stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were formulated using ovalbumin (OVA), gum arabic (GA) solutions and their complexes. The influence of interfacial structure of emulsion (OVA-GA bilayer and OVA/GA complexes emulsions) on the physical properties and antimicrobial activity of thyme oil (TO) emulsion against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was evaluated. The results revealed that the two types of emulsions with different oil phase compositions remained stable during a long storage period. The oil phase composition had an appreciable influence on the mean particle diameter and retention of the TO emulsions. The stable emulsion showed a higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the TO emulsions showed an improved long-term antimicrobial activity compared to the pure thyme oil, especially complexes emulsion at pH 4.0. These results provided useful information for developing protection and delivery systems for essential oil using biopolymer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ex Vivo Evaluation of Insulin Nanoparticles Using Chitosan and Arabic Gum

    PubMed Central

    Avadi, M. R.; Sadeghi, A. M. M.; Mohamadpour Dounighi, Naser; Dinarvand, R.; Atyabi, F.; Rafiee-Tehrani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric delivery systems based on nanoparticles have emerged as a promising approach for peroral insulin delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the release of insulin nanoparticulate systems and ex vivo studies. The nanoparticles were prepared by the ion gelation method. Particle size distribution, zeta potential, and polydispersity index of the nanoparticles were determined. It was found that the nanoparticles carried positive charges and showed a size distribution in the range of 170–200 nm. The electrostatic interactions between the positively charged group of chitosan and negatively charged groups of Arabic gum play an important role in the association efficiency of insulin in nanoparticles. In vitro insulin release studies showed an initial burst followed by a slow release of insulin. The mucoadhesion of the nanosystem was evaluated using excised rat jejunum. Ex vivo studies have shown a significant increase in absorption of insulin in the presence of chitosan nanoparticles in comparison with free insulin. PMID:22389865

  14. Conformational modifications of alpha gliadin and globulin proteins upon complex coacervates formation with gum Arabic as studied by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chourpa, Igor; Ducel, Virginie; Richard, Joël; Dubois, Pierre; Boury, Frank

    2006-09-01

    As a molecular model of gelatin-free coacervates, complexes of pea globulin and alpha gliadin proteins with gum arabic prepared at different acidic pH values are studied using Raman microspectrometry. Raman spectra confirm higher content of beta-sheets and random coils in pea globulin and dominating alpha-helical structures in alpha gliadin. For protein-gum arabic complexes, Raman data support the existence of specific pH conditions for optimal complex coacervation (pH 2.75 for globulin and pH 3.0 for gliadin(1)), when (i) pH-induced conformational perturbations of free protein structure are the strongest and (ii) compensation of these perturbations by gum arabic is the most pronounced. Conformations implied in the protein-gum complexes are mainly beta-sheets in pea globulin and alpha-helix in alpha gliadin. The role of electrostatic and non-Coulombic interactions (intermolecular hydrogen bonds) in stabilizing of protein-polysaccharide complexes is discussed in relation with the overall structure and the charge density profile of these two proteins.

  15. Effects of high-hydrostatic pressure and pH treatments on the emulsification properties of gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fanyi; Bell, Alan E; Davis, Fred J

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the emulsification properties of the native gums and those treated at high pressure (800 MPa) both at their "natural" pH (4.49 and 4.58, respectively) and under "acidic and basic" pH (2.8 and 8.0) conditions. The emulsification behaviour of KLTA gum was found to be superior to that of the GCA gum. High pressure and pH treatment changed the emulsification properties of both gums. The acidic amino acids in gum arabic were shown to play an important role in their emulsification behaviour, and mechanisms of emulsification for the two gums were suggested to be different. The highly "branched" nature of the carbohydrate in GCA gum was also thought to be responsible for the "spreading" of droplet size distributions observed. Coomassie brilliant blue binding was used to indicate conformational changes in protein structure and Ellman's assay was used to estimate any changes in levels of free thiols present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) doped gum acacia-gelatin-silica nanohybrid: an effective support for diastase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-03-01

    An effective carrier matrix for diastase alpha amylase immobilization has been fabricated by gum acacia-gelatin dual templated polymerization of tetramethoxysilane. Silver nanoparticle (AgNp) doping to this hybrid could significantly enhance the shelf life of the impregnated enzyme while retaining its full bio-catalytic activity. The doped nanohybrid has been characterized as a thermally stable porous material which also showed multipeak photoluminescence under UV excitation. The immobilized diastase alpha amylase has been used to optimize the conditions for soluble starch hydrolysis in comparison to the free enzyme. The optimum pH for both immobilized and free enzyme hydrolysis was found to be same (pH=5), indicating that the immobilization made no major change in enzyme conformation. The immobilized enzyme showed good performance in wide temperature range (from 303 to 323 K), 323 K being the optimum value. The kinetic parameters for the immobilized, (K(m)=10.30 mg/mL, V(max)=4.36 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) and free enzyme (K(m)=8.85 mg/mL, V(max)=2.81 μmol mL(-1)min(-1)) indicated that the immobilization improved the overall stability and catalytic property of the enzyme. The immobilized enzyme remained usable for repeated cycles and did not lose its activity even after 30 days storage at 40°C, while identically synthesized and stored silver undoped hybrid lost its ~31% activity in 48 h. Present study revealed the hybrids to be potentially useful for biomedical and optical applications.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted formation of the canthaxanthin emulsions stabilized by arabic and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    There is interest in incorporating canthaxanthin (CTX) into food emulsions due to its high potential health benefits. The used CTX in this study was produced by the bacterium of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1. Then, the influence of main emulsion components (gum arabic (GA), xanthan gum (XG) and coconut oil (CO)) on the surface-weighted mean diameter (D32), polydispersity index (PDI), specific surface area (SSA) of droplets and density of the emulsions containing CTX was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Polynomial equations between the responses and independent variables were derived. The linear effect of GA had a significant (p<0.0001) term in all reduced models. The optimal formulation for emulsions was composed of GA content of 9.85% (w/w), XG content of 0.13% (w/w) and CO concentration of 3.50% (w/w). This optimum formulation yielded D32 of 0.752 μm, PDI of 1.533, SSA of 9.995 m(2)/ml and density of 1.0357 g/cm(3).

  18. Effect of Gum Arabic karroo as a Water-Reducing Admixture in Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Mbugua, Rose; Salim, Ramadhan; Ndambuki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. Chemical admixtures are ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties. However, most chemical admixtures on the market today are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete. In Africa, use of chemical admixtures is rare despite the harsh weather conditions. In the current study, Gum from Acacia karroo (GAK) was used as a water-reducing admixture in concrete. A slump test, density and compressive strength were studied using different dosages of GAK while neat concrete was the control. Results showed that slump increased by 200% at a 2% dosage of GAK. This enabled reduction of water-to-binder (w/b) ratio from 0.61 to 0.48 for samples with a 3% dosage. Reduction in w/b resulted in increased compressive strength of 37.03% above the control after 180 days of curing for a 3% dosage. XRD studies also showed a decreased rate of hydration in the presence of GAK in concrete. It was concluded that GAK can be used in concrete as a water-reducing admixture, which is environmentally-friendly, thus producing sustainable and greener concrete. PMID:28787879

  19. Effect of Gum Arabic karroo as a Water-Reducing Admixture in Concrete.

    PubMed

    Mbugua, Rose; Salim, Ramadhan; Ndambuki, Julius

    2016-01-28

    Concrete is one of the most popular construction materials in the world. Chemical admixtures are ingredients added to concrete to enhance its properties. However, most chemical admixtures on the market today are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete. In Africa, use of chemical admixtures is rare despite the harsh weather conditions. In the current study, Gum from Acacia karroo (GAK) was used as a water-reducing admixture in concrete. A slump test, density and compressive strength were studied using different dosages of GAK while neat concrete was the control. Results showed that slump increased by 200% at a 2% dosage of GAK. This enabled reduction of water-to-binder (w/b) ratio from 0.61 to 0.48 for samples with a 3% dosage. Reduction in w/b resulted in increased compressive strength of 37.03% above the control after 180 days of curing for a 3% dosage. XRD studies also showed a decreased rate of hydration in the presence of GAK in concrete. It was concluded that GAK can be used in concrete as a water-reducing admixture, which is environmentally-friendly, thus producing sustainable and greener concrete.

  20. Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic coating enriched with natamycin during storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjia; Feng, Lifang; Zheng, Xiaolin; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic (GA) coating incorporating natamycin (NA) during storage were investigated. Mushroom weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, total sugar, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and microbial and sensory quality were measured. Mushroom coated with gum arabic+natamycin (GANA) maintained tissue firmness and showed reduction in microbial counts from yeasts and moulds compared with the control. In addition, GANA coating also delayed changes in the soluble solids concentration, total sugar and ascorbic acid. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of GANA coating by maintaining the overall quality of shiitake mushroom during the storage period. The efficiency was better than that of GA or NA treatment alone. Our study suggests that GANA has the potential to improve the quality of shiitake mushroom and extend its shelf-life up to 16d. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of gum arabic to improve the fabrication of chitosan-gelatin-based nanofibers for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ruei-Yi; Kuo, Ting-Yun; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Che-Min; Hsien, Tzu-Yang; Wang, Da-Ming; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen

    2015-01-22

    Current techniques for fabricating chitosan-gelatin-based nanofibers require the use of corrosive and expensive solvents. Our novel method, however, using gum arabic and a mild (20 wt%) aqueous acetic acid solution as solvent can produce a solution with much higher chitosan-gelatin content (16 wt%). Without gum arabic, which greatly decreases the viscosity of the solution, such an outcome was unachievable. The solution was utilized to prepare electrospun chitosan-gelatin-polyvinyl alcohol-gum arabic nanofibers with a weight ratio of 8:8:2:0.5 (C8G8P2A0.5 nanofibers), in which polyvinyl alcohol could stabilize the electrospinning process. The stability and tensile strength (2.53 MPa) of C8G8P2A0.5 nanofibers (mats) were enhanced by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cells attached and proliferated well on the mat. The strength-enhanced and cytocompatible C8G8P2A0.5 mats are thereby suitable for tissue engineering applications. More importantly, we have created a less expensive and safer method (one not using hazardous solvents) to fabricate chitosan-gelatin-based nanofibers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microencapsulation of grape polyphenols using maltodextrin and gum arabic as two alternative coating materials: Development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Tolun, Aysu; Altintas, Zeynep; Artik, Nevzat

    2016-12-10

    Phenolic compounds obtained from fruits have recently gained a great attention due to their bioactive roles. However, they are sensitive and they can be easily affected by physicochemical factors that create a great challenge to incorporate them into the food products. Hence, this work aimed to investigate microencapsulation of these compounds to provide a solution for this problem by improving their stability and protecting them against oxidation, light, moisture and temperature. A lab scale spray-dryer was chosen to produce microcapsules of polyphenols using different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin and gum arabic as a coating material. Two different core: coating material ratios (1:1 and 1:2), three different maltodextrin: gum arabic ratios (10:0, 8:2 and 6:4), and four different inlet temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180°C) were investigated. When all parameters (yields, hygroscopicity, total and surface phenolic contents, antioxidant activity, individual phenolic compounds and particle morphology) were evaluated; the most efficient microcapsules were obtained with an 8:2 ratio of maltodextrin: gum arabic at 140°C inlet temperature. Microcapsules were also comprehensively studied and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microencapsulation of anthocyanin-rich black soybean coat extract by spray drying using maltodextrin, gum Arabic and skimmed milk powder.

    PubMed

    Kalušević, Ana; Lević, Steva; Čalija, Bojan; Pantić, Milena; Belović, Miona; Pavlović, Vladimir; Bugarski, Branko; Milić, Jela; Žilić, Slađana; Nedović, Viktor

    2017-08-01

    Black soybean coat is insufficiently valorised food production waste rich in anthocyanins. The goal of the study was to examine physicochemical properties of spray dried extract of black soybean coat in regard to carrier materials: maltodextrin, gum Arabic, and skimmed milk powder. Maltodextrin and gum Arabic-based microparticles were spherical and non-porous while skimmed milk powder-based were irregularly shaped. Low water activity of microparticles (0.31-0.33), good powders characteristics, high solubility (80.3-94.3%) and encapsulation yields (63.7-77.0%) were determined. All microparticles exhibited significant antioxidant capacity (243-386 μmolTE/g), good colour stability after three months of storage and antimicrobial activity. High content of total anthocyanins, with cyanidin-3-glucoside as predominant, were achieved. In vitro release of anthocyanins from microparticles was sustained, particularly from gum Arabic-based. These findings suggest that proposed simple eco-friendly extraction and microencapsulation procedures could serve as valuable tools for valorisation and conversion of black soybean coat into highly functional and stable food colourant.

  4. Hydrophobic interactions increase attachment of gum Arabic- and PVP-coated Ag nanoparticles to hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Jee Eun; Phenrat, Tanapon; Marinakos, Stella; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Jie; Wiesner, Mark R; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2011-07-15

    A fundamental understanding of attachment of surface-coated nanoparticles (NPs) is essential to predict the distribution and potential risks of NPs in the environment. Column deposition studies were used to examine the effect of surface-coating hydrophobicity on NP attachment to collector surfaces in mixtures with varying ratios of octadecylichlorosilane (OTS)-coated (hydrophobic) glass beads and clean silica (hydrophilic) glass beads. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with organic coatings of varying hydrophobicity, including citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and gum arabic (GA), were used. The attachment efficiencies of GA and PVP AgNPs increased by 2- and 4-fold, respectively, for OTS-coated glass beads compared to clean glass beads. Citrate AgNPs showed no substantial change in attachment efficiency for hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic surfaces. The attachment efficiency of PVP-, GA-, and citrate-coated AgNPs to hydrophobic collector surfaces correlated with the relative hydrophobicity of the coatings. The differences in the observed attachment efficiencies among AgNPs could not be explained by classical DLVO, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between AgNPs and OTS-coated glass beads were responsible for the increase in attachment of surface-coated AgNPs with greater hydrophobicity. This study indicates that the overall attachment efficiency of AgNPs will be influenced by the hydrophobicity of the NP coating and the fraction of hydrophobic surfaces in the environment.

  5. Photothermal therapy mediated by gum Arabic-conjugated gold nanoparticles suppresses liver preneoplastic lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moustafa, Dina; El-Daly, Sherien M; El-Hussieny, Enas A; Saleh, Samira; Khoobchandani, Menka; Bacon, Kathryn L; Gupta, Sagar; Katti, Kavita; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kattesh V

    2016-10-01

    This study validates the utility of Gum Arabic-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GA-AuNPs) and laser to induce photothermal inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis, via employing a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma model. This work included both of in vitro and in vivo studies; to investigate the GA-AuNPs cytotoxicity and phototoxicity in hepatic cell line; to delineate the GA-AuNPs therapeutic efficiency in DEN-induced preneoplastic lesions (PNLs) in the liver of Balb-C mice. The therapeutic effects of GA-AuNPs on the mediators of apoptosis, inflammation, and tumor initiation, as well as the histopathological changes in preneoplastic liver have been investigated. Our results infer that GA-AuNPs in combination with laser irradiation led to a significant reduction in the cell viability and in histone deacetylase activity in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. In chemically-induced PNLs mice model our results have demonstrated that GA-AuNPs, with or without laser irradiation, induced cancer cell apoptosis through the activation of death receptors DR5 and caspase-3 and inhibited both of the PNLs incidence and the initiation marker (placental glutathione S-transferase; GST-P). The laser-stimulated GA-AuNPs significantly reduced the tumor necrosis factor-α levels. In summary, GA-AuNPs with laser treatment inhibited liver PNLs via the induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and the inhibition of inflammation.

  6. Comparison of microencapsulation properties of spruce galactoglucomannans and arabic gum using a model hydrophobic core compound.

    PubMed

    Laine, Pia; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Peura, Marko; Kansikas, Jarno; Mikkonen, Kirsi; Willför, Stefan; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2010-01-27

    In the present study, microencapsulation and the physical properties of spruce ( Picea abies ) Omicron-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGM) were investigated and compared to those of arabic gum (AG). Microcapsules were obtained by freeze-drying oil-in-water emulsions containing 10 wt % capsule materials (AG, GGM, or a 1:1 mixture of GGM-AG) and 2 wt % alpha-tocopherol (a model hydrophobic core compound that oxidizes easily). Microcapsules were stored at relative humidity (RH) of 0, 33, and 66% at 25 degrees C for different time periods, and their alpha-tocopherol content was determined by HPLC. X-ray microtomography analyses showed that the freeze-dried emulsions of GGM had the highest and those of AG the lowest degree of porosity. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, both freeze-dried AG and GGM showed an amorphous nature. The storage test showed that anhydrous AG microcapsules had higher alpha-tocopherol content than GGM-containing capsules, whereas under 33 and 66% RH conditions GGM was superior in relation to the retention of alpha-tocopherol. The good protection ability of GGM was related to its ability to form thicker walls to microcapsules and better physical stability compared to AG. The glass transition temperature of AG was close to the storage temperature (25 degrees C) at RH of 66%, which explains the remarkable losses of alpha-tocopherol in the microcapsules under those conditions.

  7. Modulation of rat intestinal nuclear factor NF-kappaB by gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, Raul A; Sherry, Barbara; Codipilly, Champa N; Goodwin, Leslie O; Vancurova, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that in an animal model of cathartic-induce intestinal dysfunction the proabsorptive effects of gum arabic (GA) could be associated with modulation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and with reduction of the inflammatory response caused by cathartics, as evidenced by intestinal mucosa cytokine production and gene expression. Juvenile male rats were given a phenolphthalein-magnesium citrate solution for 6 days, by itself or supplemented with either 10 or 20 g L(-1) GA, as a sole source of fluid. The controls given were tap water alone or with added 20 g L(-1) GA. The animals were euthanized and small-intestinal mucosa nuclear fractions and RNA were isolated. NF-kappaB p65 activity was highest after administration of cathartics, lowest in controls, and intermediate in GA-treated rats. Mucosal IL-1beta was overexpressed in tissues from cathartic-treated rats and from rats given high-GA solutions. Gene-array analysis revealed a complex pattern of gene regulation by cathartics which selectively upregulated several subfamilies of cytochrome P-450 family 2 genes. Co-administration of GA did not block this effect. These findings suggest that local anti-inflammatory effects on the small intestine could be obtained by administration of a nonabsorbable proteoglycan such as GA.

  8. Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim

    2010-05-01

    Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil.

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of ginger, Arabic gum, and Boswellia in acute and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona Fouad; Diaai, Abdalla Ahmed; Ahmed, Fahmy

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger), Arabic gum (AG), and Boswellia on both acute and chronic renal failure (CRF) and the mechanisms underlying their effects. Acute renal failure was induced by 30 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion, while CRF was induced by adenine feeding for 8 weeks. Prophylactic oral administration of ginger, AG, Boswellia, or vehicle (in control groups) was started 3 days before and along with adenine feeding in different groups or 7 days before ischemia-reperfusion. Ginger and AG showed renoprotective effects in both models of renal failure. These protective effects may be attributed at least in part to their anti-inflammatory properties as evident by attenuating serum C-reactive protein levels and antioxidant effects as evident by attenuating lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde levels, and increasing renal superoxide dismutase activity. Ginger was more potent than AG in both models of renal failure. However, Boswellia showed only partial protective effect against both acute renal failure and CRF and it had no antioxidant effects. Finally, we can say that ginger and AG could be beneficial adjuvant therapy in patients with acute renal failure and CRF to prevent disease progression and delay the need for renal replacement therapy.

  10. The lowering effect of Gum Arabic on hyperlipidemia in Sudanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Rima E.; Gadour, Mohammed O.; Adam, Ishag

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia especially low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for developing ischemic heart disease. Soluble dietary fiber has lipid lowering characteristics. Gum Arabic (GA) is 95% soluble fiber calculated on dry bases. The beneficial effect of GA on lipid profile needs further verification. A case–control study was conducted at Omdurman Hospital, Sudan to assess the effect of G A on serum lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia. Cases received a 20 mg tablet of atorvastatin /day plus 30 mg of GA for 4 weeks while the controls received atorvastatin only. Levels of lipids in serum were assessed according to conventional methods before and 1 month after the trial. There is no significant difference in the basic characteristics between the study and the control groups (55 patients in each arm of the study). While there was no significant difference in the levels of HDL, there was a significant reduction of the total cholesterol (25.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.001), triglyceride (38.2 vs. 2.9%, P < 0.001), and LDL (30.8 vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001) before and after the intervention in the study compared to the controls groups. PMID:26042049

  11. Gum arabic microcapsules as protectors of the photoinduced degradation of riboflavin in whole milk.

    PubMed

    Boiero, María L; Mandrioli, Mara; Vanden Braber, Noelia; Rodriguez-Estrada, María T; García, Norman A; Borsarelli, Claudio D; Montenegro, Mariana A

    2014-09-01

    Microcapsules (MC) made with gum arabic (GA) as shell material without and with β-carotene (βc) as core material were prepared by the spray-drying technique. The effect of these MC on the photodegradation of riboflavin (Rf) in whole milk by fluorescent daylight lamp irradiation was evaluated at a storage temperature of 4°C. The additions of 1.37mg/mL of MC without βc (MC-GA) and with 0.54μg/mL of βc (MC-βc-GA) decreased the apparent first-order rate constant of Rf photodegradation by approximately 26 and 30%, respectively. A systematic kinetic and mechanistic analysis of the results indicates that the global protective effect of the MC is mainly due to the combination of quenching of the electronically excited triplet state of Rf and scavenging of the photogenerated reactive oxygen species, such as singlet molecular oxygen, superoxide radical anion and hydroxyl radical. A minor contribution to the photoprotective effect can be also associated with the inner-filter effect exerted by the MC, which partially blocks the direct excitation of Rf. These results allow us to conclude that photodegradation of Rf in milk can be considerably reduced by the addition of small amounts of MC, avoiding large losses in the nutritional value of milk. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Encapsulation of antioxidant peptide enriched casein hydrolysate using maltodextrin-gum arabic blend.

    PubMed

    Rao, Priyanka Singh; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Mann, Bimlesh; Arora, Sumit; Tomar, S K

    2016-10-01

    Antioxidant peptide enriched casein hydrolysate (AO-CH) are receiving increasing attention due to their potential as functional ingredient. Encapsulation of AO-CH using maltodextrin-gum arabic (MD/GA) as wall material could represent an attractive approach to overcome the problems related to their direct application. Encapsulation parameter were optimized using different ratio of core to coat and proportion of coating material (10:0, 8:2, 6:4) under varying pH (2-8) for encapsulation efficiency (EE).The preparation P3 resulted in maximum EE (87%) using core to coat ratio 1:20, at pH 6.0 with 8:2 MD/GA ratio. The encapsulated preparation showed reduced bitterness (p < 0.05) compared to the casein hydrolysate together with maximum retention of antioxidant activity (93%). Further, the narrow range of particle size, indicates their better stability and represents a promising food additive for incorporation in food.

  13. Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Mohsen; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation. PMID:28496464

  14. Effect of addition of semi refined carrageenan on mechanical characteristics of gum arabic edible film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyorini, D.; Nurcahyani, P. R.

    2016-04-01

    Currently the seaweed is processed flour and Semi Refined Carraagenan (SRC). However, total production is small, but both of these products have a high value and are used in a wide variety of products such as cosmetics, processed foods, medicines, and edible film. The aim of this study were (1) to determine the effect of SRC on mechanical characteristics of edible film, (2) to determine the best edible film which added by SRC with different concentration. The edible film added by SRC flour which divided into three concentrations of SRC. There are 1.5%; 3%; and 4.5% of SRC, then added 3% glycerol and 0.6% arabic gum. The mechanical properties of the film measured by a universal testing machine Orientec Co. Ltd., while the water vapor permeability measured by the gravimetric method dessicant modified. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with a further test of Duncan. The result show SRC concentration differences affect the elongation breaking point and tensile strength. But not significant effect on the thickness, yield strength and the modulus of elasticity. The best edible film is edible film with the addition of SRC 4.5%.

  15. Chitosan-gum arabic polyelectrolyte complex films: physicochemical, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Preechagoon, Detpon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-08-01

    By blending chitosan (CS) and gum arabic (GA), a powerful biomaterial complex might be obtained due to the unique properties of CS and the low viscosity and good emulsifying properties of GA. The objectives of this study were to prepare and examine the properties of dispersions and films of CS and GA as a function of the mixing weight ratio, pH value and molecular weight of CS. The dispersions were characterized by turbidity, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and then the dispersions were cast into films. Physicochemical properties of the film were performed. CS-GA dispersions exhibited higher turbidity and a lower zeta potential with an increase in the GA ratio. Continuous films of the CS-GA could be formed at all ratios. CS and GA could molecularly interact via electrostatic forces and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The CS-GA (1:0.5) films exhibited relatively low water uptake, erosion, water vapor permeability and puncture strength compared to the CS films. Furthermore, the CS-GA films demonstrated good mucoadhesive properties, allowing for adhesion to the mucosal membrane. Based on these results, it could be advantageous to use CS-GA films as film formers for the formulation of coatings and drug delivery systems.

  16. Characterization of fish gelatin-gum arabic complex coacervates as influenced by phase separation temperature.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mohammad; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Yoon, Won-Byong; Chung, Donghwa

    2015-08-01

    The rheological and structural characteristics of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervate phase, separated from an aqueous mixture of 1% FG and 1% GA at pH 3.5, were investigated as influenced by phase separation temperature. Decreasing the phase separation temperature from 40 to 10 °C lead to: (1) the formation of a coacervate phase with a larger volume fraction and higher biopolymer concentrations, which is more viscous, more structural resistant at low shear rates, more shear-thinning at high shear rates, and more condensed in microstructure, (2) a solid-like elastic behavior of the phase separated at 10 °C at a high oscillatory frequency, (3) the increase in gelling and melting temperatures of the coacervate phase (3.7-3.9 °C and 6.2-6.9 °C, respectively), (4) the formation of a more rigid and thermo-stable coacervate gel. The coacervate phase is regarded as a homogeneously networked biopolymer matrix dispersed with water vacuoles and its gel as a weak physical gel reinforced by FG-GA attractive electrostatic interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gado, Ali M; Aldahmash, Badr A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative-stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues. PMID:24174869

  18. Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gado, Ali M; Aldahmash, Badr A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative-stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.

  19. Improving the water solubility of Monascus pigments under acidic conditions with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Jian, Wenjie; Sun, Yuanming; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2017-07-01

    Monascus pigments (Mps) are natural food colorants and their stability in acidic solutions is important for application in the food industry. This study aimed to evaluate the use of gum arabic (GA) as a stabilizer for maintaining the solubility of Mps in an acidic aqueous solution exposed to a high temperature, and to analyze the molecular interactions between GA and Mps. Mps dispersed (0.2 g kg(-1) ) in deionized water at pH 3.0-4.0 without GA formed precipitates but remained in a stable solution in the presence of GA (1 g kg(-1) ). The significant improvement of Mps water solubility under acidic conditions was attributed to the formation of Mps-GA complexes, as indicated by a sharp increase in the fluorescence intensity. The results on particle size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy further suggested that molecular binding of Mps to GA, electrostatic repulsion, and steric hindrance of GA were contributing factors to preventing the aggregation of Mps in acidic solutions. A mechanistic model was presented for GA-Mps interactions and complex structures. GA was proven to be an effective stabilizer of natural food colorants in acidic solutions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Atefi, Mohsen; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation.

  1. Effect of Gum arabic on distribution behavior of nanocellulose fillers in starch film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam; Ammayappan, L.; Huang, Qingrong

    2011-09-01

    Uniform distribution of nanofillers in polymer matrix is posing a major challenge in exploiting the full potential of nanomaterials. Various fillers are being evaluated to improve the performance of biopolymer films like starch. In this work, nanocellulose is used as fillers to increase the performance characteristics of starch film. Due to high surface energy and hydrophilic nature of nanocellulose, they tend to aggregate during the film forming process. To circumvent this problem, Gum arabic (GA) was added to distribute the nanocellulose uniformly. GA helps in reduction of surface energy (as analyzed by contact angle) and thus facilitates the uniform distribution of nanocellulose (as demonstrated through polarized light microscopy). Nanocellulose as filler improved the tensile strength of starch film by 2.5 times while that of uniformly distributed nanocellulose by 3.5 times. Moreover, while nanocellulose as such could reduce the water vapor permeability of starch film by 1.4 times, uniformly distributed nanocellulose reduced it by 2 times proving the importance of GA. Starch film filled with nanocellulose and GA will be a 100% biopolymer-based system having potential demand in eco-friendly applications.

  2. Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Nirmala, Rachel James

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin, a widely studied hydrophobic polyphenol with anticancer potential is loaded in gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin (GA Ald-Gel) nanogels to improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels are investigated by different techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nanogels exhibit hydrodynamic diameter of 452±8nm with a zeta potential of -27mV. The nanogels possess an encapsulation efficiency of 65±3%. Potential of the nanogels for controlled release of curcumin is illustrated by in vitro drug release studies. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the drug loaded nanogels are evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the bare and curcumin loaded nanogels are analyzed by MTT assay towards MCF-7 cells. The results manifest that curcumin loaded nanogels induce toxicity in MCF-7 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies indicate in vitro cellular uptake of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. All these results prove the suitability of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Akhavan Mahdavi, Sahar; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpoor, Elham; Dehnad, Danial

    2016-04-01

    The barberry (Berberis vulgaris) extract which is a rich source of anthocyanins was used for spray drying encapsulation with three different wall materials, i.e., combination of maltodextrin and gum Arabic (MD+GA), maltodextrin and gelatin (MD+GE), and maltodextrin (MD). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization of microencapsulation efficiency and physical properties of encapsulated powders considering wall material type as well as different ratios of core to wall materials as independent variables. Physical characteristics of spray-dried powders were investigated by further analyses of moisture content, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility, bulk and absolute density, porosity, flowability and microstructural evaluation of encapsulated powders. Our results indicated that samples produced with MD+GA as wall materials represented the highest process efficiency and best powder quality; the optimum conditions of microencapsulation process for barberry anthocyanins were found to be the wall material content and anthocyanin load of 24.54% and 13.82%, respectively. Under such conditions, the microencapsulation efficiency (ME) of anthocyanins could be as high as 92.83%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rheology of Rice Flour Dough with Gum Arabic: Small and Large-Deformation Studies, Sensory Assessment and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The absence of gluten protein makes the rice flour doughs difficult to handle when flattened/sheeted products are to be prepared. The rheological, sensory and microstructural changes in rice flour doughs having gum Arabic (0% to 5%, w/w) and moisture contents (44% to 50%) were studied for improving the dough handling characteristics. Rheological parameters like storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) decreased with an increase in moisture content while loss angle (δ) increased. A power-law type equation was suitable to relate angular frequency (ω) with G', G", and η* (0.814 ≤ r ≤ 0.999, P ≤ 0.01). An increase in gum and moisture contents increased δ from 6.9° to 15.5° but decreased the energy required for compression/flattening. The 6-element spring-dashpot model was suitable (r ≥ 0.991, P ≤ 0.01) for creep curves. The sensory panel had the opinion that dough with a low to moderate hardness between 3 and 4, and stickiness of ≤ 3.5 was suitable for the purpose of flattening in relation to the preparation of sheeted/flattened products; the appropriate condition for dough formulation was with the moisture and gum contents of 47.0% to 47.9% and 1.55% to 2.25%, respectively to offer the desirability index between 0.50 and 0.52. The microstructure of the rice flour dough in the absence of gum Arabic appeared to possess loosely bound flour particles. The presence of gum provided a coating on flour particles to yield dough having good cohesive microstructure. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of time on the interfacial and foaming properties of beta-lactoglobulin/acacia gum electrostatic complexes and coacervates at pH 4.2.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christophe; da Silva, Tânia Palma; Bovay, Claudine; Rami-Shojaei, Sabrina; Frossard, Philippe; Kolodziejczyk, Eric; Leser, Martin E

    2005-08-16

    The electrostatic complexation between beta-lactoglobulin and acacia gum was investigated at pH 4.2 and 25 degrees C. The binding isotherm revealed a spontaneous exothermic reaction, leading to a DeltaHobs = -2108 kJ mol(-1) and a saturation protein to polysaccharide weight mixing ratio of 2:1. Soluble electrostatic complexes formed in these conditions were characterized by a hydrodynamic diameter of 119 +/- 0.6 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.097. The effect of time on the interfacial and foaming properties of these soluble complexes was investigated at a concentration of 0.1 wt % at two different times after mixing (4 min, referred as t approximately 0 h and t = 24 h). At t approximately 0 h, the mixture is mainly made of aggregating soluble electrostatic complexes, whereas after 24 h these complexes have already insolubilize to form liquid coacervates. The surface elasticity, viscosity and phase angle obtained at low frequency (0.01 Hz) using oscillating bubble tensiometry revealed higher fluidity and less rigidity in the film formed at t approximately 0 h. This observation was confirmed by diminishing bubble experiments coupled with microscopy of the thin film. It was thicker, more homogeneous and contained more water at t approximately 0 h as compared to t = 24 h (thinner film, less water). This led to very different gas permeability's of Kt approximately 0 h = 0.021 cm s(-1) and Kt=24 h) = 0.449 cm s(-1), respectively. Aqueous foams produced with the beta-lactoglobulin/acacia gum electrostatic complexes or coacervates exhibited very different stability. The former (t approximately 0 h) had a stable volume, combining low drainage rate and mainly air bubble disproportionation as the destabilization mechanism. By contrast, using coacervates aged for 24 h, the foam was significantly less stable, combining fast liquid drainage and air bubble destabilization though fast gas diffusion followed by film rupture and bubble coalescence. The strong effect of time on

  6. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the biocorrosion of copper by Gum Arabic, BCS and Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, J.G.; Geesey, G.G.; Hankins, M.R.; Wright, R.B.; Wichlacz, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thin films (3.4 nm) of copper on germanium substrates were exposed to 10% Gum Arabic aqueous solution, 1% BCS (aqueous and simulated sea water solutions) and 0.5% Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer (aqueous and simulated sea water solutions). Pre- and post-exposure characterization were done by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ancillary graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal process of the copper thin film from the germanium substrate. Results indicate that the copper was oxidized by the Gum Arabic and BCS, and some was removed from the Cu/Ge interface by all three polymers and incorporated into the polymer matrix. Thus biocorrosion of copper was exhibited by the Gum Arabic, BCS and Pseudomonas atlantica exopolymer. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Protective effects of oral arabic gum administration on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Mostafa, Adel M; Al-Rikabi, Ammar C; Al-Shabanah, Othman A

    2002-11-01

    Arabic gum (AG) is a complex polysaccharide used as suspending agent. It has been widely used by eastern folk medicine practitioners as a restorative agent and is thought to be an excellent curative for renal failure patients. We therefore tested these folkloric claims using a rat model of gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. AG (7.5g 100ml(-1), in drinking water) was administered orally for 8 days concurrently with GM (80mgkg(-1) per day, i.p.). Estimation of urine volume, serum creatinine and urea concentrations, kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and glutathione (GSH) were carried out after the last dose of GM. Kidneys were also examined for histological changes. GM caused a marked nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant increases in urine volume (295%), serum creatinine (318%) and urea (258%) and a significant decrease in creatinine clearance (Ccr) (26%). Treatment with AG protected the rats from GM-induced nephrotoxicity as evident by normalisation of these parameters. In addition there was about 187% increase in kidney tissue MDA contents above the control with GM treatment. AG totally prevented the GM-induced rise in kidney tissue contents of MDA. Kidney histology of the tissue from GM-treated rats showed necrosis and desquamation of tubular epithelial cells in renal cortex as well as interstitial nephritis. Whereas it was very much comparable to control when AG was co-administered with GM. In conclusion, AG protected the rats from GM-induced nephrotoxicity, possibly, at least in part through inhibition of the production of oxygen free radicals that cause lipid peroxidation.

  8. Gum arabic-coated magnetic nanoparticles for potential application in simultaneous magnetic targeting and tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Faquan; Cole, Adam J; Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E; Wang, Jingkang; Yang, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) coated with gum arabic (GA), a biocompatible phytochemical glycoprotein widely used in the food industry, were successfully synthesized and characterized. GA-coated MNP (GA-MNP) displayed a narrow hydrodynamic particle size distribution averaging about 100 nm; a GA content of 15.6% by dry weight; a saturation magnetization of 93.1 emu/g Fe; and a superparamagnetic behavior essential for most magnetic-mediated applications. The GA coating offers two major benefits: it both enhances colloidal stability and provides reactive functional groups suitable for coupling of bioactive compounds. In vitro results showed that GA-MNP possessed a superior stability upon storage in aqueous media when compared to commercial MNP products currently used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, significant cellular uptake of GA-MNP was evaluated in 9L glioma cells by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and MRI analyses. Based on these findings, it was hypothesized that GA-MNP might be utilized as a MRI-visible drug carrier in achieving both magnetic tumor targeting and intracellular drug delivery. Indeed, preliminary in vivo investigations validate this clinical potential. MRI visually confirmed the accumulation of GA-MNP at the tumor site following intravenous administration to rats harboring 9L glioma tumors under the application of an external magnetic field. ESR spectroscopy quantitatively revealed a 12-fold increase in GA-MNP accumulation in excised tumors when compared to contralateral normal brain. Overall, the results presented show promise that GA-MNP could potentially be employed to achieve simultaneous tumor imaging and targeted intra-tumoral drug delivery.

  9. Gum Arabic coated magnetic nanoparticles with affinity ligands specific for antibodies.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Iris L; Hussain, Abid; Roque, A C A

    2010-01-01

    A novel magnetic support based on gum Arabic (GA) coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) has been endowed with affinity properties towards immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules. The success of the in situ triazine ligand synthesis was confirmed by fluorescence assays. Two synthetic ligands previously developed for binding to IgG, named as ligand 22/8 (artificial Protein A) and ligand 8/7 (artificial Protein L) were immobilized on to MNPs coated with GA (MNP_GA). The dimension of the particles core was not affected by the surface functionalization with GA and triazine ligands. The hydrodynamic diameters of the magnetic supports indicate that the coupling of GA leads to the formation of larger agglomerates of particles with about 1 microm, but the introduction of the triazine ligands leads to a decrease on MNPs size. The non-functionalized MNP_GA bound 28 mg IgG/g, two times less than bare MNP (60 mg IgG/g). MNP_GA modified with ligand 22/8 bound 133 mg IgG/g support, twice higher than the value obtained for ligand 8/7 magnetic adsorbents (65 mg/g). Supports modified with ligand 22/8 were selected to study the adsorption and the elution of IgG. The adsorption of human IgG on this support followed a Langmuir behavior with a Q(máx) of 344 mg IgG/g support and K(a) of 1.5 x 10(5) M. The studies on different elution conditions indicated that although the 0.05 M citrate buffer (pH 3) presented good recovery yields (elution 64% of bound protein), there was occurrence of iron leaching at this acidic pH. Therefore, a potential alternative would be to elute bound protein with a 0.05 M glycine-NaOH (pH 11) buffer.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and modification of Gum Arabic microgels for hemocompatibility and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sagbas, Selin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Siddiq, Mohammad; Turk, Mustafa; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2017-01-20

    Gum Arabic (GA) microgels were successfully prepared via reverse micellization method with high yield (78.5±5.0%) in 5-100μm size range using divinyl sulfone (DVS) as a crosslinker. The GA microgels were degraded hydrolytically 22.8±3.5% at pH 1 in 20days, whereas no degradation was observed at pH 7.4 and pH 9 at 37°C. By using diethylenetriamine (DETA), and taurine (TA) as chemical modifying agents, GA microgels were chemically modified as GA-DETA and GA-TA, and the zeta potential values of 5.2±4.1 and -24.8±1.3mV were measured, respectively in comparison to -27.3±4.2mV for GA. Moreover, blood compatibility of GA, GA-TA, and GA-DETA microgels was tested via in vitro protein adsorption, % hemolysis ratio, and blood clotting index. All the microgels were hemocompatible with% hemolysis ratio between 0.23 to 2.05, and the GA microgels were found to be highly compatible with a blood clotting index of 81±40. The biocompatibility of GA, GA-DETA and GA-Taurine microgels against L929 fibroblast cells also revealed 84.4, 89.1, and 67.0% cell viability, respectively, at 25.0μg/mL concentration, suggesting great potential in vivo biomedical applications up to this concentration. In addition, 5 and 10mg/mL minimum inhibition concentrations of protonated GA-DETA microgels (GA-DETA-HCl) were determined against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rheological interfacial properties of plant protein-arabic gum coacervates at the oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Ducel, V; Richard, J; Popineau, Y; Boury, F

    2005-01-01

    This study concerns the interfacial properties of the plant proteins-arabic gum coacervates, which are involved in encapsulation processes based on complex coacervation. The results make it possible to deduce the prerequisite characteristics of the protein, which are involved in the coacervate interfacial properties. The influence of pH and concentration on protein interfacial properties was also studied so as to enable us to predict the best conditions to achieve encapsulation. It has been established that, to obtain a good encapsulation yield, the coacervate must show high surface-active properties and its adsorption on the oil droplets must be favored compared to the free protein adsorption. On the other hand, mechanical properties of the interfacial film made of the coacervate, appear to be a key parameter, as reflected by the dilational viscoelasticity measurements. When compared to the properties of the proteins films, an increase of the rigidity of the interfacial film was shown with the coacervates. It was also observed that viscoelastic properties of the coacervate film were strongly reduced, as well as the associated relaxation times. In acidic conditions, the coacervates containing alpha-gliadin are characterized by an interfacial viscoelastic behavior. This behavior reflects the softness of the interfacial film. This viscoelasticity allows also the formation of a continuous layer around the oil droplets to be encapsulated. Drop tensiometry is shown to be a method that could allow the most adapted protein to be selected and the conditions of the coacervation process to be optimized with regard to concentration and pH.

  12. Analytical characterisation of glutardialdehyde cross-linking products in gelatine-gum arabic complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, Elisabet; van Platerink, Chris; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2007-11-26

    Encapsulates having shells of cross-linked mixtures of proteins and polysaccharides are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry for controlled release of actives and flavour compounds. In order to be able to predict the behaviour and the release characteristics of the microcapsules, a better understanding of the nature and extent of the cross-linking reaction is needed. Several analytical techniques were applied for the characterisation of glutardialdehyde (GDA) cross-linked encapsulates made of gelatine and gum arabic. To allow the use of sensitive, high-resolution methods such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, the sample first had to be hydrolysed. In this way, a mixture of amino acids, small peptides and the cross-link moieties was obtained. High-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was applied to detect possible cross-link markers through a comparison of HPLC-MS mass-chromatograms obtained for cross-linked and non-cross-linked coacervates. HPLC-MS/MS was used to identify the species responsible for the differences. Cross-linking occurred between GDA molecules and lysine and hydroxylysine epsilon-amino groups, and up to eight cross-link products of different nature could be identified. They included pyridinium ions and Schiff bases, and also unreacted GDA condensation products. Next, based on the insight gained in the possible chemical structures present in the cross-link markers, methods for selective labelling of these functionalities were employed to allow easier detection of related reaction products. Both liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used in these experiments. Unfortunately, these approaches failed to detect new cross-link markers, most likely as a result of the low levels at which these are present.

  13. Characterization of Nanoencapsulated Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale Extract Using Combination of Malto Dextrin and Gum Arabic as Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meliana, Y.; Harmami, S. B.; Restu, W. K.

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated nanoencapsulation of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract. The encapsulated extract was used as a complex matrix of multi-layered interfacial membranes between malto dextrin and gum Arabic. Characterization of nanoencapsulation using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and BET surface area (SA) showed the morphology, functional group and cumulative adsorption in the surface area of pores. The TEM image of the nanoencapsulated powders of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract showed a nearly spherical shape with the particle size of 664 nm from its average radius.

  14. Adsorption of gum Arabic, egg white protein, and their mixtures at the oil-water interface in limonene oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Padala, Shashi R; Williams, Peter A; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-06-10

    The adsorption behavior of gum Arabic, egg white protein, and their mixtures at the oil-water interface for 20% limonene oil emulsions has been investigated at pH 3.5 and 7.5. It has been shown that protein-rich fractions of gum Arabic adsorb onto limonene oil droplets and that there is no significant molecular mass dependence. The amount adsorbed was determined from differences in the intensities of the gel permeation chromatography elution profiles of the gum before and after preparing emulsions and was found to be approximately 6.5 and approximately 5 mg/m(2) at pH 3.5 and 7.5, respectively. These values are greater than might be expected for monolayer coverage. The amount of protein associated with the gum Arabic adsorbed was about 0.25 mg/m(2), which corresponds to approximately 26% of the total protein present in the gum. In comparison, the amount of egg white protein adsorbed was found to be approximately 1.2 and approximately 0.8 mg/m(2), respectively, at pH 3.5 and 7.5, which are typical values for monolayer coverage. For gum Arabic-egg white protein mixtures (1:0.05 w/w corresponding to approximately 1:1 on a molar basis) at pH 7.5, both species are negatively charged, and there is no interaction between them. On formation of emulsions, they compete with each other for surface sites, and egg white protein molecules are adsorbed preferentially, although not exclusively. At pH 3.5, the molecules have opposite charge and interact and at this ratio form soluble electrostatic complexes, which are adsorbed at the interface during emulsification. The droplet size of emulsions prepared with gum Arabic was significantly less than for egg white protein over the concentration range studied. Gum Arabic-egg white protein mixtures (1: 0.05 w/w) at pH 3.5 produced emulsions with a droplet size similar to gum Arabic alone, while those prepared at pH 7.5 produced emulsions with a significantly larger droplet size.

  15. Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum Arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Kuck, Luiza Siede; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata

    2016-03-01

    Bordo grape skin extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying and freeze-drying, using gum arabic (GA), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents. Total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color, moisture, water activity (aw), solubility, hygroscopicity, glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size, and microstructure of the powders were evaluated. The retention of phenolics and anthocyanins ranged from 81.4% to 95.3%, and 80.8% to 99.6%, respectively, while the retention of antioxidant activity ranged from 45.4% to 83.7%. Treatments subjected to spray-drying had lower moisture, aw, and particle size, and greater solubility, while the freeze-dried samples were less hygroscopic. Tg values ranged from 10.1 to 52.2°C, and the highest values corresponded to the spray-dried microparticles. The spray-dried particles had spherical shape, while the freeze-dried powders showed irregular structures. The spray drying technique and the use of 5% PHGG and 5% PD has proven to be the best treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of borojo (Borojoa patinoi Cuatrecasas) three-phase composition and gum arabic on the glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Jenny M; Tello, Edisson; Flores-Andrade, Enrique; Perea-Flores, Maria de Jesús; Vallejo-Cardona, Alba A; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F; Quintanilla-Carvajal, Maria X

    2016-02-01

    The search for natural, novel, high-quality, stable food ingredients is an ongoing practice in the food industry. Pulp of borojo (Borojoa patinoi Cuatrecasas), which is a fruit of the Colombian Pacific region, can be separated into three phases: liquid (LP), medium (MP) and solid (SP) phases. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the three-phase composition and gum arabic on their glass transitions temperatures (T(g)). The best mixture, LP-MP, MP-SP and LP-SP and gum arabic (GA) was identified by response surface methodology. When adding GA to SP borojo phase in a 1:1 proportion, the resulting T(g) of the mixture was 132.27 °C whereas Tg for GA and SP-phase were 154.89 °C and 79.86 °C respectively, which supported this combination as attractive from a processing perspective and supports an industrial advantage of using borojo as food ingredient. Phases were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and mass spectrometry. Low molecular weight compounds such as fructose for MP lowered T(g) whereas the presence of lignin increased T(g) of the mixtures as with the SP. The addition of GA significantly increased T(g) of borojo phases so leading to propose them as novel food processing materials. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of antioxidants on the stability of β-Carotene in O/W emulsions stabilized by Gum Arabic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuwei; Hou, Zhanqun; Yang, Jia; Gao, Yanxiang

    2015-06-01

    The potential of oil-in-water emulsions as a β-carotene delivery system was examined in this study. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing β-carotene were formed by gum arabic with α-tocopherol, tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and ascorbyl palmitate, respectively. The influence of antioxidants on the chemical degradation of β-carotene in gum arabic stabilized emulsions was investigated at 4, 25, 45 and 65 °C in the dark, respectively. An accelerated photo-oxidation test was carried out at 45 °C (450 W/m(2)). Moreover, β-carotene degradation rate constants (k 1-value), activation energy (E a ) and decimal reduction time (D-value) were estimated to interpret the degradation kinetics. The impact of antioxidants on the thermal stability of β-carotene in diluted emulsions was generally in the following order: α-tocopherol > TBHQ > ascorbyl palmitate. α-Tocopherol was found to be the most effective to the antioxidation of β-carotene at the concentration of 0.10 wt% under light exposure. It was concluded that the stability of β-carotene in oil-in-water emulsions could be improved by the presence of different antioxidants.

  18. Laccase-gum Arabic conjugate for preparation of water-soluble oligomer of catechin with enhanced antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

    2014-05-01

    Catechin was oligomerized using free laccase and laccase-gum Arabic conjugate. The process of oligomerization was optimized with respect to solvent, ratio of solvent to buffer (0.2:10 to 1:10), pH of buffer (3-10), enzyme (575-18,400 U/mg) and substrate concentration (1-7mM). Maximum production of oligomer was observed in methanol at ratio 0.6:10 of methanol:buffer of pH 5 using 2300 U/mg of laccase and 5mM of catechin. The laccase-gum Arabic conjugate showed lower activity but higher stability than free laccase in methanol. Free laccase produced cross linked water-insoluble oligomer, whereas conjugated laccase produced linear water-soluble oligomer. The linear water-soluble oligomer showed higher antioxidant activity, as determined by the DPPH assay, and reducing power as compared to monomer making it suitable for biological applications. The molecular weight of the linear oligomer was found to be 13.14kDa, which suggested it to be composed of 45 monomer units. Further characterizations of linear and cross linked oligomer were done using FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, functional and in vitro digestion characteristics of spray dried fish roe powder stabilised with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Natasha, Nayak; Sarkar, P C; Muhamed Ashraf, P; George, Ninan; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-04-15

    Fish roes are considered as nutritionally valuable for their high content of essential fatty acids and amino acids. However, roe lipids undergo considerable extent of oxidation during processing and storage, imparting objectionable bitter taste and rancid flavour to roe products. Hence, the objective of the study was to reconstitute the roe mass and microencapsulate lipid fraction, so that small oil droplets are entrapped within a dry matrix of roe proteins during spray drying. Prior to spray drying, the emulsion was stabilised with gum arabic as it also act as a co-wall polymer. The microscopic images indicated presence of larger aggregates in unstabilised powder (RC) compared to well-separated particles in stabilised powder (RG). Incorporation of gum arabic retarded rancidity development during storage. In vitro digestive pattern of roe powder indicated higher amount of oil release in RG. These observations highlight the potential of converting the soft textured carp roe mass into stable fish roe powder with superior storage stability and functionality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    PubMed

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel α-galactosidase from Fusarium oxysporum and its application in determining the structure of the gum arabic side chain.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Akiho; Yamane, Mirei; Matsubara, Midori; Suzuki, Shiho; Nakazawa, Masami; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsuji

    2017-08-01

    We previously reported that Fusarium oxysporum 12S produces two bifunctional proteins, FoAP1 and FoAP2, with α-d-galactopyranosidase (GPase) and β-l-arabinopyranosidase (APase) activities. The aim of this paper was to purify a third GPase, FoGP1, from culture supernatant of F. oxysporum 12S, to characterize it, and to determine its mode of action towards gum arabic. A cDNA encoding FoGP1 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Module sequence analysis revealed the presence of a GH27 domain in FoGP1. The recombinant enzyme (rFoGP1) showed a GPase/APase activity ratio of 330, which was quite different from that of FoAP1 (1.7) and FoAP2 (0.2). Among the natural substrates tested, rFoGP1 showed the highest activity towards gum arabic. In contrast to other well-characterized GPases, rFoGP1 released a small amount of galactose from α-galactosyl oligosaccharides such as raffinose and exhibited no activity toward galactomannans, which are highly substituted with α-galactosyl side chains. This indicated that FoGP1 is an unusual type of GPase. rFoGP1 released 30% of the total galactose from gum arabic, suggesting the existence of a large number of α-galactosyl residues at the non-reducing ends of gum arabic side chains. Together, rFoGP1 and α-l-arabinofuranosidase released four times more arabinose than α-l-arabinofuranosidase acting alone. This suggested that a large number of α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues is capped by α-galactosyl residues. (1)H NMR experiments revealed that rFoGP1 hydrolyzed the α-1,3-galactosidic linkage within the side chain structure of [α-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-l-Araf-(1→] in gum arabic. In conclusion, rFoGP1 is highly active toward α-1,3-galactosyl linkages but negligibly or not active toward α-1,6-galactosyl linkages. The novel FoGP1 might be used to modify the physical properties of gum arabic, which is an industrially important polysaccharide used as an emulsion stabilizer and coating agent. Copyright © 2017

  2. Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon

    PubMed Central

    Al Za’abi, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Mahfouda; Yasin, Javid; Schupp, Nicole; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut. PMID:25755826

  3. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya.

  4. Self-emulsification of alkaline-dissolved clove bud oil by whey protein, gum arabic, lecithin, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Zhang, Yue; Pan, Kang; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-05-14

    Low-cost emulsification technologies using food ingredients are critical to various applications. In the present study, a novel self-emulsification technique was studied to prepare clove bud oil (CBO) emulsions, without specialized equipment or organic solvents. CBO was first dissolved in hot alkaline solutions, added at 1% v/v into neutral solutions with 1% w/v emulsifier composed of whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic, lecithin, or their equal mass mixtures, and adjusted to pH 7.0. The self-emulsification process did not affect UV-vis absorption spectrum, reversed-phase HPLC chromatogram, or antimicrobial activity of CBO against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, and Salmonella Enteritidis. The entrapment efficiency after extraction by petroleum ether was determined to be about 80%. Most emulsions were stable during 7 days of storage. Emulsions prepared with WPC had smaller particles, whereas emulsions prepared with emulsifier mixtures had more stable particle dimensions. The studied self-emulsification technique may find numerous applications in the preparation of low-cost food emulsions.

  5. Chemical and physical stability of protein and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing limonene.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, D; Cercaci, L; Alamed, J; McClements, D J; Decker, E A

    2008-04-01

    An important flavor component of citrus oils is limonene. Since limonene is lipid soluble, it is often added to foods as an oil-in-water emulsion. However, limonene-containing oil-in-water emulsions are susceptible to both physical instability and oxidative degradation, leading to loss of aroma and formation of off-flavors. Proteins have been found to produce both oxidatively and physically stable emulsions containing triacylglycerols. The objective of this research was to determine if whey protein isolate (WPI) could protect limonene in oil-in-water emulsion droplets more effectively than gum arabic (GA). Limonene degradation and formation of the limonene oxidation products, limonene oxide and carvone, were less in the WPI- than GA-stabilized emulsions at both pHs 3.0 and 7.0. These data suggest that WPI was able to inhibit the oxidative deterioration of limonene in oil-in-water emulsions. The ability of WPI to decrease oxidative reactions could be due to the formation of a cationic emulsion droplet interface at pH 3.0, which can repel prooxidative metals, and/or the ability of amino acids in WPI to scavenge free radical and chelate prooxidative metals.

  6. Effect of gum arabic on oxidative stress and inflammation in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Husseni, Isehaq; Beegam, Sumyia; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Schierling, Simone; Queisser, Nina; Schupp, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease in humans, and in chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats. The aim of this work was to study the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in adenine-induced CRF and the effect thereon of the purported nephroprotective agent gum arabic (GA). Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, adenine in feed (0.75%, w/w), GA in drinking water (15%, w/v) and adenine+GA, as before. Urine, blood and kidneys were collected from the rats at the end of the treatment for analysis of conventional renal function tests (plasma creatinine and urea concentration). In addition, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the oxidative stress markers glutathione and superoxide dismutase, renal apoptosis, superoxide formation and DNA double strand break frequency, detected by immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, were measured. Adenine significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, significantly decreased the creatinine clearance and induced significant increases in the concentration of the measured inflammatory mediators. Further, it caused oxidative stress and DNA damage. Treatment with GA significantly ameliorated these actions. The mechanism of the reported salutary effect of GA in adenine-induced CRF is associated with mitigation of the adenine-induced inflammation and generation of free radicals.

  7. Complex coacervation with whey protein isolate and gum arabic for the microencapsulation of omega-3 rich tuna oil.

    PubMed

    Eratte, Divya; Wang, Bo; Dowling, Kim; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu P

    2014-11-01

    Tuna oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids was microencapsulated in whey protein isolate (WPI)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervates, and subsequently dried using spray and freeze drying to produce solid microcapsules. The oxidative stability, oil microencapsulation efficiency, surface oil and morphology of these solid microcapsules were determined. The complex coacervation process between WPI and GA was optimised in terms of pH, and WPI-to-GA ratio, using zeta potential, turbidity, and morphology of the microcapsules. The optimum pH and WPI-to-GA ratio for complex coacervation was found to be 3.75 and 3 : 1, respectively. The spray dried solid microcapsules had better stability against oxidation, higher oil microencapsulation efficiency and lower surface oil content compared to the freeze dried microcapsules. The surface of the spray dried microcapsules did not show microscopic pores while the surface of the freeze dried microcapsules was more porous. This study suggests that solid microcapsules of omega-3 rich oils can be produced using WPI-GA complex coacervates followed by spray drying and these microcapsules can be quite stable against oxidation. These microcapsules can have many potential applications in the functional food and nutraceuticals industry.

  8. Decontamination of gum arabic with gamma-rays or electron beams and effects of these treatments on the material.

    PubMed

    Zaied, Serag Farag; Youssef, Bothaina Mohamed; Desouky, Omar; El Dien, Mahmoud Salah

    2007-01-01

    Samples of gum arabic were irradiated to 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy with gamma-rays and electrons for a comparison of the relative effectiveness of these two treatments and for investigation of the effects of these doses of radiation on the material. The initial raw samples were contaminated with various strains of bacteria, including fungi and spore-forming bacteria (such as Enteroccus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Closstridum perfringens). The samples were completely decontaminated by irradiation to 10.0 kGy with either gamma-rays or electrons. Slight changes in the physical properties of the material, such as darkening and viscosity decrease, were noticeable after irradiation to the highest dose, but not to the lower doses. A linear relationship between the absorbed dose and the material degradation was observed. gamma-rays were found to be more destructive than electrons. An optimal decontamination regimen for the material to be used in food industry and medicine would be irradiation to 5 kGy with electrons. It would be a safe alternative to the methods using hazardous chemicals, such as pesticides and fungicides. It would provide sufficient decontamination without adverse effects on the physical properties of the final products.

  9. Microencapsulation of purified amylase enzyme from pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel in Arabic gum-chitosan using freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Zohdi, Nor Khanani

    2014-03-24

    Amylase is one of the most important enzymes in the world due to its wide application in various industries and biotechnological processes. In this study, amylase enzyme from Hylocereus polyrhizus was encapsulated for the first time in an Arabic gum-chitosan matrix using freeze drying. The encapsulated amylase retained complete biocatalytic activity and exhibited a shift in the optimum temperature and considerable increase in the pH and temperature stabilities compared to the free enzyme. Encapsulation of the enzyme protected the activity in the presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactants and oxidizing agents (H₂O₂) and enhanced the shelf life. The storage stability of amylase is found to markedly increase after immobilization and the freeze dried amylase exhibited maximum encapsulation efficiency value (96.2%) after the encapsulation process. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the encapsulation of the enzyme in a coating agent using freeze drying is an efficient method to keep the enzyme active and stable until required in industry.

  10. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsion-based vitamin E delivery systems using natural biopolymers: Whey protein isolate and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Bengu; Argin, Sanem; Ozilgen, Mustafa; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-01

    Natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic (GA), were used to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for vitamin E-acetate. Stable delivery systems could be formed when vitamin E-acetate was mixed with sufficient orange oil prior to high pressure homogenization. WPI (d32=0.11 μm, 1% emulsifier) was better than GA (d32=0.38 μm, 10% emulsifier) at producing small droplets at low emulsifier concentrations. However, WPI-stabilized nanoemulsions were unstable to flocculation near the protein isoelectric point (pH 5.0), at high ionic strength (>100mM), and at elevated temperatures (>60 °C), whereas GA-stabilized emulsions were stable. This difference was attributed to differences in emulsifier stabilization mechanisms: WPI by electrostatic repulsion; GA by steric repulsion. These results provide useful information about the emulsifying and stabilizing capacities of natural biopolymers for forming food-grade vitamin-enriched delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-situ formation and assembly of gold nanoparticles by gum arabic as efficient photothermal agent for killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ping; Lin, Fong-Sian; Chien, Chih-Te; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Luo, Chih-Wei; Chen, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jen-Kun; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Hwu, Yeukuang; Lo, Leu-Wei; Yang, Chung-Shi; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2013-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been established to sufficiently eradicate tumors by means of heat production for photothermal therapy. However, the translation of the AuNPs from bench to the clinic still remains to be solved until realizing high bioclearance after treatment. Herein, we developed a simple strategy for simultaneous formation and assembly of small-size gold nanoparticles (Au-SNPs) to form a novel nanocomposite in the presence of gum arabic (GA) by synchrotron X-ray irradiation in an aqueous solution within 5 min. GA, a porous polysaccharide, can not only provide a confined space in which to produce uniform Au-SNPs (1.6 ± 0.7 nm in diameter), but can also facilitate the formation of Au-SNPs@GA (diameter ≈ 40 nm) after irradiating synchrotron X-rays. Specifically, the Au-SNPs@GA possesses high thermal stability and a strong photothermal effect for killing cancer cells. Importantly, a bioclearance study demonstrated that the Au-SNPs@GA can be gradually excreted by the renal and hepatobiliary system, which might be due to the breakdown and oxidation of GA under irradiating synchrotron X-rays. Thus, the novel gold nanocomposite can be promising photothermal agents for cancer treatment at the therapeutic level, minimizing toxicity concerns regarding long-term accumulation in vivo. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The effect of Nanocrystalline cellulose/Gum Arabic conjugates in crosslinked membrane for antibacterial, chlorine resistance and boron removal performance.

    PubMed

    Asim, Saba; Wasim, Maria; Sabir, Aneela; Shafiq, Muhammad; Andlib, Huma; Khuram, Sania; Ahmad, Adnan; Jamil, Tahir

    2017-09-14

    In this work, we developed hybrid membranes integrated with Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/Gum Arabic (GuA) conjugates using crosslinked Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a matrix phase with the addition of PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer that insured pore formation. At first, the NCC was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose via acid hydrolysis process. The performance property of hybrid NCC/GuA was measured using boron removal. The results showed that the rejection capability enhanced as compared to the control membranes, especially at 0.1wt% of NCC the selectivity is up to 92.4% with the flux rate of 21.3L/m(2).h. Moreover, the GuA in NCC/GuA conjugate significantly enhances the antibacterial activity by hindering the bacterial attachment to the surface as both of them carry the negative charge. Also by providing the active sites responsible for hydrogen bonding thus enhancing the hydrophilic character resulted in increased permeation flux rate. Therefore, the NCC/GuA conjugated membranes have great potentials for boron removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ovalbumin-gum arabic interactions: effect of pH, temperature, salt, biopolymers ratio and total concentration.

    PubMed

    Niu, Fuge; Su, Yujie; Liu, Yuntao; Wang, Guanchao; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yanjun

    2014-01-01

    The formation of soluble and insoluble complexes between ovalbumin (OVA) and gum arabic (GA) polysaccharide was investigated under specific conditions (pH 1.0-7.0; temperature 4-55 °C; NaCl concentration 0-60mM; total biopolymer concentration 0.05-3.0 wt%) by turbidimetric analysis. For the 2:1 OVA:GA ratio and in the absence of NaCl, soluble and insoluble complexes were observed at pH 4.61 (pHφ1) and 4.18 (pHφ2), respectively, with optimal biopolymer interactions occurring at pH 3.79 (pHopt). Under the same conditions, OVA alone gave only a weak turbidity intensity (turbidity <0.03), whereas GA had none. As the temperature increased, critical pH values shifted toward lower pH, and the maximum turbidity value occurred at 25 °C. The region between pHφ1 and pHφ2 was narrowed and the electrostatic interactions became weaker with increasing NaCl concentration. The maximum turbidity value increased as the total biopolymer concentration increased until reaching a critical value (2.0%), afterwards becoming a constant value. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of NaCl, Gum Arabic and Microbial Transglutaminase on the Gel and Emulsion Characteristics of Porcine Myofibrillar Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davaatseren, Munkhtugs

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of gum arabic (GA) combined with microbial transglutaminase (TG) on the functional properties of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP). As an indicator of functional property, heat-set gel and emulsion characteristics of MP treated with GA and/or TG were explored under varying NaCl concentrations (0.1-0.6 M). The GA improved thermal gelling ability of MP during thermal processing and after cooling, and concomitantly added TG assisted the formation of viscoelastic MP gel formation. Meanwhile, the addition of GA decreased cooking yield of MP gel at 0.6 M NaCl concentration, and the yield was further decreased by TG addition, mainly attributed by enhancement of protein-protein interactions. Emulsion characteristics indicated that GA had emulsifying ability and the addition of GA increased the emulsification activity index (EAI) of MP-stabilized emulsion. However, GA showed a negative effect on emulsion stability, particularly great drop in the emulsion stability index (ESI) was found in GA treatment at 0.6 M NaCl. Consequently, the results indicated that GA had a potential advantage to form a viscoelastic MP gel. For the practical aspect, the application of GA in meat processing had to be limited to the purposes of texture enhancer such as restructured products, but not low-salt products and emulsion-type meat products. PMID:26761678

  15. Preparation of chemically modified canola protein isolate with gum Arabic by means of Maillard reaction under wet-heating conditions.

    PubMed

    Pirestani, Safoura; Nasirpour, Ali; Keramat, Javad; Desobry, Stéphane

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this study was to produce covalently attached conjugate between canola protein isolate (CPI) and gum Arabic (GA) in aqueous solutions via the Maillard reaction at 90°C in a model system consisting of 2% CPI and 1, 2 or 4% GA. Upon decreasing of free amino group content in the glycosylated CPI to 72%, a new band near the loading end of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a shift of CPI peak in high performance size exclusion chromatography confirmed that the covalent attachment of CPI to GA was successful. The results of secondary structure analysis suggested that grafted CPI had decreased α-helix and β-sheet levels and increased random coils level. The solubility of CPI at isoelectric point was improved remarkably after grafting with GA. The optimal conjugation conditions chosen from the further experiments were 1% of GA, 90°C and reaction time 15min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of cooling-heating rate on sol-gel transformation of fish gelatin-gum arabic complex coacervate phase.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Mohammad; Chung, Donghwa

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize influence of different cooling and heating rates on gelation of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervate phase using rheological measurements. For the coacervate phase prepared at 10°C, the gelling temperature, melting temperature, gel strength, and stress relaxation decreased with increasing cooling or heating rate, however, no gelation was observed at the highest cooling rate of 0.05°C/min. Similar trends were obtained for the coacervates phase prepared at 30°C, but the gelation did not occur at a cooling rate of 0.033 or 0.05°C/min. The results indicated that rheological properties of FG-GA coacervate gels were highly dependent to the cooling process, where more thermos-stable and stronger gels formed at slower cooling. This was probably because of higher degree of molecular rearrangements, more hydrogen bindings, and formation of greater junction zones into the gel network at slower cooling rates. However, all of the FG-GA coacervate gels obtained at different cooling rates were classified as a weak physical gel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The influence of CTAB and gum arabic on the precipitation of α-FeOOH in a highly alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, Mira; Opačak, Ivana; Štajdohar, Jasenka; Musić, Svetozar

    2015-06-01

    The influence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and gum arabic (GA) on the precipitation of α-FeOOH in a highly alkaline medium was investigated using XRD, 57Fe Mössbauer, FT-IR and FE-SEM. In absence of CTAB and GA long α-FeOOH rods of nanosize width were obtained. For predetermined concentrations of CTAB added to the precipitation system the formation of a small fraction of α-Fe2O3 was noticed, whereas the length of the α-FeOOH rods significantly decreased and α-FeOOH dendrites were also found. The effect was specifically pronounced when GA was added to the precipitation system. The formation of ferrihydrite-like phase was detected, which suppressed the crystal growth of α-FeOOH on one side and forced the nucleation and growth of α-Fe2O3 on the other. Microstructural changes in the precipitates were also monitored. The phase transformation and changes in the nano/microstructure of the precipitates found can be explained taking into account the surface interactions between CTAB or GA with nuclei and crystallites (particles) during the kinetics investigated.

  18. Effect of Gum Arabic on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adenine–Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Badreldin H.; Al-Husseni, Isehaq; Beegam, Sumyia; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Schierling, Simone; Queisser, Nina; Schupp, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease in humans, and in chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats. The aim of this work was to study the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in adenine-induced CRF and the effect thereon of the purported nephroprotective agent gum arabic (GA). Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, adenine in feed (0.75%, w/w), GA in drinking water (15%, w/v) and adenine+GA, as before. Urine, blood and kidneys were collected from the rats at the end of the treatment for analysis of conventional renal function tests (plasma creatinine and urea concentration). In addition, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the oxidative stress markers glutathione and superoxide dismutase, renal apoptosis, superoxide formation and DNA double strand break frequency, detected by immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, were measured. Adenine significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, significantly decreased the creatinine clearance and induced significant increases in the concentration of the measured inflammatory mediators. Further, it caused oxidative stress and DNA damage. Treatment with GA significantly ameliorated these actions. The mechanism of the reported salutary effect of GA in adenine-induced CRF is associated with mitigation of the adenine-induced inflammation and generation of free radicals. PMID:23383316

  19. Gum Arabic Reduces C-Reactive Protein in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients without Affecting Urea or Indoxyl Sulfate Levels

    PubMed Central

    Alkhawaja, Mariam J.; Bukhamsin, Amina Y.; Idris, Mohamed A. S.; Abdelrahman, Muntasir M.; Abutaleb, Nasrulla K.; Housawi, Abdulrahman A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gum Arabic (GA) is a complex polysaccharide with proven prebiotic properties and potentially beneficial systemic effects. Methods We randomly allocated 36 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to receive 10, 20, or 40 grams daily of GA for four weeks and studied the systemic effects of this intervention. Results Thirty participants completed the study with baseline glomerular filtration rate 29.1 ± 9.9 mL/min/1.7 m2. In contrast to previous observations, we found no effect on serum urea or creatinine levels. GA supplementation was associated with a small but statistically significant drop in serum sodium level (138 ± 2 to 136 ± 3 mmol/L, p = 0.002) without affecting other electrolytes, urine volume, or indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels. GA supplementation was also associated with a significant drop in C-reactive protein (CRP) level (3.5 ± 1.5 to 2.8 ± 1.6 ng/mL, p = 0.02) even in patients who received only 10 g/day (4.4 ± 1.2 to 3.2 ± 1.5 ng/mL, p = 0.03). Conclusions Supplementing the diet of CKD patients with 10–40 g/day of GA significantly reduced CRP level which could have a positive impact on these patients' morbidity and mortality. This trial is registered with Saudi Clinical Trial Registry number 15011402. PMID:28589039

  20. Effect of coacervation conditions on the viscoelastic properties of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan - gum Arabic coacervates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Qing; Du, Yan-Li; Xiao, Jun-Xia; Wang, Guan-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The effects of coacervation acidity, phase separation temperature, ionic strength, and biopolymer ratio on the viscoelasticity of the N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) - gum Arabic (GA) coacervate were investigated by using coacervate yield as the indicator of electrostatic interaction strength. The strongest interaction between NOCC and GA occurred at pH 3.0, whereas the highest modulus values were found in the coacervate separated at pH 6.0. The coacervate yield did not vary with phase separation temperature in the range 4-55°C, but the coacervate viscoelasticity declined as the temperature increased from 25°C to 45°C and then peaked at 55°C. The presence of NaCl weakened the electrostatic interaction between the two polyelectrolytes, but no dose-dependent reduction in viscoelasticity was observed for their coacervates. Besides, the highest electrostatic interaction strength and coacervate viscoelasticity were recorded at different GA to NOCC ratios. It is proposed that the strength of electrostatic interaction is not the only parameter that determines the viscoelasticity of the NOCC - GA coacervate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of Microencapsulation of Fish Oil with Gum Arabic/Casein/Beta-Cyclodextrin Mixtures by Spray Drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Xiong, Shanbai; Wang, Fang; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Ru

    2015-07-01

    Fish oil was encapsulated with gum arabic/casein/beta-cyclodextrin mixtures using spray drying. The processing parameters (solids concentration of the barrier solutions, ratio of oil to barrier materials, emulsifying temperature, and air inlet temperature) were optimized based on emulsion viscosity, emulsion stability, encapsulation efficiency, and yield. A suitable viscosity and high emulsion stability could increase encapsulation efficiency and yield. Encapsulation efficiency and yield were significantly affected by all the 4 parameters. Based on the results of orthogonal experiments, encapsulation efficiency and yield reached a maximum of 79.6% and 55.6%, respectively, at the optimal condition: solids concentration of 35%, ratios of oil to barrier materials of 3:7, emulsifying temperature of 55 °C, and air inlet temperature of 220 °C. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that fish oil microcapsules were nearly spherical with a smooth surface with droplet size ranging from 1 to 10 μm. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. [The Interaction of Oil Microcapsule Wall Materials between Whey Protein and Acacia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qian; Li, De-jun; Tu, Zong-cai

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between whey protein and acacia which were used as wall material was studied on the formation of the oils microcapsules by the FTIR Spectroscopy and Computer Aided Analysis. The results indicated that whey protein changed obviously in amide A and amide I by high pressured homogenization and spray-drying. The amide A moved from 3 406.5 cm(-1) to 3 425.4 cm(-1) which was possibly due to covalent cross-linking between whey protein and acacia. Furthermore the amide I moved from 1 648.6 cm(-1) to 1 654.7 cm(-1) for intramolecular hydrogen bonding of protein had been weaken. After Gaussian fitting on amide I , it was found that the content of secondary structure of α-helix content and β-folding in whey protein reduced from 19.55% to 17.50% and from 30.59% to 25.63%, respectively. This suggests that protein intramolecular hydrogen bonding force was abated, resulting in abating the rigid structure of the protein molecules and enhancing of the toughness structure. The protein molecules showed some flexibility. The result of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that whey protein--gum Arabic complexes produced covalent products in larger molecular weight. During the spray-drying process, covalent cross-linking produced between whey protein and gum Arabic which improved emulsifying activity of the complex whey protein and gum Arabic produced covalent cross-linking and improved the complex emulsifying activity. Observing the surface structure of the fish oil microcapsule by SEM, the compound of whey protein and acacia as wall material was proved better toughness, less micropore, and more compact structure.

  3. Genipin-crosslinked O-carboxymethyl chitosan-gum Arabic coacervate as a pH-sensitive delivery system and microstructure characterization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Qing; Cheng, Ling-Yun; Xiao, Jun-Xia; Wang, Shi-Qing; Han, Xiao-Na

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of genipin-crosslinked O-carboxymethyl chitosan-gum Arabic coacervate as a pH-sensitive delivery vehicle was investigated. O-carboxymethyl chitosan-gum Arabic coacervates separated in pH 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 were crosslinked by genipin for different durations and the crosslinked products were subjected to crosslinking degree, swelling behavior, bovine serum albumin release profile, and microstructure characterization. Genipin-crosslinking greatly improved the stability of the coacervates against the simulated gastric solution and created certain pH-sensitivity. The coacervates displayed higher swelling ratios in the simulated gastric solution than in the simulated intestine and colon solutions; meanwhile, the coacervates prepared in pH 4.5 and 6.0 swelled more severely than the complex separated in pH 3.0. Nevertheless, the bovine serum albumin release in the simulated gastric solution from the microcapsules prepared in pH 6.0 was much lower than those prepared in pH 4.5 and 3.0, whose cumulative release percentages in the three simulated solutions were 17.14%, 55.23%, and 79.79%, respectively, in crosslinking duration 2 h. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that genipin-crosslinking improved the regularity and compactness of coacervate structure, whereas confocal laser scanning microscopy observation indicated that O-carboxymethyl chitosan content was possibly the major reason for the different swelling and bovine serum albumin release behavior of the coacervates. It was concluded that the genipin-crosslinked O-carboxymethyl chitosan-gum Arabic coacervate was a potential intestine-targeted delivery system and its delivery performance could be tailored by varying the crosslinking degree and coacervation acidity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Gum Arabic-encapsulated gold nanoparticles for a non-invasive photothermal ablation of lung tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moustafa, Dina; El-Daly, Sherien M; Abo-Zeid, Mona A M; Saleh, Samira; Khoobchandani, Menka; Katti, Kavita; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kattesh V

    2017-05-01

    In our previous work, we have extensively evaluated the physiochemical characteristics of Gum Arabic-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (GA-AuNPs; 15-18nm) and reported their effectiveness in stopping the tumor initiation via inhibiting the pre-neoplastic lesions in liver. The rationale of this study is to detect the efficiency of using GA-AuNPs in photothermal application as a non-invasive technique against lung tumor. We investigated the cytotoxicity of GA-AuNPs on A549 cells, and then studied their apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, lipid peroxidation and anti-neovascular effect in in vivo model using a chemically-induced lung cancer in mice. The histopathological changes due to GA-AuNPs were investigated. In the presence of laser irradiation, GA-AuNPs had a considerable cytotoxicity against A549 cells. The treatment of lung tumor-bearing mice with GA-AuNPs followed by laser exposure enhanced the apoptotic pathway and this was obvious from the histopathological investigations and the elevations in cytochrome-c, death receptor 5 and the subsequent upregulation of caspase-3, we also reported a significant reduction in the levels of the inflammatory mediator TNF-α and the angiogenesis inducer VEGF. An induction of lipid peroxidation was also reported upon treatment with either GA or GA-AuNPs. GA-AuNPs showed no cytotoxicity in the absence of light, however the combination of GA-AuNPs with laser induced cell death in lung tumor tissues with a reduction in the inflammation and angiogenesis together with an elevation in lipid peroxidation, suggesting the potential use of these functionalized nanoparticles as a promising photothermal non-invasive treatment modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A Bioinspired Alginate-Gum Arabic Hydrogel with Micro-/Nanoscale Structures for Controlled Drug Release in Chronic Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Li, Haichang; Li, Xiangguang; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Zihui; Liu, Lianqing; Ma, Jianjie; Zhang, Mingjun

    2017-07-12

    Biopolymeric hydrogels have drawn increasing research interest in biomaterials due to their tunable physical and chemical properties for both creating bioactive cellular microenvironment and serving as sustainable therapeutic reagents. Inspired by a naturally occurring hydrogel secreted from the carnivorous Sundew plant for trapping insects, here we have developed a bioinspired hydrogel to deliver mitsugumin 53 (MG53), an important protein in cell membrane repair, for chronic wound healing. Both chemical compositions and micro-/nanomorphological properties inherent from the natural Sundew hydrogel were mimicked using sodium alginate and gum arabic with calcium ion-mediated cross-linking. On the basis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements, an optimal sticky hydrogel scaffold was obtained through orthogonal experimental design. Imaging and mechanical analysis showed the distinct correlation between structural morphology, adhesion characteristics, and mechanical properties of the Sundew-inspired hydrogel. Combined characterization and biochemistry techniques were utilized to uncover the underlying molecular composition involved in the interactions between hydrogel and protein. In vitro drug release experiments confirmed that the Sundew-inspired hydrogel had a biphasic-kinetics release, which can facilitate both fast delivery of MG53 for improving the reepithelization process of the wounds and sustained release of the protein for treating chronic wounds. In vivo experiments showed that the Sundew-inspired hydrogel encapsulating with rhMG53 could facilitate dermal wound healing in mouse model. Together, these studies confirmed that the Sundew-inspired hydrogel has both tunable micro-/nanostructures and physicochemical properties, which enable it as a delivery vehicle for chronic wounding healing. The research may provide a new way to develop biocompatible and tunable biomaterials for sustainable drug release to meet the needs of biological activities.

  6. Study of the behavior of the diffraction efficiency of a function of thickness using holographic gratings as material registration with gum Arabic ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Iguanero, B.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Toxqui-López, S.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2012-03-01

    This work presents a study of gum Arabic as holographic recording material, and to quantify the parameter of the diffraction efficiency through holographic diffraction gratings. This material exhibits excellent properties such as transparency, consistency, easy to handle, non toxic, non degradable. It also shows a low moisture absorption environment, hydro-phobic behavior. It is easy to produce a homogeneous thin film layer with a smooth texture on a glass substrate with gravity techniques. It also has adhesive properties. Also shown is a study of the pH behavior of this matrix, related to its viscosity.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis studies of arabinogalactan-protein structure from Acacia gum: the self-similarity hypothesis of assembly from a common building block.

    PubMed

    Renard, D; Lavenant-Gourgeon, L; Lapp, A; Nigen, M; Sanchez, C

    2014-11-04

    Arabinogalactan (AG) and arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) fractions were treated enzymatically using several proteases in acidic (pH 4) and alkaline (pH 7) conditions in order to go deeper insight into the structure and conformations of the two main fractions of Acacia senegal gum. Endoproteinase Glu-C, pepsin and phosphatase acid were thus used in acidic conditions while subtilisin A, pronase, trypsin, papain and proteinase K were used in alkaline conditions to cleave protein moieties of the two fractions. Structures of AG and AGP were probed using HPSEC-MALLS, small angle neutron scattering and far-UV circular dichroism. Enzymes did not affect AG fraction structure whatever the pH conditions used, highlighting the inaccessibility of the peptide backbone and the remarkable stability of this fraction in acidic and alkaline conditions. This result was in agreement with the thin oblate ellipsoid model we previously identified for the AG fraction where the 43 amino-acid residues peptide sequence was supposed, based on spectroscopic methods, to be totally buried. Contrary to AG fraction, AGP protein component was therefore cleaved using enzymes in alkaline conditions, the absence of enzymatic efficiency in acidic conditions being probably ascribed to long range electrostatic repulsions occurring between negatively charged AGP and enzymes at pH 4. The decrease of AGP molecular weight after hydrolysis in alkaline conditions went from 1.79 × 10(6) g mol(-1) for control AGP to as low as 1.68 × 10(5) g mol(-1) for papain-treated AGP. The overall structure of the enzyme-treated AGPs was found to be surprisingly quite similar whatever the enzyme used and close, with however some subtle differences, to AG unit. A tri-axial ellipsoid conformation was found in enzyme-treated AGPs and the two main preferential distances identified in the pair distance distribution function would claim in favor of rod-like or elongated particles or alternatively would indicate the presence of two

  8. Physicochemical responses and quality changes of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) to gum arabic coating enriched with ergothioneine treatment during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Cai, Luyun; Wu, Xiaosa; Dong, Zhijian; Li, Xuepeng; Yi, Shumin; Li, Jianrong

    2014-10-01

    The combined effects of gum arabic coating (GA) and ergothioneine (ER) treatment on the sensory and physicochemical characteristics of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 16 days were investigated. Fish proximate composition, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), K-value, TCA-soluble peptides, colour, texture profile analyses (TPA), microbiological properties and sensory quality were measured. The results indicate that treatment with gum arabic and ergothioneine (GAER) retarded nucleotide breakdown, lipid oxidation, protein degradation, and reduced microbial growth compare with the control. The efficiency was better than that of GA or ER treatment. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of GAER coating by maintaining the overall quality of red sea bream during the storage period. Furthermore, GAER maintained better colour and textural characteristics. Our study suggests that GAER treatment has potential to improve the quality of red sea bream and extend its storage life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  10. Stability of flocculated particles in concentrated and high hydrophilic solid layer-by-layer (LBL) emulsions formed using whey proteins and gum Arabic.

    PubMed

    Lim, Aaron S L; Roos, Yrjö H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate flocculation in layer-by-layer (LBL) emulsion systems with high total solids content and deflocculation at various pH conditions, and the effects of whey protein isolate (WPI) concentration and total solids content on the stability of LBL emulsions. WPI (1.96% (1WPI) or 10.71% (10WPI), w/w in water) was prepared in water and high-pressure homogenized with sunflower oil (10%, w/w, of total emulsion). Gum Arabic (0.15%, w/w, in total emulsion) was added to assemble electrostatically on WPI at oil particle interfaces at pH3.5 using aqueous citric acid (10% w/w) forming LBL emulsion. The ζ-potential measurements showed charge reversal upon addition of gum Arabic solution into single layer (SL) emulsion confirming the formation of LBL interface. Trehalose:maltodextrin mixture (1:1, w/w, total emulsion, 28.57% (28) or 57.14% (57), w/w, in water) was used in the continuous phase. The high total solids content of the system results in depletion flocculation of the particles leading to bridging flocculation without coalescence as deflocculation into individual particles occurred with increasing pH from pH3.5 to pH6.5 in 10WPI systems. Deflocculation was evident in 10WPI-28 and 10WPI-57 as found from a decreased ζ-average diameter and visually under microscope. Coalescence was observed in 1WPI systems. Viscosity of the systems was significantly (P<0.05) increased with higher total solids content. Accelerated destabilization test showed that systems at higher WPI and total solids contents exhibited the highest stability against creaming. Deflocculation in LBL systems can be controlled by pH while high solids in the aqueous phase provide stability against creaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..._locations.html.), to 5 ml of a cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque precipitate indicates acacia. A small precipitate or clear solution which produces an opaque flocculent...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html.), to 5 ml of a cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque precipitate indicates acacia. A small precipitate or clear solution which produces an opaque flocculent...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..._locations.html.), to 5 ml of a cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque precipitate indicates acacia. A small precipitate or clear solution which produces an opaque flocculent...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque precipitate indicates acacia. A small precipitate or clear solution which produces an opaque flocculent precipitate upon the...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..._locations.html.), to 5 ml of a cold 1-in-100 aqueous solution of the gum. An immediate, voluminous, opaque precipitate indicates acacia. A small precipitate or clear solution which produces an opaque flocculent...

  16. Time-Independent and Time-Dependent Rheological Characterization of Dispersions with Varying Contents of Chickpea Flour and Gum Arabic Employing the Multiple Loop Experiments.

    PubMed

    J, Shanthilal; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2016-08-01

    The chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour dispersions as the model system with different contents of flour (37% to 43%) and gum arabic (0% to 5%) were subjected to multiple loop experiments for simultaneous determination of the time-independent and time-dependent rheological characteristics. The Herschel-Bulkley model was suitable (0.993 ≤ r ≤ 0.999) to relate the time-independent characteristics linking shear stress and shear rate data for the individual upward and downward curves. The yield stress, consistency index, and apparent viscosity increased with the increasing flour and/or gum contents while flow behavior index (n) decreased. The yield stress generally decreased with the number of loops but n increased. In the individual loop tests, the n values for the decreasing shear stress/shear rate curves were always higher than corresponding increasing curves meaning a shift toward Newtonian characteristics. The time-independent properties (yield stress, apparent viscosity, consistency index, and n), the time-dependent characteristics like the area of the loop, and liquid characteristics like pourability and the nonoral sensory attributes (viscosity, spreadability, and tackiness) were individually predicted by artificial neural networks wherein the root mean square errors were between 3.6% and 17.2%. The sensory assessment indicated that the desirable parameters for a free-flowing and easily pourable spherical chickpea batter droplets occurred when the average pourability and spreadability values were 6.9 and 5.9, respectively. The normalized indices for these 2 parameters indicated that the batter having 40% flour and 2% gum contents was most suitable exhibiting a deviation of only 10% from the ideal sensory scores; these values were 40% and 0% to 3%, and 43% and 0%, respectively exhibiting up to 20% deviation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Extraction and Characterization of Boswellia Serrata Gum as Pharmaceutical Excipient.

    PubMed

    Panta, Sumedha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript deals with the purification and characterization of Boswellia serrata gum as a suspending agent. The Boswellia serrata gum was purchased as crude material, purified and further characterized in terms of organoleptic properties and further micromeritic studies were carried out to characterize the polymer as a pharmaceutical excipient. The suspending properties of the polymer were also evaluated. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. To characterize Boswellia serrata gum as a natural excipient. Boswellia serrata gum, paracetamol, distilled water. The results showed that the extracted gum possesses optimum organoleptic as well as micromeritic and suspending properties. It is concluded from the research work that the gum extracted from Boswellia serrata shows the presence of carbohydrates after chemical tests. All the organoleptic properties evaluated were found to be acceptable. The pH was found to be slightly acidic. Swelling Index reveals that the gum swells well in water. Total ash value was within the limits. The values of angle of repose and Carr's Index of powdered gum powder showed that the flow property was good. IR spectra confirmed the presence of alcohol, amines, ketones, anhydrides and aromatic rings. The suspending properties of Boswellia serrata gum were found to be higher as compared to gum acacia while the flow rate of Boswellia serrata gum (1% suspension) was less than gum acacia (1% suspension). The viscosity measurement of both Boswellia serrata gum suspension and gum acacia suspension showed approximately similar results.

  18. Continuous production of controlled release dosage forms based on hot-melt extruded gum arabic: Formulation development, in vitro characterization and evaluation of potential application fields.

    PubMed

    Kipping, Thomas; Rein, Hubert

    2016-01-30

    Controlled release matrices based on gum arabic are prepared by applying a continuous hot-melt extrusion technology: the pre-mixture consisting of gum arabic and the incorporated API is plasticized by a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, an intermediate strand is formed by a round nozzle. Single dosed matrices are prepared by cutting the semi elastic strand with a rotary fly cutter. Paracetamol and phenazone are used as model drug substances. High drug loadings up to 70% can be realized. Matrices are characterized concerning their crystalline structure, in vitro dissolution, disintegration time and various physical parameters including glass transition temperature (Tg). Release characteristic behavior is mainly influenced by erosion of the matrices. At higher drug loadings also diffusion based transport gain importance. The solubility of the API shows an influence on the erosion rate of the matrix and should therefore be considered during formulation development. Tg is mainly influenced by the solubility of the API in the surrounding matrix. High soluble phenazone shows a decrease, whereas paracetamol addition has nearly no influence on the Tg of the polymeric system. Activation energy (EA) of the glass transition is determined via dynamic mechanical analysis. The addition of APIs leads to a reduction of EA indicating an increased molecular movement at Tg region compared to placebo extrudates. X-ray diffraction is used to determine the crystalline state of the extruded matrices and interaction between matrix and incorporated APIs. The production of thin layer matrices is an interesting option to provide a fast drug delivery to the oral cavity. High mechanical strength combined with fast disintegration times can be a great advantage for the development of oro-dispersible tablets. A great benefit of the evaluated processing technology is the simple adaption of the final dose by varying either the cutting length or the diameter of the nozzle resulting in a cost

  19. In-vitro digestion of probiotic bacteria and omega-3 oil co-microencapsulated in whey protein isolate-gum Arabic complex coacervates.

    PubMed

    Eratte, Divya; Dowling, Kim; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu P

    2017-07-15

    Solid co-microcapsules of omega-3 rich tuna oil and probiotic bacteria L. casei were produced using whey protein isolate-gum Arabic complex coacervate as wall material. The in-vitro digestibility of the co-microcapsules and microcapsules was studied in terms of survival of L. casei and release of oil in sequential exposure to simulated salivary, gastric and intestinal fluids. Co-microencapsulation significantly increased the survival and surface hydrophobicity and the ability of L. casei to adhere to the intestinal wall. No significant difference in the assimilative reduction of cholesterol was observed between the microencapsulated and co-microencapsulated L. casei. The pattern of release of oil from the microcapsules and co-microcapsules was similar. However, the content of total chemically intact omega-3 fatty acids was higher in the oil released from co-microcapsules than the oil released from microcapsules. The co-microencapsulation can deliver bacterial cells and omega-3 oil to human intestinal system with less impact on functional properties.

  20. Chemical and physical stability of citral and limonene in sodium dodecyl sulfate-chitosan and gum arabic-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Darinka; Cercaci, Luisito; Alamed, Jean; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2007-05-02

    Citral and limonene are the major flavor components of citrus oils. Both of these compounds can undergo chemical degradation leading to loss of flavor and the formation of undesirable off-flavors. Engineering the interface of emulsion droplets with emulsifiers that inhibit chemical reactions could provide a novel technique to stabilize citral and limonene. At present, emulsified flavor oils are usually stabilized by gum arabic (GA), which is a naturally occurring polysaccharide-protein complex. The objective of this study was to examine if citral and limonene were more stable in emulsions stabilized with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-chitosan complex than GA. Citral degraded less in GA-stabilized than in SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. However, SDS-chitosan-stabilized emulsions were more effective at retarding the formation of the citral oxidation product, p-cymene, than GA-stabilized emulsions. Limonene degradation and the formation of limonene oxidation products, limonene oxide and carvone, were lower in the SDS-chitosan- than GA-stabilized emulsions at pH 3.0. The ability of an SDS-chitosan multilayer emulsifier system to inhibit the oxidative deterioration of citral and limonene could be due to the formation of a cationic and thick emulsion droplet interface that could repel prooxidative metals, thus decreasing prooxidant-lipid interactions.

  1. Effect of different combinations of maltodextrin, gum arabic and whey protein concentrate on the encapsulation behavior and oxidative stability of spray dried drumstick (Moringa oleifera) oil.

    PubMed

    Premi, Monica; Sharma, H K

    2017-07-27

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of carrier agents (Maltodextrin, gum arabic and whey protein concentrate) on the emulsion properties, encapsulation efficiency and oxidative stability of encapsulated drumstick oil powder (EDOP), produced by spray drying to increase its usage as an active ingredient. Feed emulsion characteristics were studied in terms of emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity and surface charge. Obtained spray dried EDOP was characterized for physical and flow properties, microstructure and oxidative stability. EDOP obtained from the MD:GA emulsion showed higher encapsulation efficiency than MD:WPC. Higher encapsulation efficiency along with medium flow properties and better oxidative stability was observed with microcapsules obtained by MD:GA carrier agent. Microstructure of EDOP with MD:GA showed no cracks, smother appearance with continuous wall. EDOP with MD:GA had better stability and were stable at 45°C, which confirms the protective effect of this carrier agent in encapsulating the drumstick oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-mobility group box-1 protein in adenine-induced chronic renal failure and the influence of gum arabic thereon.

    PubMed

    Ali, B H; Al Za'abi, M; Al Shukaili, A; Nemmar, A

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenesis of adenine-induced chronic renal failure may involve inflammatory, immunological and/or oxidant mechanisms. Gum arabic (GA) is a complex polysaccharide that acts as an anti-oxidant which can modulate inflammatory and/or immunological processes. Therefore, we tested here the effect of GA treatment (15 % in the drinking water for 4 weeks) in plasma and urine of rats, on a novel cytokine that has been shown to be pro-inflammatory, viz, DNA-binding high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1). Adenine (0.75 % in the feed, 4 weeks) significantly increased indoxyl sulphate, urea and creatinine concentrations in plasma, and significantly decreased the creatinine clearance. GA significantly abated these effects. The concentrations of HMGB1 in urine before the start of the experiment were similar in all four groups. However, 24 h after the last treatment, adenine treatment increased significantly the concentration of HMGB1 when compared with the control. GA treatment did not affect the HMGB1 concentration in urine. Moreover, the concentration of HMGB1 in plasma obtained 24 h after the last treatment in rats treated with adenine was drastically reduced compared with the control group. This may explain its significant rise in urine. In conclusion, HMGB1 can be considered a potentially useful biomarker in adenine induced CRF and its treatment.

  3. Effect of glycosylation with gum Arabic by Maillard reaction in a liquid system on the emulsifying properties of canola protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Pirestani, Safoura; Nasirpour, Ali; Keramat, Javad; Desobry, Stéphane; Jasniewski, Jordane

    2017-02-10

    In this research, the improvement of emulsifying properties of chemically modified canola protein isolate (CPI) with gum Arabic (GA) through Maillard reaction under natural pH at 90°C was investigated. The stability, rheology and morphology of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by conjugate of two biopolymers were evaluated by determination of droplet size, emulsifying activity (EAI), emulsifying stability (ESI) and creaming indices. The conjugate-stabilized emulsion showed smaller mean droplet size and lower creaming index values which were more effective to stabilize the emulsion compared to CPI and mixture of two biopolymers especially if pH was near the isoelectric point of CPI or when emulsions heated from 30 to 90°C. Moreover, our results demonstrated that EAI, ESI and viscosity of emulsion for CPI-GA conjugate were significantly more than those of CPI-GA mixture and CPI. These results suggested that Maillard reaction could be one of the most promising approaches to improve emulsifying properties of CPI for food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of gum arabic-modified alginate on physicochemical properties, release kinetics, and storage stability of liquid-core hydrogel beads.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Fu-Hsuan; Kitamura, Yutaka; Kokawa, Mito

    2017-10-15

    Different weight ratios of alginate/gum arabic (GA) solutions were prepared to serve as the wall material of liquid-core hydrogel beads (LHB) that were formulated to protect the total phenolic compounds (TP) of radish by-product juice from degradation during storage and release in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The diameter of LHB ranged from 4.63 to 5.66mm with a sphericity lower than 0.05. LHB formulated with 25% GA (AGB0.25) exhibited the highest hardness (26.63N), and those formulated with 50% GA (AGB0.50) exhibited the highest loading efficiency (86.67%). AGB0.25 was effective in preventing TP from degrading during storage with a decay rate (k) of 6.10×10(-3)day(-1) and a half-life (t1/2) of 113.63 days, it showed the slowest release of TP in simulated gastric fluid (k=2.25×10(-6)), and the release mechanism followed Fickian diffusion. The results suggest that GA is effective in improving the physicochemical properties of alginate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestine-targeted delivery potency of the O-carboxymethyl chitosan-gum Arabic coacervate: Effects of coacervation acidity and possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Qing; Liu, Li-Na; Han, Xiao-Na; Xiao, Jun-Xia

    2017-10-01

    The potential of the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC)-gum Arabic (GA) coacervate as an intestine-targeted delivery system for hydrophobic compounds was concerned. OCMC-GA coacervates and emulsified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded microcapsules were prepared in pH3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 and their swelling behaviors as well as BSA release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids were measured. All the coacervates showed higher swelling ratios in the simulated gastric solution than in the simulated intestine and colon solutions and the values increased as the coacervation pH increased from 3.0 to 6.0, but a reversed trend was observed for the BSA release profile. SEM, TEM, and CLSM analysis revealed that the coacervation acidity influenced the swelling and BSA release behavior by changing the matrix density and O-CMC content of the coacervates. It was concluded that the O-CMC-GA coacervate could be used to deliver hydrophobic compounds to the intestine and its delivery performance could be tailored by selecting appropriate coacervation acidity and crosslinking degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 78866 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum arabic) in food. FOR FURTHER... regulations in Sec. 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780), to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum arabic) in food. The Agency has determined under 21 CFR 25.32(k) that this action is of a...

  7. Gum arabic-coated radioactive gold nanoparticles cause no short-term local or systemic toxicity in the clinically relevant canine model of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Upendran, Anandhi; Lattimer, Jimmy C; Kelsey, James; Cutler, Cathy S; Selting, Kim A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Henry, Carolyn J; Boote, Evan; Tate, Deborah J; Bryan, Margaret E; Katti, Kattesh V; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gum arabic-coated radioactive gold nanoparticles (GA-198AuNPs) offer several advantages over traditional brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer, including homogenous dose distribution and higher dose-rate irradiation. Our objective was to determine the short-term safety profile of GA-198AuNPs injected intralesionally. We proposed that a single treatment of GA-198AuNPs would be safe with minimal-to-no evidence of systemic or local toxicity. Methods Nine dogs with spontaneously occurring prostatic cancer were treated. Injections were performed with ultrasound or computerized tomography guidance. Complete blood counts, chemistry panels, and urinalyses were performed at weekly intervals for 1 month and imaging was repeated 4 weeks postinjection. Planar scintigraphic images were obtained within 30 minutes of injection. Results No statistically significant difference was found in any hematologic or biochemical parameter studied, nor was any evidence of tumor swelling or abscessation found in eight dogs with repeat imaging; one dog died secondary to urethral obstruction 12 days following injection. At 30 minutes postinjection, an average of 53% of injected dose in seven dogs was retained in the prostate, with loss of remaining activity in the bladder and urethra; no systemic uptake was detected. Conclusion GA-198AuNP therapy had no short-term toxicity in the treatment of prostatic cancer. While therapeutic agent was found in the prostate immediately following injection, some loss of agent was detected in the bladder and urethra. Localization of radioactivity within the prostate was lower than anticipated and likely due to normal vestigial prostatic ducts. Therefore, further study of retention, dosimetry, long-term toxicity, and efficacy of this treatment is warranted prior to Phase I trials in men. PMID:25378926

  8. Effect of a novel edible composite coating based on gum arabic and chitosan on biochemical and physiological responses of banana fruits during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Mehdi; Ali, Asgar; Alderson, Peter G; Zahid, Noosheen; Siddiqui, Yasmeen

    2011-05-25

    The composite effects of gum arabic (GA) (5, 10, 15, and 20%) and chitosan (CH) (1.0%) on the biochemical and physiological characteristics of banana fruits stored at 13 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 3% relative humidity (RH) for 28 days and afterward for 5 days at simulated marketing conditions (25 °C, 60% RH) were investigated. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences were observed for the entire GA plus CH treatments as compared to the control. However, the results showed that after 33 days of storage, the weight loss and soluble solids concentration of fruits treated with 10% GA plus 1.0% CH composite coating were 24 and 54% lower, whereas fruit firmness, total carbohydrates, and reducing sugars were 31, 59, and 40% higher than the control, respectively. Furthermore, the composite edible coating of 10% GA plus 1.0% CH delayed color development and reduced the rate of respiration and ethylene evolution during storage as compared to the control. Similarly, sensory evaluation results also proved the effectiveness of 10% GA plus 1.0% CH composite coating by maintaining the overall quality of banana fruits. Consequently, the results of scanning electron microscopy also confirmed that the fruits coated with 10% GA plus 1.0% CH composite edible coating had very fewer cracks and showed a smooth surface. These findings suggest that 10% GA plus 1.0% CH as an edible composite coating can be used commercially for extending the storage life of banana fruits for up to 33 days.

  9. Gum Arabic Microgels As Template for In Situ Metal-Sulfide Based Quantum Dots Preparation and Their Thermal, Spectroscopic, Optical, and Magnetic Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sagbas, Selin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Meral, Kadem; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2017-03-01

    Here, gum arabic (GA) microgel in 5-50 μm size range was used as a template for in situ quantum dot (QD) preparation. The in situ synthesis of metal sulfide quantum dots (QDs) such as CdS, PbS, CuS, ZnS, CoS, and MnS was accomplished by the absorption of the corresponding metal ions from aqueous solutions and then in situ precipitation with S2- treatments within GA microgels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the existence of the evenly distributed QDs within GA microgel matrices for each of the prepared QDs. All the fabricated GA-QD composites have shown excellent semiconducting behaviors with relatively larger band gap values of 4.87 eV, 4.60 eV, 6.71 eV, 4.81 eV, 3.68 eV, 5.2 eV, and 4.0 eV for CdS, PbS, ZnS, CuS, CoS, MoS, and MnS, respectively. The results revealed that CdS and ZnS are found to be the most efficient florescence materials amongst the all QDs with 630 and 70 cd/cm2 fluorescence intensities, respectively. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibility study suggests that Mn(IV), Co(III), and Mo(IV), have mononuclear octahedral geometries whereas Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) show binuclear geometries.

  10. Gum arabic-coated radioactive gold nanoparticles cause no short-term local or systemic toxicity in the clinically relevant canine model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Axiak-Bechtel, Sandra M; Upendran, Anandhi; Lattimer, Jimmy C; Kelsey, James; Cutler, Cathy S; Selting, Kim A; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Henry, Carolyn J; Boote, Evan; Tate, Deborah J; Bryan, Margaret E; Katti, Kattesh V; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2014-01-01

    Gum arabic-coated radioactive gold nanoparticles (GA-(198)AuNPs) offer several advantages over traditional brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer, including homogenous dose distribution and higher dose-rate irradiation. Our objective was to determine the short-term safety profile of GA-(198)AuNPs injected intralesionally. We proposed that a single treatment of GA-(198)AuNPs would be safe with minimal-to-no evidence of systemic or local toxicity. Nine dogs with spontaneously occurring prostatic cancer were treated. Injections were performed with ultrasound or computerized tomography guidance. Complete blood counts, chemistry panels, and urinalyses were performed at weekly intervals for 1 month and imaging was repeated 4 weeks postinjection. Planar scintigraphic images were obtained within 30 minutes of injection. No statistically significant difference was found in any hematologic or biochemical parameter studied, nor was any evidence of tumor swelling or abscessation found in eight dogs with repeat imaging; one dog died secondary to urethral obstruction 12 days following injection. At 30 minutes postinjection, an average of 53% of injected dose in seven dogs was retained in the prostate, with loss of remaining activity in the bladder and urethra; no systemic uptake was detected. GA-(198)AuNP therapy had no short-term toxicity in the treatment of prostatic cancer. While therapeutic agent was found in the prostate immediately following injection, some loss of agent was detected in the bladder and urethra. Localization of radioactivity within the prostate was lower than anticipated and likely due to normal vestigial prostatic ducts. Therefore, further study of retention, dosimetry, long-term toxicity, and efficacy of this treatment is warranted prior to Phase I trials in men.

  11. The use of gum Arabic as "Green" stabilizer of poly(aniline) nanocomposites: a comprehensive study of spectroscopic, morphological and electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Quintanilha, Ronaldo C; Orth, Elisa S; Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Vidotti, Marcio

    2014-11-15

    Herein we show the synthesis and characterization of water dispersible composites formed by poly(aniline) and the natural polymer gum Arabic (GA), used as stabilizer. The materials were synthesized via a rapid and straightforward method and were fully characterized by different techniques such as UV-Vis, Raman, FTIR, TEM, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. TEM and SEM images revealed that the proportion of stabilizer highly influences the growth mechanism of the nanostructures. It was found spherical particles, elongated structures and large agglomerates at the lower, intermediate and at the higher GA amount, respectively. Accordingly to fluorescence spectra, different hydrophobic structures are formed depending on the GA amount in aqueous solutions, possibly acting as hosting sites for the PANI growth. In order to further study the PANI polymerization in the presence of GA, kinetics experiments were performed and showed that nucleation is the limiting step for the composite growth and a model is proposed. Spectroscopic experiments showed that the presence of GA affects the PANI conformation, avoiding the formation of phenazine structures which highly impairs the electroactivity of PANI. The material integrity is achieved by strong hydrogen bond interactions between PANI and GA as evidenced by the study of specific NH bands in FTIR and Raman analyses. The intensity of the hydrogen bonds decreased upon higher amounts of GA, probably due to steric impediment around the NH sites. Cyclic voltammograms showed a good electroactivity behavior of the modified electrodes presenting distinguishable diffusional processes through the adsorbed composites. By this way, we have thoroughly investigated the formation and properties of new conducting polymer composite materials. Taken into account the low toxicity of GA and the excellent dispersity in water, the materials can successfully be applied in bioelectrochemical applications or as green corrosion inhibitors. Copyright © 2014

  12. Gum Arabic Microgels As Template for In Situ Metal-Sulfide Based Quantum Dots Preparation and Their Thermal, Spectroscopic, Optical, and Magnetic Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Sagbas, Selin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Meral, Kadem; Siddiq, Mohammad; Aktas, Nahit; Sahiner, Nurettin

    2017-07-01

    Here, gum arabic (GA) microgel in 5-50 μm size range was used as a template for in situ quantum dot (QD) preparation. The in situ synthesis of metal sulfide quantum dots (QDs) such as CdS, PbS, CuS, ZnS, CoS, and MnS was accomplished by the absorption of the corresponding metal ions from aqueous solutions and then in situ precipitation with S2- treatments within GA microgels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the existence of the evenly distributed QDs within GA microgel matrices for each of the prepared QDs. All the fabricated GA-QD composites have shown excellent semiconducting behaviors with relatively larger band gap values of 4.87 eV, 4.60 eV, 6.71 eV, 4.81 eV, 3.68 eV, 5.2 eV, and 4.0 eV for CdS, PbS, ZnS, CuS, CoS, MoS, and MnS, respectively. The results revealed that CdS and ZnS are found to be the most efficient florescence materials amongst the all QDs with 630 and 70 cd/cm2 fluorescence intensities, respectively. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibility study suggests that Mn(IV), Co(III), and Mo(IV), have mononuclear octahedral geometries whereas Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) show binuclear geometries.

  13. Effect of psyllium and gum Arabic biopolymers on the survival rate and storage stability in yogurt of Enterococcus duransIW3 encapsulated in alginate.

    PubMed

    Nami, Yousef; Haghshenas, Babak; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Different herbal biopolymers were used to encapsulate Enterococcus durans IW3 to enhance its storage stability in yogurt and subsequently its endurance in gastrointestinal condition. Nine formulations of encapsulation were performed using alginate (ALG), ALG-psyllium (PSY), and ALG-gum Arabic (GA) blends. The encapsulation efficiency of all formulations, tolerance of encapsulated E. durans IW3 against low pH/high bile salt concentration, storage lifetime, and release profile of cells in natural condition of yogurt were evaluated. Result revealed 98.6% encapsulation efficiency and 76% survival rate for all formulation compared with the unencapsulated formulation cells (43%). The ALG-PSY and ALG-GA formulations have slightly higher survival rates at low pH and bile salt condition (i.e., 76-93% and 81-95%, respectively) compared with the ALG formulation. All encapsulated E. durans IW3 was released from the prepared beads of ALG after 90 min, whereas both probiotics encapsulated in ALG-GA and ALG-PSY were released after 60 min. Enterococcus durans IW3 was successfully encapsulated in ALG, ALG-GA, and ALG-PSY beads prepared by extrusion method. ALG-GA and ALG-PSY beads are suitable delivery carriers for the oral administration of bioactive compounds like probiotics. The GA and PSY gels exhibited better potential for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria cells because of the amendment of ALG difficulties and utilization of therapeutic and prebiotic potentials of these herbal biopolymers.

  14. Assessment of physical and structural characteristics of almond gum.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-12-01

    Almond gum was investigated for its physical and structural characteristics in comparison to gum arabic. Among physical properties, bulk density was found to be 0.600±0.12g/mL and 0.502±0.20g/mL for almond and gum arabic respectively. Almond gum (0.820±0.13g/mL) displayed the maximum value for tapped density. Compressibility index of exudate gum powders varied from 26.79±1.47 to 37.46±0.50% and follow the order gum arabic>almond gum. Almond gum demonstrated good flow characteristics when compared to gum arabic. True density showed significant difference (p<0.05) among the exudate samples and it was recorded higher for gum arabic. The maximum value of porosity recorded in case of gum arabic indicates the presence of large number of interstitial spaces among its particles. Almond gum had fair flow character while good for the other exudate gum powder. Almond gum had relatively higher mineral content than gum arabic. The oil holding capacity of exudate gums varied from 0.87±0.05 to 0.92±0.02g/g. Exudate powder samples were found to lie in the first quadrant of the hue angle (0-90°) corresponding to the range of reddish-purple to yellow. The absence of peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of exudate samples reflects their amorphous nature. SEM micrographs revealed a lot of variability in shape and size of the exudate particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of biopolymer emulsifier type on formation and stability of rice bran oil-in-water emulsions: whey protein, gum arabic, and modified starch.

    PubMed

    Charoen, Ratchanee; Jangchud, Anuvat; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Harnsilawat, Thepkunya; Naivikul, Onanong; McClements, David Julian

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) is used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals due to its desirable health, flavor, and functional attributes. We investigated the effects of biopolymer emulsifier type and environmental stresses on the stability of RBO emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions (5% RBO, 10 mM citrate buffer) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI), gum arabic (GA), or modified starch (MS) were prepared using high-pressure homogenization. The new MS used had a higher number of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) groups per starch molecule than conventional MS. The droplet diameters produced by WPI and MS were considerably smaller (d < 300 nm) than those produced by GA (d > 1000 nm). The influence of pH (3 to 8), ionic strength (0 to 500 mM NaCl), and thermal treatment (30 to 90 °C) on the physical stability of the emulsions was examined. Extensive droplet aggregation occurred in WPI-stabilized emulsions around their isoelectric point (4 < pH < 6), at high salt (> 200 mM, pH 7), and at high temperatures (>70 °C, pH 7, 150 mM NaCl), which was attributed to changes in electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between droplets. There was little effect of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on emulsions stabilized by GA or MS, which was attributed to strong steric stabilization. In summary: WPI produced small droplets at low concentrations, but they had poor stability to environmental stress; GA produced large droplets and needed high concentrations, but they had good stability to stress; new MS produced small droplets at low concentrations, with good stability to stress. Practical Application: This study showed that stable rice bran oil-in-water emulsions can be formed using biopolymer emulsifiers. These emulsions could be used to incorporate RBO into a wide range of food products. We compared the relative performance of whey protein, GA, and a new MS at forming and stabilizing the emulsions. The new OSA MS was capable of forming small stable droplets at relatively low

  16. Rheological Differences of Waxy Barley Flour Dispersions Mixed with Various Gums

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chong-Yeon; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2017-01-01

    Rheological properties of waxy barley flour (WBF) dispersions mixed with various gums (carboxyl methyl celluleose, guar gum, gum arabic, konjac gum, locust bean gum, tara gum, and xanthan gum) at different gum concentrations were examined in steady and dynamic shear. WBF-gum mixture samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Rheological tests indicated that the flow and dynamic rheological parameter (apparent viscosity, consistency index, yield stress, storage modulus, and loss modulus) values of WBF dispersions mixed with gums, except for gum arabic, were significantly higher than those of WBF with no gum, and also increased with an increase in gum concentration. In particular, konjac gum at 0.6% among other gums showed the highest rheological parameter values. Tan δ values of WBF-xanthan gum mixtures were lower than those of other gums, showing that there is a more pronounced synergistic effect on the elastic properties of WBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Such synergistic effect was hypothesized by considering thermodynamic compatibility between xanthan gum and WBF. These rheological results suggest that in the WBF-gum mixture systems, the addition of gums modified the flow and viscoelastic properties of WBF, and that these modifications were dependent on the type of gum and gum concentration. PMID:28401089

  17. Nicotine Gum

    MedlinePlus

    Nicotine chewing gum is used to help people stop smoking cigarettes. Nicotine chewing gum should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Bleeding gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... periodontal exam. DO NOT use tobacco, since it makes bleeding gums worse. Control gum bleeding by applying pressure directly on the gums with a gauze pad soaked in ice water. If you have been diagnosed with a ...

  19. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum.... The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in Sec. 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum arabic) in food. Under 21 CFR 171...

  20. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  1. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  2. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  3. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... valida Jepson Orobanche vallicola (Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  4. Application of cashew tree gum on the production and stability of spray-dried fish oil.

    PubMed

    Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Antoniassi, Rosemar; de Faria-Machado, Adelia Ferreira; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa de Andrade; de Paula, Regina Celia Monteiro

    2017-04-15

    Evaluation of cashew gum compared to conventional materials was conducted regarding properties and oxidative stability of spray-dried fish oil. Emulsions produced with cashew gum showed lower viscosity when compared to Arabic gum. The particle size was larger (29.9μm) when cashew gum was used, and the encapsulation efficiency reached 76%, similar to that of modified starch but higher than that for Arabic gum (60%). The oxidation process for the surface oil was conducted and a relative lower formation of oxidation compounds was observed for the cashew gum treatment. GAB model was chosen to describe the moisture adsorption isotherm behaviours. Microparticles produced using Arabic and cashew gums showed greater water adsorption when exposed to higher relative humidities. Microparticles produced using cashew gum were more hygroscopic however encapsulation efficiency were higher and surface oil oxidation were less pronounced. Cashew gum can be further explored as an encapuslant material for spray drying processes.

  5. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee-oh-don-TY-tus), a more advanced form of gum disease. With periodontitis, gums become weakened and form pockets around the ...

  6. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  7. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gum (Periodontal) Disease What Is Gum (Periodontal) Disease? An Infection of the Gums and Surrounding Tissues Gum (periodontal) disease is an infection of the gums and surrounding ...

  8. Plant gum identification in historic artworks

    PubMed Central

    Granzotto, Clara; Arslanoglu, Julie; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    We describe an integrated and straightforward new analytical protocol that identifies plant gums from various sample sources including cultural heritage. Our approach is based on the identification of saccharidic fingerprints using mass spectrometry following controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. We developed an enzyme cocktail suitable for plant gums of unknown composition. Distinctive MS profiles of gums such as arabic, cherry and locust-bean gums were successfully identified. A wide range of oligosaccharidic combinations of pentose, hexose, deoxyhexose and hexuronic acid were accurately identified in gum arabic whereas cherry and locust bean gums showed respectively PentxHexy and Hexn profiles. Optimized for low sample quantities, the analytical protocol was successfully applied to contemporary and historic samples including ‘Colour Box Charles Roberson & Co’ dating 1870s and drawings from the American painter Arthur Dove (1880–1946). This is the first time that a gum is accurately identified in a cultural heritage sample using structural information. Furthermore, this methodology is applicable to other domains (food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, biomedical). PMID:28425501

  9. Gum biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sealed off with an electric current or laser. This is called electrocauterization . After the numbness wears ... Images Gum biopsy Tooth anatomy References Ellis E. Principles of differential diagnosis and biopsy. In: Hupp JR, ...

  10. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gingivitis, to serious damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you ... pockets that become infected. If not treated, the bones, gums and connective tissue that support the teeth ...

  11. Gums - swollen

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Gum Disease Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  12. Acacia koa A. Gray

    Treesearch

    James A. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Acacia koa is one of three closely related species native to the Hawaiian Islands, where it is found on all the main islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe. It grows in almost pure stands, in mixed koa-ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich.) stands, and in association with a variety of other tree species (Whitesell 1990).

  13. Assessment of ferula Gummosa gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Enauyatifard, Reza; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Fadakar, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) is one of the natural plants of Iran. The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin "galbanum". A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents--polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia--on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p < 0.05) and the friability percent was of the reverse order (p < 0.05). The ranking for the dissolution rate of tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:24741276

  15. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-04-01

    Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation.

  16. 7 CFR 319.75-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States. Plant gum. Any of numerous colloidal polysaccharide substances of plant origin that are gelatinous when moist but harden on drying. Plant gums include but are not limited to acacia gum, guar gum, gum arabic, locust gum and tragacanth gum. Plant pest. The egg, pupal, and larval stages as well as...

  17. DAMASCUS ARABIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FERGUSON, CHARLES A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AS A TEXTBOOK FOR AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN THE SPOKEN ARABIC LANGUAGE OF DAMASCUS, SYRIA. CONTAINED IN THE TEXT ARE DETAILED GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION, STRUCTURAL AND PRONUNCIATION INFORMATION, AND A CUMULATIVE ARABIC-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. (JH)

  18. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum). (a) Karaya gum (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy exudate from the trunk of trees of various species of the genus...

  19. Gelation and thermal characteristics of microwave extracted fish gelatin-natural gum composite gels.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Joshy, C G; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the gelation and thermal characteristics of microwave extracted fish scale gelatin blended with natural gums such as gum arabic (AG), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), and tragacanth gum (TG) was evaluated. The nature of interaction and behavior of gelatin in presence of various gums was confirmed by particle size analysis, viscosity profile, FT-IR analysis and turbidity measurements. DSC data revealed that addition of AG, TG and GG remarkably improved the thermal stability of fish gelatin gel. The composite gels of TG, AG, and XG exhibited higher hardness and bloom strength values as compared to pure fish gelatin implying its textural synergy. Based on qualitative descriptive analysis, TG was found to be superior in improving the stability of fish gelatin gel, closely followed by AG. The results suggest that addition of these gums can reduce syneresis and retard melting of gelatin gels at ambient temperature, which are otherwise soft and thermally unstable.

  20. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia–sugar–calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums’ weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Results: Most formulations released 79–83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F19-SC and F20-SC, respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking. PMID:23326788

  1. Gum Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Consumption and Gum Health Workshop on Regeneration Periodontal Disease More Prevalent among Ethnic Minorities Dental Implants Periodontal ... and Men Gum Disease In Children Peri-implant Diseases Comprehensive ... Evaluation Periodontal Treatments and Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal ...

  2. Gum Graft Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Consumption and Gum Health Workshop on Regeneration Periodontal Disease More Prevalent among Ethnic Minorities Dental Implants Periodontal ... and Men Gum Disease In Children Peri-implant Diseases Comprehensive ... Evaluation Periodontal Treatments and Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal ...

  3. Hepatic responses to edible gums during refeeding of starved rats.

    PubMed

    Osilesi, O; Trout, D L; Knight, E

    1988-04-01

    The ability of edible gums to depress total liver lipids and activities of two hepatic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP-linked malic enzyme) was examined during the refeeding of 2 d starved rats. Gums were fed as 4% of dry ingredients, occasionally with added water, in otherwise identical high glucose, nutritionally adequate diets. Feeding of xantham gum for 1 or 2 d decreased the rise in two enzyme activities and in total liver lipids, but after 4 or 7 d only total liver lipids were affected. Agar, which is insoluble at room temperature, was effective only when incorporated in the diet as a stiff gel. Guar, carrageenan, karaya and pectin reduced the change in at least one hepatic parameter, but acacia and gum ghatti, which impart little viscosity to water, were without effect. The ability of seven gums to form semisolid gels at low concentrations was measured and appeared to be associated with the variable effectiveness of those gums in influencing lipid contents and enzyme activities of the liver.

  4. Comparative viscoelasticity studies: Corn fiber gum versus commercial polysaccharide emulsifiers in bulk and at air/liquid interfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A comparative study of both the bulk and air/liquid interfacial rheological responses was carried out by using four kinds of high molecular weight and highly branched polysaccharide emulsifiers, (a) corn fiber gum (CFG), (b) octenyl succinate anhydride-modified starch (OSA-s), (c) gum arabic (GA) an...

  5. Pharmacognostic studies of gums collected from aprocot trees growing in Armenia and perspectives of their use.

    PubMed

    Chichoyan, N

    2009-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides are widely used in the food and confectionary industries, as an emulsifier, flavour encapsulator, and thickening agent. The apricot tree has a gum that oozes out in the spring and it seems to be a lot like gum Arabic. Gums collected from apricot trees growing in Armenia (RA) are considered as exudates of ecological significance. Besides, in food industry it can entirely replace the more expensive gum Arabic as well as its synthetic derivatives. Periodically organized resource potential studies in the regions of RA gives the opportunity to have an exact notion of biological and utilized resources of gums as a natural exudates of cultivated apricot trees of the country. The study was conducted on gums collected from the apricot trees of Armavir region (Armavir, Edjmiatsin, Baghramyan) that were purified by general physical methods without any chemical or enzymatic influence. According to obtained results--from one apricot tree was collected 54.15+/- 4.41 g/m(2), the biological resource of apricot gum was 45 ton. We also determined the quantities of Mg, K and Ca in apricot gum by atomic--absorptive method (Mg - 18 mg/kg; Ca - 5.8 mg/kg; K - 15.7 mg/kg). The study results also revealed that addition of gummi armeniaca increases the yeast biomass up to 55%. According to above mentioned and the great resources of raw material of apricot tree gum it can be approved its usage in the food industry in Armenia.

  6. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Treesearch

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  7. Modulating Effects of Arabinogalactans from Plant Gum Exudates on Human Complement System.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Lenzi, R M; Yamassaki, F T; Messias-Reason, I J; Campestrini, L H; Stevan, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Maurer, J B B

    2016-05-01

    Gum arabic and cashew nut tree gum exudate polysaccharide (CNTG) are plant polysaccharides composed of galactose and arabinose known as arabinogalactans (AGs). Although these fractions are used in food and pharmaceutical industry, cases of allergic reactions were described in clinical reports. As AGs were reported as modulators of the classical (CP) and alternative pathways (AP) of complement system (CS), in the present work, we investigate whether gum arabic and CNTG have an effect on both CS pathways. The complement fixation tests were performed with (CP-30 and AP-30) and without pre-incubation (CP-0 and AP-0). For CP-30, CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed a reduction of 28.0% (P = 0.000174) and 48.5% (P = 0.000143), respectively, on CP-induced haemolysis. However, no effect was observed for CP-0 in the CP-induced haemolysis. For AP-30, both CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed 87% reduction on the CP-induced haemolysis, with IC50 values of 100 and 7 μg/ml, respectively. For AP-0, a reduction of 11.3% for gum arabic and no effect for the CNTG on the CP-induced haemolysis were observed. These results suggested that gum arabic and CNTG could be acting as activators of the CS. Thus, this effect on the CS, especially on the AP, which accounts for up to 80-90% of total CS activation, indicates that both fractions may be harmful because of their potential pro-inflammatory action. Considering that CS activation induces inflammatory response, further studies confirming this immunomodulatory effect of these fractions are required to insure their safe use.

  8. Immune reactivities against gums.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Different kinds of gums from various sources enjoy an extremely broad range of commercial and industrial use, from food and pharmaceuticals to printing and adhesives. Although generally recognized as safe by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), gums have a history of association with sensitive or allergic reactions. In addition, studies have shown that gums have a structural, molecular similarity to a number of common foods. A possibility exists for cross-reactivity. Due to the widespread use of gums in almost every aspect of modern life, the overall goal of the current investigation was to determine the degree of immune reactivity to various gum antigens in the sera of individuals representing the general population. The study was a randomized, controlled trial. 288 sera purchased from a commercial source. The sera was screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against extracts of mastic gum, carrageenan, xantham gum, guar gum, gum tragacanth, locust bean gum, and β-glucan, using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. For each gum antigen, inhibition testing was performed on the 4 sera that showed the highest IgG and IgE immune reactivity against the different gums used in the study. Inhibition testing on these same sera for sesame albumin, lentil, corn, rice, pineapple, peanut, pea protein, shrimp, or kidney bean was used to determine the cross-reactivity of these foods with the gum. Of the 288 samples, 4.2%-27% of the specimens showed a significant elevation in IgG antibodies against various gums. Only 4 of 288, or 1.4%, showed a simultaneous elevation of the IgG antibody against all 7 gum extracts. For the IgE antibody, 15.6%-29.1% of the specimens showed an elevation against the various gums. A significant percentage of the specimens, 12.8%, simultaneously produced IgE antibodies against all 7 tested extracts. Overall, the percentage of elevation in IgE antibodies against different gum extracts, with

  9. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxesas an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  10. Exploring the relationship between nanoscale dynamics and macroscopic rheology in natural polymer gums.

    PubMed

    Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Narayanan, Suresh; Leheny, Robert L; Sandy, Alec R

    2016-11-23

    We report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum solutions exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shear thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.

  11. Assessment of cassia gum.

    PubMed

    Hallagan, J B; La Du, B N; Pariza, M W; Putnam, J M; Borzelleca, J F

    1997-06-01

    Cassia gum is approved for use in Europe by the Commission Directive (EEC No. E 499) and is listed in the Annex of the Council Directive (70/524/EEC) as a stabilizer (thickening and gelling agent) in the manufacture of canned pet foods (for cats and dogs). It is also approved for use in Japan and is listed as a food additive in The Ministry of Health and Welfare Announcement No. 160 (10 August 1995). A panel of experts in the areas of toxicology, pharmacology and food science was assembled to review the safety of cassia gum for use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods in the United States. The available data on cassia gum and structurally related gums demonstrate a lack of toxic effects in animals. This review is the basis for the consideration of cassia gum as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of its intended use as a thickening agent in human and pet foods.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of polysaccharide gums in foods after hydrolysis and derivatization.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J F; Iyengar, J R

    1985-12-20

    A gas chromatographic method was evaluated for the determination of food grade gums in dairy products, salad dressings and meat sauces. The gums studied were tragacanth, karaya, ghatti, carob, guar, arabic and xanthan gum. The extraction method included removal of fat followed by starch degradation then precipitation of protein. The isolated gums were hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid and the resulting neutral monosaccharides converted to their aldonitrile acetate derivatives for determination by gas chromatography. Recoveries from thirteen different commodities averaged 85%. However, the recovery of guar gum from ice cream and cold pack cheese was 42 and 50%, respectively. In a comparison of enzyme hydrolysis and iodine complexation for the removal of starch the former was simpler and provided cleaner extracts than the iodine treatment. Both gave similar results.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-01-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (hT(cpSSR)=0.903–0.948) and population differentiation (GST(RFLP)=0.700–0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (GST(cpSSR)=0.392; RST=0.673; RST>RST (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene. PMID:22929152

  14. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion.

    PubMed

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-12-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (h(T(cpSSR))=0.903-0.948) and population differentiation (G(ST(RFLP))=0.700-0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (G(ST(cpSSR))=0.392; R(ST)=0.673; R(ST)>R(ST) (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene.

  15. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Consumption and Gum Health Workshop on Regeneration Periodontal Disease More Prevalent among Ethnic Minorities Dental Implants Periodontal ... of other health factors. Research has found that periodontal disease is higher in men (56.4 percent) than ...

  16. Gum Disease in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of gum disease in children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. ... cause the teeth to become loose. Signs of periodontal disease Four basic signs will alert you to periodontal ...

  17. Gum Disease and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Consumption and Gum Health Workshop on Regeneration Periodontal Disease More Prevalent among Ethnic Minorities Dental Implants Periodontal ... suggested the possibility of an additional risk factor – periodontal disease. Pregnant women who have periodontal disease may be ...

  18. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  19. What Happens to Swallowed Gum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... made of either natural or synthetic materials (gum resin), preservatives, flavorings, and sweeteners. The body can absorb ... human digestive tract can't digest the gum resin. It's moved through the digestive tract by the ...

  20. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses.

  1. What Happens to Swallowed Gum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gums that are not sugar free can cause cavities . Sugar-free gum sweetened with sorbitol also can be a problem because it can cause diarrhea. Cinnamon-flavored gums of any kind may irritate the mouth lining. They can be hot and spicy in your mouth, as you probably know. A good rule would be to ...

  2. Arabic Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Zahiruddin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the processing of Arabic materials at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia) library and describes the creation of an Arabic online catalog that supplements the catalog for non-Arabic materials. User needs are reviewed, library automation is discussed, and search strategies in the Arabic catalog are described.…

  3. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. The Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The distance from the sun to the center of the star, Gamma Velorium, is determined in an effort to draw a physical model and identify the ionized energy source of the Gum nebula. The distance is calculated from the local hydrogen density of radio astronomy studies and the hydrogen measure.

  5. Effectiveness of almond gum trees exudate as a novel edible coating for improving postharvest quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Chouaibi, Moncef; Hamdi, Salem

    2014-01-01

    The use of coatings is a technique used to increase postharvest life of the fruit. Almond gum exudate was used, in comparison with gum arabic, at concentrations of 10% as a novel edible coating, to preserve the quality parameters of tomato (Solanumlycopersicum). Fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage of ripening. Results showed that the coatings delayed significantly (p < 0.05) the changes in color, weight loss, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids concentration, and decay percentage compared to uncoated control fruits. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of 10% almond gum and gum arabic coatings to maintain the overall quality of tomato fruits during storage period (20 days). In addition, the difference between gum arabic and almond gum coatings was not significant (p > 0.05) except for pulp color. Therefore, we can suggest the use of almond gum exudate as a novel edible coating extends the shelf-life of tomato fruits on postharvest.

  6. Exploring the relationship between nanoscale dynamics and macroscopic rheology in natural polymer gums

    DOE PAGES

    Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C.; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Here, we report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shearmore » thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.« less

  7. Exploring the relationship between nanoscale dynamics and macroscopic rheology in natural polymer gums

    SciTech Connect

    Grein-Iankovski, Aline; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C.; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F.; Narayanan, Suresh; Leheny, Robert L.; Sandy, Alec R.

    2016-11-02

    Here, we report a study connecting the nanoscale and macroscale structure and dynamics of Acacia mearnsii gum as probed by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and rheology. Acacia gum, in general, is a complex polysaccharide used extensively in industry. Over the analyzed concentration range (15 to 30 wt%) the A. mearnsii gum is found to have a gel-like linear rheology and to exhibit shear thinning flow behavior under steady shear. The gum exhibited a steadily increasing elastic modulus with increasing time after they were prepared and also the emergence of shear thickening events within the shear thinning behavior, characteristic of associative polymers. XPCS measurements using gold nanoparticles as tracers were used to explore the microscopic dynamics within the biopolymer gels and revealed a two-step relaxation process with a partial decay at inaccessibly short times, suggesting caged motion of the nanoparticles, followed by a slow decay at later delay times. Non-diffusive motion evidenced by a compressed exponential line shape and an inverse relationship between relaxation time and wave vector characterizes the slow dynamics of A. mearnsii gum gels. Surprisingly, we have determined that the nanometer-scale mean square displacement of the nanoparticles showed a close relationship to the values predicted from the macroscopic elastic properties of the material, obtained through the rheology experiments. Our results demonstrate the potential applicability of the XPCS technique in the natural polymers field to connect their macroscale properties with their nanoscale structure and dynamics.

  8. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ofloxacin Tablets using Natural Gums as Binders.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Amisha K; Nagda, Chirag D; Nagda, Dhruti C; Dixit, Bharat C; Dixit, Ritu B

    2014-01-01

    Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent 'n' were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation.

  9. Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ofloxacin Tablets using Natural Gums as Binders

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Amisha K.; Nagda, Chirag D.; Nagda, Dhruti C.; Dixit, Bharat C.; Dixit, Ritu B.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gums are economical, easily available, and useful as tablet binders. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate Ofloxacin tablets using three natural binders, namely Acacia arabica, Hibiscus esculentus, and xanthan gum. Such six batches of Ofloxacin tablets were prepared by using different types and amounts of the natural binders by the wet granulation method. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, and weight variation, and in vitro release was performed in a phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The prepared tablets were also evaluated for their various release kinetics and similarity factors f2. The physical properties of the tablets containing the natural binders showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time, and low friability. Their better percentage of drug release was observed as compared to the marketed formulation showing more than 85% drug release within 45 minutes. The in vitro release data was well-fitted into zero-order and the values of release exponent ‘n’ were between 0.303 and 0.514. The high similarity factor f2 of 64.50 was achieved with the best batch in comparison to the marketed tablets. The results obtained indicated that the gum Acacia arabica performed as well as gelatin compared to the other binders for the Ofloxacin tablet formulation. PMID:24959411

  10. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated, it can advance to gum disease called periodontitis. In periodontitis, the gums pull away from the teeth and ... tissue that hold the teeth in place. If periodontitis is not treated, the gums, bones, and tissue ...

  11. Synonymy in Jordanian Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomoush, Omar Ibrahim Salameh

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of synonymy in Jordanian Arabic. It has been assumed that synonymy in Jordanian Arabic has partial rather than complete synonymy. This means that the abundance of Jordanian Arabic in synonyms can be attributed to a number of explanations, namely dialectical variations, the speaker's attitude, and origin…

  12. Arab Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar'i, Sami Khalil

    Arab education in Israel and sociocultural, socioeconomic and political issues of being a minority in Israel are considered in this book. Arab education in Israel is traced from elementary to university levels, and from its historical background to its present administration. Numerous Arabic, English, and Hebrew studies in education are analyzed,…

  13. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184.1349 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  14. Black Gum Mortality (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    A large number of black gum trees (Nyssa Sylvatica) have been found dying in North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia. The observed trees have been in the mountains of these States. The trees are often associated with dogwood trees infected with Disculd sp., which causes dogwood anthracnose. The symptoms on black gums include leaf spots, leaf blotches, leaves...

  15. Enzymatically-treated guar gums

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.H.; Srivastava, V.K.

    1987-07-28

    A method is described of recovering oil from an oil bearing formation by fracturing the step of inserting into the formation, at high pressure, an aqueous composition comprising guar gum in water. The guar gum is first coated and impregnated, while in the solid particulate state, with an aqueous solution of a hydrolytic enzyme.

  16. The Gum Nebula.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.

    1971-01-01

    A historical review of observations on the Gum Nebula is given together with a survey of knowledge on its size, emission features, and dynamics of expansion. The ultraviolet spectrum of Zeta Puppis is examined in terms of features caused by various absorption lines, and radio emission from Vela X is analyzed, together with the effects of nebular plasma on the propagation of radio pulses from pulsars in the Nebula. The density distribution and the possibility of being produced by the Vela X supernova are discussed.

  17. Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. Baker; Paul G. Scowcroft; John J. Ewel

    2009-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the...

  18. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Treesearch

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum. (a) Product. Sterculia gum (karaya gum). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. Gum chewing during pre-anesthetic fasting.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    Many ad hoc fasting guidelines for pre-anesthetic patients prohibit gum chewing. We find no evidence that gum chewing during pre-anesthetic fasting increases the volume or acidity of gastric juice in a manner that increases risk, nor that the occasional associated unreported swallowing of gum risks subsequent aspiration. On the contrary, there is evidence that gum chewing promotes gastrointestinal motility and physiologic gastric emptying. Recommendations against pre-anesthetic gum chewing do not withstand scrutiny and miss an opportunity to enhance comfort and sense of wellbeing for patients awaiting anesthesia. Gum chewing during the pre-anesthetic nil per os (NPO) period would also permit the development of gum-delivered premedications and should be permitted in children old enough to chew gum safely. Gum chewing should cease when sedatives are given and all patients should be instructed to remove any chewing gum from the mouth immediately prior to anesthetic induction.

  1. Properties of Delonix regia seed gum as a novel tablet binder.

    PubMed

    Adetogun, Gbadegesin E; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets formulated using Delonix regia seed gum (DRSG) as a binder have been studied in this work. Acacia BP (ACG) and tragacanth BP (TRG) were used as official gum standards. The mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength (TS) and brittle fracture index (BFI), showed that with an increase in concentration of the gum binder, the tensile strength increased while the BFI was reduced. The crushing strength - friability/disintegration time ratio used to analyze the disintegration properties gave a rank order: tablets containing DRSG > tablets containing ACG > tablets containing TRG at 1%, w/w binder concentration while for higher binder concentrations, the rank order is: tablets containing ACG > tablets containing TRG > tablets containing DRSG. The results suggest that while Delonix regia seed gum may be useful as a binder, its use at a low concentration will improve the balance between the binding and disintegration properties of tablets when a faster disintegration is desired, while its use at a high concentration could serve the desire for a modified or sustained release tablet formulation.

  2. The effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque and clinical parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Keukenmeester, R S; Slot, D E; Putt, M S; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the present literature to establish the clinical effect of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum on plaque indices and parameters of gingival inflammation. MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to April 2012 to identify appropriate studies. Included studies used an intervention of medicated, sugar-free chewing gum containing antimicrobial agents or herbal extracts compared with a control gum. Plaque and gingivitis scores were selected as outcome variables. Independent screening of 594 unique titles and abstracts identified 10 non-brushing and four brushing studies that met the eligibility criteria. Means and standard deviations were extracted. A sufficient number of studies evaluated chlorhexidine gum to perform a meta-analysis. Although this review provides evidence for the comparative effectiveness of chewing gums containing various ingredients, the results must be weighed carefully against the methods that were used to assess their outcomes. Most of the chewing gums with antimicrobial agents or herbal extracts were shown to have a positive effect with respect to plaque and gingivitis scores. The most compelling evidence was provided for chewing gum containing chlorhexidine. Meta-analysis and individual results indicate a beneficial effect of chlorhexidine on plaque inhibition. However, GRADE evidence profile shows that the recommendation to use CHX-gum to reduce plaque scores in the absence of brushing is considered to be 'weak'. Other ingredients with positive outcomes on plaque scores are eucalyptus, acacia, funoran, Pycnogenol and mastic. Limited data with respect to gingivitis scores were available, and the following agents showed a positive effect: magnolia, eucalyptus and CHX. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reproduction of Acacia koa after Fire

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Hulton B. Wood

    1976-01-01

    The abundance, distribution, growth, and mortality of koa (Acacia koa Gray) seedlings after fires were monitored periodically on two burned areas on Oahu for 2.5 years. On one area, seedling density peaked at 95,300/ha 6 months after the fire; 21 months later it had declined to 18,500/ha. On the other area, peak seedling density occurred at 2 -...

  4. Enhancing arabic bread quality and shelf life stability using bread improvers.

    PubMed

    Aleid, S M; Al-Hulaibi, A A; Ghoush, M Abu; Al-Shathri, A A

    2015-08-01

    Arabic breads is produced mainly from hard red winter wheat (HRWW) and have relatively little crumb, dense texture, form pocket and are often round with golden brown crust color. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of different bread improvers combinations addition in enhancing the quality parameters of Arabic bread. Therefore, the ability of Arabic bread for rolling, folding and overall quality were evaluated during the Arabic bread storage period for 2 days. It was found that there was significant effect of bread improvers combinations (Arabic gum "AG" * Mongglycerides "MG" *alpha-amylase) addition on the ability of Arabic bread for rolling and folding on the second day (P ≤ 0.1). The highest white Arabic bread quality was obtained significantly from addition of low AG, high of MG and high alpha-amylase combination and high AG, low of MG and high alpha-amylase combination. While, low of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination and high of AG, high of MG and low alpha-amylase combination significantly exhibited the highest overall quality for the Arabic bread made from whole flour.

  5. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-02

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible.

  6. Teaching Science Subjects in Arabic: Arab University Scientists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Arab university scientists' views of the status of English and Arabic in the 21st century, and their attitudes towards using English and Arabic as media of instruction in science faculties in the Arab world. Twenty-seven science instructors at a Saudi University coming from different backgrounds responded to a written…

  7. The Teaching of Arabic in the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khater, Mahmoud Roushdi

    The methods and objectives of teaching Arabic in the Arab world are outlined here. In elementary school (ages 6-12) about 1/3 of the instructional time is allotted to teaching Arabic. It aims to provide the child with basic skills in reading, conversation and writing. The speech taught is that of modern Arabic used by educated speakers. Reading…

  8. Teaching Science Subjects in Arabic: Arab University Scientists' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Arab university scientists' views of the status of English and Arabic in the 21st century, and their attitudes towards using English and Arabic as media of instruction in science faculties in the Arab world. Twenty-seven science instructors at a Saudi University coming from different backgrounds responded to a written…

  9. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  10. Arab American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  11. Verbal Complementizers in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Hossam Eldin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A class of Modern Standard Arabic complementizers known as "'?inna' and its sisters" demonstrate unique case and word order restrictions. While CPs in Arabic allow both Subject-Verb (SV) and Verb-Subject (VS) word order and their subjects show nominative morphology, CPs introduced by "?inna" ban a verb from directly following…

  12. Arab American Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  13. Chewing gum bezoars of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Milov, D E; Andres, J M; Erhart, N A; Bailey, D J

    1998-08-01

    Children have chewed gum since the Stone Age. Black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in Northern Europe dating from approximately 7000 BC (Middle Stone Age) to 2000 BC (Bronze Age). The bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. The Greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). North American Indians chewed spruce gum. The first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, derived from the Sopadilla tree, indigenous to Central America. Chewing gum sold today is a mixture of natural and synthetic gums and resins, with added color and flavor sweetened with corn syrup and sugar. Chewing gum is big business. A significant amount of the $21 billion US candy industry sales is from chewing gums, many of which appeal almost exclusively to children. Despite the history and prevalence of gum chewing, the medical literature contains very little information about the adverse effects of chewing gum. In the present report, we briefly review gum-chewing complications and describe three children who developed intestinal tract and esophageal obstruction as a consequence of swallowing gum.

  14. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Treesearch

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  16. Modern Standard Arabic vs. Non-Standard Arabic: Where Do Arab Students of EFL Transfer From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) by Arabic-speaking secondary school students. To see which variety students transferred from, they were asked to translate into English two versions of a short Arabic text: one Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and the other non-standard Arabic (NSA). Results indicate the importance of…

  17. Modern Standard Arabic vs. Non-Standard Arabic: Where Do Arab Students of EFL Transfer From?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) by Arabic-speaking secondary school students. To see which variety students transferred from, they were asked to translate into English two versions of a short Arabic text: one Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and the other non-standard Arabic (NSA). Results indicate the importance of…

  18. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  20. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  1. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  2. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  3. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of the...

  4. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1.02 to 1.45. (3) Positive for xanthan gum when subjected to the following procedure: Locust Bean Gum Gel Test Blend on a weighing paper or in a weighing pan 1.0 gram of powdered locust bean gum with 1.0 gram of the powdered polysaccharide to be tested. Add the blend slowly (approximately 1/2...

  5. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1.02 to 1.45. (3) Positive for xanthan gum when subjected to the following procedure: Locust Bean Gum Gel Test Blend on a weighing paper or in a weighing pan 1.0 gram of powdered locust bean gum with 1.0 gram of the powdered polysaccharide to be tested. Add the blend slowly (approximately 1/2...

  6. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1.02 to 1.45. (3) Positive for xanthan gum when subjected to the following procedure: Locust Bean Gum Gel Test Blend on a weighing paper or in a weighing pan 1.0 gram of powdered locust bean gum with 1.0 gram of the powdered polysaccharide to be tested. Add the blend slowly (approximately 1/2...

  7. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1.02 to 1.45. (3) Positive for xanthan gum when subjected to the following procedure: Locust Bean Gum Gel Test Blend on a weighing paper or in a weighing pan 1.0 gram of powdered locust bean gum with 1.0 gram of the powdered polysaccharide to be tested. Add the blend slowly (approximately 1/2...

  8. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti. (a) Product. Gum ghatti. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Gum guaiac. (a) Product. Gum guaiac. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent (equivalent antioxidant activity...

  12. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads.

  13. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of products from on-line pyrolysis/silylation of plant gums used as binding media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiantore, Oscar; Riedo, Chiara; Scalarone, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Plant gums are complex polysaccharides used in the field of cultural heritage especially as binding media. Classification of polysaccharides may be achieved on the basis of monosaccharides composition after cleavage of glycosidic bond. Characterization of plant gums in works of art is complicated by the necessity of to use a method minimally invasive and requiring a small mount of sample. Pyrolisys is an useful method to obtain polysaccharides decomposition and generally pyrolysis products can be identified by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This paper describes a method where two plant gums, arabic and tragacanth, were pyrolized in presence of silylating agents (HMDS e BSTFA alone and with TMCS as catalyst) using an on-line Py-GC/MS apparatus. Some characteristic trimethylsilyl derivatives of monosaccharides were identified on the basis of mass spectra. The presence of characteristic pyrolysis products of sugars allows to distinguish the two gums.

  14. Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: phylogeny and divergence times.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Rico-Arce, Lourdes; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Magallón, Susana; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44+/-1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58+/-0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  16. The Arabic Language; Its Role in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chejne, Anwar G.

    This book reviews the position Arabic has traditionally occupied in Arab-Muslim society, and its role in the task of building a nation state. The work is aimed to aid students of Arabic and Arabic lore and add to a greater understanding of the historical factors which made Arabic a revered language in Arabic-Muslim cultural and religious…

  17. GumTree: Data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-11-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  18. In the Arab Bedroom: The Sex Life of Arabs.

    PubMed

    Dupont, P

    2016-12-01

    The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki's book "Sex and the Citadel" is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world.

  19. FIRST LEVEL ARABIC, ELEMENTARY LITERARY ARABIC FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; RAMMUNY, RAJI M.

    THIS PUBLICATION REPRESENTS A 1-YEAR COURSE IN LITERARY ARABIC FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL. AN AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH IS TAKEN, EMPHASIZING, AT FIRST, ORAL COMMUNICATION AND CORRECT PRONUNCIATION, AND INTRODUCING ARABIC SCRIPT AFTER SPOKEN LANGUAGE ELEMENTS ARE MASTERED. (GD)

  20. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  1. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Kun, Jun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Kang, Li Hua

    2015-10-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (T m).

  2. In vitro effect of condensed tannin extract from acacia (Acacia mearnsii) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Minho, Alessandro P; Bueno, Ives Cláudio Da S; Gennari, Solange Maria; Jackson, Frank; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of condensed tannin extract from acacia on the feeding of first-stage larvae (L1) of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. The experiment was developed such that the inhibition of feeding for each of the nematode species could be evaluated. L1 recovered from fecal samples from a donor with monospecific infection was incubated in several dilutions of acacia extract (AE). The LD50 was determined for the three species of nematodes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added to all dilutions of AE to inactivate the condensed tannins (CT) from acacia and to confirm their effects on L1. The impact of CT on larval feeding inhibition was detected for all the species of nematodes (H. contortus, T. colubriformis and T. circumcincta). There were differences between the aqueouswater control and CT treated groups (P < 0.01). The LD50 values were 0.043, 0.038 and 0.050 (SE = 0.0024), for H. contortus, T. vitrinus and T. circumcincta, respectively. A difference was detected between the AE and AE + PEG treatments (P < 0.01). Analysis of these results suggested that the direct effect of CT on L1 of the nematodes studied could be used as an alternative means for controlling nematodes in sheep.

  3. Arab American Journalism and Its Relation to Arab American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melki, Henry H.

    Because of the influence which the Arab press in the U.S. had on Arab literature, it was thought advisable to record a history of its development and find the relation between the two. Ten different newspapers and magazines that directly relate to Arabic literature were examined: "Kawkab Amerika,""Al-Huda,""Mer'at…

  4. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  5. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  6. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  7. Arab Education Going Medieval: Sanitizing Western Representation in Arab Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labidi, Imed

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the events of September 11, 2000, debate about Arab education as the new apparatus for religious fanaticism used by Arab extremist groups to entice hate and violence against the West took prominence in Western discourse. Considerable ink was spilled confusing hostile narratives in Arab curricula and the metaphors of identity…

  8. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jess R; Bezance, Jessica B; Zellaby, Ella; Aggleton, John P

    2004-10-01

    Two experiments examined whether chewing spearmint gum can affect the initial learning or subsequent recall of a word list. Comparing those participants in Experiment 1 who chewed gum at the learning or the recall phases showed that chewing gum at initial learning was associated with superior recall. In addition, chewing gum led to context-dependent effects as a switch between gum and no gum (or no gum and gum) between learning and recall led to poorer performance. Experiment 2 provided evidence that sucking gum was sufficient to induce some of the same effects as chewing.

  9. Assessing DNA recovery from chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Eychner, Alison M; Schott, Kelly M; Elkins, Kelly M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which DNA extraction method yields the highest quantity of DNA from chewing gum. In this study, several popular extraction methods were tested, including Chelex-100, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCIA), DNA IQ, PrepFiler, and QIAamp Investigator, and the quantity of DNA recovered from chewing gum was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction with Quantifiler. Chewed gum control samples were submitted by anonymous healthy adult donors, and discarded environmental chewing gum samples simulating forensic evidence were collected from outside public areas (e.g., campus bus stops, streets, and sidewalks). As expected, results indicate that all methods tested yielded sufficient amplifiable human DNA from chewing gum using the wet-swab method. The QIAamp performed best when DNA was extracted from whole pieces of control gum (142.7 ng on average), and the DNA IQ method performed best on the environmental whole gum samples (29.0 ng on average). On average, the QIAamp kit also recovered the most DNA from saliva swabs. The PCIA method demonstrated the highest yield with wet swabs of the environmental gum (26.4 ng of DNA on average). However, this method should be avoided with whole gum samples (no DNA yield) due to the action of the organic reagents in dissolving and softening the gum and inhibiting DNA recovery during the extraction.

  10. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Elisabeth N.; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

  11. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific.

  12. Colin Gum and the discovery of the Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    The research of Colin Gum in the field of astronomy is reviewed. It includes a radio survey at 200 MHz, a photographic survey for HII regions in the Southern Milky Way from longitude 220 deg to 20 deg, and a catalogue of 85 physically separate regions. He suggested that certain faint nebulosities were part of a large, nearby H II region excited by gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis. He was also concerned with 21-cm studies.

  13. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial Senegalia (Acacia) senegal/iron-silica bio-nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şişmanoğlu, Tuba; Karakuş, Selcan; Birer, Özgür; Soylu, Gülin Selda Pozan; Kolan, Ayşen; Tan, Ezgi; Ürk, Öykü; Akdut, Gizem; Kilislioglu, Ayben

    2015-11-01

    Many studies that research bio-nanocomposites utilize techniques that involve the dispersion of strengthening components like silica, metal and metal oxides through a host biopolymer matrix. The biggest success factor for the bio-nanocomposite is having a smooth integration of organic and inorganic phases. This interattraction between the surfaces of inorganic particles and organic molecules are vital for good dispersion. In this study, a novel biodegradable antibacterial material was developed using gum arabic from Senegalia senegal (stabilizer), silica (structure reinforcer) and zero valent iron particles. Silica particles work to not only strengthen the mechanical properties of the Senegalia senegal but also prevent the accumulation of ZVI nanoparticles due to attraction between hydroxyl groups and FeO. The gum arabic/Fe-SiO2 bio-nanocomposite showed effective antibacterial property against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Using Scanning electron microscopy, homogeneous dispersion and uniform particle size was viewed in the biopolymer. X-ray diffraction studies of iron particles organization in Senegalia senegal also showed that the main portion of iron was crystalline and in the form of FeO and Fe0. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the surface but no appreciable peak was measured for the iron before Ar etching. These results suggest that the surface of iron nanoparticles consist mainly of a layer of iron oxides in the form of FeO. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to determine the thermal stability and absorbed moisture content.

  14. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure for analysis of monosaccharides from plant gum binders.

    PubMed

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Pluháček, Tomáš; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel

    2017-10-09

    The ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/MS) procedure for analysis of native monosaccharides was developed. Chromatographic conditions were investigated to separate a mixture of four hexoses, three pentoses, two deoxyhexoses and two uronic acids. Increasing water content in methanol modifier to 5% and formic acid to 4% improved peak shapes of neutral monosaccharides and allowed complete elution of highly polar uronic acids in a single run. An Acquity HSS C18SB column outperformed other three tested stationary phases (BEH (silica), BEH 2-ethylpyridine, CSH Fluoro-Phenyl) in terms of separation of isomers and analysis time (4.5 min). Limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.12 ng μL(-1). Owing to separation of anomers, identification of critical pairs (arabinose-xylose and glucose-galactose) was possible. Feasibility of the new method was demonstrated on plant-derived polysaccharide binders. Samples of watercolor paints, painted paper and three plant gums widely encountered in painting media (Arabic, cherry and tragacanth) were decomposed prior the analysis by microwave-assisted hydrolysis at 40 bar initial pressure using 2 mol L(-1) trifluoroacetic acid. Among tested temperatures, 120 °C ensured appropriate hydrolysis efficiency for different types of gum and avoided excessive degradation of labile monosaccharides. Procedure recovery tested on gum Arabic was 101% with an RSD below 8%. Aqueous hydrolysates containing monosaccharides in different ratios specific to each type of plant gum were diluted or analyzed directly. Filtration of samples before hydrolysis reduced interferences from a paper support and identification of gum Arabic in watercolor-painted paper samples was demonstrated. Successful identification of pure gum Arabic was confirmed for sample quantities as little as 1 μg. Two classification approaches were compared and principal component analysis was superior to analysis based on peak area

  15. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  16. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  17. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  18. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  19. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  20. Dearborn: Modern Standard Arabic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a roundup of the Arabic language instruction offered in the Dearborn, Michigan, school district. Only one of the district's 22 elementary schools--Becker--offers Arabic. Pupils receive at least two 40 minute periods of Arabic a week. The school gave up a two-way immersion program, in which students were taught half their…

  1. Levantine Arabic: Introduction to Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James A.

    This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…

  2. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  3. Arab Stereotypes in Popular Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Janice J.

    1983-01-01

    Most popular fictional plots involving the Middle East--adventure stories, espionage, and themes of Western dependency on Arab oil--portray the Israelies as the good guys and the Arabs as the villians. People must be made aware that fictional literature is prejudiced and racially biased against Arabs. (RM)

  4. Modern Iraqi Arabic: A Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkalesi, Yasin M.

    This book is an introductory textbook for those with no previous knowledge of Arabic or for those who know Arabic but want to learn the Iraqi dialect. The book is divided into 16 lessons: "Arabic Alphabet and Vowels"; "Greetings and Courtesy Expressions"; "Asking for Directions"; "Arrival at Baghdad Airport, Part…

  5. Occupational asthma caused by guar gum.

    PubMed

    Lagier, F; Cartier, A; Somer, J; Dolovich, J; Malo, J L

    1990-04-01

    Some vegetable gums have been reported to cause asthma. We describe three subjects who were exposed at work to guar gum, which is derived from the outer part of Cyanopsis tetragonolobus, a vegetable that grows in India. The first subject worked for a pharmaceutical company; the second and third subjects worked at a carpet-manufacturing plant. All three subjects developed symptoms of rhinitis and asthma after the onset of exposure to guar gum. All subjects were atopic and demonstrated mild bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine at the time they were observed. Skin prick tests demonstrated an immediate skin reaction to guar gum. All three subjects had high levels of serum IgE antibodies to guar gum. Specific inhalation challenges in which the three subjects were exposed for short intervals (less than or equal to 4 minutes) to powder of guar gum elicited isolated immediate bronchospastic reactions in two subjects and a dual reaction in the other subject.

  6. Caffeine gum minimizes sleep inertia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Rachel A; Kamimori, Gary H; Wesensten, Nancy J; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J

    2013-02-01

    Naps are an effective strategy for maintaining alertness and cognitive performance; however, upon abrupt wakening from naps, sleep inertia (temporary performance degradation) may ensue. In the present study, attenuation of post-nap sleep inertia was attempted by administration of caffeine gum. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 15 healthy, non-smoking adults were awakened at 1 hr. and again at 6 hr. after lights out (0100 and 0600, respectively) and were immediately administered a gum pellet containing 100 mg of caffeine or placebo. A 5-min. psychomotor vigilance task was administered at 0 min., 6 min., 12 min., and 18 min. post-awakening. At 0100, response speed with caffeine was significantly better at 12 min. and 18 min. post-awakening compared to placebo; at 0600, caffeine's effects were evident at 18 min. post-awakening. Caffeinated gum is a viable means of rapidly attenuating sleep inertia, suggesting that the adenosine receptor system is involved in sleep maintenance.

  7. Keep Gum Disease Away! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Fighting Gum Disease Keep Gum Disease Away! Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of ... repair damage resulting from uncared-for teeth and gums. Photo: Frederic Havens "Take care of your teeth, ...

  8. Host Plant Use by Competing Acacia-Ants: Mutualists Monopolize While Parasites Share Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers — regardless of the route to achieve this social structure — enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants. PMID:22662191

  9. Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.

    PubMed

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U; Moreau, Corrie S; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants.

  10. Teaching Islam and Arabic over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Chaim

    2004-01-01

    Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…

  11. Teaching Islam and Arabic over the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissim, Chaim

    2004-01-01

    Arabic is the language of the Arab minority in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the neighbors of Israel (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon). Hence, learning Arabic and Arab culture is very important to promoting understanding between Arabs and Jews. The concept of using the internet to promote learning and communication between students in…

  12. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants.

  13. Arabic 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Volumes 1 and 2 (Lesson Units 1-55) of this beginning course in Arabic follow the Defense Language Institute format for intensive 12-week language courses, designed for native-speaker instructors using audiolingual methodology in the classroom. The third (and final) volume in this series constitutes a reference guide to pronunciation and grammar…

  14. Yemeni Arabic II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    Instructional materials for advanced Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 25 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontaneous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the topics are: medical services, marriage, jobs, an interview, a car accident, proverbs…

  15. Spoken Chad Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This intensive course is designed to teach students to understand and speak Chad Arabic. The course is intended to be covered in approximately 360 hours in the classroom and the language laboratory. About 90 hours should be occupied with the pre-speech phase, which emphasizes passive recognition rather than active production. This phase consists…

  16. Arab World Almanac 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie S., Ed.; Hurd, Robert, Ed.

    This document is a collection of three lessons to assist high school teachers in introducing the Arab world to their classrooms. The intended purpose of the lessons is to promote greater cross cultural awareness, understanding of the interdependence of peoples and nations, and appreciation for the different approaches other cultures may choose in…

  17. Yemeni Arabic II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    Instructional materials for advanced Sanaani Arabic, a dialect used predominantly for oral communication, include 25 units consisting of text derived from recordings of spontaneous conversations of native speakers in various communication situations. Some of the topics are: medical services, marriage, jobs, an interview, a car accident, proverbs…

  18. Poly(acrylonitrile) grafted Ipomoea seed-gums: a renewable reservoir to industrial gums.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vandana; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Tripathi, Devendra Narayan; Sanghi, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    Plants of Ipomoea genus are widely distributed in India as wild vegetation and are reported source for the seed gums. Seed gums from Ipomoea dasysperma, Ipomoea hederacea, and Ipomoea palmata plants were grafted with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) using potassium persulfate/ascorbic acid redox initiator for modifying their properties for potential industrial applications. Under identical grafting conditions, the extent of the grafting was observed to be dependent on the galactose-to-mannose ratio and the degree of the branching in the galactomannans. Viscosity, gel formation, film formation, and the shelf life of the grafted gum solutions and water and saline retention capacity of the grafted seed gums were determined and compared with the parent gums. Water retention of the alkalie hydrolyzed grafted seed gums were also studied. Grafted gums were characterized using FTIR, NMR, and XRD analysis.

  19. Structural, thermal and rheological characterization of modified Dalbergia sissoo gum--A medicinal gum.

    PubMed

    Munir, Hira; Shahid, Muhammad; Anjum, Fozia; Mudgil, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    Dalbergia sissoo gum was purified by ethanol precipitation. The purified gum was modified and hydrolyzed. Gum was modified by performing polyacrylamide grafting and carboxymethylation methods. The hydrolysis was carried out by using mannanase, barium hydroxide and trifluoroacetic acid. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The decrease in viscosity was studied by performing the flow test. The modified and hydrolyzed gums were thermally stable as compared to crude gum. There was increase in crystallinity after modification and hydrolysis, determined through XRD. FTIR analysis exhibits no major transformation of functional group, only there was change in the intensity of transmittance. It is concluded that the modified and hydrolyzed gum can be used for pharmaceutical and food industry.

  20. Gum chewing affects academic performance in adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  4. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its...

  5. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected...

  6. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  9. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its...

  10. United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  11. Arab Muslim Anti-Americanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    explanations but few have identified the basis for this growing anti-American sentiment throughout the Arab Muslim world. This thesis investigates...Palestinian conflict? This thesis utilized quantitative survey data to investigate the degree of anti-American sentiment among Arab Muslims while using...Arab Muslim anti-American sentiment . Finally, this thesis provides suggestions for dealing with this growing anti-American phenomenon and

  12. Libya: A Future Arab Democracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    overlooked. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arab Democracy, Greenfield Pipeline, UN Resolution 1973 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Democracy FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 21 March 2012 WORD COUNT: 5,454 PAGES: 26 KEY TERMS: Arab Democracy, Greenfield Pipeline, UN...operate effective businesses and ventures . Mr. Springborg contends that the youth bulge in the Arab populations, low GDP, and poor education levels

  13. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  14. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment: A Placebo Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 139 subjects to intensive behavioral or to low-contact smoking treatment and to 2-milligram nicotine gum or to placebo gum in a 2x2 factorial design. Nicotine gum produced higher abstinence rates than did placebo. Subjects receiving low-contact condition plus nicotine gum had excellent abstinence rates at both 26 weeks and 52 weeks.…

  15. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  16. ARL Arabic Dependency Treebank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    Detection for Modern Standard Arabic to English MT” (Tratz, 2014). The LDC is one of the foremost sources of annotated data used in computational... vowel diacritic—the typical indicator of genitive case—was not written, the DET label would appear on one line with the Al definite determiner, the... English dependency label scheme (de Marneffe & Manning, 2008). However, this is to not to say that they may always be interpreted identically. Also

  17. Palaeoclimatic potential of Acacia tortilis in the Eastern Sahara.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagen, Mary; Young, Giles; Andersen, Gidske; Krzywinski, Knut; Goslar, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The challenge of deriving useful dendroclimatic information from non-annual ring forming trees cannot be overstated. Here we consider the contribution to be made by combining radioacarbon dating with stable isotope dendroclimatology in the analysis of Sudanese Acacia. Stable carbon isotopic analyses are presented from 14C-dated living Sudanese Acacia tortilis in xeric northern Africa. Stable carbon isotopic ratios were assigned calendar dates based on high-density 14C results. Intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) changes are calculated over the industrial period.

  18. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kate; Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We examine the impact of chewing gum on a Bakan-type vigilance task that requires the continual updating of short-term order memory. Forty participants completed a 30-min auditory Bakan-task either with, or without, the requirement to chew gum. Self-rated measures of mood were taken both pre- and post-task. As expected, the vigilance task produced a time-dependent performance decrement indexed via decreases in target detections and lengthened correct reaction times (RTs), and a reduction in post-task self-rated alertness scores. The declines in both performance and subjective alertness were attenuated in the chewing-gum group. In particular, correct RTs were significantly shorter following the chewing of gum in the latter stages of the task. Additionally, the gradients of decline for target detection and incline for correct RTs were both attenuated for the chewing-gum group. These findings are consistent with the data of Tucha and Simpson (2011), Appetite, 56, 299-301, who showed beneficial effects of chewing gum in the latter stages of a 30 min visual attention task, and extend their data to a task that necessitates the continuous updating of order memory. It is noteworthy that our data contradict the claim (Kozlov, Hughes, & Jones, 2012, Q. J. Exp. Psychology, 65, 501-513) that chewing gum negatively impacts short-term memory task performance. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. In the Arab Bedroom: The Sex Life of Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, P

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sex life of Arabs is terra incognita for scientists and policy makers. Shereen El Feki’s book “Sex and the Citadel” is the first serious attempt to chart sexual intimacy in the rapidly changing Arab world. PMID:28210484

  20. Arabic Language Handbook. Georgetown Classics in Arabic Language and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateson, Mary Catherine

    This handbook is designed to give the kind of information about Arabic that will be useful to students of the language, specialists in the region where Arabic is spoken, or linguists interested in learning about the structure and use of one of the world's principal language. Three sections present the following: (1) "An Outline of Arabic…

  1. Arabic Script and the Rise of Arabic Calligraphy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshahrani, Ali A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a concise coherent literature review of the Arabic Language script system as one of the oldest living Semitic languages in the world. The article discusses in depth firstly, Arabic script as a phonemic sound-based writing system of twenty eight, right to left cursive script where letterforms shaped by their…

  2. Arabic Language Handbook. Georgetown Classics in Arabic Language and Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateson, Mary Catherine

    This handbook is designed to give the kind of information about Arabic that will be useful to students of the language, specialists in the region where Arabic is spoken, or linguists interested in learning about the structure and use of one of the world's principal language. Three sections present the following: (1) "An Outline of Arabic…

  3. Basic Gulf Arabic Based on Colloquial Abu Dhabi Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This volume, developed for an introductory course in Gulf Arabic, utilizes the dialect of Abu Dhabi, a leading member of the Federation of Arab Emirates on the Persian Gulf. Although specifically developed for the University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory personnel, it can be used as a beginning textbook for college students and…

  4. Colorimetric Detection Based on Localised Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Characteristics for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Acacia Gum–Stabilised Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in sensing is attracting the interest of many researchers. The aim of this work was to fabricate Acacia gum–stabilised silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using green chemistry to use them as a highly sensitive and cost-effective localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) colorimeter sensor for the determination of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by the reduction of an inorganic precursor silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) using white sugar as the reducing reagent and Acacia gum as the stabilising reagent and a sonication bath to form uniform silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterised by visual observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The TEM micrographs of the synthesised nanoparticles showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 10 nm. The EDAX spectrum result confirmed the presence of silver (58%), carbon (30%), and oxygen (12%). Plasmon colorimetric sensing of H2O2 solution was investigated by introducing H2O2 solution into Acacia gum–capped SNP dispersion, and the change in the LSPR band in the UV-Vis region of spectra was monitored. In this study, it was found that the yellow colour of Acacia gum–stabilised SNPs gradually changed to transparent, and moreover, a remarkable change in the LSPR absorbance strength was observed. The calibration curve was linear over 0.1–0.00001 M H2O2, with a correlation estimation (R2) of .953. This was due to the aggregation of SNPs following introduction of the H2O2 solution. Furthermore, the fabricated SNPs were successfully used to detect H2O2 solution in a liquid milk sample, thereby demonstrating the ability of the fabricated SNPs to detect H2O2 solution in liquid milk samples. This

  5. Oxidation and Gum Formation in Diesel Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AD A157 41@ OX<IDATION AND GUM FORMATION IN DIESEL FUELS(U) SRI i/i INTERNATIONAL MENLO PARK CA CHEMISTRY LAB F R MAYO 0MAY 85 ARO-2i65 2-EG DRA29-84...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Interim Technical No. 2 oxidation and Gum Formation in Diesel Fuels 9/10/84 to 4/30/85 7. AUTHOR(s) S OTATO RNrNME0 Frank R. Mayo...oxidation and gum and deposit formation from n-dodecage, tetralin’, 2-ethylnaphthalene, and diesel fuels at 430, 600 100 0, and 130 C and discusses their

  6. Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by optical observation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the UV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and column densities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, more highly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; these clouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Vela remnant clouds.

  7. Interstellar gas in the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, G.; Jenkins, E. B.; Silk, J.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the interstellar gas near the Gum Nebula by optical observation of 67 stars at Ca II, 42 stars at Na I, and 14 stars in the UV with the Copernicus satellite provided radial velocities and column densities for all resolved absorption components. Velocity dispersions for gas in the Gum Nebula are not significantly larger than in the general interstellar medium; the ionization structure is predominantly that of an H II region with moderately high ionization. Denser, more highly ionized clouds are concentrated toward the Gum Nebula; these clouds do not show the anomalously high ionization observed in the Vela remnant clouds.

  8. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  9. Chewing gum--facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health.

    PubMed

    Imfeld, T

    1999-01-01

    The world market for chewing gum is estimated to be 560,000 tons per year, representing approximately US $5 billion. Some 374 billion pieces of chewing gum are sold worldwide every year, representing 187 billion hours of gum-chewing if each piece of gum is chewed for 30 minutes. Chewing gum can thus be expected to have an influence on oral health. The labeling of sugar-substituted chewing gum as "safe for teeth" or "tooth-friendly" has been proven beneficial to the informed consumer. Such claims are allowed for products having been shown in vivo not to depress plaque pH below 5.7, neither during nor for 30 minutes after the consumption. However, various chewing gum manufacturers have recently begun to make distinct health promotion claims, suggesting, e.g., reparative action or substitution for mechanical hygiene. The aim of this critical review--covering the effects of the physical properties of chewing gum and those of different ingredients both of conventional and of functional chewing gum--is to provide a set of guidelines for the interpretation of such claims and to assist oral health care professionals in counseling patients.

  10. Modern Written Arabic, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harlie L., Jr., Ed.

    This text was prepared for use in the Foreign Service Institute programs of instruction for members of the United States Foreign Service and is intended to be used with the help of a native-speaking Arabic instructor and with tape recordings. Instruction in modern written Arabic is planned in three stages: (1) prepared materials allow the student…

  11. Arabic Offerings Rare in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    Since terrorists from Arab countries attacked the United States on Sept. 11, 2001, the U.S. government has been desperately seeking to hire Arabic speakers. Even now, more than 2 1/2 years later, the nation has only a small pool of students who are seriously studying the language. Furthermore, the author states that only a smattering of public…

  12. Arab American Experiences in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based upon field study and a review of the literature, this paper sought to describe the educational experiences that are common in the Middle East and North Africa. The paper explained the curriculum and pedagogy that are most commonly found in Arab schools. It also addresses the misconceptions that many Americans have regarding Arab education.…

  13. English 'Must' and Moroccan Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meziani, Ahmed

    1981-01-01

    Describes English modal verbs and their closest equivalents in Moroccan Arabic. Because there is no modal in Moroccan Arabic equivalent to 'must,' positive and negative deductions are arrived at using adverbs. Suggests this can be confusing to Moroccan learners of English. (Author/BK)

  14. Metabolomic profiling and antioxidant activity of some Acacia species

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Sheded, M.G.; Mohamed, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling of different parts (leaves, flowers and pods) of Acacia species (Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia laeta) was evaluated. The multivariate data analyses such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to differentiate the distribution of plant metabolites among different species or different organs of the same species. A.nilotica was characterized with a high content of saponins and A.seyal was characterized with high contents of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. A.laeta had a higher content of carbohydrates than A. nilotica and A. seyal. On the basis of these results, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of studied parts were evaluated. A.nilotica and A.seyal extracts showed less inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) compared to A.laeta extracts which means that these two species have the strongest radical scavenging activity whereas A. laeta extracts have the lowest radical scavenging activity. A positive correlation between saponins and flavonoids with total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed. Based on these results, the potentiality of these plants as antioxidants was discussed. PMID:25313274

  15. Stimulating growth of stagnated Acacia koa by thinning and fertilizing

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Scowcroft; John D. Stein

    1986-01-01

    Building Acacia koa, Hawaii's most marketable native tree, into a viable resource is economically and eco1ogically desirable. But little is known about natural stand development and management of this scarce resource. Therefore, the effect of thinning, fertilizing, or both on short-term growth and survival was studied in a stagnated 12-year-old...

  16. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems.

  17. Arab Contributions to Civilization. ADC Issues #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macron, Mary

    This booklet, designed to provide educational materials on Arab history and culture, describes the contributions of Islamic civilization to western civilization. To be Arab, like American, was and is a cultural trait rather than a racial mark. To be Arab meant to be from the Arabic speaking world of common traditions, customs, and values shaped by…

  18. Arabization in the Maghreb: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    The Arabization process in the Maghreb countries--Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia--is unique in that these countries are officially committed to the use of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) while widespread use of French, a colonial language, persists, and the formal Arabic used in Arabization differs from the colloquial forms used in each country. The…

  19. Arabization in the Maghreb: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    The Arabization process in the Maghreb countries--Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia--is unique in that these countries are officially committed to the use of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) while widespread use of French, a colonial language, persists, and the formal Arabic used in Arabization differs from the colloquial forms used in each country. The…

  20. Use of Arabic in Computerized Information Interchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Mohammed M.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies technical and linguistic problems associated with use of Arabic in input and output devices and describes efforts to introduce a unified code for the Arabic language (CODAR-U/FD). The Hydriyya Method, requirements for Arabic terminals suitable for library use, manufacturers of bilingual terminals, and Arabization of software are…

  1. The appearance of the Gum nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1971-01-01

    The dimensions of the Gum nebula complex appear to be overestimated. The distance of 460 parsecs to the central pulsar is rather on the large side, and likely contributions from gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis were underestimated. The multiorigin character of the Gum nebula is reaffirmed. The parts produced by traditional ultraviolet thermal radiation and by processes directly related to the supernova outburst must be defined.

  2. Oxidation and Gum Formation in Diesel Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-20

    naphthoic acid is formed. Gum formation by aldol condensations and esterifcation of oxida- tion products (Mayo, 1975) and by aldehyde-hydroperoxide...replaced by the oxidation termination mechanism when oxygen is present. A third mechanism, condensation of oxidation products from alkylnaphthalenes, is...of gum formation is involved. This mechanism has not yet been investigated, but it might involve some reaction like the condensation of naphthaldehyde

  3. "We are Arabs:" The Embodiment of Virginity Through Arab and Arab American Women's Lived Experiences.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-12-01

    Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity, and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.

  4. Does gum chewing increase the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in individuals with gum chewing habits?

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Reza; Karagah, Touba; Aliabadi, Ehsan; Hoseini, Seyed Ali

    2014-09-01

    The effect of habitual gum chewing on temporomandibular joint function is controversial. This study evaluated the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in adolescents with and without gum chewing habits and the affiliation of TMD signs with gum chewing. This is a cross-sectional study. Subjects were studied in 2 groups. Subjects in the study group chewed gum for 30, 60, or 120 minutes in a 24-hour day. Subjects in the control group did not have a gum chewing habit. TMD signs of clicking, crepitus, and pain were documented for every subject. Age, gender, duration of gum chewing, and occlusal relationships were variable factors, and TMD signs (clicking, crepitus, and pain) were outcomes of the study. The chi-square test was used to compare TMD signs and gender in the 2 groups, and to evaluate the relationship between TMD signs and duration of gum chewing in the study group. An independent t test was applied to compare the ages of the 2 groups. Two hundred subjects participated in the study and were divided into 2 groups (100 subjects per group). An evaluation of the data showed no significant differences between the 2 groups in sex, age, and occlusion. The incidence of clicking and pain was statistically higher in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Analysis of the data demonstrated considerable differences in clicking and pain among subjects with various gum chewing times in the study group (P < 0.05). The incidence of pain was higher in subjects with a class II skeletal pattern than others in the study group (P < 0.001). Nevertheless, no significant difference was noticed for clicking among subjects with various occlusions (P > 0.05). Considering that intensive gum chewing may affect TMD signs in individuals with a gum chewing habit. It seems a longer duration of gum chewing may increase the prevalence of TMD. Individuals with a class II skeletal pattern may be affected more than others.

  5. Vermicomposting of the leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis): possible roles of reactor geometry, polyphenols, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2009-03-01

    Vermicomposting of the pre-composted leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) was studied in reactors of identical volume but with surface area: height ratios varying from 4 to 250. In separate sets of experiments with these reactors, epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and anecic earthworm species Lampito mauritii were employed at densities of 75 and 150 adult animals per litre of reactor volume. The results reveal that greater the surface area: volume ratio of the reactor, higher is the vermicast output in terms of vermicast output per animal; the more densely populated reactors were comparatively under-productive. Even as the vermicast production remained consistently high in all the reactors, there was significant earthworm mortality throughout the course of the experiments and the worms who survived, steadily lost weight with time. A detailed investigation of the possible causes revealed that, whereas the C:N ratio of acacia compost was comparable with that of other substrates; the polyphenols and lignin content were much higher. Studies by other authors on leaf litter consumption by earthworms in natural or man-made forests have indicated that leaf litter rich in polyphenols and lignin are not preferred by most species of earthworm. This may perhaps be the reason for the high rate of mortality and weight loss in earthworms forced to feed upon acacia in the experiments conducted by the authors.

  6. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space

    PubMed Central

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-01-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protective effect of acacia ants on E. oblonga by comparing spider abundance over time on acacias with ants and on acacias from which entire ant colonies were experimentally removed. Both juvenile and adult spider abundance significantly decreased over time on acacias without ants. Concomitantly, the combined abundance of potential spider predators increased over time on acacias without ants. These results suggest that ant protection of the ant-acacia Acacia melanocerus also protects the spiders, thus supporting the hypothesis that E. oblonga exploits the ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant–acacia mutualism. Indeed, the potential threat of exploiter species to protection mutualisms in general may be limited to species that exploit the material rewards traded in such mutualisms rather than the protection services. PMID:24558583

  7. Gum Producers Can Improve Quality Of Gum Marketed and Get Higher Prices

    Treesearch

    Ralph W. Clements

    1979-01-01

    Acid waste from over-treatment and old, wornout iron cups have contributed significantly to the generally poor quality of gum marketed. Today producers are reluctant to purchase new cups and gutters and invest up to $1.80 per tree for production when the market price for gum averages 14.54 per pound annually. Guidelines are given for improving the quality by...

  8. Hydrolytic fragmentation of seed gums under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Tiwari, A

    2009-03-01

    The seed gum solutions of Ipomoea purga, Ipomoea palmata, Ipomoea dasysperma, Cyanaposis tetragonolobus (Guar gum) and Crotolaria medicaginea were microwave (MW) irradiated and their degradation to oligo and monosaccharides was investigated. The gum solutions were fragmented into oligosaccharides/constituent monosaccharides depending upon the length of MW exposure in presence of catalytic amount of mineral acid or even when no acid was used. A mechanism for the microwave induced hydrolytic degradation of the seed gums has been proposed. The MW exposure time required for the partial and complete degradation of the gums was found dependent on the types of the linkages and degree of the branching present in the gums.

  9. Consanguinity and dysmorphology in Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    Incidence rates of congenital disorders among the 350 million inhabitants of Arab countries could be influenced via the people's demographic and cultural characteristics. Arabs usually marry at a young age and have large families. They share certain core cultural values and beliefs, with the family accepted as the central structure of society. Consanguineous marriage is favored and respected in most if not all Arab communities, and intrafamilial unions currently account for 20-50% of all marriages. First-cousin unions are especially popular and constitute almost one quarter of all marriages in many Arab countries. Consequently, autosomal recessive (AR) dysmorphic syndromes constitute a considerable proportion of all birth defects among Arabs. Arab geneticists, with their persistent commitment to advancing research, have contributed to the description of a number of rare and new AR syndromes with the identification of novel genes. The collaboration with research teams in high-income countries resulted in a plethora of data on pathogenic variants and their function in causing dysmorphic syndromes. There could still be a considerable number of rare dysmorphic syndromes that prevail among Arabs which are not hitherto described and whose underlying molecular pathologies are not yet defined. Arab countries should thus strive to deploy DNA diagnostics and to build research capability around local priorities. Furthermore, a characterization of the prevailing genetic disorders in each geographic location, together with their mutations, is needed to plan for appropriate screening and testing protocols. An overview of consanguinity in Arab countries and examples of dysmorphology syndromes associated with consanguinity with their available molecular bases will be discussed. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Xanthan chain length is modulated by increasing the availability of the polysaccharide copolymerase protein GumC and the outer membrane polysaccharide export protein GumB.

    PubMed

    Galván, Estela M; Ielmini, María V; Patel, Yamini N; Bianco, María I; Franceschini, Esteban A; Schneider, Jane C; Ielpi, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Xanthan is a polysaccharide secreted by Xanthomonas campestris that contains pentameric repeat units. The biosynthesis of xanthan involves an operon composed of 12 genes (gumB to gumM). In this study, we analyzed the proteins encoded by gumB and gumC. Membrane fractionation showed that GumB was mainly associated with the outer membrane, whereas GumC was an inner membrane protein. By in silico analysis and specific globomycin inhibition, GumB was characterized as a lipoprotein. By reporter enzyme assays, GumC was shown to contain two transmembrane segments flanking a large periplasmic domain. We confirmed that gumB and gumC mutant strains uncoupled the synthesis of the lipid-linked repeat unit from the polymerization process. We studied the effects of gumB and gumC gene amplification on the production, composition and viscosity of xanthan. Overexpression of GumB, GumC or GumB and GumC simultaneously did not affect the total amount or the chemical composition of the polymer. GumB overexpression did not affect xanthan viscosity; however, a moderate increase in xanthan viscosity was achieved when GumC protein levels were increased 5-fold. Partial degradation of GumC was observed when only that protein was overexpressed; but co-expression of GumB and GumC diminished GumC degradation and resulted in higher xanthan viscosity than individual GumB or GumC overexpression. Compared with xanthan from the wild-type strain, longer polymer chains from the strain that simultaneously overexpressed GumB and GumC were observed by atomic force microscopy. Our results suggest that GumB-GumC protein levels modulate xanthan chain length, which results in altered polymer viscosity.

  11. Natural and induced polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd.

    PubMed

    Blakesley, David; Allen, Annabel; Pellny, Till K; Roberts, Andy V

    2002-09-01

    Seeds were obtained from seven natural populations of Acacia dealbata, three natural populations of A. mangium and a seed orchard of A. mangium, representing the natural range of the two species. Polyploids were discovered in two of the seven populations of A. dealbata. The 2C DNA amount for diploid A. dealbata (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.74 pg, and for diploid A. mangium (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.30 pg. A naturally occurring tetraploid of A. dealbata (2n = 4x = 52) had a 2C DNA amount of 3.41 pg and a naturally occurring triploid genotype had a 2C DNA amount of 2.53 pg. The use of colchicine and oryzalin was investigated as a means of producing higher frequencies of tetraploids of both A. mangium and A. dealbata for incorporation into breeding programmes. Colchicine treatment gave tetraploid frequencies up to 29% for A. dealbata seedlings, and up to 18% for A. mangium seedlings. In contrast, no tetraploid A. mangium was detected following oryzalin treatment, and the low frequencies of tetraploids observed in A. dealbata could be attributed to their natural occurrence.

  12. Natural and Induced Polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd.

    PubMed Central

    BLAKESLEY, DAVID; ALLEN, ANNABEL; PELLNY, TILL K.; ROBERTS, ANDY V.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds were obtained from seven natural populations of Acacia dealbata, three natural populations of A. mangium and a seed orchard of A. mangium, representing the natural range of the two species. Polyploids were discovered in two of the seven populations of A. dealbata. The 2C DNA amount for diploid A. dealbata (2n = 2x = 26) was 1·74 pg, and for diploid A. mangium (2n = 2x = 26) was 1·30 pg. A naturally occurring tetraploid of A. dealbata (2n = 4x = 52) had a 2C DNA amount of 3·41 pg and a naturally occurring triploid genotype had a 2C DNA amount of 2·53 pg. The use of colchicine and oryzalin was investigated as a means of producing higher frequencies of tetraploids of both A. mangium and A. dealbata for incorporation into breeding programmes. Colchicine treatment gave tetraploid frequencies up to 29 % for A. dealbata seedlings, and up to 18 % for A. mangium seedlings. In contrast, no tetraploid A. mangium was detected following oryzalin treatment, and the low frequencies of tetraploids observed in A. dealbata could be attributed to their natural occurrence. PMID:12234151

  13. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  14. Could a Germ Link Gum Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162571.html Could a Germ Link Gum Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis? Study may offer new insight into the cause ... the long-noticed connection between gum disease and rheumatoid arthritis, a new study suggests. The discovery might also ...

  15. More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163755.html More Evidence Ties Gum Health to Stroke Risk Study shows increasing risk of brain blockage ... as people with healthy gums to suffer a stroke, new research suggests. It's not the first study ...

  16. Microsatellite primers for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Nevill, Paul G.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the rare shrub Acacia adinophylla (Fabaceae) to assess genetic diversity and its spatial structuring. Methods and Results: Shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq produced 6,372,575 reads. Using the QDD pipeline, we designed 60 primer pairs, which were screened using PCR. Seventeen loci were developed, of which 12 loci were identified that were polymorphic, amplified reliably, and could be consistently scored. These loci were then screened for variation in individuals from three populations. The number of alleles observed for these 12 loci ranged from three to 18 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.85. Conclusions: These markers will enable the quantification of genetic impact of proposed mining activities on the short-range endemic Acacia adinophylla. PMID:27843728

  17. A leaf phosphorus assay for seedlings of Acacia mangium.

    PubMed

    Sun, J S; Simpson, R J; Sands, R

    1992-10-01

    Concentrations of extractable and total phosphorus in leaves, stem, root and nodules of 12-week-old seedlings of two provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. were analyzed to identify the fraction of phosphorus and the plant part most suitable for predicting the phosphorus nutritional status of the seedlings.For both provenances, concentrations of extractable phosphorus were more sensitive to changes in soil phosphorus status and varied less among different plant parts than concentrations of total phosphorus. Concentrations of extractable phosphorus in the youngest fully expanded leaf (Leaf 3 from the apex) and the next two older leaves correlated closely with seedling dry mass and may be used to assess the phosphorus nutritional status of Acacia mangium seedlings.

  18. Huntington's Disease in Arab Countries.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Heba M

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Involuntary choreaform movements are the main symptom. The prevalence of HD in Arab countries is not fully understood, as there are only a few reports indicating disease incidence. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an investigation to determine the frequency of HD in the Middle East, especially within Arab countries, and at the same time enhance people's awareness of the disease.

  19. Effects of fire and fire intensity on the germination and establishment of Acacia karroo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea in the field

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Michele; Midgley, Jeremy J; Somers, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Background While fire has been used in some instances to control the increase of woody plants, it has also been reported that fire may cause an increase in certain fire-tolerant Acacia tree species. This study investigated germination of Acacia karroo, A. luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea, thought to be increasing in density, as well as the historically successful encroaching woody species, A. nilotica, in savanna grassland, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. A. karroo is thought to be replacing A. nilotica as the dominant microphyllous species in the park. We tested the hypothesis that observed increases in certain woody plants in a savanna were related to seed germination and seedling establishment. Germination is compared among species for burnt and unburnt seeds on burnt and unburnt plots at three different locations for both hot and cool fires. Results Acacia karroo showed higher germination (A. karroo 5.1%, A. nilotica 1.5% and A. luederitzii 5.0%) levels and better establishment (A. karroo 4.9%, A. nilotica 0.4% and A. luederitzii 0.4%). Seeds of the shrub Dichrostachys cinerea did not germinate in the field after fire and it is thought that some other germination cue is needed. On average, burning of A. karroo, A. nilotica and A. luederitzii seeds did not affect germination. There was a significant difference in the germination of burnt seeds on burnt sites (4.5%) and burnt seeds on unburnt plots (2.5%). Similarly, unburnt seeds on unburnt sites germinated better (4.9%) than unburnt seeds on burnt sites (2.8%). Conclusion We conclude that a combination of factors may be responsible for the success of A. karroo and that fires may not be hot enough or may occur at the wrong time of year to control A. karroo establishment in HiP. Although germination and establishment of A. karroo was higher than for A. nilotica a competitive advantage after fire could not be shown. PMID:15068486

  20. Triterpene saponins from the roots of Acacia albida Del. (Mimosaceae).

    PubMed

    Tchoukoua, Abdou; Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Uesugi, Shota; Ohno, Misa; Kimura, Ken-Ichi; Kwon, Eunsang; Momma, Hiroyuki; Horo, Ibrahim; Çalişkan, Özgen Alankuş; Shiono, Yoshihito; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu

    2017-04-01

    Seven previously undescribed bidesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named albidosides A - G, were isolated from a methanol extract of the roots of Acacia albida. Their structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and determined to be bidesmosides of oleanolic acid and of 16α-hydroxyoleanolic acid. Albidosides B - G were assayed for their cytotoxicity against HeLa and HL60 cells using MTT method and microscopic observation.

  1. Effect of plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders on charcoal-gum acacia-induced hyperperistalsis in rats.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Fernando; Arista, Ramón; Pérez, Halley

    2010-03-02

    A total of 28 plant extracts, belonging to 26 different plant species are commonly used in Traditional Mexican Medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. To evaluate the effect of medicinal plant extracts on induced hyperperistalsis in rats. Charcoal meal test was used in this study. Extracts were tested at a dose of 300mg/kg. From all the plant extracts tested, only Geranium mexicanum (roots) showed 100% of inhibition. The extracts of Artemisia absinthium, Matricaria recutita, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Lygodium venustum, Chenopodium ambrosoides (green variety), Aloysia triphylla, Artemisia ludoviciana, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, and Cocos nucifera showed moderate inhibitory activity with values ranging from 30 to 57%. Their activities were greater than that of or equal to loperamide (34% of inhibition at doses of 10mg/kg) drug used as control. The remaining plants exhibited marginal or null inhibitory effect on hyperpropulsive movement of the small intestine. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the popular use of 23 of the plants tested for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea in Mexican traditional medicine. However, roots of Geranium mexicanum should be used in herbal medicine with care to avoid toxicity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Cultural Heritage of Arab Americans and Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag

    Arab Americans share a culture which places religious beliefs firmly at the core of all aspects of life. A brief description of what an Arab is and the historical background of the Arab world are provided. This background is placed in context of Arabs' immigration to the United States and the views of the West by Arabs and of Arabs by Westerners.…

  3. Mechanical properties of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Verma, B.B.; Gupta, R.C.

    1999-10-01

    In the present investigation the effects of carbonization conditions (temperature and heating rate) on the mechanical properties (such as crushing and impact strengths and shatter index) of acacia and eucalyptus wood chars have been determined. The crushing and impact strengths of both the acacia and eucalyptus wood chars (made by slow carbonization) decreased with increase of preparation temperature up to 600 C, followed by an increase thereafter. These wood chars showed a continuous increase in shatter index values with carbonization temperature. In contrast to slow carbonization (heating rate 4 C min{sup {minus}1}), rapid carbonization (heating rate 30 C min{sup {minus}1}) yielded chars of lower crushing strengths. Slowly carbonized eucalyptus wood gave chars of superior crushing and impact strengths than those produced from acacia wood under the same carbonization conditions. The crushing and impact strengths of these wood chars, in general, have shown an increase with increase in their apparent density. The crushing strength of cubic-shaped wood char decreased with increase in size.

  4. Antidiabetic Activity of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana Polysaccharide on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Bhateja, Pradeep; Singh, Randhir

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Acacia tortilis polysaccharide (AEATP) from gum exudates and its role in comorbidities associated with diabetes in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic control, glimepiride treated (10 mg/kg), and diabetic rats treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg dose of AEATP groups and fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, HDL, SGOT, and SGPT levels were measured. STZ significantly increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, and SGPT levels, whereas HDL level was reduced as compared to control group. After 7 days of administration, 500 and 1000 mg/kg dose of AEATP showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting blood glucose level compared to diabetic control. AEATP has also reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, SGOT, and SGPT levels and improved HDL level as compared to diabetic control group. Our study is the first to report the normalization of fasting blood glucose level, lipid profile, and liver enzyme in AEATP treated diabetic rats. Thus, it can be concluded that AEATP may have potentials for the treatment of T2DM and its comorbidities. PMID:25121104

  5. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  10. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading 3913.90... imports from China of xanthan gum. Background The Commission instituted these investigations effective...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  16. Biobased alternatives to guar gum as tackifiers for hydromulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guar gum, obtained from guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] seeds, is currently the principal gum used as a tackifier (binder) for hydraulically-applied mulches (hydromulches) used in erosion control. The oil industry’s increased use of guar gum in hydraulic fracturing together with lower glo...

  17. Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries--a review.

    PubMed

    Edgar, W M

    1998-01-10

    The prevalent use of chewing gum has prompted interest in its dental effects. Important defining aspects are the ability to use sugar substitutes in gum manufacture and the prolonged stimulation of a protective flow of saliva. The main sugar substitutes used are sorbitol and xylitol. Because it is not fermented by oral bacteria, xylitol is considered to be non-cariogenic, and while sorbitol in solution can be fermented slowly by mutants streptococci, chewing sorbitol-sweetened gum does not cause a fall in plaque pH. Effects of chewing sugar-free gum on the ability of plaque to form acid from sucrose are equivocal, although the tendency is for the plaque acidogenicity to be reduced with the use of xylitol gum for 2-3 weeks, due to its inhibitory effects on mutants streptococci. Gum-chewing also stimulates a protective salivary flow when used after an acidogenic stimulus, and may enhance salivary function, especially in subjects with low flow rates. Sorbitol and xylitol gums have similar beneficial effects in promoting enamel remineralisation in short-term in-situ experiments. Clinical trials indicate that xylitol gum has a useful anticaries role, superior to the effects of sorbitol gum. In conclusion, both sorbitol and xylitol chewing gums are non-cariogenic in contrast to sugared gum, and exhibit beneficial anticaries properties through salivary stimulation. In addition, xylitol's antibacterial properties seem likely to lead to caries reductions superior to the more modest reductions with sorbitol gum.

  18. Compositional analysis and rheological properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a tree gum from India.

    PubMed

    Vinod, V T P; Sashidhar, R B; Sarma, V U M; Vijaya Saradhi, U V R

    2008-03-26

    Gum kondagogu ( Cochlospermum gossypium) is a tree exudate gum that belongs to the family Bixaceae. Compositional analysis of the gum by HPLC and LC-MS revealed uronic acids to be the major component of the polymer ( approximately 26 mol %). Furthermore, analysis of the gum by GC-MS indicated the presence of sugars such as arabinose (2.52 mol %), mannose (8.30 mol %), alpha- d-glucose (2.48 mol %), beta- d-glucose (2.52 mol %), rhamnose (12.85 mol %), galactose (18.95 mol %), d-glucuronic acid (19.26 mol %), beta- d-galactouronic acid (13.22 mol %), and alpha- d-galacturonic acid (11.22 mol %). Gum kondagogu, being rich in rhamnose, galactose, and uronic acids, can be categorized on the basis of its sugar composition as a rhamnogalacturonan type of gum. The rheological measurements performed on the gum suggest that above 0.6% (w/v) it shows a Newtonian behavior and shear rate thinning behavior as a function of gum concentration. The viscoelastic behavior of gum kondagogu solutions (1 and 2%) in aqueous as well as in 100 mM NaCl solution exhibits a typical gel-like system. The G' (viscous modulus)/ G'' (elastic modulus) ratios of native gum kondagogu (1 and 2%) in aqueous solution were found to be 1.89 and 1.85 and those in 100 mM NaCl to be 1.54 and 2.2, respectively, suggesting a weak gel-like property of the polymer. Crossover values of G' and G'' were observed to be at frequencies of 0.432 Hz for 1% and 1.2 Hz for 2% for native gum in aqueous condition, indicating a predominantly liquid- to solid-like behavior, whereas crossover values of 2.1 Hz for 1% and 1.68 Hz for 2% gum in 100 mM NaCl solution suggest a larger elastic contribution.

  19. The size and shape of Gum's nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ionizing light of the supernova which produced the Gum nebula is now fossilized in the still live, though failing, H II region. The main body of the nebula suggests a hollow center or shell form, with a characteristic radius of about half the distance to the outlying fragments. The edges of the main body patches are typically sharp and often bright. The structure of the Gum nebula appears to be dependent on the event of ionization and possibly on the details of heating. It is not now an unstructured ambient medium, as it may have been before the recent ionization. Several hypotheses are presented for a structured ambient medium.

  20. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  1. Difficulties Encountered by Bilingual Arab Learners in Translating Arabic "fa" into English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Aziz Thabit; Fareh, Shehdeh

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the problems that translators and Arab learners of English encounter in translating Arabic sentences containing the Arabic discourse marker "fa" into English. Several types of texts were surveyed in order to identify the salient functions that this marker has in Arabic discourse. Five major functions were identified:…

  2. Transnational Links Between the Arab Community in the U.S. and the Arab World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qazzaz, Ayad

    This monograph explores the interrelationships, or linkages, between Arabs in the United States and Arabs in the Arab world. It is intended to help teachers understand the complexities of ethnic identity among Arabs as a minority group in the United States. It is presented in five sections. Section one examines why social scientists in the United…

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Materials and Methods: Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. Results: After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. Conclusion: In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test. PMID:24223387

  4. 77 FR 11531 - Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Electric Quarterly Reports, Acacia Energy, Inc., et al.; Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Tariff Electric Quarterly Reports....... Docket No. ER02-2001-017 Acacia...). In the January 31 Order, the Commission directed Acacia Energy, Inc.; LBPC Power, Inc.; Nordic Energy...

  5. Effect of postprandial gum chewing on diet-induced thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yuka; Miyaji, Akane; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of postprandial gum chewing on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). Twelve healthy normal-weight males completed four trials on four different days. They chewed a 621-kcal test meal for as long as possible and as many times as possible in the slow-eating trials, while they consumed the same meal as rapidly as possible in the rapid-eating trials. In the gum-chewing trials, they chewed a 3-kcal gum for 15 min after the meal. In the non-gum-chewing trials, they consumed 3 kcal of sugar with the test meal instead of chewing the gum. DIT was calculated based on the oxygen uptake, body mass, and postprandial increments in energy expenditure above the baseline as measured before each trial. DIT was significantly greater in the gum-chewing trials than in the non-gum-chewing trials for both rapid-eating and slow-eating trials. The difference in DIT between rapid-eating and slow-eating trials was greater than that between non-gum-chewing and gum-chewing trials. Postprandial gum chewing enhanced DIT, but the effect of gum chewing on DIT did not exceed that of slow eating when consuming a meal. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Kuwaiti Arabic: Acquisition of Singleton Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyad, Hadeel Salama; Bernhardt, B. May; Stemberger, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arabic, a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic variety, has a rich consonant inventory. Previous studies on Arabic phonological acquisition have focused primarily on dialects in Jordan and Egypt. Because Arabic varies considerably across regions, information is also needed for other dialects. Aims: To determine acquisition benchmarks…

  7. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…

  8. The Modern Arabic Course--A Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stuart J.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates why graduates of Arabic courses in English-speaking countries are so few in number and why they so often compare poorly in spoken language performance with graduates of other language courses. The most important factor in this phenomenom is the gap that separates written Arabic from spoken Arabic. (SED)

  9. Governing Public Universities in Arab Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in Arab public universities, presidents are appointed by government authorities. Recently, in uprising Arab countries universities' presidents have been elected by universities' faculty members. Neither traditional nor self-governance pattern succeeded to modernise Arab universities. Reforming patterns of governance is critical for…

  10. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  11. Arab Americans: Into the Multicultural Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Long-standing anti-Arab racism in the U.S. has worsened in recent decades, fueled by U.S. military involvement in the Middle East and by the September 11 attack on the U.S. Arab American and Muslim children have been the targets of misunderstanding and discrimination. Following a historical introduction, discrimination against Arab American and…

  12. Arab-Americans and the Gulf Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor Al-Deen, Hana S.

    A study examined the sentiment and impact of different types, channels, and forms of aggression against the Arab-American community during the Gulf Crisis. Data were selected from entries in the 1990 Anti-Arab Discrimination and Hate Crimes Log of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination (ADC) National Office. Results show that there were 129 acts of…

  13. Different approaches of katira gum formulations for colon targeting.

    PubMed

    Bharaniraja, B; Jayaram Kumar, K; Prasad, C M; Sen, A K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the different formulations prepared by using gum, grafted gum and hydrogel of katira as a carrier for colon-specific drug delivery using in vitro methods with and without enzymes. Katira gum is naturally occurring polysaccharides containing mainly l-rhamnose and d-galactose sugar unit and small percent of d-galactouronic acid. Compared to grafted gum and hydrogel, all proportions of katira gum protect the drug from being released completely in the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. In vitro release studies in enzymes (Pectinex Ultra SP-L having galactouronidase activity) have demonstrated the susceptibility of katira gum to the colonic bacterial enzyme (galactouronidase activity from Pectinex Ultra SP-L) with a consequent drug release. It illustrates that katira gum, a natural polysaccharide may be suitable as a carrier for colon targeting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W

    2004-06-01

    In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.

  15. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Ono, Takahiro; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions) as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions.

  16. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Tachibana, Yoshihisa; Ono, Takahiro; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions) as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions. PMID:28379983

  17. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan gum when subjected to the following identification tests: (i) A 1-percent solution is made by hydrating 1 gram of gellan....50 gram of sodium chloride is added. The solution is heated to 80 °C with stirring, held at 80 °C...

  18. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... viable cells of P. elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan... hydrating 1 gram of gellan gum in 99 milliliters of distilled water. The mixture is stirred for about 2... identification test (i), 0.50 gram of sodium chloride is added. The solution is heated to 80 °C with...

  19. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... viable cells of P. elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan... hydrating 1 gram of gellan gum in 99 milliliters of distilled water. The mixture is stirred for about 2... identification test (i), 0.50 gram of sodium chloride is added. The solution is heated to 80 °C with...

  20. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... viable cells of P. elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan... hydrating 1 gram of gellan gum in 99 milliliters of distilled water. The mixture is stirred for about 2... identification test (i), 0.50 gram of sodium chloride is added. The solution is heated to 80 °C with...

  1. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... viable cells of P. elodea. (d) The additive meets the following specifications: (1) Positive for gellan... hydrating 1 gram of gellan gum in 99 milliliters of distilled water. The mixture is stirred for about 2... identification test (i), 0.50 gram of sodium chloride is added. The solution is heated to 80 °C with...

  2. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Xanthan gum. 573.1010 Section 573.1010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3336...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3336...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3336...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3336...

  7. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress.

    PubMed

    Konno, Michiyo; Takeda, Tomotaka; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that chewing is thought to affect stress modification in humans. Also, studies in animals have demonstrated that active chewing of a wooden stick during immobilization stress ameliorates the stress-impaired synaptic plasticity and prevents stress-induced noradrenaline release in the amygdala. On the other hand, studies have suggested that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) dominates the regulation of the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) is widely used in the study of emotions and neuropsychological research. Therefore, in this study, the effects of gum-chewing on physiological and psychological (including PFC activity measured by NIRS) responses to a negative stimulus selected from the IADS were measured and analyzed. The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Dental College (No. 436). We studied 11 normal adults using: cerebral blood oxygenation in the right medial PFC by multi-channel NIRS; alpha wave intensity by EEG; autonomic nervous function by heart rate; and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Auditory stimuli selected were fewer than 3.00 in Pleasure value. Sounds were recorded in 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner; seven rests: Brown Noise (30 s) and six task blocks: auditory stimuli or auditory stimuli with gum-chewing (30 s). During the test, the participants' eyes were closed. Paired Student's t-test was used for the comparison (P<0.05). Gum-chewing showed a significantly greater activation in the PFC, alpha wave appearance rate and HR. Gum-chewing also showed a significantly higher VAS score and a smaller STAI level indicating 'pleasant'. Gum-chewing affected physiological and psychological responses including PFC activity. This PFC activation change might influence the HPA axis

  8. Printed Arabic optical character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Ayyesh, Muna; Qaroush, Aziz; Tumar, Iyad

    2015-03-01

    A considerable progress in recognition techniques for many non-Arabic characters has been achieved. In contrary, few efforts have been put on the research of Arabic characters. In any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system the segmentation step is usually the essential stage in which an extensive portion of processing is devoted and a considerable share of recognition errors is attributed. In this research, a novel segmentation approach for machine Arabic printed text with diacritics is proposed. The proposed method reduces computation, errors, gives a clear description for the sub-word and has advantages over using the skeleton approach in which the data and information of the character can be lost. Both of initial evaluation and testing of the proposed method have been developed using MATLAB and shows 98.7% promising results.

  9. Host Status of Thirteen Acacia Species to Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed A. M.; Aref, Ibrahim M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen indigenous and exotic Acacia species grown in Saudi Arabia were evaluated for their host status for Meloidogyne javanica in pot tests both in the growth chamber and under outdoor conditions. In both experiments, 21-day-old seedlings were transplanted individually into 15-cm-diam. plastic pots containing a steam-sterilized mixture of equal parts loam and sandy loam. Seedlings were inoculated with 5,000 M. javanica eggs/plant 30 days later. After 120 days, fresh root weight, disease index (1-9 scale), the number of eggs/pot (Pf), eggs/g fresh root, and a reproductive factor (Rf) were determined. Results of both the growth chamber and the outdoor tests were similar. Species were grouped into host suitability categories according to Rf, and they were also grouped into resistance categories based on the sum of gall index, gall size, and percentage of the root system that was galled. Only A. salicina was a poor host and was resistant to M. javanica. Acacia farnisiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var. najdensis, and A. saligna were excellent hosts and highly susceptible. Both A. nilotica and A. stenophylla were classified as good hosts and highly susceptible, while A. ampliceps, A. ehrenbergiana, A. gerrardii subsp. negevensis var negevensis, A. sclerosperma, A. seyal, A. tortilis, and A. tortilis subsp. spirocarpa were also good hosts but were classified as susceptible rather than highly susceptible. This is the first report on the susceptibility of Acacia species to M. javanica in Saudi Arabia, including some new hosts worldwide. PMID:19271016

  10. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  11. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  12. An association between temporomandibular disorder and gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Correia, Diana; Real Dias, Maria Carlos; Castanho Moacho, Antonio; Crispim, Pedro; Luis, Henrique; Oliveira, Miguel; Carames, Joao

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, small study sought to investigate the prevalence and frequency of chewing gum consumption, and whether there is a relationship between these factors and the presence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were divided into 7 groups based on their parafunctional oral habits. Of these, subjects who chewed gum were divided into 5 subgroups (A-E) based on their gum chewing habits. Group A chewed gum <1 hour/day (n = 12), Group B chewed gum 1-2 hours/day (n = 11), Group C chewed gum 3 hours/day (n = 6), and Group D chewed gum >3 hours at a time (n = 8); the frequency of gum chewing in Groups A-D was once a week. Group E subjects chewed gum 1-3 times/week for at least 1 hour each occurrence (n = 2). Sixty-three percent of the subjects in Group D reported TMD symptoms of arthralgia and myofascial pain. Thirty-three percent of the subjects in Group C showed symptoms of arthralgia. Eighty-three percent of the subjects in Group A and 27% in Group B reported myofascial pain. All subjects in Group E reported masseter hypertrophy. The remaining 2 groups were Group F, subjects that didn't chew gum but had other parafunctional oral habits (n = 2), and Group G, subjects who didn't have parafunctional oral habits (n = 12).

  13. Placebo controlled trial of nicotine chewing gum in general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Jamrozik, K; Fowler, G; Vessey, M; Wald, N

    1984-01-01

    Of 2110 adult cigarette smokers originally recruited to a study of the effect of antismoking advice in general practice, 429 who reported at follow up after one year that they had tried unsuccessfully to stop smoking were offered "a special antismoking chewing gum," either nicotine gum or a placebo gum, in a double blind study. Of 200 who were willing to try the gum, 101 were randomly allocated to the nicotine gum and 99 to the placebo gum. They were followed up at six months by an unannounced home visit, at which they were interviewed and asked to provide a breath sample for analysis of carbon monoxide. Twenty five claimed that they had stopped smoking, but, of them, seven exhaled levels of carbon monoxide indicative of continued smoking. Of the 18 in whom giving up smoking was validated, 10 had received active gum and eight placebo gum, a difference which was not significant (odds in favour of nicotine gum = 1.25, 95% confidence limits 0.47-3.31). The value of nicotine chewing gum, if any, can be quite small when it is used in general practice. PMID:6434084

  14. Arab World Almanac, Volume 2, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nucho, Leslie Schmida, Ed.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three issues of this volume of "Arab World Almanac" features a self-contained lesson plan on one aspect of the Arab world. The Fall, 1990 issue focuses on "Oil and the Arab World." The Winter, 1991 issue looks at "The Arab World in the World Wars." The Spring, 1991 issue examines "Islamic Revival in the Arab World." Each issue includes…

  15. Syllable Structure in Rumthawi Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBzour, Naser N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating some phonological aspects of syllable structure in Rumthawi Arabic, a Levantine variety spoken in the northern region of Jordan. It basically sheds light on the OT constraint interaction that determines the surfacing onsets and codas of syllables in this dialect. The scope of this paper is more specifically…

  16. Trip Report United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A

    2004-10-06

    Keith Nakanishi and Arthur Rodgers traveled to the United Arab Emirates in February, 2004 to continue an on-going technical collaboration with UAE University and to service the two temporary LLNL seismic stations. Nakanishi and Rodgers then participated in the Gulf Seismic Forum, which was organized by LLNL and sponsored by the University of Sharjah.

  17. Ending Discrimination Against Arab Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abourezk, James G.; Revell, Oliver B.

    1983-01-01

    Abourezk holds that Arab Americans are victims of much racial hatred and stereotyping and that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has been the primary governmental agency abusing the civil rights of this group. Revell, an official of the FBI, counters Abourezk's contentions. (GC)

  18. Moroccan Arabic Textbook. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Rabat (Morocco).

    The textbook is designed for Peace Corps volunteers learning the variety of Arabic mostly widely spoken in Morocco. It contains 10 lessons, each consisting of a dialogue, vocabulary list, grammar notes, a popular proverb, and supplementary dialogue and/or idiomatic and socially correct expressions. Dialogue topics include introductions and…

  19. Arabic in Australian Islamic Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Presents census data on the Muslim population in Australia and overviews full-time independent Islamic schools offering a comprehensive education across the curriculum. Argues that these schools offer great potential for the successful development of Arabic language and cultural literacy skills required by Australian exporters and diplomats in the…

  20. Canavan disease: an Arab scenario.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Hatem

    2015-04-10

    The autosomal recessive Canavan disease (CD) is a neurological disorder that begins in infancy. CD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the ASPA enzyme. It has been reported with high frequency in patients with Jewish ancestry, and with low frequency in non-Jewish patients. This review will shed light on some updates regarding CD prevalence and causative mutations across the Arab World. CD was reported in several Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Yemen, Kuwait, and Tunisia. The population with the highest risk is in Saudi Arabia due the prevalent consanguineous marriage culture. In several studies, four novel mutations were found among Arabian CD patients, including two missense mutations (p.C152R, p.C152W), a 3346bp deletion leading to the removal of exon 3 of the ASPA gene, and an insertion mutation (698insC). Other previously reported mutations, which led to damage in the ASPA enzyme activities found among CD Arab patients are c.530 T>C (p.I177T), c.79G>A (p.G27R), IVS4+1G>T, and a 92kb deletion, which is 7.16kb upstream from the ASPA start site. This review will help in developing customized molecular diagnostic approaches and promoting CD carrier screening in the Arab world in areas where consanguineous marriage is common particularly within Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.