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Sample records for gunther tulip retrievable

  1. Evaluation of Retrievability of the Gunther Tulip Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Kato, Takeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of withdrawal of a Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF). Methods. Between June 2001 and December 2005, at our institution 86 GTFs were implanted for temporary caval filtration in 59 patients (37 women, 22 men; mean age 59.3 years, range 18-87 years). For GTFs retrieved thereafter, we retrospectively reviewed the following parameters: rate of success in retrieval, degree of trapped thrombus in the filter, and complications during retrieval. Results. Worsening of or new development of pulmonary embolism after filter implantation did not occur in any patient. Of the 86 GTFs implanted, retrieval of 80 was attempted. Among those 80 filters, 77 (96%) were successfully retrieved (with the standard method, n = 72; with the modified method, n = 5) without any complication. The period of implantation of the retrieved filters was 13.4 {+-} 4.2 days. In the 5 filters that were filled to a height of {>=} 1/4 with trapped thrombus, retrieval was performed after attempts were made to decrease trapped thrombi. In addition, a temporary filter or another GTF was temporarily placed at the cephalad level of the GTF during this removal procedure. Conclusion. GTFs can be retrieved in the majority of cases. Even when encountering situations in which the filter could not be removed using the standard method, withdrawal was possible in a high frequency of cases through various trials using modified methods.

  2. Gunther Tulip Retrievable Inferior Vena Caval Filters: Indications, Efficacy, Retrieval, and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Looby, S.; Given, M.F.; Geoghegan, T.; McErlean, A.; Lee, M.J.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. We evaluated the Gunther Tulip (GT) retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with regard to indications, filtration efficacy, complications, retrieval window, and use of anticoagulation. Method. A retrospective study was performed of 147 patients (64 men, 83 women; mean age 58.8 years) who underwent retrievable GT filter insertion between 2001 and 2005. The indications for placement included a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis with a contraindication to anticoagulation (n = 68), pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis while on anticoagulation (n = 49), prophylactic filter placement for high-risk surgical patients with a past history of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 20), and a high risk of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 10). Forty-nine of the 147 patients did not receive anticoagulation (33.7%) while 96 of 147 patients did, 82 of these receiving warfarin (56.5%), 11 receiving low-molecular weight heparins (7.58%), and 3 receiving antiplatelet agents alone (2.06%). Results. Filter placement was successful in 147 patients (100%). Two patients had two filters inserted. Of the 147 patients, filter deployment was on a permanent basis in 102 and with an intention to retrieve in 45 patients. There were 36 (80%) successful retrievals and 9 (20%) failed retrievals. The mean time to retrieval was 33.6 days. The reasons for failed retrieval included filter struts tightly adherent to the IVC wall (5/9), extreme filter tilt (2/9), and extensive filter thrombus (2/9). Complications included pneumothorax (n = 4), failure of filter expansion (n = 1), and breakthrough pulmonary embolism (n = 1). No IVC thrombotic episodes were recorded. Discussion. The Gunther Tulip retrievable filter can be used as a permanent or a retrievable filter. It is safe and efficacious. GT filters can be safely retrieved at a mean time interval of 33.6 days. The newly developed Celect filter may extend the retrieval interval.

  3. Successful removal of a Gunther tulip vena cava filter with wall-embedded hook and migration during a retrieval attempt

    PubMed Central

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval of a Gunther tulip vena cava filter implanted in a patient with inferior vena cava and right common iliac vein thrombosis was attempted by the standard method. Because the filter was tilted, the hook became attached to the vena cava wall and could not be snared. During attempts at removal by an alternative method, the filter migrated toward the right atrium. However, it was finally successfully removed. PMID:23986855

  4. Safety and Efficacy of the Gunther Tulip Retrievable Vena Cava Filter: Midterm Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, Eric K. Mueller, Rebecca J.; Luciano, Marcus R.; Lee, Nicole N.; Michaels, Anne T.; Gemery, John M.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate of the medium-term integrity, efficacy, and complication rate associated with the Gunther Tulip vena cava filter.MethodsA retrospective study was performed of 369 consecutive patients who had infrarenal Gunther Tulip inferior vena cava filters placed over a 5-year period. The mean patient age was 61.8 years, and 59 % were men. Venous thromboembolic disease and a contraindication to or complication of anticoagulation were the indications for filter placement in 86 % of patients; 14 % were placed for prophylaxis in patients with a mean of 2.3 risk factors. Follow-up was obtained by review of medical and radiologic records.ResultsMean clinical follow-up was 780 days. New or recurrent pulmonary embolus occurred in 12 patients (3.3 %). New or recurrent deep-vein thrombosis occurred in 53 patients (14.4 %). There were no symptomatic fractures, migrations, or caval perforations. Imaging follow-up in 287 patients (77.8 %) at a mean of 731 days revealed a single (0.3 %) asymptomatic fracture, migration greater than 2 cm in 36 patients (12.5 %), and no case of embolization. Of 122 patients with CT scans, asymptomatic perforations were identified in 53 patients (43.4 %) at a mean 757 days.ConclusionThe Gunther Tulip filter was safe and effective at 2-year follow-up. Complication rates were similar to those reported for permanent inferior vena cava filters.

  5. Endovascular Repair of a Perforation of the Vena Caval Wall Caused by the Retrieval of a Gunther Tulip Filter After Long-Term Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    Symptomatic penetration of the inferior vena cava (IVC) wall reportedly occurs in 0.3% of patients in whom a filter has been implanted, and it causes injury to the adjacent structures (Bogue et al. in Pediatr Radiol 39(10):1110-1113, 1; Brzezinski et al. in Burns 32(5):640-643, 2). We succeeded in the endovascular repair of perforation of the IVC wall occurring during the retrieval of a penetrated Gunther tulip vena cava filter (Cook, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) after long-term implantation.

  6. Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement During Treatment for Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Kato, Takeharu; Iida, Shigeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF) implantation to prevent pulmonary embolism during intravenously administered thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy and interventional radiological therapy for occlusive or nonocclusive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity. Methods. We evaluated placement of 55 GTFs in 42 patients with lower extremity DVT who had undergone various treatments including those utilizing techniques of interventional radiology. Results. Worsening of pulmonary embolism in patients with existing pulmonary embolism or in those without pulmonary embolism at the time of GTF insertion was avoided in all patients. All attempts at implantation of the GTF were safely accomplished. Perforation and migration experienced by one patient was the only complication. Mean period of treatment for DVT under protection from pulmonary embolism by the GTF was 12.7 {+-} 8.3 days (mean {+-} SD, range 4-37 days). We attempted retrieval of GTFs in 18 patients in whom the venous thrombus had disappeared after therapy, and retrieval in one of these 18 cases failed. GTFs were left in the vena cava in 24 patients for permanent use when the DVT was refractory to treatment. Conclusion. The ability of the GTF to protect against pulmonary embolism during treatment of DVT was demonstrated. Safety in both placement and retrieval was clarified. Because replacement with a permanent filter was not required, use of the GTF was convenient when further protection from complicated pulmonary embolism was necessary.

  7. Guenter Tulip Filter Retrieval Experience: Predictors of Successful Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Turba, Ulku Cenk Arslan, Bulent Meuse, Michael Sabri, Saher; Macik, Barbara Gail

    2010-08-15

    We report our experience with Guenter Tulip filter placement indications, retrievals, and procedural problems, with emphasis on alternative retrieval techniques. We have identified 92 consecutive patients in whom a Guenter Tulip filter was placed and filter removal attempted. We recorded patient demographic information, filter placement and retrieval indications, procedures, standard and nonstandard filter retrieval techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes. The mean time to retrieval for those who experienced filter strut penetration was statistically significant [F(1,90) = 8.55, p = 0.004]. Filter strut(s) IVC penetration and successful retrieval were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.043). The filter hook-IVC relationship correlated with successful retrieval. A modified guidewire loop technique was applied in 8 of 10 cases where the hook appeared to penetrate the IVC wall and could not be engaged with a loop snare catheter, providing additional technical success in 6 of 8 (75%). Therefore, the total filter retrieval success increased from 88 to 95%. In conclusion, the Guenter Tulip filter has high successful retrieval rates with low rates of complication. Additional maneuvers such as a guidewire loop method can be used to improve retrieval success rates when the filter hook is endothelialized.

  8. Günter tulip filter retrieval experience: predictors of successful retrieval.

    PubMed

    Turba, Ulku Cenk; Arslan, Bulent; Meuse, Michael; Sabri, Saher; Macik, Barbara Gail; Hagspiel, Klaus D; Matsumoto, Alan H; Angle, John F

    2010-08-01

    We report our experience with Günter Tulip filter placement indications, retrievals, and procedural problems, with emphasis on alternative retrieval techniques. We have identified 92 consecutive patients in whom a Günter Tulip filter was placed and filter removal attempted. We recorded patient demographic information, filter placement and retrieval indications, procedures, standard and nonstandard filter retrieval techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes. The mean time to retrieval for those who experienced filter strut penetration was statistically significant [F(1,90) = 8.55, p = 0.004]. Filter strut(s) IVC penetration and successful retrieval were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.043). The filter hook-IVC relationship correlated with successful retrieval. A modified guidewire loop technique was applied in 8 of 10 cases where the hook appeared to penetrate the IVC wall and could not be engaged with a loop snare catheter, providing additional technical success in 6 of 8 (75%). Therefore, the total filter retrieval success increased from 88 to 95%. In conclusion, the Günter Tulip filter has high successful retrieval rates with low rates of complication. Additional maneuvers such as a guidewire loop method can be used to improve retrieval success rates when the filter hook is endothelialized.

  9. Guenther Tulip Filter Retrieval from a Left-sided Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, Elias N.; Kaufman, John A. Lakin, Paul L.

    2004-01-15

    Optional (retrievable) inferior cava filters (IVC) may have advantages over permanent filters in a certain subset of patients, especially in view of recent concerns about the long-term thrombotic complications of the latter. Retrieval of the Guenther Tulip Filter (GTF), an optional filter, has been reported in a total of 76 patients. We present the first description of GTF retrieval from a left-sided IVC using the right internal jugular approach.

  10. Dialysis grafts arterial plug: Retrieval using the tulip sheath device in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sharafuddin, Melhem J.; Titus, Jack L.

    1997-03-15

    The 'arterial plug' is a resistant thrombus that frequently persists at the arterial anastomosis of clotted hemodialysis grafts following thrombolytic therapy. We studied the physical and morphological characteristics of the plug and determined the feasibility of transcatheter removal in vitro using the tulip compression thrombectomy system. Sixteen thrombus plugs were recovered during surgical thrombectomy of clotted human dialysis grafts. The physical and gross physical characteristics of all plugs were analyzed. Eight specimens were evaluated microscopically. Transcatheter compression thrombectomy of eight plugs was attempted in vitro. Each plug was embedded in a polyvinyl tube filled with newly clotted blood and connected to a flow circuit. First, balloon-assisted aspiration thrombectomy (BAT) of soft thrombus was performed, while sparing the distal-most segment containing the plug. The tulip sheath was then introduced facing the 'arterial end' of the tube. The thrombus segment containing the plug was pulled back into the tulip mesh using either a 3 Fr Fogarty balloon catheter or a self-expanding rake. The tulip was closed to compress and remove the trapped plug. Near-complete thrombectomy of soft clot was achieved in all tested tubes. Compression and retrieval of the entire arterial plug was successful in all except one, where only partial compression of the plug occurred, presumably due to fibrotic changes. No fragmentation or embolization occurred in the remaining procedures. Spongy consistency was noted in 94% of the specimens. Microscopic evaluation showed organized layered thrombus with compaction in five plugs. Transcatheter removal of a thrombus plug is feasible in vitro using the tulip compression-thrombectomy system.

  11. Results of a multicenter study of the retrievable Tulip vena cava filter: Early clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Neuerburg, Joerg M.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Vorwerk, Dierk; Dondelinger, Robert F.; Jaeger, Horst; Lackner, Klaus J.; Schild, Hans H.; Plant, Graham R.; Joffre, Francis G.; Schneider, Pierre A.; Janssen, Johan H. A.

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To evaluate clinically a new, retrievable vena caval filter in a multicenter study. Methods. The Tulip filter is a stainless steel half-basket that is suitable for antegrade or retrograde insertion via an 8.5 Fr introducer sheath. The filter can be retrieved via the jugular approach using an 11 Fr coaxial retrieval system. Forty-eight filters were implanted via the femoral approach and 38 via the jugular approach in 83 patients. Follow-up examinations (plain films, colorcoded duplex sonography) were performed up to 3 years after filter insertion (mean 136 days) in 75 patients. Twenty-seven patients were screened by colorcoded duplex sonography for insertion site thrombosis. Results. An appropriate filter position was achieved in all cases. Insertion problems occurred in 3 cases; these were not due to the filter design but to an imperfect prototype insertion mechanism that has now been modified (n=2) or a manipulation error (n=1). In 2 of these cases the filters were replaced percutaneously; 1 patient required venotomy for filter removal. No further complications due to filter insertion occurred. Two filters were used as temporary devices and were successfully removed after 6 and 11 days, respectively. There was 1 fatal recurrent pulmonary embolism (PE) and 2 non-fatal PE, 5 complete and 3 partial caval occlusions, and 3 caudal migrations of the filter. Insertion site venous thrombosis was not seen in the 27 patients monitored for this complication. Conclusion. Precise placement of the Tulip filter is feasible by either access route and the device appears mechanically stable. Further observations are needed to confirm that safe filter removal is practical up to 10 days after its insertion.

  12. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  13. Perforation of the IVC: Rule Rather Than Exception After Longer Indwelling Times for the Guenther Tulip and Celect Retrievable Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Jeremy C. Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kekulawela, Stephanie; Bhanu, Shiv B.; Avrin, David E.; Gordon, Roy L.; Kerlan, Robert K.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the incidence, magnitude, and impact upon retrievability of vena caval perforation by Guenther Tulip and Celect conical inferior vena cava (IVC) filters on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Methods: Guenther Tulip and Celect IVC filters placed between July 2007 and May 2009 were identified from medical records. Of 272 IVC filters placed, 50 (23 Guenther Tulip, 46%; 27 Celect, 54%) were retrospectively assessed on follow-up abdominal CT scans performed for reasons unrelated to the filter. Computed tomography scans were examined for evidence of filter perforation through the vena caval wall, tilt, or pericaval tissue injury. Procedure records were reviewed to determine whether IVC filter retrieval was attempted and successful. Results: Perforation of at least one filter component through the IVC was observed in 43 of 50 (86%) filters on CT scans obtained between 1 and 880 days after filter placement. All filters imaged after 71 days showed some degree of vena caval perforation, often as a progressive process. Filter tilt was seen in 20 of 50 (40%) filters, and all tilted filters also demonstrated vena caval perforation. Transjugular removal was attempted in 12 of 50 (24%) filters and was successful in 11 of 12 (92%). Conclusions: Longer indwelling times usually result in vena caval perforation by retrievable Guenther Tulip and Celect IVC filters. Although infrequently reported in the literature, clinical sequelae from IVC filter components breaching the vena cava can be significant. We advocate filter retrieval as early as clinically indicated and increased attention to the appearance of IVC filters on all follow-up imaging studies.

  14. Günther Tulip inferior vena cava filter retrieval using a bidirectional loop-snare technique.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jordan; Allison, Stephen; Vaidya, Sandeep; Monroe, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many advanced techniques have been reported in the literature for difficult Günther Tulip filter removal. This report describes a bidirectional loop-snare technique in the setting of a fibrin scar formation around the filter leg anchors. The bidirectional loop-snare technique allows for maximal axial tension and alignment for stripping fibrin scar from the filter legs, a commonly encountered complication of prolonged dwell times.

  15. Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Simon, Daniel; Rimon, Uri

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavography prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.

  16. The TULIP Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusack, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Contains 11 articles that describe different university access systems designed and built to provide access to journals via The University Licensing Program (TULIP), a science journal access project, involving Elsevier Science Publishing and major universities. The project produced insights to help with future electronic information delivery…

  17. The initial development of a tulip flame

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, M.; Mcgreevy, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The initial development of a ``tulip flame``, often observed during flame propagation in closed tubes, is attributed to a combustion instability. The roles of hydrodynamic and of the diffusional-thermal processes on the onset of instability are investigated through a linear stability analysis in which the growth or decay of small disturbances, superimposed on an otherwise smooth and planar flame front, are followed. A range of the Markstein parameter, related to the mixture composition through an appropriately defined Lewis number, has been identified where a tulip flame could be observed. For a given value of the Markstein parameter within this range, a critical wavelength is identified as the most unstable mode. This wavelength is directly related to the minimal aspect ratio of the tube where a tulip flame could be observed. The time of onset of instability is identified as the time when the most unstable disturbance, associated with the critical wavelength, grows at a faster rate than the flame front itself and exceeds a certain threshold. This occurs after the flame has propagated a certain distance down the tube: a value which has been explicitly determined in terms of the relevant parameters. Experimental records on the tulip flame phenomenon support the finding of the analysis. That is, the tulip flame forms after the flame has traveled half the tube`s length, it does not form in short tubes, and its formation depends on the mixture composition and on the initial pressure in the tube.

  18. Tulip, a Modified Munsell Color Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Uri

    1990-03-01

    The "Tulip" is a modified Munsell Color Space in which equal hue spacing is converted to variable hue spacing, reflecting the differential sensitivity to hue as a function of value, for a fixed chroma. Number of discernible hues, when plotted on a hue-value plane, results in the proposed tulip shape, with curved lines delineating the boundaries between hues. By means of a signal detection experiment, the tulip for yellow-green and for blue is determined. It is shown that more distinct hues of yellow-green are discernible at a high value than at low value. Conversely, for blue, more distinct hues are discernible at low value than at high value.

  19. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  20. Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1991-11-30

    A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.

  1. Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1991-11-30

    A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.

  2. Tulip deformity with Cera atrial septal defect devices: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the treatment of choice when anatomy is favourable. Amplatzer device has remained the gold standard for closure of ASD. Cobra deformity is a well-reported problem with devices. Recently, Tulip deformity has been reported in a single case. We report a series of cases where we noted Tulip deformity along with inability to retract the device in the sheath in Cera Lifetech devices. This resulted in prolongation of procedure, excessive fluoroscopic exposure and additional interventional procedures not usually anticipated in ASD device closure. We believe that the problem is due to the stiffness of the device resulting in its inability to be retracted into the sheath. We also report a unique way of retrieving the device.

  3. Growth Attenuation and Due Process: "A Response to Gunther and Diekema (2006)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Rud; Wehmeyer, Michael; Turnbull, Ann; Stowe, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Gunther and Diekema's argument about growth attenuation and due process. As a case study, growth attenuation raises complicated issues. The authors address some issues that have not been sufficiently addressed. Those involve family support, assistive technology, constitutional rights to "self," the…

  4. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  5. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems.

  6. Tulip flames: changes in shape of premixed flames propagating in closed tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Sawyer, R. F.

    The experimental results that are the subject of this communication provide high-speed schlieren images of the closed-tube flame shape that has come to be known as the tulip flame. The schlieren images, along with in-chamber pressure records, help demonstrate the effects of chamber length, equivalence ratio, and igniter geometry on formation of the tulip flame. The pressure/time records show distinct features which correlate with flame shape changes during the transition to tulip. The measurements indicate that the basic tulip flame formation is a robust phenomenon that depends on little except the overall geometry of the combustion vessel.

  7. Spot Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Tulip Tree in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okryun; Choi, Okhee; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Kim, Jinwoo; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk

    2012-03-01

    The tulip tree (Liriodendron chinense) has been widely cultivated in Korea as a street or garden tree for its large flowers, which have a superficial resemblance to tulips. Occurrence of anthracnose disease on the leaves of tulip trees growing on the campus of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea, has been observed. Based on mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer sequence, the causal fungus was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. This is the first report on anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides on tulip trees in Korea.

  8. An evolution equation modeling inversion of tulip flames

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Joulin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The authors attempt to reduce the number of physical ingredients needed to model the phenomenon of tulip-flame inversion to a bare minimum. This is achieved by synthesizing the nonlinear, first-order Michelson-Sivashinsky (MS) equation with the second order linear dispersion relation of Landau and Darrieus, which adds only one extra term to the MS equation without changing any of its stationary behavior and without changing its dynamics in the limit of small density change when the MS equation is asymptotically valid. However, as demonstrated by spectral numerical solutions, the resulting second-order nonlinear evolution equation is found to describe the inversion of tulip flames in good qualitative agreement with classical experiments on the phenomenon. This shows that the combined influences of front curvature, geometric nonlinearity and hydrodynamic instability (including its second-order, or inertial effects, which are an essential result of vorticity production at the flame front) are sufficient to reproduce the inversion process.

  9. Nitrogen ion utilization by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.

    1982-01-01

    Growth responses of one-year-old tulip poplar seedlings were determined for different nitrogen sources (HN/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH+/sub 4/, NO-/sub 3/, no nitrogen) at 336 ppm N in nutrient culture. At the end of three months, there were no significant differences in growth observed among treatments in terms of stem elongation, leaf area, and leaf size. After four months, however, seedlings of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) greater growth (final weight gain and stem elongation) than all other nitrogen sorces. Growth was slightly less for the NO-/sub 3/ treatment plants, but compared with NH+/sub 4/ and no nitrogen treatment, both NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and NO-/sub 3/ treatments exhibited significantly greater growth responses. NO-/sub 3/ is recommended as the sole nitrogen source, especially for small seedlings of tulip poplar.

  10. Air Force Operational Medicine: Using the Enterprise Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the Thoracic/Vascular Surgery Team (FFGKT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-10

    6X6IN 5S 1 1 0.48 0.09 $782.67 0.48 0.09 $782.67 C 6515015567876 FILTER IMPLANT SE VENA CAVA GUNTHER TULIP FEMORAL DIA30MM LG45MM 5 1 5.00 0.13...6515015569518 FILTER RETRIEVAL SET VENA CAVA GUNTHER TULIP 2 1 1.76 0.24 $1,037.48 0.88 0.12 $518.74 FFGKT Materiel Solutions A-17 Note. A = quantity

  11. Micropropagation of tulip: production of virus-free stock plants.

    PubMed

    Podwyszyńska, Małgorzata; Sochacki, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    We describe here a new tulip micropropagation method based on the cyclic shoot multiplication in presence of the thidiazuron (TDZ), which enables the production of virus-free stock plants, speeds up breeding, and provides new genotypes for the market. In our novel protocol, cyclic shoot multiplication can be performed for 2-3 years by using TDZ instead of other cytokinins, as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and N(6)-(-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). It makes possible to produce 500-2,000 microbulbs from one healthy plant. There are six main stages of tulip micropropagation. Stage 0 is the selection of true-to-type and virus-free plants, confirmed by ELISA. Fragments of flower stems isolated from bulbs are used as initial explants. Shoot multiplication is based on the regeneration of adventitious shoots, which are sub-cultured every 8 weeks. In the Stage 3, the specially prepared shoots are induced by low temperature treatment to form bulbs which finally develop on a sucrose-rich medium at 20 degrees C. Bulbs are then dried for 6 weeks and rooted in vivo. The number of multiplication subcultures should be limited to 5-10 cycles in order to lower the risk of mutation. Virus indexing should be repeated 3-4 times, at the initial stage and then during shoot multiplication. Genetic stability of micropropagated shoots can be confirmed using molecular markers.

  12. TULIPs: tunable, light-controlled interacting protein tags for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Devin; Lin, Yuan; Wagner, Elizabeth; Hope, C Matthew; Zayner, Josiah; Antoniou, Chloe; Sosnick, Tobin R; Weiss, Eric L; Glotzer, Michael

    2012-03-04

    Naturally photoswitchable proteins offer a means of directly manipulating the formation of protein complexes that drive a diversity of cellular processes. We developed tunable light-inducible dimerization tags (TULIPs) based on a synthetic interaction between the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) and an engineered PDZ domain (ePDZ). TULIPs can recruit proteins to diverse structures in living yeast and mammalian cells, either globally or with precise spatial control using a steerable laser. The equilibrium binding and kinetic parameters of the interaction are tunable by mutation, making TULIPs readily adaptable to signaling pathways with varying sensitivities and response times. We demonstrate the utility of TULIPs by conferring light sensitivity to functionally distinct components of the yeast mating pathway and by directing the site of cell polarization.

  13. Gunther von Hagens and Body Worlds part 2: The anatomist as priest and prophet.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charleen M; Brown, C Mackenzie

    2004-03-01

    Part 1 of this two-part series highlighted tensions between the anatomical quest for scientific knowledge about the human interior and artistic representations of the anatomized body, contrasting the roles of Goethe's scientific Prosektor and humanistic Proplastiker-roles disturbingly fused in Gunther von Hagens. Part 2 first examines religious interpretations of the human body that fuel the tensions manifest in anatomy art. The body in Western cultures is a sacred text amenable to interpretation as handiwork of God, habitation for the soul, and vehicle for resurrection. As handiwork of God the body beckons the anatomist's scalpel, helping establish dissection as the hallmark of Western medicine. The body as divinely designed machine encompasses the idea of an indwelling soul expressing its will in actions mediated through the intricate network of muscles-an understanding reflected in the oft occurring muscle men of early anatomical textbooks. Interconnections of body and soul in medieval somatic spirituality are examined with reference to ideas of resurrection and their impact on anatomical illustration. Part 2 concludes with consideration of von Hagens as priest and prophet, culminating in the Promethean impulse that recognizes not God but ourselves as proper owners and molders of our destiny, embodied in the plastinator's visionary quest to create the superhuman.

  14. Hydrolysis kinetics of tulip tree xylan in hot compressed water.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Junho; Lee, Hun Wook; Sim, Seungjae; Myint, Aye Aye; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable resource, can be converted into numerous valuable chemicals post enzymatic saccharification. However, the efficacy of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is low; therefore, pretreatment is necessary to improve the efficiency. Here, a kinetic analysis was carried out on xylan hydrolysis, after hot compressed water pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass conducted at 180-220°C for 5-30min, and on subsequent xylooligosaccharide hydrolysis. The weight ratio of fast-reacting xylan to slow-reacting xylan was 5.25 in tulip tree. Our kinetic results were applied to three different reaction systems to improve the pretreatment efficiency. We found that semi-continuous reactor is promising. Lower reaction temperatures and shorter space times in semi-continuous reactor are recommended for improving xylan conversion and xylooligosaccharide yield. In the theoretical calculation, 95% of xylooligosaccharide yield and xylan conversion were achieved simultaneously with high selectivity (desired product/undesired product) of 100 or more.

  15. [Morphologic and AFLP analysis of relationships between tulip species Tulipa biebersteiniana (Liliaceae)].

    PubMed

    Kutlunina, N A; Polezhaeva, M A; Permiakova, M V

    2013-04-01

    In populations of four species of tulips, (Tulipa biebersteiniana, T. patens, T. scytica and T. riparia) from the Volgograd, Kurgansk, Orenburg, and Chelyabinsk regions and the Republic of Bashkortostan, genetic diversity was studied by means of morphological and AFLP analysis. A morphological analysis of seven quantitative and two qualitative criteria was carried out. Three selective EcoRI/MseI primer pairs allowed one to genotype 81 individuals from 13 tulip populations with 87 loci. The low level of variability by AFLP loci were revealed in all species, including T. biebersteiniana (P = 20.41%, UH(e) = 0.075), T. patens (26.97%, 0.082), T. scytica (27.53%, 0.086), and T. riparia (27.72%, 0.096). According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion that characterizes the differences between the four Tulip species was lower (F(CT) = 0.235) than between populations within species (F(ST) = 0.439). Tulipa patens is well differentiated by means of Nei's distances, coordination, and analysis in the STRUCTURE program. An analysis in the STRUCTURE revealed four genetic groups of tulips that are not completely in accordance with the analyzed species. This acknowledges the presence of complicated genetic process in the tulip population.

  16. Characterization of protein phosphatase 2A acting on phosphorylated plasma membrane aquaporin of tulip petals.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    A protein phosphatase holo-type enzyme (38, 65, and 75 kDa) preparation and a free catalytic subunit (38 kDa) purified from tulip petals were characterized as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) by immunological and biochemical approaches. The plasma membrane containing the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP) was prepared from tulip petals, phosphorylated in vitro, and used as the substrate for both of the purified PP2A preparations. Although both preparations dephosphorylated the phosphorylated PM-AQP at 20 degrees C, only the holo-type enzyme preparation acted at 5 degrees C on the phosphorylated PM-AQP with higher substrate specificity, suggesting that regulatory subunits are required for low temperature-dependent dephosphorylation of PM-AQP in tulip petals.

  17. Jasmonates are essential factors inducing gummosis in tulips: mode of action of jasmonates focusing on sugar metabolism.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the mechanism of jasmonates to induce gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) shoots, especially on the focus of sugar metabolism. Gummosis in the first internode of tulip plants was induced by the application of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me, 1% w/w in lanolin) and jasmonic acid (JA, 1% w/w in lanolin) 5 days after application and strongly stimulated by the simultaneous application of ethylene-releasing compound, ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, 1% w/w in lanolin), although ethephon alone had little effect. JA-Me stimulated ethylene production of the first internodes of tulips, ethylene production increasing up to more than 5 times at day 1 and day 3 after the application. On the other hand, application of ethephon did not increase endogenous levels of jasmonates in tulip stems. Analysis of composition of tulip gums revealed that they were consisted of glucuronoarabinoxylan with an average molecular weight of ca. 700 kDa. JA-Me strongly decreased the total amount of soluble sugars in tulip stems even in 1 day after application, being ca. 50% of initial values 5 days after application, but ethephon did not. However, both JA-Me and ethephon had almost no effect on the neutral sugar compositions of soluble sugars mainly consisting of glucose, mannose and xylose in ratio of 20:2:1 and traces of arabinose. Both JA-Me and ethephon applied exogenously stimulated senescence of tulip shoots shown by the loss of chlorophyll. These results strongly suggest that the essential factor of gummosis in tulips is jasmonates affecting the sugar metabolism in tulip shoots. The mode of action of jasmonates to induce gummosis of tulip shoots is discussed in relation to ethylene production, sugar metabolism and senescence.

  18. Direct profiling of phytochemicals in tulip tissues and in vivo monitoring of the change of carbohydrate content in tulip bulbs by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2009-12-01

    Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems.

  19. Use of metabolic activation systems of tulip bulbs in the Ames test for environmental mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, K.; Ikeuchi, K.; Karasaki, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of trace amounts of PAH on the carcinogenesis in animals and human beings and on the ecology of plants are examined. An in vitro method has been developed which traces the metabolic fate of environmental mutagens in tulip bulbs. The method has been successful in confirming the presence of metabolic activation systems only for potent carcinogens. (JMT)

  20. Late endovascular removal of Günther-Tulip inferior vena cava filter and stent reconstruction of chronic post-thrombotic iliocaval obstruction after 4753 days of filter dwell time: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Mehul Harshad; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2016-12-01

    Chronic post-thrombotic obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) or iliocaval junction is an uncommon complication of long indwelling IVC filter. When such an obstruction is symptomatic, endovascular treatment options include stent placement with or without filter retrieval. Filter retrieval becomes increasingly difficult with longer dwell times. We present a case of symptomatic post-thrombotic obstruction of the iliocaval junction related to Günther-Tulip IVC filter (Cook Medical Inc, Bloomington, IN) with dwell time of 4753 days, treated successfully with endovascular filter removal and stent reconstruction. Filter retrieval and stent reconstruction may be a treatment option in symptomatic patients with filter-related chronic IVC or iliocaval junction obstruction, even after prolonged dwell time.

  1. Use of Retrievable Compared to Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filters: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Thuong G. Van Chien, Andy S.; Funaki, Brian S.; Lorenz, Jonathan; Piano, Giancarlo; Shen, Maxine; Leef, Jeffrey

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to review the use, safety, and efficacy of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in their first 5 years of availability at our institution. Comparison was made with permanent filters placed in the same period. A retrospective review of IVC filter implantations was performed from September, 1999, to September, 2004, in our department. These included both retrievable and permanent filters. The Recovery nitinol and Guenther tulip filters were used as retrievable filters. The frequency of retrievable filter used was calculated. Clinical data and technical data related to filter placement were reviewed. Outcomes, including pulmonary embolism, complications associated with placement, retrieval, or indwelling, were calculated. During the study period, 604 IVC filters were placed. Of these, 97 retrievable filters (16%) were placed in 96 patients. There were 53 Recovery filter and 44 Tulip filter insertions. Subjects were 59 women and 37 men; the mean age was 52 years, with a range of from 18 to 97 years. The placement of retrievable filters increased from 2% in year 1 to 32% in year 5 of the study period. The total implantation time for the permanent group was 145,450 days, with an average of 288 days (range, 33-1811 days). For the retrievable group, the total implantation time was 21,671 days, with an average of 226 days (range, 2-1217 days). Of 29 patients who returned for filter retrieval, the filter was successfully removed in 28. There were 14 of 14 successful Tulip filter retrievals and 14 of 15 successful Recovery filter retrievals. In one patient, after an indwelling period of 39 days, a Recovery nitinol filter could not be removed secondary to a large clot burden within the filter. For the filters that were removed, the mean dwell time was 50 days for the Tulip type and 20 days for the Recovery type. Over the follow-up period there was an overall PE incidence of 1.4% for the permanent group and 1% for the retrieval group. In

  2. The High-Precision Tulip: Development and Combat Employment of the Soviet Laser-Guided Mortar Round

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    designator (the 2S4) and the name of a flower (the tulip).2 The tulip has a variety of rounds. The 130-kilogram (287 pound) fragmentation-blast round...LTD) that is located at a forward observation post. The laser beam is laid on the target and the reflection from the target creates a petal -shaped...electronic echo. The optical-electronic tracking head must acquire this petal -shaped electronic echo and, scanning it, direct the round to the target

  3. Infinitely robust order and local order-parameter tulips in Apollonian networks with quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, C. Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-06-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.

  4. Genetic mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in tulip.

    PubMed

    Tang, Nan; van der Lee, Theo; Shahin, Arwa; Holdinga, Maarten; Bijman, Paul; Caser, Matteo; Visser, Richard G F; van Tuyl, Jaap M; Arens, Paul

    Fusarium oxysporum is a major problem in the production of tulip bulbs. Breeding for resistant cultivars through a conventional approach is a slow process due to the long life cycle of tulip. Until now, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been hampered by the large genome size and the absence of a genetic map. This study is aimed at construction of the first genetic map for tulip and at the identification of loci associated with resistance to F. oxysporum. A cross-pollinated population of 125 individuals segregating for Fusarium resistance was obtained from Tulipa gesneriana "Kees Nelis" and T. fosteriana "Cantata." Fusarium resistance of the mapping population was evaluated through a soil infection test in two consecutive years, and a spot inoculation test in which a green fluorescent protein tagged Fusarium strain was used for inoculation. The genetic maps have been constructed for the parents separately. The genetic map of "Kees Nelis" comprised 342 markers on 27 linkage groups covering 1707 cM, while the map of "Cantata" comprised 300 markers on 21 linkage groups covering 1201 cM. Median distance between markers was 3.9 cM for "Kees Nelis" and 3.1 cM for "Cantata." Six putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Fusarium resistance were identified, derived from both parents. QTL2, QTL3, and QTL6 were significant in all disease tests. For the flanking markers of the QTLs, phenotypic means of the two allelic groups, segregating from a parent for such a marker, were significantly different. These markers will be useful for the development of MAS in tulip breeding.

  5. Infinitely robust order and local order-parameter tulips in Apollonian networks with quenched disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, C Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A Nihat

    2009-06-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.

  6. Isolation and quantification of tuliposides and tulipalins in tulips (Tulipa) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P; Kristiansen, K

    1999-06-01

    The content of tuliposides and tulipalins were determined in Tulipa species and cultivars by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), using a water:methanol gradient as mobile phase. The compounds were detected by a diode array detector employed at 208 nm. The investigation revealed, in addition to 1- and 6-tuliposide A, tuliposide D and the lactonized aglycones tulipalin A and (-)-tulipalin B, the new tuliposide F and 6-tuliposide B, the latter being a new acyl derivative of the known 1-tuliposide B. All compounds were isolated by preparative RP-HPLC and identified by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The predominant compounds were 6-tuliposide A and B present in amounts up to 1.5% and 1.3% of fresh weight, respectively. 6-Tuliposide A and tulipalin A seem to be the major allergens in tulips, although tuliposide D and F may also contribute to the allergenic properties. Tulipalin A and (-)-tulipalin B occur in intact tulips and are not only produced in response to fungal attack or after excision of the plants. A few species were found to have very low allergen content and a relatively high level of tuliposide B, indicating it should be possible to breed non-allergenic and disease-resistant tulips.

  7. Impact of bleaching on subcritical water- and Formosolv-pretreated tulip tree to enhance enzyme accessibility.

    PubMed

    Myint, Aye Aye; Kim, Dae Sung; Lee, Hun Wook; Yoon, Junho; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2013-10-01

    A novel method was developed for fractionating cellulose microfibrils from forest residue (tulip tree sawdust) to enhance cellulose digestibility, particularly at minimum enzyme loadings. This method involved three main stages: selective hemicellulose solubilization by subcritical water (SCW) pretreatment, delignification of the SCW-pretreated solids using the Formosolv process, and deformylation/bleaching of the cellulose pulp with alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. This process produced nearly 98% white cellulose microfibrils with 23-fold higher conversion to glucose as compared to the raw substrate after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed that cellulose swelling had the greatest effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of delignified pulp obtained by the Formosolv process.

  8. Characterization of four plasma membrane aquaporins in tulip petals: a putative homolog is regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Katsuhara, Maki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2008-08-01

    We suggested previously that temperature-dependent tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) petal movement that is concomitant with water transport is regulated by reversible phosphorylation of an unidentified plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP). In this study, four full-length cDNAs of PIPs from tulip petals were identified and cloned. Two PIPs, namely TgPIP1;1 and TgPIP1;2, are members of the PIP1 subfamily, and the remaining two PIPs, namely TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2, belong to the PIP2 subfamily of aquaporins and were named according to the nomenclature of PIP genes in plants. Of these four homologs, only TgPIP2;2 displayed significant water channel activity in the heterologous expression assay using Xenopus laevis oocytes. The water channel activity of this functional isoform was abolished by mercury and was affected by inhibitors of protein kinase and protein phosphatase. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach to substitute several serine residues with alanine, and assessing water channel activity using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris expression assay, we showed that Ser35, Ser116 and Ser274 are the putative phosphorylation sites of TgPIP2;2. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of TgPIP1;1 and TgPIP1;2 in tulip petals, stems, leaves, bulbs and roots are very low when compared with those of TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2. The transcript level of TgPIP2;1 is negligible in roots, and TgPIP2;2 is ubiquitously expressed in all organs with significant transcript levels. From the data reported herein, we suggest that TgPIP2;2 might be modulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation for regulating water channel activity, and may play a role in transcellular water transport in all tulip organs.

  9. Infinitely Robust Order and Local Order-Parameter Tulips in Apollonian Networks with Quenched Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadir Kaplan, C.; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-03-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder.[1] We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns. [1] C.N. Kaplan, M. Hinczewski, and A.N. Berker, arXiv:0811.3437v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn] (2008).

  10. Molecular diversity of tuliposide A-converting enzyme in the tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Tsuchigami, Aya; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA) catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to its lactonized aglycon, tulipalin A, in the tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). The TgTCEA gene, isolated previously from petals, was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in the bulbs despite the presence of TCEA activity, which allowed prediction of the presence of a TgTCEA isozyme gene preferentially expressed in the bulbs. Here, the TgTCEA-b gene, the TgTCEA homolog, was identified in bulbs. TgTCEA-b polypeptides showed approximately 77% identity to the petal TgTCEA. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA-b encoded the TCEA. Moreover, the TgTCEA-b was found to be localized to plastids, as found for the petal TgTCEA. Transcript analysis revealed that TgTCEA-b was functionally transcribed in the bulb scales, unlike the TgTCEA gene, whose transcripts were absent there. In contrast, TgTCEA-b transcripts were in the minority in other tissues where TgTCEA transcripts were dominant, indicating a tissue preference for the transcription of those isozyme genes.

  11. In-vitro and clinical evaluation of transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy (TULIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Mooibroek, Jaap; Boon, Tom A.

    1993-05-01

    Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser induced prostatectomy (TULIP) is a recent development in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The system is based upon Nd:YAG laser irradiation delivered by a right angled fiber. The dosimetry used in a clinical situation is mostly based upon animal studies. In this study, the light and temperature distribution in the prostate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation were modeled using Monte Carlo and finite differences theory. The results of this model were compared with in vitro experiments. The influence of the different parameters involved, e.g., the scanning speed and the power of the laser beam, were evaluated. Initial results show the temperature distribution and thus the therapeutic effect of the TULIP procedure. Until now 36 patients have been treated successfully. The mean in-hospital time was somewhat shorter than for a TURP treatment while the results were comparable. These treatments, however, show the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. Modeling and subsequent in vitro and in vivo measurements might improve the understanding and safe and successful application of prostate treatment using laser based systems.

  12. Tulip-poplar leaf diffusion resistance calculated from stomatal dimensions and varying environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    McConathy, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    The study describes the gradients of stomatal size and density in the crown of a mature forest-grown tulip-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in eastern Tennessee. These data are used to predict leaf resistance to vapor diffusion in relation to stomatal width and boundary layer resistance. Stomatal density on individual leaves did not vary, but density increased with increasing crown height. Stomatal size decreased with increasing height of leaves within the crown. Stomatal size and density variations interacted to result in a constant number of stomata per leaf at all crown heights. Stomatal diffusive resistance values calculated from stomatal measurements and varying environmental parameters indicated that stomatal resistance controlled transpiration water losses only at small apertures (<0.6 ..mu..m). Boundary layer resistance was controlling at large stomatal apertures (>0.6 ..mu..m) and at low wind speeds (approx.100 cm/s). Under normal forest conditions tulip-poplar stomatal resistance exercised more control over transpiration than did boundary layer resistance.

  13. Tulip-form variable-curvature mirrors: interferometry and field compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Mazzanti, Silvio; Ferrari, Marc

    1998-07-01

    Active Optics methods are now capable to provide variable curvature mirrors (VCMs) having controlled sags in the focal range from f/(infinity) to f/2.5. Those development have been carried out by the authors for the optical path equalizer dedicated to each Mersenne focus of the VLTI. The basic principle is to use VCMs as cat's eye mirrors in each delay line in order to achieve field compensations at the recombined Mersenne focii. During the VLTI development phase, cycloid form VCMs controlled by air pressure have been performed with a 10(superscript -4) mirror sag resolution. The cycloid form has been selected for the VLTi delay lines. However, other analytical solutions from circular plates elasticity theory have been found. Two thickness distributions lead to tulip form VCMs controlled by a central force. One of them, using a lineic reaction at the edge is the object of this paper. Active optics design, construction features, test and experimental He-Ne interferograms obtained with 16mm boundary aperture and 10mm clear aperture are presented. The mean aspect-ratio of the tulip from VCM is d/t(subscript 0.5) approximately equals 60, providing a focal zoom range from f/(infinity) to f/2.5. The experiment is carried out form f/(infinity) to f/5.

  14. Experimental Impeller Fragmentation of Iliocaval Thrombosis Under Tulip Filter Protection: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Vorwerk, Dierk; Schuermann, Karl; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of catheter fragmentation of massive caval thrombosis and of filter protection against procedure-related pulmonary embolism. Methods: In 10 sheep, a self-expanding tulip-shaped filter made from Wallstent mesh (diameter 25 mm) was introduced from the right jugular approach into the proximal inferior vena cava. Experimentally induced massive iliocaval thrombosis was fragmented by an impeller catheter (expanded diameter 14 mm), which was advanced coaxially through the sheath of the expanded filter. Post-procedural cavography and pulmonary angiography were performed to document the extent of caval recanalization and pulmonary embolism. Results: In all cases, impeller fragmentation cleared the inferior vena cava and the iliac veins of thrombi completely. Fragments washed downstream were trapped in the filter. In two of the first cases, parts of the clots caused pulmonary embolism before the filter was in place. Further events were avoided by a modification of the experimental setup. Except for some small peripheral perfusion defects in two cases, pulmonary angiograms did not show any incidence of pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that impeller fragmentation of iliocaval thrombi under tulip filter protection is effective and does not cause significant pulmonary embolism.

  15. Low temperature sensing in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is mediated through an increased response to auxin.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, P L; Wilkinson, C; Franssen, H M; Balk, P A; van der Plas, L H; Weisbeek, P J; Douwe de Boer, A

    2000-03-01

    Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) is a bulbous plant species that requires a period of low temperature for proper growth and flowering. The mechanism of sensing the low temperature period is unknown. The study presented in this paper shows that the essential developmental change in tulip bulbs during cold treatment is an increase in sensitivity to the phytohormone auxin. This is demonstrated using a model system consisting of isolated internodes grown on tissue culture medium containing different combinations of the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. Using mathematical modelling, equations taken from the field of enzyme kinetics were fitted through the data. By doing so it became apparent that longer periods of low temperature resulted in an increased maximum response at a lower auxin concentration. Besides the cold treatment, gibberellin also enhances the response to auxin in the internodes in this in vitro system. A working model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, gibberellin action and auxin sensitivity is put forward. Possible analogies with other cold-requiring processes such as vernalization and stratification, and the interaction of auxin and gibberellin in the stalk elongation process in other plant species are discussed.

  16. From Tulip Bulbs to Sub-Prime Mortgages Examining the Sub-Prime Crisis: The Case for a Systemic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economic crisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…

  17. Assessment of Snared-Loop Technique When Standard Retrieval of Inferior Vena Cava Filters Fails

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, Orla Noe, Geertje; Given, Mark F.; Foley, Peter T.; Lyon, Stuart M.

    2009-01-15

    Purpose To identify the success and complications related to a variant technique used to retrieve inferior vena cava filters when simple snare approach has failed. Methods A retrospective review of all Cook Guenther Tulip filters and Cook Celect filters retrieved between July 2006 and February 2008 was performed. During this period, 130 filter retrievals were attempted. In 33 cases, the standard retrieval technique failed. Retrieval was subsequently attempted with our modified retrieval technique. Results The retrieval was successful in 23 cases (mean dwell time, 171.84 days; range, 5-505 days) and unsuccessful in 10 cases (mean dwell time, 162.2 days; range, 94-360 days). Our filter retrievability rates increased from 74.6% with the standard retrieval method to 92.3% when the snared-loop technique was used. Unsuccessful retrieval was due to significant endothelialization (n = 9) and caval penetration by the filter (n = 1). A single complication occurred in the group, in a patient developing pulmonary emboli after attempted retrieval. Conclusion The technique we describe increased the retrievability of the two filters studied. Hook endothelialization is the main factor resulting in failed retrieval and continues to be a limitation with these filters.

  18. Function and application of a non-ester-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase discovered in tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of immense rich diversity. The genes encoding enzymes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis have evolved through gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization, thereby generating functional diversity. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some of those enzymes catalyze reactions entirely different from those usually catalyzed by other members of the same family; e.g. transacylation catalyzed by an enzyme similar to a hydrolytic enzyme. Tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE), which we recently discovered from tulip, catalyzes the conversion of major defensive secondary metabolites, tuliposides, to antimicrobial tulipalins. The TCEs belong to the carboxylesterase family in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily, and specifically catalyze intramolecular transesterification, but not hydrolysis. This non-ester-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase is an example of an enzyme showing catalytic properties that are unpredictable from its primary structure. This review describes the biochemical and physiological aspects of tulipalin biogenesis, and the diverse functions of plant carboxylesterases in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily.

  19. Evaluation of hot compressed water pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of tulip tree sawdust using severity factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Sung; Myint, Aye Aye; Lee, Hun Wook; Yoon, Junho; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2013-09-01

    Tulip tree sawdust was pretreated using hot compressed water with different pretreatment severities (LogR0, 3.05-5.01) by varying reaction temperatures (180-220°C) and residence time (1-30 min). It is found that the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of the pretreated products can be characterized and correlated with severity. Removal of most of the xylan and other hemicellulosic sugars from the raw material was observed at a severity of 4.5. Thus, the residual solids were recovered with increased cellulose and lignin contents. Nearly complete glucan conversion was achieved after 48 h of hydrolysis with 10 FPU/g of wet residual solid obtained above a severity of 4.8. The characteristics of the pretreated solids according to the pretreatment severity were strongly related with the glucose yield. The removal of structural barriers to the enzyme attack was the dominant factor affecting enzyme accessibility to the substrate.

  20. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  1. Asymmetric total synthesis of 6-Tuliposide B and its biological activities against tulip pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Shigetomi, Kengo; Omoto, Shoko; Kato, Yasuo; Ubukata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The structure-activity relationship was investigated to evaluate the antifungal activities of tuliposides and tulipalins against tulip pathogenic fungi. 6-Tuliposide B was effectively synthesized via the asymmetric Baylis-Hillman reaction. Tuliposides and tulipalins showed antifungal activities against most of the strains tested at high concentrations (2.5 mM), while Botrytis tulipae was resistant to tuliposides. Tulipalin formation was involved in the antifungal activity, tulipalin A showed higher inhibitory activity than 6-tuliposide B and tulipalin B. Both the tuliposides and tulipalins showed pigment-inducing activity against Gibberella zeae and inhibitory activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae. These activities were induced at a much lower concentration (0.05 mM) than the antifungal MIC values.

  2. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  3. The lipoxygenase pathway in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): detection of the ketol route.

    PubMed

    Grechkin, A N; Mukhtarova, L S; Hamberg, M

    2000-12-01

    The in vitro metabolism of [1-(14)C]linoleate, [1-(14)C]linolenate and their 9(S)-hydroperoxides was studied in cell-free preparations from tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) bulbs, leaves and flowers. Linoleate and its 9-hydroperoxide were converted by bulb and leaf preparations into three ketols: (12Z)-9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12-octadecadienoic acid (alpha-ketol), (11E)-10-oxo-13-hydroxy-11-octadecadienoic acid (gamma-ketol) and a novel compound, (12Z)-10-oxo-11-hydroxy-12-octadecadienoic acid (10,11-ketol), in the approximate molar proportions of 10:3:1. The corresponding 15, 16-dehydro alpha- and gamma-ketols were the main metabolites of [1-(14)C]linolenate and its 9-hydroperoxide. Thus bulbs and leaves possessed 9-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities. Incubations with flower preparations gave alpha-ketol hydro(pero)xides as predominant metabolites. Bulb and leaf preparations possessed a novel enzyme activity, gamma-ketol reductase, which reduces gamma-ketol to 10-oxo-13-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (dihydro-gamma-ketol) in the presence of NADH. Exogenous linolenate 13(S)-hydroperoxide was converted mostly into chiral (9S,13S)-12-oxo-10-phytodienoate (99.5% optical purity) by bulb preparations, while [1-(14)C]linolenate was a precursor for ketols only. Thus tulip bulbs possess abundant allene oxide cyclase activity, the substrate for which is linolenate 13(S)-hydroperoxide, even though 13(S)-lipoxygenase products were not detectable in the bulbs. The majority of the cyclase activity was found in the microsomes (10(5) g pellet). Cyclase activity was not found in the other tissues examined, but only in the bulbs. The ketol route of the lipoxygenase pathway, mediated by 9-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities, has not been detected previously in the vegetative organs of any plant species.

  4. Interview with Gunther Kress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Eve

    2005-01-01

    Developments in technology inevitably influence social, cultural, and communicative practices. Dominant language-based practices are giving way to a "new communications landscape" (Kress, 1997, 2003b) which is inherently multimodal. The forms and functions of text are in the process of a radical change which dislodges conventional notions of what…

  5. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  6. A novel lactone-forming carboxylesterase: molecular identification of a tuliposide A-converting enzyme in tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2012-06-01

    Tuliposides, the glucose esters of 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate, are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification.

  7. A Novel Lactone-Forming Carboxylesterase: Molecular Identification of a Tuliposide A-Converting Enzyme in Tulip1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Tuliposides, the glucose esters of 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate, are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification. PMID:22474185

  8. Interaction of a flame front with its self-generated flow in an enclosure; The tulip flame phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Borghi, R.; Saouab, A. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports on the propagation of a flame front under nonturbulent condition in a closed tube ignited at one end which is numerically investigated using a computing procedure based on finite volumes technique and devoted to two-dimensional, compressible, reacting flows. A global one-step reaction for the chemical process and an Arrhenius law for fuel consumption are assumed. The detailed analysis of the results of computations in which wall friction, tube aspect ratio and initial flame configuration are varied allows to highlight the influence of different parameters and to get more insight into the tulip-shaped flame phenomenon. In particular, Darrieus-landau instability is examined by comparing the shape variations of an initially perturbed flat front in a tube closed at both ends to those in a tube in which the ignition end is open while the opposite one is closed. Attention is also given to the computed flame generated flowfield; the flame front-confined flow interaction is specially scrutinized. Furthermore, the oscillatory acoustic regime occurring during tulip flame appearance, as well as the collapse of the tulip shape in tubes of large aspect ratio, already experimentally put into evidence but never numerically addressed, have also been simulated and discussed.

  9. Environmentally benign process for the preparation of antimicrobial α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (tulipalin B) from tulip biomass.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Hayashi, Emiko; Kawakami, Shohei; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Tulipalin B (α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, PaB) is an antimicrobial natural product occurring in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). PaB is directly formed from the precursor glucose ester 6-tuliposide B (PosB) by endogenous Pos-converting enzyme (TCE). Despite the potential usefulness of antibacterial PaB in various industrial applications, lack of facile synthetic schemes hampers its practical use. Herein, we describe an environmentally benign and facile process for the preparation of PaB using tulip biomass materials based on one-step enzyme reaction catalyzed by TCE without the use of petroleum-derived solvents. By screening 115 tulip cultivars, we found three elite cultivars, which accumulated PosB almost exclusively in flower tissues. The flower extracts with aqueous ethanol were partially purified with activated charcoal and subjected to the enzyme reaction with reusable immobilized TCE prepared from bulb crude extracts. The reaction was completed in a few hours at room temperature, and PaB was purified with activated charcoal and ethanol in a batch-wise manner.

  10. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers.

  11. Intracellular energy depletion triggers programmed cell death during petal senescence in tulip

    PubMed Central

    Azad, A. K.; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, H.

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in petals provides a model system to study the molecular aspects of organ senescence. In this study, the very early triggering signal for PCD during the senescence process from young green buds to 14-d-old petals of Tulipa gesneriana was determined. The opening and closing movement of petals of intact plants increased for the first 3 d and then gradually decreased. DNA degradation and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release were clearly observed in 6-d-old flowers. Oxidative stress or ethylene production can be excluded as the early signal for petal PCD. In contrast, ATP was dramatically depleted after the first day of flower opening. Sucrose supplementation to cut flowers maintained their ATP levels and the movement ability for a longer time than in those kept in water. The onset of DNA degradation, Cyt c release, and petal senescence was also delayed by sucrose supplementation to cut flowers. These results suggest that intracellular energy depletion, rather than oxidative stress or ethylene production, may be the very early signal to trigger PCD in tulip petals. PMID:18515833

  12. Intracellular energy depletion triggers programmed cell death during petal senescence in tulip.

    PubMed

    Azad, A K; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Sawa, Y; Shibata, H

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in petals provides a model system to study the molecular aspects of organ senescence. In this study, the very early triggering signal for PCD during the senescence process from young green buds to 14-d-old petals of Tulipa gesneriana was determined. The opening and closing movement of petals of intact plants increased for the first 3 d and then gradually decreased. DNA degradation and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release were clearly observed in 6-d-old flowers. Oxidative stress or ethylene production can be excluded as the early signal for petal PCD. In contrast, ATP was dramatically depleted after the first day of flower opening. Sucrose supplementation to cut flowers maintained their ATP levels and the movement ability for a longer time than in those kept in water. The onset of DNA degradation, Cyt c release, and petal senescence was also delayed by sucrose supplementation to cut flowers. These results suggest that intracellular energy depletion, rather than oxidative stress or ethylene production, may be the very early signal to trigger PCD in tulip petals.

  13. Purification and characterization of protein phosphatase 2A from petals of the tulip Tulipa gesnerina.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2006-11-30

    The holoenzyme of protein phosphatase (PP) from tulip petals was purified by using hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and microcystin affinity chromatography to analyze activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP). The catalytic subunit of PP was released from its endogenous regulatory subunits by ethanol precipitation and further purified. Both preparations were characterized by immunological and biochemical approaches to be PP2A. On SDS-PAGE, the final purified holoenzyme preparation showed three protein bands estimated at 38, 65, and 75 kDa while the free catalytic subunit preparation showed only the 38 kDa protein. In both preparations, the 38 kDa protein was identified immunologically as the catalytic subunit of PP2A by using a monoclonal antibody against the PP2A catalytic subunit. The final 623- and 748- fold purified holoenzyme and the free catalytic preparations, respectively, exhibited high sensitivity to inhibition by 1 nM okadaic acid when activity was measured with p-NPP. The holoenzyme displayed higher stimulation in the presence of ammonium sulfate than the free catalytic subunit did by protamine, thereby suggesting different enzymatic behaviors.

  14. Phosphorylation of plasma membrane aquaporin regulates temperature-dependent opening of tulip petals.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2004-05-01

    The opening and closing of tulip petals was reproduced in the dark by changing the temperature from 5 degrees C to 20 degrees C for opening and 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C for closing. The opening process was accompanied by (3)H(2)O transport through the stem from the incubation medium to the petals. A Ca(2+)-channel blocker and a Ca(2+)-chelator inhibited petal opening and (3)H(2)O transport. Several proteins in the isolated plasma membrane fraction were phosphorylated in the presence of 25 micro M Ca(2+) at 20 degrees C. The 31-kDa protein that was phosphorylated, was suggested immunologically as the putative plasma membrane aquaporin (PM-AQP). This phosphorylated PM-AQP clearly reacted with the anti-phospho-Ser. In-gel assay revealed the presence of a 45-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase in the isolated plasma membrane. Phosphorylation of the putative PM-AQP was thought to activate the water channel composed of PM-AQP. Dephosphorylation of the phosphorylated PM-AQP was also observed during petal closing at 5 degrees C, suggesting the inactivation of the water channel.

  15. Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip cv. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi

    2007-02-01

    The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip.

  16. Heterologous expression of tulip petal plasma membrane aquaporins in Pichia pastoris for water channel analysis.

    PubMed

    Azad, Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Water channels formed by aquaporins (AQPs) play an important role in the control of water homeostasis in individual cells and in multicellular organisms. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) constitute a subclass of plant AQPs. TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 from tulip petals are members of the PIP family. In this study, we overexpressed TgPIP2;1 and TgPIP2;2 in Pichia pastoris and monitored their water channel activity (WCA) either by an in vivo spheroplast-bursting assay performed after hypo-osmotic shock or by growth assay. Osmolarity, pH, and inhibitors of AQPs, protein kinases (PKs), and protein phosphatases (PPs) affect the WCA of heterologous AQPs in this expression system. The WCA of TgPIP2;2-expressing spheroplasts was affected by inhibitors of PKs and PPs, which indicates that the water channel of this homologue is regulated by phosphorylation in P. pastoris. From the results reported herein, we suggest that P. pastoris can be employed as a heterologous expression system to assay the WCA of PIPs and to monitor the AQP-mediated channel gating mechanism, and it can be developed to screen inhibitors/effectors of PIPs.

  17. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  18. Molecular identification of tuliposide B-converting enzyme: a lactone-forming carboxylesterase from the pollen of tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Murase, Tatsunori; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-07-01

    6-Tuliposides A (PosA) and B (PosB), which are the major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), are enzymatically converted to the antimicrobial lactonized aglycons, tulipalins A (PaA) and B (PaB), respectively. We recently identified a PosA-converting enzyme (TCEA) as the first reported member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases. Herein, we describe the identification of another lactone-forming carboxylesterase, PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB), which preferentially reacts with PosB to give PaB. This enzyme was isolated from tulip pollen, which showed high PosB-converting activity. Purified TCEB exhibited greater activity towards PosB than PosA, which was contrary to that of the TCEA. Novel cDNA (TgTCEB1) encoding the TCEB was isolated from tulip pollen. TgTCEB1 belonged to the carboxylesterase family and was approximately 50% identical to the TgTCEA polypeptides. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEB1 catalyzed the conversion of PosB to PaB with an activity comparable with the native TCEB. RT-qPCR analysis of each part of plant revealed that TgTCEB1 transcripts were limited almost exclusively to the pollen. Furthermore, the immunostaining of the anther cross-section using anti-TgTCEB1 polyclonal antibody verified that TgTCEB1 was specifically expressed in the pollen grains, but not in the anther cells. N-terminal transit peptide of TgTCEB1 was shown to function as plastid-targeted signal. Taken together, these results indicate that mature TgTCEB1 is specifically localized in plastids of pollen grains. Interestingly, PosB, the substrate of TgTCEB1, accumulated on the pollen surface, but not in the intracellular spaces of pollen grains.

  19. In vitro comparison of Günther Tulip and Celect filters: testing filtering efficiency and pressure drop.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, M; Malvé, M; Peña, E; Martínez, M A; Leask, R

    2015-02-05

    In this study, the trapping ability of the Günther Tulip and Celect inferior vena cava filters was evaluated. Thrombus capture rates of the filters were tested in vitro in horizontal position with thrombus diameters of 3 and 6mm and tube diameter of 19mm. The filters were tested in centered and tilted positions. Sets of 30 clots were injected into the model and the same process was repeated 20 times for each different condition simulated. Pressure drop experienced along the system was also measured and the percentage of clots captured was recorded. The Günther Tulip filter showed superiority in all cases, trapping almost 100% of 6mm clots both in an eccentric and tilted position and trapping 81.7% of the 3mm clots in a centered position and 69.3% in a maximum tilted position. The efficiency of all filters tested decreased as the size of the embolus decreased and as the filter was tilted. The injection of 6 clots raised the pressure drop to 4.1mmHg, which is a reasonable value that does not cause the obstruction of blood flow through the system.

  20. Controlled hot start and improved specificity in carrying out PCR utilizing touch-up and loop incorporated primers (TULIPS).

    PubMed

    Ailenberg, M; Silverman, M

    2000-11-01

    The PCR technique often yields nonspecific products. To overcome this problem, a simple, specific and efficient method was designed: touch-up and loop incorporated primers (TULIPS)-PCR. This approach utilizes loop primers (i.e., additional nontemplate 5' sequence that self-anneals to the 3' region and inhibits initiation of polymerization). Upon heating of the reaction, the primers melt, initiating hot start. The reaction also uses touch-up pre-cycling with gradual elevation in annealing temperatures to ensure correct pairing. The method has been validated with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) primers, and its general applicability is demonstrated by specific amplification of the human gelatinase A transgene from genomic DNA extracted from transgenic mice tails. The TULIPS-PCR protocol is a novel method. The self-annealing primers utilized in this method offer improved specificity and more robust synthesis compared with touch-down and manual hot start PCR. It is performed without the need to open, pause or add to the reaction mixture any nonrectant components, such as wax, antibody or nonspecific dsDNA.

  1. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Gunther Wendt takes a turn at the podium after viewing the recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule, seen in the background. At right is Curt Newport who led the expedition to find and retrieve the capsule. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. Wendt worked on the Liberty Bell 7 before its launch July 21, 1961. After its successful 16-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. An underwater salvage expert, Newport located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  2. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  3. Heterotopic expression of class B floral homeotic genes supports a modified ABC model for tulip (Tulipa gesneriana).

    PubMed

    Kanno, Akira; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2003-07-01

    In higher eudicotyledonous angiosperms the floral organs are typically arranged in four different whorls, containing sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. According to the ABC model, the identity of these organs is specified by floral homeotic genes of class A, A+B, B+C and C, respectively. In contrast to the sepal and petal whorls of eudicots, the perianths of many plants from the Liliaceae family have two outer whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, called tepals. To explain the Liliaceae flower morphology, van Tunen et al. (1993) proposed a modified ABC model, exemplified with tulip. According to this model, class B genes are not only expressed in whorls 2 and 3, but also in whorl 1. Thus the organs of both whorls 1 and 2 express class A plus class B genes and, therefore, get the same petaloid identity. To test this modified ABC model we have cloned and characterized putative class B genes from tulip. Two DEF- and one GLO-like gene were identified, named TGDEFA, TGDEFB and TGGLO. Northern hybridization analysis showed that all of these genes are expressed in whorls 1, 2 and 3 (outer and inner tepals and stamens), thus corroborating the modified ABC model. In addition, these experiments demonstrated that TGGLO is also weakly expressed in carpels, leaves, stems and bracts. Gel retardation assays revealed that TGGLO alone binds to DNA as a homodimer. In contrast, TGDEFA and TGDEFB cannot homodimerize, but make heterodimers with PI. Homodimerization of GLO-like protein has also been reported for lily, suggesting that this phenomenon is conserved within Liliaceae plants or even monocot species.

  4. Combined use of clips and nylon snare ("tulip-bundle") as a rescue endoscopic bleeding control in a mallory-weiss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ivekovic, Hrvoje; Radulovic, Bojana; Jankovic, Suzana; Markos, Pave; Rustemovic, Nadan

    2014-01-01

    Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) accounts for 6-14% of all cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Prognosis of patients with MWS is generally good, with a benign course and rare recurrence of bleeding. However, no strict recommendations exist in regard to the mode of action after a failure of primary endoscopic hemostasis. We report a case of an 83-year-old male with MWS and rebleeding after the initial endoscopic treatment with epinephrine and clips. The final endoscopic control of bleeding was achieved by a combined application of clips and a nylon snare in a "tulip-bundle" fashion. The patient had an uneventful postprocedural clinical course and was discharged from the hospital five days later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report showing the "tulip-bundle" technique as a rescue endoscopic bleeding control in the esophagus.

  5. A pilot study to examine the effect of the Tulip oropharyngeal airway on ventilation immediately after mask ventilation following the induction of anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P N; Shaikh, A; Sabir, N M; Vaughan, D J A; Kynoch, M; Hasan, M

    2014-07-01

    The Tulip airway is an adult, disposable, single-sized oropharyngeal airway, that is connectable to an anaesthetic circuit. After a standardised induction of anaesthesia in 75 patients, the ease of insertion, intracuff pressure and intracuff volume were measured, as were the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels, airway pressures and tidal volumes over three breaths. Successful first-time insertion was achieved in 72 patients (96%, CI 88.8-99.2%) and after two attempts in 74 patients (99%, CI 92.8-100%). There was outright failure only in one patient. In 60 patients (80%, CI 72.2-90.4%), the Tulip airway provided a patent airway without additional manoeuvres, but in 14 patients, jaw thrust or head extension was necessary for airway patency. The main need for these adjuncts appeared to be an initial under-inflation of the cuff. These promising results are consistent with recent manikin studies using this device.

  6. Screening method of carbohydrate-binding proteins in biological sources by capillary affinity electrophoresis and its application to determination of Tulipa gesneriana agglutinin in tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Oda, Yasuo; Masuko, Takashi; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2004-09-01

    We developed capillary affinity electrophoresis (CAE) to analyze the molecular interaction between carbohydrate chains and proteins in solution state. A mixture of oligosaccharides derived from a glycoprotein was labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS), and used as glycan library without isolation. Interaction of a carbohydrate-binding protein with each oligosaccharide in the mixture could be simultaneously observed, and relative affinities of oligosaccharides toward the protein were accurately determined. In this study, we applied CAE to detect the presence of lectins in some plants (Japanese elderberry bark and tulip bulb). In the crude extract of the elderberry bark, binding activity toward sialo-carbohydrate chains could be easily detected. We also examined the presence of lectins in the crude extract of tulip bulbs and determined the detailed carbohydrate-binding specificity of Tulipa gesneriana agglutinin (TGA), one of the lectins from tulip bulbs. Kinetic studies demonstrated that TGA showed novel carbohydrate-binding specificity and preferentially recognized triantennary oligosaccharides with Gal residues at nonreducing termini and a Fuc residue linked through alpha(1-6) linkage at chitobiose portion of the reducing termini but not tetraantennary carbohydrates. The results described here indicate that CAE will be a valuable method for both screening of lectins in natural sources and determination of their detailed carbohydrate-binding specificities.

  7. Skill in Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval Skill quantifies the ability of one retrieval from a sounder to be more accurate than the best forecast relative to another with the same of another sounder. This is summarized using a Retrieval Anomaly Skill Score (RASS) which is the cor (retrieved-background, truth-background) * sqrt(f), Where f is defined as the ratio of accepted to the possible retrievals. Charts show various features and comparisons of RASS to other methods of retrieval.

  8. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    PubMed

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  9. Induction of bulb organogenesis in in vitro cultures of tarda tulip (Tulipa tarda Stapf.) from seed-derived explants.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, Małgorzata; Bach, Anna

    2014-01-01

    A protocol for obtaining bulbs via in vitro organogenesis was developed for tarda tulip (Tulipa tarda Stapf). Scale explants were obtained from bulbs formed at the base of seedlings or from adventitious bulbs that developed from callus tissue forming on stolons or on germinating seeds. Some explants were subjected to chilling at 5°C for 12 wk. The culture media contained 3 or 6% sucrose and was supplemented with either no growth regulators, either 0.5 μM 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) or 18.9 or 94.6 μM abscisic acid (ABA). Cultures were maintained in the dark at 20°C. Callus tissue developed mainly on media without growth regulators or with BAP. Callus was formed from up to 96% of explants derived from non-chilled adventitious bulbs that were treated with 3% sucrose and 0.5 μM BAP. Less callus was formed from chilled explants compared with non-chilled explants. Newly formed adventitious bulbs appeared on the explants via direct and indirect organogenesis. The media with BAP promoted the formation of adventitious bulbs at a rate of 56-92% from non-chilled explants, whereas a maximum rate of 36% was observed from chilled explants. ABA inhibited the induction of adventitious bulbs and callus. The adventitious bulbs obtained in these experiments contained a meristem, which was evidence that they had developed properly.

  10. Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval focuses on an Interaction Information Retrieval model in which documents are interconnected; queries and documents are treated in the same way; and retrieval is the result of the interconnection between query and documents. A theoretical mathematical formulation of this type of retrieval is given. (Contains 31…

  11. Complex Retrieval of Embedded IVC Filters: Alternative Techniques and Histologic Tissue Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, William T.; Cupp, John S.; Louie, John D.; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Hovsepian, David M.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods to retrieve embedded optional and permanent filters in order to manage or reduce risk of long-term complications from implantation. Histologic tissue analysis was performed to elucidate the pathologic effects of chronic filter implantation. Methods: We studied the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods for removing embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in 10 consecutive patients over 12 months. Indications for retrieval were symptomatic chronic IVC occlusion, caval and aortic perforation, and/or acute PE (pulmonary embolism) from filter-related thrombus. Retrieval was also performed to reduce risk of complications from long-term filter implantation and to eliminate the need for lifelong anticoagulation. All retrieved specimens were sent for histologic analysis. Results: Retrieval was successful in all 10 patients. Filter types and implantation times were as follows: one Venatech (1,495 days), one Simon-Nitinol (1,485 days), one Optease (300 days), one G2 (416 days), five Guenther-Tulip (GTF; mean 606 days, range 154-1,010 days), and one Celect (124 days). There were no procedural complications or adverse events at a mean follow-up of 304 days after removal (range 196-529 days). Histology revealed scant native intima surrounded by a predominance of neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis in all specimens. Histologic evidence of photothermal tissue ablation was confirmed in three laser-treated specimens. Conclusion: Complex retrieval methods can now be used in select patients to safely remove embedded optional and permanent IVC filters previously considered irretrievable. Neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis are the major components that must be separated to achieve successful retrieval of chronic filter implants.

  12. Specific expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit, causes iron accumulation in blue-colored inner bottom segments of various tulip petals.

    PubMed

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Kazuma, Kohei; Yoshida, Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Several flowers of Tulipa gesneriana exhibit a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. We have previously reported the inner-bottom tissue-specific iron accumulation and expression of the vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1, in tulip cv. Murasakizuisho. To clarify whether the TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation and blue-color development in tulip petals are universal, we analyzed anthocyanin, its co-pigment components, iron contents and the expression of TgVit1 mRNA in 13 cultivars which show a blue color in the bottom segments of the inner perianth accompanying yellow- and white-colored inner-bottom petals. All of the blue bottom segments contained the same anthocyanin component, delphinidin 3-rutinoside. The flavonol composition varied with cultivar and tissue part. The major flavonol in the bottom segments of the inner perianth was rutin. The iron content in the upper part was less than that in the bottom segments of the inner perianth. The iron content in the yellow and white petals was higher in the bottom segment of the inner perianth than in the upper tissues. TgVit1 mRNA expression was apparent in all of the bottom tissues of the inner perianth. The result of a reproduction experiment by mixing the constituents suggests that the blue coloration in tulip petals is generally caused by iron complexation to delphinidin 3-rutinoside and that the iron complex is solubilized and stabilized by flavonol glycosides. TgVit1-dependent iron accumulation in the bottom segments of the inner perianth might be controlled by an unknown system that differentiated the upper parts and bottom segments of the inner perianth.

  13. A vacuolar iron transporter in tulip, TgVit1, is responsible for blue coloration in petal cells through iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Momonoi, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kumi; Mano, Shoji; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nakamori, Chihiro; Shoji, Kazuaki; Nitta, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2009-08-01

    Blue color in flowers is due mainly to anthocyanins, and a considerable part of blue coloration can be attributed to metal-complexed anthocyanins. However, the mechanism of metal ion transport into vacuoles and subsequent flower color development has yet to be fully explored. Previously, we studied the mechanism of blue color development specifically at the bottom of the inner perianth in purple tulip petals of Tulipa gesneriana cv. Murasakizuisho. We found that differences in iron content were associated with the development of blue- and purple-colored cells. Here, we identify a vacuolar iron transporter in T. gesneriana (TgVit1), and characterize the localization and function of this transporter protein in tulip petals. The amino acid sequence of TgVit1 is 85% similar that of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar iron transporter AtVIT1, and also showed similarity to the AtVIT1 homolog in yeast, Ca(2+)-sensitive cross-complementer 1 (CCC1). The gene TgVit1 was expressed exclusively in blue-colored epidermal cells, and protein levels increased with increasing mRNA expression and blue coloration. Transient expression experiments revealed that TgVit1 localizes to the vacuolar membrane, and is responsible for the development of the blue color in purple cells. Expression of TgVit1 in yeast rescued the growth defect of ccc1 mutant cells in the presence of high concentrations of FeSO(4). Our results indicate that TgVit1 plays an essential role in blue coloration as a vacuolar iron transporter in tulip petals. These results suggest a new role for involvement of a vacuolar iron transporter in blue flower color development.

  14. Concurrent growth of InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures in the Au-catalytic vapour-liquid-solid process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurino, A.; Signore, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the concurrent growth of InSe and In2O3 nanostructures, obtained by thermal evaporation of InSe powders on Au-covered Si substrates, has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The vapour-solid and Au catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanisms, responsible of the simultaneous development of the two different types of nanostructures, i.e. InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures respectively, are discussed in detail. The thermodynamic processes giving rise to the obtained morphologies and materials are explained.

  15. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  16. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Gérard R; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey-and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces-the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5-2 degrees field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  17. Long-Term Retrievability of IVC Filters: Should We Abandon Permanent Devices?

    SciTech Connect

    Berczi, V. Bottomley, J. R.; Thomas, S. M.; Taneja, S.; Gaines, P. A.; Cleveland, T. J.

    2007-09-15

    Thromboembolic disease produces a considerable disease burden, with death from pulmonary embolism in the UK alone estimated at 30,000-40,000 per year. Whilst it is unproven whether filters actually improve longevity, the morbidity and mortality associated with thromboembolic disease in the presence of contraindications to anticoagulation is high. Thus complications associated with filter insertion, and whilst they remain in situ, must be balanced against the alternatives. Permanent filters remain in situ for the remainder of the patient's life and any complications from the filters are of significant concern. Filters that are not permanent are therefore attractive in these circumstances. Retrievable filters, to avoid or decrease long-term filter complications, appear to be a significant advance in the prevention of pulmonary embolism. In this review, we discuss the safety and effectiveness of both permanent and retrievable filters as well as the retrievability of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters, to explore whether the use of permanent IVC filters can be abandoned in favor of retrievable filters. Currently four types of retrievable filters are available: the Recovery filter (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ, USA), the Guenther Tulip filter (Cook, Bloomington, IN, USA), the OptEase Filter (Cordis, Roden, The Netherlands), and the ALN filter (ALN Implants Chirurgicaux, Ghisonaccia, France). Efficacy and safety data for retrievable filters are as yet based on small series, with a total number of fewer than 1,000 insertions, and follow-up is mostly short term. Current long-term data are poor and insufficient to warrant the long-term implantation of these devices into humans. The case of fractured wire from a Recovery filter that migrated to the heart causing pericardial tamponade requiring open heart surgery is a reminder that any new endovascular device remaining in situ in the long term may produce unexpected problems. We should also bear in mind that

  18. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  19. Microfilm and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplitz, Arthur

    This paper was prepared to provide a frame of reference to the role of microfilm within the information retrieval world and to provide an opportunity for evaluation of the use of microforms for active retrieval applications. The paper discusses the principles of information retrieval, considers subject and classification indexing, and describes…

  20. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  1. Rapid stalk elongation in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) and the combined action of cold-induced invertase and the water-channel protein gammaTIP.

    PubMed

    Balk, P A; de Boer, A D

    1999-09-01

    Many bulbous plants need a low-temperature treatment for flowering. Cold, for example, affects the elongation of the stalk, thereby influencing the quality of the cut flower. How the elongation of the stalk is promoted by cold and which physiological and biochemical mechanisms are involved have remained obscure. As invertase has been shown to be involved in the cold-induced elongation of the flower stalks of tulips (Lambrechts et al., 1994, Plant Physiol 104: 515-520), we further characterized this enzyme by cloning the cDNA and analysing its expression in various tissues of the tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stalk. In addition, the role of sucrose synthase was investigated. Since turgor pressure is an important force driving cell elongation, the role of a water-channel protein (gammaTIP) was studied in relation to these two enzymes. The mRNA level of the invertase found was substantially up-regulated as a result of cold treatment. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of this invertase revealed the presence of a vacuolar targeting signal. Two different forms of sucrose synthase were found, the expression of one of them appeared to be restricted to the vascular tissue while the other form was present in the surrounding tissue. Both sucrose synthases were present in the stalk during the entire period of bulb storage and after planting, but their activities declined during stalk elongation. The expression of the gammaTIP gene was restricted mainly to the vascular tissue and its expression profile was identical to that of invertase. Simultaneous expression of invertase and gammaTIP possibly leads to an increase in osmotic potential and vacuolar water uptake, thus providing a driving force for stretching the stalk cells.

  2. Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahle, Jack D., Jr.

    The Fort Detrick Information Retrieval System is a system of computer programs written in COBOL for a CDC 3150 to store and retrieve information about the scientific and technical reports and documents of the Fort Detrick Technical Library. The documents and reports have been abstracted and indexed. This abstract, the subject matter descriptors,…

  3. Natural Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strzalkowski, Tomek

    1995-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in which advanced natural language processing is used to enhance the effectiveness of term-based document retrieval by preprocessing the documents; discovering interterm dependencies and build a conceptual hierarchy specific to database domain; and processing the user's natural language requests into…

  4. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  5. Efficient Graffiti Image Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chunlei; Wong, Pak C.; Ribarsky, William; Fan, Jianping

    2012-07-05

    Research of graffiti character recognition and retrieval, as a branch of traditional optical character recognition (OCR), has started to gain attention in recent years. We have investigated the special challenge of the graffiti image retrieval problem and propose a series of novel techniques to overcome the challenges. The proposed bounding box framework locates the character components in the graffiti images to construct meaningful character strings and conduct image-wise and semantic-wise retrieval on the strings rather than the entire image. Using real world data provided by the law enforcement community to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we show that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional image retrieval framework with better retrieval results and improved computational efficiency.

  6. Tracking through the Tulips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, teachers at the author's school were expressing interest in finding new ways to teach science as inquiry--and she was looking for an interesting plant inquiry for second-grade students. That November, She attended a Journey North workshop at the Tennessee Science Teachers Association convention and had an "a-ha"…

  7. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  8. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  9. Wire Retrieves Broken Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burow, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Safety wire retains pieces of broken tool. Retrieval wire running through shaft of tool used to pull pieces of tool out of hole, should tool break during use. Safety wire concept suitable for pins subject to deflection or breakage.

  10. Data-Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    NASA Graphics and Display System (NGDS) helps solve problem of data retrieval for management. Since NGDS is interactive online system, user controls display content and format, and has capability of always working with latest version of his data.

  11. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  12. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  13. Retrieval Studies with LIDORT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Spurr, Robert J. D.; Chance, K. V.

    2003-01-01

    This short program of LIDORT-based research in atmospheric trace gas retrieval was conducted over the 1 year period 01 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. After consultation with the NASA reporting officer, the first of the two original proposal activities (development of a direct-fitting total O3 column retrieval algorithm with operational capability for GOME data) was replaced by other tasks. The three activities addressed were: (1) Sensitivity studies for column and profile retrieval of NO2 distributions from a new generation of multi-axis ground-based spectrometers; (2) use of the LIDORT-RRS model to determine the effect of inelastic rotational Raman scattering at SBUV wavelengths; (3) an examination of ozone profile weighting functions in the presence of optically thick tropospheric clouds.

  14. Retrieval of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-19

    Soil removal and drum retrieval equipment are being developed and demonstrated in support of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) program. Accomplishments to date include: Soil removal equipment, a telescoping excavator and high velocity vacuum truck were selected for soil removal; Preliminary demonstrations, the capabilities of both the telescoping excavator and vacuum truck were demonstrated by the vendors; Shielding Lifting Canister, Functional parameters were defined and design is 95% complete; and Full-scale demonstration, SRL test mounds were selected for a full-scale drum retrieval demonstration. Further development will include an integrated full-scale demonstration. Several drums buried in non-radioactive TRU test mounds will be retrieved. Planning for the demonstration is underway. A telescoping excavator is being acquired, the shielded lifting canister will be fabricated and pre-tested, and a vacuum truck will be leased. 5 figs.

  15. Purification, characterization, and sequencing of novel antimicrobial peptides, Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2, from bulbs of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.).

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masatoshi; Ideguchi, Mineo; Minami, Yuji; Watanabe, Keiichi; Tadera, Kenjiro

    2004-03-01

    Novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP), designated Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2, were purified from the bulbs of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) by chitin affinity chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). They bind to chitin in a reversible way. They were basic peptides having isoelectric points of over 12. Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2 had molecular masses of 4,988 Da and 5,006 Da on MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and their extinction coefficients of 1% aqueous solutions at 280 nm were 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Half of all amino acid residues of Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2 were occupied by cysteine, arginine, lysine, and proline. The concentrations of peptides required for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of the growth of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi were 2 to 20 microg/ml. The structural characteristics of Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2 indicated that they were novel thionin-like antimicrobial peptides, though Tu-AMP 2 was a heterodimer composes of two short peptides joined with disulfide bonds.

  16. Active optics and the axisymmetric case: MINITRUST wide-field three-reflection telescopes with mirrors aspherized from tulip and vase forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulie, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires larger size telescopes. Compared to the catadioptric Schmidt, the optical properties of a three mirror telescope provides significant advantages. (1) The flat field design is anastigmatic at any wavelength, (2) the system is extremely compact -- four times shorter than a Schmidt -- and, (3) compared to a Schmidt with refractive corrector -- requiring the polishing of three optical surfaces --, the presently proposed Modified-Rumsey design uses all of eight available free parameters of a flat fielded anastigmatic three mirror telescope for mirrors generated by active optics methods. Compared to a Rumsey design, these parameters include the additional slope continuity condition at the primary-tertiary link for in-situ stressing and aspherization from a common sphere. Then, active optics allows the polishing of only two spherical surfaces: the combined primary-tertiary mirror and the secondary mirror. All mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. This compact system is of interest for space and ground-based astronomy and allows to built larger wide-field telescopes such as demonstrated by the design and construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° FOV, consisting of an in-situ stressed double vase form primary-tertiary and of a stress polished tulip form secondary. Optical tests of these telescopes, showing diffraction limited images, are presented.

  17. Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.

    PubMed

    Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

    2004-01-01

    Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated.

  18. Retrieval Hierarchies in Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Roy; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a collaborative, reuse hypertext system, called MUCH (Many Using and Creating Hypertext). The novel browsing and retrieval characteristics of the system are based on a semantic net connecting documents, thesauri, and discussions. Word patterns are documented for reuse, creating and reorganizing network traversal according to user…

  19. Information Retrieval by Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billowes, C. A.

    1968-01-01

    Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…

  20. Collaborative Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Fidel, Raya

    1999-01-01

    Researchers from the University of Washington, Microsoft Research, Boeing, and Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark have embarked on a project to explore the manifestations of Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) in work settings and to propose technological innovations and organizational changes that can support, facilitate, and improve CIR.…

  1. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  2. Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Losee, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    As Information Retrieval (IR) has evolved, it has become a highly interactive process, rooted in cognitive and situational contexts. Consequently the traditional cybernetic-based IR model does not suffice for interactive IR or the human approach to IR. Reviews different views of feedback in IR and their relationship to cybernetic and social…

  3. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  4. Music Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  5. Evaluation of migration forces of a retrievable filter: experimental setup and finite element study.

    PubMed

    García, A; Lerga, S; Peña, E; Malve, M; Laborda, A; De Gregorio, M A; Martínez, M A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a computational study of migration forces of a retrievable filter (Günther Tulip inferior vena cava filter). Using an experimental setup and finite element simulation, the migration forces and stress at the end of the anchored hooks in the struts were estimated. After that, the estimation value of migration stress (τ(rup)) was used to analyze the effect of different mechanical factors (strut thickness, vena cava diameter) in the migration of the IVC filter. Our results show that the migration stress is τ(rup)=4.37 N/mm(2). Using this value we obtain that the filter with higher strut diameter (ϕ(strut)=0.45 mm) shows the maximal migration forces in every cava diameter. On the other hand, the value of the migration force decreases when the cava diameter increases. In addition, the finite element simulations also show that there are contact between the struts of the filter and the vein in regions close to the anchors.

  6. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  7. Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamase

    1986-01-01

    Examines role and contributions of natural-language processing in information retrieval and artificial intelligence research in context of large operational information retrieval systems and services. State-of-the-art information retrieval systems combining the functional capabilities of conventional inverted file term adjacency approach with…

  8. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL METHODS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWETS, JOHN A.

    RESULTS OF FIFTY DIFFERENT RETRIEVAL METHODS AS APPLIED IN THREE EXPERIMENTAL RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS WERE SUBJECTED TO AN ANALYSIS SUGGESTED BY STATISTICAL DECISION THEORY. THE ANALYSIS USES A PREVIOUSLY-PROPOSED MEASURE OF EFFECTIVENESS AND DEMONSTRATES ITS SEVERAL PROPERTIES. SOME OF THESE PROPERTIES ARE--(1) IT ENABLES THE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM TO…

  10. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  11. Commentary: County of Washington v. Gunther.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Nancy C.

    1981-01-01

    In court litigation in which women prison guards' claim of pay discrimination was rejected at the local level, the Supreme Court ruled that the case could be debated based on workers'"comparable worth" instead of "equal work," the traditional argument. Further litigation on the comparable worth issue is anticipated. (MSE)

  12. Initial retrieval shields against retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Racsmány, Mihály; Keresztes, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Testing, as a form of retrieval, can enhance learning but it can also induce forgetting of related memories, a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). In four experiments we explored whether selective retrieval and selective restudy of target memories induce forgetting of related memories with or without initial retrieval of the entire learning set. In Experiment 1, subjects studied category-exemplar associations, some of which were then either restudied or retrieved. RIF occurred on a delayed final test only when memories were retrieved and not when they were restudied. In Experiment 2, following the study phase of category-exemplar associations, subjects attempted to recall all category-exemplar associations, then they selectively retrieved or restudied some of the exemplars. We found that, despite the huge impact on practiced items, selective retrieval/restudy caused no decrease in final recall of related items. In Experiment 3, we replicated the main result of Experiment 2 by manipulating initial retrieval as a within-subject variable. In Experiment 4 we replicated the main results of the previous experiments with non-practiced (Nrp) baseline items. These findings suggest that initial retrieval of the learning set shields against the forgetting effect of later selective retrieval. Together, our results support the context shift theory of RIF.

  13. Practical quantum retrieval games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Karasamanis, Markos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Complex cryptographic protocols are often constructed from simpler building blocks. In order to advance quantum cryptography, it is important to study practical building blocks that can be used to develop new protocols. An example is quantum retrieval games (QRGs), which have broad applicability and have already been used to construct quantum money schemes. In this work, we introduce a general construction of quantum retrieval games based on the hidden matching problem and show how they can be implemented in practice using available technology. More precisely, we provide a general method to construct (1-out-of-k ) QRGs, proving that their cheating probabilities decrease exponentially in k . In particular, we define QRGs based on coherent states of light, which can be implemented even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results constitute a tool in the arsenal of the practical quantum cryptographer.

  14. Passage Retrieval and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    queries, is IDF(t) = log „ # docs. in corpus + 1 0.5 + # docs. t appears in « . (6) This rather ad hoc scoring formula is implemented in the Lemur ...problems with passage R-precision as an evaluation metric. Fernando was instrumental in extending the Lemur toolkit to make all of these experiments...and C. Zhai. The lemur toolkit for language modeling and information retrieval. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/∼ lemur /, 2003. [6] C. Buckley and E. M

  15. REMOTE RETRIEVING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Fromm, L.W. Jr.

    1958-08-19

    A retrieving tool is described to securely grasp an object for emplacement in, or withdrawal from, an elongated tube. The object is grasped by hooks actuated by a wedge and cann mechanism. The mechanism on the end of a long rodlike structure is controlled by levers or bars at the access end of the tube. This device is particularly useful for positioning fuel elements within a reactor core.

  16. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Factors that Affect Retrieval Success

    SciTech Connect

    Geisbuesch, Philipp Benenati, James F.; Pena, Constantino S.; Couvillon, Joseph; Powell, Alex; Gandhi, Ripal; Samuels, Shaun; Uthoff, Heiko

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To report and analyze the indications, procedural success, and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) placement and to identify parameters that influence retrieval attempt and failure. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, a total of 200 patients (80 men, median age 67 years, range 11-95 years) received a rIVCF with the clinical possibility that it could be removed. All patients with rIVCF were prospectively entered into a database and followed until retrieval or a decision not to retrieve the filter was made. A retrospective analysis of this database was performed. Results: Sixty-one percent of patients had an accepted indication for filter placement; 39% of patients had a relative indication. There was a tendency toward a higher retrieval rate in patients with relative indications (40% vs. 55%, P = 0.076). Filter placement was technically successful in all patients, with no procedure-related mortality. The retrieval rate was 53%. Patient age of >80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.056, P > 0.0001) and presence of malignancy (OR 0.303, P = 0.003) was associated with a significantly reduced probability for attempted retrieval. Retrieval failure occurred in 7% (6 of 91) of all retrieval attempts. A time interval of > 90 days between implantation and attempted retrieval was associated with retrieval failure (OR 19.8, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patient age >80 years and a history of malignancy are predictors of a reduced probability for retrieval attempt. The rate of retrieval failure is low and seems to be associated with a time interval of >90 days between filter placement and retrieval.

  17. Alternative expression of vacuolar iron transporter and ferritin genes leads to blue/purple coloration of flowers in tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho'.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Kazuaki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Tsuji, Tosiaki

    2010-02-01

    Flowers of tulip cv. 'Murasakizuisho' have a purple perianth except for the bottom region, which is blue in color even though it has the same anthocyanin, delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, as the entire perianth. The development of the blue coloration in the perianth bottom is due to complexation by anthocyanin, flavonol and iron (Fe), as well as a vacuolar iron transporter, TgVit1. Although transient expression of TgVit1 in the purple cells led to a color change to light blue, the coloration of the transformed cells did not coincide with the dark blue color of the cells of the perianth bottom. We thought that another factor is required for the blue coloration of the cells of perianth bottom. To examine the effect of ferritin (FER), an Fe storage protein, on blue color development, we cloned an FER gene (TgFER1) and performed expression analyses. TgFER1 transcripts were found in the cells located in the upper region of the petals along with purple color development by anthocyanin and were not found in the blue cells of the perianth bottom. This gene expression is in contrast to that of TgVit1, expressed only in the cells of the perianth bottom. Co-expression of TgVIT1 and TgFER-RNAi, constructed for suppressing endogenous TgFER1 by RNA interference (RNAi), changed the purple petal cells to a dark blue color similar to that of the natural perianth bottom. These results strongly suggest that TgVit1 expression and TgFER1 suppression are critical for the development of blue color in the perianth bottom.

  18. Music retrieval in ICOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  19. 2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF XY RETRIEVER. THE XY RETRIEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF X-Y RETRIEVER. THE X-Y RETRIEVER WAS HOUSED IN MODULE K AND WAS USED TO SORT AND RETRIEVE PLUTONIUM METAL FROM A STORAGE VAULT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHER PROCESSES IN BUILDING 707. (11/29/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. The Text Retrieval Conferences (TRECs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Retrieval and Routing Using the INQUERY System" by John Broglio, James P. Callan, W. Bruce Croft and Daniel W. Nachbar) used a version of...University of Massachusetts at Amherst ("Document Retrieval and Routing Using the INQUERY System" by John Broglio, James P. Callan, W. Bruce Croft...342 terms were used. SIN002, SINOOI -- University of Massachusetts at Amherst ("Document Retrieval and Routing Using the INQUERY System" by John

  1. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  2. Semantic processing in information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts represented by phrases, will in fact enhance retrieval effectiveness. The availability of the UMLS domain model, which we exploit extensively, significantly contributes to the feasibility of this processing. PMID:8130547

  3. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  4. Team 2: AIRS Only Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sung-Yung; Manning, Evan; Blaisdell, John; Susskind, Joel; Barnet, Chris; Goldberg, Mitch; Cho, Chuck; Staelin, Dave; Blackwelll, Bill

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation makes the case for the retrieval of data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). AIRS only retrieval is not only a risk reduction for failure of AMSU, but also important because NWP centers are reluctant to assimilate AMSU twice.

  5. Student Attitude Toward Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Charles H.; Allen, Rodney F.

    This is an individually administered rating scale designed to evaluate teacher trainee attitudes toward an information retrieval system. A major goal of the scale is to seek responses that measure students' reactions to the cognitive interest and motivational nature of the information retrieval system through the use of Likert-type items. The…

  6. Web Mining for Web Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Feng; Li, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongjiang

    2001-01-01

    Presents a prototype system for image retrieval from the Internet using Web mining. Discusses the architecture of the Web image retrieval prototype; document space modeling; user log mining; and image retrieval experiments to evaluate the proposed system. (AEF)

  7. Research by retrieving experiments.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2007-06-01

    Newton did not discover that apples fall: the information was available prior to his gravitational hypothesis. Hypotheses can be tested not only by performing experiments but also by retrieving experiments from the literature (via PubMed, for example). Here I show how disconnected facts from known data, if properly connected, can generate novel predictions testable in turn by other published data. With examples from cell cycle, aging, cancer and other fields of biology and medicine, I discuss how new knowledge was and will be derived from old information. Millions of experiments have been already performed to test unrelated hypotheses and the results of those experiments are available to 'test' your hypotheses too. But most data (99% by some estimates) remain unpublished, because they were negative, seemed of low priority, or did not fit the story. Yet for other investigators those data may be valuable. The well-known story of Franklin and Watson is a case in point. By making preliminary data widely available, 'data-owners' will benefit most, receiving the credit for otherwise unused results. If posted (pre-published) on searchable databases, these data may fuel thousands of projects without the need for repetitive experiments. Enormous 'pre-published' databases coupled with Google-like search engines can change the structure of scientific research, and shrinking funding will make this inevitable.

  8. Solid rocket booster retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster Retrieval operations are discussed in detail. The recovery of expended boosters and associated hardware without damage attributable to retrieval procedures is the main goal. The retrieval force consists tof ship's personnel and retrieval team members, each of whom has been trained and is highly skilled in multi-faceted operations. The retrieval force is equipped with two specially-built, highly maneuverable ships outfitted with parachute reels, retrieval cranes, towing winches, large volume-low pressure air compressors, SCUBA diving gear, inflatable boats with outboard motors and diver-operated SRB dewatering devices. The two ships are deployed in sufficient time to conduct an electronic and visual search of the impact area prior to launch. Upon search completeion, each ship takes station a safe distance from the predetermined impact point initiating both visual and electronic search in the direction of flight path, ensuring SRB acquisition at splashdown. When safe, the ships enter the impact area and commence recovery of all floating flight hardware which is subsequently returned to the Disassembly Facility for refurbishment and reuse. Retrieval techniques have evolved in parallel with equipment and flight hardware configuration changes. Additional changes have been initiated to improve personnel safety.

  9. System For Retrieving Reusable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Warren, Lloyd; Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Software Components (ESC) is information-retrieval system of computer hardware and software providing access to generic reusable software tools and parts. Core of ESC is central tool base, which is repository of reusable software. It receives queries and submissions from user through local browser subsystem and receives authorized updates from maintenance subsystem. Sends retrievals to local browser subsystem and user's submissions to maintenance subsystem. Future versions will provide for advanced media, including voice and video, and will link system to database-management system. Programmers will not only retrieve software, but also modify, execute, and cross-link with other software.

  10. Mobile medical visual information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Duc, Samuel; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context.

  11. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  12. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  13. The role of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation in retrieval practice: insights from comparing recognition memory testing formats and restudying.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chuanji; Rosburg, Timm; Hou, Mingzhu; Li, Bingbing; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of retrieval practice for aiding long-term memory, referred to as the testing effect, has been widely demonstrated. However, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of pre-retrieval processes at initial testing on later recognition performance by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Subjects studied two lists of words (Chinese characters) and then performed a recognition task or a source memory task, or restudied the word lists. At the end of the experiment, subjects received a final recognition test based on the remember-know paradigm. Behaviorally, initial testing (active retrieval) enhanced memory retention relative to restudying (passive retrieval). The retrieval mode at initial testing was indexed by more positive-going ERPs for unstudied items in the active-retrieval tasks than in passive retrieval from 300 to 900 ms. Follow-up analyses showed that the magnitude of the early ERP retrieval mode effect (300-500 ms) was predictive of the behavioral testing effect later on. In addition, the ERPs for correctly rejected new items during initial testing differed between the two active-retrieval tasks from 500 to 900 ms, and this ERP retrieval orientation effect predicted differential behavioral testing gains between the two active-retrieval conditions. Our findings confirm that initial testing promotes later retrieval relative to restudying, and they further suggest that adopting pre-retrieval processing in the forms of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation might contribute to these memory enhancements.

  14. Intelligent web image retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungyong; Lee, Chungwoo; Nah, Yunmook

    2001-07-01

    Recently, the web sites such as e-business sites and shopping mall sites deal with lots of image information. To find a specific image from these image sources, we usually use web search engines or image database engines which rely on keyword only retrievals or color based retrievals with limited search capabilities. This paper presents an intelligent web image retrieval system. We propose the system architecture, the texture and color based image classification and indexing techniques, and representation schemes of user usage patterns. The query can be given by providing keywords, by selecting one or more sample texture patterns, by assigning color values within positional color blocks, or by combining some or all of these factors. The system keeps track of user's preferences by generating user query logs and automatically add more search information to subsequent user queries. To show the usefulness of the proposed system, some experimental results showing recall and precision are also explained.

  15. Retrieval interference in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Julie A.; McElree, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The role of interference effects in sentence processing has recently begun to receive attention, however whether these effects arise during encoding or retrieval remains unclear. This paper draws on basic memory research to help distinguish these explanations and reports data from an experiment that manipulates the possibility for retrieval interference while holding encoding conditions constant. We found clear support for the principle of cue-overload, wherein cues available at retrieval cannot uniquely distinguish among competitors, thus giving rise to interference effects. We discuss the data in relation to a cue-based parsing framework (Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003) and other interference effects observed in sentence processing (e.g., Gordon, Hendrick, & Johnson, 2001, 2004). We conclude from the available data that the memory system that subserves language comprehension operates according to similar principles as memory in other domains. PMID:18209744

  16. Multimedia Information Retrieval Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah A.

    2010-10-12

    This survey paper highlights some of the recent, influential work in multimedia information retrieval (MIR). MIR is a branch area of multimedia (MM). The young and fast-growing area has received strong industrial and academic support in the United States and around the world (see Section 7 for a list of major conferences and journals of the community). The term "information retrieval" may be misleading to those with different computer science or information technology backgrounds. As shown in our discussion later, it indeed includes topics from user interaction, data analytics, machine learning, feature extraction, information visualization, and more.

  17. Publication search and retrieval system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winget, Elizabeth A.

    1981-01-01

    The publication search and retrieval system of the Branch of Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Geology, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass., is a procedure for listing and describing branch-sponsored publications. It is designed for maintenance and retrieval by those having limited knowledge of computer languages and programs. Because this branch currently utilizes the Hewlett-Packard HP-1000 computer with RTE-IVB operating system, database entry and maintenance is performed in accordance with the TE-IVB Terminal User’s Reference Manual (Hewlett-Packard Company, 1980) and within the constraints of GRASP (Bowen and Botbol, 1975) and WOLF (Evenden, 1978).

  18. A Web Information Retrieval System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Dong-Chul; Huh, Woong; Kim, Hyen-Ug; Yoon, Chung-Hwa; Park, Chong-Dae; Woo, Dong-Min; Jeong, Taikyeong; Cho, Il-Hwan; Lee, Yunsik

    An approach for the retrieval of price information from internet sites is applied to real-world application problems in this paper. The Web Information Retrieval System (WIRS) utilizes Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for its powerful capability to process temporal information. HMM is an extremely flexible tool and has been successfully applied to a wide variety of stochastic modeling tasks. In order to compare the prices and features of products from various web sites, the WIRS extracts prices and descriptions of various products within web pages. The WIRS is evaluated with real-world problems and compared with a conventional method and the result is reported in this paper.

  19. Flexible montage retrieval for image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Hideharu; Uemori, Akira

    1994-04-01

    Academic and photo libraries require the reuse of images. If the database is large, similarity retrieval and retrieval by sketch are effective. However, similarity retrieval can retrieve images that are similar to only one key image. Retrieval by sketch can retrieve images that are similar to the sketch, but it is not always easy to make a sketch sufficiently similar to the desired image. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new flexible montage retrieval method (FMR) that allows the user to retrieve images by appropriately combining characteristics of the key images in the same way that a montage picture of a criminal is constructed. In FMR, the user selects one or more key images and specifies areas (called `key regions') manually or by using image manipulating tools. He then indicates the retrieval conditions, for example, the requirement that the image to be retrieved includes specified areas. This paper describes an FMR algorithm that uses a color histogram and texture to quantify the similarity between a key region and an image in the database. The effectiveness of FMR is then statistically demonstrated by comparing its correct retrieval rate with that of retrieval by sketch. The retrieval rate is calculated from the result of retrieving the images that include a specified sky image from among more than 150 images containing various sky images.

  20. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  1. Information Retrieval in Virtual Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Pöyry, Päivi

    2006-01-01

    Information retrieval in the context of virtual universities deals with the representation, organization, and access to learning objects. The representation and organization of learning objects should provide the learner with an easy access to the learning objects. In this article, we give an overview of the ONES system, and analyze the relevance…

  2. Information Retrieval in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oley, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Explores aspects of information retrieval skills such as end user training, indexing, controlled vocabulary systems, search protocol, boolean logic, problem analysis, and decision making. Suggests techniques for classroom instruction using simulations of online databases, CD-ROMs, and DIALOG's classroom instruction program. Describes several…

  3. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EXPERIMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELYE, HANS

    THIS REPORT IS A BRIEF REVIEW OF RESULTS OF AN EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EFFICIENCY OF A MANUAL SPECIALIZED INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON 700,000 DOCUMENTS IN THE FIELDS OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, STRESS, MAST CELLS, AND ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS. THE SYSTEM RECEIVES 30,000 PUBLICATIONS ANNUALLY. DETAILED INFORMATION IS REPRESENTED BY…

  4. Hubble Space Telescope prescription retrieval.

    PubMed

    Redding, D; Dumont, P; Yu, J

    1993-04-01

    Prescription retrieval is a technique for directly estimating optical prescription parameters from images. We apply it to estimate the value of the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror conic constant. Our results agree with other studies that examined primary-mirror test fixtures and results. In addition they show that small aberrations exist on the planetary-camera repeater optics.

  5. The Ecosystem of Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose-Vicente; Martinez-Mendez, Francisco-Javier; Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an initial proposal for a formal framework that, by studying the metric variables involved in information retrieval, can establish the sequence of events involved and how to perform it. Method: A systematic approach from the equations of Shannon and Weaver to establish the decidability of information retrieval…

  6. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  7. An Interactive Document Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, D.E.; And Others

    The document retrieval system at Coordinated Science Laboratory is implemented on a Control Data 1604 computer system. Recorded information from each source article includes 1) conventional bibliographic data such as authorship, author affiliation, title, year of publication, etc., 2) detailed bibliographic data from each of the cited references,…

  8. How does antigen retrieval work?

    PubMed

    Leong, Trishe Y-M; Leong, Anthony S-Y

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of antigen retrieval has enabled immunohistology to become an integral component of morphologic diagnosis, routinely employed in cancer diagnosis, and for the identification of therapeutic and prognostic markers. The mechanism of antigen retrieval, however, remains speculative with the key to our understanding embedded in the actions of formaldehyde on proteins. One commonly held concept is that heat primarily breaks down protein cross-linkages that occur with aldehyde fixation, thus "unmasking" protein epitopes of interest. Enzymatic pretreatment is also thought to have a similar action whereas such "breakages" are the result of extremely rapid molecular movement induced by microwaves and ultrasound. The formation of rigid cagelike calcium complexes during formaldehyde fixation is another suggested mechanism of antigen masking requiring chelating agents for reversal. A more recent suggestion for the antigen retrieval phenomenon has evoked the Mannich reaction, which occurs with the cross-linking of some proteins. Such cross-linkages can be hydrolyzed by heat or alkalis so that the process of antigen retrieval may be the simple removal of such cross-linked proteins that are sterically interfering with the binding of antibodies to linear protein epitopes in the tissue section. We are clearly not yet in possession of all the answers to the problem.

  9. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  10. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  11. Neural networks for atmospheric retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motteler, Howard E.; Gualtieri, J. A.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mcmillin, Larry

    1993-01-01

    We use neural networks to perform retrievals of temperature and water fractions from simulated clear air radiances for the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Neural networks allow us to make effective use of the large AIRS channel set, and give good performance with noisy input. We retrieve surface temperature, air temperature at 64 distinct pressure levels, and water fractions at 50 distinct pressure levels. Using 728 temperature and surface sensitive channels, the RMS error for temperature retrievals with 0.2K input noise is 1.2K. Using 586 water and temperature sensitive channels, the mean error with 0.2K input noise is 16 percent. Our implementation of backpropagation training for neural networks on the 16,000-processor MasPar MP-1 runs at a rate of 90 million weight updates per second, and allows us to train large networks in a reasonable amount of time. Once trained, the network can be used to perform retrievals quickly on a workstation of moderate power.

  12. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  13. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  14. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS STUDIES, REPORT NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, RONALD R.; AND OTHERS

    CONTENTS--(1) AN ASSOCIATIVITY TECHNIQUE FOR AUTOMATICALLY OPTIMIZING RETRIEVAL RESULTS BY RONALD R. ANDERSON. AN ASSOCIATIVE TECHNIQUE BY WHICH IT IS POSSIBLE TO AUTOMATICALLY EXPAND AND NARROW THE NUMBER OF DOCUMENTS RETRIEVED AND TO RETRIEVE DOCUMENTS RELATED TO A REQUEST EVEN THOUGH THEY MAY NOT BE INDEXED BY THE EXACT TERMS OF THE REQUEST IS…

  16. Uterus retrieval in cadaver: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Akar, M Erman; Ozkan, O; Ozekinci, M; Sindel, M; Yildirim, F; Oguz, N

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe uterus retrieval in cadavers. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature could be successfully achieved in four of the presented cases. Special attention was given to dissection of bilateral ureters and hypogastric vasculature. Uterine retrieval with its vasculature and supporting sacrouterine,vesicouterine peritoneal folds is an anatomically feasible procedure in preparation for uterus transplantation.

  17. Modeling and Retrieving Images by Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudivada, Venkat N.; Raghavan, Vijay V.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses content-based image retrieval systems that effectively utilize information from image databases, and provides a taxonomy for approaches to image retrieval. Highlights include image retrieval architecture that supports query operators; conceptual issues; and two application prototypes. (100 references) (Author/LRW)

  18. The Networking of Interactive Bibliographic Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Richard S.; Reintjes, J. Francis

    Research in networking of heterogeneous interactive bibliographic retrieval systems is being conducted which centers on the concept of a virtual retrieval system. Such a virtual system would be created through a translating computer interface that would provide access to the different retrieval systems and data bases in a uniform and convenient…

  19. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  20. A Logic Basis for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, C. R.; Shepherd, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the potential of recent work in artificial intelligence, especially expert systems, for the development of more effective information retrieval systems. Highlights include the role of an expert bibliographic retrieval system and a prototype expert retrieval system, PROBIB-2, that uses MicroProlog to provide deductive reasoning…

  1. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  2. Covert Retrieval Practice Benefits Retention as Much as Overt Retrieval Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Megan A.; Roediger, Henry L., III; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Many experiments provide evidence that practicing retrieval benefits retention relative to conditions of no retrieval practice. Nearly all prior research has employed retrieval practice requiring overt responses, but a few experiments have shown that covert retrieval also produces retention advantages relative to control conditions. However,…

  3. Toward an Episodic Context Account of Retrieval-Based Learning: Dissociating Retrieval Practice and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Melissa; Smith, Megan A.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the predictions of 2 explanations for retrieval-based learning; while the elaborative retrieval hypothesis assumes that the retrieval of studied information promotes the generation of semantically related information, which aids in later retrieval (Carpenter, 2009), the episodic context account proposed by Karpicke, Lehman, and Aue (in…

  4. Phase retrieval in protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong Chuan; Xu, Rui; Dong, Yu Hui

    2012-03-01

    Solution of the phase problem is central to crystallographic structure determination. An oversampling method is proposed, based on the hybrid input-output algorithm (HIO) [Fienup (1982). Appl. Opt. 21, 2758-2769], to retrieve the phases of reflections in crystallography. This method can extend low-resolution structures to higher resolution for structure determination of proteins without additional sample preparation. The method requires an envelope of the protein which divides a unit cell into the density region where the proteins are located and the non-density region occupied by solvents. After a few hundred to a few thousand iterations, the correct phases and density maps are recovered. The method has been used successfully in several cases to retrieve the phases from the experimental X-ray diffraction data and the envelopes of proteins constructed from structure files downloaded from the Protein Data Bank. It is hoped that this method will greatly facilitate the ab initio structure determination of proteins.

  5. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  6. Undersampled Phase Retrieval with Outliers

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Daniel S.; Pnueli, Ayelet; Divon, Gilad; Radzyner, Ori; Eldar, Yonina C.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a general framework for reconstructing sparse images from undersampled (squared)-magnitude data corrupted with outliers and noise. This phase retrieval method uses a layered approach, combining repeated minimization of a convex majorizer (surrogate for a nonconvex objective function), and iterative optimization of that majorizer using a preconditioned variant of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Since phase retrieval is nonconvex, this implementation uses multiple initial majorization vectors. The introduction of a robust 1-norm data fit term that is better adapted to outliers exploits the generality of this framework. The derivation also describes a normalization scheme for the regularization parameter and a known adaptive heuristic for the ADMM penalty parameter. Both 1D Monte Carlo tests and 2D image reconstruction simulations suggest the proposed framework, with the robust data fit term, reduces the reconstruction error for data corrupted with both outliers and additive noise, relative to competing algorithms having the same total computation. PMID:26770999

  7. LOCAT - A Data Retrieval Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    STANDARSIA1 3 -A Suznn Y4Sl ’ś’. Doc 0 006 U m Nalionai Deftense U’" Defence nationale LOCAT -A DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAM by Suzanne Y. Slinn SA RSA T Project...2.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY...................2 2.2 SATELLITE AND LOCATION SOFT KEY DISPLAY .. .. ........ 3 2.3...LOCAT -Calling Sequence .. .. ...... ........ 2 FIGURE 2: SAT/LOC Soft Key Display .. .. ...... ..... 3 FIGURE 3 : Frequency Soft Key Display

  8. Desert Dust Satellite Retrieval Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carboni, E.; Thomas, G. E.; Sayer, A. M.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.; Ahn, C.; Antoine, D.; Bevan, S.; Braak, R.; Brindley, H.; DeSouza-Mchado, S.; Deuze, J. L.; Diner, D.; Ducos, F.; Grey, W.; Hsu, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Kahn, R.; North, P. R. J.; Salustro, C.; Smith, A.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Veihelmann, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify and understand the differences between current algorithms, and hence improve future retrieval algorithms. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as as20 sumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, at least as significant as these differences are sampling issues related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset.

  9. Rapidly Retargetable Interactive Translingual Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    vocabulary beyond that which was available af- ter term-by-term translation. This is analogous to the process that Singhal et al. applied to monolingual ...Language Evaluation Forum’s (CLEF) multilingual task. We used the English language forms of the queries to retrieve English, French, German, and...tracking task was multilingual , search- ing stories in both English and Mandarin Chinese, and multi-modal, involving both newswire text and broadcast

  10. Topic Models in Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    the combination: Hidden Markov Model. Miller et al. (1999) presented a Hidden Markov Model ( HMM ) Information Retrieval system. They take the...combination with different methods to estimate the combination weights. The parameter estimation in the HMM framework is simplified with strict...applied a Hidden Markov Model ( HMM ) framework; Zhai and Lafferty (2002) and Cao et al. (2005) used Expectation Maximization (EM) on the mixture

  11. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  12. Multispectral vegetative canopy parameter retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Bunker, David J.

    2011-11-01

    Precision agriculture, forestry and environmental remote sensing are applications uniquely suited to the 8 bands that DigitalGlobe's WorldView-2 provides. At the fine spatial resolution of 0.5 m (panchromatic) and 2 m (multispectral) individual trees can be readily resolved. Recent research [1] has shown that it is possible for hyper-spectral data to invert plant reflectance spectra and estimate nitrogen content, leaf water content, leaf structure, canopy leaf area index and, for sparse canopies, also soil reflectance. The retrieval is based on inverting the SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) vegetation radiative transfer model for the canopy structure and the reflectance model PROSPECT4/5 for the leaf reflectance. Working on the paper [1] confirmed that a limited number of adjacent bands covering just the visible and near infrared can retrieve the parameters as well, opening up the possibility that this method can be used to analyze multi-spectral WV-2 data. Thus it seems possible to create WV-2 specific inversions using 8 bands and apply them to imagery of various vegetation covered surfaces of agricultural and environmental interest. The capability of retrieving leaf water content and nitrogen content has important applications in determining the health of vegetation, e.g. plant growth status, disease mapping, quantitative drought assessment, nitrogen deficiency, plant vigor, yield, etc.

  13. Initial retrieval sequence and blending strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Pemwell, D.L.; Grenard, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report documents the initial retrieval sequence and the methodology used to select it. Waste retrieval, storage, pretreatment and vitrification were modeled for candidate single-shell tank retrieval sequences. Performance of the sequences was measured by a set of metrics (for example,high-level waste glass volume, relative risk and schedule).Computer models were used to evaluate estimated glass volumes,process rates, retrieval dates, and blending strategy effects.The models were based on estimates of component inventories and concentrations, sludge wash factors and timing, retrieval annex limitations, etc.

  14. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  15. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  16. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  17. Innovative grout/retrieval demonstration final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of an innovative retrieval technique for buried transuranic waste. Application of this retrieval technique was originally designed for full pit retrieval; however, it applies equally to a hot spot retrieval technology. The technique involves grouting the buried soil waste matrix with a jet grouting procedure, applying an expansive demolition grout to the matrix, and retrieving the debris. The grouted matrix provides an agglomeration of fine soil particles and contaminants resulting in an inherent contamination control during the dusty retrieval process. A full-scale field demonstration of this retrieval technique was performed on a simulated waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Details are reported on all phases of this proof-of-concept demonstration including pit construction, jet grouting activities, application of the demolition grout, and actual retrieval of the grouted pit. A quantitative evaluation of aerosolized soils and rare earth tracer spread is given for all phases of the demonstration, and these results are compared to a baseline retrieval activity using conventional retrieval means. 8 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Compressed sensing for phase retrieval.

    PubMed

    Newton, Marcus C

    2012-05-01

    To date there are several iterative techniques that enjoy moderate success when reconstructing phase information, where only intensity measurements are made. There remains, however, a number of cases in which conventional approaches are unsuccessful. In the last decade, the theory of compressed sensing has emerged and provides a route to solving convex optimisation problems exactly via ℓ(1)-norm minimization. Here the application of compressed sensing to phase retrieval in a nonconvex setting is reported. An algorithm is presented that applies reweighted ℓ(1)-norm minimization to yield accurate reconstruction where conventional methods fail.

  19. Six sigma for revenue retrieval.

    PubMed

    Plonien, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in revenue retrieval due to failures in obtaining charges have contributed to a negative bottom line for numerous hospitals. Improving documentation practices through a Six Sigma process improvement initiative can minimize opportunities for errors through reviews and instill structure for compliance and consistency. Commitment to the Six Sigma principles with continuous monitoring of outcomes and constant communication of results to departments, management, and payers is a strong approach to reducing the financial impact of denials on an organization's revenues and expenses. Using Six Sigma tools can help improve the organization's financial performance not only for today, but also for health care's uncertain future.

  20. The validation of AIRS retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Olsen, Edward T.; Chen, Luke L.; Hagan, Denise E.; Fishbein, Evan; McMillin, Larry; Zhou, Jiang; McMillan, Wallace W.

    2003-01-01

    The initial validation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (SIRS) experiment retrievals were completed in August 2003 as part of public release of version 3.0 data. The associated analyses are reported at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmodyn/airs/, where data may be accessed. Here we describe some of those analyses, with an emphasis on cloud cleared radiances, atmospheric temperature profiles, sea surface temperature, total water vapor and atmospheric water vapor profiles. The results are applicable over ocean in the latitude band +/-40 degrees.

  1. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  2. Endoscopic retrieval of gastric trichophytobezoar

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiu-ling; Zhao, Wei-chuan; Wang, Yu-shui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Trichophytobezoars, which are composed of hair and plant fibers, are usually located in the stomach. They are often associated with trichophagia and trichotillomania. The most commonly reported methods of trichophytobezoar treatment are open surgery and laparoscopic retrieval; there are few reports of endoscopic removal of trichophytobezoars. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: Twelve-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of increasing upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and postprandial emesis. She had a 3-year history of pulling out and eating her own hair. Endoscopic examination showed a large intragastric trichophytobezoar measuring 10.5 cm × 3.5 cm in size, with extension of a few hairs through the pylorus. Interventions and Outcomes: The trichophytobezoar was packed with hair fibers and contained a hard core of mixed hair and vegetable fibers. After the core was cut, the trichophytobezoar was fragmented into pieces with the alternating use of a polypectomy snare and argon plasma coagulation. A small amount of hair and nondigestible food fibers was removed with grasping forceps during the initial procedure. The remaining hairball was loosened with biopsy forceps and was injected with sodium bicarbonate solution. The trichophytobezoar was removed completely at repeat endoscopy 5 days later. After 6 months of psychological intervention, the patient had no recurrence of trichophagia or trichophytobezoar. Lessons: Endoscopy with sodium bicarbonate injection is an effective and minimally invasive method of retrieving a gastric trichophytobezoar. PMID:28099364

  3. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  4. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  5. Retrieving fear memories, as time goes by…

    PubMed Central

    Do Monte, Fabricio H.; Quirk, Gregory J.; Li, Bo; Penzo, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning researches have led to a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, knowledge about the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring clarity and raise awareness on the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points after conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and its BDNFergic efferents to the central nucleus of the amygdala, for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change across time, and the functional benefits of recruiting structures such as the paraventricular nucleus into the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148

  6. Scalable ranked retrieval using document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajiv; Oard, Douglas W.; Doermann, David

    2013-12-01

    Despite the explosion of text on the Internet, hard copy documents that have been scanned as images still play a significant role for some tasks. The best method to perform ranked retrieval on a large corpus of document images, however, remains an open research question. The most common approach has been to perform text retrieval using terms generated by optical character recognition. This paper, by contrast, examines whether a scalable segmentation-free image retrieval algorithm, which matches sub-images containing text or graphical objects, can provide additional benefit in satisfying a user's information needs on a large, real world dataset. Results on 7 million scanned pages from the CDIP v1.0 test collection show that content based image retrieval finds a substantial number of documents that text retrieval misses, and that when used as a basis for relevance feedback can yield improvements in retrieval effectiveness.

  7. Retrieval-induced forgetting is retrieval-modality specific: Evidence from motor memory.

    PubMed

    Tempel, Tobias; Frings, Christian

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of matching retrieval modality at retrieval practice and at test on retrieval-induced forgetting. Participants learned sequential finger movements to be performed either with the left or with the right index finger. Subsequently, they selectively practiced half the items of one hand. A final recall test then assessed memory for all initially learned items. We contrasted different retrieval modalities. In Experiment 1, retrieval practice pertained to motor responses in one experimental condition but it pertained to visual sequence displays in another condition. The final recall test was motoric in both conditions. In Experiment 2, retrieval practice always pertained to visual sequence displays but the final recall test either pertained to motor responses or to visual sequence displays. Retrieval-induced forgetting emerged only when the modality of the final recall test matched the modality of retrieval practice. In Experiment 3, retrieval practice either involved executing motor sequences with the same finger as in the learning phase or participants had to use the opposite hand for indicating sequences. An effector change for retrieval practice eliminated retrieval-induced forgetting in a test requiring the execution of motor sequences again with the same finger as in the learning phase. We suggest that retrieval-induced forgetting occurred as a consequence of retrieval-modality-specific inhibition.

  8. PICTURES OF A SUSPECT-TRU RETRIEVAL

    SciTech Connect

    GADD, R.R.

    2007-05-24

    Retrieving ''suspect'' transuranic (TRU) waste from the Hanford Site's low-level waste burial grounds is a tall order, due to conditions that have changed as the work progresses. Project personnel developed several new methods for handling the waste that other retrieval operations may find useful. The Waste Retrieval Project is operated by Fluor Hanford, a prime contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office since 1996.

  9. Document image retrieval through word shape coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijian; Li, Linlin; Tan, Chew Lim

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a document retrieval technique that is capable of searching document images without OCR (optical character recognition). The proposed technique retrieves document images by a new word shape coding scheme, which captures the document content through annotating each word image by a word shape code. In particular, we annotate word images by using a set of topological shape features including character ascenders/descenders, character holes, and character water reservoirs. With the annotated word shape codes, document images can be retrieved by either query keywords or a query document image. Experimental results show that the proposed document image retrieval technique is fast, efficient, and tolerant to various types of document degradation.

  10. Elaborative retrieval: Do semantic mediators improve memory?

    PubMed

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2016-10-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during retrieval than during restudy and that the generation of mediators facilitates later recall of targets. Although these assumptions are often discussed in the context of retrieval processes, we noted that there was little prior empirical evidence to support either assumption. We conducted a series of experiments to measure the generation of mediators during retrieval and restudy and to examine the effect of the generation of mediators on later target recall. Across 7 experiments, we found that the generation of mediators was not more likely during retrieval (and may be more likely during restudy), and that the activation of mediators was unrelated to subsequent free recall of targets and was negatively related to cued recall of targets. The results pose challenges for both assumptions of the elaborative retrieval account. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead.

  12. Evaluation of AERONET Aerosol Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Dubovik, O.; Rutledge, C. K.

    2001-12-01

    The aerosol robotic network (AERONET) program provides aerosol retrievals at ground-based sunphotometer sites throughout the world. The aerosol size distributions and refractive index retrievals at two locations have been converted to phase functions and single-scattering albedo using Mie theory. These optical properties are incorporated into a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer model and calculations are compared to independent measurements obtained at the surface. The independent measurements include principle plane radiances from sunphotometer data and narrowband irradiances from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) data. The two locations represent radically different environments. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Central Facility (CF) represents a rural continental environment, while the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site represents a coastal marine environment. Both sites exhibit good agreement between the model calculations and the principle plane radiances for the year 2000 (generally better than 15 percent at optical depths greater than 0.1). A comparison with RSS measurements in July 2000 at the ARM Central Facility shows an irradiance error of 12 percent or better at tested wavelenghs longer than 500 nm. Comparisons with MFRSR data fared less well, however, indicating a discrepancy between the instruments. Inspection of 28 whole-sky imager (WSI) files coincidental with all AERONET quality-controlled retrievals during 7 days reveals that no clouds were obstructing the almucantar field of view and that indeed the whole sky was clear during this period, indicating a degree of robustness in the AERONET cloud screening. Additionally, the size distributions were evaluated at COVE with hourly-averaged wind speed and direction. Linear regression indicates that the coarse mode column-integrated surface area increases from

  13. Deletions and recombinations with the RNA1 3' ends of different tobraviruses have created a multitude of tobacco rattle virus TCM-related RNA2 species in Alstroemeria and tulip.

    PubMed

    Koenig, R; Lesemann, D-E; Pfeilstetter, E; Winter, S; Pleij, C W A

    2011-04-01

    In vegetatively propagated Alstroemeria plants that showed pronounced stunting and necrotic leaf spots, a tobravirus infection was diagnosed in which one tobacco rattle virus (TRV, strain AL) RNA1 species was associated with seven different RNA2 species. The latter differed considerably in size and in the types of their 3' RNA1-related sequences. The 5' RNA2-specific part of all these RNA2 molecules showed almost 100% sequence identity with that of RNA2 of the TRV isolate TCM from tulip, but in some of these RNA2 molecules it was shorter than in the TCM isolate, whereas in others it was longer. One of the TRV AL RNA2 molecules, i.e. TC3'PE-a, contained the full set of three full-length RNA2-specific ORFs (ORF2a, -2b and -2c), whereas the previously analysed TCM sequence contained only ORF2a and -2b. In four of these TRV AL RNA2 molecules, i.e. those that had a relatively short RNA2-specific part, the 3' end was identical to that of the cognate TRV AL RNA1, but in the other three, which had a long RNA2-specific part, it was closely related to that of pea early browning virus (PEBV) RNA1, which was not detected in the infected plants. A comparison with previously described TRV/PEBV RNA2 recombinants suggested that the various TRV AL RNA2 molecules may represent various steps and side steps in an evolutionary process, which is apt to open the wide host range of TRV also to PEBV-derived RNA2 species.

  14. Iterative phase retrieval without support.

    PubMed

    Wu, J S; Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H; Koch, C T

    2004-12-01

    An iterative phase retrieval method for nonperiodic objects has been developed from the charge-flipping algorithm proposed in crystallography. A combination of the hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm and the flipping algorithm has greatly improved performance. In this combined algorithm the flipping algorithm serves to find the support (object boundary) dynamically, and the HIO part improves convergence and moves the algorithm out of local minima. It starts with a single intensity measurement in the Fourier domain and does not require a priori knowledge of the support in the image domain. This method is suitable for general image recovery from oversampled diffuse elastic x-ray and electron-diffraction intensities. The relationship between this algorithm and the output-output algorithm is elucidated.

  15. Iterative phase retrieval without support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. S.; Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Koch, C. T.

    2004-12-01

    An iterative phase retrieval method for nonperiodic objects has been developed from the charge-flipping algorithm proposed in crystallography. A combination of the hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm and the flipping algorithm has greatly improved performance. In this combined algorithm the flipping algorithm serves to find the support (object boundary) dynamically, and the HIO part improves convergence and moves the algorithm out of local minima. It starts with a single intensity measurement in the Fourier domain and does not require a priori knowledge of the support in the image domain. This method is suitable for general image recovery from oversampled diffuse elastic x-ray and electron-diffraction intensities. The relationship between this algorithm and the output-output algorithm is elucidated.

  16. PNRS: personalized news retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Nevenka; Elenbaas, Herman; McGee, Thomas

    1999-08-01

    Personal News Retrieval System is a client-server application that delivers news segments on demand in a variety of information networks. At the server side, the news stories are segmented out from the digitized TV broadcast then classified and filtered based on consumers' preferences. At the client side, the user can access the preferred video news through the Web and watch stored video news in preferred order. Browsing preferences can be set based on anchorperson, broadcaster, category, location, top- stories and keywords. This system can be used to set up a news service run by content providers or independent media distribution companies. However, in the news era of enhanced PC/TV appliances, it is foreseeable that the whole system can run in the living room on a personal device. This paper describes the chosen server architecture, limitation of the system and solutions that can be implemented in the future.

  17. Trends in Research on Information Retrieval--The Potential for Improvements in Conventional Boolean Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the inability of the standard Boolean logic model of information retrieval to deal effectively with the inherent fallibility of retrieval decisions. Recent advances in information retrieval research are reviewed, and their practical potential for overcoming the deficiencies of the Boolean model is examined. (45 references) (Author/CLB)

  18. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  19. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  20. Relevance and Retrieval Evaluation: Perspectives from Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses topical relevance and situational relevance, which takes into account the impact of the retrieval system on the user, in the context of medicine. Topics addressed include scientific validity; limitations of current evaluation methodology, including recall and precision; and a framework for future retrieval research based on an…

  1. Information Retrieval beyond the Text Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Yong; Ortega, Michael; Huang, Thomas S.; Mehrotra, Sharad

    1999-01-01

    Reports some of the progress made over the years toward exploring information beyond the text domain. Describes the Multimedia Analysis and Retrieval Systems (MARS), developed to increase access to non-textual information. Addresses the following aspects of MARS: (1) visual feature extraction; (2) retrieval models; (3) query reformulation…

  2. Strategic Retrieval in a Reality Monitoring Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosburg, Timm; Mecklinger, Axel; Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Strategic recollection refers to control processes that allow the retrieval of information that is relevant for a specific situation. These processes can be studied in memory exclusion tasks, which require the retrieval of particular kinds of episodic information. In the current study, we investigated strategic recollection in reality monitoring…

  3. Attentional Limits in Memory Retrieval--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Collin; Johnston, James C.; Ruthruff, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Carrier and Pashler (1995) concluded--based on locus-of-slack dual-task methodology--that memory retrieval was subject to a central bottleneck. However, this conclusion conflicts with evidence from other lines of research suggesting that memory retrieval proceeds autonomously, in parallel with many other mental processes. In the present…

  4. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  5. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  6. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  7. Advanced Feedback Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In this study, automatic feedback techniques are applied to Boolean query statements in online information retrieval to generate improved query statements based on information contained in previously retrieved documents. Feedback operations are carried out using conventional Boolean logic and extended logic. Experimental output is included to…

  8. Enhanced Text Retrieval Using Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    1998-01-01

    Defines natural language processing (NLP); describes the use of NLP in information retrieval (IR); provides seven levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and pragmatic. Discusses the commercial use of NLP in IR with the example of DR-LINK (Document Retrieval using LINguistic Knowledge)…

  9. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  10. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  11. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  12. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  13. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Retrieval Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Tanre, Didier; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Ichoku, Charles; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert; Chu, D. Allen; Holben, Brent N.; Dubovik, Oleg; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithm for determining aerosol characteristics over ocean is performing with remarkable accuracy. A two-month data set of MODIS retrievals co-located with observations from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based sunphotometer network provides the necessary validation. Spectral radiation measured by MODIS (in the range 550 - 2100 nm) is used to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness, effective particle radius and ratio between the submicron and micron size particles. MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical thickness at 660 nm and 870 nm fall within the expected uncertainty, with the ensemble average at 660 nm differing by only 2% from the AERONET observations and having virtually no offset. MODIS retrievals of aerosol effective radius agree with AERONET retrievals to within +/- 0.10 micrometers, while MODIS-derived ratios between large and small mode aerosol show definite correlation with ratios derived from AERONET data.

  14. Retrievals of heavy ozone with MIPAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkheid, Bastiaan; Röckmann, Thomas; Glatthor, Norbert; Janssen, Christof; Stiller, Gabriele; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    A method for retrieval of 18O-substituted isotopomers of O3 in the stratosphere with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is presented. Using a smoothing regularisation constraint, volume mixing ratio profiles are retrieved for the main isotopologue and the symmetric and asymmetric isotopomers of singly substituted O3. For the retrieval of the heavy isotopologues, two microwindows in the MIPAS A band (685-970 cm-1) and six in the AB band (1020-1170 cm-1) are used. As the retrievals are performed as perturbations on the previously retrieved a priori profiles, the vertical resolution of the individual isotopomer profiles is very similar, which is important when calculating the ratio between two isotopomers. The performance of the method is evaluated using 1044 vertical profiles recorded with MIPAS on 1 July 2003. The mean values are separated by latitude bands, along with estimates of their uncertainties. The asymmetric isotopomer shows a mean enrichment of ˜ 8 %, with a vertical profile that increases up to 33 km and decreases at higher altitudes. This decrease with altitude is a robust result that does not depend on retrieval settings, and it has not been reported clearly in previously published datasets. The symmetric isotopomer is considerably less enriched, with mean values around 3 % and with a large spread. In individual retrievals the uncertainty of the enrichment is dominated by the measurement noise (2-4 %), which can be reduced by averaging multiple retrievals; systematic uncertainties linked to the retrieval are generally small at ˜ 0.5 %, but this is likely underestimated because the uncertainties in key spectroscopic parameters are unknown. The variabilities in the retrieval results are largest for the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. Retrieval-practice task affects relationship between working memory capacity and retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Storm, Benjamin C; Bui, Dung C

    2016-11-01

    Retrieving a subset of items from memory can cause forgetting of other items in memory, a phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Individuals who exhibit greater amounts of RIF have been shown to also exhibit superior working memory capacity (WMC) and faster stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs), results which have been interpreted as suggesting that RIF reflects an inhibitory process that is mediated by the processes of executive control. Across four experiments, we sought to further elucidate this issue by manipulating the way in which participants retrieved items during retrieval practice and examining how the resulting effects of forgetting correlated with WMC (Experiments 1-3) and SSRT (Experiment 4). Significant correlations were observed when participants retrieved items from an earlier study phase (within-list retrieval practice), but not when participants generated items from semantic memory (extra-list retrieval practice). These results provide important new insight into the role of executive-control processes in RIF.

  16. Data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9-track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to 'shrink' the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  17. Data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1991-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9 track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to shrink the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  18. Multilingual retrieval of radiology images.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    The multilingual search engine ARRS GoldMiner Global was created to facilitate broad international access to a richly indexed collection of more than 200,000 radiologic images. Images are indexed according to key-words and medical concepts that appear in the unstructured text of their English-language image captions. GoldMiner Global exploits the Unicode standard, which allows the accurate representation of characters and ideographs from virtually any language and which supports both left-to-right and right-to-left text directions. The user interface supports queries in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, or Spanish. GoldMiner Global incorporates an interface to the United States National Library of Medicine that translates queries into English-language Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. The translated MeSH terms are then used to search the image index and retrieve relevant images. Explanatory text, pull-down menu choices, and navigational guides are displayed in the selected language; search results are displayed in English. GoldMiner Global is freely available on the World Wide Web.

  19. Spaced retrieval treatment of anomia

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Holland, Audrey L.; Beeson, Pélagie; Morrow, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Background Spaced Retrieval (SR) is a treatment approach developed to facilitate recall of information by individuals with dementia. Essentially an errorless learning procedure that can be used to facilitate recall of a variety of information, SR gradually increases the interval between correct recall of target items. Aims Given the success of using SR in dementia, the purpose of this study was to explore its usefulness in improving naming by individuals with aphasia. The rate of acquisition and retention of items was compared between SR and a more traditional treatment technique—cueing hierarchy (CH). Also, each oral naming treatment was run concurrently with a single word writing treatment. Methods & Procedures Three participants who had moderate or severe naming impairments and agraphia were studied. Single-subject design was applied across oral and written naming and treated and untreated items. Outcomes & Results The results indicate that for these participants, SR resulted in improved naming of specific items. The data further suggest that SR compared favourably to CH with regard to both acquisition and retention of items. The participants also benefited nicely from the writing treatment. Conclusions These findings suggest SR may be an alternative for managing naming impairment resulting from aphasia. Furthermore, the study supports providing treatments aimed at two different modalities concurrently. PMID:16823467

  20. Retrieved Latent Heating from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Smith, Eric A.; Houze Jr, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of precipitation formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the tropics with the associated latent heating (LH) accounting for three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. In the last decade, it has been established that standard products of LH from satellite measurements, particularly TRMM measurements, would be a valuable resource for scientific research and applications. Such products would enable new insights and investigations concerning the complexities of convection system life cycles, the diabatic heating controls and feedbacks related to meso-synoptic circulations and their forecasting, the relationship of tropical patterns of LH to the global circulation and climate, and strategies for improving cloud parameterizations in environmental prediction models. The status of retrieved TRMM LH products, TRMM LH inter-comparison and validation project, current TRMM LH applications and critic issues/action items (based on previous five TRMM LH workshops) is presented in this article.

  1. Fuel Retrieval System Design Verification Report

    SciTech Connect

    GROTH, B.D.

    2000-04-11

    The Fuel Retrieval Subproject was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) to retrieve and repackage the SNF located in the K Basins. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) construction work is complete in the KW Basin, and start-up testing is underway. Design modifications and construction planning are also underway for the KE Basin. An independent review of the design verification process as applied to the K Basin projects was initiated in support of preparation for the SNF Project operational readiness review (ORR). A Design Verification Status Questionnaire, Table 1, is included which addresses Corrective Action SNF-EG-MA-EG-20000060, Item No.9 (Miller 2000).

  2. TDPP FOR THE RETRIEVABILITY STRATEGY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    P.D. Gehner

    1997-01-28

    The objective of this systems study is to produce a waste removability strategy document that contains sufficient details, recommended design alternatives, and the technical rationale (a) to support Licensing in the development of the License Application Plan, and (b) to provide input in the form of design requirements, for the FY 97 Retrieval Design & Operation activity in support of viability assessment. The intent of this systems study is to support a decision on how to proceed with design with respect to retrievability, regarding the extent to which the repository/waste package designs should accommodate the retrieval option.

  3. Retrieval-induced forgetting: dynamic effects between retrieval and restudy trials when practice is mixed.

    PubMed

    Dobler, Ina M; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2013-05-01

    Results from numerous previous studies suggest that when subjects study items from different categories and then repeatedly retrieve, or restudy, some of the items from some of the categories, repeated retrieval, but not repeated study, induces forgetting of related unpracticed items. We investigated in two experiments whether such effects of pure retrieval and pure study practice generalize to mixed practice-that is, when retrieval and restudy trials are randomly interleaved within a single experimental block. Experiment 1 employed cued recall; Experiment 2 employed item recognition testing. In both experiments, pure repeated retrieval, but not pure repeated study, caused forgetting of related unpracticed items, which is consistent with the prior work. In contrast, with mixed practice, both retrieval and restudy induced forgetting. Thus, whereas retrieval caused forgetting regardless of practice mode, restudy caused forgetting with mixed practice, but not with pure practice. The finding provides first evidence for dynamic effects between retrieval and restudy trials when practice is mixed. It is consistent with the view that, with mixed practice, subjects engage in more retrieval during restudy trials, so that restudy trials may trigger similar processes as retrieval trials and, thus, induce forgetting of related, not restudied, items.

  4. Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.

  5. Information retrieval using a "digital book shelf".

    PubMed Central

    Frisse, M. E.; Cousins, S. B.; Hassan, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    WALT (Washington University's Approach to Lots of Text), is a prototype interface designed to support information retrieval research. The WALT interface serves as a "front end" to a wide array of retrieval engines including those based on Boolean retrieval, latent semantic indexing, term frequency--inverse document frequency, and Bayesian inference techniques. The WALT interface is composed of seven distinct components: a document examination component known as the Document Browsing Area; four navigation components called the Book Shelf, the Book Spine, the Table of Contents, and the Path Clipboard; a term-based information retrieval component called Control Panel; and a relevance feedback component known as the Reader Feedback Panel. WALT's most unique feature may be it's use of "book shelf" and "book spine" metaphors both to facilitate navigation and to provide a histogram-based display showing documents deemed appropriate for answering user queries. PMID:1807717

  6. Multi-Spectral Cloud Property Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lynch, R

    1999-01-01

    Despite numerous studies to retrieve cloud properties using infrared measurements the information content of the data has not yet been fully exploited. In an effort to more fully utilize the information content of infrared measurements, we have developed a multi-spectral technique for retrieving effective cloud particle size, optical depth and effective cloud temperature. While applicable to all cloud types, we begin by validating our retrieval technique through analysis of MS spectral radiances obtained during the SUCCESS field campaign over the ARM SGP CART facility, and compare our retrieval product with lidar and MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) measurement results. The technique is then applied to the Nimbus-4 MS infrared spectral measurements to obtain global cloud information.

  7. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  8. Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M.

    This chapter details the necessity for alternative access concepts to the currently mainly text-based methods in medical information retrieval. This need is partly due to the large amount of visual data produced, the increasing variety of medical imaging data and changing user patterns. The stored visual data contain large amounts of unused information that, if well exploited, can help diagnosis, teaching and research. The chapter briefly reviews the history of image retrieval and its general methods before technologies that have been developed in the medical domain are focussed. We also discuss evaluation of medical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems and conclude with pointing out their strengths, gaps, and further developments. As examples, the MedGIFT project and the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework are presented.

  9. The JPL Library Information Retrieval System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Josephine

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. (Author)

  10. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  11. Generalized tetanus in a Labrador retriever

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, Kerri-Rae

    2008-01-01

    A 10-week-old, intact female, Labrador retriever was presented for progressive extensor rigidity, facial swelling, and difficulty in walking. Generalized tetanus was diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:19252716

  12. The present status and problems in document retrieval system : document input type retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Hirohito

    The office-automation (OA) made many changes. Many documents were begun to maintained in an electronic filing system. Therefore, it is needed to establish efficient document retrieval system to extract useful information. Current document retrieval systems are using simple word-matching, syntactic-matching, semantic-matching to obtain high retrieval efficiency. On the other hand, the document retrieval systems using special hardware devices, such as ISSP, were developed for aiming high speed retrieval. Since these systems can accept a single sentence or keywords as input, it is difficult to explain searcher's request. We demonstrated document input type retrieval system, which can directly accept document as an input, and can search similar documents from document data-base.

  13. Evaluation of multi-layer cloud property retrievals from optimal estimation and Bayesian retrieval algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Yang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Three physical and radiative cloud properties, namely, optical thickness (tau), effective diameter (De), and cloud top height(h) can be simultaneously inferred from IR radiances for multi-layer cloud cases. The retrieval algorithm implementation is based on a computationally efficient radiative transfer model and spaceborne measurements of narrowband infrared (IR) radiances at the top of the atmosphere. This study focuses on the evaluation of the retrieval results derived from two different algorithms, optimal estimation (OE) algorithm and Bayesian retrieval algorithm. Both of the two methods are able to offer comprehensive error analysis and quality flags. The evaluation results can potentially useful for retrieving the multi-layer clouds properties, a research subject that receives little attention. This presentation will discuss the pros and cons of retrieving cloud properties from the aforesaid retrieval algorithms.

  14. Retrieval of ash properties from IASI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventress, Lucy J.; McGarragh, Gregory; Carboni, Elisa; Smith, Andrew J.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2016-11-01

    A new optimal estimation algorithm for the retrieval of volcanic ash properties has been developed for use with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). The retrieval method uses the wave number range 680-1200 cm-1, which contains window channels, the CO2 ν2 band (used for the height retrieval), and the O3 ν3 band.Assuming a single infinitely (geometrically) thin ash plume and combining this with the output from the radiative transfer model RTTOV, the retrieval algorithm produces the most probable values for the ash optical depth (AOD), particle effective radius, plume top height, and effective radiating temperature. A comprehensive uncertainty budget is obtained for each pixel. Improvements to the algorithm through the use of different measurement error covariance matrices are explored, comparing the results from a sensitivity study of the retrieval process using covariance matrices trained on either clear-sky or cloudy scenes. The result showed that, due to the smaller variance contained within it, the clear-sky covariance matrix is preferable. However, if the retrieval fails to pass the quality control tests, the cloudy covariance matrix is implemented.The retrieval algorithm is applied to scenes from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010, and the retrieved parameters are compared to ancillary data sources. The ash optical depth gives a root mean square error (RMSE) difference of 0.46 when compared to retrievals from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument for all pixels and an improved RMSE of 0.2 for low optical depths (AOD < 0.1). Measurements from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) flight campaigns are used to verify the retrieved particle effective radius, with the retrieved distribution of sizes for the scene showing excellent consistency. Further, the plume top altitudes are compared to derived cloud-top altitudes from the Cloud

  15. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  16. Neural systems behind word and concept retrieval.

    PubMed

    Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Grabowski, T; Adolphs, R; Damasio, A

    2004-01-01

    Using both the lesion method and functional imaging (positron emission tomography) in large cohorts of subjects investigated with the same experimental tasks, we tested the following hypotheses: (A) that the retrieval of words which denote concrete entities belonging to distinct conceptual categories depends upon partially segregated regions in higher-order cortices of the left temporal lobe; and (B) that the retrieval of conceptual knowledge pertaining to the same concrete entities also depends on partially segregated regions; however, those regions will be different from those postulated in hypothesis A, and located predominantly in the right hemisphere (the second hypothesis tested only with the lesion method). The analyses provide support for hypothesis A in that several regions outside the classical Broca and Wernicke language areas are involved in name retrieval of concrete entities, and that there is a partial segregation in the temporal lobe with respect to the conceptual category to which the entities belong, and partial support for hypothesis B in that retrieval of conceptual knowledge is partially segregated from name retrieval in the lesion study. Those regions identified here are seen as parts of flexible, multi-component systems serving concept and word retrieval for concrete entities belonging to different conceptual categories. By comparing different approaches the article also addresses a number of method issues that have surfaced in recent studies in this field.

  17. Personalized image retrieval with user's preference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, K. E.; Choi, K. S.; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Rhee, Phill-Kyu; Park, Youngchoon

    1998-10-01

    Recently, available information resources in the form of various media have been increased with rapid speed. Many retrieval systems for multimedia information resources have been developed only focused on their efficiency and performance. Therefore, they cannot deal with user's preferences and interests well. In this paper, we present the framework design of a personalized image retrieval system (PIRS) which can reflect user's preferences and interests incrementally. The prototype of PIRS consists of two major parts: user's preference model (UPM) and retrieval module (RM). The UPM plays a role of refining user's query to meet with user's needs. The RM retrieves the proper images for refined query by computing the similarities between each image and refined query, and the retrieved images are ordered by these similarities. In this paper, we mainly discuss about UPM. The incremental machine learning technologies have been employed to provide the user adaptable and intelligent capability to the system. The UPM is implemented by decision tree based on incremental tree induction, and adaptive resonance theory network. User's feedbacks are returned to the UPM, and they modify internal structure of the UPM. User's iterative retrieval activities with PIRS cause the UPM to be revised for user's preferences and interests. Therefore, the PIRS can be adapted to user's preferences and interests. We have achieved encouraging results through experiments.

  18. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  19. Retrieval techniques: LVLH and inertially stabilized payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques are discussed for retrieving payloads that are inertially or local vertical/local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized. Selection of the retrieval profile to be used depends on several factors: (1) control authority of the payload, (2) payload sensitivity to primary reaction control system (PRCS) plumes, (3) whether the payload is inertially or LVLH stabilized, (4) location of the grapple fixture, and (5) orbiter propellant consumption. The general retrieval profiles recommended are a V-bar approach for payloads that are LVLH or gravity-gradient stabilized, and the V-bar approach with one or two phase flyaround for inertially stabilized payloads. Once the general type of profile has been selected, the detailed retrieval profile and timeline should consider the various guidelines, groundrules, and constraints associated with a particular payload or flight. Reaction control system (RCS) propellant requirements for the recommended profiles range from 200 to 1500 pounds, depending on such factors as braking techniques, flyaround maneuvers (if necessary), and stationkeeping operations. The time required to perform a retrieval (starting from 1000 feet) varies from 20 to 130 minutes, depending on the complexity of the profile. The goals of this project are to develop a profile which ensures mission success; to make the retrieval profiles simple; and to keep the pilot workload to a minimum by making use of the automatic features of the orbiter flight software whenever possible.

  20. Exploiting salient semantic analysis for information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Meng, Bo; Quan, Changqin; Tu, Xinhui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, many Wikipedia-based methods have been proposed to improve the performance of different natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as semantic relatedness computation, text classification and information retrieval. Among these methods, salient semantic analysis (SSA) has been proven to be an effective way to generate conceptual representation for words or documents. However, its feasibility and effectiveness in information retrieval is mostly unknown. In this paper, we study how to efficiently use SSA to improve the information retrieval performance, and propose a SSA-based retrieval method under the language model framework. First, SSA model is adopted to build conceptual representations for documents and queries. Then, these conceptual representations and the bag-of-words (BOW) representations can be used in combination to estimate the language models of queries and documents. The proposed method is evaluated on several standard text retrieval conference (TREC) collections. Experiment results on standard TREC collections show the proposed models consistently outperform the existing Wikipedia-based retrieval methods.

  1. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Blunt, Janell R.; Smith, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years) studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2) or recognition test (Experiment 3). In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed. PMID:27014156

  2. Activities of information retrieval in Daicel Corporation : The roles and efforts of information retrieval team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Towako

    In order to stabilize and improve quality of information retrieval service, the information retrieval team of Daicel Corporation has given some efforts on standard operating procedures, interview sheet for information retrieval, structured format for search report, and search expressions for some technological fields of Daicel. These activities and efforts will also lead to skill sharing and skill tradition between searchers. In addition, skill improvements are needed not only for a searcher individually, but also for the information retrieval team totally when playing searcher's new roles.

  3. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D; Blunt, Janell R; Smith, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years) studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2) or recognition test (Experiment 3). In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed.

  4. Is the time interval between HCG administration and oocyte retrieval associated with oocyte retrieval rate?

    PubMed

    Bosdou, Julia K; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Venetis, Christos A; Zepiridis, Leonidas; Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Makedos, Anastasios; Triantafyllidis, Stylianos; Masouridou, Sevasti; Mitsoli, Anna; Tarlatzis, Basil

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prolongation of the time interval between HCG administration and oocyte retrieval, from 36 h to 38 h, affects oocyte retrieval rate in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins and GnRH antagonists for IVF. One hundred and fifty-six normo-ovulatory women were randomized to have oocyte retrieval performed 36 h (n = 78) or 38 h (n = 78) following HCG administration. Oocyte retrieval rate was defined as number of cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC) retrieved/follicle ≥ 11 mm present on day of HCG administration. No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding baseline characteristics. Moreover, no significant difference was observed between the groups regarding oocyte retrieval rate (difference: + 1.2%, 95% CI for difference between medians: -4.5 to +12.1). The median (95% CI for the median) was not significantly different between the groups regarding number of cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) retrieved: 5.5 (5.0-7.0) versus 6.0 (5.0-6.2), respectively, and fertilization rates: 57.7% (50.0-66.7) versus 50.0% (44.8-65.5), respectively. Live birth rates were similar between the groups (20.5% versus 16.7%, RD: + 3.8%, 95% CI: -8.5 to +16.1, respectively). Prolongation of time interval between HCG administration and oocyte retrieval from 36 h to 38 h does not affect oocyte retrieval rate.

  5. Aerosol and cloud retrieval using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Virtanen, Timo; Saponaro, Giulia; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols and clouds play an important role in terrestrial atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, chemistry, and radiative transfer and are key elements of the water and energy cycles. Accurate evaluation of the effects of aerosols and clouds on climate requires global information on aerosol properties. Such global information can only be provided using satellite remote sensing. Among the satellite instruments used for aerosol and cloud retrieval is the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the European Space Agency (ESA) satellite ENVISAT. Many instruments and retrieval techniques have been developed and applied to satellite data to derive cloud data products (Kokhanonsky et al., 2009). However, many problems still remain to be solved. They are mostly related to the usage of homogeneous, single-layered cloud model. Further issues exist for studies of thin clouds, where both cloud inhomogeniety, cloud fraction and the underlying surface bi-directional reflectance must be accounted for in the retrieval process. The aerosol retrieval algorithm (dual-view over land and single-view over ocean) was constructed for ATSR-2 data (e.g. Veefkind et al. 1998). The most recent version of ADV (AATSR Dual View) is described in Kolmenen et al. (2012). The ATSR dual-view allows retrieval without prior information about land surface reflectance. A semi-analytical cloud retrieval algorithm using backscattered radiation in 0.4-2.4 μm spectral region has recently been implemented to ADV for the determination of the optical thickness, the liquid water path, and the effective size of droplets from spectral measurements of the intensity of light reflected from water clouds with large optical thickness. In AacDV (AATSR aerosol and cloud Dual View) aerosol and cloud retrievals are combined. Cloud retrieval starts when cloud tests for aerosol retrieval show the presence of clouds. The algorithm was early introduced in Kokhanovsky et al. (2003). It works well for thick

  6. Respiratory-Induced Haemodynamic Changes: A Contributing Factor to IVC Filter Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Kuo, William T.; Ioakeim, Ignatios; De Blas, Ignacio; Malvè, Mauro; Lahuerta, Celia De Gregorio, Miguel A.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of respiratory-induced vena caval hemodynamic changes on filter migration/penetration.Materials and MethodsAfter placement of either a Gunther Tulip or Celect IVC filter, 101 consecutive patients scheduled for filter retrieval were prospectively enrolled in this study. Pre-retrieval CT scans were used to assess filter complications and to calculate cross-sectional area in three locations: at level of filter strut fixation, 3 cm above and 3 cm below. A 3D finite element simulation was constructed on these data and direct IVC pressure was recorded during filter retrieval. Cross-sectional areas and pressures of the vena cava were measured during neutral breathing and in Valsalva maneuver and identified filter complications were recorded. A statistical analysis of these variables was then performed.ResultsDuring Valsalva maneuvers, a 60 % decrease of the IVC cross-sectional area and a fivefold increase in the IVC pressure were identified (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the reduction of the cross-sectional area at the filter strut level (p < 0.001) in patient with filter penetration. Difficulty in filter retrieval was higher in penetrated or tilted filters (p < 0.001; p = 0.005). 3D computational models showed significant IVC deformation around the filter during Valsalva maneuver.ConclusionCaval morphology and hemodynamics are clearly affected by Valsalva maneuvers. A physiological reduction of IVC cross-sectional area is associated with higher risk of filter penetration, despite short dwell times. Physiologic data should be used to improve future filter designs to remain safely implanted over longer dwell times.

  7. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  8. Retrieval of atmospheric parameters from GOMOS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrölä, E.; Tamminen, J.; Sofieva, V.; Bertaux, J. L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Fanton D'Andon, O.; Barrot, G.; Guirlet, M.; Mangin, A.; Blanot, L.; Fehr, T.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Fraisse, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on board the European Space Agency's ENVISAT satellite measures attenuation of stellar light in occultation geometry. Daytime measurements also record scattered solar light from the atmosphere. The wavelength regions are the ultraviolet-visible band 248-690 nm and two infrared bands at 755-774 nm and at 926-954 nm. From UV-Visible and IR spectra the vertical profiles of O3, NO2, NO3, H2O, O2 and aerosols can be retrieved. In addition there are two 1 kHz photometers at blue 473-527 nm and red 646-698 nm. Photometer data are used to correct spectrometer measurements for scintillations and to retrieve high resolution temperature profiles as well as gravity wave and turbulence parameters. Measurements cover altitude region 5-150 km. Atmospherically valid data are obtained in 15-100 km. In this paper we present an overview of the GOMOS retrieval algorithms for stellar occultation measurements. The low signal-to-noise ratio and the refractive effects due to the point source nature of stars have been important drivers in the development of GOMOS retrieval algorithms. We present first the Level 1b algorithms that are used to correct instrument related disturbances in the spectrometer and photometer measurements The Level 2 algorithms deal with the retrieval of vertical profiles of atmospheric gaseous constituents, aerosols and high resolution temperature. We divide the presentation into correction for refractive effects, high resolution temperature retrieval and spectral/vertical inversion. The paper also includes discussion about the GOMOS algorithm development, expected improvements, access to GOMOS data and alternative retrieval approaches.

  9. Retrieval of atmospheric parameters from GOMOS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrölä, E.; Tamminen, J.; Sofieva, V.; Bertaux, J. L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Fanton D'Andon, O.; Barrot, G.; Guirlet, M.; Mangin, A.; Blanot, L.; Fehr, T.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Fraisse, R.

    2010-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument on board the European Space Agency's ENVISAT satellite measures attenuation of stellar light in occultation geometry. Daytime measurements also record scattered solar light from the atmosphere. The wavelength regions are the ultraviolet-visible band 248-690 nm and two infrared bands at 755-774 nm and at 926-954 nm. From UV-Visible and IR spectra the vertical profiles of O3, NO2, NO3, H2O, O2 and aerosols can be retrieved. In addition there are two 1 kHz photometers at blue 473-527 nm and red 646-698 nm. Photometer data are used to correct spectrometer measurements for scintillations and to retrieve high resolution temperature profiles as well as gravity wave and turbulence parameters. Measurements cover altitude region 5-150 km. Atmospherically valid data are obtained in 15-100 km. In this paper we present an overview of the GOMOS retrieval algorithms for stellar occultation measurements. The low signal-to-noise ratio and the refractive effects due to the point source nature of stars have been important drivers in the development of GOMOS retrieval algorithms. We present first the Level 1b algorithms that are used to correct instrument related disturbances in the spectrometer and photometer measurements The Level 2 algorithms deal with the retrieval of vertical profiles of atmospheric gaseous constituents, aerosols and high resolution temperature. We divide the presentation into correction for refractive effects, high resolution temperature retrieval and spectral/vertical inversion. The paper also includes discussion about the GOMOS algorithm development, expected improvements, access to GOMOS data and alternative retrieval approaches.

  10. On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system…

  11. Challenging Conventional Assumptions of Automated Information Retrieval with Real Users: Boolean Searching and Batch Retrieval Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, William; Turpin, Andrew; Price, Susan; Kraemer, Dale; Olson, Daniel; Chan, Benjamin; Sacherek, Lynetta

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted at the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track that compared Boolean and natural language searching, showing they achieved comparable results; and assessed the validity of batch-oriented retrieval evaluations, showing that the results from batch evaluations were not comparable to those obtained in…

  12. Retrieval attempts enhance learning regardless of time spent trying to retrieve.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Kalif E; Hausman, Hannah; Kornell, Nate

    2017-03-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory is an engaging cognitive activity. We predicted that people would learn more when they had spent more time attempting to retrieve. In experiments 1a and 1b, participants were shown trivia questions for 0, 5, 10, or 30 seconds and then the answer was revealed. They took a final test immediately or after 48 hours. Retrieval enhanced learning, but the length of the retrieval attempt had no effect (i.e., final test performance was equivalent in the 5-, 10-, and 30-second conditions and worse in the 0-second condition). During the initial retrieval attempt, more time did increase recall, suggesting that participants continued to engage in productive retrieval activities when given more time. Showing the answer for longer (7 versus 2 seconds) increased learning in Experiments 2a and 2b. Experiment 3 examined the effect of retrieval success and Experiment 4 replicated the results using different materials. These results have direct implications for current theories of retrieval.

  13. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  14. Web information retrieval based on ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Information Retrieval (IR) is to find a set of documents that are relevant for a specific information need of a user. Traditional Information Retrieval model commonly used in commercial search engine is based on keyword indexing system and Boolean logic queries. One big drawback of traditional information retrieval is that they typically retrieve information without an explicitly defined domain of interest to the users so that a lot of no relevance information returns to users, which burden the user to pick up useful answer from these no relevance results. In order to tackle this issue, many semantic web information retrieval models have been proposed recently. The main advantage of Semantic Web is to enhance search mechanisms with the use of Ontology's mechanisms. In this paper, we present our approach to personalize web search engine based on ontology. In addition, key techniques are also discussed in our paper. Compared to previous research, our works concentrate on the semantic similarity and the whole process including query submission and information annotation.

  15. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  16. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Miller, C. Chan

    2014-01-01

    There are distinct spectral features of water vapor in the wavelength range covered by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) visible channel. Although these features are much weaker than those at longer wavelengths, they can be exploited to retrieve useful information about water vapor. They have an advantage in that their small optical depth leads to fairly simple interpretation as measurements of the total water vapor column density. We have used the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO)'s OMI operational retrieval algorithm to derive the Slant Column Density (SCD) of water vapor from OMI measurements using the 430-480 nm spectral region after extensive optimization of retrieval windows and parameters. The Air Mass Factor (AMF) is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and monthly mean water vapor profiles from the GEOS-5 assimilation products. We convert from SCD to Vertical Column Density (VCD) using the AMF and generate associated retrieval averaging kernels and shape factors. Our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of ~ 1.3 × 1023 molecule cm-2 and a median relative uncertainty of ~ 11% in the tropics, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm but using narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is ~ 1.2 × 1023 molecule cm-2. We have also explored the sensitivities to various parameters and compared our results with those from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET).

  17. Between-systems memory interference during retrieval.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Fraser T; Lehmann, Hugo; Sutherland, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Context memories normally depend on the hippocampus (HPC) but, in the absence of the HPC, other memory systems are capable of acquiring and supporting these memories. This suggests that the HPC can interfere with other systems during memory acquisition. Here we ask whether the HPC can also interfere with the retrieval of a context memory that was independently acquired by a non-HPC system. Specifically, we assess whether the HPC can impair the retrieval of a contextual fear-conditioning memory that was acquired while the HPC was temporarily inactive. Rats were infused with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor agonist muscimol in the dorsal and ventral HPC either before acquisition, retrieval, or prior to both acquisition and retrieval, consistent with the effects of permanent HPC lesions on contextual fear conditioning, if the HPC was inactive at the time of acquisition and retention memory was intact. Thus, non-HPC systems acquired and supported this memory in absence of the HPC. However, if the HPC was inactive during acquisition but active thereafter, rats displayed severe deficits during the retention test. Moreover, when the same rats received a second retention test but with the HPC inactive at this time, the memory was recovered, suggesting that removal of a form of interference allowed the memory to be expressed. Combined, these findings imply that the HPC competes and/or interferes with retrieval of a long-term memory that was established in non-HPC systems.

  18. AIRS Retrieval Validation During the EAQUATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Barnet, Christopher D.; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Newman, Stuart M.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric and surface thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced hyperspectral remote sensors of Earth observing satellites are critical for weather prediction and scientific research. The retrieval algorithms and retrieved parameters from satellite sounders must be validated to demonstrate the capability and accuracy of both observation and data processing systems. The European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment (EAQUATE) was conducted mainly for validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the AQUA satellite, but also for assessment of validation systems of both ground-based and aircraft-based instruments which will be used for other satellite systems such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the European MetOp satellite, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the NPOESS Preparatory Project and the following NPOESS series of satellites. Detailed inter-comparisons were conducted and presented using different retrieval methodologies: measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers, aircraft in-situ instruments, dedicated dropsondes and radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar, as well as from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) modeled thermal structures. The results of this study not only illustrate the quality of the measurements and retrieval products but also demonstrate the capability of these validation systems which are put in place to validate current and future hyperspectral sounding instruments and their scientific products.

  19. Extinction learning, which consists of the inhibition of retrieval, can be learned without retrieval.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Schmidt, Bianca; Ferreira, Flávia; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-01-13

    In the present study we test the hypothesis that extinction is not a consequence of retrieval in unreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation but the mere perception of the CS in the absence of a conditioned response. Animals with cannulae implanted in the CA1 region of hippocampus were subjected to extinction of contextual fear conditioning. Muscimol infused intra-CA1 before an extinction training session of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) blocks retrieval but not consolidation of extinction measured 24 h later. Additionally, this inhibition of retrieval does not affect early persistence of extinction when tested 7 d later or its spontaneous recovery after 2 wk. Furthermore, both anisomycin, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, and rapamycin, an inhibitor of extraribosomal protein synthesis, given into the CA1, impair extinction of CFC regardless of whether its retrieval was blocked by muscimol. Therefore, retrieval performance in the first unreinforced session is not necessary for the installation, maintenance, or spontaneous recovery of extinction of CFC.

  20. DOLPHIn—Dictionary Learning for Phase Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Andreas M.; Eldar, Yonina C.; Mairal, Julien

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new algorithm to learn a dictionary for reconstructing and sparsely encoding signals from measurements without phase. Specifically, we consider the task of estimating a two-dimensional image from squared-magnitude measurements of a complex-valued linear transformation of the original image. Several recent phase retrieval algorithms exploit underlying sparsity of the unknown signal in order to improve recovery performance. In this work, we consider such a sparse signal prior in the context of phase retrieval, when the sparsifying dictionary is not known in advance. Our algorithm jointly reconstructs the unknown signal - possibly corrupted by noise - and learns a dictionary such that each patch of the estimated image can be sparsely represented. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our approach can obtain significantly better reconstructions for phase retrieval problems with noise than methods that cannot exploit such "hidden" sparsity. Moreover, on the theoretical side, we provide a convergence result for our method.

  1. Phase retrieval from single biomolecule diffraction pattern.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shiro; Kono, Hidetoshi

    2012-02-13

    In this paper, we propose the SPR (sparse phase retrieval) method, which is a new phase retrieval method for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI). Conventional phase retrieval methods effectively solve the problem for high signal-to-noise ratio measurements, but would not be sufficient for single biomolecular imaging which is expected to be realized with femto-second x-ray free electron laser pulses. The SPR method is based on the Bayesian statistics. It does not need to set the object boundary constraint that is required by the commonly used hybrid input-output (HIO) method, instead a prior distribution is defined with an exponential distribution and used for the estimation. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method reconstructs the electron density under a noisy condition even some central pixels are masked.

  2. Context vector approach to image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Clara Z.; Means, Robert W.

    1998-04-01

    HNC developed a unique context vector approach to image retrieval in Image Contrast Addressable Retrieval System. The basis for this approach is the context vector approach to image representation. A context vector is a high dimensional vector of real numbers, derived from a set of features that are useful in discriminating between images in a particular domain. The image features are trained based upon the constrained 2D self-organizing learning law. The image context vector encodes both intra-image features and inter-image relationship. The similarity in the directions of the context vectors of a pair of images indicates their similarity of content. The context vector approach to image representation simplifies the image and retrieval indexing problem because simple Euclidean distance measurements between sets of context vectors are used as a measure of similarity.

  3. Volumetric Geophysical Retrievals in Precipitating Cloud Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, S. M.; North, K. W.; Jensen, M. P.; Kollias, P.; Williams, C. R.; Bharadwaj, N.; Fridlind, A. M.; Widener, K.; Giangrande, S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud and climate modeling efforts focused around the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) require the retrieval of high quality geophysical parameters pertinent to storm microphysical and dynamical properties. The installation of high resolution polarimetric X- and C-Band scanning radars have greatly enhanced measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plain site, however, the volumetric data collected by these sensors is only indirectly related to storm properties. This presentation will outline efforts towards creating a suite of model-like Value Added Products (VAPs) for MC3E derived using existing and new retrieval techniques. Particular focus will be on retrieval of storm dynamics, precipitation microphysics and rainfall accumulations from the scanning radar measurements. Algorithm details and verification efforts will be showcased as well as a timetable for data availability.

  4. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-11-18

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit-wave. This coherent modulation imaging (CMI) method removes inherent ambiguities of CDI and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence, and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. CMI provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free electron laser.

  5. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K

    2016-11-18

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers.

  6. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-01-01

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers. PMID:27857061

  7. Hippocampal awake replay in fear memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Ting; Haggerty, Daniel; Kemere, Caleb; Ji, Daoyun

    2017-04-01

    Hippocampal place cells are key to episodic memories. How these cells participate in memory retrieval remains unclear. After rats acquired a fear memory by receiving mild footshocks in a shock zone on a track, we analyzed place cells when the animals were placed on the track again and displayed an apparent memory retrieval behavior: avoidance of the shock zone. We found that place cells representing the shock zone were reactivated, despite the fact that the animals did not enter the shock zone. This reactivation occurred in ripple-associated awake replay of place cell sequences encoding the paths from the animal's current positions to the shock zone but not in place cell sequences within individual cycles of theta oscillation. The result reveals a specific place-cell pattern underlying inhibitory avoidance behavior and provides strong evidence for the involvement of awake replay in fear memory retrieval.

  8. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-11-01

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers.

  9. The operational methane retrieval algorithm for TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haili; Hasekamp, Otto; Butz, André; Galli, André; Landgraf, Jochen; Aan de Brugh, Joost; Borsdorff, Tobias; Scheepmaker, Remco; Aben, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    This work presents the operational methane retrieval algorithm for the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) satellite and its performance tested on realistic ensembles of simulated measurements. The target product is the column-averaged dry air volume mixing ratio of methane (XCH4), which will be retrieved simultaneously with scattering properties of the atmosphere. The algorithm attempts to fit spectra observed by the shortwave and near-infrared channels of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer aboard S5P.The sensitivity of the retrieval performance to atmospheric scattering properties, atmospheric input data and instrument calibration errors is evaluated. In addition, we investigate the effect of inhomogeneous slit illumination on the instrument spectral response function. Finally, we discuss the cloud filters to be used operationally and as backup.We show that the required accuracy and precision of < 1 % for the XCH4 product are met for clear-sky measurements over land surfaces and after appropriate filtering of difficult scenes. The algorithm is very stable, having a convergence rate of 99 %. The forward model error is less than 1 % for about 95 % of the valid retrievals. Model errors in the input profile of water do not influence the retrieval outcome noticeably. The methane product is expected to meet the requirements if errors in input profiles of pressure and temperature remain below 0.3 % and 2 K, respectively. We further find that, of all instrument calibration errors investigated here, our retrievals are the most sensitive to an error in the instrument spectral response function of the shortwave infrared channel.

  10. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  11. Science information systems: Archive, access, and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop technology for the automated characterization and interactive retrieval and visualization of very large, complex scientific data sets. Technologies will be developed for the following specific areas: (1) rapidly archiving data sets; (2) automatically characterizing and labeling data in near real-time; (3) providing users with the ability to browse contents of databases efficiently and effectively; (4) providing users with the ability to access and retrieve system independent data sets electronically; and (5) automatically alerting scientists to anomalies detected in data.

  12. Optimal Aerosol Parameterization for Remote Sensing Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol and gases from SAGE It1 solar transmission measurements. This algorithm improves upon the NASA operational algorithm in several key aspects, including solving the problem non-linearly and incorporating a new methodology for separating the contribution of aerosols and gases. In order to extract aerosol information we have built a huge database of aerosol models for both stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, and polar stratospheric cloud particles. This set of models allows us to calculate a vast range of possible extinction spectra for aerosols. and from these, derive a set of eigenvectors which then provide the basis set used in our inversion algorithm. Our aerosol algorithm and retrievals are described in several articles (listed in References Section) published under this grant. In particular they allow us to analyze the spectral properties of aerosols and PSCs and ultimately derive their microphysical properties. We have found some considerable differences between our spectra and the ones derived from the SAGE III operational algorithm. These are interesting as they provide an independent check on the validity of published aerosol data and, in particular, on their associated uncertainties. In order to understand these differences, we are assembling independent aerosol data from other sources with which to make comparisons. We have carried out extensive comparisons of our ozone retrievals with both SAGE III and independent lidar, ozonesonde, and satellite measurements (Polyakov et al., 2004). These show very good agreement throughout the stratosphere and help to quantify differences which can be attributed to natural variation in ozone versus that produced by algorithmic differences. In the mid - upper stratosphere, agreement with independent data was generally within 5 - 20%. but in the lower stratosphere the differences were considerably larger. We believe that a large proportion of this

  13. A comparison of Boolean-based retrieval to the WAIS system for retrieval of aeronautical information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionini, Gary; Barlow, Diane

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of an information retrieval system using a Boolean-based retrieval engine and inverted file architecture and WAIS, which uses a vector-based engine, was conducted. Four research questions in aeronautical engineering were used to retrieve sets of citations from the NASA Aerospace Database which was mounted on a WAIS server and available through Dialog File 108 which served as the Boolean-based system (BBS). High recall and high precision searches were done in the BBS and terse and verbose queries were used in the WAIS condition. Precision values for the WAIS searches were consistently above the precision values for high recall BBS searches and consistently below the precision values for high precision BBS searches. Terse WAIS queries gave somewhat better precision performance than verbose WAIS queries. In every case, a small number of relevant documents retrieved by one system were not retrieved by the other, indicating the incomplete nature of the results from either retrieval system. Relevant documents in the WAIS searches were found to be randomly distributed in the retrieved sets rather than distributed by ranks. Advantages and limitations of both types of systems are discussed.

  14. Forgetting as a consequence of retrieval: a meta-analytic review of retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Miyatsu, Toshiya; Buchli, Dorothy; Storm, Benjamin C

    2014-09-01

    Retrieving a subset of items can cause the forgetting of other items, a phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting. According to some theorists, retrieval-induced forgetting is the consequence of an inhibitory mechanism that acts to reduce the accessibility of nontarget items that interfere with the retrieval of target items. Other theorists argue that inhibition is unnecessary to account for retrieval-induced forgetting, contending instead that the phenomenon can be best explained by noninhibitory mechanisms, such as strength-based competition or blocking. The current article provides the first major meta-analysis of retrieval-induced forgetting, conducted with the primary purpose of quantitatively evaluating the multitude of findings that have been used to contrast these 2 theoretical viewpoints. The results largely supported inhibition accounts but also provided some challenging evidence, with the nature of the results often varying as a function of how retrieval-induced forgetting was assessed. Implications for further research and theory development are discussed.

  15. Competitive retrieval is not a prerequisite for forgetting in the retrieval practice paradigm.

    PubMed

    Camp, Gino; Dalm, Sander

    2016-09-01

    Retrieving information from memory can lead to forgetting of other, related information. The inhibition account of this retrieval-induced forgetting effect predicts that this form of forgetting occurs when competition arises between the practiced information and the related information, leading to inhibition of the related information. In the standard retrieval practice paradigm, a retrieval practice task is used in which participants retrieve the items based on a category-plus-stem cue (e.g., FRUIT-or___). In the current experiment, participants instead generated the target based on a cue in which the first 2 letters of the target were transposed (e.g., FRUIT-roange). This noncompetitive task also induced forgetting of unpracticed items from practiced categories. This finding is inconsistent with the inhibition account, which asserts that the forgetting effect depends on competitive retrieval. We argue that interference-based accounts of forgetting and the context-based account of retrieval-induced forgetting can account for this result. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-11-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds show that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column density (VCD) retrievals is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014molec cm-2.

  17. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  18. Flames in vortices & tulip-flame inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dold, J. W.

    This article summarises two areas of research regarding the propagation of flames in flows which involve significant fluid-dynamical motion [1]-[3]. The major difference between the two is that in the first study the fluid motion is present before the arrival of any flame and remains unaffected by the flame [1, 2] while, in the second study it is the flame that is responsible for all of the fluid dynamical effects [3]. It is currently very difficult to study flame-motion in which the medium is both highly disturbed before the arrival of a flame and is further influenced by the passage of the flame.

  19. Tulips, Tagmemics, and the Ghost of Dartmouth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster, John

    1979-01-01

    Provides the author's impressions of the 1979 Canadian Council of Teachers of English Conference at Ottawa, noting the three prominent areas of concern: the assessment of writing at all educational levels, the teaching of writing to non-matriculation students, and continuing education for the writing teacher. (RL)

  20. Understanding Student Article Retrieval Behaviors: Instructional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Dutt-Doner, Karen; Schoen, David

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of full-text databases amongst 425 undergraduate and graduate students in western New York. A review of literature implicated convenience, time issues, article retrieval option knowledge, and the appreciation and understanding of research article quality as potential predictors of full-text reliance. These variables…

  1. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  2. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  3. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…

  4. Interpolation of the Extended Boolean Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Daniel Z.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interpolation theorem for an extended Boolean information retrieval model. Results show that whenever two or more documents are similarly ranked at any two points for a query containing exactly two terms, then they are similarly ranked at all points in between; and that results can fail for queries with more than two terms. (Author/LRW)

  5. A Context Vector Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billhardt, Holger; Borrajo, Daniel; Maojo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Presents an indexing and information retrieval method that, based on the vector space model, incorporates term dependencies and thus obtains semantically richer representations of documents. Highlights include term context vectors; techniques for estimating the dependencies among terms; term weights; experimental results on four text collections;…

  6. Introduction and Overview: Visualization, Retrieval, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark; Lunin, Lois F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes this perspectives issue that was designed to provide an historical background to visualization in information retrieval. Topics include knowledge, digital technology, the first visual interface to a collection at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), theoretical foundations, and applications. (LRW)

  7. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, L. M. A.; Richter, A.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Hilboll, A.; Schreier, S. F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO) with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels are found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivity tests, an optimal fitting window and polynomial degree are determined. Two different approaches to reduce the interference of liquid water absorption over oceanic regions are evaluated, achieving significant reduction of negative columns over clear water regions. Moreover, a high temperature absorption cross-section of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is introduced in the DOAS retrieval to account for potential interferences of NO2 over regions with large anthropogenic emissions, leading to improved fit quality over these areas. A comparison with vertical CHOCHO columns retrieved from measurements of the GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY instruments over continental regions is performed, showing overall good consistency. Using the new OMI CHOCHO data set, the link between fires and glyoxal columns is investigated for two selected regions in Africa. In addition, mapped averages are computed for a fire event in the east of Moscow between mid-July and mid-August 2010. In both cases, enhanced CHOCHO levels are found in close spatial and temporal proximity to MODIS fire radiative power, demonstrating that pyrogenic emissions can be clearly identified in the OMI CHOCHO product.

  8. Neural Systems behind Word and Concept Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, H.; Tranel, D.; Grabowski, T.; Adolphs, R.; Damasio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Using both the lesion method and functional imaging (positron emission tomography) in large cohorts of subjects investigated with the same experimental tasks, we tested the following hypotheses: (A) that the retrieval of words which denote concrete entities belonging to distinct conceptual categories depends upon partially segregated regions in…

  9. Teaching a Heuristic Approach to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses lifelong learning and the need for information retrieval skills, and describes how Northwest Missouri State University incorporates a heuristic model of library instruction in which students continually evaluate and refine information-seeking practices while progressing through all levels of courses in diverse disciplines. (Author/LRW)

  10. Teaching Fifth Graders Electronic Information Retrieval Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Annette

    Fifth graders were taught to use an electronic card catalog to retrieve information and materials for class assignments and leisure reading materials. Groups of 10 or 12 students were seen twice a week for periods lasting up to 30 minutes. At these sessions they were introduced to computer components, proper handling, how to log into a network…

  11. Optical Storage and Retrieval of Library Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folen, Doris R.; Stackpole, Laurie E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the newly installed optical disk storage system at the Naval Research Laboratory's Research Library and Technical Information Center. Planning and design of the system, the conversion of 140,000 reports to optical disk, the information retrieval process, and future plans are covered. (Contains nine references.) (KRN)

  12. Multiple image encryption by phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Hong; Kang, Yanmei; Liu, Yueqin; Zhang, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Multiple image encryption (MIE) was proposed to increase the efficiency of encrypting images by processing several images simultaneously. Because of the advantage of optical technology in processing twodimensional images at high throughput, MIE has been significantly improved by use of methods originating from optics. Phase retrieval was the process of algorithmically finding solutions to the phase loss problem due to light detectors only capturing the intensity. It was to retrieve phase information for the determination of a structure from diffraction data. Error-reduction algorithm is a typical phase retrieval method. Here, we employ it to illustrate that methods in phase retrieval are able to encrypt multiple images and compress them into encrypted data simultaneously. Moreover, the decryption is also designed to handle multiple images at the same time. The whole process including both the encryption and decryption is proposed to improve MIE with respect to the compression and efficiency. The feasibility and encryption of the MIE scheme is demonstrated with encryption experiments under Gaussian white noise and unauthorized access.

  13. Improving multimedia retrieval with a video OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Dipanjan; Chen, Datong; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a set of experiments with a video OCR system (VOCR) tailored for video information retrieval and establish its importance in multimedia search in general and for some specific queries in particular. The system, inspired by an existing work on text detection and recognition in images, has been developed using techniques involving detailed analysis of video frames producing candidate text regions. The text regions are then binarized and sent to a commercial OCR resulting in ASCII text, that is finally used to create search indexes. The system is evaluated using the TRECVID data. We compare the system's performance from an information retrieval perspective with another VOCR developed using multi-frame integration and empirically demonstrate that deep analysis on individual video frames result in better video retrieval. We also evaluate the effect of various textual sources on multimedia retrieval by combining the VOCR outputs with automatic speech recognition (ASR) transcripts. For general search queries, the VOCR system coupled with ASR sources outperforms the other system by a very large extent. For search queries that involve named entities, especially people names, the VOCR system even outperforms speech transcripts, demonstrating that source selection for particular query types is extremely essential.

  14. General-Purpose Compression for Efficient Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannane, Adam; Williams, Hugh E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses compression of databases that reduces space requirements and retrieval times; considers compression of documents in text databases based on semistatic modeling with words; and proposes a scheme for general purpose compression that can be applied to all types of data stored in large collections. (Author/LRW)

  15. Microcomputers for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanters, Ben

    1983-01-01

    Report on use of the microcomputer for information storage and retrieval (ISR) notes hardware (floppy disks, keyboard, screen, printer); functions of ISR software; standardization of the operating system; database creation; data entry; indexing; search process; choice of ISR software package; software market and user; training and instruction; and…

  16. Fernald Silo Remote Retrieval Tool Development

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, V.K.

    2004-05-18

    A long-reach tool was developed to remove discrete objects from the silos at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. If they are not removed, these objects can potentially cause problems during the retrieval and transfer of waste from the silos. Most of the objects are on top of the Bentogrout cap inside the silos at or near the primary opening into the tank and will therefore require only vertical lifting. The objects are located about 20 ft from the top of the silo. Although most of the objects can be retrieved from 20 ft, the long-reach tool was designed to for a reach up to 40 ft in case objects roll towards the walls of the tank or need to be removed during heel retrieval operations. This report provides a detailed description of the tool that was developed, tested, and demonstrated at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scaffolding was erected over two experimental cells to simulate the 40-ft maximum working depth anticipated in the silos at Fernald. Plastic bottles and plastic sheeting simulated the debris that could be encountered during waste retrieval operations.

  17. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  18. Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexed text searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)

  19. Learning with Retrieval-Based Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Janell R.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Students typically create concept maps while they view the material they are trying to learn. In these circumstances, concept mapping serves as an elaborative study activity--students are not required to retrieve the material they are learning. In 2 experiments, we examined the effectiveness of concept mapping when it is used as a retrieval…

  20. Is Retrieval Mediated after Repeated Testing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kole, James A.; Healy, Alice F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2 main experiments, the mediated priming effect was used to determine whether retrieval continues to be mediated after repeated testing. In each experiment, participants used the keyword method to learn French vocabulary, then completed a modified lexical decision task in which they first translated a French word, and then made a lexical…

  1. Retrievals with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schlussel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Calbet, Xavier; Mango, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite was launched on October 19, 2006. The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the IASI on the MetOp satellite. IASI possesses an ultra-spectral resolution of 0.25/cm and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760/cm. Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. An advanced retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. Preliminary retrievals of atmospheric soundings, surface properties, and cloud optical/microphysical properties with the IASI observations during the JAIVEx are obtained and presented. These retrievals are further inter-compared with those obtained from airborne FTS system, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I), dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. The capabilities of satellite ultra-spectral sounder such as the IASI are investigated.

  2. Iterative Algorithms for Ptychographic Phase Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Qian, Jianliang; Schirotzek, Andre; Maia, Filipe; Marchesini, Stefano

    2011-05-03

    Ptychography promises diffraction limited resolution without the need for high resolution lenses. To achieve high resolution one has to solve the phase problem for many partially overlapping frames. Here we review some of the existing methods for solving ptychographic phase retrieval problem from a numerical analysis point of view, and propose alternative methods based on numerical optimization.

  3. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  4. Knowledge Retrieval through Virtual Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) manages knowledge retrieval by employees when they need to access documents written by colleagues in geographically distant units. CSC's establishment of virtual communities of practice facilitates the coordination of knowledge, and minimises contextual gaps between senders and…

  5. How to Choose a Media Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Joe

    1995-01-01

    Provides guidelines for schools choosing a media retrieval system. Topics include broadband, baseband, coaxial cable, or fiber optic decisions; the control network; selecting scheduling software; presentation software; device control; control from the classroom; and a comparison of systems offered by five companies. (LRW)

  6. Telerobotic excavation system for unexploded ordnance retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Rossi, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for unexploded ordnance (UXO) retrieval and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama on 13--17 September, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote UXO retrieval. During the demonstration, explosive ordnance disposal specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE, and then were asked to complete a simulated UXO retrieval task. Participants then submitted an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data. This presentation will describe the TSEE, retrieval demonstration, and summarize results of the performance evaluations. Some examples of the results are given below. Seventy percent of the demonstration participants found the tasks were as easy or easier to accomplish utilizing the remote system than with an unmodified system. Similarly, eighty percent of the participants found the TSEE hand controller was as easy or easier to use than the normal manual controls.

  7. Dynamic neural architecture for social knowledge retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Collins, Jessica A; Koski, Jessica; Nugiel, Tehila; Metoki, Athanasia; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-03-13

    Social behavior is often shaped by the rich storehouse of biographical information that we hold for other people. In our daily life, we rapidly and flexibly retrieve a host of biographical details about individuals in our social network, which often guide our decisions as we navigate complex social interactions. Even abstract traits associated with an individual, such as their political affiliation, can cue a rich cascade of person-specific knowledge. Here, we asked whether the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) serves as a hub for a distributed neural circuit that represents person knowledge. Fifty participants across two studies learned biographical information about fictitious people in a 2-d training paradigm. On day 3, they retrieved this biographical information while undergoing an fMRI scan. A series of multivariate and connectivity analyses suggest that the ATL stores abstract person identity representations. Moreover, this region coordinates interactions with a distributed network to support the flexible retrieval of person attributes. Together, our results suggest that the ATL is a central hub for representing and retrieving person knowledge.

  8. Encoding and Retrieval During Bimanual Rhythmic Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2 experiments, bimanual 1:1 rhythmic coordination was performed concurrently with encoding or retrieval of word lists. Effects of divided attention (DA) on coordination were indexed by changes in mean relative phase and recurrence measures of shared activity between the 2 limbs. Effects of DA on memory were indexed by deficits in recall…

  9. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  10. Information Retrieval as a Network Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the function of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Z39.50 protocol, which allows for construction of information "servers"--i.e., resources attached to a computer communications network that can be accessed by client machines to retrieve information. The relationship of Z39.5 to other OSI protocols is explained. (23…

  11. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Arithmetic Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a widely studied phenomenon of human memory, but RIF of arithmetic facts remains relatively unexplored. In 2 experiments, we investigated RIF of simple addition facts (2 + 3 = 5) from practice of their multiplication counterparts (2 x 3 = 6). In both experiments, robust RIF expressed in response times occurred…

  12. Introduction to Data Transmission for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is presented to data transmission technology and networks for information retrieval purposes. Data signals are analyzed, modulation techniques are discussed, communication procedures between terminals and the central processing unit are surveyed, and possible network configurations are considered. (Author/PF)

  13. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  14. Neural Network Model of Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Recanatesi, Stefano; Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory can store large amount of information. Nevertheless, recalling is often a challenging task. In a classical free recall paradigm, where participants are asked to repeat a briefly presented list of words, people make mistakes for lists as short as 5 words. We present a model for memory retrieval based on a Hopfield neural network where transition between items are determined by similarities in their long-term memory representations. Meanfield analysis of the model reveals stable states of the network corresponding (1) to single memory representations and (2) intersection between memory representations. We show that oscillating feedback inhibition in the presence of noise induces transitions between these states triggering the retrieval of different memories. The network dynamics qualitatively predicts the distribution of time intervals required to recall new memory items observed in experiments. It shows that items having larger number of neurons in their representation are statistically easier to recall and reveals possible bottlenecks in our ability of retrieving memories. Overall, we propose a neural network model of information retrieval broadly compatible with experimental observations and is consistent with our recent graphical model (Romani et al., 2013). PMID:26732491

  15. A Microprocessor Architecture for Bibliographic Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, G.; Gobbi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes a microprocessor-based architecture that makes large use of parallelism both in processing and in retrieval operations. The proposed system consists of three functional blocks: the query processor, simple query executers, and the answer composer. Twenty-one references are listed. (FM)

  16. Retrieval-induced forgetting in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Paul G.; Piech, Richard; Allen, Christopher; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Shenton, Martha; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieving category associates (e.g., FRUIT-ORANGE) may induce forgetting other category members (e.g., FRUIT-BANANA), a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). We designed 2 experiments to examine the role of RIF in the associative memory impairment of schizophrenia (SZ). Subjects studied 36 category-exemplar pairs, generated from 6 categories composed of 6 members each. For half of the studied category-exemplar pairs, subjects practiced retrieval by completing word stems, followed by a delayed category-cued recall on all of the practiced and unpracticed items. Experiment 1 used unrelated category exemplars-pairs (e.g., FRUIT-ORANGE, METALS-IRON), whereas experiment 2 included related category exemplar pairs (e.g., COTTON-SHIRT, LEATHER-SKIRT). SZ showed reduced associative memory but normal RIF for unrelated categories used in experiment 1. For experiment 2, SZ showed a significant decline in associative memory for related but not unrelated category-exemplars in comparison to controls. Results suggested faulty specificity/distinctiveness for encoding and retrieval, but not abnormal RIF in the associative memory disturbance of SZ. PMID:15885511

  17. A Written Experiment on Retrieval Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Miles

    An experiment is described for determining the vocabulary and grammar of user retrieval requests in natural English as a guide in the design of a language for man-machine communication through a typewriter console. This experiment tested written dialog in follow-up to an experiment that tested oral dialog. Subjects repeated behavior observed in…

  18. An Oral Experiment on Retrieval Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Miles

    An experiment is described for determining the vocabulary and grammar of user retrieval requests in natural English as a guide in the design of a language for man-machine communication through a typewriter console. Results of ten question-answer dialogs are discussed. In oral communication, initial requests were most frequently declarative and…

  19. Improvement of MODIS aerosol retrievals near clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Loeb, Norman G.; Várnai, Tamás.; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2013-08-01

    retrieval of aerosol properties near clouds from reflected sunlight is challenging. Sunlight reflected from clouds can effectively enhance the reflectance in nearby clear regions. Ignoring cloud 3-D radiative effects can lead to large biases in aerosol retrievals, risking an incorrect interpretation of satellite observations on aerosol-cloud interaction. Earlier, we developed a simple model to compute the cloud-induced clear-sky radiance enhancement that is due to radiative interaction between boundary layer clouds and the molecular layer above. This paper focuses on the application and implementation of the correction algorithm. This is the first time that this method is being applied to a full Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) granule. The process of the correction includes converting Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System broadband flux to visible narrowband flux, computing the clear-sky radiance enhancement, and retrieving aerosol properties. We find that the correction leads to smaller values in aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent, and the small mode aerosol fraction of the total AOD. It also makes the average aerosol particle size larger near clouds than far away from clouds, which is more realistic than the opposite behavior observed in operational retrievals. We discuss issues in the current correction method as well as our plans to validate the algorithm.

  20. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  1. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use. Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement PMID:27173525

  2. Robust keyword retrieval method for OCRed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Takebe, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hotta, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Document management systems have become important because of the growing popularity of electronic filing of documents and scanning of books, magazines, manuals, etc., through a scanner or a digital camera, for storage or reading on a PC or an electronic book. Text information acquired by optical character recognition (OCR) is usually added to the electronic documents for document retrieval. Since texts generated by OCR generally include character recognition errors, robust retrieval methods have been introduced to overcome this problem. In this paper, we propose a retrieval method that is robust against both character segmentation and recognition errors. In the proposed method, the insertion of noise characters and dropping of characters in the keyword retrieval enables robustness against character segmentation errors, and character substitution in the keyword of the recognition candidate for each character in OCR or any other character enables robustness against character recognition errors. The recall rate of the proposed method was 15% higher than that of the conventional method. However, the precision rate was 64% lower.

  3. CALIPSO lidar ratio retrieval over the ocean.

    PubMed

    Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-09-12

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type.

  4. Strategies for Building Distributed Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Ian A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of the need for distributed information retrieval systems focuses on a model system, Fulcrum FUL/Text. Differences from distributed database management systems are described; system design is discussed; implementation requirements are explained including remote operation calls (ROC's); and a prototype simulation model based on FUL/Text…

  5. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  6. Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

  7. Towards Intelligent Data Retrieval in Multimedia Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    for Best-Match Retrieval," ACM TOIS, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 1990 [SMEA81] Smeaton , A.F. and C.J. Van Rijsbergen, "The nearest neighbor problem in...Alexandria, VA 22302-0268 1 copy Director of Research Administration, Code 08, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 1 copy John Maynard Code

  8. Gastroesophageal intussusception in a Labrador retriever.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, K L; Buss, M S; Dhein, C R; Barbee, D D; Seitz, S E

    1998-01-01

    A 14-month-old, intact male Labrador retriever was referred for evaluation of vomiting and regurgitation. A diagnosis of gastroesophageal intussusception with aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient responded favorably to aggressive surgical and medical management. The guarded to poor prognosis for gastroesophageal intussusception makes the successful outcome of this case unique. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9818138

  9. Information Retrieval in Education - A Worthy Tradition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Because information handling applies to all forms of learning, one Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP) INSET strategy is devoted to a discussion of the generation, storage, retrieval, communication, and use of information in all subject areas. Discusses the nature of information; MEP and the information domain; information gathering, use,…

  10. CALIPSO Lidar Ratio Retrieval Over the Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type

  11. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use.Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement.

  12. Teaching Information Retrieval Using Telediscussion Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiliger, Edward M.

    This paper concerns an experiment in teaching a graduate seminar on Information Retrieval using telediscussion techniques. Outstanding persons from Project INTREX, MEDLARS, Chemical Abstracts, the University of Georgia, the SUNY biomedical Network, AEC, NASA, and DDC gave hour-long telelectures. A Conference Telephone Set was used with success.…

  13. Guidelines for Teachers of Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, F. E.

    These guidelines are intended to provide realistic and practical guidance about the options available to teachers and planners of education and training programs wholly or partly concerned with online information retrieval, particularly those in academic departments of library and information studies. Seven sections address: (1) the aims and scope…

  14. Subject Retrieval in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Contains nine papers read at the National Cataloguing Conference for 1981 of the section entitled, "Subject Retrieval in the 1980s." Topics include cost of subject access, research problems, options for automated subject access, and authority control. (Library Association of Australia, The Science Center, 35 Clarence St., Sydney, NSW…

  15. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacement drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The WP emplacement gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The WP emplacement gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery

  16. Sensitivity of aerosol retrieval over snow surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F. C.; Painter, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Significant amounts of black carbon and dust aerosols are transported to and accumulated in snowpacks of mountain ranges around the globe. The direct climate forcing of these particles is increasingly understood, whereas its indirect radiative forcing due to snow albedo and snow cover changes is still under investigation. In-situ and new remote sensing techniques are used to estimate snowpack properties from local to regional scales. Nevertheless, orbital and suborbital Earth observation data are difficult to analyze due to high spatial variability of the snowpack in rugged terrain. In addition, changes in atmospheric turbidity significantly complicate the estimation of snow cover characteristics and requires prior retrieval of optical and microphysical aerosol properties. Unfortunately, most aerosol retrieval techniques work only over dark surfaces. We therefore present a study on the sensitivity of aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval over snow surfaces. Radiative transfer calculations show that the sensitivity to surface spectral albedo depends strongly on the aerosol single scattering albedo (ratio of scattering efficiency to total extinction efficiency). Absorbing aerosol types (e.g. soot) provide a relatively good AOD retrieval sensitivity for very bright surfaces. The findings provide a basis for the development of future techniques and algorithms, which are able to concurrently retrieve snow and aerosol properties using remote sensing data. We explore these sensitivities with synthetic data and a time series of imaging spectrometer data, in situ spectral irradiance measurements, and sunphotometer measurements of AOD in the mountains of the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA. Ultimately, this research is important to map and better understand regional influences of aerosol and climate forcings on the cryosphere and water cycle in mountainous and other cold regions.

  17. Glyoxal Retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.; Jacob, D. J.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an improved algorithm for the retrieval of glyoxal (CHOCHO) from OMI. Glyoxal is a short-lived product of volatile organic carbon (VOC) oxidation. Satellite glyoxal observations may provide a powerful addition to existing formaldehyde products for constraining VOC emissions. However, glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of current retrievals disagree with ground-based observations over anthropogenic and biogenic regions, inhibiting their combined use in top-down studies. To address these discrepancies we perform a series of sensitivity studies on real and simulated OMI spectra. We show that the sensitive fit window dependence found in previous studies is consistent with a combination of errors from reference cross section uncertainties and spectral interference due to the Ring effect. This implies an optimal fit window of 435-461 nm, consistent with previous retrievals. Using simulated spectra we confirm a NO2 interference associated with cross section temperature, that can be corrected using multiple cross sections. We show that cross-track biases in the OMI retrieval can be corrected by deriving offsets over the Sahara, and apply the correction to the OMI data. Average background concentrations are lower in the new product since the Sahara reference sector is free of liquid water interference associated with the oceanic regions used in previous studies. Concentrations measured over Asia during the monsoon season and the tropics are also lower, suggesting that the new retrieval is less sensitive to water vapor abundance. Consequently we do not see significant enhancements over tropical oceans. The glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of the new OMI product are consistent with surface observations.

  18. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft[sup 3] of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a cold test pit'' that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 [times] 9 [times] 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub's proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

  19. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft{sup 3} of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a ``cold test pit`` that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 {times} 9 {times} 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub`s proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

  20. Regularization for Atmospheric Temperature Retrieval Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Galarza-Galarza, Ruben

    1997-01-01

    Passive remote sensing of the atmosphere is used to determine the atmospheric state. A radiometer measures microwave emissions from earth's atmosphere and surface. The radiance measured by the radiometer is proportional to the brightness temperature. This brightness temperature can be used to estimate atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water vapor content. These quantities are of primary importance for different applications in meteorology, oceanography, and geophysical sciences. Depending on the range in the electromagnetic spectrum being measured by the radiometer and the atmospheric quantities to be estimated, the retrieval or inverse problem of determining atmospheric parameters from brightness temperature might be linear or nonlinear. In most applications, the retrieval problem requires the inversion of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind making this an ill-posed problem. The numerical solution of the retrieval problem requires the transformation of the continuous problem into a discrete problem. The ill-posedness of the continuous problem translates into ill-conditioning or ill-posedness of the discrete problem. Regularization methods are used to convert the ill-posed problem into a well-posed one. In this paper, we present some results of our work in applying different regularization techniques to atmospheric temperature retrievals using brightness temperatures measured with the SSM/T-1 sensor. Simulation results are presented which show the potential of these techniques to improve temperature retrievals. In particular, no statistical assumptions are needed and the algorithms were capable of correctly estimating the temperature profile corner at the tropopause independent of the initial guess.

  1. Remote technologies for buried waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is evaluating what should be done with this buried waste. Although the radioactive waste is not particularly mobile unless airborne, some of it was buried with volatile organics and/or other substances that tend to spread easily to surrounding soil or water tables. Volatile organics are hazardous materials (such as trichloroethylene) and require clean-up at certain levels in drinking water. There is concern that the buried volatile organics will spread into the water table and contaminate drinking water. Because of this, the DOE is considering options for handling this buried waste and reducing the risks of spreading or exposure. There are two primary options: containment and stabilization, or retrieval. Containment and stabilization systems would include systems that would leave the waste where it is, but contain and stabilize it so that the radioactive and hazardous materials would not spread to the surrounding soil, water, or air. For example, an in situ vitrification system could be used to melt the waste into a composite glass-like material that would not leach into the surrounding soil, water, or air. Retrieval systems are those that would remove the waste from its burial location for treatment and/or repackaging for long term storage. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate remote technologies that would minimize dust generation and the spread of airborne contaminants during buried waste retrieval. Remote technologies are essential for the retrieval of buried waste because they remove workers from the hazardous environment and provide greater automation, reducing the chances of human error. Minimizing dust generation is also essential to increased safety for the workers and the environment during buried waste retrieval. The main contaminants within the waste are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides, which are easily suspended in air and spread if disturbed.

  2. CO2 profile retrievals from TCCON spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohe, Susanne; Hase, Frank; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; García, Omaira; Wunch, Debra; Wennberg, Paul; Gómez-Peláez, Angel; Abshire, James B.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Schneider, Matthias; Blumenstock, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a global network of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers recording direct solar spectra in the near-infrared spectral region. With stringent requirements on the instrumentation, data processing and calibration, accurate and precise column-averaged abundances of CO2, CH4, N2O, HF, CO, H2O, and HDO are retrieved being an essential contribution for the validation of satellite data (e.g. GOSAT, OCO-2) and carbon cycle research (Olsen and Randerson, 2004). However, the determined column-averaged dry air mole fraction (DMF) contains no information about the vertical CO2 profile, due to the use of a simple scaling retrieval within the common TCCON analysis, where the fitting algorithm GFIT (e.g. Yang et al., 2005) is used. In this presentation we will apply a different procedure for calculating trace gas abundances from the measured spectra, the fitting algorithm PROFFIT (Hase et. al., 2004) which has been shown to be in very good accordance with GFIT. PROFFIT additionally offers the ability to perform profile retrievals in which the pressure broadening effect of absorption lines is used to retrieve vertical gas profiles, being of great interest especially for the CO2 modelling community. A new analyzing procedure will be shown and retrieved vertical CO2 profiles of the TCCON sites Izaña (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain) and Lamont (Oklahoma, USA) will be presented and compared with simultaneously performed surface in-situ measurements and CO2 profiles from different aircraft campaigns. References: - Hase, F. et al., J.Q.S.R.T. 87, 25-52, 2004. - Olsen, S.C. and Randerson, J.T., J.G.Res., 109, D023012, 2004. - Yang, Z. et al., J.Q.S.R.T., 90, 309-321, 2005.

  3. Retrieval medicine: a review and guide for UK practitioners. Part 2: safety in patient retrieval systems

    PubMed Central

    Hearns, S; Shirley, P J

    2006-01-01

    Retrieval and transfer of critically ill and injured patients is a high risk activity. Risk can be minimised with robust safety and clinical governance systems in place. This article describes the various governance systems that can be employed to optimise safety and efficiency in retrieval services. These include operating procedure development, equipment management, communications procedures, crew resource management, significant event analysis, audit and training. PMID:17130608

  4. Self-generated retrievals while multitasking improve memory for names.

    PubMed

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2011-11-01

    We used a translational research paradigm to investigate whether distributed retrievals could benefit name learning in social situations. Undergraduates (N=64) were trained to generate distributed retrievals while they were multitasking. Students learned to generate distributed retrievals according to either an expanding or a uniform schedule. Their self-generated distributed retrievals while they were multitasking were effective in improving name recall for both retrieval schedules. The increase with self-generated retrievals while multitasking was greater (η² =.76) than the increase that Helder and Shaughnessy ( 2008 ) found with experimenter-controlled retrievals while multitasking (η² =.42). These findings provide evidence that the beneficial effect of distributed retrievals can extend to learning names in a social situation.

  5. Retrieval of Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Laws, James L; Lewandowski, Robert J; Ryu, Robert K; Desai, Kush R

    2016-06-01

    Placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters has seen rapid growth since their introduction into clinical practice. When retrieved, these devices offer the notional benefit of temporary protection from pulmonary embolism related to lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, and mitigation of filter-related deep venous thrombosis. When promptly removed after the indication for mechanical prophylaxis is no longer present, standard endovascular retrieval techniques are frequently successful. However, the majority of these devices are left in place for extended periods of time, which has been associated with greater device-related complications when left in situ, and failure of standard techniques when retrieval is attempted. The development of advanced retrieval techniques has had a positive impact on retrieval of these embedded devices. In this article, technical considerations in the retrieval of such devices, with an emphasis on advanced techniques to facilitate retrieval of embedded devices, are discussed.

  6. Retrieval Lesson Learned from NAST-I Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The retrieval lesson learned is important to many current and future hyperspectral remote sensors. Validated retrieval algorithms demonstrate the advancement of hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities to be achieved with current and future satellite instruments.

  7. An integrated content and metadata based retrieval system for art.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Paul H; Martinez, Kirk; Abas, Fazly Salleh; Fauzi, Mohammad Faizal Ahmad; Chan, Stephen C Y; Addis, Matthew J; Boniface, Mike J; Grimwood, Paul; Stevenson, Alison; Lahanier, Christian; Stevenson, James

    2004-03-01

    A new approach to image retrieval is presented in the domain of museum and gallery image collections. Specialist algorithms, developed to address specific retrieval tasks, are combined with more conventional content and metadata retrieval approaches, and implemented within a distributed architecture to provide cross-collection searching and navigation in a seamless way. External systems can access the different collections using interoperability protocols and open standards, which were extended to accommodate content based as well as text based retrieval paradigms. After a brief overview of the complete system, we describe the novel design and evaluation of some of the specialist image analysis algorithms including a method for image retrieval based on sub-image queries, retrievals based on very low quality images and retrieval using canvas crack patterns. We show how effective retrieval results can be achieved by real end-users consisting of major museums and galleries, accessing the distributed but integrated digital collections.

  8. The Use of a Context-Based Information Retrieval Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    information retrieval. For instance, information retrieval tools must contend with obstacles such as polysemy , which refers to words with multiple...meanings, and synonymy, which is used to describe multiple words with the same meaning. Many of these problems can be minimised when the query is...with the proportion of retrieved items that are relevant. Information retrieval systems aim to maximise both of these measures, and

  9. Applying Genetic Algorithms To Query Optimization in Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Yeh, Ching-Chang

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a novel approach to automatically retrieve keywords and then uses genetic algorithms to adapt the keyword weights. Discusses Chinese text retrieval, term frequency rating formulas, vector space models, bigrams, the PAT-tree structure for information retrieval, query vectors, and relevance feedback. (Author/LRW)

  10. Data Discretization for Novel Relationship Discovery in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval, visualization, and manipulation model which offers the user multiple ways to exploit the retrieval set, based on weighted query terms, via an interactive interface. Outlines the mathematical model and describes an information retrieval application built on the model to search structured and full-text files.…

  11. Multiple Object Retrieval in Image Databases Using Hierarchical Segmentation Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Bang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a new visual information analysis, representation, and retrieval framework for automatic discovery of salient objects of user's interest in large-scale image databases. In particular, this dissertation describes a content-based image retrieval framework which supports multiple-object retrieval. The…

  12. 49 CFR 563.12 - Data retrieval tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data retrieval tools. 563.12 Section 563.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.12 Data retrieval tools. Each... tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in...

  13. The Effect of Indexing Exhaustivity on Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Describes results of a study that investigated the effect of variations in indexing exhaustivity on retrieval performance in a vector space retrieval system. The test collection of documents in the National Library of Medicine's Medline file indexed under cystic fibrosis is described, and use of the SMART information retrieval system is discussed.…

  14. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting in a Category Recognition Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Bernhard; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on retrieval-induced forgetting showed that retrieving a subset of formerly studied items can impair item recognition of related, nonretrieved material. Here it was investigated whether retrieval practice can also impair the items' recognition as a member of a studied category. Subjects studied preexperimentally unrelated words that…

  15. A STUDY OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: The problem of information storage and retrieval - data banking ; The nature of information and communication between minds; The five steps...of data banking ; A classification system for data banking processes; A partial analysis of the problem of retrieval; A retrieval solution; and Implementation of the solution.

  16. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  17. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  18. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  19. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  20. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Information Retrieval Systems Using Simulated Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a simulation method for estimating recall and fallout in a document retrieval system. Earlier research on simulating document retrieval systems is reviewed, examples are presented of the current method, a probabilistic justification of the method is given, theoretical concerns dealing with retrieval precision are discussed, and further…

  2. Variation in Relevance Judgments and the Measurement of Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Ellen M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the test collections developed in the TREC (Text REtrieval Conference) workshops for information retrieval research and describes a study by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) that verified their reliability by investigating the effect changes in the relevance assessments have on the evaluation of retrieval results.…

  3. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  4. Visual Based Retrieval Systems and Web Mining--Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Briefly discusses Web mining and image retrieval techniques, and then presents a summary of articles in this special issue. Articles focus on Web content mining, artificial neural networks as tools for image retrieval, content-based image retrieval systems, and personalizing the Web browsing experience using media agents. (AEF)

  5. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  6. Tank plan for tank 241-C-104 retrieval testing

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-05-21

    Tank 241-C-104 has been identified as one of the first tanks to be retrieved for high-level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document.

  7. Automatic information retrieval of Chinese business card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, GuangShun; Pan, Wumo; Jin, Jianming

    2003-01-01

    Document image understanding techniques have been widely used in many application domains. Various kinds of documents have been researched and different methods are developed for information retrieval purpose. In this paper we present a practical method to extract information items from Chinese business card. Before retrieval information in business card, the image of business card had been segmented into little text regions and each text region had been recognized. Because the typeset of business card is variable, and both English and Chinese characters are used, so there are errors in segmentation and recognition result. We focus on building a robust model that can tolerate errors and extract syntax pattern of each text lines in business card, which using both layout information and logical information. By this model, many errors will be identified and adjusted. Finally, correct property will be assigned to each text region in business card, and recognition errors will be corrected.

  8. Convolutional neural network for pottery retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhabiles, Halim; Tabia, Hedi

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of the convolutional neural network (CNN) has already been demonstrated in many challenging tasks of computer vision, such as image retrieval, action recognition, and object classification. This paper specifically exploits CNN to design local descriptors for content-based retrieval of complete or nearly complete three-dimensional (3-D) vessel replicas. Based on vector quantization, the designed descriptors are clustered to form a shape vocabulary. Then, each 3-D object is associated to a set of clusters (words) in that vocabulary. Finally, a weighted vector counting the occurrences of every word is computed. The reported experimental results on the 3-D pottery benchmark show the superior performance of the proposed method.

  9. Neural Mechanisms of Extinction Learning and Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Gregory J.; Mueller, Devin

    2009-01-01

    Emotional learning is necessary for individuals to survive and prosper. Once acquired, however, emotional associations are not always expressed. Indeed, the regulation of emotional expression under varying environmental conditions is essential for mental health. The simplest form of emotional regulation is extinction, in which conditioned responding to a stimulus decreases when the reinforcer is omitted. Two decades of research on the neural mechanisms of fear conditioning have laid the groundwork for understanding extinction. In this review, we summarize recent work on the neural mechanisms of extinction learning. Like other forms of learning, extinction occurs in three phases: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval, each of which depends on specific structures (amygdala, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus), and molecular mechanisms (receptors and signaling pathways). Pharmacological methods to facilitate consolidation and retrieval of extinction, for both aversive and appetitive conditioning, are setting the stage for novel treatments for anxiety disorders and addictions. PMID:17882236

  10. Retrieval induces reconsolidation of fear extinction memory

    PubMed Central

    Rossato, Janine I.; Bevilaqua, Lia R.; Izquierdo, Iván; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martín

    2010-01-01

    The nonreinforced expression of long-tem memory may lead to two opposite protein synthesis-dependent processes: extinction and reconsolidation. Extinction weakens consolidated memories, whereas reconsolidation allows incorporation of additional information into them. Knowledge about these two processes has accumulated in recent years, but their possible interaction has not been evaluated yet. Here, we report that inhibition of protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus after retrieval of fear extinction impedes subsequent reactivation of the extinction memory trace without affecting its storage or that of the initial fear memory. Our results suggest that extinction memory is susceptible to a retrieval-induced process similar to reconsolidation in the hippocampus. PMID:21118982

  11. Retrieval induces reconsolidation of fear extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Janine I; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Izquierdo, Iván; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2010-12-14

    The nonreinforced expression of long-tem memory may lead to two opposite protein synthesis-dependent processes: extinction and reconsolidation. Extinction weakens consolidated memories, whereas reconsolidation allows incorporation of additional information into them. Knowledge about these two processes has accumulated in recent years, but their possible interaction has not been evaluated yet. Here, we report that inhibition of protein synthesis in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus after retrieval of fear extinction impedes subsequent reactivation of the extinction memory trace without affecting its storage or that of the initial fear memory. Our results suggest that extinction memory is susceptible to a retrieval-induced process similar to reconsolidation in the hippocampus.

  12. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The system also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacment drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery after abnormal events may require clearing of equipment

  13. MOD06 Optical and Microphysical Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. T.; Dinsick, J.; Gatebe, C. K.; Gray, M. A.; Hubanks, P. A.; Moody, E. G.; Wind, B.; Wind, G.

    2003-01-01

    Major efforts over the past six months included: (1) submission of MOD06 Optical and Microphysical Retrieval recompetition proposal, (2) delivery of a MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 update, (3) delivery of the MODIS Atmosphere s new combined Level-2 product, (4) development of an above-cloud precipitable water research algorithm and a multi-layer cloud detection algorithm, (5) continued development of a Fortran 90 version of the retrieval code for use with MAS as well as operational MODIS processing, (6) preliminary analysis of CRYSTAL-FACE field experiment in July 2002, (7) continued analysis of data obtained during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign in southern Africa, and the Arctic FIRE-ACE experiment.

  14. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  15. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  16. Launchable and retrievable tetherbot exploration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younse, P.

    2008-04-01

    A launchable and retrievable tetherbot exploration system for low-gravity environments is proposed where a small, tethered robot is launched from a base lander or vehicle to a desired position up to 50 m away. When its exploration mission is complete, it hops vertically above the surface and is simultaneously reeled back in by the base vehicle while still above ground. Benefits include the ability to traverse long distances in short amounts of time and minimal energy expense independent of terrain roughness. This technique has the capability to reach locations too difficult, too dangerous, or unreachable by the base vehicle. Prototypes of a steerable six-legged hopping robot and electric reel were developed. A dynamic simulation demonstrated the capabilities of launching and tether retrieval.

  17. Users guide for information retrieval using APL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A.

    1974-01-01

    A Programming Language (APL) is a precise, concise, and powerful computer programming language. Several features make APL useful to managers and other potential computer users. APL is interactive; therefore, the user can communicate with his program or data base in near real-time. This, coupled with the fact that APL has excellent debugging features, reduces program checkout time to minutes or hours rather than days or months. Of particular importance is the fact that APL can be utilized as a management science tool using such techniques as operations research, statistical analysis, and forecasting. The gap between the scientist and the manager could be narrowed by showing how APL can be used to do what the scientists and the manager each need to do, retrieve information. Sometimes, the information needs to be retrieved rapidly. In this case APL is ideally suited for this challenge.

  18. PRIME: Phase Retrieval via Majorization-Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianyu; Babu, Prabhu; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem in which measurements consist of only the magnitude of several linear measurements of the unknown, e.g., spectral components of a time sequence. We develop low-complexity algorithms with superior performance based on the majorization-minimization (MM) framework. The proposed algorithms are referred to as PRIME: Phase Retrieval vIa the Majorization-minimization techniquE. They are preferred to existing benchmark methods since at each iteration a simple surrogate problem is solved with a closed-form solution that monotonically decreases the original objective function. In total, four algorithms are proposed using different majorization-minimization techniques. Experimental results validate that our algorithms outperform existing methods in terms of successful recovery and mean square error under various settings.

  19. Unified Green's Function Retrieval by Cross Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wapenaar, Kees; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2006-12-08

    It has been shown by many authors that the cross correlation of two recordings of a diffuse wave field at different receivers yields the Green's function between these receivers. Recently the theory has been extended for situations where time-reversal invariance does not hold (e.g., in attenuating media) and where source-receiver reciprocity breaks down (in moving fluids). Here we present a unified theory for Green's function retrieval that captures all these situations and, because of the unified form, readily extends to more complex situations, such as electrokinetic Green's function retrieval in poroelastic or piezoelectric media. The unified theory has a wide range of applications in ''remote sensing without a source.''.

  20. Phase retrieval via propagation-based interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loetgering, L.; Froese, H.; Wilhein, T.; Rose, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present an extension of the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to allow for phase retrieval from interferometric data recorded at multiple sample-detector distances. A system of coupled waves is introduced where the information exchange can be controlled by use of relaxation parameters. Optimal parameters are investigated by numerical simulation and demonstrated to work with experimental data. We demonstrate that systematic errors such as pointing instabilities of the interfering waves involved and position uncertainties of the detector can be overcome by dimensional extension of the search space. Further it is shown that the proposed approach offers superior reconstruction quality as compared to conventional Gerchberg-Saxton type algorithms. We expect that the method described here will open up numerous possibilities for the correction of systematic errors in optical phase retrieval and lensless microscopy.

  1. Laparoscopic retrieval of an unusual foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Binay Kumar; Khullar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anil; Soni, Vandana; Baijal, Manish; Chowbey, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign body is a serious problem commonly encountered in our clinical practice. Most of them pass spontaneously, whereas in others endoscopic or surgical intervention is required because of complications or non-passage from the gastrointestinal tract. We present here a case of teaspoon ingestion, which did not pass spontaneously. Laparoscopic retrieval of teaspoon was done from mid jejunum after enterotomy and the patient recovered uneventfully. Right intervention at the right time is of paramount importance. PMID:25336824

  2. Water sprays in space retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  3. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, L. M. A.; Richter, A.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Hilboll, A.; Schreier, S. F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO) with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels were found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivity tests, a fitting window and a polynomial degree are determined. Two different approaches to reduce the interference of liquid water absorption over oceanic regions are evaluated, achieving significant reduction of the number of negative columns over clear water regions. The impact of using different absorption cross-sections for water vapour is evaluated and only small differences are found. Finally, a high-temperature (boundary layer ambient: 294 K) absorption cross-section of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is introduced in the DOAS retrieval to account for potential interferences of NO2 over regions with large anthropogenic emissions, leading to improved fit quality over these areas. A comparison with vertical CHOCHO columns retrieved from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY measurements over continental regions is performed, showing overall good consistency. However, SCIAMACHY CHOCHO columns are systematically higher than those obtained from the other instruments. Using the new OMI CHOCHO data set, the link between fires and glyoxal columns is investigated for two selected regions in Africa. In addition, mapped averages are computed for a fire event in Russia between mid-July and mid-August 2010. In both cases, enhanced CHOCHO levels are found in close spatial and temporal proximity to elevated levels of MODIS fire radiative power, demonstrating that pyrogenic emissions can be clearly identified in the new OMI CHOCHO product.

  4. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    DOEpatents

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  5. Electronic publishing and intelligent information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europeans are now taking steps to homogenize policies and standardize procedures in electronic publishing (EP) in astronomy and space sciences. This arose from an open meeting organized in Oct. 1991 at Strasbourg Observatory (France) and another business meeting held late Mar. 1992 with the major publishers and journal editors in astronomy and space sciences. The ultimate aim of EP might be considered as the so-called 'intelligent information retrieval' (IIR) or better named 'advanced information retrieval' (AIR), taking advantage of the fact that the material to be published appears at some stage in a machine-readable form. It is obvious that the combination of desktop and electronic publishing with networking and new structuring of knowledge bases will profoundly reshape not only our ways of publishing, but also our procedures of communicating and retrieving information. It should be noted that a world-wide survey among astronomers and space scientists carried out before the October 1991 colloquium on the various packages and machines used, indicated that TEX-related packages were already in majoritarian use in our community. It has also been stressed at each meeting that the European developments should be carried out in collaboration with what is done in the US (STELLAR project, for instance). American scientists and journal editors actually attended both meetings mentioned above. The paper will offer a review of the status of electronic publishing in astronomy and its possible contribution to advanced information retrieval in this field. It will also report on recent meetings such as the 'Astronomy from Large Databases-2 (ALD-2)' conference dealing with the latest developments in networking, in data, information, and knowledge bases, as well as in the related methodologies.

  6. Photon path length retrieval from GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Deutschmann, Tim; Wagner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiation budget is investigated, focussing on the photon path length distributions of the scattered sunlight. Apart from the reflection of incoming solar radiation at the cloud top, clouds can also introduce a large number of additional scattering events causing an enhancement of the photon paths. In certain cloud formations, these scattering events also result in a ``ping-pong`` behaviour between different cloud patches and cloud layers. It has been shown from ground based measurements that it is possible to retrieve photon path lengths by analysis of high resolution oxygen A-band spectra (O. Funk et al.). This study uses similar space based measurements of the oxygen A-band for the path length retrieval. The oxygen A-band spectra are retrieved from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which was successfully launched in 2009. The high spectral resolution of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines. The considered spectral range is particularly suitable for this study because it shows clear absorption structures of different strength. From the analysis of the spectral signatures, cloud properties and the underlying path length distributions can be derived. The retrieval is done by analysis and comparison of the extracted TANSO-FTS spectra with simulations from the Monte Carlo radiative transfer Model McArtim. The model permits modelling of altitude dependent oxygen absorption cross sections and three-dimensional cloud patterns. Case studies of clear and cloudy sky scenarios will be presented. Future studies will focus on more complicated cloud structures, especially considering three-dimensional geometries and heterogeneities.

  7. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  8. Iterative phase retrieval algorithms. I: optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T

    2015-05-20

    Two modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) iterative phase retrieval algorithms are proposed. The first we refer to as the spatial phase perturbation GS algorithm (SPP GSA). The second is a combined GS hybrid input-output algorithm (GS/HIOA). In this paper (Part I), it is demonstrated that the SPP GS and GS/HIO algorithms are both much better at avoiding stagnation during phase retrieval, allowing them to successfully locate superior solutions compared with either the GS or the HIO algorithms. The performances of the SPP GS and GS/HIO algorithms are also compared. Then, the error reduction (ER) algorithm is combined with the HIO algorithm (ER/HIOA) to retrieve the input object image and the phase, given only some knowledge of its extent and the amplitude in the Fourier domain. In Part II, the algorithms developed here are applied to carry out known plaintext and ciphertext attacks on amplitude encoding and phase encoding double random phase encryption systems. Significantly, ER/HIOA is then used to carry out a ciphertext-only attack on AE DRPE systems.

  9. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; ...

    2016-11-18

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit-wave. This coherent modulation imaging (CMI) method removes inherent ambiguities of CDI and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works formore » extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence, and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. CMI provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free electron laser.« less

  10. Radiative Transfer and Retrievals in EOF Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is a hyperspectral sensor with 8461 spectral channels and a nominal spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(sup -1). It is computationally intensive to perform radiative transfer calculations and inversions using all these channels. We will present a Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) and a retrieval algorithm which perform all the necessary calculations in EOF domain. Since the EOFs are orthogonal to each other, only about 100 principal components are needed to represent the information content of the 8461 channels. The PCRTM provides the EOF coefficients and associated derivatives with respect to atmospheric and surface parameters needed by the inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm is based on a non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt method with climatology covariance and a priori information as constraints. The retrieved parameters include atmospheric temperature, moisture and ozone profiles, cloud parameters, surface skin temperature, and surface emissivities. To make the retrieval system even more compact and stable. The atmospheric vertical profiles are compressed into the EOF space as well. The surface emissivities are also compressed into EOF space.

  11. Retrieving information from a hierarchical plan.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darryl W; Logan, Gordon D

    2007-11-01

    Plans give structure to behavior by specifying whether and when different tasks must be performed. However, the structure of behavior need not mirror the structure of the plan. To investigate this idea, the authors studied how plan information is retrieved in the context of a novel sequence-position cuing procedure, wherein subjects memorize two task sequences, then perform trials on which they are randomly cued to perform a task at one of the serial positions in a sequence. Several empirical effects were consistent with retrieval from a hierarchically structured representation (but not a non-hierarchical representation), including large sequence-repetition benefits, position-repetition benefits only for sequence repetitions, and a lack of robust task-repetition benefits. The data were successfully modeled by assuming that retrieval was time-consuming, susceptible to priming, cue-dependent, structurally constrained, and token-specific. In tandem, the empirical data and modeling work provide deeper insight into the representation of and access to information in memory that comprises a plan for guiding behavior.

  12. Assessment of corrosion in retrieved spine implants.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, V C; Hothi, H S; Anwar, H A; Molloy, S; Noordeen, H; Rezajooi, K; Sutcliffe, J; Skinner, J A; Hart, A J

    2017-03-09

    Recently the use of dissimilar metals in spine instrumentation has increased, especially in the case of adult deformities, where rods made from Cobalt Chrome alloys (CoCr) are used with Titanium (Ti) screws. The use of dissimilar metals increases the risk of galvanic corrosion and patients have required revision spine surgery due to severe metallosis that may have been caused by corrosion. We aimed to assess the presence of corrosion in spine implant retrievals from constructs with two types of material combinations: similar (Ti/Ti) and dissimilar (CoCr/Ti). First, we devised a grading score for corrosion of the rod-fixture junctions. Then, we applied this score to a collection of retrieved spine implants. Our proposed corrosion grading score was proven reliable (kappa > 0.7). We found no significant difference in the scores between 4 CoCr and 11 Ti rods (p = 0.0642). There was no indication that time of implantation had an effect on the corrosion score (p = 0.9361). We recommend surgeons avoid using implants designs with dissimilar metals to reduce the risk of corrosion whilst a larger scale study of retrieved spine implants is conducted. Future studies can now use our scoring system for spine implant corrosion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017.

  13. Water vapor retrieval from OMI visible spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; González Abad, G.; Miller, C. Chan

    2014-06-01

    There are distinct spectral features of water vapor in the wavelength range covered by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) visible channel. Although these features are much weaker than those at longer wavelengths, they can be exploited to retrieve useful information about water vapor. They have an advantage in that their small optical depth leads to fairly simple interpretation as measurements of the total water vapor column density. We have used the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) OMI operational retrieval algorithm to derive the slant column density (SCD) of water vapor using the 430-480 nm spectral region after extensive optimization. We convert from SCD to vertical column density (VCD) using the air mass factor (AMF), which is calculated using look-up tables of scattering weights and assimilated water vapor profiles. Our Level 2 product includes not only water vapor VCD but also the associated scattering weights and AMF. In the tropics, our standard water vapor product has a median SCD of 1.3 × 1023 molecules cm-2 and a median relative uncertainty of about 11%, about a factor of 2 better than that from a similar OMI algorithm that uses a narrower retrieval window. The corresponding median VCD is about 1.2 × 1023 molecules cm-2. We have examined the sensitivities of SCD and AMF to various parameters and compared our results with those from the GlobVapour product, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET).

  14. Techniques for Soundscape Retrieval and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtley, Brandon Michael

    The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

  15. Motifs and structural blocks retrieval by GHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Ferone, Alessio; Petrosino, Alfredo; Polat, Ozlem

    2014-06-01

    The structure of a protein gives more insight on the protein function than its amino acid sequence. Protein structure analysis and comparison are important for understanding the evolutionary relationships among proteins, predicting protein functions, and predicting protein folding. Proteins are formed by two basic regular 3D structural patterns, called Secondary Structures (SSs): helices and sheets. A structural motif is a compact 3D protein block referring to a small specific combination of secondary structural elements, which appears in a variety of molecules. In this paper we compare a few approaches for motif retrieval based on the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT). A primary technique is to adopt the single SS as structural primitives; alternatives are to adopt a SSs pair as primitive structural element, or a SSs triplet, and so on up-to an entire motif. The richer the primitive, the higher the time for pre-analysis and search, and the simpler the inspection process on the parameter space for analyzing the peaks. Performance comparisons, in terms of precision and computation time, are here presented considering the retrieval of motifs composed by three to five SSs for more than 15 million searches. The approach can be easily applied to the retrieval of greater blocks, up to protein domains, or even entire proteins.

  16. Polar Embedding for Aurora Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tian, Qi

    2015-11-01

    Exploring the multimedia techniques to assist scientists for their research is an interesting and meaningful topic. In this paper, we focus on the large-scale aurora image retrieval by leveraging the bag-of-visual words (BoVW) framework. To refine the unsuitable representation and improve the retrieval performance, the BoVW model is modified by embedding the polar information. The superiority of the proposed polar embedding method lies in two aspects. On the one hand, the polar meshing scheme is conducted to determine the interest points, which is more suitable for images captured by circular fisheye lens. Especially for the aurora image, the extracted polar scale-invariant feature transform (polar-SIFT) feature can also reflect the geomagnetic longitude and latitude, and thus facilitates the further data analysis. On the other hand, a binary polar deep local binary pattern (polar-DLBP) descriptor is proposed to enhance the discriminative power of visual words. Together with the 64-bit polar-SIFT code obtained via Hamming embedding, the multifeature index is performed to reduce the impact of false positive matches. Extensive experiments are conducted on the large-scale aurora image data set. The experimental result indicates that the proposed method improves the retrieval accuracy significantly with acceptable efficiency and memory cost. In addition, the effectiveness of the polar-SIFT scheme and polar-DLBP integration are separately demonstrated.

  17. When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting and when Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications for Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, and Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…

  18. A Ground Flash Fraction Retrieval Algorithm for GLM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    A Bayesian inversion method is introduced for retrieving the fraction of ground flashes in a set of N lightning observed by a satellite lightning imager (such as the Geostationary Lightning Mapper, GLM). An exponential model is applied as a physically reasonable constraint to describe the measured lightning optical parameter distributions. Population statistics (i.e., the mean and variance) are invoked to add additional constraints to the retrieval process. The Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) solution is employed. The approach is tested by performing simulated retrievals, and retrieval error statistics are provided. The approach is feasible for N greater than 2000, and retrieval errors decrease as N is increased.

  19. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-08-11

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  20. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  1. Implementation of Cloud Retrievals for Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Atmospheric Retrievals: Part 1. Description and Characterization of Errors on Trace Gas Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulawik, Susan S.; Worden, John; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin; Gunson, Michael; Osterman, Gregory B.; Zhang, Lin; Clough, Shepard A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Beer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach to estimate and characterize trace gas retrievals in the presence of clouds in high spectral measurements of upwelling radiance in the infrared spectral region (650-2260/cm). The radiance contribution of clouds is parameterized in terms of a set of frequency-dependent nonscattering optical depths and a cloud height. These cloud parameters are retrieved jointly with surface temperature, emissivity, atmospheric temperature, and trace gases such as ozone from spectral data. We demonstrate the application of this approach using data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and test data simulated with a scattering radiative transfer model. We show the value of this approach in that it results in accurate estimates of errors for trace gas retrievals, and the retrieved values improve over the initial guess for a wide range of cloud conditions. Comparisons are made between TES retrievals of ozone, temperature, and water to model fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), temperature retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), tropospheric ozone columns from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) GEOS-Chem, and ozone retrievals from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). In each of these cases, this cloud retrieval approach does not introduce observable biases into TES retrievals.

  2. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a - possibly unfinished - care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task. PMID:26099735

  3. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    PubMed

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  4. Extinction learning, which consists of the inhibition of retrieval, can be learned without retrieval

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Schmidt, Bianca; Ferreira, Flávia; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we test the hypothesis that extinction is not a consequence of retrieval in unreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation but the mere perception of the CS in the absence of a conditioned response. Animals with cannulae implanted in the CA1 region of hippocampus were subjected to extinction of contextual fear conditioning. Muscimol infused intra-CA1 before an extinction training session of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) blocks retrieval but not consolidation of extinction measured 24 h later. Additionally, this inhibition of retrieval does not affect early persistence of extinction when tested 7 d later or its spontaneous recovery after 2 wk. Furthermore, both anisomycin, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, and rapamycin, an inhibitor of extraribosomal protein synthesis, given into the CA1, impair extinction of CFC regardless of whether its retrieval was blocked by muscimol. Therefore, retrieval performance in the first unreinforced session is not necessary for the installation, maintenance, or spontaneous recovery of extinction of CFC. PMID:25550507

  5. Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  7. A Bayesian approach to microwave precipitation profile retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K. Franklin; Turk, Joseph; Wong, Takmeng; Stephens, Graeme L.

    1995-01-01

    A multichannel passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm is developed. Bayes theorem is used to combine statistical information from numerical cloud models with forward radiative transfer modeling. A multivariate lognormal prior probability distribution contains the covariance information about hydrometeor distribution that resolves the nonuniqueness inherent in the inversion process. Hydrometeor profiles are retrieved by maximizing the posterior probability density for each vector of observations. The hydrometeor profile retrieval method is tested with data from the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz) of convection over ocean and land in Florida. The CP-2 multiparameter radar data are used to verify the retrieved profiles. The results show that the method can retrieve approximate hydrometeor profiles, with larger errors over land than water. There is considerably greater accuracy in the retrieval of integrated hydrometeor contents than of profiles. Many of the retrieval errors are traced to problems with the cloud model microphysical information, and future improvements to the algorithm are suggested.

  8. Retrieval induces forgetting, but only when nontested items compete for retrieval: Implication for interference, inhibition, and context reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason C K; Erdman, Matthew R; Davis, Sara D

    2015-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for retrieval-induced forgetting has been the subject of rigorous theoretical debate, with some researchers postulating that retrieval-induced forgetting can be explained by interference (J. G .W. Raaijmakers & E. Jakab, 2013) or context reinstatement (T. R. Jonker, P. Seli, & C. M. MacLeod, 2013), whereas others claim that retrieval-induced forgetting is better explained by inhibition (M. C. Anderson, 2003). A fundamental assumption of the inhibition account is that nonpracticed items are suppressed because they compete for retrieval during initial testing. In the current study, we manipulated competition in a novel interpolated testing paradigm by having subjects learn the nonpracticed items either before (high-competition condition) or after (low-competition condition) they practiced retrieval of the target items. We found retrieval-induced forgetting for the nonpracticed competitors only when they were studied before retrieval practice. This result provides support for a critical assumption of the inhibition account.

  9. Retrieval and classification of food images.

    PubMed

    Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Allegra, Dario; Moltisanti, Marco; Stanco, Filippo; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2016-10-01

    Automatic food understanding from images is an interesting challenge with applications in different domains. In particular, food intake monitoring is becoming more and more important because of the key role that it plays in health and market economies. In this paper, we address the study of food image processing from the perspective of Computer Vision. As first contribution we present a survey of the studies in the context of food image processing from the early attempts to the current state-of-the-art methods. Since retrieval and classification engines able to work on food images are required to build automatic systems for diet monitoring (e.g., to be embedded in wearable cameras), we focus our attention on the aspect of the representation of the food images because it plays a fundamental role in the understanding engines. The food retrieval and classification is a challenging task since the food presents high variableness and an intrinsic deformability. To properly study the peculiarities of different image representations we propose the UNICT-FD1200 dataset. It was composed of 4754 food images of 1200 distinct dishes acquired during real meals. Each food plate is acquired multiple times and the overall dataset presents both geometric and photometric variabilities. The images of the dataset have been manually labeled considering 8 categories: Appetizer, Main Course, Second Course, Single Course, Side Dish, Dessert, Breakfast, Fruit. We have performed tests employing different representations of the state-of-the-art to assess the related performances on the UNICT-FD1200 dataset. Finally, we propose a new representation based on the perceptual concept of Anti-Textons which is able to encode spatial information between Textons outperforming other representations in the context of food retrieval and Classification.

  10. Comparative exoplanetology with consistent retrieval methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, Joanna Katy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Sing, David

    2016-10-01

    The number of hot Jupiters with broad wavelength spectroscopic data has finally become large enough to make comparative planetology a reasonable proposition. New results presented by Sing et al. (2016) showcase ten hot Jupiters with spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry from Spitzer, providing insights into the presence of clouds and hazes.Spectral retrieval methods allow interpretation of exoplanet spectra using simple models, with minimal prior assumptions. This is particularly useful for exotic exoplanets, for which we may not yet fully understand the physical processes responsible for their atmospheric characteristics. Consistent spectral retrieval of a range of exoplanets can allow robust comparisons of their derived atmospheric properties.I will present a retrieval analysis using the NEMESIS code (Irwin et al. 2008) of the ten hot Jupiter spectra presented by Sing et al. (2016). The only distinctive aspects of the model for each planet are the mass and radius, and the temperature range explored. All other a priori model parameters are common to all ten objects. We test a range of cloud and haze scenarios, which include: Rayleigh-dominated and grey clouds; different cloud top pressures; and both vertically extended and vertically confined clouds.All ten planets, with the exception of WASP-39b, can be well represented by models with at least some haze or cloud. Our analysis of cloud properties has uncovered trends in cloud top pressure, vertical extent and particle size with planet equilibrium temperature. Taken together, we suggest that these trends indicate condensation and sedimentation of at least two different cloud species across planets of different temperatures, with condensates forming higher up in hotter atmospheres and moving progressively further down in cooler planets.Sing, D. et al. (2016), Nature, 529, 59Irwin, P. G. J. et al. (2008), JQSRT, 109, 1136

  11. Ranked retrieval of Computational Biology models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study of biological systems demands computational support. If targeting a biological problem, the reuse of existing computational models can save time and effort. Deciding for potentially suitable models, however, becomes more challenging with the increasing number of computational models available, and even more when considering the models' growing complexity. Firstly, among a set of potential model candidates it is difficult to decide for the model that best suits ones needs. Secondly, it is hard to grasp the nature of an unknown model listed in a search result set, and to judge how well it fits for the particular problem one has in mind. Results Here we present an improved search approach for computational models of biological processes. It is based on existing retrieval and ranking methods from Information Retrieval. The approach incorporates annotations suggested by MIRIAM, and additional meta-information. It is now part of the search engine of BioModels Database, a standard repository for computational models. Conclusions The introduced concept and implementation are, to our knowledge, the first application of Information Retrieval techniques on model search in Computational Systems Biology. Using the example of BioModels Database, it was shown that the approach is feasible and extends the current possibilities to search for relevant models. The advantages of our system over existing solutions are that we incorporate a rich set of meta-information, and that we provide the user with a relevance ranking of the models found for a query. Better search capabilities in model databases are expected to have a positive effect on the reuse of existing models. PMID:20701772

  12. Electrophysiological Correlates of Word Retrieval in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    DeLaRosa, Bambi L.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Persons who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have word retrieval deficits; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of such deficits are yet to be clarified. Previous studies in normal subjects have shown that during a word retrieval task, there is a 750 msec event-related potential (ERP) divergence detected at the left fronto-temporal region when subjects evaluate word pairs that facilitate retrieval compared with responses elicited by word pairs that do not facilitate retrieval. In this study, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of word retrieval networks in 19 retired professional athletes with TBI and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in the participants during a semantic object retrieval task. In this task, participants indicated whether presented word pairs did (retrieval) or did not (non-retrieval) facilitate the retrieval of an object name. There were no significant differences in accuracy or reaction time between the two groups. The EEG showed a significant group by condition interaction over the left fronto-temporal region. The HC group mean amplitudes were significantly different between conditions, but the TBI group data did not show this difference, suggesting neurophysiological effects of injury. These findings provide evidence that ERP amplitudes may be used as a marker of disrupted semantic retrieval circuits in persons with TBI even when those persons perform normally. PMID:27596052

  13. Electrophysiological Correlates of Word Retrieval in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Fratantoni, Julie M; DeLaRosa, Bambi L; Didehbani, Nyaz; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Persons who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have word retrieval deficits; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of such deficits are yet to be clarified. Previous studies in normal subjects have shown that during a word retrieval task, there is a 750 msec event-related potential (ERP) divergence detected at the left fronto-temporal region when subjects evaluate word pairs that facilitate retrieval compared with responses elicited by word pairs that do not facilitate retrieval. In this study, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of word retrieval networks in 19 retired professional athletes with TBI and 19 healthy control (HC) subjects. We recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in the participants during a semantic object retrieval task. In this task, participants indicated whether presented word pairs did (retrieval) or did not (non-retrieval) facilitate the retrieval of an object name. There were no significant differences in accuracy or reaction time between the two groups. The EEG showed a significant group by condition interaction over the left fronto-temporal region. The HC group mean amplitudes were significantly different between conditions, but the TBI group data did not show this difference, suggesting neurophysiological effects of injury. These findings provide evidence that ERP amplitudes may be used as a marker of disrupted semantic retrieval circuits in persons with TBI even when those persons perform normally.

  14. On the reliability of retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; Bates, Lauren E; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Memory is modified through the act of retrieval. Although retrieving a target piece of information may strengthen the retrieved information itself, it may also serve to weaken retention of related information. This phenomenon, termed retrieval-induced forgetting, has garnered substantial interest for its implications as to why forgetting occurs. The present study attempted to replicate the seminal work by Anderson et al. (1994) on retrieval-induced forgetting, given the apparent sensitivity of the effect to certain deviations from the original paradigm developed to study the phenomenon. The study extends the conditions under which retrieval-induced forgetting has been examined by utilizing both a traditional college undergraduate sample (Experiment 1), along with a more diverse internet sample (Experiment 2). In addition, Experiment 3 details a replication attempt of retrieval-induced forgetting using Anderson and Spellman's (1995) independent cue procedure. Retrieval-induced forgetting was observed when using the traditional retrieval practice paradigm with undergraduate (Experiment 1) and internet (Experiment 2) samples, though the effect was not found when using the independent cue procedure (Experiment 3). Thus, the study can provide an indication as to the robustness of retrieval-induced forgetting to deviations from the traditional college undergraduate samples that have been used in the majority of existing research on the effect.

  15. Neuromodulatory signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Considerable advances have been made toward understanding the molecular signaling events that underlie memory acquisition and consolidation. In contrast, less is known about memory retrieval, despite its necessity for utilizing learned information. This review focuses on neuromodulatory and intracellular signaling events that underlie memory retrieval mediated by the hippocampus, for which the most information is currently available. Among neuromodulators, adrenergic signaling is required for the retrieval of various types of hippocampus-dependent memory. Although they contribute to acquisition and/or consolidation, cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling are generally not required for retrieval. Interestingly, while not required for retrieval, serotonergic and opioid signaling may actually constrain memory retrieval. Roles for histamine and non-opioid neuropeptides are currently unclear but possible. A critical effector of adrenergic signaling in retrieval is reduction of the slow afterhyperpolarization mediated by β1 receptors, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, Epac, and possibly ERK. In contrast, stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval by decreasing cyclic AMP, mediated in part by the activation of β2 -adrenergic receptors. Clinically, alterations in neuromodulatory signaling and in memory retrieval occur in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence has begun to link changes in neuromodulatory signaling with effects on memory retrieval.

  16. The properties of retrieval cues constrain the picture superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Weldon, M S; Roediger, H L; Challis, B H

    1989-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined why pictures are remembered better than words on explicit memory tests like recall and recognition, whereas words produce more priming than pictures on some implicit tests, such as word-fragment and word-stem completion (e.g., completing -l-ph-nt or ele----- as elephant). One possibility is that pictures are always more accessible than words if subjects are given explicit retrieval instructions. An alternative possibility is that the properties of the retrieval cues themselves constrain the retrieval processes engaged; word fragments might induce data-driven (perceptually based) retrieval, which favors words regardless of the retrieval instructions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that words were remembered better than pictures on both the word-fragment and word-stem completion tasks under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions. In Experiment 2, pictures were recalled better than words with semantically related extralist cues. In Experiment 3, when semantic cues were combined with word fragments, pictures and words were recalled equally well under explicit retrieval conditions, but words were superior to pictures under implicit instructions. Thus, the inherently data-limited properties of fragmented words limit their use in accessing conceptual codes. Overall, the results indicate that retrieval operations are largely determined by properties of the retrieval cues under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions.

  17. Transformed Neural Pattern Reinstatement during Episodic Memory Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaoqian; Dong, Qi; Gao, Jiahong; Men, Weiwei; Poldrack, Russell A; Xue, Gui

    2017-03-15

    Contemporary models of episodic memory posit that remembering involves the reenactment of encoding processes. Although encoding-retrieval similarity has been consistently reported and linked to memory success, the nature of neural pattern reinstatement is poorly understood. Using high-resolution fMRI on human subjects, our results obtained clear evidence for item-specific pattern reinstatement in the frontoparietal cortex, even when the encoding-retrieval pairs shared no perceptual similarity. No item-specific pattern reinstatement was found in the ventral visual cortex. Importantly, the brain regions and voxels carrying item-specific representation differed significantly between encoding and retrieval, and the item specificity for encoding-retrieval similarity was smaller than that for encoding or retrieval, suggesting different nature of representations between encoding and retrieval. Moreover, cross-region representational similarity analysis suggests that the encoded representation in the ventral visual cortex was reinstated in the frontoparietal cortex during retrieval. Together, these results suggest that, in addition to reinstatement of the originally encoded pattern in the brain regions that perform encoding processes, retrieval may also involve the reinstatement of a transformed representation of the encoded information. These results emphasize the constructive nature of memory retrieval that helps to serve important adaptive functions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory enables humans to vividly reexperience past events, yet how this is achieved at the neural level is barely understood. A long-standing hypothesis posits that memory retrieval involves the faithful reinstatement of encoding-related activity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the neural representations during encoding and retrieval. We found strong pattern reinstatement in the frontoparietal cortex, but not in the ventral visual cortex, that represents visual details. Critically

  18. Retrieval Algorithms for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Gordley, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) provided high quality measurements of key middle atmosphere constituents, aerosol characteristics, and temperature for 14 years (1991-2005). This report is an outline of the Level 2 retrieval algorithms, and it also describes the great care that was taken in characterizing the instrument prior to launch and throughout its mission life. It represents an historical record of the techniques used to analyze the data and of the steps that must be considered for the development of a similar experiment for future satellite missions.

  19. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  20. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  1. Learned interval time facilitates associate memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue–time–target associations between cue–target pairs and specific cue–target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue–target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue–time associations. We suggest that “elapsed time” can act as a temporal mnemonic associate that can facilitate retrieval of events associated in memory. PMID:28298554

  2. Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval Under Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Lang, R.; Kurum, M.; Joseph, A.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture is recognized as an important component of the water, energy, and carbon cycles at the interface between the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Current baseline soil moisture retrieval algorithms for microwave space missions have been developed and validated only over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. Tree areas have commonly been excluded from operational soil moisture retrieval plans due to the large expected impact of trees on masking the microwave response to the underlying soil moisture. Our understanding of the microwave properties of trees of various sizes and their effect on soil moisture retrieval algorithms at L band is presently limited, although research efforts are ongoing in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere to remedy this situation. As part of this research, a coordinated sequence of field measurements involving the ComRAD (for Combined Radar/Radiometer) active/passive microwave truck instrument system has been undertaken. Jointly developed and operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and George Washington University, ComRAD consists of dual-polarized 1.4 GHz total-power radiometers (LH, LV) and a quad-polarized 1.25 GHz L band radar sharing a single parabolic dish antenna with a novel broadband stacked patch dual-polarized feed, a quad-polarized 4.75 GHz C band radar, and a single channel 10 GHz XHH radar. The instruments are deployed on a mobile truck with an 19-m hydraulic boom and share common control software; real-time calibrated signals, and the capability for automated data collection for unattended operation. Most microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms developed for use at L band frequencies are based on the tau-omega model, a simplified zero-order radiative transfer approach where scattering is largely ignored and vegetation canopies are generally treated as a bulk attenuating layer. In this approach, vegetation effects are parameterized by tau and omega, the microwave

  3. Developments of aerosol retrieval algorithm for Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) and the retrieval accuracy test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Ahn, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Torres, O.

    2013-12-01

    A scanning UV-Visible spectrometer, the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT2B (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) is planned to be launched in geostationary orbit in 2018. The GEMS employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). By taking the advantage, the OMI UV aerosol algorithm has provided information on the absorbing aerosol (Torres et al., 2007; Ahn et al., 2008). This study presents a UV-VIS algorithm to retrieve AOD and SSA from GEMS. The algorithm is based on the general inversion method, which uses pre-calculated look-up table with assumed aerosol properties and measurement condition. To obtain the retrieval accuracy, the error of the look-up table method occurred by the interpolation of pre-calculated radiances is estimated by using the reference dataset, and the uncertainties about aerosol type and height are evaluated. Also, the GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with measured normalized radiance from OMI, a provisional data set for GEMS measurement, and the results are compared with the values from AERONET measurements over Asia. Additionally, the method for simultaneous retrieve of the AOD and aerosol height is discussed.

  4. Modeling the Retrieval Process for an Information Retrieval System Using an Ordinal Fuzzy Linguistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera-Viedma, E.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a linguistic model for an Information Retrieval System (IRS) defined using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach. The query subsystem accepts Boolean queries with terms weighted by ordinal linguistic values and the evaluation subsystem returns documents arranged in relevance classes labeled with ordinal linguistic values. The system gives…

  5. Contributions of the Medial Temporal Lobe to Declarative Memory Retrieval: Manipulating the Amount of Contextual Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira; Arnold, Jennifer; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Weis, Susanne; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernandez, Guillen

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how the hippocampus and its adjacent mediotemporal structures contribute to contextual and noncontextual declarative memory retrieval by manipulating the amount of contextual information across two levels of the same contextual dimension in a source memory task. A first analysis identified medial temporal lobe (MTL) substructures…

  6. Information Storage and Retrieval. Reports on Analysis, Search, and Iterative Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    As the fourteenth report in a series describing research in automatic information storage and retrieval, this document covers work carried out on the SMART project for approximately one year (summer 1967 to summer 1968). The document is divided into four main parts: (1) SMART systems design, (2) analysis and search experiments, (3) user feedback…

  7. Transition to On-Line Information and Reference Retrieval. Experimental Retrieval Systems Studies, Report Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A., Jr.; And Others

    An existing experimental document and reference retrieval system operating in batch processing, tape oriented mode was converted to an on-line mode with user interaction. Objectives were faster response time, integration of functions, and system accessibility at user location. Effects on file organization, addressing techniques, file maintenance,…

  8. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2016-08-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal, or emotional valence, has not been previously investigated. In the current study, participants reported memories in an experimental paradigm designed to elicit voluntary and involuntary memories and rated them on a number of characteristics. If intention affects the retrieval process, then we should expect differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person's mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation.

  9. Dissociating the Electrophysiological Correlates between Item Retrieval and Associative Retrieval in Associative Recognition: From the Perspective of Directed Forgetting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujuan; Mao, Xinrui; Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Although many behavioral studies have reported associative memory was different from item memory, evidence coming from ERP researches has been in debate. In addition, directed forgetting effect for items has been fully discussed, but whether association between items can be directed-forgotten was unclear. The directed forgetting effect was important for dissociating the item retrieval and associative retrieval because of the one-to-one mapping relationship both between item retrieval and familiarity and between associative retrieval and recollection. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the dissociation between item retrieval and associative retrieval and test directed forgetting effect for associative information. Associative recognition paradigm combined with directed forgetting paradigm by ERP recording was employed. Old/rearranged effect in to-be-remembered condition, which was associated with associative memory, was significant at 500-800 ms (LPC) but not at 300-500 ms interval (FN400), indicating that item information was retrieved prior to associative information. The ERP wave calculated by subtracting the to-be-forgotten old pairs with "old" response from those with "rearranged" response, which reflected associative retrieval in the to-be-forgotten condition, was negative from 500 to 800 ms (reversed old/new effect), indicating that association between items can be directed-forgotten. Similar evidence was obtained by contrasting "rearranged" responses aimed to the to-be-forgotten old pairs with those aimed to the to-be-remembered rearranged pairs, which actually represented the complete failure of associative retrieval. Therefore, item retrieval and associative retrieval were indexed by FN400 and LPC respectively, with associative retrieval more inhibited than item retrieval.

  10. Dissociating the Electrophysiological Correlates between Item Retrieval and Associative Retrieval in Associative Recognition: From the Perspective of Directed Forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujuan; Mao, Xinrui; Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Although many behavioral studies have reported associative memory was different from item memory, evidence coming from ERP researches has been in debate. In addition, directed forgetting effect for items has been fully discussed, but whether association between items can be directed-forgotten was unclear. The directed forgetting effect was important for dissociating the item retrieval and associative retrieval because of the one-to-one mapping relationship both between item retrieval and familiarity and between associative retrieval and recollection. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the dissociation between item retrieval and associative retrieval and test directed forgetting effect for associative information. Associative recognition paradigm combined with directed forgetting paradigm by ERP recording was employed. Old/rearranged effect in to-be-remembered condition, which was associated with associative memory, was significant at 500–800 ms (LPC) but not at 300–500 ms interval (FN400), indicating that item information was retrieved prior to associative information. The ERP wave calculated by subtracting the to-be-forgotten old pairs with “old” response from those with “rearranged” response, which reflected associative retrieval in the to-be-forgotten condition, was negative from 500 to 800 ms (reversed old/new effect), indicating that association between items can be directed-forgotten. Similar evidence was obtained by contrasting “rearranged” responses aimed to the to-be-forgotten old pairs with those aimed to the to-be-remembered rearranged pairs, which actually represented the complete failure of associative retrieval. Therefore, item retrieval and associative retrieval were indexed by FN400 and LPC respectively, with associative retrieval more inhibited than item retrieval. PMID:27872605

  11. Efficient Methods to Assimilate Satellite Retrievals Based on Information Content. Part 2; Suboptimal Retrieval Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Dee, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in data assimilation has been and continues to be how best to utilize satellite data while balancing the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost. A number of weather prediction centers have recently achieved remarkable success in improving their forecast skill by changing the method by which satellite data are assimilated into the forecast model from the traditional approach of assimilating retrievals to the direct assimilation of radiances in a variational framework. The operational implementation of such a substantial change in methodology involves a great number of technical details, e.g., pertaining to quality control procedures, systematic error correction techniques, and tuning of the statistical parameters in the analysis algorithm. Although there are clear theoretical advantages to the direct radiance assimilation approach, it is not obvious at all to what extent the improvements that have been obtained so far can be attributed to the change in methodology, or to various technical aspects of the implementation. The issue is of interest because retrieval assimilation retains many practical and logistical advantages which may become even more significant in the near future when increasingly high-volume data sources become available. The central question we address here is: how much improvement can we expect from assimilating radiances rather than retrievals, all other things being equal? We compare the two approaches in a simplified one-dimensional theoretical framework, in which problems related to quality control and systematic error correction are conveniently absent. By assuming a perfect radiative transfer model and perfect knowledge of radiance and background error covariances, we are able to formulate a nonlinear local error analysis for each assimilation method. Direct radiance assimilation is optimal in this idealized context, while the traditional method of assimilating retrievals is suboptimal because it

  12. a Distributed Polygon Retrieval Algorithm Using Mapreduce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Palanisamy, B.; Karimi, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    The burst of large-scale spatial terrain data due to the proliferation of data acquisition devices like 3D laser scanners poses challenges to spatial data analysis and computation. Among many spatial analyses and computations, polygon retrieval is a fundamental operation which is often performed under real-time constraints. However, existing sequential algorithms fail to meet this demand for larger sizes of terrain data. Motivated by the MapReduce programming model, a well-adopted large-scale parallel data processing technique, we present a MapReduce-based polygon retrieval algorithm designed with the objective of reducing the IO and CPU loads of spatial data processing. By indexing the data based on a quad-tree approach, a significant amount of unneeded data is filtered in the filtering stage and it reduces the IO overhead. The indexed data also facilitates querying the relationship between the terrain data and query area in shorter time. The results of the experiments performed in our Hadoop cluster demonstrate that our algorithm performs significantly better than the existing distributed algorithms.

  13. Review on PHOBOS sample retrieval mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Nobuaki

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Phobos sample collection mission is to rendezvous with the Mars satellite Phobos, conduct observation of its surface, and collect and return samples to the Earth. The sample return satellite for achieving the mission will be injected into the Mars revolving orbit by a H-2 launch vehicle and an Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). The satellite will stay on the Phobos surface till the Earth and Mars are in favorable positions relative to each other. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) onboard mission equipment; (2) the mission profile of injection into the revolving orbit of Mars, access to and landing on Phobos, and sample return to the Earth; (3) methods of fixing the satellite on the surface of Phobos; and (4) sample retrieving to the Earth. The following subsystems of the satellite system are reviewed: (1) the electric power subsystem; (2) the data processing communication subsystem; (3) the attitude and orbit control subsystem; (4) the propulsion subsystem; (5) the thermal control subsystem; (6) the structure subsystem; (7) the sample retrieving probe; and (8) the satellite configuration.

  14. Embedding and retrieving private metadata in electrocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Kozat, Suleyman S; Vlachos, Michail; Lucchese, Claudio; Van Herle, Helga; Yu, Philip S

    2009-08-01

    Due to the recent explosion of 'identity theft' cases, the safeguarding of private data has been the focus of many scientific efforts. Medical data contain a number of sensitive attributes, whose access the rightful owner would ideally like to disclose only to authorized personnel. One way of providing limited access to sensitive data is through means of encryption. In this work we follow a different path, by proposing the fusion of the sensitive metadata within the medical data. Our work is focused on medical time-series signals and in particular on Electrocardiograms (ECG). We present techniques that allow the embedding and retrieval of sensitive numerical data, such as the patient's social security number or birth date, within the medical signal. The proposed technique not only allows the effective hiding of the sensitive metadata within the signal itself, but it additionally provides a way of authenticating the data ownership or providing assurances about the origin of the data. Our methodology builds upon watermarking notions, and presents the following desirable characteristics: (a) it does not distort important ECG characteristics, which are essential for proper medical diagnosis, (b) it allows not only the embedding but also the efficient retrieval of the embedded data, (c) it provides resilience and fault tolerance by employing multistage watermarks (both robust and fragile). Our experiments on real ECG data indicate the viability of the proposed scheme.

  15. New Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ackerman, Steven A.; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.; Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. T.; King, Michael D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper I will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of cloud drops and ice crystals. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  16. New Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.; Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun- synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  17. Phase retrieval in the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, W.; Peter, D.; Storz, C.

    Phase retrieval in the focal plane is a very appealing technique, which would simplify the optomechanics of an Adaptive Optics (AO) system a lot and could gain sensitivity under certain conditions. For conventional AO systems the limiting magnitude of the system does not depend on the diameter of the telescope, since any wave front sensor splits the light into sub-apertures, which are in number related to the telescope diameter. Having this in mind the phase retrieval technique looks promising as it breaks this paradigm in the diffraction limited case and thus yields some gain in limiting magnitude with larger telescope diameter. Until now this path was not followed deeply in astronomical AO systems, as the solution of the inversion is non unique and demands much higher calculation power as in conventional AO. This might change with state of the art computers. We give a short overview of some existing techniques and algorithms of focal plane AO and report results of other groups, which tested them in laboratory and on sky. To solve the drawback of the large computational demands and to increase the sensitivity we propose a bootstrapping process with dynamical binning.

  18. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Michael; Molidor, Robert; Sturn, Alexander; Hartler, Juergen; Hackl, Hubert; Stocker, Gernot; Prokesch, Andreas; Scheideler, Marcel; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System) provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS), a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at . PMID:15836795

  19. Wondering PTCA Wire: Retrieval by Tangling Technique.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay; Thakur, Ramesh; Kumar, Prakash; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Razi, Mahmadulla

    2015-04-01

    A 38-year-old man underwent coronary angiography in our institution due to acute myocardial infarction as part of pharmaco-invasive strategy following thrombolysis. The patient showed total occlusion of mid left anterior descending (LAD) artery which was tortuous and calcified. The planned treatment was percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of culprit artery with wire being "jailed" in obtuse marginal branch of left circumflex artery (LCX) as left main was short and because of lesion characteristics. After successful stent implantation in the LAD, the "jailed" wire fractured as guiding catheter got deeply intubated as stent was being deployed in LAD. Initially, two balance middle weight (BMW) wires were used to retrieve but failed. Wire was wondering as it moved to proximal LCX, left main, partly into aortic sinus, sometimes proximal LAD and finally to LCX again during retrieval. Then it was decided to use tangling technique with the help of three BMW wires acting as rescue wires. The proximal ends of all three wires were inserted together in a torque device which were firmly screwed and rotated 40 - 50 times in circular pattern. During this rotational motion, the broken segment was tangled within these rescue wires and all four wires were removed together.

  20. Subsea well with retrievable piping deck

    SciTech Connect

    Pokladnik, R.L.; Valka, W.A.

    1984-03-27

    An apparatus and method for drilling and completing a subsea well located at the seabed using a retrievable piping deck. The apparatus includes a template supported on the seabed, the retrievable piping deck supported on the template, a plurality of wellheads supported on the template and a plurality of Christmas trees supported on the wellheads. The piping deck has preinstalled flow lines and hydraulic lines to conduct well fluid from the Christmas trees to the surface and to conduct hydraulic control fluid from the surface to the trees. In addition to the Christmas trees, a well fluid manifold and a gaseous-liquid component separator can be supported on the template. The fluid connections between the Christmas trees and the hydraulic and flow lines and between the manifold and separator and the hydraulic and flow lines are accomplished by vertically oriented stab-in connectors. After installation of the template and drilling of the wells, the piping deck is lowered independently to the template and coupled thereto and then the Christmas trees and manifold-separator are lowered to the template and into fluid communication with the piping deck hydraulic and flow lines.

  1. A review of iterative phase retrieval for measurement and encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cheng; Wei, Ce; Tan, Jiubin; Chen, Kana; Liu, Shutian; Wu, Qun; Liu, Zhengjun

    2017-02-01

    Phase retrieval technique is regarded as one of the most significant tools to solve optical inverse problems. Several phase retrieval algorithms are discussed in this review. The occurrence of ill-posed conditions often makes the calculation difficult. As a synthesis, the multiple-image phase retrieval technology is invented to obtain more accurate convergence result in iterative computation. The multiple-input retrieval scheme can attach new constraints on convergence as a new limitation. As an indirect measuring method, it will make it possible to reconstruct the distribution of intensity and phase in an imaging or measurement system, where data processing is executed by computer. Moreover, the retrieval method has been applied for image encryption successfully. Finally, the development and application of the iterative phase retrieval are overviewed.

  2. Does retrieval-induced forgetting affect future social behavior?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcelle; Saunders, Jo

    2013-09-01

    The current paper presents an experiment examining the impact of retrieval-induced forgetting on a behavioral test. Participants first studied neutral and positive, or neutral and negative traits about a target and then practiced the neutral traits either via retrieval practice or re-presentation. Participants then were asked to take a seat outside the laboratory before recalling all the traits. Retrieval-induced forgetting was found in the retrieval practice but not the re-presentation condition for the valenced traits and also on the behavioral task with participants who suppressed positive traits choosing to sit further away from the target and participants who suppressed negative traits choosing to sit closer to the target. The findings indicate that retrieval-induced forgetting extends to behavioral tasks and affects the likely execution of a behavior. The findings are discussed in terms of the inhibitory theory of retrieval-induced forgetting.

  3. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory.

  4. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  5. Retrieval-induced forgetting in recall: competitor interference revisited.

    PubMed

    Verde, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Participants studied category-exemplar pairs (FRUIT Cherry, FRUIT Grape) and then practiced some of the items (Cherry). In Experiment 1, practice that involved retrieving the item from memory suppressed recall of related items (Grape), a finding known as the retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect. In Experiment 2, practice that involved studying the item without retrieval produced no RIF effect. Both retrieval and nonretrieval practice facilitated the subsequent recall of practiced items (Cherry). The dissociation between "strengthening" of practiced items and forgetting of related items is thought to be evidence that RIF is the result of inhibition during earlier retrieval attempts rather than interference from competing memories at retrieval. However, simulations of the SAM-REM model show that competitor interference can account for this dissociation. Experiments 3-6 supported the predictions of the model by demonstrating that nonretrieval practice can produce the RIF effect under conditions that emphasize context encoding or increase the number of competitors.

  6. Retrieval of the pancreas allograft for whole-organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fridell, Jonathan A; Powelson, John A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Burke, George W; Sageshima, Junichiro; Rogers, Jeffrey; Stratta, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Proper pancreas retrieval during multi-organ recovery is one of the cornerstones of technically successful whole-organ pancreas transplantation. With evolving surgical approaches for organ retrieval and implantation, it has become standard to procure the pancreas in conjunction with other abdominal organs without compromising either vasculature, graft quality, or transplant outcomes. This review summarizes the major steps required for proper whole-organ retrieval of the pancreas allograft with suggestions and tips whenever alternative approaches are available.

  7. Image selection system. [computerized data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, M. A.; Hurd, D.; Hubble, L.; Kroeck, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An image selection (ISS) was developed for the NASA-Ames Research Center Earth Resources Aircraft Project. The ISS is an interactive, graphics oriented, computer retrieval system for aerial imagery. An analysis of user coverage requests and retrieval strategies is presented, followed by a complete system description. Data base structure, retrieval processors, command language, interactive display options, file structures, and the system's capability to manage sets of selected imagery are described. A detailed example of an area coverage request is graphically presented.

  8. Ozone Profile Retrievals from GOME-2 UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to ultraviolet (UV) measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA Eearth Venture Instrument TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit; the primary purpose of including the second channel is to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval for air quality monitoring. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance. We present retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring and Experiment-2) UV and visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible into the ozone profile algorithm based on existing surface reflectance spectra and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) climatology. We evaluate the retrieval performance of UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval in terms of retrieved lower tropospheric ozone and increase in degree of free for signal (DFS) over the globe in different seasons, and we validate both retrievals against ozonesonde measurements.

  9. Retrieval of constituent mixing ratios from limb thermal emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, William A.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1988-01-01

    An onion-peeling iterative, least-squares relaxation method to retrieve mixing ratio profiles from limb thermal emission spectra is presented. The method has been tested on synthetic data, containing various amounts of added random noise for O3, HNO3, and N2O. The retrieval method is used to obtain O3 and HNO3 mixing ratio profiles from high-resolution thermal emission spectra. Results of the retrievals compare favorably with those obtained previously.

  10. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  11. The Role of NF1 in Memory Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0450 TITLE: The role of NF1 in memory retrieval...The role of NF1 in memory retrieval 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0450 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Yi...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS NF1 , Drosophila, memory, retrieval, mushroom-body 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  12. Neural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Pathman, Thanujeni; Inman, Cory; Campanella, Carolina; Hamann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is a critically important form of memory for life events that undergoes substantial developmental changes from childhood to adulthood. Relatively little is known regarding the functional neural correlates of AM retrieval in children as assessed with fMRI, and how they may differ from adults. We investigated this question with 14 children ages 8-11 years and 14 adults ages 19-30 years, contrasting AM retrieval with semantic memory (SM) retrieval. During scanning, participants were cued by verbal prompts to retrieve previously selected recent AMs or to verify semantic properties of words. As predicted, both groups showed AM retrieval-related increased activation in regions implicated in prior studies, including bilateral hippocampus, and prefrontal, posterior cingulate, and parietal cortices. Adults showed greater activation in the hippocampal/parahippocampal region as well as prefrontal and parietal cortex, relative to children; age-related differences were most prominent in the first 8 sec versus the second 8 sec of AM retrieval and when AM retrieval was contrasted with semantic retrieval. This study is the first to characterise similarities and differences during AM retrieval in children and adults using fMRI.

  13. Concept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Norman T. Raczka

    2001-07-02

    The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

  14. A Semantic Medical Multimedia Retrieval Approach Using Ontology Information Hiding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches. PMID:24082915

  15. A linear phase retrieval wave-front sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Li, Xin-Yang; Jiang, Wen-Han

    2008-12-01

    A method to retrieve small phase aberration from a single far-field image is proposed. It only needs to calibrate the inherent aberration of the imaging system once, and then the difference between a single measured image with aberration and the calibrated image with inherent aberration is got to retrieve the disturbed phase aberration by an approximate linear relationship. Computer simulations are employed to analyze the performance of this linear phase retrieval (LPR) wave-front sensor. The dynamic range of this method is discussed without noise to judge how small it is needed to satisfy the method. The results show that the proposed small phase retrieval method works well when the RMS phase error is less than 1.6 rad. The Linear Phase Retrieval wave-front sensor and the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor are compared on the same stochastic wave-front aberration. The influence of different calculation condition on the retrieval results is compared and analyzed. After analyzing the target resolution, it is thought that a reasonable target size is advantageous to the retrieval precision. At the same time, the LPR sensor can realize the alike precision measurement by using less detect cell, such as 8 pixelx8 pixel in our experiment. From the retrieval results of different orders, the error rate are less than 0.25 and it is comparatively accurate to retrieve pre-35 order aberrations.

  16. The Effect of Episodic Retrieval on Inhibition in Task Switching.

    PubMed

    Grange, James A; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka W; O'Loughlin, Rory

    2017-04-06

    Inhibition in task switching is inferred from n-2 repetition costs: the observation that ABA task switching sequences are responded to slower than CBA sequences. This is thought to reflect the persisting inhibition of Task A, which slows reactivation attempts. Mayr (2002) reported an experiment testing a critical noninhibitory account of this effect, namely episodic retrieval: If the trial parameters for Task A match across an ABA sequence, responses should be facilitated because of priming from episodic retrieval; a cost would occur if trial parameters mismatch. In a rule-switching paradigm, Mayr reported no significant difference in n-2 repetition cost when the trial parameters repeated or switched across an ABA sequence, in clear contrast to the episodic retrieval account. What remains unclear is whether successful episodic retrieval modulates the n-2 repetition cost. Across 3 experiments-including a close replication of Mayr-we find clear evidence of reduced n-2 task repetition costs when episodic retrieval is controlled. We find that the effect of episodic retrieval on the n-2 task repetition cost is increased when the cue-task relationship is made more abstract, suggesting the effect is because of interference in establishing the relevant attentional set. We also demonstrate that the episodic retrieval effect is not influenced by retrieval of low-level, perceptual, elements. Together, the data suggest the n-2 task repetition cost-typically attributable to an inhibitory mechanism-also reflects episodic retrieval effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Difficult OptEase Filter Retrievals After Prolonged Indwelling Times

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ha, Thuong G. Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure.ResultsThere were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology.ConclusionUnconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times.

  18. The subjective experience of retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to examine whether the lower accessibility of studied items (Rp-) that follows retrieval practice with studied items from the same category (Rp+; retrieval-induced forgetting) is correctly monitored by our cognitive system. If monitored, lower confidence for Rp- items would be expected which, in turn, would allow the control of the retrieval-induced forgetting through the report option. In Experiment 1 the standard retrieval-practice paradigm with categorised word lists was followed by a recognition test with confidence rating and the option to report or withhold the answer. Accuracy showed retrieval-induced forgetting, but there were no differences in confidence. The report option did not affect retrieval-induced forgetting. The confidence-accuracy dissociation could be due to a correct monitoring of the retrieval-induced forgetting joined with a factor that incorrectly increases confidence for Rp- items. Familiarity with the practised category was proposed as this factor and tested in Experiment 2. Despite presenting the categories more times during the retrieval-practice phase to increase their familiarity, confidence ratings were unaffected. In conclusion, this research suggests that retrieval-induced forgetting was not monitored, giving rise to a confidence-accuracy dissociation.

  19. Inter-comparison between AIRS and IASI through Retrieved Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A State-of-the-art retrieval algorithm dealing with all-weather conditions has been applied to satellite/aircraft instruments retrieving cloud/surface and atmospheric conditions. High quality retrievals have been achieved from IASI data. Surface, cloud, and atmospheric structure and variation are well captured by IASI measurements and/or retrievals. The same retrieval algorithm is also applied to AIRS for retrieval inter-comparison. Both AIRS and IASI have a similar FOV size but AIRS has a higher horizontal resolution. AIRS data can be interpolated to IASI horizontal resolution for inter-comparison at the same geophysical locations, however a temporal variation between AIRS and IASI observations need to be considered. JAIVEx has employed aircraft to obtain the atmospheric variation filling the temporal gap between two satellites. First results show that both AIRS and IASI have a very similar vertical resolving power, atmospheric conditions are well captured by both instruments, and radiances are well calibrated. AIRS data shown in retrievals (e.g., surface emissivity and moisture) have a relatively higher noise level. Since the this type of retrieval is very sensitive to its radiance quality, retrieval products inter-comparison is an effective way to identify/compare their radiance quality, in terms of a combination of spectral resolution and noise level, and to assess instrument performance. Additional validation analyses are needed to provide more-definitive conclusions.

  20. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion.

    PubMed

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical.

  1. A new design of the retrievable vena cava filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Zhang, Xiwen; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2012-11-01

    Retrievable vena cava filters are invented to minimize surgical traumas to patients. However, in reality the deployed filter may firmly adhere to the vena cava due to tissue in-growth into the filter, which will breach the original concept of retrieving the filter by minimal invasive surgery. We hypothesize that if we can invent a filter with a part of supporting feet that is made of biodegradable materials and can be detached from the main body of the filter during the filter retrieval, the retrieval damage problem to the vena cava might be solved.

  2. A semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach using ontology information hiding.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches.

  3. Cross state-dependent retrieval between histamine and lithium.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Fazli-Tabaei, Soheila; Khalilzadeh, Azita; Farahmanfar, Maryam; Yahyavi, Seyed-Hossein

    2005-09-15

    Histamine and lithium state-dependent (StD) retrieval of passive avoidance task and their interactions was examined in mice. The pre-training or pre-test intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (20 microg/mouse) impaired retrieval when it was tested 24 h later. In the animals, in which retrieval was impaired due to histamine pre-training administration, pre-test administration of histamine, with the same dose, restored retrieval. The H1 blocker, pyrilamine (20 microg/mouse, i.c.v.), but not the H(2) blocker; ranitidine prevented the restoration of retrieval by pre-test histamine. The pre-training (5 and 10 mg/kg) or pre-test (5 mg/kg) injection of lithium also impaired retrieval, when it was tested 24 h later. In the animals that received lithium (5 mg/kg) or histamine (20 microg/mouse) as pre-training treatment, administration of histamine, clobenpropit or lithium, respectively, resulted in restoration of memory retrieval. Neither pyrilamine nor ranitidine prevented the restoration of retrieval by pre-test lithium. In conclusion, histamine or lithium can induce state-dependent retrieval and a cross-StD exists between these drugs, which may be mediated through the inositol pathway.

  4. A Slow Retrieval Algorithm for Satellite and Surface Based Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, C.; Flittner, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a retrieval algorithm for satellite and ground based instruments using the Arizona radiative transfer code. A state vector describing the atmospheric and surface condition is iteratively modified until the calculated radiances match the observed values. Elements of the state vector include: aerosol concentrations, radius, optical properties, mass-weighted altitudes, chlorophyll concentration and wind speed. While computationally expensive, many assumptions used in other retrieval algorithms are not invoked. We present co-located retrievals for MODIS, SEAWIFS and nearby AERONET sites. MODIS AQUA and SEA WIFS: Ten MODIS (.412 - 2.110 microns) and eight SEA WIFS (.412-.865 microns) radiances (.412-.865 microns) include channels where aerosols absorb and reflect radiation. We focus on retrieving bio-mass burning aerosols that are advected over open ocean. Since chlorophyll absorbs at frequencies where black carbon absorbs, our retrieval algorithm accounts for chlorophyll absorption by simultaneously retrieving both aerosol and chlorophyll amount. Our retrieved chlorophyll concentrations are similar to those from the Ocean Color Group. AERONET: Both Almucantar and Principle plane radiances are used to retrieve the state of the atmosphere and ocean conditions. Our retrieved aerosol size distributions and optical properties are consistent with the aerosol inversions from the AERONET group.

  5. Kansei image retrieval based on region of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Ni, Lin

    2005-10-01

    Kansei image retrieval is a new kind of retrieval technology with high complexity. However, it's likely that only some parts of the image would attract people and produce affections. Color imposes a great impact upon the feeling as the basic feature of image, and the entropy of the image also exhibits the information quantity. In this paper, we present a method of kansei image retrieval utilizing the color and entropy to extract regions of interest (ROI). Back propagation neural network is employed to map the color and entropy of ROI to affective feature space. Finally, we show some experimental results of ROI extraction and kansei image retrieval based on interest.

  6. The potential of clear-sky carbon dioxide satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert R.; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Taylor, Thomas E.; Mandrake, Lukas; Smyth, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Since the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) in 2009, retrieval algorithms designed to infer the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) from hyperspectral near-infrared observations of reflected sunlight have been greatly improved. They now generally include the scattering effects of clouds and aerosols, as early work found that absorption-only retrievals, which neglected these effects, often incurred unacceptably large errors, even for scenes with optically thin cloud or aerosol layers. However, these "full-physics" retrievals tend to be computationally expensive and may incur biases from trying to deduce the properties of clouds and aerosols when there are none present. Additionally, algorithms are now available that can quickly and effectively identify and remove most scenes in which cloud or aerosol scattering plays a significant role. In this work, we test the hypothesis that non-scattering, or "clear-sky", retrievals may perform as well as full-physics retrievals for sufficiently clear scenes. Clear-sky retrievals could potentially avoid errors and biases brought about by trying to infer properties of clouds and aerosols when none are present. Clear-sky retrievals are also desirable because they are orders of magnitude faster than full-physics retrievals. Here we use a simplified version of the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) XCO2 retrieval algorithm that does not include the scattering and absorption effects of clouds or aerosols. It was found that for simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) measurements, the clear-sky retrieval had errors comparable to those of the full-physics retrieval. For real GOSAT data, the clear-sky retrieval had errors 0-20 % larger than the full-physics retrieval over land and errors roughly 20-35 % larger over ocean, depending on filtration level. In general, the clear-sky retrieval had XCOPolarimetric Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Number Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, K.; Cairns, B.; Hair, J. W.; Hu, Y.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is one of the most significant microphysical properties of liquid clouds and is essential for the understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction. It impacts radiative forcing, cloud evolution, precipitation, global climate and, through observation, can be used to monitor the cloud albedo effect, or the first indirect effect. The IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report continues to consider aerosol-cloud interactions as one of the largest uncertainties in radiative forcing of climate. The SABOR experiment, which was a NASA-led ship and air campaign off the east coast of the United States during July and August of 2014, provided an opportunity for the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) to develop and cross-validate a new approach of sensing CDNC with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RSP is an airborne prototype of the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) that was on-board the Glory satellite. It is a scanning sensor that provides high-precision measurements of polarized and full-intensity radiances at multiple angles over a wide spectral range. The distinctive feature of the polarimetric technique is that it does not make any assumption of the liquid water profile within the cloud. The approach involves (1) estimating the droplet size distribution from polarized reflectance observations in the rainbow, (2) using polarized reflectance to estimate above cloud water vapor and total reflectance to find how much near infra-red light is being absorbed in clouds, (3) finding cloud physical thickness from the absorption and cloud top pressure retrievals assuming a saturated mixing ratio for water vapor and (4) determining the cloud droplet number concentration from the physical thickness and droplet size distribution retrievals. An overview of the polarimetric technique will be presented along with the results of applying the new approach to SABOR campaign data. An analysis of the algorithm's performance when compared with the HSRL

  7. MScanner: a classifier for retrieving Medline citations

    PubMed Central

    Poulter, Graham L; Rubin, Daniel L; Altman, Russ B; Seoighe, Cathal

    2008-01-01

    Background Keyword searching through PubMed and other systems is the standard means of retrieving information from Medline. However, ad-hoc retrieval systems do not meet all of the needs of databases that curate information from literature, or of text miners developing a corpus on a topic that has many terms indicative of relevance. Several databases have developed supervised learning methods that operate on a filtered subset of Medline, to classify Medline records so that fewer articles have to be manually reviewed for relevance. A few studies have considered generalisation of Medline classification to operate on the entire Medline database in a non-domain-specific manner, but existing applications lack speed, available implementations, or a means to measure performance in new domains. Results MScanner is an implementation of a Bayesian classifier that provides a simple web interface for submitting a corpus of relevant training examples in the form of PubMed IDs and returning results ranked by decreasing probability of relevance. For maximum speed it uses the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and journal of publication as a concise document representation, and takes roughly 90 seconds to return results against the 16 million records in Medline. The web interface provides interactive exploration of the results, and cross validated performance evaluation on the relevant input against a random subset of Medline. We describe the classifier implementation, cross validate it on three domain-specific topics, and compare its performance to that of an expert PubMed query for a complex topic. In cross validation on the three sample topics against 100,000 random articles, the classifier achieved excellent separation of relevant and irrelevant article score distributions, ROC areas between 0.97 and 0.99, and averaged precision between 0.69 and 0.92. Conclusion MScanner is an effective non-domain-specific classifier that operates on the entire Medline database, and is suited to

  8. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2.

  9. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  10. Inferior vena cava filter retrievals, standard and novel techniques

    PubMed Central

    Walker, T. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The placement of an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is a well-established management strategy for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease in whom anticoagulant therapy is either contraindicated or has failed. IVC filters may also be placed for VTE prophylaxis in certain circumstances. There has been a tremendous growth in placement of retrievable IVC filters in the past decade yet the majority of the devices are not removed. Unretrieved IVC filters have several well-known complications that increase in frequency as the filter dwell time increases. These complications include caval wall penetration, filter fracture or migration, caval thrombosis and an increased risk for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Difficulty is sometimes encountered when attempting to retrieve indwelling filters, mainly because of either abnormal filter positioning or endothelization of filter components that are in contact with the IVC wall, thereby causing the filter to become embedded. The length of time that a filter remains indwelling also impacts the retrieval rate, as increased dwell times are associated with more difficult retrievals. Several techniques for difficult retrievals have been described in the medical literature. These techniques range from modifications of standard retrieval techniques to much more complex interventions. Complications related to complex retrievals are more common than those associated with standard retrieval techniques. The risks of complex filter retrievals should be compared with those of life-long anticoagulation associated with an unretrieved filter, and should be individualized. This article summarizes current techniques for IVC filter retrieval from a clinical point of view, with an emphasis on advanced retrieval techniques. PMID:28123984

  11. SEOM's Sentinel-3/OLCI' project CAWA: advanced GRASP aerosol retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, Oleg; litvinov, Pavel; Huang, Xin; Aspetsberger, Michael; Fuertes, David; Brockmann, Carsten; Fischer, Jürgen; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    The CAWA "Advanced Clouds, Aerosols and WAter vapour products for Sentinel-3/OLCI" ESA-SEOM project aims on the development of advanced atmospheric retrieval algorithms for the Sentinel-3/OLCI mission, and is prepared using Envisat/MERIS and Aqua/MODIS datasets. This presentation discusses mainly CAWA aerosol product developments and results. CAWA aerosol retrieval uses recently developed GRASP algorithm (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) algorithm described by Dubovik et al. (2014). GRASP derives extended set of atmospheric parameters using multi-pixel concept - a simultaneous fitting of a large group of pixels under additional a priori constraints limiting the time variability of surface properties and spatial variability of aerosol properties. Over land GRASP simultaneously retrieves properties of both aerosol and underlying surface even over bright surfaces. GRAPS doesn't use traditional look-up-tables and performs retrieval as search in continuous space of solution. All radiative transfer calculations are performed as part of the retrieval. The results of comprehensive sensitivity tests, as well as results obtained from real Envisat/MERIS data will be presented. The tests analyze various aspects of aerosol and surface reflectance retrieval accuracy. In addition, the possibilities of retrieval improvement by means of implementing synergetic inversion of a combination of OLCI data with observations by SLSTR are explored. Both the results of numerical tests, as well as the results of processing several years of Envisat/MERIS data illustrate demonstrate reliable retrieval of AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) and surface BRDF. Observed retrieval issues and advancements will be discussed. For example, for some situations we illustrate possibilities of retrieving aerosol absorption - property that hardly accessible from satellite observations with no multi-angular and polarimetric capabilities.

  12. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test.

  13. Techniques for Intravascular Foreign Body Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Joe B.; Uberoi, Raman

    2013-08-01

    As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials.

  14. Phase Retrieval Techniques In Coordinates Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Harizanova, J. I.; Stoykova, E. V.; Sainov, V. C.

    2007-04-23

    A precise pattern projection profilometry for three-dimensional shape measurements with different methods of fringe generation is presented. The application of phase-shifting algorithm along with two-spacing illumination allow for phase retrieval and estimation of relative and absolute coordinates of the tested samples. The following experimental approaches for fringe generation are investigated: interferometric approach based on a classical Michelson interferometer, digital computation with a DMD projection and light modulation by a sinusoidal phase grating. The theoretical background, experimental results as well as comparison of the applied generation methods are analyzed. The obtained outcomes successfully display the applicability of this technique for surface profile measurement. The application of the proposed techniques for remote, non-destructive in-situ inspection of real objects from cultural heritage is discussed.

  15. AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    AIRS Retrieved Temperature Isotherms over Southern Europe viewed from the west, September 8, 2002. The isotherms in this map made from AIRS data show regions of the same temperature in the atmosphere.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Efficient search and retrieval in biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhatre, Amit J.; Palla, Srinivas; Chikkerur, Sharat; Govindaraju, Venu

    2005-03-01

    Biometric identification has emerged as a reliable means of controlling access to both physical and virtual spaces. Fingerprints, face and voice biometrics are being increasingly used as alternatives to passwords, PINs and visual verification. In spite of the rapid proliferation of large-scale databases, the research has thus far been focused only on accuracy within small databases. In larger applications, response time and retrieval efficiency also become important in addition to accuracy. Unlike structured information such as text or numeric data that can be sorted, biometric data does not have any natural sorting order. Therefore indexing and binning of biometric databases represents a challenging problem. We present results using parallel combination of multiple biometrics to bin the database. Using hand geometry and signature features we show that the search space can be reduced to just 5% of the entire database.

  17. Content-Based Image Retrieval in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Deserno, Thomas M.; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) technology has been proposed to benefit not only the management of increasingly large image collections, but also to aid clinical care, biomedical research, and education. Based on a literature review, we conclude that there is widespread enthusiasm for CBIR in the engineering research community, but the application of this technology to solve practical medical problems is a goal yet to be realized. Furthermore, we highlight “gaps” between desired CBIR system functionality and what has been achieved to date, present for illustration a comparative analysis of four state-of-the-art CBIR implementations using the gap approach, and suggest that high-priority gaps to be overcome lie in CBIR interfaces and functionality that better serve the clinical and biomedical research communities. PMID:20523757

  18. Multilevel architectures for electronic document retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Rome, J.A.; Tolliver, J.S.

    1997-04-01

    Traditionally, most classified computer systems run at the highest level of any of the data on the system, and all users must be cleared to this security level. This architecture precludes the use of low-level (pay and clearance) personnel for such tasks as data entry, and makes sharing data with other entities difficult. The government is trying to solve this problem by the introduction of multilevel-secure (MLS) computer systems. In addition, wherever possible, there is pressure to use commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) to improve reliability, and to reduce purchase and maintenance costs. This paper presents two architectures for an MLS electronic document retrieval system using COTS products. Although the authors believe that the resulting systems represent a real advance in usability, scaleability, and scope, the disconnect between existing security rules and regulations and the rapidly-changing state of technology will make accreditation of such systems a challenge.

  19. Satellite Multiangle Cumulus Geometry Retrieval: Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail

    2003-02-08

    Most satellite-based analyses have been conducted using near nadir-viewing sensors. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), recently launched on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Terra platform, provides high-resolution measurements of reflectance at nine different viewing angles. In this study, we examine the possible retrieval of detailed cumulus geometry using the new and unique MISR datasets. We suggested one approach and apply it to an early MISR dataset of small marine cumulus clouds. This paper also presents validation analysis of this technique with both independent ground-based radar measurements and a model-output inverse problem. Collocated and coincident MISR data and ground-based observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site form the basis of this validation. Future work will attempt to test the suggested approach with additional MISR scenes.