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Sample records for gurmarin-sensitive taste nerve

  1. Tasting

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    ... buds. The taste buds are linked to the brain by nerve fibers. Food particles are detected by ... taste buds, which send nerve signals to the brain. Certain areas of the tongue are more sensitive ...

  2. Role of neurotrophin in the taste system following gustatory nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Jiang, Xin; Ji, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Taste system is a perfect system to study degeneration and regeneration after nerve injury because the taste system is highly plastic and the regeneration is robust. Besides, degeneration and regeneration can be easily measured since taste buds arise in discrete locations, and nerves that innervate them can be accurately quantified. Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that regulate neural survival, function, and plasticity after nerve injury. Recent studies have shown that neurotrophins play an important role in the developmental and mature taste system, indicating neurtrophin might also regulate taste system following gustatory nerve injury. This review will summarize how taste system degenerates and regenerates after gustatory nerve cut and conclude potential roles of neurotrophin in regulating the process.

  3. Reactive microglia after taste nerve injury: comparison to nerve injury models of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Dianna L; Finger, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The chorda tympani (CT), which innervates taste buds on the anterior portion of the tongue, is susceptible to damage during inner ear surgeries. Injury to the CT causes a disappearance of taste buds, which is concurrent with significant microglial responses at central nerve terminals in the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS). The resulting taste disturbances that can occur may persist for months or years, long after the nerve and taste buds have regenerated. These persistent changes in taste sensation suggest alterations in central functioning and may be related to the microglial responses. This is reminiscent of nerve injuries that result in chronic pain, where microglial reactivity is essential in maintaining the altered sensation (i.e., pain). In these models, methods that diminish microglial responses also diminish the corresponding pain behavior. Although the CT nerve does not contain nociceptive pain fibers, the microglial reactivity after CT damage is similar to that described in pain models. Therefore, methods that decrease microglial responses in pain models were used here to test if they could also affect microglial reactivity after CT injury. Treatment with minocycline, an antibiotic that dampens pain responsive microglia, was largely ineffective in diminishing microglial responses after CT injury. In addition, signaling through the toll-like 4 receptor (TLR4) does not seem to be required after CT injury as blocking or deleting TLR4 had no effect on microglial reactivity. These results suggest that microglial responses following CT injury rely on different signaling mechanisms than those described in nerve injuries resulting in chronic pain.

  4. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  5. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-02

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response.

  6. Evoked taste thresholds in a normal population and the application of electrogustometry to trigeminal nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R; Ferguson, M M; Strang, R; Turner, J W; Bone, I

    1987-01-01

    No standardised method for taste threshold measurement is available and therefore comparison between clinical studies is difficult. An electrogustometer was evaluated in normal subjects. No sex difference in taste threshold was noted; however, there was a significant elevation in detection threshold with age and smoking. Electrogustometric values both in patients before and after surgery for trigeminal neuralgia and in patients with trigeminal sensory neuropathy were determined. Many patients with trigeminal nerve disorders had abnormal electrogustometric detection thresholds suggesting that there is possibly an accessory taste pathway through the trigeminal nerve, although in some individuals the site of lesion may be in the brain stem. Electrogustometry is a convenient method for clinically assessing taste. Images PMID:3819752

  7. An Analysis of Hamster Afferent Taste Nerve Response Functions

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion

    1973-01-01

    Sensitivities to moderately intense stimuli representing four taste qualities to man were determined for 79 hamster chorda tympani fibers. Some fibers were very sensitive to sucrose, sodium chloride, or hydrochloric acid, but none were very sensitive to quinine. These sensitivities were not randomly distributed among fibers: the sucrose sensitivity was separated from and negatively correlated with the other sensitivities which were associated and positively correlated with each other. Moreover, there were a limited number of sensitivity patterns: (a) fibers responding best to sucrose responded second-best to salt, less to acid, not to quinine; (b) fibers responding best to salt either responded second-best to sucrose and not to acid or quinine; or second-best to acid, less to quinine, and not to sucrose; and (c) fibers responding best to acid responded second-best to salt, more to quinine, and less to sucrose than other fibers. Therefore, if four stimuli of different taste qualities are ordered from acceptable to unacceptable, neural response functions of most hamster chorda tympani taste fibers peak at one point. Sensitivities to nine other moderately intense stimuli which vary in quality to man were also determined for 46–49 of the fibers. Sensitivities to sweet stimuli were always associated with each other and separated from sensitivities to nonsweet stimuli. Sensitivities to nonsweet stimuli were all associated with each other; however, the strongest correlations were between sensitivities to stimuli of like quality, e.g., the three acids or the two sodium salts. PMID:4705639

  8. The organization of taste sensibilities in hamster chorda tympani nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Frank, ME; Bieber, SL; Smith, DV

    1988-01-01

    Electrophysiological measurements of nerve impulse frequencies were used to explore the organization of taste sensibilities in single fibers of the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Moderately intense taste solutions that are either very similar or easily discriminated were applied to the anterior lingual surface. 40 response profiles or 13 stimulus activation patterns were considered variables and examined with multivariate statistical techniques. Three kinds of response profiles were seen in fibers that varied in their overall sensitivity to taste solutions. One profile (S) showed selectivity for sweeteners, a second (N) showed selectivity for sodium salts, and a third (H) showed sensitivity to salts, acids, and other compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that profiles fell into discrete classes. Responses to many pairs of effective stimuli were covariant across profiles within a class, but some acidic stimuli had more idiosyncratic effects. Factor analysis of profiles identified two common factors, accounting for 77% of the variance. A unipolar factor was identified with the N profile, and a bipolar factor was identified with the S profile and its opposite, the H profile. Three stimulus activation patterns were elicited by taste solutions that varied in intensity of effect. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that the patterns fell into discrete classes. Factor analysis of patterns identified three common unipolar factors accounting for 82% of the variance. Eight stimuli (MgSO4, NH4Cl, KCl, citric acid, acetic acid, urea, quinine HCl, HCl) selectively activated fibers with H profiles, three stimuli (fructose, Na saccharin, sucrose) selectively activated fibers with S profiles, and two stimuli (NaNO3, NaCl) activated fibers with N profiles more strongly than fibers with H profiles. Stimuli that evoke different patterns taste distinct to hamsters. Stimuli that evoke the same pattern taste more similar. It was concluded that the hundreds of peripheral

  9. Postsynaptic P2X3-containing receptors in gustatory nerve fibres mediate responses to all taste qualities in mice.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Larson, Eric D; Anderson, Catherine B; Smith, Steven A; Ford, Anthony P; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-03-01

    Taste buds release ATP to activate ionotropic purinoceptors composed of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits, present on the taste nerves. Mice with genetic deletion of P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (double knockout mice) lack responses to all taste stimuli presumably due to the absence of ATP-gated receptors on the afferent nerves. Recent experiments on the double knockout mice showed, however, that their taste buds fail to release ATP, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic deficits in these global knockouts. To test further the role of postsynaptic P2X receptors in afferent signalling, we used AF-353, a selective antagonist of P2X3-containing receptors to inhibit the receptors acutely during taste nerve recording and behaviour. The specificity of AF-353 for P2X3-containing receptors was tested by recording Ca(2+) transients to exogenously applied ATP in fura-2 loaded isolated geniculate ganglion neurons from wild-type and P2X3 knockout mice. ATP responses were completely inhibited by 10 μm or 100 μm AF-353, but neither concentration blocked responses in P2X3 single knockout mice wherein the ganglion cells express only P2X2-containing receptors. Furthermore, AF-353 had no effect on taste-evoked ATP release from taste buds. In wild-type mice, i.p. injection of AF-353 or simple application of the drug directly to the tongue, inhibited taste nerve responses to all taste qualities in a dose-dependent fashion. A brief access behavioural assay confirmed the electrophysiological results and showed that preference for a synthetic sweetener, SC-45647, was abolished following i.p. injection of AF-353. These data indicate that activation of P2X3-containing receptors is required for transmission of all taste qualities.

  10. Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T

    1981-01-01

    The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments.

  11. Alteration of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takashi; Fujii, Akihiko; Saito, Naoko; Kondo, Hidehiko; Ohuchi, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Salt taste sensitivity is related to physiological condition, and declined in hypertensive patients. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying changes in salt taste sensitivity during the development of hypertension. This is largely due to lack of an appropriate animal model which shows the decline of salt taste sensitivity caused by hypertension. Previous studies have suggested that one of main causes of salt-sensitive hypertension is dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). To examine the involvement of RAAS in modulation of salt taste sensitivity, we utilized aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats as a well-established model of salt-sensitive hypertension caused by RAAS dysfunction. Amount of sodium intake in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats was higher than that in control rats. In addition to behavioral changes, the amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats were remarkably lower by approximately 90% than those in the other groups. Moreover, αENaC mRNA expression in the epithelium of circumvallate papillae was significantly low in aldosterone/NaCl-treated rats. Thus, RAAS modulates salt taste system as is case in hypertensive patients. This report is to our knowledge the first to describe an animal model with decline of amiloride-sensitive salt taste nerve responses by RAAS dysfunction-mediated salt-sensitive hypertension.

  12. Postsynaptic P2X3-containing receptors in gustatory nerve fibres mediate responses to all taste qualities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Larson, Eric D; Anderson, Catherine B; Smith, Steven A; Ford, Anthony P; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Taste buds release ATP to activate ionotropic purinoceptors composed of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits, present on the taste nerves. Mice with genetic deletion of P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (double knockout mice) lack responses to all taste stimuli presumably due to the absence of ATP-gated receptors on the afferent nerves. Recent experiments on the double knockout mice showed, however, that their taste buds fail to release ATP, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic deficits in these global knockouts. To test further the role of postsynaptic P2X receptors in afferent signalling, we used AF-353, a selective antagonist of P2X3-containing receptors to inhibit the receptors acutely during taste nerve recording and behaviour. The specificity of AF-353 for P2X3-containing receptors was tested by recording Ca2+ transients to exogenously applied ATP in fura-2 loaded isolated geniculate ganglion neurons from wild-type and P2X3 knockout mice. ATP responses were completely inhibited by 10 μm or 100 μm AF-353, but neither concentration blocked responses in P2X3 single knockout mice wherein the ganglion cells express only P2X2-containing receptors. Furthermore, AF-353 had no effect on taste-evoked ATP release from taste buds. In wild-type mice, i.p. injection of AF-353 or simple application of the drug directly to the tongue, inhibited taste nerve responses to all taste qualities in a dose-dependent fashion. A brief access behavioural assay confirmed the electrophysiological results and showed that preference for a synthetic sweetener, SC-45647, was abolished following i.p. injection of AF-353. These data indicate that activation of P2X3-containing receptors is required for transmission of all taste qualities. Key points Acute inhibition of purinergic receptors with a selective P2X3 antagonist prevents transmission of information from taste buds to sensory nerves. The P2X3 antagonist has no effect on taste-evoked release of ATP, confirming the effect is postsynaptic. The

  13. TRPM5-dependent amiloride- and benzamil-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani taste nerve response.

    PubMed

    Ren, ZuoJun; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Murthy, Karnam S; Grider, John R; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2013-07-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) cation channel is involved in sensing sweet, bitter, umami, and fat taste stimuli, complex-tasting divalent salts, and temperature-induced changes in sweet taste. To investigate if the amiloride- and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive NaCl chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve response is also regulated in part by TRPM5, CT responses to 100 mM NaCl + 5 μM Bz (NaCl + Bz) were monitored in Sprague-Dawley rats, wild-type (WT) mice, and TRP vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice in the presence of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. In rats, NaCl + Bz + RTX CT responses were also monitored in the presence of triphenylphosphine oxide, a specific TRPM5 blocker, and capsazepine and N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamid (SB-366791), specific TRPV1 blockers. In rats and WT mice, RTX produced biphasic effects on the NaCl + Bz CT response, enhancing the response at 0.5-1 μM and inhibiting it at >1 μM. The NaCl + Bz + SB-366791 CT response in rats and WT mice and the NaCl + Bz CT response in TRPV1 KO mice were inhibited to baseline level and were RTX-insensitive. In rats, blocking TRPV1 by capsazepine or TRPM5 by triphenylphosphine oxide inhibited the tonic NaCl + Bz CT response and shifted the relationship between RTX concentration and the magnitude of the tonic CT response to higher RTX concentrations. TRPM5 KO mice elicited no constitutive NaCl + Bz tonic CT response. The relationship between RTX concentration and the magnitude of the tonic NaCl + Bz CT response was significantly attenuated and shifted to higher RTX concentrations. The results suggest that pharmacological or genetic alteration of TRPM5 activity modulates the Bz-insensitive NaCl CT response and its modulation by TRPV1 agonists.

  14. The effects of dietary protein restriction on chorda tympani nerve taste responses and terminal field organization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Hill, D L

    2008-11-19

    Prenatal dietary sodium restriction produces profound developmental effects on rat functional taste responses and formation of neural circuits in the brainstem. Converging evidence indicates that the underlying mechanisms for these effects are related to a compromised nutritional state and not to direct stimulus-receptor interactions. We explored whether early malnourishment produces similar functional and structural effects to those seen following dietary sodium restriction by using a protein deficient, sodium replete diet. To determine if early dietary protein-restriction affects the development of the peripheral gustatory system, multi-fiber neurophysiological recordings were made from the chorda tympani nerve and anterograde track tracing of the chorda tympani nerve into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) was accomplished in rats fed a protein-restricted or a control diet (6% and 20%, respectively). The dietary regimens began on embryonic day 7 and continued until rats were used for neurophysiological recordings (postnatal days (P) 35-50) or for chorda tympani terminal field labeling (P40-50). Responses to a concentration series of NaCl, sodium acetate, KCl, and to 0.50 M sucrose, 0.03 M quinine-HCl, and 0.01 N HCl revealed attenuated responses (30-60%) to sodium-specific stimuli in rats fed the 6% protein diet compared with those fed the 20% protein diet. Responses to all other stimuli were similar between groups. Terminal field volumes were nearly twofold larger in protein-restricted rats compared with controls, with the differences located primarily in the dorsal-caudal zone of the terminal field. These results are similar to the results seen previously in rats fed a sodium-restricted diet throughout pre- and postnatal development, suggesting that dietary sodium- and protein-restriction share similar mechanisms in altering gustatory development.

  15. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M; DeSimone, John A; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol.

  16. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. PMID:26039516

  17. Selective Deletion of Sodium Salt Taste during Development Leads to Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves in the Adult Mouse Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengsan; Hummler, Edith; Hill, David L

    2017-01-18

    Neuronal activity plays a key role in the development of sensory circuits in the mammalian brain. In the gustatory system, experimental manipulations now exist, through genetic manipulations of specific taste transduction processes, to examine how specific taste qualities (i.e., basic tastes) impact the functional and structural development of gustatory circuits. Here, we used a mouse knock-out model in which the transduction component used to discriminate sodium salts from other taste stimuli was deleted in taste bud cells throughout development. We used this model to test the hypothesis that the lack of activity elicited by sodium salt taste impacts the terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information from taste buds to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in the medulla. The glossopharyngeal, chorda tympani, and greater superficial petrosal nerves were labeled to examine their terminal fields in adult control mice and in adult mice in which the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel was conditionally deleted in taste buds (αENaC knockout). The terminal fields of all three nerves in the NST were up to 2.7 times greater in αENaC knock-out mice compared with the respective field volumes in control mice. The shapes of the fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in αENaC knock-out mice. Overall, our results show that disruption of the afferent taste signal to sodium salts disrupts the normal age-dependent "pruning" of all terminal fields, which could lead to alterations in sensory coding and taste-related behaviors.

  18. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  19. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Glossopharyngeal Nerve Taste in Children with Recurrent Acute Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Courtney A; Dang, Suveera; Beach, Michael; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare glossopharyngeal taste between healthy children and those with recurrent acute tonsillitis. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Pediatric clinics in a tertiary care medical center and satellite location. Subjects and Methods Smell and taste testing was administered to 80 well children and 64 children with recurrent acute tonsillitis (age range, 6-17 years). Smell testing was performed with the NIH Toolbox Odor Identification Test, with scores based on national averages for age and sex. Validated Taste Strips were placed on the midline of the tongue at the circumvallate papillae in random tastant order and in increasing concentrations to test sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Ordinal logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results The healthy and tonsillitis groups were similar, with mean ages of 11.3 and 10.8 years ( P = .34), respectively. The tonsillitis group had fewer boys (n = 18 vs 43, P = .002), higher mean body mass index (BMI) percentile (n = 72.2 vs 59.8, P = .01), and more subjects with public or no insurance (n = 24 vs 13, P = .004). Univariate analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in rate of normal overall taste (67.2% vs 60%, P = .39) and in sweet (79.7% vs 82.5%, P = .67), salty (85.9% vs 82.8%, P = .82), sour (64.1% vs 70%, P = .48), and bitter (90.6% vs 86.3%, P = .45). In multivariate analysis, smell ability, sex, BMI percentile, parent BMI, and insurance type did not affect overall taste or sweet, salty, sour, or bitter alone. Conclusion Despite controlling for potential intrinsic (sex, smell, BMI) and extrinsic (parent BMI, insurance type) confounders, there was no statistically significant difference in taste among children with recurrent acute tonsillitis as compared with healthy children.

  20. Effects of gymnemic acid on the chorda tympani proper nerve responses to sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste stimuli in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; af Segerstad, C H; Roberts, T; van der Wel, H; Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Haynes, R; Eichberg, J W

    1985-07-01

    In man gymnemic acid is able to abolish the sweet taste. Also in man, the neural correlate of that effect is a disappearance of the response to sweet stimuli in the taste nerves, as indicated by the observations of Diamant et al. (1965). Although a variety of other mammals also show neural responses to sweet-tasting compounds, the corresponding effect of gymnemic acid has not been demonstrated. This study presents chorda tympani proper nerve recordings from the chimpanzee before and after gymnemic acid. On the chimpanzee tongue, application of 2 ml gymnemic acid (3-10 mg X ml-1 for 3-4 min) completely abolished the taste responses to 0.0035 M acesulfam-K, 0.0018 M aspartame, 0.015 M D-tryptophan, 0.02% monellin, and 0.02% thaumatin, reduced by 75% the response to 0.3 M sucrose, and by 50% that of 0.76 M xylitol. No decrease was recorded in the responses to 0.001 M quinine, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.02 and 0.04 M ascorbic acid, 0.02 and 0.04 M citric acid. The response to the sweeteners recovered with time and the recovery was complete or nearly complete after one and a half hours. It was also found that after application of 2 ml miraculin, 3 mg X ml-1 for 3 min to the tongue the neural response to acids was about 1.5 times as large as before. Gymnemic acid applied before miraculin prevented this enhancement and gymnemic acid after miraculin depressed the enhancement by miraculin of the response to citric and ascorbic acid.

  1. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs.

  2. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  3. Influences of age, tongue region, and chorda tympani nerve sectioning on signal detection measures of lingual taste sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Heidt, Julie M; MacGillivray, Michael R; Dsouza, Merle; Tracey, Elisabeth H; Mirza, Natasha; Bigelow, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Although the ability to taste is critical for ingestion, nutrition, and quality of life, a clear understanding of the influences of age, sex, and chorda tympani (CT) resection on taste function in different regions of the anterior tongue is generally lacking. In this study we employed criterion-free signal detection analysis to assess electric and chemical taste function on multiple tongue regions in normal individuals varying in age and sex and in patients with unilateral CT resections. The subjects were 33 healthy volunteers, ranging from 18 to 87 years of age, and 9 persons, 27 to 77 years of age, with unilateral CT lesions. The influences of age, sex, tongue region, and chorda tympani resections on signal detection sensitivity (d') and response bias (β) measures was assessed in 16 tongue regions to weak electric currents and solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, and caffeine. Significant age-related decrements in d' were found for sucrose (p=0.012), sodium chloride (p=0.002), caffeine (p=0.006), and electric current (EC) (p=0.0001). Significant posterior to anterior, and medial to lateral, gradients of increasing performance were present for most stimuli. β was larger on the anterior than the posterior tongue for the electrical stimulus in the youngest subjects, whereas the opposite was true for sucrose in the oldest subjects. No sex differences were apparent. d' was depressed ipsilateral to the CT lesion side to varying degrees in all tongue regions, with the weakest influences occurring on the medial and anterior tongue. CT did not meaningfully influence β. This study is the first to employ signal detection analysis to assess the regional sensitivity of the tongue to chemical and electrical stimuli. It clearly demonstrates that tongue regions differ from one another in terms of their age-related sensitivity and their susceptibility to CT lesions.

  4. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  5. The taste of table salt.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D

    2015-03-01

    Solutions of table salt (NaCl) elicit several tastes, including of course saltiness but also sweet, sour, and bitter. This brief review touches on some of the mileposts concerning what is known about taste transduction for the Na(+) ion, the main contributor to saltiness. Electrophysiological recordings, initially from single gustatory nerve fibers, and later, integrated impulse activity from gustatory nerves led researchers to predict that Na(+) ions interacted with a surface molecule. Subsequent studies have resolved that this molecule is likely to be an epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. Other Na(+) transduction mechanisms are also present in taste buds but have not yet been identified. The specific type(s) of taste cells responsible for salt taste also remains unknown.

  6. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in separate regions of the tongue. In humans, the different types of taste cells are scattered throughout the tongue. Taste quality is just one way that you experience a certain food. Another chemosensory mechanism, called the common chemical sense, ...

  7. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.

  8. TRPs in taste and chemesthesis.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa.

  9. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  10. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs.

  11. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  12. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  13. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  14. Elucidating coding of taste qualities with the taste modifier miraculin in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Vicktoria; Hellekant, Göran

    2006-01-30

    To investigate the relationships between the activity in different types of taste fibers and the gustatory behavior in marmosets, we used the taste modifier miraculin, which in humans adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. In behavioral experiments, we measured marmosets' consumption of acids before and after tongue application of miraculin. In electrophysiological experiments responses of single taste fibers in chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves were recorded before and after tongue application of miraculin. We found that after miraculin marmosets consumed acids more readily. Taste nerve recordings showed that after miraculin taste fibers which usually respond only to sweeteners, S fibers, became responsive to acids. These results further support our hypothesis that the activity in S fibers is translated into a hedonically positive behavioral response.

  15. Taste responses of bullfrog to pungent stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, K; Matui, T

    1994-02-21

    Taste responses of bullfrogs to various pungent compounds and taste substances were electrophysiologically recorded from glossopharyngeal nerves. The threshold concentrations were approximately 10(-7) M for piperine, approximately 10(-6) M for capsaicin and approximately 10(-4) M for allyl isothiocyanate. At any concentration examined, piperine was more potent than capsaicin. Both piperine and capsaicin elicited desensitizing responses, but the taste receptors recovered from the desensitization within 10 min after washing with deionized water. Cross-adaptation experiments revealed that capsaicin only partially desensitizes receptors for piperine, L-leucine, HCl or quinine. Perfusion of the lingual artery with a solution containing no added Ca decreased the responses to capsaicin. Such a solution has been shown to suppress the taste nerve responses by blocking synaptic transmissions between taste cells and taste nerves [8]. These results suggest that the gustatory effects of capsaicin are different from its pharmacological effects on sensory neurons. It is likely that capsaicin and other pungent compounds, when they act as seasonings, stimulate taste cells rather than the free nerve endings of the sensory neurons.

  16. Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Smell & Taste Smell & Taste Patient Health Information News media ... passages, or, at times, brain tumors. HOW DO SMELL AND TASTE WORK? Smell and taste belong to ...

  17. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  18. Drosophila Bitter Taste(s)

    PubMed Central

    French, Alice; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Mitra, Aniruddha; Yanagawa, Aya; Sellier, Marie-Jeanne; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called “bitter”. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induces aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to the inhibitory pheromone, 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different “categories” of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction, hygienic behavior), thus

  19. Taste sense in patients with hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Dong-Ha; Cho, Joong-Yang; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik

    2010-07-01

    In the cerebellopontine angle cistern, the nervus intermedius (NI) runs close to the motor division of the facial nerve (FN). A vascular loop compressing the FN in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) can thus also affect the NI. However, to our knowledge, taste has not been investigated in patients with HFS. In this pilot study, we assessed the sense of taste quantitatively in 10 female patients with HFS using filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at four concentrations. The taste score did not differ between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The taste score for salty on the ipsilateral side increased with disease duration. Our findings suggest that a vascular loop compressing the FN does not affect the function of the NI. Further studies with greater numbers of patients are needed to confirm our results.

  20. Taste and Smell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  1. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  2. Intensity of regionally applied tastes in relation to administration method: an investigation based on the "taste strips" test.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Brian; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare various methods to apply regional taste stimuli to the tongue. "Taste strips" are a clinical tool to determine gustatory function. How a patient perceives the chemical environment in the mouth is a result of many factors such as taste bud distribution and interactions between the cranial nerves. To date, there have been few studies describing the different approaches to administer taste strips to maximize taste identification accuracy and intensity. This is a normative value acquisition pilot and single-center study. The investigation involved 30 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (18 women, 12 men, mean age 33 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at concentrations shown to be easily detectable by young healthy subjects. The strips were administered in three methods (held stationary on the tip of the tongue, applied across the tongue, held in the mouth), resulting in a total of 12 trials per participant. Subjects identified the taste from a list of four descriptors, (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and ranked the intensity on a scale from 0 to 10. Statistical analyses were performed on the accuracy of taste identification and rated intensities. The participants perceived in order of most to least intense: salt, sour, bitter, sweet. Of the four tastes, sour consistently was least accurately identified. Presenting the taste strip inside the closed mouth of the participants produced the least accurate taste identification, whereas moving the taste strip across the tongue led to a significant increase in intensity for the sweet taste. In this study of 30 subjects at the second concentration, optimized accuracy and intensity of taste identification was observed through administration of taste strips laterally across the anterior third of the extended tongue. Further studies are required on more subjects and the additional concentrations

  3. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  4. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  5. Sensing of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    A taste sensor with global selectivity, i. e., electronic tongue, is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information of taste substances into electric signal. The sensor output shows different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness and sourness. Taste interactions such as suppression effect, which occurs between bitterness and sweetness, can be detected and quantified using the taste sensor. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes from sensor outputs. The taste of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water and milk can be discussed quantitatively. The taste sensor provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. We are now standing at the beginning of a new age of communication using digitized taste.

  6. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  7. Taste quality decoding parallels taste sensations.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Sébastien M; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2015-03-30

    In most species, the sense of taste is key in the distinction of potentially nutritious and harmful food constituents and thereby in the acceptance (or rejection) of food. Taste quality is encoded by specialized receptors on the tongue, which detect chemicals corresponding to each of the basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and savory [1]), before taste quality information is transmitted via segregated neuronal fibers [2], distributed coding across neuronal fibers [3], or dynamic firing patterns [4] to the gustatory cortex in the insula. In rodents, both hardwired coding by labeled lines [2] and flexible, learning-dependent representations [5] and broadly tuned neurons [6] seem to coexist. It is currently unknown how, when, and where taste quality representations are established in the cortex and whether these representations are used for perceptual decisions. Here, we show that neuronal response patterns allow to decode which of four tastants (salty, sweet, sour, and bitter) participants tasted in a given trial by using time-resolved multivariate pattern analyses of large-scale electrophysiological brain responses. The onset of this prediction coincided with the earliest taste-evoked responses originating from the insula and opercular cortices, indicating that quality is among the first attributes of a taste represented in the central gustatory system. These response patterns correlated with perceptual decisions of taste quality: tastes that participants discriminated less accurately also evoked less discriminated brain response patterns. The results therefore provide the first evidence for a link between taste-related decision-making and the predictive value of these brain response patterns.

  8. Smell and Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... rarely, loss of smell or taste becomes permanent. Did You Know? Occasionally, smell and taste disorders are ... aspirin , quinine , or aloes). Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know? Figure 1 ...

  9. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds all the credit for your favorite flavors, it's important to thank your nose . Olfactory (say: ... with your taste buds to create the true flavor of that yummy slice of pizza by telling ...

  10. Behavioral genetics and taste

    PubMed Central

    Boughter, John D; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste. PMID:17903279

  11. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  13. AP1 transcription factors are required to maintain the peripheral taste system

    PubMed Central

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Gao, Yankun; Nayak, Tapan K; Roberts, Stefan G E; Medler, Kathryn F

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is used by organisms to achieve the optimal nutritional requirement and avoid potentially toxic compounds. In the oral cavity, taste receptor cells are grouped together in taste buds that are present in specialized taste papillae in the tongue. Taste receptor cells are the cells that detect chemicals in potential food items and transmit that information to gustatory nerves that convey the taste information to the brain. As taste cells are in contact with the external environment, they can be damaged and are routinely replaced throughout an organism's lifetime to maintain functionality. However, this taste cell turnover loses efficiency over time resulting in a reduction in taste ability. Currently, very little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the renewal and maintenance of taste cells. We therefore performed RNA-sequencing analysis on isolated taste cells from 2 and 6-month-old mice to determine how alterations in the taste cell-transcriptome regulate taste cell maintenance and function in adults. We found that the activator protein-1 (AP1) transcription factors (c-Fos, Fosb and c-Jun) and genes associated with this pathway were significantly downregulated in taste cells by 6 months and further declined at 12 months. We generated conditional c-Fos-knockout mice to target K14-expressing cells, including differentiating taste cells. c-Fos deletion caused a severe perturbation in taste bud structure and resulted in a significant reduction in the taste bud size. c-Fos deletion also affected taste cell turnover as evident by a decrease in proliferative marker, and upregulation of the apoptotic marker cleaved-PARP. Thus, AP1 factors are important regulators of adult taste cell renewal and their downregulation negatively impacts taste maintenance. PMID:27787515

  14. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved.

  15. Taste damage (otitis media, tonsillectomy and head and neck cancer), oral sensations and BMI.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, Linda M; Catalanotto, Frank; Hoffman, Howard; Logan, Henrietta; Snyder, Derek J

    2012-11-05

    Otitis media and tonsillectomy are associated with enhanced palatability of energy dense foods and with weight gain. Otitis media can damage the chorda tympani nerve (CN VII); tonsillectomy and head and neck radiation treatment can damage the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX). Both of these nerves function prominently in taste sensation. The present study utilizes these sources of damage to study central interactions among the nerves that mediate oral sensations. Mild damage restricted to one of these nerves can actually intensify sensations evoked from undamaged nerves (i.e., whole-mouth taste, oral tactile sensations evoked by fats and irritants). These intensifications may result from disruption of central inhibitory taste circuits, as taste damage appears to disinhibit other oral sensory nerves. In addition, mild damage restricted to one taste nerve can intensify odors perceived from foods in the mouth during chewing and swallowing (i.e., retronasal olfaction); this may be a secondary consequence of the intensification of whole-mouth taste. Damage to both nerves leads to widespread oral sensory loss. At present, the link between sensory alterations and weight gain has not been established for adults (e.g., does increased fat preference occur in individuals with oral sensory intensifications, those with losses, or both?). Finally, pain in non-oral locations is also related to taste loss. When participants rated "the most intense pain of any kind they had ever experienced," those with the greatest taste loss gave the highest ratings. These effects suggest that taste loss significantly influences long-term health outcomes.

  16. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Y; Matsunami, H

    2009-03-01

    Humans have 5 basic taste sensations: sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and umami (taste of 1-amino acids). Among 33 genes related to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, 3--including TRP-melastatin 5 (TRPM5), polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 (PKD1L3), and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 (PKD2L1)--are specifically and abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells. TRP-melastatin 5 is co-expressed with taste receptors T1Rs and T2Rs, and functions as a common downstream component in sweet, bitter, and umami taste signal transduction. In contrast, polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 are co-expressed in distinct subsets of taste receptor cells not expressing TRP-melastatin 5. In the heterologous expression system, cells expressing both polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 responded to sour stimuli, showing a unique "off-response" property. Genetic ablation of poly-cystic kidney disease-2-like 1-expressing cells resulted in elimination of gustatory nerve response to sour stimuli, indicating that cells expressing polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 function as sour taste detectors. These results suggest that polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3/polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 may play a significant role, possibly as taste receptors, in sour taste sensation.

  17. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    PubMed

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks.

  18. [Electrometric method of studying taste in brain diseases].

    PubMed

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Mukhamedzhanov, N Z

    1980-01-01

    Disorders of the sense of taste were studied in 355 patients with craniocerebral pathology, among whom 70 had tumors of the acoustic nerve, 64 had a craniocerebral trauma, 60 had tumors of the cerebral hemispheres. The most coarse disorders with the loss of the sense of taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue were encountered in tumors of the acoustic nerve and in transverse infracture of the pyramid of the temporal bone. Longitudinal infractures of the pyramid usually cause a diminished sense of taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue in the acute period, with improvment of the taste in the late periods after the trauma. The test for the sense of taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue in tumors of the acoustic nerve, in infractures of the temporal bone pyramid, and in arachnoiditis of the cerebellopontine angle is one of the diagnostic methods. Electrogustometry makes it possible to detect the earliest disorders in the sense of taste and make a more precise diagnosis.

  19. The taste of music.

    PubMed

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  20. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  1. The "Taste" for Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, in terms of consumers, employers, and employees, how a "taste for discrimination," that is, someone's preference for or against association with some group in the labor market, can influence behavior and hence who gets hired. Argues that people with the strongest tastes for discrimination pay the heaviest cost. (RDN)

  2. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is specifically involved in sweet taste transmission.

    PubMed

    Takai, Shingo; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Inoue, Mayuko; Iwata, Shusuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Drucker, Daniel J; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Five fundamental taste qualities (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami) are sensed by dedicated taste cells (TCs) that relay quality information to gustatory nerve fibers. In peripheral taste signaling pathways, ATP has been identified as a functional neurotransmitter, but it remains to be determined how specificity of different taste qualities is maintained across synapses. Recent studies demonstrated that some gut peptides are released from taste buds by prolonged application of particular taste stimuli, suggesting their potential involvement in taste information coding. In this study, we focused on the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in initial responses to taste stimulation. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) null mice had reduced neural and behavioral responses specifically to sweet compounds compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Some sweet responsive TCs expressed GLP-1 and its receptors were expressed in gustatory neurons. GLP-1 was released immediately from taste bud cells in response to sweet compounds but not to other taste stimuli. Intravenous administration of GLP-1 elicited transient responses in a subset of sweet-sensitive gustatory nerve fibers but did not affect other types of fibers, and this response was suppressed by pre-administration of the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin-4(3-39). Thus GLP-1 may be involved in normal sweet taste signal transmission in mice.

  4. Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using other toxins. The data support the involvement of a blood-borne factor in the acquisition of taste aversion induced by ionizing radiation.

  5. Cracking Taste Codes by Tapping into Sensory Neuron Impulse Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion E.; Lundy, Robert F.; Contreras, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Insights into the biological basis for mammalian taste quality coding began with electrophysiological recordings from “taste” nerves and this technique continues to produce essential information today. Chorda tympani (geniculate ganglion) neurons, which are particularly involved in taste quality discrimination, are specialists or generalists. Specialists respond to stimuli characterized by a single taste quality as defined by behavioral cross-generalization in conditioned taste tests. Generalists respond to electrolytes that elicit multiple aversive qualities. Na+-salt (N) specialists in rodents and sweet-stimulus (S) specialists in multiple orders of mammals are well-characterized. Specialists are associated with species’ nutritional needs and their activation is known to be malleable by internal physiological conditions and contaminated external caloric sources. S specialists, associated with the heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor: T1R, and N specialists, associated with the epithelial sodium channel: ENaC, are consistent with labeled line coding from taste bud to afferent neuron. Yet, S-specialist neurons and behavior are less specific thanT1R2-3 in encompassing glutamate and E generalist neurons are much less specific than a candidate, PDK TRP channel, sour receptor in encompassing salts and bitter stimuli. Specialist labeled lines for nutrients and generalist patterns for aversive electrolytes may be transmitting taste information to the brain side by side. However, specific roles of generalists in taste quality coding may be resolved by selecting stimuli and stimulus levels found in natural situations. T2Rs, participating in reflexes via the glossopharynygeal nerve, became highly diversified in mammalian phylogenesis as they evolved to deal with dangerous substances within specific environmental niches. Establishing the information afferent neurons traffic to the brain about natural taste stimuli imbedded in dynamic complex mixtures will

  6. Mice Lacking Pannexin 1 Release ATP and Respond Normally to All Taste Qualities

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Catherine B.; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the transmission of all taste qualities from taste cells to afferent nerve fibers. ATP is released from Type II taste cells by a nonvesicular mechanism and activates purinergic receptors containing P2X2 and P2X3 on nerve fibers. Several ATP release channels are expressed in taste cells including CALHM1, Pannexin 1, Connexin 30, and Connexin 43, but whether all are involved in ATP release is not clear. We have used a global Pannexin 1 knock out (Panx1 KO) mouse in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results confirm that Panx1 channels are absent in taste buds of the knockout mice and that other known ATP release channels are not upregulated. Using a luciferin/luciferase assay, we show that circumvallate taste buds from Panx1 KO mice normally release ATP upon taste stimulation compared with wild type (WT) mice. Gustatory nerve recordings in response to various tastants applied to the tongue and brief-access behavioral testing with SC45647 also show no difference between Panx1 KO and WT. These results confirm that Panx1 is not required for the taste evoked release of ATP or for neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli. PMID:26136251

  7. Mice Lacking Pannexin 1 Release ATP and Respond Normally to All Taste Qualities.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the transmission of all taste qualities from taste cells to afferent nerve fibers. ATP is released from Type II taste cells by a nonvesicular mechanism and activates purinergic receptors containing P2X2 and P2X3 on nerve fibers. Several ATP release channels are expressed in taste cells including CALHM1, Pannexin 1, Connexin 30, and Connexin 43, but whether all are involved in ATP release is not clear. We have used a global Pannexin 1 knock out (Panx1 KO) mouse in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results confirm that Panx1 channels are absent in taste buds of the knockout mice and that other known ATP release channels are not upregulated. Using a luciferin/luciferase assay, we show that circumvallate taste buds from Panx1 KO mice normally release ATP upon taste stimulation compared with wild type (WT) mice. Gustatory nerve recordings in response to various tastants applied to the tongue and brief-access behavioral testing with SC45647 also show no difference between Panx1 KO and WT. These results confirm that Panx1 is not required for the taste evoked release of ATP or for neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli.

  8. The cell biology of taste

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Taste buds are aggregates of 50–100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain. PMID:20696704

  9. The cell biology of taste.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2010-08-09

    Taste buds are aggregates of 50-100 polarized neuroepithelial cells that detect nutrients and other compounds. Combined analyses of gene expression and cellular function reveal an elegant cellular organization within the taste bud. This review discusses the functional classes of taste cells, their cell biology, and current thinking on how taste information is transmitted to the brain.

  10. Inflammation and taste disorders: mechanisms in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2009-01-01

    Taste disorders, including taste distortion and taste loss, negatively impact general health and quality of life. To understand the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, we set out to identify inflammation-related molecules in taste tissue and to assess their role in the development of taste dysfunctions. We found that 10 out of 12 mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors and their downstream signaling components are present in taste tissue. Some TLRs appear to be selectively or more abundantly expressed in taste buds than in non-gustatory lingual epithelium. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against TLRs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 confirmed the presence of these receptor proteins in taste bud cells, of which TLRs 2, 3 and 4 are expressed in the gustducin-expressing type II taste bud cells. Administration of TLR receptor ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) that mimics bacterial or viral infection, activates the IFN signaling pathways, up-regulates the expression of IFN-inducible genes but down-regulates the expression of c-fos in taste buds. Finally, systemic administration of IFNs augments apoptosis of taste bud cells in mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TLR and IFN pathways function collaboratively in recognizing pathogens and mediating inflammatory responses in taste tissue. This process, however, may interfere with normal taste transduction and taste bud cell turnover and contributes to the development of taste disorders. PMID:19686199

  11. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  12. Smell and taste disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Thomas; Landis, Basile N.; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate. PMID:22558054

  13. Taste and the taste of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, James C.

    1980-01-01

    At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

  14. [The sense of taste].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Horovitz, Eran; Beloosesky, Yeshayahoo

    2006-08-01

    The taste sense is one of the five human senses. It is essential to our survival because it enables the individual the choice of correct food, which, in turn, is crucial for one's existence, maintenance and function. This is a complicated chemical sense, which operates in conjunction with other senses such as vision, smell and touch, and is also associated with the operation of temperature and consistency receptors. There are five basic tastes: bitter, sweet, sour, salty and "fleshy" (umami), each of which has a role in food selection, being responsible for the recognition of certain chemicals, which may be either necessary or dangerous to our body. The taste cell is located in the taste buds, which, in turn, are situated in the tongue, oral cavity and the proximal third of the esophagus. This translates the chemical signal of tastants in food to electrical stimulation that transfers the signal to higher processing centers in the brain, in a process called transduction, which is explained in this review. Disturbances in the taste sense, as well as effects of industrial exposure on this sense are also described. The accumulated knowledge about the taste sense might enable future breakthroughs in the processed food industry.

  15. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus.

  16. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  17. Nerve and behavioral responses of mice to various umami substances.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Morita, Kanako; Uemura, Masahide; Kitada, Ryo; Oh, Seong-Hee; Hayashi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    Food contains various taste substances. Among them, umami substances play an important role with regard to the perception of the taste of food, but, few studies have examined the taste characteristics of representative umami substances other than monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). By conducting mouse behavioral studies (the 48-h 2-bottle preference test and the conditioned taste aversion test) and assessing gustatory nerve responses, we investigated the taste characteristics of unique umami substances, including sodium succinate, L-theanine, betaine, and the enantiomer of MSG, D-MSG. Furthermore, we examined the synergy of umami with inosine 5'-monophoshate (IMP). In the case of the mice, sodium succinate had an umami taste and showed strong synergy with IMP. L-theanine showed synergy with IMP but did not have an umami taste without IMP. In contrast, betaine did not have an umami taste or synergy with IMP. D-MSG might have weak synergy with IMP.

  18. The Taste of Typeface

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Hyndman, Sarah; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that typefaces can convey meaning over-and-above the actual semantic content of whatever happens to be written. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that people match basic taste words (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) to typefaces varying in their roundness versus angularity. In Experiment 1, the participants matched rounder typefaces with the word “sweet,” while matching more angular typefaces with the taste words “bitter,” “salty,” and “sour.” Experiment 2 demonstrates that rounder typefaces are liked more and are judged easier to read than their more angular counterparts. We conclude that there is a strong relationship between roundness/angularity, ease of processing, and typeface liking, which in turn influences the correspondence between typeface and taste. These results are discussed in terms of the notion of affective crossmodal correspondences. PMID:27433316

  19. Associations between taste genetics, oral sensation and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Valerie B; Peterson, Julie M; Bartoshuk, Linda M

    2004-09-15

    Alcohol produces a range of oral sensations, some of which have been shown to vary with the perceived bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), one marker for genetic variation in taste. Some studies report that offspring of alcoholics are most likely to be PROP nontasters [Physiol. Behav. 51 (1992) 1261; Physiol. Behav. 64 (1998) 147], yet others report the offspring as more responsive to sodium chloride (NaCl) and citric acid, which appears to contradict the taste genetic hypothesis. We predicted alcohol sensation and intake from measures of taste genetics (PROP bitterness and number of fungiform papilla), NaCl and citric acid intensity, and spatial taste pattern in 40 females and 43 males. Subjects used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) [Chem. Senses 18 (1993) 683; J. Food Qual. Pref. 14 (2002) 125] as an intensity and hedonic scale. Those who tasted PROP as most bitter or had highest numbers of fungiform papilla reported greatest oral burn from an alcohol probe; those who tasted least PROP bitterness consumed alcoholic beverages most frequently. Although higher NaCl and citric acid ratings associated with more frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages, the findings could be explained by lower intensity of tastants on the tongue tip (chorda tympani nerve) relative to whole mouth perception. In multiple regression analyses, PROP bitterness and the spatial pattern of taste perception were independent contributors to the prediction of alcohol intake. In summary, the results support that variation in oral sensation associates with alcohol intake. Those who taste PROP as least bitter and have low chorda tympani relative to whole mouth taste intensity appear to have fewest oral sensory hindrances to the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

  20. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste ... A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of Smell & Taste ...

  1. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I; Theodorides, Maria L; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2007-12-19

    The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (D-tryptophan, D-phenylalanine, L-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (L-glutamine, L-threonine, L-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system.

  2. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I.; Theodorides, Maria L.; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (d-tryptophan, d-phenylalanine, l-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (l-glutamine, l-threonine, l-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5′-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system. PMID:17911381

  3. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  4. Taste placodes are primary targets of geniculate but not trigeminal sensory axons in mouse developing tongue.

    PubMed

    Mbiene, Joseph-Pascal

    2004-12-01

    Tongue embryonic taste buds begin to differentiate before the onset of gustatory papilla formation in murine. In light of this previous finding, we sought to reexamine the developing sensory innervation as it extends toward the lingual epithelium between E 11.5 and 14.5. Nerve tracings with fluorescent lipophilic dyes followed by confocal microscope examination were used to study the terminal branching of chorda tympani and lingual nerves. At E11.5, we confirmed that the chorda tympani nerve provided for most of the nerve branching in the tongue swellings. At E12.5, we show that the lingual nerve contribution to the overall innervation of the lingual swellings increased to the extent that its ramifications matched those of the chorda tympani nerve. At E13.0, the chorda tympani nerve terminal arborizations appeared more complex than those of the lingual nerve. While the chorda tympani nerve terminal branching appeared close to the lingual epithelium that of the trigeminal nerve remained rather confined to the subepithelial mesenchymal tissue. At E13.5, chorda tympani nerve terminals projected specifically to an ordered set of loci on the tongue dorsum corresponding to the epithelial placodes. In contrast, the lingual nerve terminals remained subepithelial with no branches directed towards the placodes. At E14.5, chorda tympani nerve filopodia first entered the apical epithelium of the developing fungiform papilla. The results suggest that there may be no significant delay between the differentiation of embryonic taste buds and their initial innervation.

  5. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1: AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA administration, while they showed no significant changes in CT responses after AM251. In contrast, db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG)) levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme (diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα)) of 2-AG in taste cells. In DIO mice, the LA effect was gradually decreased and the AM251 effect was increased during the course of obesity. Taken together, our results suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, may be a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice; however, endocannabinoids may become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling, possibly due to increased production of endocannabinoids in taste tissue. Key points Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: A taste sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    A multichannel taste sensor, namely an electronic tongue, with global selectivity is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information about substances producing taste into electrical signals, which are input to a computer. The sensor output exhibits different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness, sourness and bitterness, whereas it exhibits similar patterns for chemical substances with similar tastes. The sensor responds to the taste itself, as can be understood from the fact that taste interactions such as the suppression effect, which appears for mixtures of sweet and bitter substances, can be reproduced well. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine and a drug substance by sucrose can be quantified. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes on the basis of sensor outputs. The tastes of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water, milk, sake, rice, soybean paste and vegetables can be discussed quantitatively using the taste sensor, which provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. The flavour of a wine is also discriminated using the taste-odour sensory fusion conducted by combining the taste sensor and an odour-sensor array using conducting polymer elements. The taste sensor can also be applied to measurements of water pollution. Miniaturization of the taste sensor using FET produces the same characteristics as those of the above taste sensor by measuring the gate-source voltage. Use of the taste sensor will lead to a new era of food and environmental sciences.

  7. Detecting sweet and umami tastes in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, K; Ichikawa, R; Uematsu, A; Kitamura, A; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2012-02-01

    Information about nutrients is a critical part of food selection in living creatures. Each animal species has developed its own way to safely seek and obtain the foods necessary for them to survive and propagate. Necessarily, humans and other vertebrates have developed special chemosensory organs such as taste and olfactory organs. Much attention, recently, has been given to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as another chemosensory organ. Although the GI tract had been considered to be solely for digestion and absorption of foods and nutrients, researchers have recently found taste-signalling elements, including receptors, in this tissue. Further studies have revealed that taste cells in the oral cavity and taste-like cells in the GI tract appear to share common characteristics. Major receptors to detect umami, sweet and bitter are found in the GI tract, and it is now proposed that taste-like cells reside in the GI tract to sense nutrients and help maintain homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent findings of chemoreception especially through sweet and umami sensors in the GI tract. In addition, the possibility of purinergic transmission from taste-like cells in the GI tract to vagus nerves is discussed.

  8. Learning through the taste system

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) (if illness ensues) or a conditioned taste preference (CTP) (if nutrition). This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime. PMID:22131967

  9. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  10. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  11. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  12. Defects in the Peripheral Taste Structure and Function in the MRL/lpr Mouse Model of Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Sauers, Daniel; Cohn, Zachary J.; Chai, Jinghua; Nelson, Theodore; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J (MRL/lpr) mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+) mice. 5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic inflammation. PMID

  13. Drug-Induced Taste Disorders In Clinical Practice And Preclinical Safety Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Glendinning, John; Grushka, Miriam; Hummel, Thomas; Mansfield, Keith

    2017-01-23

    More than 200 medications can induce taste disorders in patients. They not only reduce quality of life for those affected, but can lead to malnutrition, severe dehydration and difficulty in maintaining a therapeutic regimen. Nevertheless, the impact of drug candidates on taste is rarely evaluated in preclinical toxicology studies during the early stage of drug development. Moreover, knowledge about how to investigate these adverse effect is scarce in the toxicology field. Here, we discuss the clinical status of drug-induced taste disorders in patients, with the goal of providing toxicologists with a broad understanding its prevalence, and how stressful and even dangerous it can be to affected patients. Because taste, smell and oral trigeminal sensation are highly interdependent, we also address drug-induced changes in olfactory and oral somatosensory perceptions. We then review the biology of the gustatory system (including anatomy and histology), and the latest developments about how taste contributes to flavor perception. Finally, we feature recently optimized preclinical approaches to investigate drug-induced taste change in animal models, including the development of biomarkers, morphological evaluation of taste buds and taste cells, gustatory nerve recording, and behavioral testing. Our goals are to raise awareness of drug-induced taste disorders among toxicologists, share an overview of new approaches and key studies that can be used to identify drug-induced gustatory system toxicity early in the drug development process, and to stimulate further research at this emerging interface of chemosensory disorders with toxicology.

  14. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  15. Effect of taste sensation on cough reflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S; Dalton, Pamela

    2014-02-01

    Cough is among the most common symptoms with which people present for medical attention, but evidence-based treatments remain limited. One issue compromising interpretation of clinical trials of cough preparations is that control formulations often are nearly as effective as those that contain active ingredients. This observation has caused some researchers to propose that one or more nominally inactive ingredients may have some physiological effects. For example, most liquid cough preparations are highly sweetened, and it has been suggested that sweet taste might modulate cough sensitivity. The fact that honey has been used for thousands of years as a cough remedy is consistent with this idea. However, empirical evidence for modulation of cough sensitivity by taste was lacking. Evidence is still sparse, but relevant experiments have now been published: rinsing the mouth with a sweet sucrose solution increased cough thresholds in a single-inhalation capsaicin challenge. Furthermore, rinsing the mouth with a bitter solution did not affect thresholds, an important demonstration of specificity. The underlying mechanisms of cough suppression by sweet taste are still unclear. However, extant data suggest that modulation of cough sensitivity by taste is a promising area for further investigation. Such work may lead to greater understanding of apparent placebo effects in clinical trials and provide empirical support for therapies based on stimulation of taste nerves.

  16. Taste does not determine daily intake of dilute sugar solutions in mice

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, F.; Benton, L.; Cheng, S.; Gieseke, J.; Gillman, J.; Spain, H. N.

    2010-01-01

    When a rodent licks a sweet-tasting solution, taste circuits in the central nervous system that facilitate stimulus identification, motivate intake, and prepare the body for digestion are activated. Here, we asked whether taste also determines daily intake of sugar solutions in C57BL/6 mice. We tested several dilute concentrations of glucose (167, 250, and 333 mM) and fructose (167, 250, and 333 mM). In addition, we tested saccharin (38 mM), alone and in binary mixture with each of the sugar concentrations, to manipulate sweet taste intensity while holding caloric value constant. In experiment 1, we measured taste responsiveness to the sweetener solutions in two ways: chorda tympani nerve responses and short-term lick tests. For both measures, the mice exhibited the following relative magnitude of responsiveness: binary mixtures > saccharin > individual sugars. In experiment 2, we asked whether the taste measures reliably predicted daily intake of the sweetener solutions. No such relationship was observed. The glucose solutions elicited weak taste responses but high daily intakes, whereas the fructose solutions elicited weak taste responses and low daily intakes. On the other hand, the saccharin + glucose solutions elicited strong taste responses and high daily intakes, while the saccharin + fructose solutions elicited strong taste responses but low daily intakes. Overall, we found that 1) daily intake of the sweetener solutions varied independently of the magnitude of the taste responses and 2) the solutions containing glucose stimulated substantially higher daily intakes than did the solutions containing isomolar concentrations of fructose. Given prior work demonstrating greater postoral stimulation of feeding by glucose than fructose, we propose that the magnitude of postoral nutritive stimulation plays a more important role than does taste in determining daily intake of dilute sugar solutions. PMID:20702804

  17. GLIAL RESPONSES AFTER CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Dianna L.

    2013-01-01

    The chorda tympani (CT) nerve innervates lingual taste buds and is susceptible to damage during dental and inner ear procedures. Interruption of the CT results in a disappearance of taste buds, which can be accompanied by taste disturbances. Because the CT usually regenerates to reinnervate taste buds successfully in a few weeks, a persistence of taste disturbances may indicate alterations in central nervous function. Peripheral injury to other sensory nerves leads to glial responses at central terminals, which actively contribute to abnormal sensations arising from nerve damage. Therefore, the current study examined microglial and astrocytic responses in the first central gustatory relay -the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS)- after transection of the CT. Damage to the CT resulted in significant microglial responses in terms of morphological reactivity and an increased density of microglial cells from 2-20 days after injury. This increased microglial population primarily resulted from microglial proliferation from 1.5-3 days, which was supplemented by microglial migration within sub-divisions of the nTS between days 2-3. Unlike other nerve injuries, CT injury did not result in recruitment of bone marrow-derived precursors. Astrocytes also reacted in the nTS with increased levels of GFAP by 3 days, although none showed evidence of cell division. GFAP levels remained increased at 30 days by which time microglial responses had resolved. These results show that nerve damage to the CT results in central glial responses, which may participate in long lasting taste alterations following CT lesion. PMID:22315167

  18. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin Mason et al.

    2004-01-05

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients.

  19. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  20. Hippocampal Inactivation Enhances Taste Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Martha E.; Grimes, Brandon S.; Katz, Donald B.

    2005-01-01

    Learning tasks are typically thought to be either hippocampal-dependent (impaired by hippocampal lesions) or hippocampal-independent (indifferent to hippocampal lesions). Here, we show that conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning fits into neither of these categories. Rats were trained to avoid two taste stimuli, one novel and one familiar.…

  1. Conditioned taste aversion induced by motion is prevented by selective vagotomy in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The role of the vagus nerve in motion-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was studied in hooded rats. Animals with complete, selective gastric vagotomy failed to form conditioned taste aversion after multiple conditioning sessions in which the conditioned stimulus (a cider vinegar solution) was drunk immediately before a 30-min exposure to vertical axis rotation at 150 deg/s. Results are discussed with reference to the use of CTA as a measure of motion-induced 'sickness' or gastrointestinal disturbance, and because motion-induced CTA requires that both the vagus nerve and the vestibular apparatus be intact, in light of the possible convergence of vegal and vestibular functions.

  2. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds.

  3. What Does Diabetes "Taste" Like?

    PubMed

    Neiers, Fabrice; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Briand, Loïc

    2016-06-01

    The T1R2 (taste type 1 receptor, member 2)/T1R3 (taste type 1 receptor, member 3) sweet taste receptor is expressed in taste buds on the tongue, where it allows the detection of energy-rich carbohydrates of food. This single receptor responds to all compounds perceived as sweet by humans, including natural sugars and natural and artificial sweeteners. Importantly, the T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor is also expressed in extra-oral tissues, including the stomach, pancreas, gut, liver, and brain. Although its physiological role remains to be established in numerous organs, T1R2/T1R3 is suspected to be involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, such as sugar sensing, glucose homeostasis, and satiety hormone release. In this review, the physiological role of the sweet taste receptor in taste perception and metabolic regulation is discussed by focusing on dysfunctions leading to diabetes. Current knowledge of T1R2/T1R3 inhibitors making this receptor a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is also summarized and discussed.

  4. Development of an Umami Taste Sensitivity Test and Its Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Kawai, Misako; Iikubo, Masahiro; Sekine-Hayakawa, Yuki; Shoji, Noriaki; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Sasano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between perception of umami, which has become recognized as the fifth taste, and the human physical condition. We have developed a clinical test for umami taste sensitivity using a filter paper disc with a range of six monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentrations. We recruited 28 patients with taste disorders (45–78 years) and 184 controls with no taste disorders (102 young [18–25 years] and 82 older [65–89 years] participants). Filter paper discs (5 mm dia.) were soaked in aqueous MSG solutions (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mM), then placed on three oral sites innervated by different taste nerves. The lowest concentration participants correctly identified was defined as the recognition threshold (RT) for MSG. This test showed good reproducibility for inter- and intra-observer variability. We concluded that: (1) The RT of healthy controls differed at measurement sites innervated by different taste nerves; that is, the RT of the anterior tongue was higher than that of either the posterior tongue or the soft palate in both young and older individuals. (2) No significant difference in RT was found between young adults and older individuals at any measurement site. (3) The RT of patients with taste disorders was higher before treatment than that of the healthy controls at any measurement site. (4) The RT after treatment in these patients improved to the same level as that of the healthy controls. (5) The cutoff values of RT, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (true positives + true negatives), were 200 mM MSG for AT and 50 mM MSG for PT and SP. The diagnostic accuracy at these cutoff values was 0.92, 0.87 and 0.86 for AT, PT and SP, respectively. Consequently, this umami taste sensitivity test is useful for discriminating between normal and abnormal umami taste sensations. PMID:24748056

  5. The sense of taste in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akihiko; Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uematsu, Akira; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2014-01-01

    Digestion and the absorption of food and nutrients have been considered the only functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, recent studies suggest that taste cells in the oral cavity and taste-like cells in the GI tract share many common characteristics (taste receptors and transduction signaling). Over the last two decades, it has been revealed that the GI tract is a chemosensory organ that transfers nutrient information via GI hormone secretion (glucagon-like peptide-1, Peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and others) and the activation of abdominal vagus afferents. In addition, the information relayed via the abdominal vagus nerve plays an important role in autonomic reflexes. This information, both humoral and neural, contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis (digestion, absorption, metabolism and food intake) in the body. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the following: GI chemosensory molecules, their distribution, the effect of nutrients on GI hormone secretion and the activation of vagus afferent nerves. We also focus on the possibility of clinical applications that control abdominal vagus activity.

  6. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  7. In pursuit of taste phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G

    2013-05-01

    Notable progress has been made relating individual differences in bitter taste sensitivity to specific alleles and TAS2R receptors, but psychophysical evidence of reliable phenotypes for other tastes has been more elusive. In this issue, Wise and Breslin report a study of individual differences in threshold sensitivity to sour and salty taste, which, though failing to find clear phenotypes, exemplifies the type of approach and analysis necessary to disentangle sources of variance inherent in the psychophysical measures applied from those attributable to true differences in sensitivity. Methodological and theoretical lessons that can be taken from this work are discussed in the context of the early and dramatic evidence of chemosensory phenotypes that belied the complexity of taste receptor genetics and focused attention solely on peripheral determinants of sensitivity.

  8. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation.

  9. Acquiring a Taste for Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuano, Carolyn

    1977-01-01

    Describes taste experiences that are used to spark interest in studying high school biology. Emphasizes learning about survival, poisonous plants, endangered species, economic and nutritional importance of various organisms, and cultural education. (CS)

  10. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation. PMID:26102453

  11. Honing in on the ATP Release Channel in Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Studies over the last 8 years have identified 3 potential channels that appear to release ATP from Type II cells in response to taste stimuli. These studies have taken different methodological approaches but have all provided data supporting their candidate channel as the ATP release channel. These potential channels include Pannexin 1, Connexins (30 and/or 43), and most recently, the Calhm1 channel. Two papers in this issue of Chemical Senses provide compelling new evidence that Pannexin 1 is not the ATP release channel. Tordoff et al. did a thorough behavioral analysis of the Pannexin1 knock out mouse and found that these animals have the same behavioral responses as wild type mice for 7 different taste stimuli that were tested. Vandenbeuch et al. presented an equally thorough analysis of the gustatory nerve responses in the Pannexin1 knock out mouse and found no differences compared with controls. Thus when the role of Pannexin 1 is analyzed at the systems level, it is not required for normal taste perception. Further studies are needed to determine the role of this hemichannel in taste cells. PMID:26126730

  12. A physiologic role for serotonergic transmission in adult rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Luc; Zhao, Fang-li; Kolli, Tamara; Herness, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Of the multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides expressed in the mammalian taste bud, serotonin remains both the most studied and least understood. Serotonin is expressed in a subset of taste receptor cells that form synapses with afferent nerve fibers (type III cells) and was once thought to be essential to neurotransmission (now understood as purinergic). However, the discovery of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor in a subset of taste receptor cells paracrine to type III cell suggested a role in cell-to-cell communication during the processing of taste information. Functional data describing this role are lacking. Using anatomical and neurophysiological techniques, this study proposes a modulatory role for serotonin during the processing of taste information. Double labeling immunocytochemical and single cell RT-PCR technique experiments documented that 5-HT1A-expressing cells co-expressed markers for type II cells, cells which express T1R or T2R receptors and release ATP. These cells did not co-express type III cells markers. Neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates anterior taste buds, were performed prior to and during intravenous injection of a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. These experiments revealed that serotonin facilitates processing of taste information for tastants representing sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste qualities. On the other hand, injection of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was without effect. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that serotonin is a crucial element in a finely-tuned feedback loop involving the 5-HT1A receptor, ATP, and purinoceptors. It is hypothesized that serotonin facilitates gustatory signals by regulating the release of ATP through ATP-release channels possibly through phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis. By doing so, 5-HT1A activation prevents desensitization of post-synaptic purinergic receptors expressed on afferent nerve fibers and enhances the

  13. Behavioral comparison of sucrose and l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) tastes in rats: does L-AP4 have a sweet taste?

    PubMed

    Eschle, B K; Eddy, M C; Spang, C H; Delay, E R

    2008-08-13

    Even though it is generally thought that umami stimuli such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sweet stimuli such as sucrose are detected by different taste receptors, these stimuli appear to share taste qualities when amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) is present to reduce the sodium taste. Single fiber recording studies of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves have shown that encoding of L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4), a potent mGluR4 agonist that elicits a taste quite similar to MSG, may occur in the same fibers that also encode sweet stimuli. This suggests that L-AP4 and sweet substances may activate common receptors or afferent signaling mechanisms. We report results of behavioral experiments that test this hypothesis. In the first study, rats conditioned to avoid sucrose or L-AP4 generalized the aversion to the opposite substance, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes. However, two taste discrimination experiments showed that rats easily discriminated between sucrose and L-AP4 over a wide range of concentrations, even when the cue function of sodium associated with L-AP4 was reduced by amiloride and neutralized by adding equimolar concentrations of NaCl to sucrose. These data suggest that even though L-AP4 and sucrose elicit similar taste qualities, one or both substances also elicit other taste qualities not shared by the opposite substance. They also suggest that the taste-mGluR4 receptor and the signal pathway activated by L-AP4 are not the same as those activated by sucrose. These data, when combined with fiber recording data, suggest that there is convergence of L-AP4 and sucrose signals at some point early in the gustatory pathway.

  14. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis Risks Allergic reaction to the local anesthetic Discomfort ... Neurosarcoidosis Peripheral neuropathy Primary amyloidosis Radial nerve dysfunction Sarcoidosis Tibial nerve dysfunction Review Date 6/1/2015 ...

  15. Taste responsiveness to sweeteners is resistant to elevations in plasma leptin.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Elson, Amanda E T; Kalik, Salina; Sosa, Yvett; Patterson, Christa M; Myers, Martin G; Munger, Steven D

    2015-05-01

    There is uncertainty about the relationship between plasma leptin and sweet taste in mice. Whereas 2 studies have reported that elevations in plasma leptin diminish responsiveness to sweeteners, another found that they enhanced responsiveness to sucrose. We evaluated the impact of plasma leptin on sweet taste in C57BL/6J (B6) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Although mice expressed the long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) selectively in Type 2 taste cells, leptin failed to activate a critical leptin-signaling protein, STAT3, in taste cells. Similarly, we did not observe any impact of intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin treatment on chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners in B6 or ob/ob mice. Finally, there was no effect of leptin treatment on initial licking responses to several sucrose concentrations in B6 mice. We confirmed that basal plasma leptin levels did not exceed 10ng/mL, regardless of time of day, physiological state, or body weight, suggesting that taste cell LepRb were not desensitized to leptin in our studies. Furthermore, i.p. leptin injections produced plasma leptin levels that exceeded those previously reported to exert taste effects. We conclude that any effect of plasma leptin on taste responsiveness to sweeteners is subtle and manifests itself only under specific experimental conditions.

  16. The endocrinology of taste receptors

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Egan, Josephine M.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of obesity have reached epidemic proportions on a global scale, which has led to considerable increases in health problems and increased risk of several diseases, including cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer and diabetes mellitus. People with obesity consume more food than is needed to maintain an ideal body weight, despite the discrimination that accompanies being overweight and the wealth of available information that overconsumption is detrimental to health. The relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake throughout an individual’s lifetime is far more complicated than previously thought. An improved comprehension of the relationships between taste, palatability, taste receptors and hedonic responses to food might lead to increased understanding of the biological underpinnings of energy acquisition, as well as why humans sometimes eat more than is needed and more than we know is healthy. This Review discusses the role of taste receptors in the tongue, gut, pancreas and brain and their hormonal involvement in taste perception, as well as the relationship between taste perception, overeating and the development of obesity. PMID:25707779

  17. Neurophysiological and biophysical evidence on the mechanism of electric taste

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of electric taste was investigated by recording from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat in response to both electrical and chemical stimulations of the tongue with electrolytes in order to gain some insight into its mechanism on both a neurophysiological and biophysical basis. The maximum neural response levels were identical for an individual salt (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2), whether it was presented as a chemical solution or as an anodal stimulus through a subthreshold solution. These observations support the idea that stimulation occurs by iontophoresis of ions to the receptors at these current densities (less than 100 microA/cm2). Electric responses through dilute HCl were smaller than the chemically applied stimulations, but the integrated anodal responses appeared similar to chemical acid responses, as evidenced by an OFF response to both forms of stimuli. Hydrogen may be more permeant to the lingual epithelium and would thus be shunted away from the taste receptors during anodal stimulation. When the anion of electric taste was varied via subthreshold salt solutions, the response magnitude increased as the mobility of the anion decreased. The transport numbers of the salts involved adequately explains these differences. The physical aspects of ion migration occurring within the adapting fluid on the tongue are also discussed. Direct neural stimulation by the current appears to occur only at higher current densities (greater than 300 microA/cm2). If the taste cells of the tongue were inactivated with either iodoacetic acid (IAA) or N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), or removed with collagenase, then responses from the chorda tympani could be obtained only at these higher current densities. Latency measurements before and after IAA or NEM treatment corroborated these findings. The results are discussed in terms of several proposed mechanisms of electric taste and it is concluded that an ion accumulation mechanism can adequately explain the data. PMID

  18. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  19. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - common peroneal nerve; Peroneal nerve injury; Peroneal nerve palsy ... type of peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain ... nerve injuries. Damage to the nerve disrupts the myelin sheath ...

  20. Taste-modifying protein from miracle fruit.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, K; Beidler, L M

    1968-09-20

    The active principle of miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) is a basic glycoprotein with a probable molecular weight of 44,000. Application of the protein to the tongue modifies the taste so that one tastes sour substances as sweet.

  1. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  2. Saliva and other taste stimuli are important for gustatory processing of linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Jennifer M; Contreras, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Paradoxically, bilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve (CTX) raises the taste discrimination threshold for the free fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), yet the chorda tympani nerve (CT) is unresponsive to lingual application of LA alone. LA may require a background of saliva to activate taste cells, since CTX decreases saliva production through denervation of the submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands. To assess the role of saliva, we measured LA taste discrimination thresholds for animals whose submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands were removed and also recorded CT responses to LA mixed in artificial saliva. Partial desalivation shifted LA discrimination thresholds from between 5.5 and 11 microM to between 11 and 22 microM. However, this effect was not as pronounced as previously seen with CTX animals. Surprisingly, the CT was unresponsive to LA mixed with artificial saliva, suggesting that artificial saliva may lack components necessary for LA taste. Additionally, fats may primarily enhance other tastes. We previously reported that LA increases CT responses to monosodium glutamate (MSG). Thus we also recorded CT whole nerve responses to taste mixtures of LA and sodium chloride (NaCl), sucrose (SUC), citric acid (CA), or quinine hydrochloride (QHCl) in anesthetized rats. We found that LA increased CT responses to NaCl but did not alter CT responses to SUC, CA, and QHCl. Thus CT recordings either lack the sensitivity to detect small changes to SUC, CA, and QHCl or LA may affect CT responses to MSG and NaCl only, perhaps by specifically modulating gustatory processing of Na(+).

  3. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Linda A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depends on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. PMID:25662267

  4. Cultivating Reading Interest with Book Tasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, the author has been using an activity that she calls "book tasting" to help teens select books for independent reading assignments. While she is sure she is not the first to do this kind of activity, the term "book tasting" seems to appeal to the teens. Book tasting has been extremely successful in pairing up students with texts that…

  5. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero.

  6. Discrimination of Taste of Amino Acids with a Multichannel Taste Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, Yukiko; Toko, Kiyoshi; Matsuno, Tetsuya; Yamafuji, Kaoru

    1993-12-01

    Taste of amino acids was studied using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid membranes as the transducer of taste substances. The study on taste of amino acids has drawn much attention so far because each of them elicits complicated mixed taste. The response of the sensor to amino acids was compared with results of panel tests, and response potentials from the eight membranes were transformed to terms representing five basic tastes by multiple linear regression. This expression of five basic tastes reproduced human taste sensation very well. The taste was expressed more quantitatively by assuming new channels, which are represented by multiplication of the response potentials of the original channels. This new set of channels implies the existence of processes involving the nervous system which is connected with taste cells.

  7. Taste perception in honey bees.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela

    2011-10-01

    Taste is crucial for honeybees for choosing profitable food sources, resins, water sources, and for nestmate recognition. Peripheral taste detection occurs within cuticular hairs, the chaetic and basiconic sensilla, which host gustatory receptor cells and, usually a mechanoreceptor cell. Gustatory sensilla are mostly located on the distal segment of the antennae, on the mouthparts, and on the tarsi of the forelegs. These sensilla respond with varying sensitivity to sugars, salts, and possibly amino acids, proteins, and water. So far, no responses of receptor cells to bitter substances were found although inhibitory effects of these substances on sucrose receptor cells could be recorded. When bees are free to express avoidance behaviors, they reject highly concentrated bitter and saline solutions. However, such avoidance disappears when bees are immobilized in the laboratory. In this case, they ingest these solutions, even if they suffer afterward a malaise-like state or even die from such ingestion. Central processing of taste occurs mainly in the subesophageal ganglion, but the nature of this processing remains unknown. We suggest that coding tastants in terms of their hedonic value, thus classifying them in terms of their palatability, is a basic strategy that a central processing of taste should achieve for survival.

  8. Modifying Students' Tastes in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, John Edward

    To test whether student tastes in poetry could be modified by a particular method of teaching it, the poetic preferences of 751 eighth grade students were pretested and compared with the poetic choices made by a panel of English educators, 35 student teachers in English, and the students' own English teachers. Consistently, poems selected by any…

  9. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination.

  10. [Oral medicine 4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders].

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-03-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes ofchemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the neighbourhood of the sense ofsmell, damage to the smell epithelium, and oncologic diseases or their treatment. A chemosensory disorder has implications for food delight and psychological well-being, may lead to weight loss or increase and to deficient intake of vitamins and minerals. A chemosensory disorder can be treated by medication, surgical intervention, improvement of oral health, smell rehabilitation, and dietary advice.

  11. Taste reactivity in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Brining, S K; Belecky, T L; Smith, D V

    1991-06-01

    Taste reactivity, which was first described in the rat, consists of ingestive and aversive response components, the latter seen mostly to bitter-tasting stimuli. The present experiment characterized the hamster's taste reactivity to an array of stimuli (sugars: 1 M sucrose, d-fructose and d-glucose; sodium salts: 1 M NaCl, Na2SO4 and NaNO3; acids: 30 mM HCl, tartaric acid and citric acid; bitter-tasting stimuli: 100 mM quinine hydrochloride and nicotine sulfate and 10 mM denatonium benzoate). These 12 stimuli were chosen to represent 3 examples each of stimuli that taste sweet, salty, sour, or bitter to humans; they were presented in random order via an intraoral fistula, one stimulus each day per animal (n = 10). Infusions of 0.6 ml were delivered over a 1-min period from a syringe pump. Orofacial and somatic motor responses were recorded on videotape for later analysis and were also coded online into a computer. Ingestive responses included forward and lateral tongue protrusions and aversive responses included gaping, chin rubbing, forelimb flailing, fluid rejection, increased locomotion, and aversive posturing. Each stimulus group produced a characteristic pattern of these behaviors, with sugars eliciting only ingestive behaviors and the bitter stimuli evoking predominantly aversive responses. Both sodium salts and acids produced ingestive responses, as seen previously in the rat, although these stimuli also elicited aversive behaviors in the hamster, including apes. The patterns of responses were characterized using multivariate procedures; the stimuli fell into distinct groups that were separated primarily along an hedonic dimension.

  12. Responses of single facial taste fibers in the sea catfish, Arius felis, to amino acids.

    PubMed

    Michel, W; Caprio, J

    1991-07-01

    1. Taste buds in catfish are found not only within the oropharyngeal cavity, as in mammals, but are also located along the external body surface of the animal from the barbels and lips to the caudal fin. Because these taste buds are innervated by the facial (cranial VII) nerve, the extraoral taste system of catfish is analogous to the mammalian taste system of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, which contains taste buds innervated by the chorda tympani nerve, and of the soft palate and nasoincisor ducts, which contain taste buds innervated by the greater superficial petrosal nerve. 2. The majority of information concerning the specificity of individual taste fibers in vertebrates has been obtained primarily in mammals to stimuli representing the four basic human taste qualities (i.e., salty, sweet, sour, and bitter). In the present report, we examine the evidence for gustatory fiber types within the stimulus class of amino acids, compounds known to be especially relevant gustatory stimuli for catfish and other teleosts. 3. Action potentials were recorded from 60 individual facial taste neurons obtained from 28 sea catfish (Arius felis). Stimuli were 10(-4) M concentrations of L-alanine, D-alanine, glycine, L-proline, L-histidine, and L-arginine, compounds selected from an original stimulus list of 28 amino acids. Responses were quantified as the number of action potentials evoked at various time intervals from the first 0.5 s up to 10 s of response time. 4. The spontaneous activity of 42 fully characterized neurons was 0.8 +/- 2.1 SD spikes/3 s. The average rate of spike discharge increased 50-fold during stimulation with the most effective amino acid (42 +/- 31 spikes/3 s, mean +/- SD). The majority of the sampled neurons were not narrowly tuned to the amino acid stimulants tested (mean breadth of responsiveness, H = 0.60; range 0-0.95). 5. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the fully characterized neurons identified two large and two small groups of cells. The

  13. Accumulating Evidence Supports a Taste Component for Free Fatty Acids in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The requisite criteria for what constitutes a taste primary have not been established. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms and functions of taste have prompted suggestions for an expanded list of unique taste sensations, including fat, or more specifically, free fatty acids (FFA). A set of criteria are proposed here and the data related to FFA are reviewed on each point. It is concluded that the data are moderate to strong that there are: A) adaptive advantages to FFA detection in the oral cavity; B) adequate concentrations of FFA to serve as taste stimuli; C) multiple complimentary putative FFA receptors on taste cells; D) signals generated by FFA that are conveyed by gustatory nerves; E) sensations generated by FFA that can be detected and scaled by psychophysical methods in humans when non-gustatory cues are masked; and F) physiological responses to oral fat/FFA exposure. On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA. PMID:21557960

  14. [Loss of taste sensation in terbinafine administration].

    PubMed

    Stricker, B H; de Jong, P A; Schreuder, F; Bijlmer-Iest, J C; Herrmann, W A; van Ulsen, J

    1992-12-05

    Terbinafine is a new antifungal agent for oral treatment of dermatomycosis. Seven patients are reported who developed taste loss after treatment with terbinafine. In four of them, taste loss was complete while one patient was still able to taste sweet products, and a second and third patient no longer tasted salty and sweet products, respectively. In all patients, the onset of the adverse reaction occurred 4-8 weeks after starting treatment. As far as known, taste loss is a transient effect which disappears within 3-6 weeks after discontinuation of terbinafine.

  15. The taste system of small fish species.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Small fish species such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) are advantageous animal models and have been used as model organisms in many research areas. However, they have not been utilized for studying the taste system, primarily because of a dearth of molecular biological knowledge. Quantitative methods for analyzing the taste preferences of fish species have also been lacking. Recent progress of the fish genome project has enabled the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of taste sensation. Taste receptors and a number of signal transduction molecules have been identified. Additionally, the development of quantitative methods of feeding using fluorescently labeled artificial foods has demonstrated taste preferences in small fish species. Comparisons between these results in fish and reports on mammals have proposed a general logic and evolution of vertebrate taste systems. Analysis on the transsynaptic tracer-expressing transgenic medaka fish also suggests the usefulness of small fish in the research of neural circuits for taste.

  16. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy.

  17. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  18. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  19. Intravital microscopic interrogation of peripheral taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-02

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  20. Expected taste intensity affects response to sweet drinks in primary taste cortex.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andrew T; Lloyd, Donna M; Kuenzel, Johanna; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B; Thomas, Anna

    2011-06-11

    Expectations about a food can impact on its taste, but this may represent a perceptual change or a bias in response at the decision-making stage. We hypothesised that expectation of taste intensity should be underpinned by modulation of activity in primary taste cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that expecting a very sweet drink, but receiving a less sweet drink, enhanced the reported sweetness and bolstered activity in taste cortex, relative to a less sweet drink without this expectation. The activation overlapped with primary taste cortex activation found in 11 recent taste studies. Our findings provide evidence that taste expectation modulates activity in an area consistently reported as primary taste cortex, implying that expectation effects do indeed impact on taste perception.

  1. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  2. Changes in taste receptor cell [Ca2+]i modulate chorda tympani responses to salty and sour taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Desimone, John A; Ren, Zuojun; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Heck, Gerard L; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Lyall, Vijay

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between taste receptor cell (TRC) Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to salty [NaCl and NaCl+benzamil (Bz)] and sour (HCl, CO(2), and acetic acid) taste stimuli was investigated before and after lingual application of ionomycin+Ca(2+), 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), U73122 (phospholipase C blocker), and thapsigargin (Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor) under open-circuit or lingual voltage-clamp conditions. An increase in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) attenuated the tonic Bz-sensitive NaCl CT response and the apical membrane Na(+) conductance. A decrease in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) enhanced the tonic Bz-sensitive and Bz-insensitive NaCl CT responses and apical membrane Na(+) conductance but did not affect CT responses to KCl or NH(4)Cl. An increase in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. A decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) did not alter the phasic response but attenuated the tonic CT response to acidic stimuli. In a subset of TRCs, a positive relationship between [H(+)](i) and [Ca(2+)](i) was obtained using in vitro imaging techniques. U73122 inhibited the tonic CT responses to NaCl, and thapsigargin inhibited the tonic CT responses to salty and sour stimuli. The results suggest that salty and sour taste qualities are transduced by [Ca(2+)](i)-dependent and [Ca(2+)](i)-independent mechanisms. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a BAPTA-sensitive cytosolic compartment regulate ion channels and cotransporters involved in the salty and sour taste transduction mechanisms and in neural adaptation. Changes in TRC [Ca(2+)](i) in a separate subcompartment, sensitive to inositol trisphosphate and thapsigargin but inaccessible to BAPTA, are associated with neurotransmitter release.

  3. Pituitary adenylatecyclase-activating polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the rat epiglottis and pharynx.

    PubMed

    Kano, Mitsuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Suzuki, Yujiro; Furukawa, Yusuke; Ishida, Hiroko; Oikawa, Miho; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Toshihiko

    2011-12-20

    The distribution of pituitary adenylatecyclase-activating polypeptide-immunoreactive (PACAP-IR) nerve fibers was studied in the rat epiglottis and pharynx. PACAP-IR nerve fibers were located beneath the mucous epithelium, and occasionally penetrated the epithelium. These nerve fibers were abundant on the laryngeal side of the epiglottis and in the dorsal and lateral border region between naso-oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx. PACAP-IR nerve fibers were also detected in taste buds within the epiglottis and pharynx. In addition, many PACAP-IR nerve fibers were found around acinar cells and blood vessels. The double immunofluorescence method demonstrated that distribution of PACAP-IR nerve fibers was similar to that in CGRP-IR nerve fibers in the epithelium and taste bud. However, distributions of PACAP-IR and CGRP-IR nerve fibers innervating mucous glands and blood vessels were different. The retrograde tracing method also demonstrated that PACAP and CGRP were co-expressed by vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory neurons innervating the pharynx. These findings suggest that PACAP-IR nerve fibers in the epithelium and taste bud of the epiglottis and pharynx which originate from the vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory ganglia include nociceptors and chemoreceptors. The origin of PACAP-IR nerve fibers which innervate mucous glands and blood vessels may be the autonomic ganglion.

  4. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  5. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  6. Nerve Blocks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sometimes the needle has to be inserted fairly deep to reach the nerve causing your problem. This ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  7. Evaluation of taste solutions by sensor fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Sato, Eriko; Atobe, Masahiko; Nakashima, Miki; Kato, Yukihisa; Nonoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yoshimasa

    2009-05-23

    In our previous studies, properties of taste solutions were discriminated based on sound velocity and amplitude of ultrasonic waves propagating through the solutions. However, to make this method applicable to beverages which contain many taste substances, further studies are required. In this study, the waveform of an ultrasonic wave with frequency of approximately 5 MHz propagating through a solution was measured and subjected to frequency analysis. Further, taste sensors require various techniques of sensor fusion to effectively obtain chemical and physical parameter of taste solutions. A sensor fusion method of ultrasonic wave sensor and various sensors, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, to estimate tastes were proposed and examined in this report. As a result, differences among pure water and two basic taste solutions were clearly observed as differences in their properties. Furthermore, a self-organizing neural network was applied to obtained data which were used to clarify the differences among solutions.

  8. Optic Nerve Decompression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nerve Decompression Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Optic Nerve Decompression John Lee, MD Introduction Optic nerve decompression is a surgical procedure aimed at ...

  9. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... compressed in the elbow, a problem called cubital tunnel syndrome may result. When damage destroys the nerve ...

  10. Impairments in the Perception of Odor-Induced Tastes and Their Relationship to Impairments in Taste Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Miller, Laurie A.; Thayer, Zoe C.

    2008-01-01

    Certain odors have tastelike qualities when sniffed. To the extent that these qualities are akin to real taste experiences, impairment in perception of odor-induced tastes should be accompanied by taste impairment, and vice versa. Twelve patients were selected with possible odor-induced taste impairments or general taste impairments via a…

  11. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  12. Effects of selective lingual gustatory deafferentation on suprathreshold taste intensity discrimination of NaCl in rats.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Connie L; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2004-12-01

    In rats, chorda tympani nerve transection (CTX) greatly increases the detection threshold of sodium chloride (NaCl) and severely disrupts salt discriminability. Here it is shown that CTX has surprisingly little effect, if any, on suprathreshold intensity discrimination. Glossopharyngeal nerve transection (GLX), which has no reported effect on salt sensibility, also did not affect performance. Rats were tested in a 2-response, operant taste intensity discrimination task. Difference thresholds for CTX rats were only slightly higher (-0.15 log/10 unit) than those for GLX and sham-transected rats, when 0.05 M served as the standard, and did not significantly differ when 0.1 M NaCl was the standard. Although the perceived intensity of NaCl might be reduced by CTX, input from remaining taste nerves sufficiently maintains the relative discriminability of suprathreshold NaCl concentrations.

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  14. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  16. Sensing Basic Tastes by Electronic Tongue Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Zoltán; Szöllősi, Dániel; Fekete, András; Isz, Sandrine

    2011-09-01

    There is an increasing demand to develop method for simulating the human taste perception by objective instruments1. The task was to develop method for the assessment of definite taste attributes. Therefore, our objective was to develop complete method for sensing different taste attributes. The subject of this work was to test the Specific Sensor Array for taste screening developed by Alpha M.O.S. Different brands of carrot juices were analyzed by an Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue (ET) and a trained sensory panel. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the different carrot juice samples were significantly different from each other in some taste attributes. The electronic tongue was able to distinguish the tested samples according to the measurement results evaluated by multivariate statistics. Furthermore, the relevant taste attributes of carrot juice samples such as sour taste could be predicted by definite sensors of the electronic tongue. Based on our results we concluded that the selected sensors of the Specific Sensor Array could be an appropriate tool for estimating important taste attributes of the tested carrot juice samples.

  17. The taste response to ammonia in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Delventhal, R.; Menuz, K.; Joseph, R.; Park, J.; Sun, J. S.; Carlson, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia is both a building block and a breakdown product of amino acids and is found widely in the environment. The odor of ammonia is attractive to many insects, including insect vectors of disease. The olfactory response of Drosophila to ammonia has been studied in some detail, but the taste response has received remarkably little attention. Here, we show that ammonia is a taste cue for Drosophila. Nearly all sensilla of the major taste organ of the Drosophila head house a neuron that responds to neutral solutions of ammonia. Ammonia is toxic at high levels to many organisms, and we find that it has a negative valence in two paradigms of taste behavior, one operating over hours and the other over seconds. Physiological and behavioral responses to ammonia depend at least in part on Gr66a+ bitter-sensing taste neurons, which activate a circuit that deters feeding. The Amt transporter, a critical component of olfactory responses to ammonia, is widely expressed in taste neurons but is not required for taste responses. This work establishes ammonia as an ecologically important taste cue in Drosophila, and shows that it can activate circuits that promote opposite behavioral outcomes via different sensory systems. PMID:28262698

  18. Preexposure to salty and sour taste enhances conditioned taste aversion to novel sucrose.

    PubMed

    Flores, Veronica L; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty-the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS) reduces its associability. The effect of exposure to tastes other than the CS has, in contrast, received little investigation. Here, we exposed rats to sodium chloride (N) and citric acid (C), either before or within a conditioning session involving novel sucrose (S). Presentation of this taste array within the conditioning session weakened the resultant S aversion, as expected. The opposite effect, however, was observed when exposure to the taste array was provided in sessions that preceded conditioning: such experience enhanced the eventual S aversion-a result that was robust to differences in CS delivery method and number of tastes presented in conditioning sessions. This "non-CS preexposure effect" scaled with the number of tastes in the exposure array (experience with more stimuli was more effective than experience with fewer) and with the amount of exposure sessions (three preexposure sessions were more effective than two). Together, our results provide evidence that exposure and experience with the realm of tastes changes an animal's future handling of even novel tastes.

  19. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species.

  20. Molecular definition of black tea taste by means of quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments.

    PubMed

    Scharbert, Susanne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-29

    Recently, bioresponse-guided fractionation of black tea infusions indicated that neither the high molecular weight thearubigens nor the theaflavins, but a series of 14 flavon-3-ol glycopyranosides besides some catechins, might be important contributors to black tea taste. To further bridge the gap between pure structural chemistry and human taste perception, in the present investigation 51 putative taste compounds have been quantified in a black tea infusion, and their dose-over-threshold (Dot) factors have been calculated on the basis of a dose/threshold relationship. To confirm these quantitative results, an aqueous taste model was prepared by blending aqueous solutions of 15 amino acids, 14 flavonol-glycosides, 8 flavan-3-ols, 5 theaflavins, 5 organic acids, 3 sugars, and caffeine in their "natural" concentrations. Sensory analyses revealed that the taste profile of this artificial cocktail did not differ significantly from the taste profile of the authentic tea infusion. To further narrow the number of key taste compounds, finally, taste omission experiments have been performed, on the basis of which a reduced recombinate was prepared containing the bitter-tasting caffeine, nine velvety astringent flavonol-3-glycosides, and the puckering astringent catechin as well as the astringent and bitter epigallocatechin-3-gallate. The taste profile of this reduced recombinate differed not significantly from that of the complete taste recombinate, thus confirming these 12 compounds as the key taste compounds of the tea infusion. Additional sensory studies demonstrated for the first time that the flavanol-3-glycosides not only impart a velvety astringent taste sensation to the oral cavity but also contribute to the bitter taste of tea infusions by amplifying the bitterness of caffeine.

  1. Taste Coding after Selective Inhibition by Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao-Fen; Marks, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    Coding of the complex tastes of ionic stimuli in humans was studied by combining taste confusion matrix (TCM) methodology and treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate. The TCM evaluates discrimination of multiple stimuli simultaneously. Chlorhexidine, a bis-biguanide antiseptic, reversibly inhibits salty taste and tastes of a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride. Identifications of salty (NaCl, “salt”), bitter (quinine·HCl, “quinine”), sweet (sucrose, “sugar”), and sour (citric acid, “acid”) prototypes, alone and as components of binary mixtures, were measured under 4 conditions. One was a water-rinse control and the others had the salt and quinine tastes progressively reduced by treatment with 1 mM chlorhexidine, 3 mM chlorhexidine, and ultimately to zero by elimination of NaCl and quinine·HCl. Treatment with chlorhexidine perturbed identification of salt more than quinine; both were thereafter more often confused with “water” and unidentified when mixed with sucrose or citric acid. All pairwise discriminations that depended on the tastes of NaCl and quinine·HCl deteriorated, and although H2O was mistakenly identified as quinine after chlorhexidine, this may have been a decisional bias. Other confusions reflected “unprompted mixture analysis” and an obscuring of salt taste by a less-inhibited stronger quinine or sugar or acid tastes in mixtures. Partial inhibition of the tastes of NaCl and quinine·HCl by chlorhexidine was considered in the context of multiple receptors for the 2 compounds. Discrimination among prototypic stimuli with varying strengths was consistent with a gustatory system that evaluates a small number of independent tastes. PMID:19703921

  2. Taste-related sensations in old age.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Annear, M J; Ikebe, K; Maeda, Y

    2017-03-02

    The sense of taste is important as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, safety and quality of foods as well as for food enjoyment and quality of life. Several factors are suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity, and higher prevalence of taste disorder has been reported among older adults. This review focused on the reported causes and correlates of taste decline in older adults, with the aim to consolidating existing evidence and identifying gaps and limitations. Using a scoping review methodology, we sought relevant literature from the last 20 years. Search terms included taste, gustatory sense, older adults and geriatric. Considered research was limited to reports that involved research participants over 60 years old, papers written in English, and manuscripts published after 1995. We have consolidated available evidences on the influences on taste-related sensations among international cohorts of older adults. Influences can be reflected under the topics of physiological changes in the sensory organs, physiological and behavioural variables related to taste sensation. This review identified three areas of historic and current research endeavour related to studies of taste sensation in older subjects: physiological changes in the sensory organs, factors related to the ageing of the individual and behavioural variables affecting taste-related sensation. Key limitations and gaps in the current literature include notable lack of consideration of potential confounding, mediating and moderating effects, while future research is indicated in the areas of measuring the quality of health and life. As global population ageing accelerates in the coming decades, maintaining taste sensations and sensitivity in older adults will be a key measure to ensuring quality of health and life.

  3. Why do sugars taste good?

    PubMed

    Ramirez, I

    1990-01-01

    The preference humans and animals show for sweet solutions has been the subject of hundreds of publications. Nevertheless, the evolutionary origin of sweet preference remains enigmatic because of the relatively low nutritional value of sugars and the absence of specific tastes for other, more essential, nutrients. Moderate concentrations of sugars are found in most plant foods because sugars play an important role in plant physiology. Widespread occurrence of sugars in plants is paralleled by widespread preference for sugar solutions in mammals. These observations suggest that preference for sugars evolved because they are common in plants and easy to detect rather than because of any special nutritional merits they offer. Perception of sweetness cannot be used to accurately meter the metabolizable energy or nutritive value of a food.

  4. Implementaton of SOIS in TASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delange, Julien; Torelli, Felice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup

    2012-08-01

    The design and implementation of space software needs to be rigorous: as mission- or life-critical systems, they must be designed without error. For that purpose, developers have to use methods, tools and libraries that provide guidance during the production process. In addition, to ease software reuse through different projects, reduce development costs and avoid revalidation of software that provides the same functions, reference on-board software architecture are defined, and standardized interfaces are introduced. They define interaction methods between system components, either software or hardware. The past years have also shown the emerging need to abstract system specifications using models, also at software or hardware level. This consists in capturing system architecture with its requirements using specific tools that automatically check their correctness and produce implementation to be deployed on the target.Therefore, the reference architecture and system interfaces must be consistent with development tools. The code generator must generates the right calls to the standardized interface. In the case of communication interface, the communication services can be implemented either in a hidden way within the generated code, or as explicit design patterns of the application software model. Thus, integrating existing standards into the reference architecture is still under investigation and different integration scenarios could be envisioned and so, need to be evaluated.In this paper, we explain the mapping of the CCSDS standardized communication interface (the Spacecraft Onboard Interface Service, SOIS) into an established modelling technology (TASTE). We detail SOIS integration into models so that engineers can directly use them from modelling tool that automatically calls appropriate procedure when generating the implementation. We also assess the meaning of being "SOIS compliant" with the example of TASTE.

  5. Taste of Milk from Inflamed Breasts of Breastfeeding Mothers with Mastitis Evaluated Using a Taste Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Michiko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Kumagai, Masanori; Muto, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The refusal of infants to suckle from a breast that is inflamed with mastitis suggests that the taste of the milk has changed. However, the taste of milk from a breast with mastitis has never been empirically determined. The present study compares the taste of milk from breastfeeding mothers with or without mastitis and identifies specific changes in the taste of milk from mothers with mastitis. Subjects and Methods: The intensity of four basic tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami) of breastmilk from 24 healthy mothers at 3–5 days and at 2–3, 4–5, and 8–10 weeks postpartum and from 14 mothers with mastitis was determined objectively using a taste sensor. The intensity of each basic taste and the concentrations of main taste substances in milk were compared between the inflamed breasts and the normal breasts of control mothers or the contralateral asymptomatic breast of mothers with unilateral mastitis. Results: The transition from colostrum to mature milk was accompanied by changes in the taste of the milk, such as decreased saltiness and umami and increased bitterness and sourness. Umami and saltiness increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Contents of sodium, glutamate, and guanosine monophosphate increased in milk from inflamed breasts. Conclusions: Tastes that were specifically associated with inflamed breasts appeared to include an increase in umami and saltiness, which might have resulted from an increased content in factors associated with umami and sodium. PMID:24350703

  6. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. PMID:25354792

  7. Taste in chimpanzees. III: Labeled-line coding in sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Danilova, V

    1998-11-15

    In peripheral taste the coding mechanism remains an enigma. Among coding theories the "across-fiber pattern" argues that activity across fibers codes for taste, whereas the "labeled line" claims that activity in a particular set of fibers underlies a taste quality. We showed previously that chimpanzee chorda tympani taste fibers grouped according to human taste qualities into an S-cluster, responding predominantly to sweet stimuli, a Q-cluster, sensitive to bitter tastants, and an N-cluster, stimulated by salts. The analysis showed that information in the S-line suffices to distinguish stimuli of one taste quality from the others. However, one condition for the labeled line remained: that blockage of activity in a particular line must cause blockage of one taste quality, but of no other, or its onset give rise to the sensation of a taste quality. Here we studied this requirement with gymnemic acids and miraculin. In humans and chimpanzees, gymnemic acids suppress the sweet taste of all sweeteners whereas miraculin adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. Gymnemic acids also abolish miraculin-induced sweet taste. We found that gymnemic acids practically abolished the response to every sweetener in the chimpanzee S-cluster. Equally important, they had no effect on the responses of the Q- and N-clusters. After miraculin, the S-cluster fibers responded to acids as well as to sweeteners, although they had not responded to acids before miraculin. Gymnemic acids abolished this miraculin-induced response to acids and responses to sweeteners in the S-fibers. These results link the sweet taste quality to activity in fibers of the S-cluster. Thus the S-cluster fibers satisfy the definition of the labeled-line theory: "that activity in a particular fiber type represents a specific taste quality."

  8. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds.

  9. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  10. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    PubMed

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods.

  11. Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Carey, Ryan M; Lee, Robert J; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors are well known for their role in communicating information from the tongue to the brain about nutritional value or potential toxicity of ingested substances. More recently, it has been shown that taste receptors are expressed in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, brain and pancreas. The roles of some 'extraoral' taste receptors are largely unknown, but emerging research suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are capable of sensing bacteria and modulating innate immunity. This chapter focuses on the role of bitter and sweet taste receptors in human airway innate immunity and their clinical relevance to rhinosinusitis. The bitter taste receptor T2R38 expressed in sinonasal cilia detects bitter bacterial quorum-sensing molecules and activates a nitric oxide-dependent innate immune response; moreover, there are polymorphisms in T2R38 that underlie susceptibility to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Bitter and sweet receptors in sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells control secretion of antimicrobial peptides in the upper airway and may have a profound impact on airway infections in patients with CRS and diabetes. Future research on taste receptors in the airway has enormous potential to expand our understanding of host-pathogen immune interactions and provide novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  13. Gustatory responses of the mouse chorda tympani nerve vary based on region of tongue stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dana, Rachel M; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Different parts of the mouth vary in their taste responsiveness and gustatory transduction components. However, there have been few attempts to consider regional variation among areas innervated by a single nerve branch or containing only one type of gustatory papilla. Here, we examined whether taste-elicited responses of a single nerve, the chorda tympani (CT), depend on where taste solutions are delivered on the tongue in mice. In experiment 1, multiunit CT responses to NaCl and sucrose were larger if sapid taste solutions were applied to the tongue tip, which contains the anterior-most fungiform papillae, than if they were flowed over fungiform and foliate papillae on the posterior tongue. Further, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride suppressed NaCl responses to a greater degree for the tongue tip. In experiment 2, CT nerve responses were compared between the tongue tip and a region further back that contained only fungiform papillae. NaCl and sucrose solutions applied to posterior fungiform papillae produced smaller responses than did those elicited by the same taste stimuli applied to anterior fungiform papillae on the tongue tip. Amiloride suppressed the response to NaCl delivered to the anterior fungiform but not posterior fungiform papillae. These results indicate that the CT response is tongue-region dependent in the mouse. Furthermore, the spatial location of a fungiform papilla provides important information about its properties, such as whether sodium taste transduction is mediated by amiloride-sensitive ENaCs.

  14. Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Lynn K

    2016-10-28

    Optic nerve diseases arise from many different etiologies including inflammatory, neoplastic, genetic, infectious, ischemic, and idiopathic. Understanding some of the characteristics of the most common optic neuropathies along with therapeutic approaches to these diseases is helpful in designing recommendations for individual patients. Although many optic neuropathies have no specific treatment, some do, and it is those potentially treatable or preventable conditions which need to be recognized in order to help patients regain their sight or develop a better understanding of their own prognosis. In this chapter several diseases are discussed including idiopathic intracranial hypertension, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathies, hereditary optic neuropathies, trauma, and primary tumors of the optic nerve. For each condition there is a presentation of the signs and symptoms of the disease, in some conditions the evaluation and diagnostic criteria are highlighted, and where possible, current therapy or past trials are discussed.

  15. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yoshimoto, Joto; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-06-01

    Taste information from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying taste transduction through this pathway have not been fully elucidated. In this study, to identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated whether complexins (Cplxs), which play roles in regulating membrane fusion in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, were expressed in taste bud cells. Among four Cplx isoforms, strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in type III taste cells. To investigate the function of CPLX2 in taste transduction, we observed taste responses in CPLX2-knockout mice. When assessed with electrophysiological and behavioral assays, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2-knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These results suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons. A part of taste information is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated complexins (Cplxs) expression in taste bud cells. Strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in taste bud cells. Furthermore, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2- knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction.

  16. Taste cell-expressed α-glucosidase enzymes contribute to gustatory responses to disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Yee, Karen K; Iwata, Shusuke; Kotha, Ramana; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Nichols, Buford L; Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Margolskee, Robert F

    2016-05-24

    The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides. However, the T1R-independent pathway would not explain responses to disaccharide and oligomeric sugars, such as sucrose, maltose, and maltotriose, which are not substrates for GLUTs or SGLT1. Using RT-PCR, quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry, we found that taste cells express multiple α-glycosidases (e.g., amylase and neutral α glucosidase C) and so-called intestinal "brush border" disaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes (e.g., maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase). Treating the tongue with inhibitors of disaccharidases specifically decreased gustatory nerve responses to disaccharides, but not to monosaccharides or noncaloric sweeteners, indicating that lingual disaccharidases are functional. These taste cell-expressed enzymes may locally break down dietary disaccharides and starch hydrolysis products into monosaccharides that could serve as substrates for the T1R-independent sugar sensing pathways.

  17. Artificial sweeteners and salts producing a metallic taste sensation activate TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; le Coutre, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Throughout the world many people use artificial sweeteners (AS) for the purpose of reducing caloric intake. The most prominently used of these molecules include saccharin, aspartame (Nutrasweet), acesulfame-K, and cyclamate. Despite the caloric advantage they provide, one key concern in their use is their aversive aftertaste that has been characterized on a sensory level as bitter and/or metallic. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of particular T2R bitter taste receptors is partially involved with the bitter aftertaste sensation of saccharin and acesulfame-K. To more fully understand the biology behind these phenomena we have addressed the question of whether AS could stimulate transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors, as these receptors are activated by a large range of structurally different chemicals. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors and/or their variants are found in taste receptor cells and in nerve terminals throughout the oral cavity. Hence, TRPV1 activation could be involved in the AS aftertaste or even contribute to the poorly understood metallic taste sensation. Using Ca(2+) imaging on TRPV1 receptors heterologously expressed in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and on dissociated primary sensory neurons, we find that in both systems, AS activate TRPV1 receptors, and, moreover, they sensitize these channels to acid and heat. We also found that TRPV1 receptors are activated by CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeSO(4), three salts known to produce a metallic taste sensation. In summary, our results identify a novel group of compounds that activate TRPV1 and, consequently, provide a molecular mechanism that may account for off tastes of sweeteners and metallic tasting salts.

  18. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    PubMed

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  19. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food. PMID:26893070

  20. Taste Identification in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory issues are widely reported in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Since taste perception is one of the least studied senses in ASC we explored taste identification in adults with ASC (12 males, 11 females) compared to control participants (14 males, 12 females). "Taste strips" were used to measure taste identification overall, as well as…

  1. Effects of binary taste stimuli on the neural activity of the hamster chorda tympani

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Binary mixtures of taste stimuli were applied to the tongue of the hamster and the reaction of the whole corda tympani was recorded. Some of the chemicals that were paired in mixtures (HCl, NH4Cl, NaCl, CaCl2, sucrose, and D-phenylalanine) have similar tastes to human and/or hamster, and/or common stimulatory effects on individual fibers of the hamster chorda tympani; other pairs of these chemicals have dissimilar tastes and/or distinct neural stimulatory effects. The molarity of each chemical with approximately the same effect on the activity of the nerve as 0.01 M NaCl was selected, and an established relation between stimulus concentration and response allowed estimation of the effect of a "mixture" of two concentrations of one chemical. Each mixture elicited a response that was smaller than the sum of the responses to its components. However, responses to some mixtures approached this sum, and responses to other mixtures closely approached the response to a "mixture" of two concentrations of one chemical. Responses of the former variety were generated by mixtures of an electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte and the latter by mixtures of two electrolytes or two nonelectrolytes. But, beyond the distinction between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, the whole-nerve response to a mixture could not be predicted from the known neural or psychophysical effects of its components. PMID:7411114

  2. Longitudinal Analysis of Calorie Restriction on Rat Taste Bud Morphology and Expression of Sweet Taste Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste–related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste–related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

  3. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  4. Heat Effect on the Taste of Milk Studied Using a Taste Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toko, Kiyoshi; Iyota, Teru; Mizota, Yasumichi; Matsuno, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Toshihiro; Doi, Toyohiko; Iiyama, Satoru; Kato, Tomihisa; Yamafuji, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ryozo

    1995-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the taste of milk was investigated using a taste sensor. The transducer is composed of seven electrodes with different kinds of lipid membranes. Sensory evaluations by humans were made in terms of three taste characteristics of “richness (koku),” “cooked flavor” and “deliciousness” together with a measurement of whey protein denaturation. This study provided a quantitative description of the taste change caused by heat treatment of milk, because the output showed high correlations with richness and the degree of protein denaturation.

  5. [Determination of taste sensitivity with mixed solutions].

    PubMed

    Marco Algarra, R

    1990-01-01

    In the second part of our study we present the results of the mixture of four basic tastes in comparison with those of the simple solutions, mea ng as well the fatigue phenomenon with the mixed solutions.

  6. Taste rejection of nonnutritive sweeteners in cats.

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Jacobs, H L; Nichols, T L; Hoff, L A; Ryckman, J J

    1975-10-01

    Cats reject saccharin and cyclamate and are indifferent to dulcin, although they, like other mammals, prefer sucrose. The rejection threshold for saccharin found in this experiments, .0001 M, is about 2 log steps lower than a previously reported rejection threshold for sodium saccharin. Water produces a taste in cats adapted to their own saliva. The high sodium saccharin threshold may have resulted because the taste of the sodium saccharin was masked by the taste of the water solvent; however, saccharin may also be somewhat more aversive to the cat than sodium saccharin. Saccharin may produce an aversive taste because it stimulates receptor sites sensitive to substances bitter to man as well as those sensitive to sugars. In addition, saccharin may not be an effective stimulus for all sugar-sensitive sites.

  7. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    PubMed

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  8. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    PubMed

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste.

  9. Sense of taste in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the investigation of the molecular mechanism by which chemicals such as odors and tastants are perceived by specific chemosensory organs. For example, G protein-coupled receptors expressed within the nasal epithelium and taste receptors in the oral cavity have been identified as odorant and taste receptors, respectively. However, there is much evidence to indicate that these chemosensory receptors are not restricted to primary chemosensory cells; they are also expressed and have function in other cells such as those in the airways and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This short review describes the possible mechanisms by which taste signal transduction occurs in the oral cavity and tastants/nutrients are sensed in the GI tract by taste-like cells, mainly enteroendocrine and brush cells. Furthermore, it discusses the future perspectives of chemosensory studies.

  10. Development of Bitter Taste Sensor Using Ionic-Liquid/Polymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutagawa, Nobuyuki; Toida, Jinichi; Amano, Yoshihiko; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Toko, Kiyoshi; Arikawa, Yukihiko

    A taste sensor is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes as transducers which convert taste information to electric signal. Thus, the role of membranes is very important to detect various taste components. In this paper, we developed novel membranes which specifically respond to quinine that is typical bitter substances. These membranes were composed of hydrophobic ionic liquid such as N, N, N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, a plasticizer, 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether and a polymer, polyvinyl chloride. In addition to quinine, they also showed response to both several kinds of alkaloids such as caffeine and strychnine, and non-alkaloid such as phenylthiocarbamide. The order of these responses was equal to that of the tongue glossopharyngeal nerve of flog. Furthermore, there were the other alkaloids which response to these membranes. Especially in these alkaloids, they showed high response to denatonium benzoate and berberin chloride which have a strong bitter taste.

  11. How do taste cells lacking synapses mediate neurotransmission? CALHM1, a voltage-gated ATP channel

    PubMed Central

    Taruno, Akiyuki; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ma, Zhongming; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    CALHM1 was recently demonstrated to be a voltage-gated ATP-permeable ion channel and to serve as a bona fide conduit for ATP release from sweet-, umami-, and bitter-sensing type II taste cells. Calhm1 is expressed in taste buds exclusively in type II cells and its product has structural and functional similarities with connexins and pannexins, two families of channel protein candidates for ATP release by type II cells. Calhm1 knockout in mice leads to loss of perception of sweet, umami, and bitter compounds and to impaired gustatory nerve responses to these tastants. These new studies validate the concept of ATP as the primary neurotransmitter from type II cells to gustatory neurons. Furthermore, they identify voltage-gated ATP release through CALHM1 as an essential molecular mechanism of ATP release in taste buds. We discuss these new findings, as well as unresolved issues in peripheral taste signaling that we hope will stimulate future research. PMID:24105910

  12. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  13. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  14. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  15. Sweet taste and chorda tympani transection alter capsaicin-induced lingual pain perception in adult human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schöbel, N; Kyereme, J; Minovi, A; Dazert, S; Bartoshuk, L; Hatt, H

    2012-10-10

    Sweetness signals the nutritional value of food and may moreover be accompanied by a sensory suppression that leads to higher pain tolerance. This effect is well documented in infant rats and humans. However, it is still debated whether sensory suppression is also present in adult humans. Thus, we investigated the effects of sweet taste on the perception of the painful trigeminal stimulus capsaicin in two groups of healthy adult human subjects. A solution of 100 μM capsaicin was applied to the tip of the subject's tongues in order to stimulate trigeminal Aδ- and C-fiber nociceptors. When swallowed, 1M sucrose reduced the capsaicin-induced burning sensation by 29% (p ≤ 0.05) whereas a solution of similar taste intensity containing 1 μM quinine did not. Similarly, sucrose application to the frontal hemitongue suppressed the perception of the burning sensation induced by contralaterally applied capsaicin by 25% (p ≤ 0.01). We furthermore investigated the effects of documented unilateral transection of the chorda tympani nerve on capsaicin perception. In accordance with the ipsi-to-contralateral effect of sucrose on capsaicin perception in healthy subjects, hemiageusic subjects were more sensitive for capsaicin on the tongue contralateral to the taste nerve lesion (+38%; p ≤ 0.01). Taken together, these results argue I) for the existence of food intake-induced sensory suppression, if not analgesia, in adult humans and II) a centrally mediated suppression of trigeminal sensation by taste inputs that III) becomes disinhibited upon peripheral taste nerve lesion.

  16. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... polyneuropathy Tibial nerve dysfunction Ulnar nerve dysfunction Any peripheral neuropathy can cause abnormal results. Damage to the spinal ... Herniated disk Lambert-Eaton syndrome Mononeuropathy Multiple ... azotemia Primary amyloidosis Radial nerve dysfunction Sciatica ...

  17. The Addition of Saccharin to Taste Cues Affects Taste Preference Conditioning in Thirsty Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestell, Catherine A.; LoLordo, Vincent M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous failures to condition preferences for the unacceptable taste cues sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and citric acid (CA) using a reverse-order, differential conditioning procedure (Forestell & LoLordo, 2000) may have been the result of low consumption of the taste cues in training or of their relatively low acceptability to rats that are thirsty…

  18. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  19. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  20. Relationship between gustatory function and average number of taste buds per fungiform papilla measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy in humans.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Ito, Yumi; Manabe, Yasuhiro; Sano, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the gustatory function and average number of taste buds per fungiform papilla (FP) in humans. Systemically healthy volunteers (n = 211), pre-operative patients with chronic otitis media (n = 79), and postoperative patients, with or without a chorda tympani nerve (CTN) severed during middle ear surgery (n = 63), were included. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was employed to observe fungiform taste buds because it allows many FP to be observed non-invasively in a short period of time. Taste buds in an average of 10 FP in the midlateral region of the tongue were counted. In total, 3,849 FP were observed in 353 subjects. The gustatory function was measured by electrogustometry (EGM). An inverse relationship was found between the gustatory function and average number of fungiform taste buds per papilla. The healthy volunteers showed a lower EGM threshold (better gustatory function) and had more taste buds than did the patients with otitis media, and the patients with otitis media showed a lower EGM threshold and had more taste buds than did postoperative patients, reflecting the severity of damage to the CTN. It was concluded that the confocal laser scanning microscope is a very useful tool for using to observe a large number of taste buds non-invasively.

  1. Nerve Impulses in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes research done on the resting and action potential of nerve impulses, electrical excitation of nerve cells, electrical properties of Nitella, and temperature effects on action potential. (GS)

  2. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations. PMID:26388813

  3. Lingual Nerve Entrapment in Muscular and Osseous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Georgios, Androutsos; Panagiotis, Skandalakis

    2010-01-01

    Running through the infratemporal fossa is the lingual nerve (i.e. the third branch of the posterior trunk of the mandibular nerve). Due to its location, there are various anatomic structures that might entrap and potentially compress the lingual nerve. These anatomical sites of entrapment are: (a) the partially or completely ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligaments; (b) the large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process; and (c) the medial fibers of the anterior region of the lateral pterygoid muscle. Due to the connection between these nerve and anatomic structures, a contraction of the lateral pterygoid muscle, for example, might cause a compression of the lingual nerve. Any variations in the course of the lingual nerve can be of clinical significance to surgeons and neurologists because of the significant complications that might occur. To name a few of such complications, lingual nerve entrapment can lead to: (a) numbness, hypoesthesia or even anesthesia of the tongue's mucous glands; (b) anesthesia and loss of taste in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue; (c) anesthesia of the lingual gums; and (d) pain related to speech articulation disorder. Dentists should, therefore, be alert to possible signs of neurovascular compression in regions where the lingual nerve is distributed. PMID:21404967

  4. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems.

  5. Evidence that humans can taste glucose polymers.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Trina J; Penner, Michael H; Lim, Juyun

    2014-11-01

    The sense of taste is essential for identifying potential nutrients and poisons. Accordingly, specialized taste receptor cells are activated by food-derived chemicals. Because of its importance in the human diet, oral detection of starch, or its degradation products, would presumably be highly beneficial. Yet, it has long been assumed that simple sugars are the only class of carbohydrates that humans can taste. There is, however, considerable evidence that rodents can taste starch degradation products (i.e., glucose polymers composed of maltooligosaccharides with 3-10 glucose units and maltopolysaccharides with >10 glucose units) and that their detection is independent of the sweet taste receptor, T1R2/T1R3. The present study was designed 1) to measure individual differences in human taste perception of glucose polymers, 2) to understand individual differences in the activity of salivary α-amylase, and 3) to investigate the role that salivary α-amylase may play in the taste perception of glucose polymers. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste intensity of glucose, sucrose, NaCl, and glucose polymers of various chain lengths, while their noses were clamped. Saliva samples from the subjects were also collected and their salivary α-amylase activity was assayed. Results showed that the perceived intensities of glucose, sucrose, and NaCl were significantly correlated (r = 0.75-0.85, P < 0.001), but not with the longer chain glucose polymers, whereas intensity ratings of all glucose polymers were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.69-0.82, P < 0.001). Importantly, despite large individual differences in α-amylase activity among subjects, responsiveness to glucose polymers did not significantly differ between individuals with high and low α-amylase activity. A follow up experiment was conducted to quantify the concentrations of glucose and maltose that were inherently present in the glucose polymer stimuli and to determine whether the amounts were

  6. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

     Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  7. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Sayaka; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat-stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate-related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine-5'-monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose-dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste.

  8. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902

  9. Disentangling taste and toxicity in aposematic prey.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øistein Haugsten

    2013-02-22

    Many predators quickly learn to avoid attacking aposematic prey. If the prey vary in toxicity, the predators may alternatively learn to capture and taste-sample prey carefully before ingesting or rejecting them (go-slow behaviour). An increase in prey toxicity is generally thought to decrease predation on prey populations. However, while prey with a higher toxin load are more harmful to ingest, they may also be easier to recognize and reject owing to greater distastefulness, which can facilitate a taste-sampling foraging strategy. Here, the classic diet model is used to study the separate effects of taste and toxicity on predator preferences. The taste-sampling process is modelled using signal detection theory. The model is applicable to automimicry and batesian mimicry. It shows that when the defensive toxin is sufficiently distasteful, a mimicry complex may be less profitable to the predator and better protected against predation if the models are moderately toxic than if they are highly toxic. Moreover, taste mimicry can reduce the profitability of the mimicry complex and increase protection against predation. The results are discussed in relation to the selection pressures acting on prey defences and the evolution of mimicry.

  10. Disentangling taste and toxicity in aposematic prey

    PubMed Central

    Holen, Øistein Haugsten

    2013-01-01

    Many predators quickly learn to avoid attacking aposematic prey. If the prey vary in toxicity, the predators may alternatively learn to capture and taste-sample prey carefully before ingesting or rejecting them (go-slow behaviour). An increase in prey toxicity is generally thought to decrease predation on prey populations. However, while prey with a higher toxin load are more harmful to ingest, they may also be easier to recognize and reject owing to greater distastefulness, which can facilitate a taste-sampling foraging strategy. Here, the classic diet model is used to study the separate effects of taste and toxicity on predator preferences. The taste-sampling process is modelled using signal detection theory. The model is applicable to automimicry and Batesian mimicry. It shows that when the defensive toxin is sufficiently distasteful, a mimicry complex may be less profitable to the predator and better protected against predation if the models are moderately toxic than if they are highly toxic. Moreover, taste mimicry can reduce the profitability of the mimicry complex and increase protection against predation. The results are discussed in relation to the selection pressures acting on prey defences and the evolution of mimicry. PMID:23256198

  11. Expectations influence sensory experience in a wine tasting.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve

    2009-06-01

    Information about a product may shape consumers' taste experience. In a wine tasting experiment, participants received (positive or negative) information about the wine prior to or after the tasting. When the information was given prior to the tasting, negative information about the wine resulted in lower ratings compared to the group that received positive information. No such effect was observed when participants received the information after the tasting but before they evaluated the wine. Results suggest that the information about the wine affected the experience itself and not only participants' overall assessment of the wine after the tasting.

  12. The anion in salt taste: a possible role for paracellular pathways.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E J; Simon, S A

    1990-12-03

    It is well established from psychophysical and electrophysiological measurements that both Na and Cl contribute to the taste response to NaCl. The contribution of Na to the NaCl response can be studied using amiloride, a drug that inhibits Na transport in taste and other epithelial cells. The pathways involved in response to Cl are less well understood. We undertook a series of experiments in the rat to determine whether tonic chorda tympani responses to NaCl are inhibited by specific inhibitors of anion transport. Whole nerve responses to NaCl were unchanged by bathing the tongue in SITS, DIDS, bumetanide, furosemide, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid, or an antibody that blocks Cl conductance pathways in many epithelia. Thus, Cl co-transporters, exchangers, and channels (at least in the apical membrane of taste cells) are probably not involved in NaCl taste responses. When other anions (acetate, isethionate, methane sulfonate, gluconate, tartrate), which are generally impermeant in other Cl-selective pathways, were substituted for Cl, the dose-response curves for the chorda tympani response were shifted toward higher concentrations than the response to NaCl, but achieved the same maximum value at sufficiently high concentrations (1.0 M Na). For all the organic Na salts, the amiloride-insensitive portion of the response was substantially less than for NaCl. Experiments with Na acetate at different pHs showed that intracellular acidification is not responsible for the differences between NaCl and organic salts of Na. One possibility which remains is that apical stimulation with these other Na salts results in a taste cell membrane potential that is hyperpolarized with respect to the membrane potential in NaCl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  14. Taste-immunosuppression engram: reinforcement and extinction.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Maj-Britt; Härting, Margarete; Kou, Wei; Del Rey, Adriana; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Schedlowski, Manfred; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2007-08-01

    Several Pavlovian conditioning paradigms have documented the brain's abilities to sense immune-derived signals or immune status, associate them with concurrently relevant extereoceptive stimuli, and reinstate such immune responses on demand. Specifically, the naturalistic relation of food ingestion with its possible immune consequences facilitates taste-immune associations. Here we demonstrate that the saccharin taste can be associated with the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A, and that such taste-immune associative learning is subject to reinforcement. Furthermore, once consolidated, this saccharin-immunosuppression engram is resistant to extinction when avoidance behavior is assessed. More importantly, the more this engram is activated, either at association or extinction phases, the more pronounced is the conditioned immunosuppression.

  15. Sensing via Intestinal Sweet Taste Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Young, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is of fundamental significance to the control of motility, glycemia and energy intake, and yet we barely know the most fundamental aspects of this process. This is in stark contrast to the mechanisms underlying the detection of lingual taste, which have been increasingly well characterized in recent years, and which provide an excellent starting point for characterizing nutrient detection in the intestine. This review focuses on the form and function of sweet taste transduction mechanisms identified in the intestinal tract; it does not focus on sensors for fatty acids or proteins. It examines the intestinal cell types equipped with sweet taste transduction molecules in animals and humans, their location, and potential signals that transduce the presence of nutrients to neural pathways involved in reflex control of GI motility. PMID:21519398

  16. Synaesthesia: when coloured sounds taste sweet.

    PubMed

    Beeli, Gian; Esslen, Michaela; Jäncke, Lutz

    2005-03-03

    Synaesthesia is the involuntary physical experience of a cross-modal linkage--for example, hearing a tone (the inducing stimulus) evokes an additional sensation of seeing a colour (concurrent perception). Of the different types of synaesthesia, most have colour as the concurrent perception, with concurrent perceptions of smell or taste being rare. Here we describe the case of a musician who experiences different tastes in response to hearing different musical tone intervals, and who makes use of her synaesthetic sensations in the complex task of tone-interval identification. To our knowledge, this combination of inducing stimulus and concurrent perception has not been described before.

  17. [Two Cases of Invasive Thymoma with Taste Disorder].

    PubMed

    Katayama, Tatsuya; Hirai, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Two 50s female patients with the taste disorder of sweet taste loss and stage IV a type B2 invasive thymoma underwent surgery at our hospital. One patient with myasthenia gravis (MG) developed postoperative myasthenic crisis and recovered by the treatment with plasma apheresis and steroid pulse therapy. Her taste disorder fully recovered together with her MG symptom. The taste disorder of the other patient without MG had persisted for 3 years after the surgery. The taste disorder of sweet taste loss was reported as one of non-motor symptoms caused by MG-related autoimmune mechanisms associated with thymoma, improving with the therapy for MG. Anti-Kv 1.4 antibody was reported to be positive in nearly half patients with the taste disorder and MG and is speculated to affect selectively the sweet taste receptor.

  18. Influences of food-name labels on perceived tastes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masako; Wada, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Yui; Kimura, Atsushi; Dan, Haruka; Masuda, Tomohiro; Singh, Archana K; Clowney, Lester; Dan, Ippeita

    2009-03-01

    We examined whether food identity information presented as name labels would influence perception of basic tastes. To test this hypothesis, we used 10 aqueous taste solutions consisting of 2-3 of the 5 basic tastes in different ratios and presented them with one of these food names: "lemon," "coffee jelly," "caramel candy," and "consomme soup." Forty-six participants tasted samples presented with either food-name labels or random number labels. We found that participants who tasted samples with food-name labels rated tastes with significantly higher liking and familiarity scores than those presented with random numbers, especially when the names and tastes were perceived as being congruent. Though an effect on perceived intensity was not as prominent, we observed cases in which intensity ratings significantly changed. Effects of identity information have been shown in olfaction and flavors. This study demonstrates the first experimental evidence that identity information given as names also influence the perception of unimodal basic tastes.

  19. Taste perception: from the tongue to the testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng

    2013-06-01

    In mammals, the sense of taste helps in the evaluation and consumption of nutrients, and in avoiding toxic substances and indigestible materials. Distinct cell types expressing unique receptors detect each of the five basic tastes: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. The latter three tastes are detected by two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptors: T2Rs and T1Rs. Interestingly, these taste receptors have been found in tissues other than the tongue, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, brain, testis and spermatozoa. The functional implications of taste receptors distributed throughout the body are unknown. We therefore reviewed the remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of taste perception in 'taste' and 'non-taste' tissues. We also present our speculations on the direction of further research in the field of male reproduction.

  20. Contribution of different taste cells and signaling pathways to the discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Davis, Adrienne; Ramaswamy, Sudha

    2002-08-15

    Animals can discriminate among many different types of foods. This discrimination process involves multiple sensory systems, but the sense of taste is known to play a central role. We asked how the taste system contributes to the discrimination of different "bitter" taste stimuli in Manduca sexta caterpillars. This insect has approximately eight bilateral pairs of taste cells that respond selectively to bitter taste stimuli. Each bilateral pair of bitter-sensitive taste cells has a different molecular receptive range (MRR); some of these taste cells also contain two signaling pathways with distinctive MRRs and temporal patterns of spiking. To test for discrimination, we habituated the caterpillar's taste-mediated aversive response to one bitter taste stimulus (salicin) and then asked whether this habituation phenomenon generalized to four other bitter taste stimuli (caffeine, aristolochic acid, Grindelia extract, and Canna extract). We inferred that the two compounds were discriminable if the habituation phenomenon failed to generalize (e.g., from salicin to aristolochic acid). We found that M. sexta could discriminate between salicin and those bitter taste stimuli that activate (1) different populations of bitter-sensitive taste cells (Grindelia extract and Canna extract) or (2) different signaling pathways within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (aristolochic acid). M. sexta could not discriminate between salicin and a bitter taste stimulus that activates the same signaling pathway within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (caffeine). We propose that the heterogeneous population of bitter-sensitive taste cells and signaling pathways within this insect facilitates the discrimination of bitter taste stimuli.

  1. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  2. Common sense about taste: from mammals to insects.

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, David A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2009-10-16

    The sense of taste is a specialized chemosensory system dedicated to the evaluation of food and drink. Despite the fact that vertebrates and insects have independently evolved distinct anatomic and molecular pathways for taste sensation, there are clear parallels in the organization and coding logic between the two systems. There is now persuasive evidence that tastant quality is mediated by labeled lines, whereby distinct and strictly segregated populations of taste receptor cells encode each of the taste qualities.

  3. Expanded Terminal Fields of Gustatory Nerves Accompany Embryonic BDNF Overexpression in Mouse Oral Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengsan; Dayal, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in gustatory epithelia and is required for gustatory neurons to locate and innervate their correct target during development. When BDNF is overexpressed throughout the lingual epithelium, beginning embryonically, chorda tympani fibers are misdirected and innervate inappropriate targets, leading to a loss of taste buds. The remaining taste buds are hyperinnervated, demonstrating a disruption of nerve/target matching in the tongue. We tested the hypothesis here that overexpression of BDNF peripherally leads to a disrupted terminal field organization of nerves that carry taste information to the brainstem. The chorda tympani, greater superficial petrosal, and glossopharyngeal nerves were labeled in adult wild-type (WT) mice and in adult mice in which BDNF was overexpressed (OE) to examine the volume and density of their central projections in the nucleus of the solitary tract. We found that the terminal fields of the chorda tympani and greater superficial petrosal nerves and overlapping fields that included these nerves in OE mice were at least 80% greater than the respective field volumes in WT mice. The shapes of terminal fields were similar between the two groups; however, the density and spread of labels were greater in OE mice. Unexpectedly, there were also group-related differences in chorda tympani nerve function, with OE mice showing a greater relative taste response to a concentration series of sucrose. Overall, our results show that disruption in peripheral innervation patterns of sensory neurons have significant effects on peripheral nerve function and central organization of their terminal fields. PMID:25568132

  4. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  5. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  6. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  7. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H. )

    1990-10-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of ({sup 3}H)cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from ({sup 3}H)cytidine. Accumulated {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant.

  8. Optimization and validation of a taste dilution analysis to characterize wine taste.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Mateo-Vivaracho, L; Cacho, J; Ferreira, V

    2007-08-01

    A procedure for the general taste dilution analysis (TDA) of wine has been optimized and applied to characterize the tastants of 5 different wines. Samples are concentrated first by vacuum distillation at 20 degrees C to obtain a dearomatized concentrate. Such concentrate is redissolved in water and injected in a semipreparative C18-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. The effluent is separated in fractions that are collected and concentrated by vacuum distillation. Sequential dilutions of the fractions are further evaluated by a sensory panel to assess the intensity of the basic tastes and in-mouth sensations. Fractions were also submitted to HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to screen for known tastants of wines. The Taste Dilution chromatograms showed that taste differences between wines are mainly located in fractions 1, 2, and 6, and are mainly related to bitterness and astringency. Different aspects of the method setup and of its reliability are evaluated and discussed.

  9. Exploring natural products for new taste sensations.

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Cayeux, Isabelle; Birkbeck, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery of uncommon taste or trigeminal active compounds and their associated sensory analysis using human tasting panels with the aim of enhancing the overall taste experience whilst reducing where possible the sugar and salt content of foods. The first example outlines the discovery of the sensory quality attributes of (R)-2-(carboxymethylamino)propanoic acid, named (R)-strombine, as assessed by a panel of 47 subjects to confirm its contribution to the typical taste of scallop muscle. The second example discusses the pungency and trigeminal effect of polygodial, which is compared with piperine and capsaicin, as well as the elucidation of a new structure eliciting a trigeminal effect, (+/-)-trans-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1 H-indene-4-carbaldehyde, discovered in Amomum tsao-ko. Finally, the time intensity trigeminal effect of (-)-menthol is compared with (1R,2RS,4RS)-1-isopropyl-4-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-ol, named dihydroumbellulol, a new cooling compound obtained by hemi-synthesis from umbellulone extracted from Umbellularia californica Nutt.

  10. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  11. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  12. Odor-induced changes in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, J; Zatorre, R J; Jones-Gotman, M

    2004-12-01

    We investigated odor-induced changes in taste perception (OICTP), by examining the influence of strawberry and soy sauce odors on perceived sweetness (Experiment 1) and saltiness (Experiment 2). We explored whether taste-smell interactions occur at the central level, by delivering odorants (strawberry, soy sauce, odorless water) and tastants (sucrose, sodium chloride) separately, and whether effects of imagined odors are comparable to those of physically presented odors. We found specific taste-smell interactions: sweetness enhancement induced by strawberry odor and saltiness enhancement induced by soy sauce odor. These interactions were elicited with separate delivery of olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Secondly, we found a similar but rather limited effect with the imagined odors: imagined strawberry enhanced perceived sweetness of water solutions, and imagined soy sauce enhanced perceived saltiness of weak sodium chloride solutions. We concluded that OICTP is a centrally mediated phenomenon, and that imagined odors can to some extent induce changes in perceived taste intensity comparable to those elicited by perceived odors.

  13. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  14. The Musical Taste of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…

  15. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  16. Optogenetic Induction of Aversive Taste Memory

    PubMed Central

    C. Keene, Alex; Masek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system consists of several neuronal pathways representing diverse taste modalities. The two predominant modalities are a sweet sensing pathway that mediates attraction, and a bitter sensing pathway that mediates avoidance. A central question is how flies integrate stimuli from these pathways and generate the appropriate behavioral response. We have developed a novel assay for induction of taste memories. We demonstrate that the gustatory response to fructose is suppressed when followed by the presence of bitter quinine. We employ optogenetic neural activation using infrared laser in combination with heat sensitive channel - TRPA1 to precisely activate gustatory neurons. This optogenetic system allows for spatially and temporally controlled activation of distinct neural classes in the gustatory circuit. We directly activated bitter-sensing neurons together with presentation of fructose for remote induction of aversive taste memories. Here we report that activation of bitter-sensing neurons in the proboscis suffices as a conditioning stimulus. Spatially restricted stimulation indicates that the conditioning stimulus is indeed a signal from the bitter neurons in the proboscis and it is independent of postingestive feedback. The coincidence of temporally specific activation of bitter-sensing neurons with fructose presentation is crucial for memory formation, establishing aversive taste learning in Drosophila as associative learning. Taken together, this optogenetic system provides a powerful new tool for interrogation of the central brain circuits that mediate memory formation. PMID:22820051

  17. A Taste of Sunrise: A Director's Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovasse, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a director's experience working with "A Taste of Sunrise," a play depicting the deaf culture. Stresses how important it is to educate the cast and provide them an opportunity to learn sign language. Notes that American Sign Language is complex and beautiful and deserves to be carefully studied and respectfully acknowledged by the hearing…

  18. The Bad Taste of Medicines: Overview of Basic Research on Bitter Taste

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Spector, Alan C.; Reed, Danielle R.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many active pharmaceutical ingredients taste bitter and thus are aversive to children, as well as many adults. Encapsulation of the medicine in pill or tablet form, an effective method for adults to avoid the unpleasant taste, is problematic for children. Many children cannot or will not swallow solid dosage forms. Objective This review highlights basic principles of gustatory function, with a special focus on the science of bitter taste, derived from studies of animal models and human psychophysics. We focus on the set of genes that encode the proteins that function as bitter receptors, as well as the cascade of events that lead to multidimensional aspects of taste function, highlighting the role that animal models played in these discoveries. We also summarize psychophysical approaches to studying bitter taste in adult and pediatric populations, highlighting evidence of the similarities and differences in bitter taste perception and acceptance between adults and children and drawing on useful strategies from animal models. Results Medicine often tastes bitter, and because children are more bitter sensitive than are adults, this creates problems with compliance. Bitter arises from stimulating receptors in taste receptor cells, with signals processed in the taste bud and relayed to the brain. However, there are many gaps in our understanding of how best to measure bitterness and how to ameliorate it, including whether it is more efficiently addressed at the level of receptor and sensory signaling, at the level of central processing, or by masking techniques. All methods of measuring responsiveness to bitter ligands—in animal models, through human psychophysics, or with “electronic tongues”—have limitations. Conclusions Better-tasting medications may enhance pediatric adherence to drug therapy. Sugars, acids, salt, and other substances reduce perceived bitterness of several pharmaceuticals, and although pleasant flavorings may help children

  19. Perception and hedonic value of basic tastes in domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ginane, Cécile; Baumont, René; Favreau-Peigné, Angélique

    2011-10-24

    Taste is one of the five senses that give ruminants and other animals an awareness of their environment, especially for food selection. The sense of taste, which recognizes sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami basic tastes, is often considered of paramount importance as it is the last sense in use before foods are swallowed. It thus plays a fundamental biological role in aiding animals to regulate intake of suitable food and reject unsuitable food. However, despite potentially relevant production and welfare issues, only a few studies have investigated how ruminants perceive and evaluate the basic tastes. Here we review current knowledge on tasting abilities and hedonic value of basic tastes in domestic ruminants via the analysis of both their anatomical and neurological structures and their behavioral preferences. Studies of the organization and functioning of the anatomical and neurological structures responsible for the perception of taste in ruminants have shown that sheep, cattle and goats all have lingual receptors for all five basic tastes. However, these studies have mainly focused on the sweet and bitter tastes. They have shown in particular that cows have fewer genes coding for the bitter receptors than other mammals, making them more tolerant to this taste. This pattern has been linked to the differences in the range of toxins and so potentially in the occurrence of bitterness encountered by different species in their environment, depending on the nature of their diet. Studies of ruminant feeding behavior have shown that the taste inducing the greatest consensus in preferences is the umami taste, with a high positive hedonic value. The bitter taste seems to have a rather negative hedonic value, the salty taste either a positive or a negative one depending on body needs, while the sweet taste seems to have a positive value in cattle and goats but not in sheep. Finally, the hedonic value of the sour taste is uncertain. Besides the hedonic value, the animal

  20. Functional plasticity of regenerated and intact taste receptors in adult rats unmasked by dietary sodium restriction.

    PubMed

    Hill, D L; Phillips, L M

    1994-05-01

    Unilateral chorda tympani nerve sectioning was combined with institution of a sodium-restricted diet in adult rats to determine the role that environment has on the functional properties of regenerating taste receptor cells. Rats receiving chorda tympani sectioning but no dietary manipulation (cut controls) and rats receiving only the dietary manipulation (diet controls) had normal responses to a concentration series of NaCl, sodium acetate (NaAc), and NH4Cl. However, responses from the regenerated nerve in NaCl-restricted rats (40-120 d postsectioning) to NaCl and NaAc were reduced by as much as 30% compared to controls, indicating that regenerating taste receptors are influenced by environmental (dietary) factors. Responses to NH4Cl were normal; therefore, the effect appears specific to sodium salts. Surprisingly, in the same rats, NaCl responses from the contralateral, intact chorda tympani were up to 40% greater than controls. Thus, in the same rat, there was over a twofold difference in sodium responses between the right and left chorda tympani nerves. A study of the time course of the functional alterations in the intact nerve revealed that responses to NaCl were extremely low immediately following sectioning (about 20% of the normal response), and then increased monotonically during the following 50 d until relative response magnitudes became supersensitive. This function occurred even when the cut chorda tympani was prevented from reinnervating lingual epithelia, demonstrating that events related to regeneration do not play a role in the functional properties of the contralateral side of the tongue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Taste Alteration in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sözeri, Elif; Kutlutürkan, Sevinç

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is aimed to determine factors that affect conditions of patients receiving chemotherapy in terms of experienced taste alteration. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 184 patients receiving chemotherapy were included in the sample. Data were collected during the period of December 2013 to May 2014 using “Patient Characteristics Identification Form” and “Chemotherapy-induced Taste Alteration Scale (CiTAS).” The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA) statistical software in terms of number, percentage, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results The mean age of the patients was 55.5±11.8 and 57.1% of them were female. The clinical diagnosis of the patients were most frequently breast cancer (n=46), colorectal cancer (n=45), and lung cancer (n=25). Furthermore, 37.5% of the patients were in clinical stage II; 15.8% of the patients received paclitaxel+herceptin and 14.1% received gemcitabine+cisplatin chemotherapy protocols. Data demonstrated significant differences in mean scores (p<0.05) taken from “Decline in Basic Taste” and “Phantogeusia and Parageusia” subscales with patients with or without xerostomia. There were significant differences in the average scores of the subscales between those with and without a sore mouth “Discomfort” and “General taste alterations” (p<0.05). Conclusion It has been established that patients receiving chemotherapy experience substantial alteration in taste by exposure of different subscales of CiTAS. Analysis of scores collected from different subscales of CiTAS with respect to sociodemographic and pathological differences showed that patients with xerostomia and sore mouth experienced more severe taste alterations.

  2. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial.

  3. Normal Taste Acceptance and Preference of PANX1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Tiffany R.; Ellis, Hillary T.; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Shestopalov, Val I.; Mitchell, Claire H.; Foskett, J. Kevin; Poole, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Taste compounds detected by G protein-coupled receptors on the apical surface of Type 2 taste cells initiate an intracellular molecular cascade culminating in the release of ATP. It has been suggested that this ATP release is accomplished by pannexin 1 (PANX1). However, we report here that PANX1 knockout mice do not differ from wild-type controls in response to representative taste solutions, measured using 5-s brief-access tests or 48-h two-bottle choice tests. This implies that PANX1 is unnecessary for taste detection and consequently that ATP release from Type 2 taste cells does not require PANX1. PMID:25987548

  4. Molecular basis of taste sense: involvement of GPCR receptors.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Adam I; Maslowska, Alicja; Krajewska, Wanda M

    2014-01-01

    Taste perception is one of the senses crucial for many organisms. There are five basic tastes, i.e., sweet, bitter, salty, sour, and umami, and it is suggested that the taste of fat should be included in this list. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge about the involvement of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in taste sensing and intracellular signaling. GPCR receptors are focal point of interest for pharmaceutical industry. However, their ability to interact with a variety of taste substances makes these receptors interesting target for food and nutrient companies.

  5. Role of taste in the microstructure of quinine ingestion by rats.

    PubMed

    Spector, A C; St John, S J

    1998-06-01

    The microstructure of the licking behavior of water-deprived rats presented with either water or quinine during 45-min single-bottle tests was analyzed. The chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves, which innervate the taste buds of the tongue, were transected in deeply anesthetized rats to discern their contribution to the behavioral pattern of quinine drinking. Rats were presurgically habituated to the testing protocol and postsurgically tested first with water and then novel 0.2 mM quinine-HCl in a subsequent session. The substantial decrease in intake observed in sham-operated controls (n = 16) when quinine was the stimulus was entirely a function of a decrease in lick volume and burst size (a run of licks with interlick intervals <1 s). Contrary to the intake-suppressing effects of quinine, pause duration decreased and burst number increased. Combined transection of the CT and GL (n = 6) strikingly opposed all of these quinine-induced behavioral changes, whereas CT transection (n = 7) was without effect and GL transection (n = 8) had an intermediate influence. These results suggest that taste acts more on neural circuits governing burst termination as opposed to burst initiation, which, in turn, appears to be more sensitive to signals related to physiological state. These findings are discussed in terms of other known nerve transection effects on quinine responsiveness, and the implications of the microstructural results are considered with respect to probabilistic as opposed to deterministic control of licking behavior.

  6. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds.

  7. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. PMID:26116698

  8. Representations of taste modality in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Harris, David T.; Kallman, Benjamin R.; Mullaney, Brendan C.; Scott, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gustatory receptors and peripheral taste cells have been identified in flies and mammals, revealing that sensory cells are tuned to taste modality across species. How taste modalities are processed in higher brain centers to guide feeding decisions is unresolved. Here, we developed a large-scale calcium imaging approach coupled with cell labeling to examine how different taste modalities are processed in the fly brain. These studies reveal that sweet, bitter, and water sensory cells activate different cell populations throughout the subesophageal zone, with most cells responding to a single taste modality. Pathways for sweet and bitter tastes are segregated from sensory input to motor output and this segregation is maintained in higher brain areas, including regions implicated in learning and neuromodulation. Our work reveals independent processing of appetitive and aversive tastes, suggesting that flies and mammals use a similar coding strategy to ensure innate responses to salient compounds. PMID:26051423

  9. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  10. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:27698979

  11. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  12. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  13. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  14. Taste cell-expressed α-glucosidase enzymes contribute to gustatory responses to disaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Sunil K.; Yee, Karen K.; Iwata, Shusuke; Kotha, Ramana; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Nichols, Buford L.; Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B. Mario; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K+ (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides. However, the T1R-independent pathway would not explain responses to disaccharide and oligomeric sugars, such as sucrose, maltose, and maltotriose, which are not substrates for GLUTs or SGLT1. Using RT-PCR, quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry, we found that taste cells express multiple α-glycosidases (e.g., amylase and neutral α glucosidase C) and so-called intestinal “brush border” disaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes (e.g., maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase). Treating the tongue with inhibitors of disaccharidases specifically decreased gustatory nerve responses to disaccharides, but not to monosaccharides or noncaloric sweeteners, indicating that lingual disaccharidases are functional. These taste cell-expressed enzymes may locally break down dietary disaccharides and starch hydrolysis products into monosaccharides that could serve as substrates for the T1R-independent sugar sensing pathways. PMID:27162343

  15. Measurement of Behavioral Taste Responses in Mice: Two-Bottle Preference, Lickometer, and Conditioned Taste-Aversion Tests.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Stratford, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    The natural like and dislike of foods based on taste is one of the most easily observed behaviors in animals. Animals eat palatable foods and reject aversive foods, which makes measurement of taste perception possible using various behavioral techniques. Three different methods to accurately measure taste behavior are described here. First, two-bottle preference tests evaluate whether a taste compound (tastant) is preferred over water. Second, lickometer tests quantify the like and dislike for multiple concentrations of the same tastant or multiple tastants at the same time. Finally, conditioned taste aversion tests accurately determine the perceived taste threshold for palatable tastants. Together, these diverse methods enable researchers to observe and measure behavioral taste responses in mice to any tastant. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Optic Nerve Pit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  17. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  18. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom Ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-04-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music preferences revealed six taste groups: Middle-of-the-road (MOR) listeners, Urban fans, Exclusive Rock fans, Rock-Pop fans, Elitists, and Omnivores. A seventh group of musically Low-Involved youth was added. Multivariate analyses revealed that when gender, age, parenting, school, and peer variables were controlled, Omnivores and fans within the Exclusive Rock groups showed relatively high scores on internalizing YSR measures, and social, thought and attention problems. Omnivores, Exclusive Rock, Rock-Pop and Urban fans reported more externalizing problem behavior. Belonging to the MOR group that highly appreciates the most popular, chart-based pop music appears to buffer problem behavior. Music taste group membership uniquely explains variance in both internalizing and externalizing problem behavior.

  19. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    PubMed

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  20. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  1. Study of Odours and taste for Space Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Space Agriculture Task Force; Nakata, Seiichi; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2012-07-01

    The sense of taste and smell come under some kind of influences in the space environment. In the space, the astronaut was changed their food habits from light taste and smell food to like strong taste and smells food. When an astronaut live in the space comes to have weak bone like osteoporosis. It may become the physiologic condition like the old man on the earth. Therefore this study performed fact-finding of the smell and the taste in the old man on the earth as test bed of astronaut in space. Based on this finding, it was intended to predict the taste and the olfactory change of the astronaut in the space. The study included 179 males and 251 females aged 30-90 years in Yakumo Town, Hokkaido, Japan. Odours were tested using a ``standard odours by odour stick identification''method of organoleptic testing. Taste were tested using a ``standard taste by taste disc identification'' method of chemical testing. Correct answers for identification odours consisted of average 6.0±3.0 in male subjects and average 6.9±2.8 in female subjects. Correct answers for identification of sweet taste consisted of 81% males and 87% females, salty taste consisted of 86% males and 91%, sour taste consisted of 75% males and 78% females, bitter taste consisted of 76% males and 88% females. It became clear that overall approximately 20% were in some kind of abnormality in sense of smell and taste. I want to perform the investigation that continued more in future.

  2. Ventral Pallidal Coding of a Learned Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Itoga, Christy A.; Berridge, Kent C.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The hedonic value of a sweet food reward, or how much a taste is ‘liked’, has been suggested to be encoded by neuronal firing in the posterior ventral pallidum (VP). Hedonic impact can be altered by psychological manipulations, such as taste aversion conditioning, which can make an initially pleasant sweet taste become perceived as disgusting. Pairing nausea-inducing LiCl injection as a Pavlovian unconditioned stimulus (UCS) with a novel taste that is normally palatable as the predictive conditioned stimulus (CS+) suffices to induce a learned taste aversion that changes orofacial ‘liking’ responses to that sweet taste (e.g., lateral tongue protrusions) to ‘disgust’ reactions (e.g., gapes) in rats. We used two different sweet tastes of similar initial palatability (a sucrose solution and a polycose/saccharin solution, CS± assignment was counterbalanced across groups) to produce a discriminative conditioned aversion. Only one of those tastes (arbitrarily assigned and designated as CS+) was associatively paired with LiCl injections as UCS to form a conditioned aversion. The other taste (CS−) was paired with mere vehicle injections to remain relatively palatable as a control sweet taste. We recorded the neural activity in VP in response to each taste, before and after aversion training. We found that the safe and positively hedonic taste always elicited excitatory increases in firing rate of VP neurons. By contrast, aversion learning reversed the VP response to the ‘disgusting’ CS+ taste from initial excitation into a conditioned decrease in neuronal firing rate after training. Such neuronal coding of hedonic impact by VP circuitry may contribute both to normal pleasure and disgust, and disruptions of VP coding could result in affective disorders, addictions and eating disorders. PMID:26615907

  3. The distribution of galanin-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the rat pharynx.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiko; Sato, Tadasu; Kano, Mitsuhiro; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Galanin (GAL) consists of a chain of 29/30 amino acids which is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this study, the distribution of GAL-immunoreactive (-IR) nerve fibers was examined in the rat pharynx and its adjacent regions. GAL-IR nerve fibers were located beneath the epithelium and taste bud-like structure of the pharynx, epiglottis, soft palate and larynx. These nerve fibers were abundant in the laryngeal part of the pharynx, and were rare in other regions. Mucous glands were mostly devoid of GAL-IR nerve fibers. In the musculature of pharyngeal constrictor muscles, many GAL-IR nerve fibers were also located around small blood vessels. However, intrinsic laryngeal muscles contained only a few GAL-IR nerve fibers. The double immunofluorescence method demonstrated that the distribution pattern of GAL-IR nerve fibers was partly similar to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide-IR nerve fibers in the pharyngeal mucosa and muscles. The present findings suggest that the pharynx is one of main targets of GAL-containing nerves in the upper digestive and respiratory systems. These nerves may have sensory and autonomic origins.

  4. Acid detection by taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    DeSimone, J A; Lyall, V; Heck, G L; Feldman, G M

    2001-12-01

    Sourness is a primary taste quality that evokes an innate rejection response in humans and many other animals. Acidic stimuli are the unique sources of sour taste so a rejection response may serve to discourage ingestion of foods spoiled by acid producing microorganisms. The investigation of mechanisms by which acids excite taste receptor cells (TRCs) is complicated by wide species variability and within a species, apparently different mechanisms for strong and weak acids. The problem is further complicated by the fact that the receptor cells are polarized epithelial cells with different apical and basolateral membrane properties. The cellular mechanisms proposed for acid sensing in taste cells include, the direct blockage of apical K(+) channels by protons, an H(+)-gated Ca(2+) channel, proton conduction through apical amiloride-blockable Na(+) channels, a Cl(-) conductance blocked by NPPB, the activation of the proton-gated channel, BNC-1, a member of the Na(+) channel/degenerin super family, and by stimulus-evoked changes in intracellular pH. Acid-induced intracellular pH changes appear to be similar to those reported in other mammalian acid-sensing cells, such as type-I cells of the carotid body, and neurons found in the ventrolateral medulla, nucleus of the solitary tract, the medullary raphe, and the locus coceuleus. Like type-I carotid body cells and brainstem neurons, isolated TRCs demonstrate a linear relationship between intracellular pH (pH(i)) and extracellular pH (pH(o)) with slope, DeltapH(i)/DeltapH(o) near unity. Acid-sensing cells also appear to regulate pH(i) when intracellular pH changes occur under iso-extracellular pH conditions, but fail to regulate their pH when pH(i) changes are induced by decreasing extracellular pH. We shall discuss the current status of proposed acid-sensing taste mechanisms, emphasizing pH-tracking in receptor cells.

  5. Secondary taste neurons that convey sweet taste and starvation in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Kain, Pinky; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-02-18

    The gustatory system provides vital sensory information to determine feeding and appetitive learning behaviors. Very little is known, however, about higher-order gustatory circuits in the highly tractable model for neurobiology, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report second-order sweet gustatory projection neurons (sGPNs) in the Drosophila brain using a powerful behavioral screen. Silencing neuronal activity reduces appetitive behaviors, whereas inducible activation results in food acceptance via proboscis extensions. sGPNs show functional connectivity with Gr5a(+) sweet taste neurons and are activated upon sucrose application to the labellum. By tracing sGPN axons, we identify the antennal mechanosensory and motor center (AMMC) as an immediate higher-order processing center for sweet taste. Interestingly, starvation increases sucrose sensitivity of the sGPNs in the AMMC, suggesting that hunger modulates the responsiveness of the secondary sweet taste relay. Together, our results provide a foundation for studying gustatory processing and its modulation by the internal nutrient state.

  6. Optic Nerve Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Aijaz; Janecka, Ivo P.; Kapadia, Silloo; Johnson, Bruce L.; McVay, William

    1996-01-01

    The length of the optic nerves is a reflection of normal postnatal cranio-orbital development. Unilateral elongation of an optic nerve has been observed in two patients with orbital and skull base neoplasms. In the first case as compared to the patient's opposite, normal optic nerve, an elongated length of the involved optic nerve of 45 mm was present. The involved optic nerve in the second patient was 10 mm longer than the normal opposite optic nerve. The visual and extraocular function was preserved in the second patient. The first patient had only light perception in the affected eye. In this paper, the embryology, anatomy, and physiology of the optic nerve and its mechanisms of stretch and repair are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 13 PMID:17170975

  7. Crowdsourcing taste research: genetic and phenotypic predictors of bitter taste perception as a model

    PubMed Central

    Garneau, Nicole L.; Nuessle, Tiffany M.; Sloan, Meghan M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Coughlin, Bridget C.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the influence of taste perception on food choice has captured the interest of academics, industry, and the general public, the latter as evidenced by the extent of popular media coverage and use of the term supertaster. Supertasters are highly sensitive to the bitter tastant propylthiouracil (PROP) and its chemical relative phenylthiocarbamide. The well-researched differences in taste sensitivity to these bitter chemicals are partially controlled by variation in the TAS2R38 gene; however, this variation alone does not explain the supertaster phenomenon. It has been suggested that density of papillae, which house taste buds, may explain supertasting. To address the unresolved role of papillae, we used crowdsourcing in the museum-based Genetics of Taste Lab. This community lab is uniquely situated to attract both a large population of human subjects and host a team of citizen scientists to research population-based questions about human genetics, taste, and health. Using this model, we find that PROP bitterness is not in any way predicted by papillae density. This result holds within the whole sample, when divided into major diplotypes, and when correcting for age, sex, and genotype. Furthermore, it holds when dividing participants into oft-used taster status groups. These data argue against the use of papillae density in predicting taste sensitivity and caution against imprecise use of the term supertaster. Furthermore, it supports a growing volume of evidence that sets the stage for hypergeusia, a reconceptualization of heightened oral sensitivity that is not based solely on PROP or papillae density. Finally, our model demonstrates how community-based research can serve as a unique venue for both study participation and citizen science that makes scientific research accessible and relevant to people’s everyday lives. PMID:24904324

  8. Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-10-01

    The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

  9. Altered Taste and Stroke: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tara M.; Josiah, Anne F.; Cronin, Carolyn A.; Wittenberg, George F.; Cole, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with altered taste perception following stroke are at risk for malnutrition and associated complications that may impede recovery and adversely affect quality of life. Such deficits often induce and exacerbate depressive symptomatology, which can further hamper recovery. It is important for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists to monitor stroke patients for altered taste perception so that this issue can be addressed. The authors present the case of a patient who experienced an isolated ischemic infarct affecting a primary cortical taste area. This case is unusual in that the isolated injury allowed the patient to remain relatively intact cognitively and functionally, and thus able to accurately describe her taste-related deficits. The case is further used to describe the relevant neurological taste pathways and review potential taste-related therapies. PMID:23340074

  10. Development of taste masked oral formulation of ornidazole.

    PubMed

    Shishu; Kamalpreet; Kapoor, V R

    2010-03-01

    Taste masked microspheres of ornidazole were prepared using amino alkyl methacrylate copolymers (Eudragit E-100) by solvent evaporation technique. Taste assessment of these microspheres was done by both spectrophotometric taste evaluation technique and panel testing. Compressed tablets of taste masked ornidazole microspheres which rapidly disintegrated in the oral cavity were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose as directly compressible filler and sodium starch glycolate as a super-disintegrant. These were subsequently evaluated for various pharmacopoeial tests, drug release, and disintegration time in the oral cavity. Sensory taste evaluation was carried by panel testing in 20 healthy human volunteers. Results indicate successful formulation of oral fast disintegrating tablets which disintegrated in the oral cavity in about 30 s and possessed good taste.

  11. [Oral medicine 3. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders].

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it serves as a solvent for taste substances and as a protecting agent for the taste receptors. Therefore, hyposalivation leads to a reduction in taste perception, in which the concentration of zinc ions and specific proteins in saliva play an important role. In addition, zinc and iron deficiencies may cause diminished taste and smell perception.

  12. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  13. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY

    PubMed Central

    La Sala, Michael S.; Hurtado, Maria D.; Brown, Alicia R.; Bohórquez, Diego V.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Dotson, Cedrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the peripheral taste system may be modulated in the context of an animal's metabolic state. One purported mechanism for this phenomenon is that circulating gastrointestinal peptides modulate the functioning of the peripheral gustatory system. Recent evidence suggests endocrine signaling in the oral cavity can influence food intake (FI) and satiety. We hypothesized that these hormones may be affecting FI by influencing taste perception. We used immunohistochemistry along with genetic knockout models and the specific reconstitution of peptide YY (PYY) in saliva using gene therapy protocols to identify a role for PYY signaling in taste. We show that PYY is expressed in subsets of taste cells in murine taste buds. We also show, using brief-access testing with PYY knockouts, that PYY signaling modulates responsiveness to bitter-tasting stimuli, as well as to lipid emulsions. We show that salivary PYY augmentation, via viral vector therapy, rescues behavioral responsiveness to a lipid emulsion but not to bitter stimuli and that this response is likely mediated via activation of Y2 receptors localized apically in taste cells. Our findings suggest distinct functions for PYY produced locally in taste cells vs. that circulating systemically.—La Sala, M. S., Hurtado, M. D., Brown, A. R., Bohórquez, D. V., Liddle, R. A., Herzog, H., Zolotukhin, S., Dotson, C. D. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY. PMID:24043261

  14. Taste and pheromone perception in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ebbs, Michelle L; Amrein, Hubert

    2007-08-01

    Taste is an essential sense for detection of nutrient-rich food and avoidance of toxic substances. The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system provides an excellent model to study taste perception and taste-elicited behaviors. "The fly" is unique in the animal kingdom with regard to available experimental tools, which include a wide repertoire of molecular-genetic analyses (i.e., efficient production of transgenics and gene knockouts), elegant behavioral assays, and the possibility to conduct electrophysiological investigations. In addition, fruit flies, like humans, recognize sugars as a food source, but avoid bitter tasting substances that are often toxic to insects and mammals alike. This paper will present recent research progress in the field of taste and contact pheromone perception in the fruit fly. First, we shall describe the anatomical properties of the Drosophila gustatory system and survey the family of taste receptors to provide an appropriate background. We shall then review taste and pheromone perception mainly from a molecular genetic perspective that includes behavioral, electrophysiological and imaging analyses of wild type flies and flies with genetically manipulated taste cells. Finally, we shall provide an outlook of taste research in this elegant model system for the next few years.

  15. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-09-01

    We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning.

  16. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions. PMID:26966646

  17. Increasing willingness to taste novel foods: effects of nutrition and taste information.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, T; Pliner, P

    1997-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of various kinds of information on willingness to ingest novel foods in individuals varying in the extent to which they reported that nutritional concerns affected their food choices. Male and female volunteers ranging in age from 10 to 79 (N = 401), saw six familiar and six novel foods, and received no information, taste likability information, general nutrition information, or specific nutrition information about the whole set of foods. They rated their willingness to taste each food, with the clear implication that their willingness ratings would determine which foods they would taste later in the study. On a separate questionnaire, they also rated the factors influencing their food everyday choices, and these ratings were used to compute an "importance of nutrition" score for each individual. Results indicated that older subjects were generally more willing to try novel foods than younger ones, that general nutrition information was effective for high school and college students, and that specific nutrition information was influential for young adults. It was also found that general nutrition information increased willingness to taste novel food in subjects for whom nutrition is important and decreased such willingness in subjects for whom nutrition is not important.

  18. Selective Activation of hTRPV1 by N-Geranyl Cyclopropylcarboxamide, an Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang; Lyall, Vijay; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2014-01-01

    TRPV1t, a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been proposed as a constitutively active, non-selective cation channel as a putative amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor and shares many properties with TRPV1. Based on our previous chorda tympani taste nerve recordings in rodents and human sensory evaluations, we proposed that N-geranylcyclopropylcarboxamide (NGCC), a novel synthetic compound, acts as a salt taste enhancer by modulating the amiloride/benzamil-insensitive Na+ entry pathways. As an extension of this work, we investigated NGCC-induced human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) activation using a Ca2+-flux signaling assay in cultured cells. NGCC enhanced Ca2+ influx in hTRPV1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 115 µM). NGCC-induced Ca2+ influx was significantly attenuated by ruthenium red (RR; 30 µM), a non-specific blocker of TRP channels and capsazepine (CZP; 5 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPV1, implying that NGCC directly activates hTRPV1. TRPA1 is often co-expressed with TRPV1 in sensory neurons. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of NGCC on hTRPA1-expressing cells. Similar to hTRPV1, NGCC enhanced Ca2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells (EC50 = 83.65 µM). The NGCC-induced Ca2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells was blocked by RR (30 µM) and HC-030031 (100 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPA1. These results suggested that NGCC selectively activates TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cultured cells. These data may provide additional support for our previous hypothesis that NGCC interacts with TRPV1 variant cation channel, a putative amiloride/benzamil-insensitive salt taste pathway in the anterior taste receptive field. PMID:24586504

  19. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Study Design: Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Additionally, all patients filled a questionnaire to assess subjective perceptions. Results: Although patients did not perceive any sensibility impairments, a statistically significant decrease was detected when Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. This alteration was present at one week after the surgical procedure and fully recovered one month after the extraction. There were no variations regarding the gustatory function. Conclusions: Lower third molar removal under local anesthesia may cause light lingual sensibility impairment. Most of these alterations remain undetected to patients. These lingual nerve injuries are present one week after the extraction and recover one month after surgery. The taste seems to remain unaffected after these procedures. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar, nerve injury, paresthesia, surgical extraction PMID:22322520

  20. A new taste reactivity analysis of the integration of taste and physiological state information.

    PubMed

    Grill, H J; Roitman, M F; Kaplan, J M

    1996-09-01

    We used conjoint manipulation of taste and physiological state to address the theoretical issue of signal integration. The interaction between taste (glucose concentration) and state (food deprivation) was evaluated using the taste reactivity method in which oral motor responses elicited by direct intraoral infusion are measured. The time frame of the typical taste reactivity paradigm, where observation is limited to the infusion period, was expanded to include the postinfusion interval. In each test session, rats received a series of trials consisting of 15-s intraoral infusions and 45-s postinfusion observation intervals. Two experiments were run in which glucose concentration was varied and rats were run nondeprived and after 24 h food deprivation. In experiment 1, glucose concentrations (0, 3.2, 6.25, 12.5, and 25%) were randomly presented during each test session. In experiment 2, individual glucose concentrations (0, 6.25, or 25%) were presented during separate sessions. For both, a deprivation condition was flanked by nondeprived (baseline) sessions. Concentration-response functions were comparable in both experiments. In each experiment, the shape of the concentration-response function was dramatically different during and after infusions. During infusions, there were no increases in glucose-elicited rhythmic oral responses beyond a very dilute concentration. After infusions, the concentration-response functions appeared linear across the concentration range. In both experiments, deprivation elevated responding only in the after-infusion periods. In experiment 1, the concentration-response function was uniformly elevated (on average, 27%) by deprivation, which if taken at face value would suggest an additive combination of taste and state feedback signals. In experiment 2, however, deprivation increased responding (approximately 30%) for 6.25%, but not for 0 or 25%, suggesting a stimulus specificity of the taste-state integration. Clearly then, the taste

  1. Expressions of multiple umami taste receptors in oral and gastrointestinal tissues, and umami taste synergism in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuta; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-10-23

    Umami taste is one of the five basic taste qualities, along with sweet, bitter, sour, and salty, and is elicited by some l-amino acids and their salts, including monopotassium l-glutamate (MPG). The unique characteristic of umami taste is that it is synergistically enhanced by 5'-ribonucleotides such as inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Unlike the other four basic taste qualities, the presence of umami taste sense in avian species is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of multiple umami taste receptor candidates in oral and gastrointestinal tract tissues in chickens using RT-PCR analysis. We first showed the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed in these tissues. Furthermore, we examined the preference for umami taste in chickens, focusing on the synergistic effect of umami taste as determined by the two-feed choice test. We concluded that chickens preferred feed containing both added MPG and added IMP over feeds containing either added MPG or added IMP alone and over the control feed. These results suggest that the umami taste sense and synergism are conserved in chickens.

  2. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste

    PubMed Central

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed. PMID:26347702

  3. The complex network of musical tastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldú, Javier M.; Cano, P.; Koppenberger, M.; Almendral, Juan A.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present an empirical study of the evolution of a social network constructed under the influence of musical tastes. The network is obtained thanks to the selfless effort of a broad community of users who share playlists of their favourite songs with other users. When two songs co-occur in a playlist a link is created between them, leading to a complex network where songs are the fundamental nodes. In this representation, songs in the same playlist could belong to different musical genres, but they are prone to be linked by a certain musical taste (e.g. if songs A and B co-occur in several playlists, an user who likes A will probably like also B). Indeed, playlist collections such as the one under study are the basic material that feeds some commercial music recommendation engines. Since playlists have an input date, we are able to evaluate the topology of this particular complex network from scratch, observing how its characteristic parameters evolve in time. We compare our results with those obtained from an artificial network defined by means of a null model. This comparison yields some insight on the evolution and structure of such a network, which could be used as ground data for the development of proper models. Finally, we gather information that can be useful for the development of music recommendation engines and give some hints about how top-hits appear.

  4. Postoperative Alterations in Taste and Smell

    PubMed Central

    Elterman, Kelly Galina; Mallampati, Seshagiri Rao; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alterations in taste and smell, including but not limited to anosmia, ageusia, hypogeusia, and dysgeusia, have been described in association with various medications, including anesthetic agents. Frequently, these symptoms occur 1-2 weeks after medication administration and last several months. While such a phenomenon is a rare occurrence, it nonetheless can significantly impact patients’ satisfaction and quality of life. Evidence Acquisition: The methodology consisted of a thorough literature search using the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases utilizing keywords such as anosmia, ageusia, olfactory disorders, postoperative, and anesthesia. Results: Our results yielded several previously published case report, and were not limited to a specific type of anesthesia. Based on available literature, we review the physiology of taste and smell as well as the medications associated with loss of these senses. We describe perioperative agents that could lead to postoperative complications associated with anosmia and and ageusia. Conclusions: Based on available literature recommendations for anesthesiologists caring for patients at risk for this occurrence are presented in this review. The symptoms are usually temporary as in the majority of the patients the sensory receptor cells are able to regenerate themselves after injury. Anesthesia providers need to aware of this phenomenon to be able to reassure patients and possibly avoid anesthetic techniques associated with anosmia and ageusia. PMID:25599025

  5. Lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Harrod, S B; Dwoskin, L P; Bardo, M T

    2004-05-01

    Previous results indicate that pretreatment with lobeline attenuates methamphetamine (METH) self-administration in rats, but not by acting as a substitute reinforcer. Given these findings, it has been suggested that lobeline may serve as a useful pharmacotherapy for psychostimulant abuse. However, because lobeline produces emesis and nausea in humans, the present study examined whether lobeline has direct effects on taste avoidance behavior in rats within the same dose range shown previously to decrease METH self-administration. Two experiments utilized a Pavlovian conditioning procedure to determine if lobeline produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) in rats. In Experiments 1 and 2, rats consumed either novel milk or salt solutions, respectively, and within 10 min, were injected with lobeline (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) or METH (0.3-3.0 mg/kg). A single-bottle test conducted 48 h after flavor-drug pairings indicated that the dose of lobeline that reduced METH self-administration in a previous study (i.e., 3.0 mg/kg) also produced reliable CTA for milk and salt solution. These findings suggest a need to develop lobeline analogs that reduce METH self-administration, but do not produce CTA following the consumption of a novel solution.

  6. Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Is Mediated by Two Populations of Type III Taste Cells with Distinct Transduction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Sunil K.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Responses in the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway, one of the two pathways mediating salty taste in mammals, are modulated by the size of the anion of a salt. This “anion effect” has been hypothesized to result from inhibitory transepithelial potentials (TPs) generated across the lingual epithelium as cations permeate through tight junctions and leave their larger and less permeable anions behind (Ye et al., 1991). We tested directly the necessity of TPs for the anion effect by measuring responses to NaCl and Na-gluconate (small and large anion sodium salts, respectively) in isolated taste cells from mouse circumvallate papillae. Using calcium imaging, we identified AI salt-responsive type III taste cells and demonstrated that they compose a subpopulation of acid-responsive taste cells. Even in the absence of TPs, many (66%) AI salt-responsive type III taste cells still exhibited the anion effect, demonstrating that some component of the transduction machinery for salty taste in type III cells is sensitive to anion size. We hypothesized that osmotic responses could explain why a minority of type III cells (34%) had AI salt responses but lacked anion sensitivity. All AI type III cells had osmotic responses to cellobiose, which were significantly modulated by extracellular sodium concentration, suggesting the presence of a sodium-conducting osmotically sensitive ion channel. However, these responses were significantly larger in AI type III cells that did not exhibit the anion effect. These findings indicate that multiple mechanisms could underlie AI salt responses in type III taste cells, one of which may contribute to the anion effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the mechanisms underlying salty taste will help inform strategies to combat the health problems associated with NaCl overconsumption by humans. Of the two pathways underlying salty taste in mammals, the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway is the least understood. Using calcium imaging of

  7. Quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments on the key taste compounds in morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).

    PubMed

    Rotzoll, Nina; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-04-05

    Sensory-directed fractionation of an aqueous extract prepared from morel mushrooms led to the identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid as the chemical inducer of the mouth-drying and mouth-coating oral sensation imparted by morels. Additionally, L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid, succinic acid, and the previously unknown (S)-malic acid 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, coined (S)-morelid, were detected as additional important umami-like taste compounds. To further bridge the gap between pure structural chemistry and human taste perception, 33 putative taste compounds were quantified in an aqueous morel extract and then rated for their taste contribution on the basis of dose-over-threshold factors. To confirm these quantitative results, an aqueous taste reconstitute was prepared by blending aqueous solutions of 16 amino acids, 6 organic acids, 3 purines, 4 carbohydrates, 3 minerals, and (S)-morelid in their "natural" concentrations. Triangle tests revealed that the taste profile of this biomimetic organoleptic cocktail did not differ significantly from the taste profile of authentic morel extract. To finally narrow down the number of key taste compounds, taste omission experiments were performed demonstrating that (S)-morelid together with L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid, malic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, and gamma-aminobutyric acid are the key organoleptics of morel extract. Moreover, sensory experiments with model solutions showed that (S)-morelid not only imparts a sour and umami-like taste but is able to amplify the taste activity of monosodium glutamate, as well as sodium chloride, solutions.

  8. Does Conspecific Fighting Yield Conditioned Taste Aversion in Rats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Kumazawa, Gaku; Ieki, Hayato; Hashimoto, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Running in an activity wheel yields conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed before the running, but its underlying physiological mechanism is unknown. According to the claim that energy expenditure or general stress caused by physical exercise is a critical factor for this taste-aversion learning, not only running but also other…

  9. [Results of studying taste sensitivity with basic or pure solutions].

    PubMed

    Marco Algarra, R

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study the phenomenon of the gustatory fatigue using simple solutions in representation of the four basic-tastes. We have designed a map of the sensibility of the tongue to the four basic tastes according to our results. Finally we study the fatigue and adaptation in the gustatory system, concluding that are different concepts although they are very close related.

  10. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  11. CNovel umami ingredients: umami peptides and their taste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Umami substances are very important for food seasoning and healthy eating. In addition to monosodium glutamate (MSG) and some nucleotides, recent investigations have found that several peptides also exhibit umami taste. There are 52 reported peptides showing umami taste in recent years, including 24...

  12. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Rigotti, Tanya; Forster, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006). Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others’ taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art—and especially abstract art—crystallizes private taste. PMID:27148012

  13. Science in a Box. Body Works II: Test Your Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents classroom learning activities to help elementary teachers and students learn about and experiment with the sense of taste. One involves tasting an apple while smelling an onion; another involves locating areas of the tongue that respond to salt, sweet, bitter, and sour. (SM)

  14. Glycoconjugate residues in a subpopulation of feline taste cells.

    PubMed

    Sotthibandhu, Pongsiwa; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    There have been a number of studies which have categorized cells of feline taste buds: Types I, II, III and IV; however, few studies have examined whether feline taste bud cell types differ from each other histochemically. The goal of the present study is to figure out what kinds of glycoconjugates correspond to the four different types of cells in the taste bud. We have detected glycochains by lectin histochemistry. We have also identified Types II and III by immunohistochemistry. Then, we combined lectin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to determine which types of cells have which glycochains. In addition, we have compared these reactions in different papillae in the oral cavity: circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and epiglottises. Our results demonstrated that glycoconjugates showed a variety of distributions among cells in these papillae, although immunopositive reactions of the proteins involved in the taste transduction showed similar distributions in the taste buds in these papillae. Amongst all, N-acetyllactosamine was the most prominently detected glycoconjugate residue in a subpopulation of Type II (receptor) cells and Type III (pre-synaptic) cells. Our findings suggest that 1) Different localization of glycol-residues in taste buds might be owing to the possibility that different types of cells need different types of glycoconjugates, possibly for the function of cells in the taste buds, and 2) N-acetyllactosamine might play some roles in taste sensation perception and their transfer by Type II and III cells.

  15. Dissolution methodology for taste masked oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Gittings, Sally; Turnbull, Neil; Roberts, Clive J; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2014-01-10

    Conventional adult dosage forms are often not suitable for the paediatric and geriatric populations due to either swallowing difficulties or patient repulsion and a requirement for tailored dosing to individual compliance or physiological needs. Alternative formulations are available; however these often require the incorporation of more complex taste masking techniques. One approach to taste masking is to reduce contact between the bitter Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and oral cavity taste bud regions. This is achieved by hindering release in the oral cavity, or including competitive inhibition of bitter sensation for example by using flavours or sweeteners. There may also be other sensational complications from the API such as residual burning, reflux or metallic taste sensations to deal with. In vitro dissolution testing is employed to elucidate taste masking capability by quantifying release of the drug in simulated oral cavity conditions. Dissolution testing approaches may also be used to potentially predict or quantify the effect of the taste masking technique on the resultant pharmacokinetic profile. The present review investigates the anatomy and physiology of the oral cavity and current approaches to taste masking. In vitro dissolution methodologies adopted in the evaluation of taste masked formulations are discussed for their relative merits and drawbacks. A vast array of methodologies has been employed, with little agreement between approaches, and a lack of biorelevance. Future directions in dissolution methodology such as TNO Intestinal Model (TIM) and the Artificial Stomach and Duodenum model (ASD) are also discussed.

  16. Taste preferences of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Thompson, R D; Elias, D J; Shumake, S A; Gaddis, S E

    1982-04-01

    Taste preference tests, with simultaneous presentation of treated and untreated food, were administered to 24 common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). The bats received brief exposures to four different stimuli representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes, each at four different concentrations. Despite a strong location bias, the bats significantly (P < 0.01) avoided the highest concentrations of the salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Consumption of the sweet stimulus at all concentrations was similar to that of the untreated standard. Vampires evidently can discriminate based on taste, although their ability is apparently poorly developed when compared with some euryphagous species such as the rat. Hence, taste is probably not a factor in host selection by the vampire.

  17. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  18. Taste preference and rating of commercial and natural thickeners.

    PubMed

    Horwarth, Melissa; Ball, Angel; Smith, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Dysphagia can negatively affect quality of life, nutritional status, and pulmonary status of individuals. The most common intervention for dysphagia is the use of thickening agents for liquids. This group study (n = 43) investigated the taste preference, taste ratings, and ranking for nectar-thick hot and cold beverages using three types of thickeners: SimplyThick, Thick-It, and noncommercially prepared natural thickeners. Results demonstrated a significant difference between the taste ratings of two commercial thickeners and between one commercial and the natural thickener for the ranking of taste with hot beverages. Every participant rated at least one of the thickener beverages as having an acceptable taste for the hot chocolate and fruit juice beverages. Exploring individual preferences is critical to selecting a beverage that increases compliance to clinical recommendations.

  19. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  20. The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Bitter Taste in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Linnea A.; Dahanukar, Anupama; Kwon, Jae Young; Banerjee, Diya; Carlson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The extent of diversity among bitter-sensing neurons is a fundamental issue in the field of taste. Data are limited and conflicting as to whether bitter neurons are broadly tuned and uniform, resulting in indiscriminate avoidance of bitter stimuli, or diverse, allowing a more discerning evaluation of food sources. We provide a systematic analysis of how bitter taste is encoded by the major taste organ of the Drosophila head, the labellum. Each of 16 bitter compounds is tested physiologically against all 31 bitter neurons, revealing responses that are diverse in magnitude and dynamics. Four functional classes of bitter neurons are defined. Four corresponding classes are defined through expression analysis of all 68 Gr taste receptors. A receptor-to-neuron-to-tastant map is constructed. Misexpression of one receptor confers bitter responses as predicted by the map. These results reveal a degree of complexity that greatly expands the capacity of the system to encode bitter taste. PMID:21262465

  1. Multichannel taste sensors with lipid, lipid like polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpakowska, M.; Szwacki, J.; Marjańska, E.

    2008-08-01

    The elaboration of a sensitive taste sensor for discrimination of different soft drinks is very important in food industry. The short review of taste sensors described in the literature is presented. Two types of potentiometric taste sensors, one with lipophilic compound-polymer membranes (ISE) and the other with lipid polymer membrane and a conducting polymer film (All solid state electrode, ASSE) were tested in appropriate taste solutions. Five channel ISE sensor was examined in acid, sour and sweet solutions. This sensor was sensitive to bitter and sour substances and not too sensitive to sucrose concentration. It was successfully used for discrimination of different kind of soft drinks. Four channel ASSE sensor was examined in sour solutions. It was found that stability and sensitivity of ASSE are lower than ISE. Therefore, it seems that the previous one cannot be applied in taste sensor.

  2. A PKD Channel-based Biosensor for Taste Transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    This study describes a micro electrode array (MEA)-based biosensor for taste transduction using heterologous expressed taste polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD) channels as molecular sensors. Taste PKD1L3/2L1 channels were expressed on the plasma membrane of human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 cells [1]. Then the cells were cultured on the surface of MEA chip [2] to record the responses of PKD channels to sour stimulations by monitoring membrane potential. The results indicate this MEA-based biosensor can record the special off-responses of PKD channels to sour stimulation in a non-invasive manner for a long term. It may provide an alternative tool for the research of taste transduction, especially for the characterization of taste ion channels.

  3. Taste detection and discrimination performance of rats following selective desalivation.

    PubMed

    Brosvic, G M; Hoey, N E

    1990-11-01

    Taste sensitivity and responsivity, two-tastant and taste-mixture discrimination performance, and taste preferences were examined prior to and after the selective desalivation of 48 male Long-Evans rats. Altered preference behavior was observed in rats after removal of the major salivary glands, as well as after removal of only the submandibular-sublingual complexes. In 9 of 12 desalivated rats, decreased sensitivity and increased responsivity to near-threshold sodium chloride solutions were observed, although these changes were less than one-half an order of magnitude. No between-group differences in performance on two-tastant and taste-mixture discrimination tasks were observed. These results suggest that decrements in absolute sensitivity do not result in concomitant deficits in the discrimination of taste qualities.

  4. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    PubMed Central

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  5. Chorda Tympani Nerve Terminal Field Maturation and Maintenance Is Severely Altered Following Changes To Gustatory Nerve Input to the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Sara L.; Hill, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Neural competition among multiple inputs can affect the refinement and maintenance of terminal fields in sensory systems. In the rat gustatory system, the chorda tympani, greater superficial petrosal, and glossopharyngeal nerves have distinct but overlapping terminal fields in the first central relay, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). This overlap is largest at early postnatal ages followed by a significant refinement and pruning of the fields over a three-week period, suggesting that competitive mechanisms underlie the pruning. Here, we manipulated the putative competitive interactions among the three nerves by sectioning the greater superficial petrosal and glossopharyngeal nerves at postnatal day 15 (P15), P25, or at adulthood, while leaving the chorda tympani nerve intact. The terminal field of the chorda tympani nerve was assessed 35 days following nerve sections, a period before the sectioned nerves functionally regenerated. Regardless of the age when the nerves were cut, the chorda tympani nerve terminal field expanded to a volume four times larger than sham controls. Terminal field density measurements revealed that the expanded terminal field was similar to P15 control rats. Thus, it appears that the chorda tympani nerve terminal field defaults to its early postnatal field size and shape when the nerves with overlapping fields are cut, and this anatomical plasticity is retained into adulthood. These findings not only demonstrate the dramatic and lifelong plasticity in the central gustatory system, but also suggest that corresponding changes in functional and taste-related behaviors will accompany injury-induced changes in brainstem circuits. PMID:21613473

  6. Smell and taste function in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jessica E; Laing, David G; Wilkes, Fiona J; Kainer, Gad

    2010-08-01

    Loss of appetite and poor growth are common in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and changes in smell and/or taste function may be responsible, but the hypothesis has not been proven. This aims of this prospective age- and gender-controlled study were to determine whether: (1) changes in smell and taste function occur in children with CKD; (2) smell or taste dysfunction are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); (3) there is an association between smell or taste loss and body mass index (BMI). The study cohort consisted of 72 children of whom 20 were CKD stage 3-5 patients, 12 were CKD stage 2 patients, 20 were clinical controls (CC) and 20 were healthy children (HC). The CKD patients and clinical controls were recruited from Sydney Children's Hospital and The Children's Hospital, Westmead, and healthy controls were recruited from a local school. Scores for each group from taste and smell chemosensory function tests were compared, and their relationship with renal function and BMI investigated. The CKD stage 3-5 group had a significantly lower taste identification score (85.6%, P < 0.001) than the CC (94.8%) and HC (94.8%) groups, with almost one third of the children in the CKD stage 3-5 group exhibiting taste loss. Decreased taste function was associated with decreased eGFR (r = 0.43, P < 0.01), but no association between BMI and taste function was found (r = 0.001, P > 0.9). Odour identification scores were not different; however, there was a positive relationship with BMI (r = 0.427, P = 0.006). We conclude that a loss of taste can occur in children with CKD and that when it occurs, it worsens as eGFR declines and is found early in kidney disease.

  7. Tachykinins Stimulate a Subset of Mouse Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1). These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca2+-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca2+ -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca2+-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca2+-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca2+-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like) and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor) cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca2+ responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor) cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods. PMID:22363709

  8. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  9. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required.

  10. Peripheral nerve surgery.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, I G

    1985-05-01

    In treating the three main surgical problems of peripheral nerves--nerve sheath tumors, entrapment neuropathies, and acute nerve injuries--the overriding consideration is the preservation and restoration of neurologic function. Because of this, certain other principles may need to be compromised. These include achieving a gross total excision of benign tumors, employing conservative therapy as long as a disease process is not clearly progressing, and delaying repair of a nerve transection until the skin wound has healed. Only three pathophysiologic processes need be considered: neurapraxia (focal segmental dymyelination), axonotmesis (wallerian degeneration caused by a lesion that does not disrupt fascicles of nerve fibers), and neurotmesis (wallerian degeneration caused by a lesion that interrupts fascicles). With nerve sheath tumors and entrapment neuropathies, the goal is minimize the extent to which neurapraxia progresses to axonotmesis. The compressive force is relieved without carrying out internal neurolysis, a procedure that is poorly tolerated, presumably because a degree of nerve ischemia exists with any long-standing compression. When the nerve has sustained blunt trauma (through acute compression, percussion, or traction), the result can be a total loss of function and an extensive neuroma-in-continuity (scarring within the nerve). However, the neural pathophysiology may amount to nothing more than axonotmesis. Although this lesion, in time, leads to full and spontaneous recovery, it must be differentiated from the neuroma-in-continuity that contains disrupted fascicles requiring surgery. Finally, with open nerve transection, the priority is to match the fascicles of the proximal stump with those of the distal stump, a goal that is best achieved if primary neurorrhaphy is carried out.

  11. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure.

  12. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  13. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  14. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking*

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. Methods Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. Results Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. Conclusions The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others. PMID:21874073

  15. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

  16. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  17. Self-Care Strategies to Cope With Taste Changes After Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rehwaldt, Maureen; Wickham, Rita; Purl, Sandy; Tariman, Joseph; Blendowski, Carol; Shott, Susan; Lappe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe factors related to taste changes, to examine patients’ use of a self-care suggestion sheet to manage taste changes associated with chemotherapy, and to identify potentially useful strategies for managing specific taste changes after chemotherapy. Design Quasi-experimental, pre/post design. Setting Four outpatient urban and suburban oncology centers in Illinois. Sample 42 patients who had received at least two cycles of chemotherapy previously identified to be associated with taste changes. Methods Pre- and postintervention survey of taste changes; patient education regarding self-care for taste changes. Main Research Variables Taste changes, taste change strategies, and self-care. Findings Most patients that reported taste changes had affected their ability to eat. Taste changes and strategies varied somewhat according to chemotherapy regimen. Avoiding strong-smelling or -tasting foods, eating blander foods, drinking more water with foods, oral care before eating, and eating smaller, more frequent meals were reported to help. Conclusions Taste changes are common in patients receiving cisplatin, carboplatin, or cyclophosphamide. At-risk patients may benefit from prechemotherapy teaching regarding specific taste change management suggestions. Use of a taste change suggestion sheet encouraged self-care, and counseling patients regarding strategies to deal with taste changes may help them during chemotherapy. Implications for Nursing Nurses should incorporate patient education tools that promote self-care regarding the management of taste changes in patients with known factors that could affect taste early in their chemotherapy. PMID:19273394

  18. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  19. Temporal Signatures of Taste Quality Driven by Active Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system. PMID:24872546

  20. Tastes associated with products in contact with drinking water.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, M; Morran, J

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 9 years the Australian Water Quality Centre (AWQC) has conducted testing in accordance with Australian and New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4020--"Products for use in contact with drinking water" (1999). A test included as part of this standard is taste of water extracts. This test assesses the ability of products to impart discernible taste to drinking water using panellists trained in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater--Flavour Profile Analysis 2170 B (1999). Over 1000 products from companies worldwide, have been assessed at the AWQC in accordance with AS/NZS 4020 including pipes, valves, tap fittings and numerous other products used in contact with water. The products must not impart any discernible taste to obtain compliance and be deemed suitable for use in contact with drinking water. This study compiles the products assessed and the types of tastes obtained from both chlorinated and non-chlorinated extracts. In particular the study focuses on taste associated with polyethylene pipes, coatings and valves, which in some instances have been problematic. Analysis revealed that most taste problems occur when chlorinated water has been used in extraction experiments and this is in line with consumer complaints regarding taste imparted by plumbing products. The collation of this data provides a valuable assessment for manufacturers, the water industry and consumers.

  1. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells.

  2. Human psychometric and taste receptor responses to steviol glycosides.

    PubMed

    Hellfritsch, Caroline; Brockhoff, Anne; Stähler, Frauke; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-07-11

    Steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni, have recently been approved as a food additive in the EU. The herbal non-nutritive high-potency sweeteners perfectly meet the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients in Europe. We have characterized the organoleptic properties of the most common steviol glycosides by an experimental approach combining human sensory studies and cell-based functional taste receptor expression assays. On the basis of their potency to elicit sweet and bitter taste sensations, we identified glycone chain length, pyranose substitution, and the C16 double bond as the structural features giving distinction to the gustatory profile of steviol glycosides. A comprehensive screening of 25 human bitter taste receptors revealed that two receptors, hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14, mediate the bitter off-taste of steviol glycosides. For some test substances, e.g., stevioside, we observed a decline in sweet intensity at supra-maximum concentrations. This effect did not arise from allosteric modulation of the hTAS1R2/R3 sweet taste receptor but might be explained by intramolecular cross-modal suppression between the sweet and bitter taste component of steviol glycosides. These results might contribute to the production of preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts by an optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing.

  3. Failure in Anticipation and Plasticity in Perception of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Yokokawa, Sari; Tsukahara, Yasuo

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were designed to illustrate the plasticity of gustatory processing in human. In the matching experiment, forty-two subjects were respectively given twenty-four samples, each of which consisted of a usual pair of taste and visual stimuli (ex; a cup of apple juice covered with a lid having an apple painted on it). They were required to drink the taste stimulus while looking at the visual one. Subsequently, they were required to drink a cup of water covered with a lid with an Escher's impossible-figure painted on it and asked whether the taste was the same as that of usual one or not. In the mismatching experiment, the same subjects were respectively given twenty samples each of which consisted of an unusual pair of taste and visual stimuli (ex; a cup of soup covered with a lid having an apple painted on it). They were required to drink the taste stimulus while looking at the visual one. Subsequently, they were required to drink a cup of water covered with a lid with an Escher's impossible-figure painted on it and asked whether the taste was the same as that of usual one or not. Eight subjects sensed taste to water (p< 0.05) after the mismatching experiment while four did (p> 0.05) after the matching one.

  4. Cross-modal tactile-taste interactions in food evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, B. G.; Carmichael, D.A.; Simner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the taste components within a flavoured substance relies on exposing chemoreceptors within the mouth to the chemical components of ingested food. In our paper, we show that the evaluation of taste components can also be influenced by the tactile quality of the food. We first discuss how multisensory factors might influence taste, flavour and smell for both typical and atypical (synaesthetic) populations and we then present two empirical studies showing tactile-taste interactions in the general population. We asked a group of average adults to evaluate the taste components of flavoured food substances, whilst we presented simultaneous cross-sensory visuo-tactile cues within the eating environment. Specifically, we presented foodstuffs between subjects that were otherwise identical but had a rough versus smooth surface, or were served on a rough versus smooth serving-plate. We found no effect of the serving-plate, but we found the rough/smoothness of the foodstuff itself significantly influenced perception: food was rated as significantly more sour if it had a rough (vs. smooth) surface. In modifying taste perception via ostensibly unrelated dimensions, we demonstrate that the detection of tastes within flavours may be influenced by higher level cross-sensory cues. Finally, we suggest that the direction of our cross-sensory associations may speak to the types of hedonic mapping found both in normal multisensory integration, and in the unusual condition of synaesthesia. PMID:26169315

  5. The anterior insular cortex represents breaches of taste identity expectation.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Maria G; Douglas, Danielle; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Gitelman, Darren R; Small, Dana M

    2011-10-12

    Despite the importance of breaches of taste identity expectation for survival, its neural correlate is unknown. We used fMRI in 16 women to examine brain response to expected and unexpected receipt of sweet taste and tasteless/odorless solutions. During expected trials (70%), subjects heard "sweet" or "tasteless" and received the liquid indicated by the cue. During unexpected trials (30%), subjects heard sweet but received tasteless or they heard tasteless but received sweet. After delivery, subjects indicated stimulus identity by pressing a button. Reaction time was faster and more accurate after valid cuing, indicating that the cues altered expectancy as intended. Tasting unexpected versus expected stimuli resulted in greater deactivation in fusiform gyri, possibly reflecting greater suppression of visual object regions when orienting to, and identifying, an unexpected taste. Significantly greater activation to unexpected versus expected stimuli occurred in areas related to taste (thalamus, anterior insula), reward [ventral striatum (VS), orbitofrontal cortex], and attention [anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, intraparietal sulcus (IPS)]. We also observed an interaction between stimulus and expectation in the anterior insula (primary taste cortex). Here response was greater for unexpected versus expected sweet compared with unexpected versus expected tasteless, indicating that this region is preferentially sensitive to breaches of taste expectation. Connectivity analyses confirmed that expectation enhanced network interactions, with IPS and VS influencing insular responses. We conclude that unexpected oral stimulation results in suppression of visual cortex and upregulation of sensory, attention, and reward regions to support orientation, identification, and learning about salient stimuli.

  6. Pathophysiology of nerve regeneration and nerve reconstruction in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Coert, J Henk

    2010-08-01

    In extensive burns peripheral nerves can be involved. The injury to the nerve can be direct by thermal or electrical burns, but nerves can also be indirectly affected by the systemic reaction that follows the burn. Mediators will be released causing a neuropathy to nerves remote from the involved area. Involved mediators and possible therapeutic options will be discussed. In burned patients nerves can be reconstructed using autologous nerve grafts or nerve conduits. A key factor is an adequate wound debridement and a well-vascularized bed to optimize the outgrowth of the axons. Early free tissue transfers have shown promising results.

  7. Glossopharyngeal Nerve Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Puzzilli, F.; Mastronardi, L.; Agrillo, U.; Nardi, P.

    1999-01-01

    Complete resection with conservation of cranial nerves is the primary goal of contemporary surgery for lower cranial nerve tumors. We describe the case of a patient with a schwannoma of the left glossopharyngeal nerve, operated on in our Neurosurgical Unit. The far lateral approach combined with laminectomy of the posterior arch of C1 was done in two steps. The procedure allowed total tumor resection and was found to be better than classic unilateral suboccipital or combined supra- and infratentorial approaches. The advantages and disadvantages of the far lateral transcondylar approach, compared to the other more common approaches, are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171083

  8. Bringing the immigrant back into the sociology of taste.

    PubMed

    Ray, Krishnendu

    2016-10-15

    The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless, there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. Although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste.

  9. Intermedius nerve involvement and testing in acoustic neuromas.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J; Zilstorff, K

    1975-01-01

    The clinical findings in 125 patients with surgically confirmed acoustic neuromas are presented, with special regard to the involvement of the intermedius nerve in the diagnosis. In assessing the function of the intermedius nerve the examination of the nasolacrimal reflex and the sensation of taste on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are used. The methods of investigation are described in detail. The material consisted of 20 medium-sized and 105 large tumours; no intracanalicular tumor was found. Hearing loss was the initial symptom in 85% of the patients, 10% had tinitus and 4% vertigo as the first symptom. Apart from the VIII cranial nerve symptoms, a defective nasolacrimal reflex was the most significant evidence of cerebellopontine angle pathology. The test was positive in 65% of the medium-sized tumours, in the entire material, 85%. The figures are higher than the incidence of trigeminal nerve symptoms. This in contrast to the reports of most authors. The tests described are simple and quick to perform, and it is emphasized that they should be applied to all patients with unilateral hearing loss of unknown origin.

  10. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  11. Optic Nerve Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... machines can help monitor and detect loss of optic nerve fibers. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) is a special ... keeping organized, you can establish a routine that works for you. Read more » Are You at Risk ...

  12. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Axillary nerve dysfunction is a form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ... Multiple mononeuropathy Muscle function loss Numbness and tingling Peripheral neuropathy Systemic Review Date 2/3/2015 Updated by: ...

  13. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tibial nerve dysfunction is an unusual form of peripheral neuropathy . It occurs when there is damage to the ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 76. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality.

  15. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment ...

  16. Optic Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of optic nerve disorders, including: Glaucoma is a group of diseases that are the leading cause of blindness in the United States. Glaucoma usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises and damages the ...

  17. Nerve Damage (Diabetic Neuropathies)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may include numbness or insensitivity to pain or temperature a tingling, burning, or prickling sensation sharp pains ... from working properly, the body cannot regulate its temperature as it should. Nerve damage can also cause ...

  18. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  19. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system, has an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and plays a key role in the neuroendocrine-immune axis to maintain homeostasis through its afferent and efferent pathways. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, including manual or electrical stimulation. Left cervical VNS is an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment resistant depression. Right cervical VNS is effective for treating heart failure in preclinical studies and a phase II clinical trial. The effectiveness of various forms of non-invasive transcutaneous VNS for epilepsy, depression, primary headaches, and other conditions has not been investigated beyond small pilot studies. The relationship between depression, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and heart disease might be mediated by the vagus nerve. VNS deserves further study for its potentially favorable effects on cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and other physiological biomarkers associated with depression morbidity and mortality. PMID:24834378

  20. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  1. Nerves and Tissue Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-21

    complete dependence on nerves. Organ culture of sciatic nerves, combined with an assay for axolotl transferrin developed earlier, allows quantitative study...axonal release of various unknown proteins. Combining this approach with the ELISA for quantitative measurement of axolotl transferrin developed with...light microscope autoradiographic analysis following binding of radiolabelled Tf. Studies of Tf synthesis will employ cDNA probes for axolotl Tf mRNA

  2. Traumatic facial nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda N; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Boahene, Kofi Derek O

    2013-10-01

    Facial nerve trauma can be a devastating injury resulting in functional deficits and psychological distress. Deciding on the optimal course of treatment for patients with traumatic facial nerve injuries can be challenging, as there are many critical factors to be considered for each patient. Choosing from the great array of therapeutic options available can become overwhelming to both patients and physicians, and in this article, the authors present a systematic approach to help organize the physician's thought process.

  3. Lower cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy.

  4. Optic nerve aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lisi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    We report a 55-year-old woman with optic nerve Aspergillosis. Aspergillus is an ubiquitous airborne saprophytic fungus. Inhaled Aspergillus conidia are normally eliminated in the immunocompetent host by innate immune mechanisms; however, in immunosuppressed patients, they can cause disease. The woman had a past medical history of hypertension and migraines. She presented 1 year prior to death with a new onset headache behind the left eye and later developed blurred vision and scotoma. A left temporal artery biopsy was negative for giant cell arteritis. One month prior to the current admission, she had an MRI showing optic nerve thickening with no other findings. Because of the visual loss and a positive antinuclear antibody test, she was given a trial of high dose steroids and while it significantly improved her headache, her vision did not improve. At autopsy, the left optic nerve at the level of the cavernous sinus and extending into the optic chiasm was enlarged in diameter and there was a 1.3 cm firm nodule surrounding the left optic nerve. Histologically, an abscess surrounded and involved the left optic nerve. Acute angle branching, angioinvasive fungal hyphae were identified on Grocott's methenamine silver stained sections, consistent with Aspergillus spp. No gross or microscopic evidence of systemic vasculitis or infection was identified in the body. The literature on optic nerve Aspergillosis is reviewed.

  5. Important role of umami taste sensitivity in oral and overall health.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Takashi; Satoh-Kuriwada, Sizuko; Shoji, Noriaki; Iikubo, Masahiro; Kawai, Misako; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Sakamoto, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Our newly developed umami taste sensitivity test revealed the loss of only the umami taste sensation in some elderly patients, whereas the other four basic taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, bitter) were normal. Such patients all complained of appetite loss and weight loss, resulting in poor overall health. As a treatment for taste disorder patients, improvement of salivary flow has been adopted in our clinic. Umami taste stimulation increases salivary flow rate of not only major but also minor salivary glands. After treatment with umami taste stimulation, patients remarkably regained their appetite, weight and overall health. Sensitivity to umami taste seems to contribute to good overall health in elderly people.

  6. Lack of functional and morphological susceptibility of the greater superficial petrosal nerve to developmental dietary sodium restriction.

    PubMed

    Sollars, S I; Hill, D L

    2000-12-01

    Restriction of dietary sodium during gestation has major effects on taste function and anatomy in the offspring. The chorda tympani nerve of offspring that are maintained on sodium-reduced chow throughout life (NaDep) has reduced neurophysiological responses to sodium and altered morphology of its terminal field in the nucleus of the solitary tract. There are many anatomical and physiological similarities between the chorda tympani nerve that innervates taste buds on the anterior tongue and the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP) that innervates taste buds on the palate. To determine if the GSP is similarly susceptible to the effects of dietary sodium restriction, the present study examined neurophysiological responses and the terminal field of the GSP in NaDep and control rats. Neurophysiological responses of the GSP to a variety of sodium and non-sodium stimuli did not differ between NaDep and control rats. Furthermore, the volume and shape of the GSP terminal field in the nucleus of the solitary tract did not differ between the groups. Therefore, despite the high degree of functional and anatomical correspondence between the chorda tympani nerve and the GSP, the GSP does not appear to be susceptible to the effects of lifelong dietary sodium restriction.

  7. Possible involvement of undissociated acid molecules in the acid response of the chorda tympani nerve of the rat.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, K; Shimizu, Y; Watanabe, K; Tonosaki, K

    2000-05-01

    To test whether undissociated acid is capable of exciting the chorda tympani nerves in rats, we have used buffered acid solutions as taste stimuli. These solutions were prepared by adding alkali to weak acids, such as acetic acid, so that the proportion of undissociated and dissociated acids was varied whereas keeping the total acid concentration constant. When acetic acid solutions, adjusted to wide ranges of pH by NaOH, were applied to the tongue, the response magnitude of the chorda tympani nerves was not varied systematically with pH changes. However, if the sodium effect was eliminated by amiloride or replacement of cation by potassium or Tris[hydroxymethyl]aminomethane; NH(2)C(CH(2)OH)(3) (Tris-base), the chorda tympani response was reduced systematically as pH increased. Similar results were obtained with citric acid and ascorbic acid. This pH-dependent change in taste nerve response to acid cannot be solely attributed to the proton gradient because the response magnitude induced by hydrogen itself, which was estimated from responses to strong acids, was much smaller than that by equi-pH acetic acid ( approximately 85%). Thus we cannot explain the pH-dependent responses of the chorda tympani nerves to weak acids unless effects of undissociated acid molecules are postulated. It is therefore concluded that undissociated acids in weak acid solutions can be a stimulant to taste receptor cells.

  8. Human taste papilla stimulation: stability of quality judgments over time.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, N B; Saunders, J

    1972-01-14

    Human taste papillae are sensitive to two or more chemical stimuli. Individual papillae produce stable response patterns (quality and intensity) over a month's time. Hence, the response pattern does not appear to be affected by turnover of receptor cells.

  9. A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, C A

    1997-01-01

    This study presents the results of a blinded test of the performance of five commercial thickners. Experimental variables considered are brand of commercial thickener, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time. Success of outcome is defined by a numerical rating scale comparing the consistency and taste to actual liquid samples. The findings suggest that no one commercial thickener consistently produces a desired consistency or was consistently superior regarding taste. Success in producing certain liquid consistencies and "good taste" varied according to brand, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time used. It is suggested that specific recipes be developed for each brand and liquid to be thickened. Flavorings should be tested to enhance taste.

  10. Dulcin and saccharin taste in squirrel monkeys, rats, and men.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G L; Pfaffmann, C; Brown, E

    1965-10-22

    In a taste-preference comparison of sweetening agents, men reacted positively to two nonnutritive sweeteners, dulcin and sodium saccharin; rats preferred only saccharin and squirrel monkeys, only dulcin.

  11. Understanding medicinal taste and odour formation in drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Piriou, P; Soulet, C; Acero, J L; Bruchet, A; Von Gunten, U; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The formation of bromophenols during chlorination of phenol- and bromide-containing waters can be critical for taste and odour problems in drinking waters. The work performed has confirmed that flavour threshold concentrations of some bromophenols are in the ng/L range. In addition, under typical drinking water conditions, kinetic experiments and model simulations performed have shown that (1) bromination is the predominant reaction pathway, (2) bromophenol reaction kinetics are rapid leading to taste-and-odour episodes that last for short periods of 10-20 min, (3) increasing phenol concentration and pH tends to increase taste and odour intensity, (4) increasing chlorine or bromide concentrations tends to shorten the duration of the taste-and-odour episode.

  12. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  13. Bitter taste receptors confer diverse functions to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Delventhal, Rebecca; Carlson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bitter compounds elicit an aversive response. In Drosophila, bitter-sensitive taste neurons coexpress many members of the Gr family of taste receptors. However, the molecular logic of bitter signaling is unknown. We used an in vivo expression approach to analyze the logic of bitter taste signaling. Ectopic or overexpression of bitter Grs increased endogenous responses or conferred novel responses. Surprisingly, expression of Grs also suppressed many endogenous bitter responses. Conversely, deletion of an endogenous Gr led to novel responses. Expression of individual Grs conferred strikingly different effects in different neurons. The results support a model in which bitter Grs interact, exhibiting competition, inhibition, or activation. The results have broad implications for the problem of how taste systems evolve to detect new environmental dangers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11181.001 PMID:26880560

  14. Exposure to acute stress is associated with attenuated sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Al'Absi, Mustafa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hooker, Stephanie; Wittmers, Larry; Cragin, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of stress on taste perception. Participants (N = 38; 21 women) completed two laboratory sessions: one stress (public speaking, math, and cold pressor) and one control rest session. The taste perception test was conducted at the end of each session and included rating the intensity and pleasantness of sweet, salty, sour, and savory solutions at suprathreshold concentrations. Cardiovascular, hormonal, and mood measures were collected throughout the sessions. Participants showed the expected changes in cardiovascular, hormonal, and mood measures in response to stress. Reported intensity of the sweet solution was significantly lower on the stress day than on the rest day. Cortisol level poststress predicted reduced intensity of salt and sour, suggesting that stress-related changes in adrenocortical activity were related to reduced taste intensity. Results indicate that acute stress may alter taste perception, and ongoing research investigates the extent to which these changes mediate effects of stress on appetite.

  15. [New treatment for peripheral nerve defects: nerve elongation].

    PubMed

    Kou, Y H; Jiang, B G

    2016-10-18

    Peripheral nerve defects are still a major challenge in clinical practice, and the most commonly used method of treatment for peripheral nerve defects is nerve transplantation, which has certain limitations and shortcomings, so new repair methods and techniques are needed. The peripheral nerve is elongated in limb lengthening surgery without injury, from which we got inspirations and proposed a new method to repair peripheral nerve defects: peripheral nerve elongation. The peripheral nerve could beelongated by a certain percent, but the physiological change and the maximum elongation range were still unknown. This study discussed the endurance, the physiological and pathological change of peripheral nerve elongation in detail, and got a lot of useful data. First, we developed peripheral nerve extender which could match the slow and even extension of peripheral nerve. Then, our animal experiment result confirmed that the peripheral nerve had better endurance for chronic elongation than that of acute elongation and cleared the extensibility of peripheral nerve and the range of repair for peripheral nerve defects. Our result also revealed the histological basis and changed the rule for pathological physiology of peripheral nerve elongation: the most important structure foundation of peripheral nerve elongation was Fontana band, which was the coiling of nerve fibers under the epineurium, so peripheral nerve could be stretched for 8.5%-10.0% without injury because of the Fontana band. We confirmed that peripheral nerve extending technology could have the same repair effect as traditional nerve transplantation through animal experiments. Finally, we compared the clinical outcomes between nerve elongation and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows, and the post-operative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the

  16. Reproducibility of the measurement of sweet taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Luo, Wendy; Herman, William H

    2012-12-01

    Developing interventions to prevent and treat obesity are medical and public health imperatives. Taste is a major determinant of food intake and reliable methods to measure taste preferences need to be established. This study aimed to establish the short-term reproducibility of sweet taste preference measurements using 5-level sucrose concentrations in healthy adult volunteers. We defined sweet taste preference as the geometric mean of the preferred sucrose concentration determined from two series of two-alternative, forced-choice staircase procedures administered 10min apart on a single day. We repeated the same procedures at a second visit 3-7days later. Twenty-six adults (13 men and 13 women, age 33.2±12.2years) completed the measurements. The median number of pairs presented for each series was three (25th and 75th percentiles: 3, 4). The intraclass correlation coefficients between the measurements was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.92) within a few days. This study showed high short-term reproducibility of a simple, 5-level procedure for measuring sweet taste preferences. This method may be useful for assessing sweet taste preferences and the risks resulting from those preferences.

  17. Does Taste Perception Effect Body Mass Index in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Markam, Vandana; Singh, Garima; Chakravarthy, Kalyan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eating trends established early in life leads to chronic life style disorders such as obesity, which is hard to overcome as child comes of age. Energy expenditure is less but caloric intake is high leading to disparity of energy balance in turn leading to obesity. Obesity is the outcome of a disparity between energy expenditure and caloric intake. Genes play a role in establishing eating habits, which is termed as genetic sensitivity to taste. Aim To determine taste perception effect on body mass index (BMI) in preschool central Indian urban children. Materials and Methods A total of 500 children of 3-6 years were selected and genetic taste perception was assessed using PROP sensitivity test. Anthropometric measurements were recorded to obtain BMI value. Categorical variables were analysed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results Non tasters were mostly in overweight category i.e. 73.30% where as more number of tasters i.e. 59.70% were in underweight category. A significant correlation is seen between BMI and taste perception. No statistically significant correlation was seen between oral hygiene and taste perception. Females were predominant in both the tasters and non tasters categories. Conclusion Taste perception showed significant relationship with BMI of children between 3-6-year-old children. PMID:26816983

  18. Conditioned taste aversion as instrumental punishment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuang-Chu; Hsiao, Sigmund; Li, Jay-Shake

    2013-07-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is traditionally viewed as an instance of pavlovian conditioning. This interpretation rests on the lack of an instrumental contingency between the tastant and the gastric malaise in a standard procedure of CTA. To investigate a role for instrumental punishment in CTA, we present 2 tastants sequentially ("sucrose then NaCl" or "NaCl then sucrose") in a daily alternating and counterbalanced order to rats with an explicit positive contingency between the dosage of the lithium chloride (LiCl) administered and the amount of 1 tastant drunk on that trial. In the beginning of experiment, rats suppressed their intake of both tastants. With the increase of conditioning trials, rats gradually learned to resume the intake of noncontingent solution while selectively suppressing the intake of LiCl-contingent solution. This selective suppression in CTA is the first report indicating that rats are sensitive to the subtle cues related to the covariations between the magnitude of stimulus and the magnitude of responses in a punishment paradigm involving a long delay between the gustatory stimulus of tastant ingestion and the aversive effect of LiCl injection.

  19. Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, L; Chabert, M; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1997-03-01

    The sweet taste of nonnutritive sweeteners has been reported to increase hunger and food intake through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR). We investigated the effect of oral sensation of sweetness on CPIR and other indexes associated with glucose metabolism using nutritive and nonnutritive sweetened tablets as stimuli. At lunchtime, 12 normal-weight men sucked for 5 min a sucrose, an aspartame-polydextrose, or an unsweetened polydextrose tablet (3 g) with no added flavor. The three stimuli were administered in a counterbalanced order, each on a separate day at 1-wk intervals. Blood was drawn continuously for 45 min before and 25 min after the beginning of sucking and samples were collected at 1-min intervals. Spontaneous oscillations in glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations were assessed as were increments (slopes) of fatty acid concentrations during the baseline period. The nature of the baseline (oscillations: glucose, insulin, and glucagon; and slopes: fatty acids) was taken into account in the analyses of postexposure events. No CPIR and no significant effect on plasma glucagon or fatty acid concentrations were observed after the three stimuli. However, there was a significant decrease in plasma glucose and insulin after all three stimuli. Only the consumption of the sucrose tablet was followed by a postabsorptive increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations starting 17 and 19 min, respectively, after the beginning of sucking. In conclusion, this study suggested that oral stimulation provided by sweet nonflavored tablets is not sufficient for inducing CPIR.

  20. L-Theanine elicits umami taste via the T1R1 + T1R3 umami taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; Hayashi, Yukako; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-06-01

    L-Theanine is a unique amino acid present in green tea. It elicits umami taste and has a considerable effect on tea taste and quality. We investigated L-theanine activity on the T1R1 + T1R3 umami taste receptor. L-Theanine activated T1R1 + T1R3-expressing cells and showed a synergistic response with inosine 5'-monophosphate. The site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that L-theanine binds to L-amino acid binding site in the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1. This study shows that L-theanine elicits an umami taste via T1R1 + T1R3.

  1. [Application of taste sensor to medicines in research, development and market].

    PubMed

    Harada, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Maho; Hondo, Satoko; Yasui, Masanobu; Owaki, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Using a taste sensor in the field of medical products has the following four main purposes: (1) Ensuring that investigational product and placebo are indistinguishable; (2) Formulation design; (3) Quality control; (4) Benchmark test. Unlike evaluating a taste of food, roughly predicting a taste of drug without human sensory test and quantitative evaluation using small quantity of drug sample are more important than evaluation of the nuances of homogeneous taste and preference. Here are some examples of using taste sensor for these purposes. (1) We predicted a taste of suspension of phosphatic drug substance in an early phase of development using a taste sensor. As a result, the suspension seemed to have sour and bitter taste. Then we made placebo solution of citric acid similar taste as much like active suspension to ensure indistinguishable taste from each other. (2) A taste of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) in the mouth is important to drug adherence. The taste of an ODT was then evaluated in chronological order by combining the taste sensor with the new disintegration testing apparatus to design easy-to-take formulation. (3) We evaluated taste variation of a commercial product in batch-to-batch and identified the cause of the variation. (4) We did benchmark test for easy-to-take of commercial ODTs in vitro. There is great variability among these products in the disintegrating profile and the taste.

  2. Application of 2D-HPLC/taste dilution analysis on taste compounds in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.).

    PubMed

    Pickrahn, Stephen; Sebald, Karin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-09-24

    This is the first application of fully automated, preparative, two-dimensional HPLC combined with sensory analysis for taste compound discovery using a sweet and licorice-like bitter-tasting aniseed extract as an example. Compared to the traditional iterative fractionation of food extracts by sensory-guided sequential application of separation techniques, the fully automated 2D-HPLC allowed the comprehensive separation of the aniseed extract into 256 subfractions and reduced the fractionation time from about 1 week to <1day. Using a smart sensory strategy to locate high-impact fractions, e.g., by evaluating first-dimension fractions by reconstituting them from second-dimension subfractions, followed by straightforward application of the taste dilution analysis on the individual second-dimension subfractions revealed the sweet-tasting trans-anethole and the bitter-tasting trans-pseudoisoeugenol 2-methylbutyrate, showing recognition thresholds of 70 and 68 μmol/L, respectively, as the primary orosensory active compounds in aniseed. 2D-HPLC combined with smart sensory analysis seems to be a promising strategy to speed the discovery of the key players imparting the attractive taste of foods.

  3. A kinetic study of bitter taste receptor sensing using immobilized porcine taste bud tissues.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lihui; Qiao, Lixin; Pang, Guangchang; Xie, Junbo

    2017-06-15

    At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined. The results demonstrated that the interaction between the analyst with their receptors were fitting to hyperbola (R(2)=0.9776, 0.9980 and 0.9601), and the activation constants were 8.748×10(-15)mol/L, 1.429×10(-12)mol/L, 6.613×10(-14)mol/L, respectively. The average number of receptors per cell was calculated as 1.75, 28.58, and 13.23, while the signal amplification factors were 1.08×10(4), 2.89×10(3) and 9.76×10(4). These suggest that the sensor can be used to quantitatively describe the interaction characteristics of cells or tissue receptors with their ligands, the role of cellular signaling cascade, the number of receptors, and the signal transmission pathways.

  4. Barriers of the peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, Sirkku; Alanne, Maria; Peltonen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    This review introduces the traditionally defined anatomic compartments of the peripheral nerves based on light and electron microscopic topography and then explores the cellular and the most recent molecular basis of the different barrier functions operative in peripheral nerves. We also elucidate where, and how, the homeostasis of the normal human peripheral nerve is controlled in situ and how claudin-containing tight junctions contribute to the barriers of peripheral nerve. Also, the human timeline of the development of the barriers of the peripheral nerve is depicted. Finally, potential future therapeutic modalities interfering with the barriers of the peripheral nerve are discussed. PMID:24665400

  5. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  6. Genes and nerves.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Tam; Johnstone, Bruce R; Newgreen, Don F

    2005-04-01

    The unpredictability of a brachial plexus graft, a median nerve repair, or a facial-nerve reconstruction is well known. No matter how precise the technical skills, a perfect recovery from a peripheral-nerve lesion is elusive. To resolve this problem, understanding of the normal development of the peripheral nervous system is needed. Presently, the development of the innervation in the upper limb is complex and not fully understood. However, many of the genes involved in this process are now known, and the link between anatomy and genetics is becoming clearer. This short review aims to acquaint the clinical surgeon with some of the main genes. The principal steps in the establishment of neural circuits will be summarized, in particular, the specification and development of neurons and glia, the pathfinding of cells and axons towards their target, and the downstream molecules that control the circuitry of these neurons.

  7. Determinants of Taste Preference and Acceptability: Quality vs. Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects whereas processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Utilizing an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine irrespective of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different with the sucralose-preferring rats finding the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose, relative to sucralose-avoiding rats. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggested otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner roughly similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  8. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    PubMed

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  9. Determination of the taste threshold of copper in water.

    PubMed

    Zacarías, I; Yáñez, C G; Araya, M; Oraka, C; Olivares, M; Uauy, R

    2001-01-01

    Copper effects on human health represent a relevant issue in modern nutrition. One of the difficulties in assessing the early, acute effects of copper ingested via drinking water is that the taste of copper may influence the response and the capacity to taste copper in different waters is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine the taste threshold of copper in different types of water, using soluble and insoluble salts (copper sulfate and copper chloride). Copper-containing solutions (range 1.0-8.0 mg/l Cu) were prepared in tap water, distilled deionized water and uncarbonated mineral water. Sixty-one healthy volunteers (17-50 years of age), with no previous training for sensory evaluation, participated in the study. A modified triangle test was used to define the taste threshold value. The threshold was defined as the lowest copper concentration detected by 50% of the subjects assessed. To evaluate the olfactory input in the threshold value obtained, 15 of 61 subjects underwent a second set of triangle tests with the nose open and clamped, using distilled water with copper sulfate at a concentration corresponding to the individual's threshold. The taste threshold in tap water was 2.6 mg/l Cu for both copper sulfate and copper chloride. The corresponding values for distilled deionized water were 2.4 and 2.5 mg/l Cu for copper sulfate and copper chloride, respectively. In uncarbonated mineral water the threshold values were slightly higher, 3.5 and 3.8 mg/l Cu for copper sulfate and for copper chloride, respectively, which are significantly higher than those observed in tap and distilled waters (P < 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test). The taste threshold did not change significantly when the nose was clamped. In conclusion, the median values for copper taste threshold were low, ranging between 2.4 and 3.8 mg/l Cu, depending on the type of water.

  10. Chemostimulatory protein: a new type of taste stimulus.

    PubMed

    Cagan, R H

    1973-07-06

    Three taste-active proteins have recently been discovered. It is proposed that two of these (monellin and thaumatin) should be classified as chemostimulatory proteins because of their sensory effect; these two proteins taste intensely sweet. The third protein (miraculin), a taste-modifier protein, changes the normal sour taste of acids to sweet. The taste-modifier protein, miraculin, occurs in the fruit of the tropical plant Synsepalum dulcificum. Though itself not sweet, it is able to change the taste of acids from sour to sweet after the tongue has been treated with the protein. Miraculin is a basic glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 44,000. Monellin, a chemostimulatory protein, is found in the fruit of a different tropical plant, Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii. It has been characterized as a basic protein with a molecular weight of 10,700 that contains no carbohydrate. Thaumatin, another chemostimulatory protein, occurs in the fruit of a third tropical plant, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Like monellin, it is a basic protein that contains no carbohydrate. Its molecular weight is around 21,000. Certain gross similarities among the three proteins have been noted. Their basic ionic character and some features of the amino acid compositions are similar. Little is known of the structural features of the chemostimulatory proteins that are required for eliciting their intense sweetness; they are of the order of 10(5) times more effective than sucrose. The precise role of the tertiary structure in their biological activity is not known but appears to be an important area for further study. The relatively large size (11,000 to 21,000 molecular weight) of the chemostimulatory proteins provides indirect evidence that the initial interaction of these stimuli with taste receptor cells occurs at the plasma membrane.

  11. Do sunbirds use taste to decide how much to drink?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ida E; Nicolson, Susan W

    2016-03-01

    Nectarivorous birds typically consume smaller meals of more concentrated than of less concentrated sugar solutions. It is not clear, however, whether they use taste to decide how much to consume or whether they base this decision on post-ingestive feedback. Taste, a cue to nectar concentration, is available to nectarivores during ingestion whereas post-ingestive information about resource quality becomes available only after a meal. When conditions are variable, we would expect nectarivorous birds to base their decisions on how much to consume on taste, as post-ingestive feedback from previous meals would not be a reliable cue to current resource quality. Here, we tested whether white-bellied sunbirds (Cinnyris talatala), foraging from an array of artificial flowers, use taste to decide how much to consume per meal when nectar concentration is highly variable: they did not. Instead, how much they chose to consume per meal appeared to depend on the energy intake at the previous meal, that is how hungry they were. Our birds did, however, appear to use taste to decide how much to consume per flower visited within a meal. Unexpectedly, some individuals preferred to consume more from flowers with lower concentration rewards and some preferred to do the opposite. We draw attention to the fact that many studies perhaps misleadingly claim that birds use sweet taste to inform their foraging decisions, as they analyse mean data for multiple meals over which post-ingestive feedback will have become available rather than data for individual meals when only sensory information is available. We discuss how conflicting foraging rules could explain why sunbirds do not use sweet taste to inform their meal size decisions.

  12. Taste sensing with polyacrylic acid grafted cellulose membrane.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sarmishtha; Dey, Joykrishna; Adhikari, Basudam

    2006-03-15

    There are reports of fabrication of taste sensor by adsorbing lipids into Millipore filter paper, which improved the taste sensing efficiency of membrane remarkably. We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by grafting polyacrylic acid (PAA) to cellulose. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study, and structural characterization of the membrane and study of the taste sensing characteristics of this membrane for five different taste substances. FTIR spectroscopic analysis and SEM were done to get an idea about the structure and morphology of the PAA grafted cellulose membrane. Surface charge density of the membrane was estimated. The sensor characteristics like temporal stability, response stability, response to different taste substances, and reproducibility of sensing performance were studied using PAA grafted cellulose membrane. Sensor device prepared with this membrane has shown distinct response patterns for different taste substances in terms of membrane potential. Threshold concentrations of PAA grafted cellulose membrane for HCl, NaCl, quinine-hydrochloride (Q-HCl), sucrose and monosodium glutamate are 0.001 mM, 0.01 mM, 0.08 mM, 0.08 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. The threshold concentrations except that in Q-HCl are below human threshold concentrations. Membranes also showed characteristic response patterns for organic acids like acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, etc., mineral acids like HCl, H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), etc., salts, bitter substances, sweet substances and umami substances. Sensor device prepared with this membrane has excellent shelf life.

  13. [Lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease].

    PubMed

    Shi, J G; Xu, X M; Sun, J C; Wang, Y; Guo, Y F; Yang, H S; Kong, Q J; Yang, Y; Shi, G D; Yuan, W; Jia, L S

    2017-03-21

    Objective: To define a novel disease-lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease, and propose the diagnostic criteria, while capsule surgery was performed and evaluated in the preliminary study. Methods: From June 2016 to December 2016, a total of 30 patients (22 male and 8 female; mean age of 55.1±9.7 years) with lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease were included in Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, the Second Military Medical University.Lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease was defined as axial hypertension of nerve root and spinal cord caused by congenital anomalies, which could be accompanied by other lesions as lumbar disc herniation, spinal cord stenosis or spondylolisthesis, or aggravated by iatrogenic lesions, resulting in neurological symptoms.This phenomenon is similar to a stretched string, the higher tension on each end the louder sound.Meanwhile, the shape of lumbosacral spine looks like a bow, thus, the disease is nominated as lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease.All the patients underwent capsule surgery and filled out Owestry disability index (ODI) and Tempa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) before and after surgery. Results: The mean surgery time was (155±36) min, (4.3±0.4) segments were performed surgery.The pre-operative VAS, TSK and ODI scores were (7.6±0.8), (52.0±10.3) and (68.4±12.7), respectively.The post-operative VAS, TSK and ODI scores were (3.3±0.4), ( 24.6±5.2) and (32.1±7.4)(P<0.05, respectively), respectively. Conclusion: The definition and diagnostic criteria of lumbosacral nerve bowstring disease was proposed.Capsule surgery was an effective strategy with most patients acquired excellent outcomes as symptoms relieved and quality of life improved.

  14. Long-range projection neurons in the taste circuit of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heesoo; Kirkhart, Colleen; Scott, Kristin

    2017-02-06

    Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities. Activation of TPNs influences innate feeding behavior, whereas inhibition has little effect, suggesting parallel pathways. Moreover, two TPN classes are absolutely required for conditioned taste aversion, a learned behavior. The TPNs essential for conditioned aversion project to the superior lateral protocerebrum (SLP) and convey taste information to mushroom body learning centers. These studies identify taste pathways from sensory detection to higher brain that influence innate behavior and are essential for learned responses to taste compounds.

  15. Nerve Transfers in Tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ida K

    2016-05-01

    Hand and upper extremity function is instrumental to basic activities of daily living and level of independence in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve transfer surgery is a novel and alternate approach for restoring function in SCI. This article discusses the biologic basis of nerve transfers in SCI, patient evaluation, management, and surgical approaches. Although the application of this technique is not new; recent case reports and case series in the literature have increased interest in this field. The challenges are to improve function, achieve maximal gains in function, avoid complications, and to primum non nocere.

  16. Maintenance of Taste Organs Is Strictly Dependent on Epithelial Hedgehog/GLI Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2016-01-01

    For homeostasis, lingual taste papilla organs require regulation of epithelial cell survival and renewal, with sustained innervation and stromal interactions. To investigate a role for Hedgehog/GLI signaling in adult taste organs we used a panel of conditional mouse models to manipulate GLI activity within epithelial cells of the fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Hedgehog signaling suppression rapidly led to taste bud loss, papilla disruption, and decreased proliferation in domains of papilla epithelium that contribute to taste cells. Hedgehog responding cells were eliminated from the epithelium but retained in the papilla stromal core. Despite papilla disruption and loss of taste buds that are a major source of Hedgehog ligand, innervation to taste papillae was maintained, and not misdirected, even after prolonged GLI blockade. Further, vimentin-positive fibroblasts remained in the papilla core. However, retained innervation and stromal cells were not sufficient to maintain taste bud cells in the context of compromised epithelial Hedgehog signaling. Importantly taste organ disruption after GLI blockade was reversible in papillae that retained some taste bud cell remnants where reactivation of Hedgehog signaling led to regeneration of papilla epithelium and taste buds. Therefore, taste bud progenitors were either retained during epithelial GLI blockade or readily repopulated during recovery, and were poised to regenerate taste buds once Hedgehog signaling was restored, with innervation and papilla connective tissue elements in place. Our data argue that Hedgehog signaling is essential for adult tongue tissue maintenance and that taste papilla epithelial cells represent the key targets for physiologic Hedgehog-dependent regulation of taste organ homeostasis. Because disruption of GLI transcriptional activity in taste papilla epithelium is sufficient to drive taste organ loss, similar to pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition, the findings suggest that taste

  17. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    MedlinePlus

    ... and toxins. Some cranial nerve disorders interfere with eye movement. Eye movement is controlled by 3 pairs of muscles. These ... be able to move their eyes normally. How eye movement is affected depends on which nerve is affected. ...

  18. Nerve Injuries of the Upper Extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... of individual nerve fibers and surrounding outer sheath (“insulation”) Figure 2: Nerve repair with realignment of bundles © ... of individual nerve fibers and surrounding outer sheath insulation Figure 2 - Nerve repair with realignment of bundles ...

  19. Optic nerve hypoplasia in children.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, S. M.; Dutton, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterised by a diminished number of optic nerve fibres in the optic nerve(s) and until recently was thought to be rare. It may be associated with a wide range of other congenital abnormalities. Its pathology, clinical features, and the conditions associated with it are reviewed. Neuroendocrine disorders should be actively sought in any infant or child with bilateral ONH. Early recognition of the disorder may in some cases be life saving. Images PMID:2191713

  20. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D.; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A.; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  1. The relationship between taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide and anhedonia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Al-Mesaabi, Wahda; Bahusain, Eman; Mutawa, Meera

    2014-02-28

    It has been proposed that taste sensitivity to bitter compounds such as, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), represents a genetic marker for an increased vulnerability to depressive illness. Previous explorations of this idea have proven equivocal. This study refines and further explores this idea by focusing specifically on anhedonia (diminished hedonic capacity), a key symptom in some depressive illness, linked also with sensory pleasure. It is hypothesized that diminished PTC taste sensitivity will be associated with more general decrements in hedonic capacity (anhedonia). An opportunity sample of 198 university students were assessed using paper strips impregnated with PTC, the same participants also completed a widely used assessment of hedonic capacity, the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS). Hedonic capacity scores positively correlated with PTC taste sensitivity; specifically, heightened hedonic capacity was associated with heightened sensitivity to the bitter taste of PTC. Furthermore, modest differences were observed between those least (non-tasters) and most (supertasters) sensitive to PTC, with non-tasters reporting significantly lower hedonic capacity scores than supertasters. PTC taste sensitivity may represent a peripheral risk factor for anhedonia.

  2. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade.

  3. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation.

  4. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well.

  5. An Evolutionary Perspective on Food Review and Human Taste

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is stimulated when nutrients or other chemical compounds activate specialized receptor cells within the oral cavity. Taste helps us decide what to eat and influences how efficiently we digest these foods. Human taste abilities have been shaped, in large part, by the ecological niches our evolutionary ancestors occupied and by the nutrients they sought. Early hominoids sought nutrition within a closed tropical forest environment, probably eating mostly fruit and leaves, and early hominids left this environment for the savannah and greatly expanded their dietary repertoire. They would have used their sense of taste to identify nutritious food items. The risks of making poor food selections when foraging not only entail wasted energy and metabolic harm from eating foods of low nutrient and energy content, but also the harmful and potentially lethal ingestion of toxins. The learned consequences of ingested foods may subsequently guide our future food choices. The evolved taste abilities of humans are still useful for the one billion humans living with very low food security by helping them identify nutrients. But for those who have easy access to tasty, energy-dense foods our sensitivities for sugary, salty and fatty foods have also helped cause over nutrition-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:23660364

  6. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  7. The Role of Sweet Taste in Satiation and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity. PMID:25184369

  8. The role of sweet taste in satiation and satiety.

    PubMed

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-09-02

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual's ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity.

  9. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well. PMID:25482234

  10. Taste modulation of nociception differently affects chronically stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Fontella, Fernanda Urruth; Nunes, Marcele Leon; Crema, Leonardo M; Balk, Rodrigo S; Dalmaz, Carla; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Stress responses cover a wide range of physiological changes, including alterations in the perception of and response to pain. Animals submitted to repeated stress present altered nociception and this effect is part of this process of adaptation; in addition pleasant and unpleasant experiences with tastes and odors have been shown to affect distinct behavioral aspects, such as pain perception. The aim of the present study is to verify the responses of repeatedly stressed rats (1 h of daily immobilization during 40 days) to pleasant and unpleasant tastes on nociception, when compared to control animals. An increase in the tail-flick latency (TFL) was observed 5 min after exposure to a sweet taste in the control group, whereas no effect was observed in chronically stressed animals. When submitted to an unpleasant taste (5% acetic acid), the chronically stressed group presented an increase in TFL, whereas no effect was observed in the control group. In conclusion, chronically stressed animals present different nociceptive responses to sweet and acid tastes; although control animals suitably respond to a sweet stimulus, stressed animals seem to be more apt to react to the unpleasant stimulus.

  11. The tarsal taste of honey bees: behavioral and electrophysiological analyses.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Lorenzo, Esther; Su, Songkun; Liu, Fanglin; Zhan, Yi; Giurfa, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Taste plays a crucial role in the life of honey bees as their survival depends on the collection and intake of nectar and pollen, and other natural products. Here we studied the tarsal taste of honey bees through a series of behavioral and electrophysiological analyses. We characterized responsiveness to various sweet, salty and bitter tastants delivered to gustatory sensilla of the fore tarsi. Behavioral experiments showed that stimulation of opposite fore tarsi with sucrose and bitter substances or water yielded different outcomes depending on the stimulation sequence. When sucrose was applied first, thereby eliciting proboscis extension, no bitter substance could induce proboscis retraction, thus suggesting that the primacy of sucrose stimulation induced a central excitatory state. When bitter substances or water were applied first, sucrose stimulation could still elicit proboscis extension but to a lower level, thus suggesting central inhibition based on contradictory gustatory input on opposite tarsi. Electrophysiological experiments showed that receptor cells in the gustatory sensilla of the tarsomeres are highly sensitive to saline solutions at low concentrations. No evidence for receptors responding specifically to sucrose or to bitter substances was found in these sensilla. Receptor cells in the gustatory sensilla of the claws are highly sensitive to sucrose. Although bees do not possess dedicated bitter-taste receptors in the tarsi, indirect bitter detection is possible because bitter tastes inhibit sucrose receptor cells of the claws when mixed with sucrose solution. By combining behavioral and electrophysiological approaches, these results provide the first integrative study on tarsal taste detection in the honey bee.

  12. A matter of taste: evaluating the quality of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-06-01

    Driven by an impetus to standardize, numerous checklists have been devised to address quality in qualitative research, but these standards and the mindset driving them offer no language with which to speak about taste, or the aesthetic sensibilities that play such a key role in evaluating the goodness of any object. In this article, quality appraisal in qualitative research is considered in the context of taste, that is, in the discernment involved in judging the value of research and in the recognition of the key role reviewer preferences, sensibilities and membership in one or more taste communities play in these judgements. The evaluation of a study is accomplished by evaluating one or more reports from that study, and such reports may be conceived as art forms amenable to the same criteria for appraisal as poems or paintings. Taste implies judgements about the quality of objects and a person's ability to sift through and select from a store of knowledge that knowledge appropriate to judge its value. What binds a community of practitioners (here reviewers of qualitative studies) together is taste-making, or the constant refinements of judgements concerning what constitutes good and bad practice.

  13. Glutamate taste and appetite in laboratory mice: physiologic and genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Inoue, Masashi; Ji, Hong; Murata, Yuko; Tordoff, Michael G; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2009-09-01

    This article provides an overview of our studies of variation in voluntary glutamate consumption in mice. In 2-bottle preference tests, mice from the C57BL/6ByJ (B6) strain consume more monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) than do mice from the 129P3/J (129) strain. We used these mice to study physiologic and genetic mechanisms that underlie the strain differences in glutamate intake. Our genetic analyses showed that differences between B6 mice and 129 mice in MSG consumption are unrelated to strain variation in consumption of sodium or sweeteners and therefore are attributed to mechanisms specific for glutamate. These strain differences could be due to variation in responses to either taste or postingestive effects of glutamate. To examine the role of taste responsiveness, we measured MSG-evoked activity in gustatory nerves and showed that it is similar in B6 and 129 mice. On the other hand, strain-specific postingestive effects of glutamate were evident from our finding that exposure to MSG increases its consumption in B6 mice and decreases its consumption in 129 mice. We therefore examined whether B6 mice and 129 mice differ in postingestive metabolism of glutamate. We showed that, after intragastric administration of MSG, the MSG is preferentially metabolized through gluconeogenesis in B6 mice, whereas thermogenesis is the predominant process for 129 mice. We hypothesize that a process related to gluconeogenesis of the ingested glutamate generates the rewarding stimulus, which probably occurs in the liver before glucose enters the general circulation, and that the glutamate-induced postingestive thermogenesis generates an aversive stimulus. Our animal model studies raise the question of whether humans also vary in glutamate metabolism in a manner that influences their glutamate preference, consumption, and postingestive processing.

  14. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read More Abscess Diabetes Mononeuropathy Multiple mononeuropathy Myelin Peripheral neuropathy Polyarteritis nodosa Systemic Tumor Review Date 1/5/ ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Leg Injuries and Disorders Peripheral Nerve Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  15. Nerves and Tissue Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    axolotl limbs are transected the concentration of transferrin in the distal limb tissue declines rapidly and limb regeneration stops. These results...transferrin binding and expression of the transferrin gene in cells of axolotl peripheral nerve indicate that both uptake and synthesis of this factor occur

  16. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  17. Prognostic value of facial nerve antidromic evoked potentials in bell palsy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wenhao, Zhang; Minjie, Chen; Chi, Yang; Weijie, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the value of facial nerve antidromic evoked potentials (FNAEPs) in predicting recovery from Bell palsy. Study Design. Retrospective study using electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review. Methods. A series of 46 patients with unilateral Bell palsy treated were included. According to taste test, 26 cases were associated with taste disorder (Group 1) and 20 cases were not (Group 2). Facial function was established clinically by the Stennert system after monthly follow-up. The result was evaluated with clinical recovery rate (CRR) and FNAEP. FNAEPs were recorded at the posterior wall of the external auditory meatus of both sides. Results. Mean CRR of Group 1 and Group 2 was 61.63% and 75.50%. We discovered a statistical difference between two groups and also in the amplitude difference (AD) of FNAEP. Mean ± SD of AD was -6.96% ± 12.66% in patients with excellent result, -27.67% ± 27.70% with good result, and -66.05% ± 31.76% with poor result. Conclusions. FNAEP should be monitored in patients with intratemporal facial palsy at the early stage. FNAEP at posterior wall of external auditory meatus was sensitive to detect signs of taste disorder. There was close relativity between FNAEPs and facial nerve recovery.

  18. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception.

  19. Food reward in the absence of taste receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Ivan E; Oliveira-Maia, Albino J; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Simon, Sidney A

    2008-03-27

    Food palatability and hedonic value play central roles in nutrient intake. However, postingestive effects can influence food preferences independently of palatability, although the neurobiological bases of such mechanisms remain poorly understood. Of central interest is whether the same brain reward circuitry that is responsive to palatable rewards also encodes metabolic value independently of taste signaling. Here we show that trpm5-/- mice, which lack the cellular machinery required for sweet taste transduction, can develop a robust preference for sucrose solutions based solely on caloric content. Sucrose intake induced dopamine release in the ventral striatum of these sweet-blind mice, a pattern usually associated with receipt of palatable rewards. Furthermore, single neurons in this same ventral striatal region showed increased sensitivity to caloric intake even in the absence of gustatory inputs. Our findings suggest that calorie-rich nutrients can directly influence brain reward circuits that control food intake independently of palatability or functional taste transduction.

  20. SB-334867-A, a selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist, enhances taste aversion learning and blocks taste preference learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Cabello, Victoria; Risco, Severiano

    2011-05-01

    Lateral hypothalamus (LH) has been proposed as a possible center for the anatomical convergence of gustatory and postingestive information relevant to taste aversion learning (TAL) and conditioned flavor preference (CFP). Orexin, a neuropeptide that mainly originates in neurons in lateral hypothalamic areas, was recently related to learning and memory processes. The present study was designed to analyze a possible relationship between the orexinergic system and taste learning. We studied the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of three doses (3, 6, and 12 μg/1 μl) of the selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867-A on the acquisition of TAL induced by a single administration of LiCl. Infusion of SB-334867-A did not block this learning and appeared to enhance TAL in a two-bottle test. However, SB-334867-A (6 μg/1 μl) blocked taste preference learning when a flavor associated with saccharin (CS+) was offered on alternate days against a different flavor without saccharin (CS-), during three acquisition sessions. These results offer evidence of a relationship between the orexinergic system and taste learning; they tentatively suggest the possibility that endogenous orexin and gustatory and postingestive (visceral and oral) signals converge in brain areas relevant to the acquisition of taste learning.

  1. Formulation and Taste Masking of Ranitidine Orally Disintegrating Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Hesari, Zahra; Shafiee, Akram; Hooshfar, Shirin; Mobarra, Naser; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Orally Disintegrating Tablets (ODT) have the advantages of both solid dosage form specially the stability and ease of handling and liquid dosage forms including ease of swallowing and pre-gastric absorption. We focused on taste masking and formulation of ranitidine ODT which disintegrates rapidly in the mouth within 60 sec using super-disintegrants, special polymers, water soluble and even insoluble excipients, sweeteners and essence. Various formulations were designed and made in four series. The amount of ranitidine in each formulation was 150 mg, and the final weight of tablets was around 500 mg. Prepared formulations were evaluated in terms of several physicochemical tests including powder/granule flowability, appearance, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability and disintegration time. Several taste masking techniques were investigated in each series of formulation, in order to cover the bitter taste of wranitidine. These included the addition of sweetener, granulation, solid dispersion with soluble and insoluble agents and complex formation with cellulose derivatives. The best formulation(s) in each group was/were chosen for taste evaluations with the help of 10 volunteers. Finally, formulation F14 was selected as the ultimate formulation, based on its better taste and shorter disintegration time (around 5 seconds). Formulation F14 contained Na CMC, avicel, Na starch glycolate, xylitol, saccharin, Na benzoate and menthol. The chosen formulation successfully passed the complementary evaluations such as assay of active ingredient and dissolution time. Na CMC was found to be acceptable in terms of decreasing disintegration time and enhanced taste masking potential and can be used in further ODT formulations. PMID:28243264

  2. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  3. Evaluation for Electrochemical Impedance Measurement of Carbon Nanotube Taste Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Naoki; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    In our laboratory, a nano-bio taste sensor based on carbon nanotubes has been developed. However, previous technique cannot separate elements such as CNT random network or electrode surface etc., because of sensor impedance change in fixed frequency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed CNT taste sensor with two R/C parallel circuits. Experimental complex plane plots were reproduced using a computer simulation program based upon the lumped equivalent circuit approach. It was found that the sensor has two relaxation times, and also that these circuits consist of two elements such as electrode surface and CNT random network.

  4. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  5. Clofibrate inhibits the umami-savory taste of glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kochem, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    In humans, umami taste can increase the palatability of foods rich in the amino acids glutamate and aspartate and the 5’-ribonucleotides IMP and GMP. Umami taste is transduced, in part, by T1R1-T1R3, a heteromeric G-protein coupled receptor. Umami perception is inhibited by sodium lactisole, which binds to the T1R3 subunit in vitro. Lactisole is structurally similar to the fibrate drugs. Clofibric acid, a lipid lowering drug, also binds the T1R3 subunit in vitro. The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits the umami taste of glutamate in human subjects. Ten participants rated the umami taste intensity elicited by 20 mM monosodium glutamate (MSG) mixed with varying concentrations of clofibric acid (0 to 16 mM). In addition, fourteen participants rated the effect of 1.4 mM clofibric acid on umami enhancement by 5’ ribonucleotides. Participants were instructed to rate perceived intensity using a general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS). Each participant was tested in triplicate. Clofibric acid inhibited umami taste intensity from 20 mM MSG in a dose dependent manner. Whereas MSG neat elicited “moderate” umami taste intensity, the addition of 16 mM clofibric acid elicited only “weak” umami intensity on average, and in some subjects no umami taste was elicited. We further show that 1.4 mM clofibric acid suppressed umami enhancement from GMP, but not from IMP. This study provides in vivo evidence that clofibric acid inhibits glutamate taste perception, presumably via T1R1-T1R3 inhibition, and lends further evidence that the T1R1-T1R3 receptor is the principal umami receptor in humans. T1R receptors are expressed extra-orally throughout the alimentary tract and in regulatory organs and are known to influence glucose and lipid metabolism. Whether clofibric acid as a lipid-lowering drug affects human metabolism, in part, through T1R inhibition warrants further examination. PMID:28248971

  6. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. PMID:26534983

  7. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  8. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  9. 76 FR 7893 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Neoclassicism: A Taste...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Neoclassicism: A Taste for the... ``Neoclassicism: A Taste for the Antique,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  10. Alteration in Taste Perception in Cancer: Causes and Strategies of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Babar; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Amira S.; Ghiringhelli, François; Khan, Naim A.

    2017-01-01

    The sense of taste is responsible for the detection and ingestion of food to cover energetic requirements in health and disease. The change in taste perception might lead to malnutrition that is usually one of the frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of taste perception and how they are altered in cancer. We also address the question of the implication of inflammation, responsible for the alterations in taste modalities. We highlight the role of radio- and chemotherapy in the modulation of taste physiology. Other several factors like damage to taste progenitor cells and disruption of gut microbiota are also dealt with relation to taste perception in cancer. We further shed light on how to restore taste acuity, by using different preventive methods, dietary modifications and pharmacotherapy in subjects with advanced cancer state. PMID:28337150

  11. Nerve root replantation.

    PubMed

    Carlstedt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic avulsion of nerve roots from the spinal cord is a devastating event that usually occurs in the brachial plexus of young adults following motor vehicle or sports accidents or in newborn children during difficult childbirth. A strategy to restore motor function in the affected arm by reimplanting into the spinal cord the avulsed ventral roots or autologous nerve grafts connected distally to the avulsed roots has been developed. Surgical outcome is good and useful recovery in shoulder and proximal arm muscles occurs. Pain is alleviated with motor recovery but sensory improvement is poor when only motor conduits have been reconstructed. In experimental studies, restoration of sensory connections with general improvement in the outcome from this surgery is pursued.

  12. Concurrent conditioned taste aversion: a learning mechanism based on rapid neural versus flexible humoral processing of visceral noxious substances.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Molina, Filomena; Puerto, Amadeo

    2005-01-01

    Taste aversion learning (TAL) consists of the avoidance of a taste previously associated with a noxious visceral stimulus. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that this adaptive process can be established by different procedures that imply distinct forms of learning and memory, although the final result is analogous, i.e. avoidance of the gustatory stimulus associated with gastrointestinal discomfort. In fact, a double neurobiological system has been anatomically dissociated and, functionally, may be implicated in nausea and emesis, in food selection, and in neuroimmune interactions. Actually, a dual, parallel, and non-redundant gut-brain system has been proposed that sustain two different TAL modalities, concurrent and sequential. Concurrent TAL requires several trials and is inflexible, requiring simultaneity of the stimuli and the participation of the vagus nerve. In contrast, sequential TAL can be acquired in one trial and is flexible, permits long inter-stimulus delays, and is independent of vagal pathways. These two TAL modalities are analyzed in the light of the recent proposal that different acquisition processes are sustained by distinct cerebral systems.

  13. Lateral Hypothalamus Contains Two Types of Palatability-Related Taste Responses with Distinct Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takashi; Monk, Kevin J.; Katz, Donald B.

    2013-01-01

    The taste of foods, in particular the palatability of these tastes, exerts a powerful influence on our feeding choices. Although the lateral hypothalamus (LH) has long been known to regulate feeding behavior, taste processing in LH remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined single-unit LH responses in rats subjected to a battery of taste stimuli that differed in both chemical composition and palatability. Like neurons in cortex and amygdala, LH neurons produced a brief epoch of nonspecific responses followed by a protracted period of taste-specific firing. Unlike in cortex, however, where palatability-related information only appears 500 ms after the onset of taste-specific firing, taste specificity in LH was dominated by palatability-related firing, consistent with LH's role as a feeding center. Upon closer inspection, taste-specific LH neurons fell reliably into one of two subtypes: the first type showed a reliable affinity for palatable tastes, low spontaneous firing rates, phasic responses, and relatively narrow tuning; the second type showed strongest modulation to aversive tastes, high spontaneous firing rates, protracted responses, and broader tuning. Although neurons producing both types of responses were found within the same regions of LH, cross-correlation analyses suggest that they may participate in distinct functional networks. Our data shed light on the implementation of palatability processing both within LH and throughout the taste circuit, and may ultimately have implications for LH's role in the formation and maintenance of taste preferences and aversions. PMID:23719813

  14. Umami-bitter interactions: the suppression of bitterness by umami peptides via human bitter taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-09

    Taste-taste interactions often showed in human psychophysical studies. Considering that each tastant in foodstuffs individually stimulates its responsible gustatory systems to elicit relevant taste modalities, taste-taste interaction should be performed in taste receptor cell-based assay. While umami substances have been proposed to suppress the bitterness of various chemicals in human sensory evaluation, the bitter-umami interaction has not been explored in bitter taste receptors, TAS2Rs. We investigated umami-bitter taste interactions by presenting umami peptides with bitter substance (salicin) on Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay using hTAS2R16-expressing cells. Five representative umami peptides (Glu-Asp, Glu-Glu, Glu-Ser, Asp-Glu-Ser, and Glu-Gly-Ser) derived from soybean markedly attenuated the salicin-induced intracellular calcium influx in a time-dependent manner, respectively, while Gly-Gly, a tasteless peptide did not. The efficacies of Glu-Glu suppressing salicin-induced activation of hTAS2R16 were higher than that of probenecid, a specific antagonist of hTAS2R16. According to Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay using the mixtures of salicin and umami peptides, all five umami peptides suppressed salicin-induced intracellular calcium influx in a noncompetitive manner. These results may provide evidence that umami peptides suppress bitter taste via bitter taste receptor(s). This is the first report which defines the interaction between bitter and umami taste in taste receptor level.

  15. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  16. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  17. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  18. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240–360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors. PMID:27853250

  19. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  20. Mechanisms of taste bud cell loss after head and neck irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha M.; Reyland, Mary E.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste loss in human patients following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer is a common and significant problem, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this loss are not understood. Taste stimuli are transduced by receptor cells within taste buds, and like epidermal cells, taste cells are regularly replaced throughout adult life. This renewal relies on a progenitor cells adjacent to taste buds, which continually supply new cells to each bud. Here we treated adult mice with a single 8 Gy dose of X-ray irradiation to the head and neck, and analyzed taste epithelium at 1–21 days post-irradiation (dpi). We found irradiation targets the taste progenitor cells, which undergo cell cycle arrest (1–3 dpi) and apoptosis (within 1 dpi). Taste progenitors resume proliferation at 5–7 dpi, with the proportion of cells in S and M phase exceeding control levels at 5–6 and 6 dpi, respectively, suggesting that proliferation is accelerated and/or synchronized following radiation damage. Using BrdU birthdating to identify newborn cells, we found that the decreased proliferation following irradiation reduces the influx of cells at 1–2 dpi, while the robust proliferation detected at 6 dpi accelerates entry of new cells into taste buds. By contrast, the number of differentiated taste cells was not significantly reduced until 7 dpi. These data suggest a model where continued natural taste cell death, paired with temporary interruption of cell replacement underlies taste loss after irradiation. PMID:22399770

  1. Nutritional Health of Elderly Women: Evidence of a Relationship between Dietary Intake and Taste Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Margaret I.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between dietary intake and taste perception for elderly women living independently in the community. It is unclear whether they have diminished taste perception, but it has been established that they are at high risk for nutrient deficiencies that may indirectly affect the taste process. (JOW)

  2. NMDA and Muscarinic Receptors of the Nucleus Accumbens Have Differential Effects on Taste Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Ramirez-Lugo, Leticia; Zavala-Vega, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Animals recognize a taste cue as aversive when it has been associated with post-ingestive malaise; this associative learning is known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). When an animal consumes a new taste and no negative consequences follow, it becomes recognized as a safe signal, leading to an increase in its consumption in subsequent…

  3. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...

  4. Sequence analysis of a bitter taste receptor gene repertoires in different ruminant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste r...

  5. Combining repeated taste exposure and escape prevention: an intervention for the treatment of extreme food selectivity.

    PubMed

    Paul, Candace; Williams, Keith E; Riegel, Katherine; Gibbons, Bridget

    2007-11-01

    Repeated taste exposure has been used to introduce novel foods in several settings, but none of these efforts have targeted clinical populations. This study describes an intervention that combines repeated taste exposure and escape prevention in the treatment of extreme food selectivity in two children with autism. Future applications of repeated taste exposure are discussed.

  6. Intergenerational Continuity of Taste: Parental and Adolescent Music Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; van Zalk, Maarten; Christenson, Peter G.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the continuity in music taste from parents to their children is discussed via a multi-actor design. In our models music preferences of 325 adolescents and both their parents were linked, with parental and adolescent educational level as covariates. Parents' preferences for different types of music that had been popular when they…

  7. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  8. The development of sweet taste: From biology to hedonics.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Bobowski, Nuala K; Reed, Danielle R

    2016-06-01

    From the age of 2 years, an American child is more likely to consume a sugar-sweetened product than a fruit or vegetable on any given day-a troubling statistic, given that food preferences are established early in childhood, as well as the strong association between this dietary pattern and increased risk of developing a number of chronic diseases. Here, we review the ontogeny and biopsychology of sweet taste, highlighting how a biological drive to prefer sweetness at high concentrations during childhood, which would have conferred an advantage in environments of scarcity, now predisposes children to overconsume all that is sweet in a modern food system replete with added sugars. We review the power of sweet taste to blunt expressions of pain and mask bad tastes in foods as well as factors that predispose some to consume high-sugar diets, including experiential learning and taste preferences driven in part by genetics. Understanding children's unique vulnerability to our current food environment, rich in both nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners, is highlighted as a priority for future research to develop evidence-based strategies to help establish healthy dietary behaviors early in life.

  9. Sweet taste of water induced by artichoke (Cynara scolymus).

    PubMed

    Bartoshuk, L M; Lee, C H; Scarpellino, R

    1972-12-01

    Exposure of the tongue to artichoke can make water taste sweet. Two major active components of artichoke are the salts of chlorogenic acid and cynarin. The sweetening of substances by temporarily modifying the tongue, rather than by adding a substance sweet in itself, may provide an alternative to currently used nonnutritive sweeteners.

  10. Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Devine, J; Engelman, K

    1995-06-01

    To determine whether sweet-tasting solutions are effective elicitors of cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans, two studies were conducted using nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners as stimuli. Normal weight men sipped and spit four different solutions: water, aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose. A fifth condition involved a modified sham-feed with apple pie. The five stimuli were administered in counterbalanced order, each on a separate day. In study 1, subjects tasted the stimuli for 1 min (n = 15) and in study 2 (n = 16), they tasted the stimuli for 3 min. Arterialized venous blood was drawn to establish a baseline and then at 1 min poststimulus, followed by every 2 min for 15 min and then every 5 min for 15 min. In both study 1 and study 2, no significant increases in plasma insulin were observed after subjects tasted the sweetened solutions. In contrast, significant increases in plasma insulin occurred after the modified sham-feed with both the 1 min and 3 min exposure. These results suggest that nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners in solution are not adequate stimuli for the elicitation of CPIR.

  11. Orchestral Programming 1982-1987: An Indication of Musical Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes orchestral repertoire data as indications of musical taste. Collects data from 34 U.S. and Canadian symphony orchestras from 1982 through 1987. Summarizes and compares programing of 600 composers and 10,500 works. Reveals that Mozart was most frequently performed, and Beethoven was given most time. Shows relationship between student and…

  12. Taste symmetry breaking with hypercubic-smeared staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Taegil; Adams, David H.; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jongjeong; Kim, Kwangwoo; Lee, Weonjong; Jung, Chulwoo; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-05-01

    We study the impact of hypercubic (HYP) smearing on the size of taste-breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing a{approx_equal}0.1 fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (O(a{sup 2}p{sup 2})) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable to the expected size of generic O(a{sup 2}) effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of a{approx_equal}0.09 fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which O(a{sup 2})<

  13. Extending methods: using Bourdieu's field analysis to further investigate taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindel Dimick, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article Signs of taste for science, I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution of taste within science education classrooms. Nevertheless, because the authors' socially situated methodology draws upon Bourdieu's theories, it seems equally important to extend these methods to consider how and why students make particular distinctions within a relational context—a key aspect of Bourdieu's theory of cultural production. By situating the constitution of taste within Bourdieu's field analysis, researchers can explore the ways in which students' tastes and social positionings are established and transformed through time, space, place, and their ability to navigate the field. I describe the process of field analysis in relation to the authors' paper and suggest that combining the authors' methods with a field analysis can provide a strong methodological and analytical framework in which theory and methods combine to create a detailed understanding of students' interest in relation to their context.

  14. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  15. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance.

  16. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H

    2015-08-31

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m² (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders.

  17. "I Really Liked It": Short Stories and Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Stephen

    1968-01-01

    The development of literary judgment and taste should be one of the goals of any literature program. To accomplish this goal, the teacher should minimize his own estimate of a piece of writing and encourage the student to evaluate the writing himself. The teacher can direct the student from vague, easily-formed generalizations about his likes and…

  18. A Classroom Demonstration of Taste-Aversion Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Michael R.; Batsell, Jr., W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that recreates the central features of taste aversion (learning to avoid distinctively flavored food or drink paired with gastrointestinal illness) research. Rats are allowed to drink a saccharine flavored solution and then are given an injection of sodium chloride. They associate the unpleasant effects with the solution.…

  19. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Jun J.; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste).

  20. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste).

  1. Extending Methods: Using Bourdieu's Field Analysis to Further Investigate Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article "Signs of taste for science," I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution…

  2. Latent inhibition of a conditioned taste aversion in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Biesan, Orion; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Ramos, Linnet; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna; Rogers, Morgan; Wiles, Nathanael R; Hoxha, Nita

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of schizophrenia's cognitive symptoms may have its basis in prenatal alterations of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor functioning. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of ketamine (an NMDA receptor blocking drug) on both a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and latent inhibition (LI; a model of attentional capacity) in rat fetuses. We first sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by nonreinforced preexposure to a CS in fetal rats (i.e., LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (garlic taste) or an equal volume of saline. Some of the pregnant dams also received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.). One day later (E19), the dams received a second injection of the CS, followed by either lithium chloride (the US) or saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with allicin and observations of ingestive orofacial motor responses were recorded. When allicin had been paired with LiCl in utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this taste. Preexposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a LI of this CTA. Ketamine significantly disrupted the formation of the CTA and had some impact on LI. However, the direct effect of ketamine on LI is less certain since the drug also blocked the original CTA.

  3. The French Academy: Arbitrator of Taste, Order, Genius--Immortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    The French Academy is the oldest of the scholarly societies of France. Its ideals and preferences of order, genius, and immortality have influenced the schools, conservatories, universities, and archives and the intellectual and artistic tastes of the time. Its foundation was laid by nine lettered, well-educated laymen and ecclesiastics around…

  4. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  5. The Elements of Taste: How Many Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    What is the number of tastes or flavors we have? Is it five, as most Chinese believe? None, as the ancient Taoists asserted? Four, as Western science traditionally claims? Recently, "umami" has been added to the traditional four: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (the Chinese added another: spicy or pungent). Aristotle and Raghavan Iyer (of India)…

  6. Differential Facial Responses to Four Basic Tastes in Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentstein, Diana; Oster, Harriet

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the distinctiveness and recognizability of taste-elicited facial expressions in 12 newborns two hours of age. Findings demonstrated that newborns differentiate sour and bitter from each other and from salty, and discriminate between sweet and nonsweet. Judges accurately identified newborns' responses to sucrose, but systematically…

  7. Development of taste sensing system using inorganic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Hasegawa, Yuki

    2011-09-01

    We developed a novel taste sensor for liquid and verified its effectiveness using coffee. We fabricated an inorganic metal oxide membrane liquid sensor using the laser ablation method. The sensor shows a sufficient sensitivity for electrolyte solutions, while it shows a relatively low response for non-electrolyte solutions. We differentiated and identified five brands of commercially available coffee using the sensor.

  8. Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    PubMed

    Colomb, Julien; Grillenzoni, Nicola; Ramaekers, Ariane; Stocker, Reinhard F

    2007-06-10

    A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (SOG), depending on their segmental and sensory organ origin. We define two major and two smaller subregions in the SOG. One of the major areas is a target of pharyngeal sensilla, the other one receives inputs from both internal and external sensilla. In addition to such spatial organization of the taste center, circumstantial evidence suggests a subtle functional organization: aversive and attractive stimuli might be processed in the anterior and posterior part of the SOG, respectively. Our results also suggest less coexpression of gustatory receptors than proposed in prior studies. Finally, projections of putative second-order taste neurons seem to cover large areas of the SOG. These neurons may thus receive multiple gustatory inputs. This suggests broad sensitivity of secondary taste neurons, reminiscent of the situation in mammals.

  9. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake.

  10. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  11. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Ghemulet, Maria; Baskini, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Mouza, Eirini; Proios, Hariklia

    2014-01-01

    A verbal fluency (VF) task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) and subjects' taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI). The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (>30 kg/m(2)) would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures), post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects' group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four taste categories were statistically significant. When comparing the two matched groups of healthy and dysphagic subjects, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of responses in the four basic taste categories. However, for both groups, most responses were generated in the following descending order: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The bitter category presented the majority of errors for both groups. Obese subjects produced a greater mean number of responses for the "sweet," "sour," and "bitter" categories; conversely, underweight subjects produced a larger mean number of responses for the "salty" category

  12. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task

    PubMed Central

    Ghemulet, Maria; Baskini, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Mouza, Eirini; Proios, Hariklia

    2014-01-01

    A verbal fluency (VF) task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) and subjects’ taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI). The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (>30 kg/m2) would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures), post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects’ group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four taste categories were statistically significant. When comparing the two matched groups of healthy and dysphagic subjects, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of responses in the four basic taste categories. However, for both groups, most responses were generated in the following descending order: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The bitter category presented the majority of errors for both groups. Obese subjects produced a greater mean number of responses for the “sweet,” “sour,” and “bitter” categories; conversely, underweight subjects produced a larger mean number of responses for the

  13. Peripheral Nerve Injury: Stem Cell Therapy and Peripheral Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Robert; Dailey, Travis; Duncan, Kelsey; Abel, Naomi; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury can lead to great morbidity in those afflicted, ranging from sensory loss, motor loss, chronic pain, or a combination of deficits. Over time, research has investigated neuronal molecular mechanisms implicated in nerve damage, classified nerve injury, and developed surgical techniques for treatment. Despite these advancements, full functional recovery remains less than ideal. In this review, we discuss historical aspects of peripheral nerve injury and introduce nerve transfer as a therapeutic option, as well as an adjunct therapy to transplantation of Schwann cells and their stem cell derivatives for repair of the damaged nerve. This review furthermore, will provide an elaborated discussion on the sources of Schwann cells, including sites to harvest their progenitor and stem cell lines. This reflects the accessibility to an additional, concurrent treatment approach with nerve transfers that, predicated on related research, may increase the efficacy of the current approach. We then discuss the experimental and clinical investigations of both Schwann cells and nerve transfer that are underway. Lastly, we provide the necessary consideration that these two lines of therapeutic approaches should not be exclusive, but conversely, should be pursued as a combined modality given their mutual role in peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27983642

  14. Nerve regeneration in nerve grafts conditioned by vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Bergman, S; Widerberg, A; Danielsen, N; Lundborg, G; Dahlin, L B

    1995-01-01

    Regeneration distances were studied in nerves from vibration-exposed limbs. One hind limb of anaesthetized rats was attached to a vibration exciter and exposed to vibration (80 Hz/32 m/s2) for 5 h/day for 2 or 5 days. Seven days after the latest vibration period a 10-mm long nerve graft was taken from the vibrated sciatic nerve and sutured into a corresponding defect in the con-tralateral sciatic nerve and vice versa, thereby creating two different models within the same animal: (i) regeneration from a freshly transected unvibrated nerve into a vibrated graft and (ii) regeneration from a vibrated nerve into a fresh nerve graft (vibrated recipient side). Four, 6 or 8 days postoperatively (p.o.) the distances achieved by the regenerating axons were determined using the pinch reflex test. Two days of vibration did not influence the regeneration, but 5 days of vibration reduced the initial delay period and a slight reduction of regeneration rate was observed. After 5 days of vibration an increased regeneration distance was observed in both models at day 4 p.o. and at day 6 p.o. in vibrated grafts. This study demonstrates that vibration can condition peripheral nerves and this may be caused by local changes in the peripheral nerve trunk and in the neuron itself.

  15. Morphine-induced conditioned taste aversions: assessment of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Randall-Thompson, Jovita F; Riley, Anthony L

    2003-09-01

    Although sex differences in taste aversions have been reported with emetics such as lithium chloride (LiCl), little is known whether such findings generalize to other aversion-inducing drugs, including recreational compounds. One particular class of recreational compounds that induces taste aversions but that has not been examined for sex differences in its aversive properties is the opioids. To assess sex differences in the aversive properties of the opioids, Experiment 1 examined the acquisition and extinction of morphine-induced taste aversions in male and female rats. To determine whether the specific parametric conditions used in Experiment 1 would support sex differences in general, Experiment 2 examined possible sex differences in the acquisition and extinction of LiCl-induced taste aversions, a compound for which sex differences have been previously reported. During acquisition, male and female rats were given 20-min access to a novel saccharin solution and injected with either morphine (0, 10, 18 and 32 mg/kg s.c.; Experiment 1) or LiCl (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mEq s.c.; Experiment 2) every fourth day for a total of four conditioning trials. During extinction, subjects were allowed access to saccharin but were not injected (for a total of eight trials). There were no sex differences in acquisition with either morphine or LiCl. There were also no sex differences in extinction with morphine; however, sex differences were found with LiCl, an effect consistent with prior assessments with this drug. The basis for and implications of the differences in the effects of sex on morphine- and LiCl-induced taste aversions were discussed.

  16. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume a lot of sugar, primarily from sweeteners that are added to processed foods and beverages. Data from the US Department of Agriculture reveals that in 2013, Americans consumed 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day, which is significantly more than the American Heart Association’s recommendation. Artificial and alternative sweeteners have also been added to a plethora of foods. These sweeteners range from about 180 times sweeter to as much as 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. Consumption of both sugar and artificial sweeteners may be changing our palates or taste preferences over time, increasing our desire for sweet foods. Unfortunately, the data on this are lacking. In the summer of 2014, a group of 20 people from Kaiser Permanente facilities throughout California agreed to cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks and then complete a survey to determine whether their taste preferences had changed. After the 2-week challenge, 95% of participants (18 out of 19 respondents) found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% (15 out of 20 respondents) found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% (19 out of 20 respondents) said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants (13 out of 15 respondents) stopped craving sugar after 6 days. Although this was a small survey, the results suggest that using a 2-week sugar challenge can help to reset taste preferences and make consuming less or no sugar easier. Physicians should consider recommending a sugar and artificial sweetener challenge to all their patients, especially those with obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26176574

  17. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed. PMID:25851889

  18. Interleukin-10 Is Produced by a Specific Subset of Taste Receptor Cells and Critical for Maintaining Structural Integrity of Mouse Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jinghua; Zhou, Minliang; Simon, Nirvine; Huang, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    Although inflammatory responses are a critical component in defense against pathogens, too much inflammation is harmful. Mechanisms have evolved to regulate inflammation, including modulation by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously we have shown that taste buds express various molecules involved in innate immune responses, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, using a reporter mouse strain, we show that taste cells also express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Remarkably, IL-10 is produced by only a specific subset of taste cells, which are different from the TNF-producing cells in mouse circumvallate and foliate taste buds: IL-10 expression was found exclusively in the G-protein gustducin-expressing bitter receptor cells, while TNF was found in sweet and umami receptor cells as reported previously. In contrast, IL-10R1, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-10 receptor, is predominantly expressed by TNF-producing cells, suggesting a novel cellular hierarchy for regulating TNF production and effects in taste buds. In response to inflammatory challenges, taste cells can increase IL-10 expression both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that taste buds use separate populations of taste receptor cells that coincide with sweet/umami and bitter taste reception to modulate local inflammatory responses, a phenomenon that has not been previously reported. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency in mice leads to significant reductions in the number and size of taste buds, as well as in the number of taste receptor cells per taste bud, suggesting that IL-10 plays critical roles in maintaining structural integrity of the peripheral gustatory system. PMID:24523558

  19. An Odorant Binding Protein required for suppression of sweet taste by bitter chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yong Taek; Shim, Jaewon; Oh, So Ra; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Chul Hoon; Moon, Seok Jun; Montell, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Summary Animals are often confronted with the decision as to consume a diet that contains competing attractive and aversive compounds. Here, using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we describe a mechanism that influences this decision. Addition of bitter compounds to sucrose suppressed feeding behavior, and this inhibition depended on the odorant binding protein, OBP49a. In wild-type flies, bitter compounds suppressed sucrose-induced action potentials, and the inhibition was impaired in Obp49a mutants. However, loss of OBP49a did not affect action potentials in sugar- or bitter-activated gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) when the GRNs were presented with just one type of tastant. OBP49a was expressed in accessory cells, and acted non-cell autonomously to attenuate nerve firings in sugar-activated GRNs when bitter compounds were combined with sucrose. These findings demonstrate an unexpected role for an OBP in taste, and identify a molecular player involved in the integration of opposing attractive and aversive gustatory inputs. PMID:23972598

  20. Nerve Cross-Bridging to Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Model of Delayed Nerve Repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no available options to promote nerve regeneration through chronically denervated distal nerve stumps. Here we used a rat model of delayed nerve repair asking of prior insertion of side-to-side cross-bridges between a donor tibial (TIB) nerve and a recipient denervated common peroneal (CP) nerve stump ameliorates poor nerve regeneration. First, numbers of retrogradely-labelled TIB neurons that grew axons into the nerve stump within three months, increased with the size of the perineurial windows opened in the TIB and CP nerves. Equal numbers of donor TIB axons regenerated into CP stumps either side of the cross-bridges, not being affected by target neurotrophic effects, or by removing the perineurium to insert 5-9 cross-bridges. Second, CP nerve stumps were coapted three months after inserting 0-9 cross-bridges and the number of 1) CP neurons that regenerated their axons within three months or 2) CP motor nerves that reinnervated the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle within five months was determined by counting and motor unit number estimation (MUNE), respectively. We found that three but not more cross-bridges promoted the regeneration of axons and reinnervation of EDL muscle by all the CP motoneurons as compared to only 33% regenerating their axons when no cross-bridges were inserted. The same 3-fold increase in sensory nerve regeneration was found. In conclusion, side-to-side cross-bridges ameliorate poor regeneration after delayed nerve repair possibly by sustaining the growth-permissive state of denervated nerve stumps. Such autografts may be used in human repair surgery to improve outcomes after unavoidable delays. PMID:26016986

  1. Espin cytoskeletal proteins in the sensory cells of rodent taste buds.

    PubMed

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Freeman, David; Mugnaini, Enrico; Bartles, James R

    2005-09-01

    Espins are multifunctional actin-bundling proteins that are highly enriched in the microvilli of certain chemosensory and mechanosensory cells, where they are believed to regulate the integrity and/or dimensions of the parallel-actin-bundle cytoskeletal scaffold. We have determined that, in rats and mice, affinity purified espin antibody intensely labels the lingual and palatal taste buds of the oral cavity and taste buds in the pharyngo-laryngeal region. Intense immunolabeling was observed in the apical, microvillar region of taste buds, while the level of cytoplasmic labeling in taste bud cells was considerably lower. Taste buds contain tightly packed collections of sensory cells (light, or type II plus type III) and supporting cells (dark, or type I), which can be distinguished by microscopic features and cell type-specific markers. On the basis of results obtained using an antigen-retrieval method in conjunction with double immunofluorescence for espin and sensory taste cell-specific markers, we propose that espins are expressed predominantly in the sensory cells of taste buds. In confocal images of rat circumvallate taste buds, we counted 21.5 +/- 0.3 espin-positive cells/taste bud, in agreement with a previous report showing 20.7 +/- 1.3 light cells/taste bud when counted at the ultrastructural level. The espin antibody labeled spindle-shaped cells with round nuclei and showed 100% colocalization with cell-specific markers recognizing all type II [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type III (IP(3)R(3))(,) alpha-gustducin, protein-specific gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)] and a subpopulation of type III (IP(3)R(3), PGP9.5) taste cells. On average, 72%, 50%, and 32% of the espin-positive taste cells were labeled with antibodies to IP(3)R(3), alpha-gustducin, and PGP9.5, respectively. Upon sectional analysis, the taste buds of rat circumvallate papillae commonly revealed a multi-tiered, espin-positive apical cytoskeletal apparatus. One espin-positive zone, a

  2. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences. PMID:27551365

  3. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.

  4. Nerves on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nerves are often visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the soft tissues on the chest and shoulder girdle. To learn the reasons for the contrast between the nerves and adjacent tissues, the authors obtained a fresh specimen containing part of the brachial plexus nerves from the left axilla and compared MRI with x-ray projections and photomicrographs of histologic sections. The results suggest that the high signals from the nerves stand out in contrast to the low signals from their rich vascular supply. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 7 PMID:2733051

  5. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    PubMed

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  6. Accessory nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Olarte, M; Adams, D

    1977-11-01

    After apparently uncomplicated excision of benign lesions in the posterior cervical triangle, two patients had shoulder pain. In one, neck pain and trapezius weakness were not prominent until one month after surgery. Inability to elevate the arm above the horizontal without externally rotating it, and prominent scapular displacement on arm abduction, but not on forward pushing movements, highlighted the trapezius dysfunction and differentiated it from serratus anterior weakness. Spinal accessory nerve lesions should be considered when minor surgical procedures, lymphadenitis, minor trauma, or tumours involved the posterior triangle of the neck.

  7. Differential role of insular cortex muscarinic and NMDA receptors in one-trial appetitive taste learning.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Shauna L; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Coutureau, Etienne; Ferreira, Guillaume

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of the neurobiology of taste learning and memory has been greatly facilitated by the use of a reliable behavioural model, conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This model has revealed that the insular cortex (IC), specifically muscarinic and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in the IC, is critical for the formation of aversive taste memories. In contrast, current models of appetitive taste learning are less adequate, relying on the use of neophobic tastes (attenuation of neophobia) or on the integration of appetitive and aversive taste memories (latent inhibition of CTA). While these models have implicated IC muscarinic receptors, the involvement of NMDA receptors in the IC remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of both muscarinic and NMDA receptors in appetitive taste learning using a simple paradigm that is independent of neophobic and aversive components. First, we demonstrated that a single exposure to a novel taste, saccharin 0.1%, is sufficient to promote an appetitive taste memory as revealed by an increase in saccharin consumption during the second presentation. This increase was blocked by bilateral infusion in the IC of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine. In contrast, infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5, did not block appetitive taste learning but did abolish CTA. Therefore, common and distinct molecular substrates within the IC mediate appetitive versus aversive learning about the same taste.

  8. Modality-Specific Neural Effects of Selective Attention to Taste and Odor

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    The insular cortex is implicated in general attention and in taste perception. The effect of selective attention to taste on insular responses may therefore reflect a general effect of attention or it may be (taste) modality specific. To distinguish between these 2 possibilities, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate brain response to tastes and odors while subjects passively sampled the stimuli or performed a detection task. We found that trying to detect a taste (attention to taste) resulted in activation of the primary taste cortex (anterior and mid-dorsal insula) but not in the primary olfactory cortex (piriform). In contrast, trying to detect an odor (attention to odor) increased activity in primary olfactory but not primary gustatory cortex. However, we did identify a region of far anterior insular cortex that responded to both taste and odor “searches.” These results demonstrate modality-specific activation of primary taste cortex by attention to taste and primary olfactory cortex by attention to odor and rule out the possibility that either response reflects a general effect of attentional deployment. The findings also support the existence of a multimodal region in far anterior insular cortex that is sensitive to directed attention to taste and smell. PMID:21685407

  9. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed.

  10. Taste-potentiated odor aversion learning in rats with lesions of the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-You; Roman, Christopher; Reilly, Steve

    2009-11-10

    The current study assessed the influence of excitotoxic lesions of the insular cortex (IC) on taste-potentiated odor aversion (TPOA) learning. Water-deprived rats initially received a single odor-toxicosis or odor/taste-toxicosis pairing and were subsequently tested, in separate trials, with the odor and the taste stimulus. Indicating TPOA, neurologically intact rats conditioned with the odor/taste compound stimulus acquired significantly stronger odor aversions than normal rats conditioned with the odor stimulus. IC lesions disrupted TPOA, conditioned taste aversion and taste neophobia. The finding that taste did not potentiate odor aversion learning in the IC-lesioned rats provides support for the "within-compound association" analysis but is inconsistent with the "sensory-and-gate" account of TPOA learning.

  11. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F.; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar. PMID:26157055

  12. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F; Vasselli, Joseph R; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar.

  13. Long thoracic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Flatow, E L

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the long thoracic nerve causing paralysis or weakness of the serratus anterior muscle can be disabling. Patients with serratus palsy may present with pain, weakness, limitation of shoulder elevation, and scapular winging with medial translation of the scapula, rotation of the inferior angle toward the midline, and prominence of the vertebral border. Long thoracic nerve dysfunction may result from trauma or may occur without injury. Fortunately, most patients experience a return of serratus anterior function with conservative treatment, but recovery may take as many as 2 years. Bracing often is tolerated poorly. Patients with severe symptoms in whom 12 months of conservative treatment has failed may benefit from surgical reconstruction. Although many surgical procedures have been described, the current preferred treatment is transfer of the sternal head of the pectoralis major tendon to the inferior angle of the scapula reinforced with fascia or tendon autograft. Many series have shown good to excellent results, with consistent improvement in function, elimination of winging, and reduction of pain.

  14. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    MedlinePlus

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at ...

  15. Functions of the Renal Nerves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepke, John P.; DiBona, Gerald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses renal neuroanatomy, renal vasculature, renal tubules, renin secretion, renorenal reflexes, and hypertension as related to renal nerve functions. Indicates that high intensitites of renal nerve stimulation have produced alterations in several renal functions. (A chart with various stimulations and resultant renal functions and 10-item,…

  16. Neuromas of the calcaneal nerves.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Dellon, A L

    2001-11-01

    A neuroma of a calcaneal nerve has never been reported. A series of 15 patients with heel pain due to a neuroma of a calcaneal nerve are reviewed. These patients previously had either a plantar fasciotomy (n = 4), calcaneal spur removal (n = 2), ankle fusion (n = 2), or tarsal tunnel decompression (n = 7). Neuromas occurred on calcaneal branches that arose from either the posterior tibial nerve (n = 1), lateral plantar nerve (n = 1), the medial plantar nerve (n = 9), or more than one of these nerves (n = 4). Operative approach was through an extended tarsal tunnel incision to permit identification of all calcaneal nerves. The neuroma was resected and implanted into the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Excellent relief of pain occurred in 60%, and good relief in 33%. One patient (17%) had no improvement and required resection of the lateral plantar nerve. Awareness that the heel may be innervated by multiple calcaneal branches suggests that surgery for heel pain of neural origin employ a surgical approach that permits identification of all possible calcaneal branches.

  17. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-Based Caste Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste. PMID:25902290

  18. Awareness programs and change in taste-based caste prejudice.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution--the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste.

  19. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    PubMed

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli.

  20. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.

  1. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  2. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  3. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  4. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees.

  5. Odor-taste interactions: effects of attentional strategies during exposure.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Johnstone, Victoria; Francis, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    Through repeated pairings with a tastant such as sucrose, odors are able to take on the tastant's qualities, e.g. by becoming more sweet smelling. When such odors are subsequently experienced with a sweet tastant in solution, the mixture is often given a higher sweetness rating than the tastant alone. Odor-induced taste enhancement appears to be sensitive to whether an odor-taste combination is viewed analytically as a set of discrete qualities, or synthetically as a flavor. The present research attempted to determine if adoption of these different perceptual approaches during co-exposure with sucrose would influence the extent to which an odor would become sweet smelling and subsequently enhance sweetness intensity. In Experiment 1, subjects received multiple exposures to mixtures of sucrose with low sweetness, low familiarity odors or, as a control, the odors and sucrose solutions separately. Two groups that received mixtures made intensity ratings that promoted either synthesis or analysis of the individual elements in the mixtures. The odors became sweeter smelling irrespective of group. Only adopting a synthetic strategy produced odors that enhanced sweetness in solution. However, these effects were also shown with a 'non-exposed' control odor. This could be accounted for if the single co-exposure with sucrose that all odors received in the pre-test was able to produce sweeter odors. A second experiment confirmed this prediction. Thus, while even a single co-exposure with sucrose is sufficient to produce a sweeter odor, the adoption of a synthetic perceptual strategy during the co-exposure is necessary to produce an odor that will enhance sweetness. These data are consistent with associative leaning accounts of how odors take on taste qualities and also support the interpretation that these effects reflect the central integration of odors and tastes into flavors.

  6. Impaired NaCl taste thresholds in Zn deprived rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brosvic, G.M.; Slotnick, B.M.; Nelson, N.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-03-05

    Zn deficiency is a relatively common cause of loss of taste acuity in humans. In some patients replacement with exogenous Zn results in rapid reversal of the loss whereas in others prolonged treatment is needed to restore normal taste function. To study this 300 gm outbred Sprague Dawley rats were given Zn deficient diet (< 1 ppm Zn) supplemented with Zn in drinking water (0.1 gm Zn/100 gm body weight). Rats were trained in an automated operant conditions procedure and NaCl taste thresholds determined. During an initial training period and over two replications mean thresholds were 0.006% and mean plasma Zn was 90 +/- 2 ..mu..g/dl (M +/- SEM) determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Rats were then divided into two groups; in one (3 rats) Zn supplement was removed, in the other (4 rats), pair-fed with the former group, Zn supplement was continued. In 10 days NaCl thresholds in Zn deprived rats increased significantly (0.07%, p < 0.01) and in 17 days increased 13 fold (0.08%) but thresholds for pair fed, supplemented rats remained constant (0.006%). There was no overlap in response between any rat in the two groups. Plasma Zn at 17 days in Zn-deprived rats was significantly below pair-fed rats (52 +/- 13 vs 89 +/- 6 ..mu..g/dl, respectively, P < 0.01). At this time Zn-deprived rats were supplemented with Zn for 27 days without any reduction in taste thresholds. These preliminary results are consistent with previous observations in Zn deficient patients.

  7. Development of Standard Testing Method for Water Taste Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    potassium chlorogenate , as well as another chemical, potassium chlorate, were tested on thirty eight subjects. In about one third of the subjects...increasing the concentration of the potassium chlorogenate used as the adapting solution resulted in sweet water tastes of increasing intensity. Some...subjects perceived water after potassium chlorogenate as sweet but the sweetness did not increase substantially as the concentration of potassium

  8. Metallic taste as a side effect of topical fluorouracil use.

    PubMed

    Han, Sandra Y; Youker, Summer

    2011-10-01

    Topical fluorouracil is widely used for the treatment of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the skin. The most common side effect of this medication is localized irritant dermatitis. The authors report a case of dysgeusia with metallic taste as a side effect of this medication. While not previously seen with topical use, this is not an uncommon side effect seen with systemic administration of 5-fluorouracil. The etiology of dysgeusia from chemotherapeutic agents and systemic absorption of fluorouracil is discussed.

  9. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hee; Choi, Goeun; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Park, Je Won; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Mung Chul; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN). To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA). Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%), suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration– time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 78.8 ± 2.32 μg · hour/mL and 12.4 ± 0.673 μg/mL, respectively, both of which were larger than those obtained with Viagra® (AUC0-∞ = 69.2 ± 3.19 μg · hour/mL; Cmax = 10.5 ± 0.641 μg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the MMT-based nanohybrid is a promising delivery system for taste masking of SDN with possibly improved drug exposure. PMID:22619517

  10. Nerve glue for upper extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tse, Raymond; Ko, Jason H

    2012-11-01

    Nerve glue is an attractive alternative to sutures to improve the results of nerve repair. Improved axon alignment, reduced scar and inflammation, greater and faster reinnervation, and better functional results have been reported with the use of nerve glue. The different types of nerve glue and the evidence to support or oppose their use are reviewed. Although the ideal nerve glue has yet to be developed, fibrin sealants can be used as nerve glue in select clinical situations. Technology to allow suture-free nerve repair is one development that can potentially improve functional nerve recovery and the outcomes of upper extremity reconstruction.

  11. Facial nerve rerouting in skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Parhizkar, Nooshin; Hiltzik, David H; Selesnick, Samuel H

    2005-08-01

    Facial nerve rerouting techniques were developed to facilitate re-section of extensive tumors occupying the skull base. Facial nerve rerouting has its own limitations and risks, requiring microsurgical expertise, additional surgical time, and often some degree of facial nerve paresis. This article presents different degrees of anterior and posterior facial nerve rerouting, techniques of facial nerve rerouting, and a comprehensive review of outcomes. It then reviews anatomic and functional preservation of the facial nerve in acoustic neuroma resection, technical aspects of facial nerve dissection, intracranial facial nerve repair options, and outcomes for successful acoustic neuroma surgery.

  12. Instructions for masking the taste of medication for children

    PubMed Central

    Vaillancourt, Régis; Truong, Yen; Karmali, Shazya; Kraft, Amanda; Manji, Selina; Villarreal, Gilda; Pouliot, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medications that taste unpleasant can be a struggle to administer to children, most often resulting in low adherence rates. Pictograms can be useful tools to improve adherence by conveying information to patients in a way that they will understand. Methods: One-on-one structured interviews were conducted with parents/guardians and with children between the ages of 9 and 17 years at a pediatric hospital. The questionnaire evaluated the comprehension of 12 pictogram sets that described how to mask the taste of medications for children. Pictograms understood by >85% of participants were considered validated. Short-term recall was assessed by asking participants to recall the meaning of each pictogram set. Results: There were 51 participants in the study—26 (51%) were children aged 9 to 17 years and 25 (49%) were parents or guardians. Most children (54%) had health literacy levels of grade 10 or higher. Most parents and guardians (92%) had at least a high school health literacy level. Six of the 12 pictogram sets (50%) were validated. Eleven of 12 pictogram sets (92%) had a median translucency score greater than 5. All 12 pictogram sets (100%) were correctly identified at short-term recall and were therefore validated. Conclusion: The addition of validated illustrations to pharmaceutical labels can be useful to instruct on how to mask the taste of medication in certain populations. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of providing illustrated information to populations with low health literacy. PMID:28286593

  13. Investigation of anabolic steroids in two taste aversion paradigms.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, R; Rosellini, R A; Svare, B

    1993-02-01

    The aversive effects of estradiol have been studied in two different taste aversion paradigms. A similar investigation was undertaken for the anabolic-androgenic steroids, nandralone and testosterone cypionate, using Rockland-Swiss mice. Experiments 1 and 2 used the brief exposure of a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus for taste aversion learning, and showed that anabolic steroids (1 mg) do not induce taste aversions. Instead, these hormones induced a small non-contingent increase in saccharin preference. Experiment 3 showed that daily nandralone administration (1 mg/day) had a greater anabolic effect than the same dose of testosterone cypionate. Experiment 4 paired the continuous exposure to a novel diet with daily nandralone injections, and showed that steroid treatment increased intake of the novel diet. When the novel diet was subsequently presented with the familiar diet in a two-choice preference test, there was no indication that an aversion was conditioned to the novel target diet. On the contrary, nandralone treatment significantly increased the preference for the novel diet. These experiments show that anabolic-androgenic steroids do not have aversive effects in mice, and that they may have positive consequences.

  14. Modeling taste and odor phytoplankton in Normandy Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.M.; Brown, R.T.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of modeling particular algae associated with taste and odors was investigated as part of an effort to develop a two-dimensional water quality model applicable to Normandy and Columbia Reservoirs (Duck River, Tennessee). There does not appear to be any dominant factor controlling the occurrence and abundance of taste and odor causing algae. A summary of dominant algal patterns observed in Normandy Reservoir is provided. A simplified algal model using a fully mixed surface volume (bag) was developed to explore the possibility of modeling several algae types simultaneously. The results of a field algal assay involving nutrient additions to bags of indigenous algae suspended in the Duck River at Columbia, Tennessee, were summarized and simulated using the algae model. Some of the observed algal responses were reproduced with the model, while others remain unexplained. The specification of growth characteristics for individual algal types is the limiting factor in this approach because these have not been well documented. Growth characteristics for dominant algal species must be determined for more accurate modeling of taste and odor potential in Normandy and Columbia Reservoirs. 21 references, 25 figures, 1 table.

  15. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-05-19

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out.

  16. Candidate ionotropic taste receptors in the Drosophila larva.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon; Koh, Tong-Wey; Ghosh, Arpan C; Carlson, John R

    2015-04-07

    We examine in Drosophila a group of ∼35 ionotropic receptors (IRs), the IR20a clade, about which remarkably little is known. Of 28 genes analyzed, GAL4 drivers representing 11 showed expression in the larva. Eight drivers labeled neurons of the pharynx, a taste organ, and three labeled neurons of the body wall that may be chemosensory. Expression was not observed in neurons of one taste organ, the terminal organ, although these neurons express many drivers of the Gr (Gustatory receptor) family. For most drivers of the IR20a clade, we observed expression in a single pair of cells in the animal, with limited coexpression, and only a fraction of pharyngeal neurons are labeled. The organization of IR20a clade expression thus appears different from the organization of the Gr family or the Odor receptor (Or) family in the larva. A remarkable feature of the larval pharynx is that some of its organs are incorporated into the adult pharynx, and several drivers of this clade are expressed in the pharynx of both larvae and adults. Different IR drivers show different developmental dynamics across the larval stages, either increasing or decreasing. Among neurons expressing drivers in the pharynx, two projection patterns can be distinguished in the CNS. Neurons exhibiting these two kinds of projection patterns may activate different circuits, possibly signaling the presence of cues with different valence. Taken together, the simplest interpretation of our results is that the IR20a clade encodes a class of larval taste receptors.

  17. Flavor and Taste Development in the First Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Ross, Erin Sundseth

    2017-01-01

    Across the first four years of life, infants transition from a diet of liquids to solid foods. Flavor preferences affect the acceptance of novel foods. Fetuses experience flavors in the uterine environment, and some preferences appear to be innate. Sweet and salty foods tend to be accepted by most newborns, while bitter tastes are rejected. Breast fed infants appear to have an advantage over formula fed infants, as their exposure to a varying flavor profile is influenced by the mother's diet. Infants are fairly accepting of novel foods, but rejection of new foods increases across the initial years of life. Children learn to accept novel foods through a variety of experiences, provided within social contexts. Some children are more accepting of various sensory inputs present during mealtimes. Parents report a greater challenge getting multiple taste exposures when their child exhibits less sensory adaptability. The number of foods eaten as a young child has a strong influence on the food repertoire later in childhood. Foods eaten by parents significantly predict the number and types of foods eaten by children. Strategies to help parents be more successful in achieving taste exposures in a positive social environment need to be identified.

  18. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association.

  19. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out. PMID:19416813

  20. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-08-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning may involve area postrema-mediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but that an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion.