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Sample records for gyeonggi-do province south

  1. Seasonal Abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Collected by Mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A.; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A.; Chong, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens. PMID:24623883

  2. Seasonal abundance of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected by mosquito Magnet® in Northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Bellis, Glenn A; Kim, Myung-Soon; Klein, Terry A; Chong, Sung-Tae; Park, Jee-Yong

    2014-02-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides: Ceratopogonidae) were collected by Mosquito Magnet® traps at the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) camp and Daeseongdong village inside the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and near the military demarcation line (MDL) separating North and South Korea and at Warrior Base (US Army training site) and Tongilchon 3 km south of the DMZ in northern Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea (ROK), from May-October 2010-2012, to determine their seasonal distributions. A total of 18,647 Culicoides females (18,399; 98.7%) and males (248; 1.3%) comprising 16 species were collected. Overall, the most commonly collected species was Culicoides nipponensis (42.9%), followed by C. erairai (29.2%), C. punctatus (20.3%), C. arakawae (3.3%), C. pallidulus (1.8%), and C. circumscriptus (1.4%), while the remaining 10 species accounted for only 1.1% of all Culicoides spp. collected. The seasonal distribution of C. nipponensis was bimodal, with high numbers collected during May-June and again during September. C. erairai was more frequently collected during June-July, followed by sharply decreased populations from August-October. C. punctatus was collected in low numbers from May-September with high numbers collected during October. C. erairai was predominantly collected from the NNSC camp (85.1% of all C. erairai collected) located adjacent to the MDL at Panmunjeom in the northernmost part of Gyeonggi-do (Province), while other sites yielded low numbers of specimens.

  3. Congener profiles and source-wise phase partitioning analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-do ambient air, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-10-24

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m(-3) (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m(-3)) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m(-3) (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m(-3)), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m(-3) and 274.2 pg·m(-3), respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle-gas partition coefficient Kp (m(3)·ug(-1)) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log-log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle-gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs.

  4. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs. PMID:25347194

  5. Seasonal Abundance of Deer and Horse Flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the Northern Part of Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sang Jae; Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Myung Soon; Klein, Terry A,

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of horse and deer flies (family Tabanidae) was analyzed using Mosquito Magnet® traps at 5 sites located near/in the demilitarized zone, northern Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea from late April to early October for 4 consecutive years (2010-2013). A total of 2,999 horse and deer flies (tabanids) belonging to 5 genera and 20 species were collected. Chrysops mlokosiewiczi (90.9%) was the most frequently collected, followed by Haematopota koryoensis (4.8%) and C. suavis (1.0%). The remaining 17 species comprised only of 3.3% of all species collected. C. mlokosiewiczi demonstrated bimodal peak populations during mid-June and early August, while H. koryoensis demonstrated a unimodal peak during mid-July. Overall numbers of tabanids collected were influenced by the previous year’s winter temperatures and precipitation. Population abundance was influenced by habitat with most of tabanids collected from habitats near forested areas, followed by rice paddies, and a beef farm. PMID:26174824

  6. Seasonal Abundance of Deer and Horse Flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the Northern Part of Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang Jae; Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Myung Soon; Klein, Terry A

    2015-06-01

    The seasonal abundance of horse and deer flies (family Tabanidae) was analyzed using Mosquito Magnet(®) traps at 5 sites located near/in the demilitarized zone, northern Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea from late April to early October for 4 consecutive years (2010-2013). A total of 2,999 horse and deer flies (tabanids) belonging to 5 genera and 20 species were collected. Chrysops mlokosiewiczi (90.9%) was the most frequently collected, followed by Haematopota koryoensis (4.8%) and C. suavis (1.0%). The remaining 17 species comprised only of 3.3% of all species collected. C. mlokosiewiczi demonstrated bimodal peak populations during mid-June and early August, while H. koryoensis demonstrated a unimodal peak during mid-July. Overall numbers of tabanids collected were influenced by the previous year's winter temperatures and precipitation. Population abundance was influenced by habitat with most of tabanids collected from habitats near forested areas, followed by rice paddies, and a beef farm.

  7. Seasonal distribution of ticks in four habitats near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M; Sancho, Alfredo R; Sames, William J; Chae, Joon-Seok; Klein, Terry A

    2013-06-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests.

  8. Seasonal Distribution of Ticks in Four Habitats near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi-do (Province), Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Sung Tae; Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Kollars, Thomas M.; Sancho, Alfredo R.; Sames, William J.; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. PMID:23864743

  9. Serosurveillance of scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and analysis of the relative abundance of chiggers from mammals examined.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In Yong; Chong, Sung Tae; Richards, Allen L; Gu, Se Hun; Song, Jin-Won; Lee, John S; Klein, Terry A

    2010-09-01

    Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites located near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), ROK was conducted to determine the potential rodent-borne and associated ectoparasite disease risks to military personnel. A total of 1,196 rodents and insectivores representing 8 species, Apodemus agrarius (87.3%, n = 1,044), Mus musculus (5.4%, n = 65), Crocidura lasiura (3.3%, n = 40), Microtus fortis (2.6%, n = 31), Micromys minutus (0.3%, n = 4), Tscherskia triton (0.3%, n = 4), Rattus norvegicus (0.3%, n = 4), and Myodes regulus (0.3%, n = 4) were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi. O. tsutsugamushi antibodies were detected in 6 of 8 species and seroprevalence determined; A. agrarius (45.6%), M. musculus (23.1%), M. fortis (48.4%), M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (50.0%), and R. norvegicus (25.0%). A total of 31,184 chigger mites collected from 508 rodents and insectivores were slide-mounted and 10 species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Leptotrombidium pallidum (53.4%) was the most frequently collected, followed by L. palpale (15.7%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (14.3%), L. orientale (10.7%), L. zetum (3.1%), Walchia fragilis (2.1%), and L. gemiticulum (0.8%), while the remaining 3 species, L. subintermedium, N. gardellai, and Euschoengastia koreaensis were rarely observed (prevalence < 10%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4), L. orientale (45.0), and L. palpale (21.4), were observed during the spring season.

  10. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  11. South Korea: An overlooked hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Sturt, D.C.; Quinton, N.A. )

    1993-11-01

    A forthcoming well about to spud off South Korea is planned to test the potential of an essentially unexplored rift basin. Should the well prove successful, it could open up a major new hydrocarbon producing province with substantial reserves. The well is being drilled in Block V which covers 7,000 sq km. is divided into two parts, and lies about 150 km south of the Korean peninsula close to Cheju Island. The larger Northern Block overlies the Fukue basin, which is a linear graben system oriented northeast-southwest. The Fukue basin is equivalent in size to the South Viking graben of the North Sea and the existence of a restricted marine source rock and play types at several stratigraphic levels helps to reinforce such a comparison Seismic mapping has revealed five prospects with combined most likely reserves of more than 1 billion bbl. The paper describes the basin evolution, source and migration of petroleum, reservoir and seals, and well location.

  12. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    the cooler highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  15. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  16. Prevalence and predictors of self-reported student maltreatment by teachers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    This study first investigated the prevalence of emotional and physical maltreatment by teachers in South Korea and then identified factors that predict student maltreatment by teachers. Specific areas of interest were the associations between student demographic characteristics (gender and grade level), family (economic status), and school experience (academic performance and student-teacher relationships) and how these characteristics were related to student maltreatment. Data were obtained by questionnaire from a random sample of 1,777 students in middle schools in Seoul, the largest metropolitan area, and its surrounding province, Gyeonggi-Do. Questionnaires were completed during school time. All information was collected anonymously. Of those surveyed, 18.2% reported emotional maltreatment by teachers and 24.3% physical maltreatment. Overall, 30.7% reported being either emotionally or physically mistreated by teachers at least once in the previous year. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that gender, family economic status, academic performance, and student-teacher relationships were predictors of student maltreatment by teachers. The results have practical and policy implications for the design of programs that will results in altering abusive teacher classroom behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  18. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  19. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob; Rhode, Hilary; Pather, Michael; Ainslie, Gillian; Irusen, Elvis; Bheekie, Angeni; Mayers, Pat

    2009-12-07

    Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and adolescents in the Western Cape. One strategy was an audit tool to assist with assessing and improving the quality of care. The audit of asthma care targeted all primary care facilities that managed adult patients with chronic asthma within all six districts of the Western Cape province. The usual steps in the quality improvement cycle were followed. Data were obtained from 957 patients from 46 primary care facilities. Only 80% of patients had a consistent diagnosis of asthma, 11.5% of visits assessed control and 23.2% recorded a peak expiratory flow (PEF), 14% of patients had their inhaler technique assessed and 11.2% were given a self-management plan; 81% of medication was in stock, and the controller/reliever dispensing ratio was 0.6. Only 31.5% of patients were well controlled, 16.3% of all visits were for exacerbations, and 17.6% of all patients had been hospitalised in the previous year. The availability of medication and prescription of inhaled steroids is reasonable, yet control is poor. Health workers do not adequately distinguish asthma from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, do not assess control by questions or PEF, do not adequately demonstrate or assess the inhaler technique, and have no systematic approach to or resources for patient education. Ten recommendations are made to improve asthma care.

  20. IT Implementation in ITE in the Limpopo Province (South Africa): A Dream or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monobe, Ratau John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey about the most critical issues facing the implementation of IT (information technology) ITE (initial teacher education) in all the HBUs (historically black universities) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Over 250 responses were received and both universities in the Limpopo Province were…

  1. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  2. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Adult Education in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: Challenges for Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, J.; Rampedi, M.; de Jong, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report and reflect on a study about the problems encountered in the implementation of adult education policies in the Limpopo province of South Africa. We used the model of intergovernmental policy implementation of Van Horn and Van Meter as a theoretical framework. We reflect on this study and link the findings with more recent…

  5. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 689 million barrels of continuous shale oil and 3.9 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the South Sumatra Basin Province in Indonesia.

  6. Cape Province, South Africa as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-77-083 (18 Oct-1 Nov 1993) --- In this scene of the south coast of Africa, Cape Agulhas, the southernmost point on the continent, appears as the leftmost cape. Viewed with the Earth's limb top left, clouds at bottom, the view direction is west and north top right. The Cape of Good Hope, with Cape Town nearby, is the thin spike beyond. The great bay in the foreground is Algoa Bay with the city of Port Elizabeth. This was the first time European voyagers are known to have rounded the Cape of Good Hope in their quest to reach India by sea. The entire fold mountain belt of southern Africa is visible: these mountains appear as green (forested) wavy structures stretching west form the foreground, to the Cape of Good Hope, and then northwards some distance. One theory about their origin is that the Falkland Plateau, now an undersea extension of South America, was jostled up against Africa more than 150 million years ago, in times before the Atlantic Ocean existed, before Africa and South America drifted apart from one another. The jostling caused the evolution of the fold mountain belt.

  7. Correlation of Tectonic Provinces of South America and the Caribbean Region with MAGSAT Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Hinze, W. J.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Intensities of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data correlate with the main tectonic provinces of South America and the Caribbean region. Magnetic anomalies of the continents generally have higher amplitudes than oceanic anomalies. This is particularly evident in Central America and in the shield areas of South America. The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico are underlain by prominent magnetic minima. Within these oceanic areas, linear magnetic highs correlate with topographic ridges which separate the Gulf of Mexico, the Colombian Basin, and the Venezuelan Basin. The boundaries of the Caribbean plate occur along magnetic gradients which are particularly sharp along the northern and western margins of the plate, but gradational along the southern margin where they merge with the Andean Cordillera. The anomalies along the western margin of the South American plate are also distinct and appear to be separate from those of the adjacent ocean basin. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend into the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Parasites of South African wildlife. IX. Helminths of kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, in the eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Knight, M M

    1991-09-01

    The helminths of 25 kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, from 3 localities in the eastern Cape Province were collected, counted and identified. The majority of kudu harboured no worms, and the burdens of those infected were small. A race of Cooperia rotundispiculum, a Dictyocaulus sp., a Haemonchus sp., Nematodirus helvetianus and Ostertagia ostertagi were recovered. Two parasites, Nematodirus helvetianus and Ostertagia ostertagi can be added to the list of helminth parasites of kudu in South Africa.

  9. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Helen; Coetzee, David; Van Rensburg, Dingie; Gilson, Lucy

    2010-07-02

    South Africa's antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country's quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments--Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State--focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high) achieved in the three provinces. While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up.

  10. Relation of MAGSAT Anomalies to the Main Tectonic Provinces of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Comparison of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data to the main tectonic provinces and boundaries of South America reveals a number of geologic correlations. South America is divisible into a broad platform of Precambrian shields and cratons separated by Phanerozoic basins, grabens and aulacogens to the east, the Phanerozoic Patagonian Platform to the south, and the Mesozoic to Cenozoic Andean Fold Belt and Caribbean Mountain System to the west and north. The continental shields are mainly more magnetic then continental basins and orogenic belts. Cratons, mainly covered by younger sedimentary rocks, are generally associated with magnetic gradients. Most of the anomalies associated with the Patagonian Platform are positive and have higher amplitudes eastward away from the Andean Fold Belt. The northern Andes are coincident with positive magnetic anomalies, whereas the central and southern Andes are associated mainly with negative anomalies.

  11. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  12. Challenges Experienced by District-Based Support Teams in the Execution of Their Functions in a Specific South African Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makhalemele, Thabo; Nel, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of an embedded mixed-method South African study that investigated the challenges experienced by District-Based Support Team (DBST) members in the sub-directorate of Inclusive Education of a South African province in the execution of their functions. A Likert-scale questionnaire and individual semi-structured…

  13. South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia; the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced from the onshore South Sumatra Basin Province. The province consists of Tertiary half-graben basins infilled with carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying pre-Tertiary metamorphic and igneous rocks. Eocene through lower Oligocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene through lower Miocene lacustrine and deltaic coaly shales are the mature source rocks. Reserves of 4.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been discovered in reservoirs that range from pre-Tertiary basement through upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates deposited as synrift strata and as marine shoreline, deltaic-fluvial, and deep-water strata. Carbonate and sandstone reservoirs produce oil and gas primarily from anticlinal traps of Plio-Pleistocene age. Stratigraphic trapping and faulting are important locally. Production is compartmentalized due to numerous intraformational seals. The regional marine shale seal, deposited by a maximum sea level highstand in early middle Miocene time, was faulted during post-depositional folding allowing migration of hydrocarbons to reservoirs above the seal. The province contains the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system with one assessment unit, South Sumatra.

  14. The Early Triassic magmatism of the Alto Paraguay Province, Central South America: Paleomagnetic and ASM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, Marcia; Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; Gomes, Celso de Barros

    2015-10-01

    A paleomagnetic studystudywork was carried out on the Alto Paraguay Province (APP), a belt of alkaline complexes that parallel the Paraguay river for more than 40 km at the border of Brazil and Paraguay. The province is well dated by 40Ar/39Ar method giving ages in the range 240-250 Ma with a preferred age of 241 Ma. Intrusive rocks are predominant but the stocks may be topped by lava flows and ignimbrites. Paleomagnetic work on stocks, dikes and flows of the APP identified normal and reversed magnetic components which are carried mainly by titanomagnetites. The calculated paleomagnetic pole located at 319ºE 78ºS (α95 = 6º; k = 23) is in agreement with other South American poles of Permo-Triassic age. Most of the sampling sites showed large variations in rock magnetization, but similar patterns in the variation of the within-site magnetizations, mainly in dikes, suggest geomagnetic polarity transition records. The magnetization data along with the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility determinations suggested that the South and North areas of the province have different evolution characteristics.

  15. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  16. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  17. Factors influencing the retention of registered nurses in the Gauteng Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokoka, Kgaogelo E; Ehlers, Valerie J; Oosthuizen, Martha J

    2011-12-14

    South Africa is a source country for many destination countries that recruit registered nurses who emigrate for personal and/or professional reasons. A large number of South African nurses belong to the baby boomer generation (born between 1943 and 1964) who will retire within the foreseeable future. Statistics from the South African Nursing Council show a decline of 42.0% in the number of nurses who completed their training in South Africa from 1996 to 2005. These aspects combine to predict a potential dire shortage of nurses in South Africa within the foreseeable future. Retention of registered nurses should be the focus of health-care planners to avoid crises in South Africa's health-care services. This study attempted to identify factors that would influence registered nurses' decisions to stay with their current employers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. An exploratory descriptive quantitative design was adopted and questionnaires were sent to a sample of nurses, registered with the South African Nursing Council (SANC), with addresses in the Gauteng Province. A total of 108 nurses completed and returned questionnaires, of whom 77 (73.1%) had considered leaving their current employers. The most important factors that would influence more than 90.0% of these nurses' decisions to stay with their current employers related to finances, safety and security, equipment and/or supplies, management, staff and patients. In terms of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, deficiency needs (physiological, safety and social needs) should be met by improved salaries revised on an annual basis, paying long-service and outstanding-service bonuses, and improving the safety and security, as well the available equipment and supplies, at institutions. Sufficient numbers of nurses should be employed and vacancies should be filled rapidly. However, not all changes required to enhance nurses' retention rates involve increased costs. Managers should lead by example and respect

  18. Beliefs of leprosy patients about their illness. A study in the province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Elissen, M C

    1991-10-01

    In Bone district, Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, a total of 50 randomly selected leprosy patients were interviewed about their beliefs about their illness with the help of a questionnaire. It became evident, that their knowledge about leprosy was generally satisfactory, but only few patients adopted the bacterial theory as cause of their disease. Besides it was found that leprosy patients tend to discriminate themselves, while more tolerance was found in their healthy contacts. Traditional beliefs and religious ideas played an important role. To overcome the stigma, more health education, based on a multidisciplinary approach is required. Beside the modern medical theory, cultural beliefs and religious views have to be taken into consideration.

  19. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Secor, D.T. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont Province of South Carolina with the aim of designating rock units favorable for field exploration for a potential underground repository for the storage of radioactive waste. Most of the rocks in the South Carolina Piedmont are metamorphosed sedimentary volcanic or igneous rocks that have experienced at least one episode of strong deformation. As a consequence of this deformation, they have irregular shapes, making it difficult to predict their subsurface extent. In evaluating the suitability of the rock units for radioactive waste storage, certain criteria were found to be particularly useful. The requirements that the storage site be located in a large volume of homogeneous, impermeable, relatively unfractured rock was the most important criteria in eliminating most of the Piedmont rock units for consideration as field study areas. Six large late- to post-tectonic igneous plutons (Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Ogden, Newberry, Lowrys, and Bald Rock) are recommended as field study areas.

  20. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  1. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-24

    In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African

  2. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province.

    PubMed

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, LeenaS; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-01

    In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African

  3. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S.; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999–2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. Results The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. Conclusion While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations

  4. The Prevalence and Spectrum of α-Thalassemia in Guizhou Province of South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Yin; Liu, Xing-Mei; Zhou, Man; Li, Gui-Fang; An, Bang-Quan; Su, Li; Wu, Xian; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases in the world and is especially frequent in tropical and subtropical regions, including South China. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and spectrum of α-thal in Guizhou Province as this information was unknown. A total of 40 α-thal carriers were determined in 1219 newborn umbilical cord blood samples by hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis combined with DNA analysis, which revealed that the carrier rate of α-thal in Guizhou Province was 3.28%. One thousand and forty-five individuals referred to our hospital were tested for α-thal mutations. Two hundred and twenty-four cases were determined as α-thal carriers or patients. A total of 11 genotypes and five different α-thal mutations were identified in these 224 cases. Of these mutations, more than 96.0% were deletions, including - -(SEA) (65.89%), -α(3.7) (rightward) (22.87%) and -α(4.2) (leftward) (7.74%). The other two nondeletional mutations, Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α(CS)α, HBA2: c.427T > C) and Hb Quong Sze [Hb QS, α(QS)α, HBA2: c.377T > C (or HBA1)] account for 2.71% and 0.78%, respectively. The results of this study will be useful in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis (PND) of α-thal in Guizhou Province.

  5. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces, South Africa, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Ledwaba, J.; Basson, A. E.; Moyes, J.; Cohen, C.; Singh, B.; Bertagnolio, S.; Jordan, M. R.; Puren, A.; Morris, L.

    2012-01-01

    Surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) was conducted among pregnant women in South Africa over a 5-year period after the initiation of a large national antiretroviral treatment program. Analysis of TDR data from 9 surveys conducted between 2005 and 2009 in 2 provinces of South Africa suggests that while TDR remains low (<5%) in Gauteng Province, it may be increasing in KwaZulu-Natal, with the most recent survey showing moderate (5%–15%) levels of resistance to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug class. PMID:22544199

  6. [The iodine prophylaxis: the experience in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (South Tyrol).

    PubMed

    Franzellin, Fabrizio; Lucchin, Lucio

    2017-02-01

    Since ancient times in South Tyrol there was evidence of endemic goitre caused by iodine deficiency. In the early 80's an epidemiological research on adults and primary and secondary school children reported in the least a prevalence of goitre from grade 1 B-3 (WHO) of 23,66% (limits WHO >5%) and an urinary iodine of 10,2 µgI/L. Therefore South Tyrol population presented heavy endemic goitre. In 1982 started a generalized iodine prophylaxis with alimentary iodined salt after an intense prevention campaign. In 1990 it has been done another epidemiological research on primary and secondary school children of the province (neck palpation, thyroid ultrasound, blood and urine tests) which revealed a prevalence of goitre from grade 1 B (WHO) of 1,6% (limits WHO >5%) and an urinary iodine of 137,1 µgI/L. Therefore in South Tyrol there was no more evidence of endemic goitre. In 2001 another research over primary and secondary school children, of the same areas and with the same approaches of the previous researches reported a prevalence of goitre of 1,5% and a median of urinary iodine of 230 µgI/L. On the basis of the data of Istituto Superiore di Sanità (National Institute of Health) can be stated that in the Province of Bolzano there's a low presence of congenital hypothyroidism. It has been observed an increase in the thyroiditis and in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was marked an accentuation of papillar forms, less aggressive than the follicula. Unfortunately since 2001 no new epidemiological researches were done, due to lack of financial resources and the raising of other sanitary problems of higher priority.

  7. Student Perceptions of Agricultural Education Programme Processes at Selected High Schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidane, T. T.; Worth, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates student perceptions of different aspects of Agricultural Education and Training (AET) programme processes that have been offered in secondary schools by the formal educational sector in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study seeks to identify the existing shortcomings in the implementation of the…

  8. Student Perceptions of Agricultural Education Programme Processes at Selected High Schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidane, T. T.; Worth, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates student perceptions of different aspects of Agricultural Education and Training (AET) programme processes that have been offered in secondary schools by the formal educational sector in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study seeks to identify the existing shortcomings in the implementation of the…

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  10. Lamniform Shark Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of Southernmost South America (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Elena R.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Lacovara, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage. PMID:25141301

  11. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  12. Cost effectiveness of clinical associates: A case study for the Mpumalanga province in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Joris; van Bodegraven, Petra; Louw, Jakobus M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The National Department of Health of South Africa decided to start a programme to train mid-level healthcare workers, called clinical associates, as one of the measures to increase healthcare workers at district level in rural areas. Unfortunately, very little is known about the cost effectiveness of clinical associates. Aims To determine, on a provincial level, the cost effectiveness of training and employing clinical associates and medical practitioners compared to the standard strategy of training and employing only more medical practitioners. Methods A literature study was performed to answer several sub questions regarding the costs and effectiveness of clinical associates. The results were used to present a case study. Results The total cost for a province to pay for the full training of a clinical associate is R 300 850. The average employment cost per year is R196 329 and for medical practitioners these costs are R 730 985 and R 559 397, respectively. Effectiveness Clinical associates are likely to free up the time of a medical practitioner by 50–76%. They can provide the same quality of care as higher level workers, provided that they receive adequate training, support and supervision. Furthermore, they seem more willing to work in rural areas compared to medical practitioners. Conclusions The case study showed that training and employing clinical associates is potentially a cost-effective strategy for a province to meet the increasing demand for rural healthcare workers. This strategy will only succeed when clinical associates receive adequate training, support and supervision and if the province keeps investing in them. PMID:28155324

  13. Cost effectiveness of clinical associates: A case study for the Mpumalanga province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Joris; Bodegraven, Petra Van; Bac, Martin; Louw, Jakobus M

    2016-11-15

    The National Department of Health of South Africa decided to start a programme to train mid-level healthcare workers, called clinical associates, as one of the measures to increase healthcare workers at district level in rural areas. Unfortunately, very little is known about the cost effectiveness of clinical associates. To determine, on a provincial level, the cost effectiveness of training and employing clinical associates and medical practitioners compared to the standard strategy of training and employing only more medical practitioners. A literature study was performed to answer several sub questions regarding the costs and effectiveness of clinical associates. The results were used to present a case study. The total cost for a province to pay for the full training of a clinical associate is R 300 850. The average employment cost per year is R196 329 and for medical practitioners these costs are R 730 985 and R 559 397, respectively.Effectiveness: Clinical associates are likely to free up the time of a medical practitioner by 50-76%. They can provide the same quality of care as higher level workers, provided that they receive adequate training, support and supervision. Furthermore, they seem more willing to work in rural areas compared to medical practitioners. The case study showed that training and employing clinical associates is potentially a cost-effective strategy for a province to meet the increasing demand for rural healthcare workers. This strategy will only succeed when clinical associates receive adequate training, support and supervision and if the province keeps investing in them.

  14. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province. PMID:28098799

  15. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (P<0.05). The highest prevalence was found in pregnant sows (80.89 %, 127/157), followed by breeding boars (79.37 %, 50/63), suckling sows (77.01 %, 67/87), fattening pigs (69.32 %, 61/88) and non-pregnant sows (62.5 %, 180/288). Piglets had the lowest prevalence of 22.78 % (54/237). The seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (P<0.05). These results indicate that Chlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  16. Concepts and treatment for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the northern province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, K; Khoza, L B; Lekhuleni, M E; Madu, S N; Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province in South Africa. The sample consisted of 50 traditional healers (13 females and 37 males) and 50 faith healers (12 females and 38 males). They were interviewed on local terminology, clinical manifestations, causes, curability, and treatment for diabetes, help-seeking behaviour of diabetes patients, and the healers' sources of information about diabetes. Results indicate that all healers were familiar with "diabetes", however, not all of them had seen patients suffering from diabetes. The perceived causes of diabetes by both traditional and faith healers could be divided into (1) diet (especially too much of sugar), (2) heredity, (3) supernatural, and (4) psychological causes. Most traditional healers (92%) and faith healers (90%) indicated that diabetes is curable. Treatments used by the healers in this study included the use of prayer, diet, and herbs. The authors conclude that the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers should be taken note of by health workers while developing health education programmes in the Province.

  17. An evaluation of dog rabies control in Limpopo province (South Africa).

    PubMed

    Sabeta, C T; Mkhize, G C; Ngoepe, E C

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is a prevalent and re-emerging disease in South Africa particularly in rural areas with high human densities. Outbreaks are frequently reported in the north and eastern parts of this country, probably an indication of inadequacy in the control of the disease. Following the 2005/2006 outbreak in Limpopo, we undertook an analysis of case surveillance data and genetically characterized 18 rabies viruses, all recovered from domestic dogs. Although rabies prevalence gradually declined annually from 2007, dog rabies still remains a public and veterinary health hazard in this region. Sylvatic rabies cycles are maintained by the black-backed jackal species in specific ecological conditions in the northwest of the province (Waterberg area), unlike in the north and east (Vhembe and Mopani districts, respectively), where spillover of infection between dogs and jackals is likely to predominate. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the rabies virus strain currently circulating within dog populations in Limpopo province is the same variant responsible for the 2005/2006 rabies outbreak. However, residual foci probably exist hence the observed sporadic outbreaks. These data further underline the value of continuous and sustainable dog immunization in controlling rabies.

  18. Geochemistry of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in south-western Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabou, Moulley Charaf; Bertrand, Hervé; Sebaï, Amar

    2010-09-01

    In south-western Algeria, dolerite sills and dykes and scarce basalt lava flows occur in the Tindouf, Reggane, Hank basins and Bechar area, and are part of the large Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). They represent the north-easternmost witnesses of this province into the African continent. Here, we report the first geochemical data (major, trace and rare-earth elements) for those rocks. Petrographical and chemical compositions of the studied dolerites and basalts are homogeneous and characteristic of continental tholeiites. They are moderately evolved (Mg# 0.66-0.42) quartz-normative low-Ti tholeiites (TiO 2 = 0.86-1.55 wt.%), displaying slight yet variable enrichment in LILE and LREE [(La/Yb) N = 2.18-5.51] and a negative Nb anomaly. Trace element modelling can reproduce the observed variations by non-modal batch melting of a slightly enriched source via various degrees (4-15%) of melting. A similar evolution is displayed by the neighbouring lava flows from Morocco and Ksour Mountains (North Algeria) and by the dyke swarm from Taoudenni (Mali), arguing for a common source presumed to reside within the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. The magmas were probably generated in response to mantle global warming underneath the Pangea supercontinent, and to edge-driven convection between the thick Reguibat craton and adjacent Pan-African mobile belts.

  19. New Early Triassic Paleomagnetic Pole for South America from the Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, M.

    2005-05-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province consists of a series of ring complexes that parallel the Paraguay river (the border between Brazil and Paraguay) for more than 40 km.Intrusive to subintrusive rocks are prodominant, and are usually topped by lava flows and ignimbrites, although one large lava field is also present. The province is well dated by different radiometric methods with ages ranging mainly from 240 to 250 Ma. Samples were collected from different levels of seven complexes which were submitted to both alternating field and thermal demagnetizations. Normal and reversed characteristic magnetic components were isolated, and magnetites were identified as the main magnetic carriers. The resulting paleomagnetic pole is located at 319E 78S (á=6; k=23) based on 26 samples. This pole plots within the large field defined by other available poles supposed to be same age, as they lack precise dating. It matches also the corresponding mean pole for Africa, and represents a good candidate to better define the Early Triassic pole position for South America.

  20. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  1. Health research in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Lessons and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Naledi, Tracey; Petros, Sabela

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health research can play a critical role in strengthening health systems. However, little monitoring of health research is conducted in African countries to identify whether research contributes to addressing local health priorities. Aim/Setting To review the profile of research on the health service platform in the Western Cape province of South Africa which was approved by the health authorities over the period January 2011 to December 2012. Methods Databases held by both the Provincial and City of Cape Town health departments were reviewed. Descriptions of research institution, location of research, topic and funding size and source were analysed. Results Of the health research approved in the province, 56% of projects were located on the District Health Services platform and 70% were based in the Cape Metropolitan area. For projects reporting budgetary information, the total funding was US $29.2 million. The primary focus of research was on HIV and tuberculosis (TB), whilst relatively few studies addressed nutrition, mental health or injury and there was little health systems research. Research funding was dominated by very large grants from foreign funders for HIV and/or TB research. South African government sources comprised less than 8% of all health research funding. Conclusion There is a partial mismatch of donor funding to local health priorities. Greater focus on neglected areas such as mental health, trauma, nutrition and non-communicable disease, as well as greater investment in health systems research, is needed. Unless governments increase funding for research and a culture of research translation is achieved, health research will have limited impact on both local and national priorities. PMID:26245428

  2. Geocemical provinces of magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Belyatsky, Boris; Teterin, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Comparison of geochemical signatures of island magmatism in the south-eastern part of the Pacific Ocean and tholeiites of the Bransfield and Powell rift zones revealed the similar character of the enrichment which reflects the melting of a close mantle source. But alkaline magmatism of the islands in the west of Antarctic and Marie Byrd Land differs from the enriched basalts of the northern province (Bransfield, Powell, BTJ) by showing more radiogenic Sr values and non-radiogenic Nd. The tectonic development of the South Ocean is characterized by its formation under stationary conditions of Antarctic continent. As a result of this, for the volcanic islands distributed at the western part of the Antarctic we observe no long mountain ridges typical for their development under conditions of the moving plate. Intraplate magmatism evolution was coincided with the extinction of the old subduction zones, formation of the new rift zones and separation of South America from Antarctic [Udintsev, Schenke, 2007; Teterin, 2008]. Such complicated geodynamics caused the possibility of formation of rupture cracks reaching the underlying metasomatizated mantle and decompression melting with further island formation. In Oligocene due to migration of asthenospheric flow from the west to east in the result of destruction of previously united continental blocks there was formed the Scotia Sea, South Sandwich island arc as well as Drake Passage. This caused the mechanical weakening of South Atlantic lithosphere and the starting at the end of Oligocene - beginning Miocene of the new plate border formation - American-Antarctic ridge, which propagated in the eastern direction till the Bouvet triple junction [Dubinin et al., 1999]. The close geochemical signatures of mantle source for islands basalts including the Bouvet Island and the enriched tholeiites of the western extremity of the SW Indian Ridge proves the development of a specific geochemical province enveloping the southeastern

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, South Asia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna–Godavari Provinces, South Asia. The estimated mean volumes are as follows: (1) Assam Province, 273 million barrels of crude oil, 1,559 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 43 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (2) Bombay Province, 1,854 million barrels of crude oil, 15,417 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 498 million barrels of natural gas liquids; (3) Cauvery Province, 941 million barrels of crude oil, 25,208 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 654 million barrels of natural gas liquids; and (4) Krishna–Godavari Province, 466 million barrels of crude oil, 37,168 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 484 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The totals for the four provinces are 3,534 million barrels of crude oil, 79,352 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,679 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Children’s Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children’s health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from −0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall. PMID:22690167

  5. Deaths Rates in Public Hospitals of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Buso, DL; Longo-Mbenza, B; Bovet, P; van den Borne, B; Okwe, A Nge; Mzingelwa, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: South Africa (SA) is experiencing a rapid epidemiologic transition as a consequence of political, economic and social changes. In this study we described, based on hospital data, the mortality patterns of Non communicable Diseases (NCD), Communicable Diseases (CD), the NCD/CD ratios, and the trends of deaths. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all deaths occurring in several public hospitals in the Eastern Cape Province of SA between 2002 and 2006. Causes of deaths were coded according to the ICD 10 Edition. Results: A total of 107380 admissions responded to the inclusion criteria between 2002 and 2006. The crude death rate was 4.3% (n=4566) with a mean age of 46±21 years and a sex ratio of 3.1 men (n=3453): 1 woman (n=1113). Out of all deaths, there were 62.9% NCD (n=2872) vs. 37.1% CD (n=1694) with NCD/CD ratio of 1.7. The ratio NCD/CD deaths in men was 1.3 (n=1951/1502) vs. NCD/CD deaths in women of 1.9 (n=735/378). The peak of deaths was observed in winter season. The majority of NCD deaths were at age of 30–64 years, whereas the highest rate of CD deaths was at age< 30 years. The trend of deaths including the majority of NCD, increased from 2002 to 2006. There was a tendency of increase in tuberculosis deaths, but a tendency of decrease in HIV/AIDS deaths was from 2002 to 2006. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases are the leading causes of deaths in rural Eastern Cape province of SA facing Post-epidemiologic transition stages. We recommend overarching priority actions for the response to the Non-communicable Diseases: policy change, prevention, treatment, international cooperation, research, monitoring, accountability, and re-orientation of health systems. PMID:23641386

  6. Generation, migration, and entrapment of Precambrian oils in the Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province, south Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Konert, G.; Van Den Brink, H.A. ); Visser, W. )

    1991-08-01

    The prolific Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province east of the South Oman Salt basin is unique because of the widespread occurrence of Precambrian source rocks from which the hydrocarbons originated. Fission-track analysis and burial studies suggest that most of these source rocks became mature and generated hydrocarbons in the Ordovician; subsequently, the source beds were uplifted and did not re-enter the oil window. Its uniqueness is also based on the all-important role played by Precambrian salt. The traps in Palaeozoic clastics were initially structured by halokinesis, and subsequently by salt dissolution. The latter process gradually removed the salt from the area is largely responsible for the present-day structure with palaeo-withdrawal basins inverted in present-day turtles. Present-day traps are mainly post-Late Jurassic in age, significantly post-dating the time of oil generation. Detailed field studies indicate that charge phases appear to correlate with periods of increased salt dissolution in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary. Oil was probably stored in intermediate traps below and within the salt. It was gradually released upon progressive tilting of the basin flank; it migrated updip toward the basinward retreating salt edge, and subsequently (back) spilled into the stratigraphically younger traps. Also, removal of the top seal of intra-salt and sub-salt traps by salt dissolution allowed upward remigration. It follows that charge concepts in the Eastern Flank Heavy Oil province depend on defining salt-edge-related hydrocarbon release areas, rather than on kitchen modeling.

  7. Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Ishmael F; Mushonga, Borden; Green, Ezekiel; Muchenje, Voster

    2016-10-26

    Information obtained from abattoirs on the causes of lung condemnation is important in preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases and for promoting food security. In this study, we assessed the causes of lung condemnation in cattle at three abattoirs represented as ANA, QTA and EBA to evaluate the financial losses associated with lung condemnation. A retrospective study (n = 51 302) involving the use of abattoir slaughter records of 2010-2012 and an active abattoir survey (n = 1374) was conducted from July to December 2013. The retrospective study revealed the main causes of lung condemnation as pneumonia (1.09%, 2.21% and 0.77%), emphysema (1.12%, 1.14% and 1.1.6%) and abscessation (0.71%, 1.06% and 0.77%), from ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. The combined monetary loss because of lung condemnation during the period 2010 to 2012 was estimated as ZAR 85 158 (USD 7939) for the abattoirs surveyed. Conversely, during the active abattoir survey, agonal emphysema (15%, 15% and 23%) and improper eviscerations with faecal contamination (10%, 38% and 42%) were the major factors that led to lung condemnation at ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. Other causes of lung condemnations were haemorrhage (10%) for QTA and pleurisy (12%) for EBA. The weight loss of lungs during the active abattoir survey was 6450 kg, while the associated monetary loss was estimated as ZAR 29 025 (USD 2706). This study identified major causes of lung condemnation as pleuritis, improper evisceration, pneumonia, abscesses, haemorrhages and lung worms and their associated monetary losses. The results of this study may be useful as baseline data for future comparison in similar surveys, for tracking of some zoonotic diseases affecting lungs and for further research in the Eastern Cape Province or other provinces of South Africa.

  8. D Model of the Torres Syncline in the PARANÁ-ETENDEKA Province, South Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Waichel, B. L.; Lima, E. F. D.; Rossetti, L. D. M. M.; Bueno, G. V.; Viana, A. R.; Barreto, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province (PEVP) is Early Cretaceous in age and precedes the fragmentation of the south Gondwana. These volcanic rocks cover an area in excess of 1,200,000 km2 and can reach a maximum thickness of 1,700 m. The PEVP is composed mainly of tholeiitic basalts and subordinately by andesites and rhyolites/quartz-latites. Recently new models considering physical characteristics of the lava flow stratigraphy on both sides, Africa and South America, have been built providing a new vision of the volcanic stratigraphy and flow morphologies inside the province. This work presents a 3D model of the volcanic sequence at theTorres Syncline (Brazil). The 3D model was build using the PETREL E&P Software Platform. Geological sections based on field data and Log data from Paraná Basin (Gama-ray and soniclogs) were used to build the model. The Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil with the main orientation NW-SE. In Torres Syncline the basal portion is characterized by pahoehoe lava flows in a compound braided architecture, followed by rubbly lavas in a tabular classic architecture, and in the upper portions silicic units interbedded with basaltic lavas. The central portion of the volcanic pile is characterized by thick tabular lavas with rubbly tops (25-50 m thick). These flows have an internal structure divided in four parts: a smooth vesicular base, aphanitic massive cores with irregular joints, upper vesicular portion and a rubbly top. This unit is thicker along of the Torres Syncline and represents the main phase of the volcanism. Silicic units occur in the upper parts of the PEVP stratigraphy and include lava domes interbedded with rubbly flows and thick tabular flows. The Torres Syncline and Huab constituted one Basin features single active structure in the Early Cretaceous and during the main rifting phase. The onset of the volcanism was characterized by low effusion rate eruptions over the paleoerg, forming pahoehoe

  9. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  11. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  12. Nematode parasites of some reptiles (Sauria: Testudines: Ophidia) from the northern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-10-01

    One hundred and seven reptiles (11 families, 32 species) from the Northern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa were examined for helminths. Twenty-three (22%) individual reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of nematode; 3 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections of 2 nematode species. Eight species within 5 families of Nematoda were found in the reptiles surveyed including 1 atractid, 1 diaphanocephalid, 1 heterakid, 3 pharyngodonids, and 2 physalopterans. Ten new host records are reported. A summary of the nematode parasites identified from South African reptiles is provided.

  13. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramathuba, Dorah U

    2015-11-26

    Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  14. A conceptual framework for cost management training in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jooste, Karien; Mothiba, Tebogo Maria

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the perceptions of nurse managers about their dual role in nursing units as cost centres. The tertiary hospital in the Limpopo province is the first institution to appoint nurse managers with a dual role in cost centres. The development of a conceptual framework for a context-specific programme for Cost Centre Managers is the first of its nature in South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was followed. The target population included nurse managers (n = 35) formally appointed as cost centre managers with a dual role of delivering quality care and cost management. A focus group and individual interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Personal and professional distress, an empowering potential of being a cost centre manager, and the need for decentralized cost centre management were indicated as barriers for nurse managers that led to a framework for a context-specific training programme. There is a need for a context-specific training programme for cost centre managers in a hospital with cost centres. The training of cost centre managers for their dual role in cost centres could enhance cost effectiveness, quality care and staff satisfaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Infection control practices in public dental care services: findings from one South African Province.

    PubMed

    Mehtar, S; Shisana, O; Mosala, T; Dunbar, R

    2007-05-01

    Infection control practices which increase the risk of blood-borne virus transmission with associated dental practice in one South African province were studied. All 24 state dental clinics were observed for adequate provision to carry out good infection prevention and control (IPC) practice, 75 staff including dentists, nurses and dental assistants were interviewed to assess IPC knowledge and 23 dental procedures were observed. Significant findings were the difference between knowledge and practice, despite adequate provisions for safe infection control practice. The lack of protective eye wear during a dental procedure, not washing hands between patients, not disassembling an item prior to disinfection or sterilization, and not using a sterile drill for each patient were identified. A rapid method for detection of occult blood was used as a marker for inadequate IPC practice. Contaminated dental items of equipment just prior to patient use in 25% of equipment tested and 37% of surfaces and surrounding areas in the dental clinics and units were recorded. This study concludes that, despite provision for safe dental practice available in state dental clinics, there was a lack of knowledge application in clinical practice. The risk of blood-borne virus transmission in a population with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence cannot be ignored.

  16. Lysobacter ginsengisoli sp. nov., a novel species isolated from soil in Pocheon Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae-Min; Ten, Leonid N; Im, Wan-Taek; Yoo, Soon-Ae; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2008-09-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, nonspore-forming bacterial strain, designated Gsoil 357T, was isolated from soil sample of a ginseng field in Pocheon Province (South Korea). The isolate contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C16:0, iso-C17:1 9c, and iso-C15:0 as the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.3mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Gsoil 357T was most closely related to Lysobacter gummosus (97.6%) and Lysobacter antibioticus (97.6%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Gsoil 357T and its phylogenetically closest neighbors was less than 17%. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 357T should be classified as representing a novel species in the genus Lysobacter, for which the name Lysobacter ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gsoil 357T (=KCTC 12602T=DSM 18420T).

  17. Medicinal plants cultivated in Bapedi traditional healers homegardens, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Semenya, S S; Potgieter, M J

    2014-01-01

    Plants used for medicinal purposes are very common feature in Bapedi traditional healer's home-gardens, but information about their diversity and application is not available. To investigate medicinal plants found in Bapedi healer's home-gardens, 51 traditional health practitioners were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in 17 municipalities of the Limpopo Province of South Africa, during the first half of 2013. A total of 43 plant species (67.4% indigenous and 32.5% exotics) from 32 families, mostly from the Asteraceae and Apocynaceae (9.3% each) were documented. Species cultivated in home-gardens were used to treat three major groups of ailments that include sexually transmitted infections (44.1%), chronic diseases of life style (44.1%) and reproductive ailments (32.5%). The exotics Catharanthus roseus (54.9%) and Carica papaya (15.6%) was the most cultivated. Threatened (11.6%) and protected (6.9%) species are also present in home-gardens, mostly due to their unavailability in natural areas. This study concludes that the practice of cultivating medicinal plant species in home-gardens is a positive development that in the long term will sustain both species and accompanying indigenous knowledge, as well as preserve the cultural identity of the Bapedi.

  18. Kalkkop Crater, Cape Province, South Africa: Confirmation of impact origin using osmium isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Shirey, Steven B.; le Roux, F. G.

    1994-02-01

    The Kalkkop structure, a circular depression with a diameter of 640 m, is situated in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In 1992, a bore hole was drilled in the center of the crater to a depth of 151.8 m. To assess a possible impact origin of this structure, the abundances and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium were measured in breccias and in sandstones and shales derived from the basement. The basement rocks show rhenium and osmium abundances and isotopic compositions of osmium and neodymium ( 187Os /188Os = 0.61 to 0.92 and ɛNd = -6 to-7) that are typical for continental crust. One of the breccia samples shows a significantly elevated osmium content and a much lower ( 187Os /188Os ratio of about 0.215 (( 187Os /188Os ratio = 1.79 ). This ratio is much closer to meteoritic compositions than to crust, indicating the presence of about 0.05% of an extraterrestrial component in the breccia. This is the first time that osmium isotope systematics have been used to confirm the impact origin of a crater structure, and demonstrates their sensitivity for impact studies.

  19. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of construction land expansion in a typical town of south Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Su, Hai-long; Wang, Jin-nian

    2011-03-01

    Choosing Xinzhuang Town in south Jiangsu Province as study area, and by using 1980, 1991, 2001, and 2009 high-resolution remote sensing images and GIS spatial analysis technology, an integrated expansion degree index model was established based on the existing indicators of construction land expansion, and the general and spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of construction land expansion in the Town in three time periods of 1980-2009 were quantitatively analyzed. In 1980-2009, with the acceleration of rural urbanization and industrialization, the area of construction land in the Town increased significantly by 19.24 km2, and especially in 2001-2009, the expanded area, expanded contribution rate, and expansion intensity reached the maximum. The construction land expansion had an obvious spatial differentiation characteristic. In 1980-1991, the newly increased construction land mainly concentrated in town area. After 1991, the focus of construction land gradually spread to the villages with developed industries. Most of the increased construction lands were converted from paddy field and dry land, accounting for 88.1% of the total increased area, while the contribution from other land types was relatively small.

  20. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-07-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day.

  1. Ticks on pastures and on two breeds of cattle in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyangiwe, Nkululeko; Goni, Sindisile; Hervé-Claude, Louis P; Ruddat, Inga; Horak, Ivan G

    2011-09-30

    Many studies on the population dynamics of questing ticks on pastures and of parasitic ticks on cattle have been conducted. Few, however, have attempted to link the two in a single study. This study aimed to assess the population dynamics of questing ixodid ticks on pastures and of adult ticks on two breeds of cattle with different levels of susceptibility to tick infestation on the same pastures. Between January 2005 and December 2009 questing ixodid ticks were collected monthly from natural pastures at the Döhne Agricultural Development Institute and at the adjacent Campagna Production System in the Amahlathi District, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Between February 2007 and January 2010 adult ticks were collected monthly from Bonsmara and Nguni cattle grazing these pastures. Ten tick species were collected from the pastures and 12 from the cattle. Significantly more questing larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Rhipicephalus microplus were recovered from the pastures grazed by Bonsmara cattle than from those grazed by Nguni cattle (p ≤ 0.05). Significantly more adult Hyalomma rufipes, Rhipicephalus follis, R. appendiculatus, R. decoloratus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. microplus were collected from the Bonsmara cattle than from the Nguni cattle (p ≤ 0.05). The study showed that Nguni cattle are less susceptible to tick infestation than are Bonsmara cattle and fewer questing ticks are collected from pastures grazed by Nguni cattle than by Bonsmara cattle.

  2. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  3. GOCE Gradient Tensor Characterization of the Coupled Parana (South America) and Etendeka (Africa) Magmatic Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

    2015-03-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province (LIP) at the conjugate plate margins of South America and Africa is investigated with GOCE gradients. The LIP is associated to Gondwana breakup, and is asymmetric between the two margins. The study intends to investigate how the lithosphere is affected by continental breakup and what caused the asymmetry, considering that successive spreading is symmetric. The gradients at satellite and surface height are modelled with other geophysical data as seismic profiling, seismic tomography and bore-hole logs. Densities and velocities are modelled with a petrologic model. The residual gravity gradients, reduced of crustal thickness variations and sediments, are continuously high along the Angola and Namibia margin. Inversion shows the high is due to a density increase about 6 km thick with the top at about 23 km depth, placing it above the Moho. It is probable that the densification be due to magmatic intrusions, increasing the volume of the LIP at the African side, which remained trapped in the crust and produced only small volumes of surface basalts. This is true also for the margin of Angola, which in literature is claimed to be void of magmatism along its margin.

  4. Irrigation Management Transfer and WUAs' dynamics: evidence from the South-Kazakhstan province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zinzani, andrea

    2014-05-01

    The importance of water resources management in the arid and semi-arid lands can not be overestimated being related with environmental, economical and socio-political issues. In Central Asia, due to the physical and climatic features, water control and irrigation have always played a strategic role in territorial and societal development. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan, as in the other Central Asian republics, significant changes in both the water and agricultural sector have emerged; water management shifted from a purely technical issue to a sociopolitical and economic one leading to several institutional and organizational changes. To address this transitional water management context and the related governance and technical issues, since the 1990s several development organizations and donor agencies (such as the World Bank, United Nations, USAID, and others), according to the international water community, have sought to streamline the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and the establishment of the Water Users Associations (WUAs); this initiatives are sponsored and related to the IWRM framework, the water program globally supported by the Global Water Partnership and widely debated and questioned in the last years. This paper aims to discuss these transitional water management processes focusing on the meso-local level in the Arys valley, administratively included in the South-Kazakhstan province, ten years since the enactment of the law formalizing the WUAs. Three districts (Tyulkibas, Ordabasy and Otrar) were selected to analyse and understand the specific local transitional water institutional/organizational framework and to highlight the differences among them. The fieldwork was conducted in two different phases, April-May and November-December 2012. Within those periods, semi-structured interviews were carried out to the members of the state organizations (river basin agencies and district/province water departments) as well as the

  5. Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael; Mabuza, Aaron M; Kok, Gerdalize; Coetzee, Maureen; Durrheim, David N

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective To evaluate the performance of a novel malaria outbreak identification system in the epidemic prone rural area of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, for timely identification of malaria outbreaks and guiding integrated public health responses. Methods Using five years of historical notification data, two binomial thresholds were determined for each primary health care facility in the highest malaria risk area of Mpumalanga province. Whenever the thresholds were exceeded at health facility level (tier 1), primary health care staff notified the malaria control programme, which then confirmed adequate stocks of malaria treatment to manage potential increased cases. The cases were followed up at household level to verify the likely source of infection. The binomial thresholds were reviewed at village/town level (tier 2) to determine whether additional response measures were required. In addition, an automated electronic outbreak identification system at town/village level (tier 2) was integrated into the case notification database (tier 3) to ensure that unexpected increases in case notification were not missed. The performance of these binomial outbreak thresholds was evaluated against other currently recommended thresholds using retrospective data. The acceptability of the system at primary health care level was evaluated through structured interviews with health facility staff. Results Eighty four percent of health facilities reported outbreaks within 24 hours (n = 95), 92% (n = 104) within 48 hours and 100% (n = 113) within 72 hours. Appropriate response to all malaria outbreaks (n = 113, tier 1, n = 46, tier 2) were achieved within 24 hours. The system was positively viewed by all health facility staff. When compared to other epidemiological systems for a specified 12 month outbreak season (June 2003 to July 2004) the binomial exact thresholds produced one false weekly outbreak, the C-sum 12 weekly outbreaks and the mean + 2 SD nine false

  6. Inventory of geomorphosites with educational purposes in the Province of Málaga (South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Ferre-Bueno, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    The geomorphological landscape, as it was defined by Reynard (2004) can be considered a portion of the geomorphological context that is viewed, perceived, (and sometimes ex- ploited) by Man and, when perceived by humans and characterised by certain attributes, it may be considered a wider geomorphosite (Reynard and Panizza, 2005) or a complex of geomorphosites inside of which single geomorphosites can be individuated. Moreover, single geomorphosites belong to a landscape system that is dynamic, and thus the comprehension of a geomorphosite mechanism requires good observations, measurements and quantifications of processes (Reynard 2004). Since 1990s, interest on geomorphosite studies has increased, especially, due to their educational. The aim of this study is to present a complete inventory of the main geomorphosites that can be found in the Province of Málaga, with educational purposes. The Province of Málaga, located in the South of Spain, in the Mediterranean Coast but very close to the Atlantic Ocean, is characterised by a wide range of geomorphological landscape, with many different landforms and very dynamic land uses. The methodology follows that proposed by the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute (IGME, 2014). In total, more than 100-geomorphosites were recognised, inventoried and classified in order to achieve a better comprehension and improve the learning of high academic level students. References IGME, 2014. Documento metodológico para la elaboración del inventario español de lugares de interés geológico (IELIG). Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, España, pp. 64. Pelfini, M., Bollati, I. 2014. Landforms and geomorphosites ongoing changes: concepts and implications for geoheritage promotion. Quaestiones Geographicae, 33-1: 131-143. Reynard E., 2004. Géotopes, géo(morpho)sites et paysag- es géomorphologiques. In: E. Reynard, J.P. Pralong (eds), Paysages géomorphologiques, Institut de géographie, Travaux et Recherches

  7. [Epidemiological survey on clonorchiasis sinensis in an endemic area of South Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Duan, Ji-Hui; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Qiao-Zhi; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Zong-Si; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Liu, Ai-Hua; Wu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Wen-Hua; Huang, Qi-Rong

    2009-12-01

    To make an epidemiological investigation on clonorchiasis sinensis and relevant factors in the south of Hunan Province. One village from each of Lengshuitan District and Qiyang County was selected for the survey from November to December in 2006. Stool samples from villagers were collected and examined by modified Kato-Katz method. Questionnairing was performed for relevant knowledge and attitude among residents. The infection rate in animal reservoirs and intermediate hosts were detected. A total of 586 cases with Clonorchis sinensis infection were found from 777 people with a prevalence of 75.4%. The average egg density was 451 eggs per gram (EPG) feces. Light, moderate and heavy infections occupied 85.5% (501/586), 14.0% (82/586), and 0.5% (3/586) respectively. Prevalence in males and females was 76.9% (316/411) and 73.8% (270/366) respectively with no significant difference (chi2 = 1.013, P > 0.05). Infections were found in all age groups, with the highest prevalence in the group of 70 to 79 years (85.7%, 30/35). By occupations, the prevalence was 82.5% (447/542) in peasants, 79.3% (42/53) in doctors, 73.7% (28/38) in teachers, and 73.5% (25/34) in local cadres. The infection rate was 17.4% (29/167) and 7.4% (2/27) in Parafossarulus seriatulus and Alocinma longicornis, and 69.2% (9/13) and 5.3% (1/19) in Carassius auratus and Cyprinus carpios respectively. Adult worms were found in all 3 dogs dissected. Over 80% inhabitants did not know that this disease can be acquired by eating raw fish. 95.6% (153/160) of the farmers and 56.7% (349/616) of the students had a history of eating raw fish. The water was contaminated with C. sinensis eggs by using untreated feces as fertilizer for farming and by scrubbing pail latrines in the ponds. The prevalence of clonorchiasis in human population is high in Lengshuitan District and Qiyang County of Hunan Province. Eating raw fish and using untreated feces as fertilizer are the most important epidemiological factors of the

  8. Description of Variovorax humicola sp. nov., isolated from a forest topsoil in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Manh; Kim, Jaisoo

    2016-04-15

    Employing a modified cultivation method, we studied two bacterial strains, UC10 and UC38T, found on the Kyonggi University campus, Suwon in Gyeonggi-Do province, South Korea. These strains are non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-negative, motile, and rod-shaped. Grwoth occurs in the presence of 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 4-9 and a temperature range of 4-35 °C. On an R2A agar plate incubated for 5 days at 28 °C, irregular, raised, and pale yellowish colonies were observed. Comparative analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicates that these strains are closely related to Variovorax guangxiensis GXGD002T, with 98.6 % similarities. Strains UC10 and UC38T are 98.0 % similar to V. soli GH 9-3T; 97.8 % to V. dokdonensis DS-43T; 97.3-97.7 % to V. ginsengisoli Gsoil 3165T; 97.7-98.0 % to V. paradoxus IAM 12373T; 97.4-97.6 % to V. defluvii 2C1-bT; and 97.3-97.4 % to V. boronicumulans BAM-48T. The predominant ubiquinone is Q-8. The primary polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were C16:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18:1ω7c and/or C18:1ω6c), and C17:0 cyclo, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization assays indicate 89.2-91.4 % genomic DNA similarity between strains UC10 and UC38T. Moreover, genomic DNA similarity between these novel strains and Variovorax reference strains is lower than the 70 %. Based on these results, strain UC38T was designated a novel member of the genus Variovorax, with the proposed name Variovorax humicola. The type strain is UC38T (= KACC 18501T = NBRC 111520T).

  9. Lung cancer, tobacco, and environmental factors in the African population of the Northern Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mzileni, O.; Sitas, F.; Steyn, K.; Carrara, H.; Bekker, P.

    1999-01-01

    DESIGN—Case-control study among incident African patients with cancer. Questionnaire assessment of exposure to tobacco, occupation, and place of birth.
SETTING—Northern Province, South Africa.
SUBJECTS—Between 1993 and 1995, 288 men and 60 women with lung cancer and 183 male and 197 female controls (consisting of patients newly diagnosed with cancers other than those known to be associated with smoking) were interviewed. Unmatched, unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of developing lung cancer in relation to a number of variables.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Risk of developing lung cancer related to exposure to tobacco, indoor pollution, dusty work environment, and residential exposure to asbestos.
RESULTS—There was a significant increase in the risk of developing lung cancer through smoking. In men, the ORs were 2.2 (95% CI = 1.0 to 4.6) in ex-smokers, 9.8 (95% CI = 5.9 to 16.4) in light smokers (0-14 g/day), and 12.0 (95% CI = 6.5 to 22.3) in heavy smokers. In women, the ORs were 5.8 (95% CI = 1.3 to 25.8) in ex-smokers and 5.5 (95% CI = 2.6 to 11.3) in current smokers. Work in a dusty industry showed an elevated risk (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 5.8) for lung cancer only in men. Male residents of areas where asbestos was shipped for distribution (termed moderately polluted asbestos areas) had a 2.5-fold increase (95% CI = 1.0 to 4.4) in the risk (OR) of developing lung cancer, and residents of areas where asbestos was mined (termed heavily polluted asbestos areas) had a 2.8-fold increase in risk (95% CI = 0.7 to 10.4). Female residents of heavily polluted asbestos areas showed elevated risks of 5.4 (95% CI = 1.3 to 22.5) of developing lung cancer.
CONCLUSION—The data suggest that tobacco smoking is the most important risk factor for the development of lung cancer in this setting. Risks for lung cancer are reminiscent of those

  10. Euxinia prior to end-Permian main extinction at Xiaojiaba section, Sichuan Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, D.; Yu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Redox conditions in the global ocean prior to, during, and following the end-Permian mass extinction at 252.28 Ma remain contentious. Previous studies in western Australia, South China, and East Greenland have shown that photic-zone euxinia was present at least intermittently from the early Changhsingian through the Dienerian1-3. Here we report a study of organic carbon isotopes, pyrite sulfur isotopes, TOC, pyritic sulfur content, REE, and major and trace elements from the Upper Permian Xiaojiaba section in the Chaotian district of Guangyuan City, Sichuan Province, China. During the Permian-Triassic transition, this section was located on the northwestern margin of the South China Block, facing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Our results indicate that suboxic conditions prevailed during the Wuchiapingian and suboxic to anoxic conditions with several pulses of euxinia during the Changhsingian. δ13Corg values are mostly -28‰ to -26‰ but show three positive excursions (to -22‰) prior to the end-Permian mass extinction horizon. These positive excursions are associated with higher Spy concentrations (to ~1%). δ34Spy values are variable (from -41‰ to +5‰) but show a sharp negative excursion in the late Changhsingian (to -43.4‰) that coincided with the most positive δ13Corg values. This horizon is also associated with increases in Eu/Eu*, Baxs, ∑REE, Si, and redox-sensitive metals such as V. These patterns reflect linkage of the C and S cycles during the latest Permian, possibly in response to redox controls. The observed positive excursions in δ13Corg may be due to organic inputs from green sulfur bacteria, which exhibit a smaller photosynthetic fractionation (-12.5‰4) than eukaryotic algae. The pronounced negative excursion of δ34Spy corresponds to a sulfate-sulfide S isotope fractionation of about -60‰, suggesting a large flux of syngenetic framboidal pyrite, which would be indicative of euxinic water-column conditions. We infer that the euxinia prior

  11. Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2012-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the α = 0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p = 0.003), breed (p = 0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.35) (p = 0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

  12. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shamuyarira, Kudakwashe K.; Gumbo, Jabulani R.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant. PMID:24595211

  13. The epidemiology of major incidents in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Hoving, Daniël Jacobus; Lategan, Hendrick J; Wallis, Lee Allen; Smith, Wayne Patrick

    2015-09-19

    Major incidents put pressure on any health system. There are currently no studies describing the epidemiology of major incidents in South Africa (SA). The lack of data makes planning for major incidents and exercising of major incident plans difficult. To describe the epidemiology of major incidents in the Western Cape Province, SA. A retrospective analysis of the Western Cape Major Incident database was conducted for the period 1 December 2008-30 June 2014. Variables collected related to patient demographics and incident details. Summary statistics were used to describe all variables. Seven hundred and seventy-seven major incidents were reviewed (median n=11 per month). Most major incidents occurred in the City of Cape Town (57.8%, n=449), but the Central Karoo district had the highest incidence (11.97/10 000 population). Transport-related incidents occurred most frequently (94.0%, n=730). Minibus taxis were involved in 312 major incidents (40.2%). There was no significant difference between times of day when incidents occurred. A total of 8,732 patients were injured (median n=8 per incident); ten incidents involved 50 or more victims. Most patients were adults (80.0%, n=6 986) and male (51.0%, n=4,455). Of 8,440 patients, 630 (7.5%) were severely injured. More than half of the patients sustained minor injuries (54.6%, n=4,605). Major incidents occurred more often than would have been expected compared with other countries, with road traffic crashes the biggest contributor. A national database will provide a better perspective of the burden of major incidents.

  14. Early Triassic conodonts of Jiarong, Nanpanjiang Basin, southern Guizhou Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanlong; Jiang, Haishui; Lai, Xulong; Yan, Chunbo; Richoz, Sylvain; Liu, Xiaodan; Wang, Lina

    2015-06-01

    Jiarong (Huishui County, Guizhou Province, South China) is a key locality for the study of the Early Triassic recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. The size reduction of conodonts at the Smithian/Spathian transition was first documented in Jiarong, and it is also a locality that contributes to the documentation of the Early Triassic paleo-seawater temperatures. In the Jiarong sections, thirteen conodont zones were identified for the Early Triassic; in ascending order, they are Hindeodus parvus Zone, Hindeodus sosioensis Zone, Clarkina krystyni Zone, Neoclarkina discreta Zone, Neospathodus cristagalli-Eurygnathodus costatus assemblage zone, Novispathodus waageni eowaageni Zone, Novispathodus waageni waageni Zone, Discretella discreta Zone, Pachycladina-Parachirognathus assemblage zone, Novispathodus pingdingshanensis Zone, Icriospathodus collinsoni Zone, Triassospathodus homeri Zone, Triassospathodus triangularis Zone. These conodont zones in the Jiarong sections improve the global correlation of Early Triassic sections and also provide better regional age constraints in an area that is important for studies of recovery from the extinction. Based on the first appearance of Nv. waageni eowaageni, the Induan/Olenekian boundary is recognized at 3.6 m above the base of the Jiarong III Section. The dominance of blade-shaped (segminate) conodonts was replaced by gondola-shaped (segminiplanate) conodonts twice; the first time was in the late Griesbachian, and the second time was in the early Spathian. The dominance of segminiplanate conodonts probably indicates that the deeper seawater environment became more oxygenated during the late Griesbachian and early Spathian for short time intervals, as it is believed that the Griesbachian segminiplanate conodonts favored deeper oxygenated water habitats. A new genus, Spathogondolella gen. nov., and a new species, Spathogondolella jiarongensis sp. nov., have been recognized.

  15. A change-detection application on the evolution of Kahak playa (South Khorasan province, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Saghafi, Mahdi

    2006-12-01

    Kahak salt playa in South Khorasan province of Iran, have special geomorphological characteristics by the presence of ephemeral saline lakes, wetlands, salt crusts, surface accumulations of salt and zones of patterned ground. Salt crusts in the soil surface are unique in the region and have laminated horizons in the playa soil. Soil-surface salt accumulations are dominated by NaCl and gypsum. It has been found that distribution of chemical soluble is not uniform across the playa landscape, and this result influences on the variety form of patterned ground. In this study, the percent changes in some of the chemical elements such as NaCl, gypsum and also brine extent have been calculated in the playa. Indicating changes in Kahak salt playa is the main aim of this study by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. In this paper, techniques such as spectral un-mixing, maximum likelihood classification, band rationing, fuzzy classification and correlation relationships are discussed. This contribution presents modeling of temporal and spatial changes of salinity and playa developing using combined approaches that incorporate different data-fusion and data-integration techniques for two periods of date. Furthermore, percent changes in the surface-patterned ground of the playa have been calculated using texture and pattern analysis of the PCA1. Results have revealed that, in the playa developing, chemical materials such as sodium, NaCl, gypsum and also brine extent are positively correlated with each other and the most increased changes are related to gypsum and the most decreased changes are related to the NaCl. Also changes in the amount of agricultural area in the playa-lakes margin, show low effects in the desertification process.

  16. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  17. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Khethiwe; Khumalo, Zth; Nakao, Ryo; Grab, Dennis J; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Thekisoe, Omm

    2016-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected.

  18. Assessment of learners' exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tosin, Oni H; Tshitangano, Takalani G

    2016-06-30

    School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school.Keyword: Health education and promotion, adolescents, school, learners.

  19. Molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    MTSHALI, Khethiwe; KHUMALO, Zamantungwa T. H.; NAKAO, Ryo; GRAB, Dennis J.; SUGIMOTO, Chihiro; THEKISOE, Oriel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. With little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern Africa, the aim of our study was to screen for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia species and Ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the Eastern Cape, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa. The most abundant tick species identified in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (40%), Rhipicephalus species (35%), Amblyomma hebraeum (10%) and Rhipicephalus decoloratus (14%). A total of 1634 ticks were collected. DNA was extracted, and samples were subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing. The overall infection rates of ticks with the target pathogens in the four Provinces were as follows: A. phagocytophilum, 7%; C. burnetii, 7%; E. ruminantium, 28%; and Rickettsia spp., 27%. The presence of B. burgdorferi could not be confirmed. The findings of this study show that zoonotic pathogens are present in ticks in the studied South African provinces. This information will aid in the epidemiology of tick-borne zoonotic diseases in the country as well as in raising awareness about such diseases in the veterinary, medical and tourism sectors, as they may be the most affected. PMID:26227797

  20. Assessment of learners’ exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tosin, Oni. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. Aim This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Setting This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. Methodology The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school. PMID:27380860

  1. What interventions do South African qualified doctors think will retain them in rural hospitals of the Limpopo province of South Africa?

    PubMed

    Kotzee, Theunis J; Couper, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    In South Africa, the health system faces a variety of problems, such as an overall shortage of and misdistribution of healthcare workers. The Department of Health in South Africa has attempted to address the shortage of rural doctors by introducing various interventions, including an increase in salaries, introduction of scarce skills and rural allowances, the deployment of foreign doctors, and upgrading of clinics and hospitals. Despite these, the maldistribution of doctors working in South Africa has not improved significantly. This attests to the multifactorial nature of this problem and to the fact that intensive and sustained efforts are needed to rectify it. Few South African studies have been undertaken to establish the needs of rural doctors in South Africa and to seek possible solutions to their problems. While a number of studies have identified some of the major problems, much still needs to be done. Innovative ways to address this crisis are urgently needed. The main objectives of this study were to identify interventions as proposed by doctors in the rural Limpopo province of South Africa and to develop recommendations based on these. This study utilised a descriptive qualitative design using a semi-structured questionnaire. Ten doctors from rural hospitals within all six districts of the Limpopo province were randomly selected and interviewed. Themes recommended included: increasing salaries and rural allowances; improving rural hospital accommodation; ensuring career progression; providing continuing medical education; increasing support by specialist consultants; improving the physical hospital infrastructure and rural referral systems; ensuring the availability of essential medical equipment and medicines; strengthening rural hospital management and increasing the role of doctors in management; improving the working conditions; establishing private-public collaborations with private general practitioners; increasing rural doctors' leave allocations

  2. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Lezanie

    2017-01-01

    The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems. PMID:28555161

  3. Mesozoic gold mineralization in Hainan Province of South China: Genetic types, geological characteristics and geodynamic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Deru; Wang, Zhilin; Wu, Chuanjun; Zhou, Yueqiang; Shan, Qiang; Hou, Maozhou; Fu, Yangrong; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2017-04-01

    Numerous gold deposits and occurrences in Hainan Province of South China, predominantly of Mesozoic age account for more than 143 t of proven gold reserves. The Au mineralization occurs either along a group of NE-, NNW- and WNW-trending shear zones or within NW- to NNW-trending intraformational detachment faults which are closely related to folding, shearing and transpressional to transtensional deformation. Combined with the Mesozoic tectonics and associated magmatism, the ore geology, fluid inclusion geochemistry, C-H-O-S-(Pb) isotopes and geochronology consistently indicate that there are at least two gold deposit-types in Hainan Island, i.e., orogenic-type and intrusion-related. The predominant orogenic gold mineralization, which produces more than 95% of gold metal reserves in Hainan Island, formed in the Early Mesozoic (ca. 228-224 Ma). This ore deposit-type, represented by the Baolun, Gezhen, and Wangxia deposits, is generally hosted by metamorphosed volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic, the Silurian and the Permian ages, and is closely associated with brittle-ductile shearing. These deposits, with native gold as main gold occurrence and low sulfide abundance (<5% by volume), are derived from the CO2-rich (mainly 4.8-16.8 mol%), near neutral (pH = ∼7), low-salinity (generally 3-10.5 wt.% NaCleq.), and intermediate-temperature ore fluids. In combination with the paleomagnetism, sedimentation, and petrographical and geochemical features of the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic granitoids, the orogenic gold mineralization is considered to be formed in a post-collisional tectonic setting, in response to the Indosinian orogeny in South China triggered by the closure of the Paleotethys Ocean. Abundant Bi-As-Te-Mo-S phases, which grew synchronously with the gold minerals, suggest a possible involvement of magmatic fluids, especially for the large-scale, high-grade Baolun deposit. The Fuwen Au-dominated Au-Ag deposit, which is hosted by

  4. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Katharine; Chen, Ping-An; Vazzano, Andrea; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  5. Factors influencing treatment default among tuberculosis patients in a high burden province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kigozi, G; Heunis, C; Chikobvu, P; Botha, S; van Rensburg, D

    2017-01-01

    To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. A retrospective records review of pulmonary TB cases captured in the ETR.Net electronic TB register between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were >15 years of age and had a recorded pre-treatment smear result. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment default. The odds ratios (OR) together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Statistical significance was considered at 0.05. A total of 7980 out of 110 349 (7.2%) cases defaulted treatment. Significantly higher proportions of cases were male (8.3% vs. female: 5.8%; p<0.001), <25 years old (9.1% vs. 25-34 years: 8.7%; 35-44 years: 7.0%; 45-54 years: 5.2%; 55-64 years: 4.4%; >64 years: 3.9%; p<0.001), undergoing TB retreatment (11.0% vs. new cases: 6.3%; p<0.001), had a negative pre-treatment sputum smear result (7.8% vs. positive smear results: 7.1%; p<0.001), were in the first 2 months of treatment (95.5% vs. >2 months: 4.8%; p<0.001), and had unknown HIV status (7.8% vs. HIV-positive: 7.0% and HIV-negative: 5.7%; p<0.001). After controlling for potential confounders, multivariate analysis revealed a two-fold increased risk of defaulting treatment when being retreated compared to being treated for the first time for TB (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI 1.85-2.25). Female cases were 40% less likely to default treatment compared to their male counterparts (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.51-0.71). Treatment default was less likely among cases >24 years old compared to younger cases (25-34 years: AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.77-0.87; 35-44 years: AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.50-0.64; 45-54 years: AOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.32-0.49; 55-64 years: AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.21-0.43; >64 years: AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.19-0.35). Co-infected cases receiving antiretroviral therapy

  6. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  7. Microstratigraphic evidence of in situ fire in the Acheulean strata of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Berna, Francesco; Goldberg, Paul; Horwitz, Liora Kolska; Brink, James; Holt, Sharon; Bamford, Marion; Chazan, Michael

    2012-05-15

    The ability to control fire was a crucial turning point in human evolution, but the question when hominins first developed this ability still remains. Here we show that micromorphological and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (mFTIR) analyses of intact sediments at the site of Wonderwerk Cave, Northern Cape province, South Africa, provide unambiguous evidence--in the form of burned bone and ashed plant remains--that burning took place in the cave during the early Acheulean occupation, approximately 1.0 Ma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the earliest secure evidence for burning in an archaeological context.

  8. Ecology of the tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. I. Distribution and seasonal activity.

    PubMed

    Norval, R A

    1977-08-01

    In the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa larvae of Amblyomma hebraeum Koch occur in well-drained, shaded habitats, with a ground cover of grass. The life cycle is normally of 3 years duration. Peak larval activity occurs in the summer of the 1st year, peak nymphal activity in the spring of the 2nd year, and peak adult activity in the summer of the 3rd year. Larval activity shows no direct correlation with macroclimate. Adult activity is correlated with, in the following order of signficance, daylength, temperature, and rainfall. Nymphal activity appears to be regulated by the same factors.

  9. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  10. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  11. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Materials and methods: An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National

  12. Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-21

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 5.27 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Karoo Basin Province.

  13. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment.

  14. Health care capacity and allocations among South Africa's provinces: infrastructure-inequality traps after the end of apartheid.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the determinants of health care funding allocations among South Africa's provinces and their effects on health care from 1996 through 2007. We performed multivariate regression of funding allocation data against measures of disease burden and health system infrastructure by province. Disease burden was increasingly negatively correlated with funding allocations and explained less than one quarter of the variation in allocations among provinces. Nearly three quarters of the variation in allocations was explained by preexisting hospital infrastructure and health care workers. The density of private hospitals in the preceding year was associated with greater government allocations (b(private) = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.15), but public hospital density in the preceding year was not (b(public) = 0.05; 95% CI = -0.02, 0.11). Greater allocations were associated with a higher number of doctors (b = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.75) but fewer nurses (b = -0.37; 95% CI = -0.72,-0.25) in the same year. Regions with a greater capacity to spend funds received more funding and created more infrastructure than those with greater health needs. Historical infrastructure inequalities may have created an infrastructure-inequality trap, in which the distribution of funds to those with greater "absorptive capacity" exacerbates inequalities.

  15. Health Care Capacity and Allocations Among South Africa's Provinces: Infrastructure–Inequality Traps After the End of Apartheid

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the determinants of health care funding allocations among South Africa's provinces and their effects on health care from 1996 through 2007. Methods. We performed multivariate regression of funding allocation data against measures of disease burden and health system infrastructure by province. Results. Disease burden was increasingly negatively correlated with funding allocations and explained less than one quarter of the variation in allocations among provinces. Nearly three quarters of the variation in allocations was explained by preexisting hospital infrastructure and health care workers. The density of private hospitals in the preceding year was associated with greater government allocations (bprivate = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.15), but public hospital density in the preceding year was not (bpublic = 0.05; 95% CI = −0.02, 0.11). Greater allocations were associated with a higher number of doctors (b = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.75) but fewer nurses (b = −0.37; 95% CI = −0.72,−0.25) in the same year. Conclusions. Regions with a greater capacity to spend funds received more funding and created more infrastructure than those with greater health needs. Historical infrastructure inequalities may have created an infrastructure–inequality trap, in which the distribution of funds to those with greater “absorptive capacity” exacerbates inequalities. PMID:21148716

  16. A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle of rural communities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, U W; Bagnall, R; Bosch, B; Perrett, K; Horner, R; Gummow, B

    2009-03-01

    A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle originating from rural communities of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in South Africa was carried out between March 2001 and December 2003. The survey was designed as a 2-stage survey, using the local diptank as the primary sampling point. In total, 2021 animals from 379 diptanks in 33 magisterial districts were sampled and tested with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The apparent prevalence at district level was adjusted for clustering and diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity and displayed in maps. The prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle originating from communal grazing areas of KZN was found to be 19.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 14.8-24.1%. At district level the prevalence of leptospirosis varied from 0 to 63% of cattle. Bovine leptospirosis was found to occur in communal grazing areas throughout the province with the exception of 2 districts. The southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence than other areas of the province; while in some of the northern and western districts a lower prevalence was noted. Several serovars were detected by the MAT and although Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona occurred most frequently, serovars tarrasovi, bratislava, hardjo, canicola and icterohaemorrhagica were also frequently identified. The findings of the survey are discussed.

  17. Collaboration or renunciation? The role of traditional medicine in mental health care in Rwanda and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena M; Krantz, Gunilla; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2016-10-07

    Traditional medicine (TM) and biomedicine represent parallel health systems in many developing countries; the latter dominating in public policies, while the former still retain considerable influence among the general public. This study investigates how mental health care professionals responsible for mental health care implementation comprehend and relate to the intersection between TM and biomedicine in the cases of Rwanda and the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The material is based on semi-structured interviews with mental health care stakeholders in Eastern Cape, South Africa and Rwanda. The findings confirm an impact of TM in the treatment of mental health issues in Rwanda and South Africa due to TM being more accessible than biomedical medicine, widespread traditional perceptions of mental illness in society, and the lack of knowledge of biomedical treatments. Furthermore, the respondents identified three strategies to manage the impact of TM; improved accessibility of biomedical facilities, outreach education about mental illness, and, in the Eastern Cape case, collaboration between traditional healers and biomedicine. The study points to the necessity to take TM into consideration as an important component of health systems and policies in the Global south.

  18. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Maputle, Maria S; Hiss, Donavon C

    2013-05-27

    Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  19. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  20. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia Ozida; Rispel, Laetitia Charmaine; Chirwa, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic to work in, the prevention of violence

  1. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. Methods During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Conclusion Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic

  2. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  3. Secondary School Teachers' Experiences of Teaching Pregnant Learners in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Sogo F.; Nolte, A. G. W.; Temane, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on the experiences of secondary school teachers on teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten purposively selected secondary school teachers. Data analysis yielded six themes,…

  4. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  5. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  6. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Page-Nicholson, Samantha; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes.

  7. Palaeomagnetism, rock magnetism and AMS of the Cabo Magmatic Province, NE Brazil, and the opening of South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, E.; Ernesto, M.; Silva, P. F.; Correia, P. B.; Nascimento, M. A. L.

    2009-11-01

    Reconstruction of the South Atlantic opening has long been a matter of debate and several models have been proposed. One problem in tracing properly the Atlantic history arises from the existence of a long interval without geomagnetic reversals, the Cretaceous Normal Superchron, for which ages are difficult to assign. Palaeomagnetism may help in addressing this issue if high-quality palaeomagnetic poles are available for the two drifting continental blocks, and if precise absolute ages are available. In this work we have investigated the Cabo Magmatic Province, northeastern Brazil, recently dated at 102 +/- 1 Ma (zircon fission tracks, Ar39/Ar40). All volcanic and plutonic rocks showed stable thermal and AF demagnetization patterns, and exhibit primary magnetic signatures. AMS data also support a primary origin for the magnetic fabric and is interpreted to be contemporaneous of the rock formation. The obtained pole is located at 335.9°E/87.9°S (N = 24; A95 = 2.5; K = 138) and satisfies modern quality criteria, resulting in a reference pole for South America at ~100 Ma. This new pole also gives an insight to test and discuss the kinematic models currently proposed for the South Atlantic opening during mid-Cretaceous.

  8. Knowledge of High School Learners Regarding Substance Use within High School Premises in the Buffalo Flats of East London, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Emmanuel; Maluleke, Xavela T.; Douglas, Mbuyiselo

    2017-01-01

    South Africa has a high rate of substance abuse among youths both in and out of school with East London in the Eastern Cape Province experiencing an increase in young people ages 20 years and below seeking treatment for substance abuse. The purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge of high school learners (grades 10 to 12) regarding…

  9. The Heart in Haart: Quality of Life of Patients Enrolled in the Public Sector Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Free State Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booysen, F. Le R.; Van Rensburg, H. C. J.; Bachmann, M.; Louwagie, G.; Fairall, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the quality of life of patients enrolled in the public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State province of South Africa. Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data reveals that it is not access to treatment "per se" that enhances the quality of life of those who have come forward for ART.…

  10. Establishing a Computerized Substance Abuse Surveillance System for District Social Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Methods, Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; Myers, Bronwyn; Fakier, Nuraan; Parry, Charles; Carelse, Jermaine

    2011-01-01

    The provision of accurate, in-depth data on substance abuse trends and service needs has become increasingly important in light of the growing wave of substance abuse in South Africa and particularly in the Western Cape Province. This article describes the design and implementation of an electronic substance abuse surveillance system (SASS)…

  11. The Heart in Haart: Quality of Life of Patients Enrolled in the Public Sector Antiretroviral Treatment Programme in the Free State Province of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booysen, F. Le R.; Van Rensburg, H. C. J.; Bachmann, M.; Louwagie, G.; Fairall, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the quality of life of patients enrolled in the public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State province of South Africa. Statistical analysis of cross-sectional data reveals that it is not access to treatment "per se" that enhances the quality of life of those who have come forward for ART.…

  12. Knowledge of High School Learners Regarding Substance Use within High School Premises in the Buffalo Flats of East London, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manu, Emmanuel; Maluleke, Xavela T.; Douglas, Mbuyiselo

    2017-01-01

    South Africa has a high rate of substance abuse among youths both in and out of school with East London in the Eastern Cape Province experiencing an increase in young people ages 20 years and below seeking treatment for substance abuse. The purpose of the study was to explore the knowledge of high school learners (grades 10 to 12) regarding…

  13. Environmental determinants of asthma among school children aged 13-14 in and around Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maluleke, Kidi Rose; Worku, Zeleke

    2009-09-01

    Asthma has become a public health issue since the 1960's. Factors associated with asthma are environmental and genetic. This study is based on a random sample of 742 students aged 13-14 attending various schools at Polokwane, in the Province of Limpopo in South Africa. Survey logistic regression and multi-level analyses were used for data analysis. The study identifies three key determinants of asthma at the district, school and individual levels. The study shows that persistent cough (OR = 4.01), exposure to smoke at the household level (OR = 2.39) and lack of access to flush toileta at the household level (OR = 1.89) are key predictors of asthma in children. Variability at the level of districts accounts for 46% of total variance. Variability at the level of schools accounts for 33% of total variance.

  14. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  15. E-W strike slip shearing of Kinwat granitoid at South East Deccan Volcanic Province, Kinwat, Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplay, R. D.; Kumar, T. Vijay; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Wesanekar, P. R.; Babar, Md; Chavan, Sumeet

    2017-07-01

    We study the margin of South East Deccan Volcanic Province around Kinwat lineament, Maharashtra, India, which is NW extension of the Kaddam Fault. Structural field studies document ˜ E-W strike-slip mostly brittle faults from the basement granite. We designate this as `Western boundary East Dharwar Craton Strike-slip Zone' (WBEDCSZ). At local level, the deformation regime from Kinwat, Kaddam Fault, micro-seismically active Nanded and seismically active Killari corroborate with the nearby lineaments. Morphometric analyses suggest that the region is moderately tectonically active. The region of intense strike-slip deformation lies between seismically active fault along Tapi in NW and Bhadrachalam in the SE part of the Kaddam Fault/lineament. The WBEDCSZ with the surface evidences of faulting, presence of a major lineaments and intersection of faults could be a zone of intraplate earthquake.

  16. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. Results We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. Conclusion The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment. PMID:26015847

  17. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  18. Predictability of Malaria Transmission Intensity in the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, Using Land Surface Climatology and Autoregressive Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grass, David; Jasinski, Michael F.; Govere, John

    2003-01-01

    There has been increasing effort in recent years to employ satellite remotely sensed data to identify and map vector habitat and malaria transmission risk in data sparse environments. In the current investigation, available satellite and other land surface climatology data products are employed in short-term forecasting of infection rates in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, using a multivariate autoregressive approach. The climatology variables include precipitation, air temperature and other land surface states computed by the Off-line Land-Surface Global Assimilation System (OLGA) including soil moisture and surface evaporation. Satellite data products include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and other forcing data used in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) model. Predictions are compared to long- term monthly records of clinical and microscopic diagnoses. The approach addresses the high degree of short-term autocorrelation in the disease and weather time series. The resulting model is able to predict 11 of the 13 months that were classified as high risk during the validation period, indicating the utility of applying antecedent climatic variables to the prediction of malaria incidence for the Mpumalanga Province.

  19. Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Semenya, Ss; Maroyi, A; Potgieter, Mj; Erasmus, Ljc

    2013-01-01

    The current study focussed on documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of herbal medicines used by the Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty one healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo Province were interviewed between January and July 2011. Semi-structured interviews, observations and guided field surveys with the healers were employed. Thirty-six medicinal plant species belonging to 35 genera and 20 families were documented. The most used species were Zanthoxylum humile (25.5%), Catha edulis (21.6%), Ozoroa sphaerocarpa (15.7%), Hypoxis hemerocallidea (13.7%), Hypoxis obtusa (11.7%), Gomphocarpus fruticosus subsp. fruticosus and Gymnosporia senegalensis (9.8% each). The dominant growth forms among the reported medicinal plants were herbs (39%), followed by shrubs and trees with 33% and 28%, respectively. The preferred plant parts were roots (63.9%), followed by bark (13.9%), whole plant (11.1%), tubers (8.3%), bulbs (5.6%), fruits, leaves, stems and twigs (2.8% each). The majority of the species were used to treat gender specific reproductive ailments; while a minority were used for treating reproductive ailments of both genders. Twenty-two species (61.1%) are supported by reports of similar uses in other countries or have proven biological activity. This study illustrates that Bapedi traditional healers possess remarkable knowledge on medicinal plants used for treating and managing reproductive ailments.

  20. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849

  1. Diversity and distribution of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Sirgel, W F; Malan, A P; Wilson, M J

    2012-06-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with native and introduced species of terrestrial slugs was conducted in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, in order to gather new data regarding diversity and distribution. A total of 521 terrestrial slugs were collected from 35 localities throughout the Western Cape. All slugs were dissected and examined for the presence of internal nematodes. Extracted nematodes were identified using a combination of molecular (18S rRNA gene sequencing) and morphological techniques. Nematodes were found parasitizing slugs at 14 of the 35 sites examined, amounting to 40% of sample sites. Of all slugs, 6% were infected with nematodes. A total of seven species of nematode were identified in the province, including Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma sp., Phasmarhabditis sp. SA1, Phasmarhabditis sp. SA2, Caenorhabditis elegans, Panagrolaimus sp. and Rhabditis sp. Of these species, four were thought to be parasitic to slugs (A. flexilis, Angiostoma sp., Phasmarhabditis sp. SA1 and Phasmarhabditis sp. SA2), as opposed to forming necromenic or phoretic associations. Three new species of slug-parasitic nematode were identified during this study (Angiostoma sp., Phasmarhabditis sp. SA1 and Phasmarhabditis sp. SA2).

  2. An evaluation of the emergency care training workshops in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Emergency care in South Africa is both complex and complicated which is further compromised by inadequately trained healthcare workers. Academic disciplines at the University of KwaZulu-Natal have run emergency care workshops for doctors and nurses providing primary emergency care, in the province for the last 14 years. This delivery of such training has evolved over time. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the feedback and knowledge of participants attending the last nine workshops. Methods An evaluation questionnaire asked participants to assess the workshops held in the province and to rate their perceived improvement in knowledge. A multiple choice questionnaire was conducted in the last few workshops and was administered pre- and post-workshop. The data were extracted onto an Excel spreadsheet and analysed in Stata version 13. Outcome measures were generated using percentages. A paired t-test was used to compare knowledge scores. Open-ended questions were also used to identify areas for future improvement. Results The majority (89.4%) of the participants worked in the primary emergency care setting. All participants found the quality of training, the facilitators and the training material good or excellent. Participants’ perceived improvement in knowledge and skills and the objective measure of knowledge improved significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusion Emergency care education using a combination of inter-professional simulation and lecture-based teaching has the potential of contributing towards better educational outputs in both undergraduate and postgraduate curricula. PMID:28397522

  3. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  4. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Methods Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. Results A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. Conclusion The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources. PMID:23590903

  5. The utilization and management of plant resources in rural areas of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rasethe, Marula T; Semenya, Sebua S; Potgieter, Martin J; Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-04-16

    Most rural people in the Limpopo Province depend on plant resources to meet their livelihood needs. However, there is insufficient recorded information regarding their use and management. The current study therefore was carried out in selected villages of the Limpopo Province, to close this knowledge gap. Information was collected from 60 people residing in two villages, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented with field observations. A total of 47 wild plant species (95% indigenous and 5% exotics) from 27 families, mostly from the Fabaceae (17%), Anacardiaceae (9%), and Combretaceae (9%) were documented. These species were used primarily for firewood (40%), food (36%) and medicine (29%). Significantly used species included Sclerocarya birrea (85%), Combretum kraussii (35%) and Harpephyllum caffrum (35%). Local traditional rules and regulations including taboos, social beliefs and fines are in place to aid in the management of communal resources. However, a significant number (67%) of participants mentioned that they were not pleased with these rules and regulations. The current study concluded that plant resources still play an important role in the surveyed rural areas of the Limpopo Province. Furthermore, for sustainable utilization and long-term conservation of plants in these areas the government should assist communities in the management of their plant resources.

  6. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.

    PubMed

    Manana, Pinky N; Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Mpangane, Hluphi D; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-07-20

    In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    PubMed

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  9. Climatic and tectonic controls on Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic sedimentation in northeastern Guangdong Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xu, Yi-Gang; Wen, Shu-Nv; Krapež, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    Stratigraphic analyses document climatic and tectonic controls on the filling of a Late Triassic to early Middle Jurassic (T3-J2) basin that developed on top of a young orogenic belt in southeastern South China. About 2700 m of Carnian to Bajocian sedimentary rocks is documented in the Meizhou region, Guangdong Province. The Carnian to Rhaetian sequence is characterized by deltaic facies that are succeeded by Hettangian fluvial, shallow marine and volcaniclastic facies, and by Sinemurian to early Toarcian interdistributary bay and floodplain facies. The late Toarcian to Bajocian sequence comprises proximal alluvial to lacustrine facies that changed upwards to fluvial facies. Fossil assemblages indicate that climatic conditions changed from tropical/subtropical warm humid, to temperate humid, and then to hot arid through the Late Triassic to the Middle Jurassic. Climatically induced changes (e.g., in precipitation, vegetation and erosion) exerted a strong influence on sediment supply, whereas tectonics played a dominant role in stratigraphic evolution, accommodation generation, sedimentation pattern and volcanism. Tectonostratigraphic analysis shows that the T3-J2 basin was initiated on an orogenic belt during late-stage orogeny, and evolved into shallow-marine and volcanic environments and then back to terrestrial facies during the post-orogenic stage. This was followed by regional uplift and the development of a basin-and-range province. The order of these events is similar to that of the central Rocky Mountains, western North America during the Palaeogene. The Mesozoic basin of South China and the Eocene basins of the central Rocky Mountains highlight the importance of subduction-related subsidence above young and broad orogens.

  10. Changes in malaria morbidity and mortality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001- 2009): a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a serious epidemic threat in Mpumalanga Province. In order to appropriately target interventions to achieve substantial reduction in the burden of malaria and ultimately eliminate the disease, there is a need to track progress of malaria control efforts by assessing the time trends and evaluating the impact of current control interventions. This study aimed to assess the changes in the burden of malaria in Mpumalanga Province during the past eight malaria seasons (2001/02 to 2008/09) and whether indoor residual spraying (IRS) and climate variability had an effect on these changes. Methods This is a descriptive retrospective study based on the analysis of secondary malaria surveillance data (cases and deaths) in Mpumalanga Province. Data were extracted from the Integrated Malaria Information System. Time series model (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) was used to assess the association between climate and malaria. Results Within the study period, a total of 35,191 cases and 164 deaths due to malaria were notified in Mpumalanga Province. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of malaria from 385 in 2001/02 to 50 cases per 100,000 population in 2008/09 (P < 0.005). The incidence and case fatality (CFR) rates for the study period were 134 cases per 100,000 and 0.54%, respectively. Mortality due to malaria was lower in infants and children (CFR < 0.5%) and higher in those >65 years, with the mean CFR of 2.1% as compared to the national target of 0.5%. A distinct seasonal transmission pattern was found to be significantly related to changes in rainfall patterns (P = 0.007). A notable decline in malaria case notification was observed following apparent scale-up of IRS coverage from 2006/07 to 2008/09 malaria seasons. Conclusions Mpumalanga Province has achieved the goal of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by over 70%, partly as a result of scale-up of IRS intervention in combination with other control strategies. These

  11. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  12. Environmental, ecological, and paleoanthropological implications of the late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Beaumont, Peter B.

    1991-07-01

    The late Pleistocene deposits of Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa, have provided more than 30,000 taxonomically identifiable mammal bones from 48 species. Context, associations, and features of the bone assemblage implicate brown hyenas as the main accumulators. The fauna is significant mainly because (1) it supplements previous evidence that regional climate was cooler and possibly also somewhat moister during part(s) of the late Pleistocene, but deviated less from the historic norm than in areas farther south; (2) it shows that Bond's springbok, which became extinct in the early Holocene, differed from the surviving common springbok not only in important morphological respects but also in reproductive pattern; and (3) it sustains earlier suggestions that an abundance of carnivores, a paucity of small hard bones, and increase in the cranial/postcranial ratio with species size, and exclusively attritional mortality profiles are features that tend to differentiate assemblages accumulated by brown hyenas from those accumulated by people. In addition, pending firmer dating, the fragmentary human fossils from Equus Cave may support an exclusively African origin for anatomically modern humans.

  13. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, Gudrun A; Tyler, Joanne; Mandeya, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25); and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14). They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9). Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31). Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the children of rural South

  14. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  15. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  16. Incidence, Risk Factors and Causes of Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in the South of Iran (Fars Province)

    PubMed Central

    Najib, Khadije Sadat; Saki, Forough; Hemmati, Fariba; Inaloo, Soroor

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, Severe hyperbilirubinemia is the most common cause of neonatal readmissions. Identification of the cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is useful in determining whether therapeutic interventions can prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia. Objectives We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia in Fars province and to determine the underlying causes and risk factors, which would be of value in identifying and implementing strategies to prevent morbidity from this condition. Patients and Methods All infants less than 28 days referred due to severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia were included. Complete history, physical examination and lab work up were performed. This is a longitudinal prospective study in 2009-2010. Results More common causes of severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia were blood group incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, sepsis and unknown. Risk factors of severe hyperbilirubinemia were Male sex, previous siblings with severe hyperbilirubinemia, early discharge, NVD, Breast feeding and cultural background of mothers. Conclusions Our study showed severe neonate indirect hyperbilirubinemia is still prevalence in Fars province and ethnic and cultural background of the mothers was more effective than school education in preventing hyperbilirubinemia complication. PMID:23984010

  17. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC). Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15) were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level. PMID:25537937

  18. Quality and readability of information pamphlets on hearing and paediatric hearing loss in the Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Karin; Githinji, Esther

    2014-02-01

    The implementation of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programmes is necessary in order to facilitate the early identification of hearing loss. An important component of EHDI is parental education. International and national guidelines stipulating that comprehensive, unbiased and appropriate information pamphlets should be provided to parents as part of EHDI programmes, however little is known about the availability and readability of such materials in South Africa. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the availability of information pamphlets on hearing and hearing loss in children at public hospitals in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. In addition, the quality and readability levels of these pamphlets were determined. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was employed for this study. Information on the availability of leaflets at public health hospitals was obtained through a telephonic survey. Twenty-one information pamphlets available at these hospitals were then evaluated to determine the quality and readability levels. It was found that 73% of audiology departments at public hospitals in Gauteng had information pamphlets available on hearing and hearing loss in children. Of the pamphlets evaluated, the majority were rated to 'present with serious problems' questioning the quality of the content included. In addition, it was found that on average the readability level of these pamphlets were at a sixth-grade level, much higher that the recommended fourth-grade reading level. The need for development of quality educational material focused on providing parents with unbiased, comprehensive and appropriate information on hearing and hearing loss in children has been highlighted. Proposed guidelines were recommended to assist audiologists in this endeavour. The importance of providing appropriate parental educational materials for the success of EHDI in South Africa should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2013

  19. The 1992 drill core from the Kalkkop impact crater, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: stratigraphy, petrography, geochemistry and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian; Reddering, Jacobus S. V.

    1998-05-01

    New drill core data are provided which support earlier interpretations that the Kalkkop structure, a 600-630 m wide, near-circular feature south-southwest of Graaff-Reinet in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is a meteorite impact crater. Shock metamorphosed clasts in suevitic crater fill and ReOs isotope data of this breccia indicate the presence of a minor (0.05%) meteoritic component in the suevite. The new data come from a 1992 borehole, which transected the complete crater fill and extended from about 160 to 380 m depth into the sedimentary basement belonging to the Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup). Dyke breccias were found in the otherwise coherent Beaufort Group sediments forming the floor to the Kalkkop Crater. Mostly narrow zones of different breccia types, including injections of lithic impact breccia, a possible pseudotachylite veinlet and cataclasite occur predominantly in an approximately 65 m wide zone below the crater floor, with a few other cataclasite occurrences found lower down in the basement. Stratigraphical crater constraints provide information for the depth-diameter scaling and breccia volumes associated with such small, bowl-shaped impact craters formed in sedimentary targets. UTh series dating of limestone samples from near the top and the bottom of the crater sediment fill constraints the age of the Kalkkop impact event to about 250 ± 50 ka, similar to the age of the Pretoria Saltpan impact crater, also located in South Africa. The variety of different breccia types (polymict and monomict impact breccias; local formations of pseudotachylitic and cataclastic breccias) observed in the crater fill of the Kalkkop Crater indicates the need to carefully distinguish different breccia types in order to assess the respective importance of each formation.

  20. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  1. Thermal history and differential exhumation across the Eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorie, Stijn; Agostino, Kate; Dutch, Rian; Pawley, Mark; Hall, James; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.; Collins, Alan S.

    2017-04-01

    Multi-method geo- and thermochronological data obtained for Palaeo- and Mesoproterozoic granitoids traversing the main structural architecture of the eastern Musgrave Province within South Australia reveal multiphase cooling histories. Apatite U-Pb dating on six samples yield consistent ages of 1075-1025 Ma, suggesting a thermal reset coinciding with mantle-derived magmatism of the greater Warakurna Large Igneous Province ( 1080-1040 Ma). Apatite fission track (AFT) analysis indicate that four discrete thermal events affected the study area, inducing cooling through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 60-120 °C), supported by apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Late Neoproterozoic cooling from deep crustal levels to temperatures < 200 °C was discerned, which is thought to be related to exhumation and denudation during the Petermann Orogeny. Subsequent cooling events at 450-400 Ma (Silurian-Devonian) and 310-290 Ma (Late Carboniferous) are interpreted to represent exhumation associated with the Alice Springs Orogeny. The latter event exhumed the sampled plutons to shallow crustal depths. An additional Triassic - early Jurassic thermal event, likely recording elevated geothermal gradients at that time, was observed throughout the study area, however, more data is needed to further support this interpretation. The high sample density across the structural architecture of the study area furthermore reveals patterns of fault reactivation and resulting differential exhumation, indicating shallower exhumation levels in the centre and deeper exhumation towards the margins of the sampled transect. The observed differential exhumation patterns match with existing seismic data and fit a model of an inverted graben system for the Phanerozoic evolution of the eastern Musgraves. The results highlight a complex Phanerozoic thermal history for the eastern Musgraves and help to elucidate the poorly appreciated tectonic evolution of inland Australia. This study further demonstrates

  2. The Epidemiology of Meningitis among Adults in a South African Province with a High HIV Prevalence, 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Erika; Perovic, Olga; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Iyaloo, Samantha; Quan, Vanessa; Chetty, Verushka; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Ismail, Nazir A.; Nanoo, Ananta; Musekiwa, Alfred; Reddy, Carl; Viljoen, Karien; Cohen, Cheryl; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012. We calculated cause-specific incidence rates in the general and HIV-infected populations and used Poisson regression to determine if trends were significant. Results We identified 11,891 (10.7%) incident cases of meningitis from 110,885 CSF specimens. Cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis accounted for 62.3% (n = 7,406), 24.6% (n = 2,928) and 10.1% (n = 1,197) of cases over the four-year period. The overall incidence (cases per 100,000 persons) of cryptococcal meningitis declined by 23% from 24.4 in 2009 to 18.7 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 19% among HIV-infected persons from 178.2 to 144.7 (p <0.001). Tuberculous meningitis decreased by 40% from 11.3 in 2009 to 6.8 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 36% among HIV-infected persons from 54.4 to 34.9 (p <0.001). Pneumococcal meningitis decreased by 41% from 4.2 in 2009 to 2.5 in 2012 (p <0.001) and decreased by 38% among HIV-infected persons from 28.0 to 17.5 (p <0.001). Among cases of other bacterial meningitis (248/11,891, 2.1%), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 93), Escherichia coli (n = 72) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 20) were the most common organisms identified. Conclusions In this high HIV-prevalence province, cryptococcal meningitis was the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed meningitis among adults. Over a 4-year period, there was a significant decrease in incidence of cryptococcal, tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis. This coincided with expansion of the national

  3. The pattern of self-harm in Fars Province in South Iran: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gholamzadeh, Saeid; Zahmatkeshan, Mozhghan; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Elaheh; Hoseni, Sanaz

    2017-10-01

    Non-suicidal self-harm includes cutting, scratching, burning and minor overdosing. There have been few studies that have examined the rate and pattern of self-harm among different individuals of the society. We performed a population-based study to determine different aspects of non-suicidal self-harm in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars Province and south Iran. In a population-based longitudinal survey, we applied data from cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars province. The survey included questions about the history, method, frequency, age of onset and help-seeking for non-suicidal self-harm. The data about non-suicidal self-harm were collected since 2007 to 2011 and analyzed using students' T-test for continuous data and χ(2) for binary or categorical data using SPSS ver. 21.0. Totally 2166 individuals were diagnosed who had ever harmed themselves. Self-injuries such as cutting, scratching and self-hitting were the most common forms of non-suicidal self-harm (83.2%). The mean age of onset was 25.7 ± 2.6 years. Self-injury was more frequent in males and individuals with lower education levels mostly unemployed. The most frequent injury site was posterior side of the body for example shoulders (157; 9.8%) and the most type of the injury was bruise in 398(55.26%) cases. Hard objects (1197; 55.26%) were the most used devices for self-injury followed by cutting and sharp devices. Among those who reported non-suicidal self-harm, 56% had sought help while self-injury. We found a high prevalence of non-suicidal self-harm in different individuals of the society in Fars province since 2007 to 2011. Many mental-health symptoms as well as legal and financial gains should be evaluated for any association with this behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. The Cenozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the interior of South China Block: Constraints from mantle xenoliths in Guangxi Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Yao; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Sun, Min; Pan, Shao-Kui; Wang, Wei; Xia, Qun-Ke

    2014-12-01

    In contrast to the coastal regions of the South China Block (SCB), little is known about the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the interior of the SCB. Mantle xenoliths entrained in Cenozoic basalts in the eastern and central Guangxi Province, the interior of the SCB, includes spinel harzburgites, clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites, lherzolites and olivine websterites. The mineral chemistry of the harzburgites and clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites is moderately refractory [Mg# value of olivine (Mg#Ol) = 90.2-91.3], whereas other lherzolite is more fertile (Mg#Ol = 89.3). Zoned olivines (Mg#Ol = 83.7-88.8) in the harzburgites and zoned olivine xenocrysts (Mg#Ol = 75.2-82) in the basalts reflect disequilibrium between olivines and the basaltic host melts during magma ascent. An olivine websterite (Mg#Ol = 87.5) is similar to the lherzolite in mineral chemistry. The REE patterns of clinopyroxenes in these xenoliths vary from LREE-depleted, to flat, to LREE-enriched patterns, and commonly exhibit positive Sr anomalies and negative Nb, Zr and Ti anomalies. The peridotitic xenoliths mostly experienced moderate to high degree of melt extraction (F = 10-20%) and were modified by silicate metasomatism. We thus suggest that the harzburgites and clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites with high Mg#Ol values represent ancient (Proterozoic) lithospheric mantle, preserved beneath the Guangxi Province. In contrast, the minor, fertile (low-Mg#Ol) lherzolites represent lithospheric mantle accreted during the Phanerozoic, and a small amount of pyroxenite was produced via interaction between peridotite and silicate-rich melts. The mantle-accretion process that occurred beneath the SCB during the Mesozoic to Cenozoic time extended into Guangxi Province. The lithospheric mantle beneath the interior of the SCB is heterogeneous, featuring various types of peridotite and co-existing pyroxenite. This heterogeneity also indicates that the lithospheric mantle beneath the regions affected by

  5. A hospital based surveillance system to assess the burden of trauma in KwaZulu-Natal Province South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Moodley, Nirvasha; Tefera, Aida; Sartorius, Benn; Hardcastle, Timothy; Clarke, Damian

    2016-01-01

    In response to the ongoing excessive burden of trauma in South Africa the Data Management and Epidemiology Units of the Department of Health in conjunction with a group of trauma specialists developed a number of trauma data variables for inclusion on the routine District Health Information System (DHIS). The aim of this study is to describe the process followed and review the 2012-2014 data. The variables collected included: total patient numbers assessed in the emergency room with a diagnosis of trauma; the mechanisms of trauma (blunt assault, motor vehicle accident, pedestrian vehicle accident, stab, gunshot wound, other); any trauma patient admitted to a health facility ward/ICU for longer than 12h; and whether the patient required transfer to a higher centre of care. All trauma deaths in hospital were recorded. The severity of trauma was measured using the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) classification of blue code (dead), red code (stretcher case with deranged physiology), yellow code (stretcher case with normal physiology) and green code (able to walk with normal physiology. The DHIS trauma data from April 2012 to March 2014 was reviewed. There were 197,219 emergency room visits for trauma in KZN in the 2013/2014 financial year. This constitutes 27.0% of all emergency room visits. The ratio of intentional to non-intentional injury is 45:55. There were 18,716 admissions to public sector hospitals for trauma in KZN in the 2013/2014 financial year. This constitutes 2.4% of all admissions in the province. There were 1045 inpatient deaths due to trauma in the same period, constituting 2.5% of all inpatient deaths. The overall rate of trauma in KZN was 17 per 1000 population. The adapted DHIS has successfully collected essential data that quantify the hospital burden of trauma in KZN province. This has provided the most complete overview of the burden of trauma in the Province. These trauma indicators should remain a permanent part of the DHIS to allow planners

  6. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    PubMed Central

    Munyewende, Pascalia O.; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. Objective To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. Results A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers’ competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33–9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Waters and Beach Sand in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Akanbi, Olufemi Emmanuel; Njom, Henry Akum; Fri, Justine; Otigbu, Anthony C; Clarke, Anna M

    2017-09-01

    Background: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to commonly used antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial-resistant determinants in nature, and the marine environment may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study determined the antibiotic sensitivity profile of S.aureus isolated from selected beach water and intertidal beach sand in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: Two hundred and forty-nine beach sand and water samples were obtained from 10 beaches from April 2015 to April 2016. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the samples using standard microbiological methods and subjected to susceptibility testing to 15 antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected by susceptibility to oxacillin and growth on Brilliance MRSA II agar. Antibiotic resistance genes including mecA, femA rpoB, blaZ, ermB, ermA, ermC, vanA, vanB, tetK and tetM were screened. Results: Thirty isolates (12.3%) were positive for S. aureus by PCR with over 50% showing phenotypic resistance to methicillin. Resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics varied considerably with the highest resistance recorded to ampicillin and penicillin (96.7%), rifampicin and clindamycin (80%), oxacillin (73.3%) and erythromycin (70%). S.aureus revealed varying susceptibility to imipenem (96.7%), levofloxacin (86.7%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), cefoxitin (76.7%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), gentamycin (63.3%), tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (56.7%), and vancomycin and doxycycline (50%). All 30 (100%) S. aureus isolates showed multiple antibiotic-resistant patterns (resistant to three or more antibiotics). The mecA, femA, rpoB, blaZ, ermB and tetM genes were detected in 5 (22.7%), 16 (53.3%), 11 (45.8%), 16 (55.2%), 15 (71.4%), and 8 (72.7%) isolates respectively; Conclusions: Results from this study indicate that beach water and sand from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa may be potential

  8. Comparative analysis of plant use in peri-urban domestic gardens of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively little has been researched or published on the importance of peri-urban domestic gardens as part of a household livelihood strategy in South Africa. Due to lack of comprehensive data on peri-urban domestic gardens, their potential value as luxury green space, provision of food, income and ecosystem services to the fast growing urban population in South Africa is not clearly known. The aim of this study was to document differences and similarities in plant use and diversity in domestic gardens of two peri-urban communities in the Limpopo Province that differ in proximity to an urban area. Methods Data on plant use categories of 62 domestic gardens in the peri-urban areas of the Limpopo Province were collected in Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Semi-structured interviews, observation and guided field walks with 62 participants were employed between May and October 2012. Results A total of 126 plant species were recorded for both Seshego and Lebowakgomo. Domestic gardens in the more remote areas of Lebowakgomo were characterized by higher percentage of food plants (47 species, 83.8% of the total food plants recorded) and medicinal plants (31 species, 83.7%). Lebowakgomo domestic gardens were also characterized by higher numbers of indigenous plants (76.7%) showing similarities to the natural surrounding vegetation in terms of plant species. On the contrary, domestic gardens of Seshego on the periphery of the city centre were characterized by higher percentage of exotic species (81.8%) and ornamental plants (73%), with food plants playing a supplementary role. Comparison of the two areas demonstrated a remarkable difference in plant use and composition. Conclusions This study revealed that there are differences in utilization of plant resources between households on the edge of an urban centre and those in the more remote areas. Food and medicinal plants play an important role in remote areas; while ornamental plants play an important role in urban

  9. Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Methods Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Results Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. Conclusions The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a

  10. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2016-01-01

    Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers' competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33-9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest rating for financial management (supervisor

  11. Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice.

    PubMed

    Semenya, Sebua S; Potgieter, Martin J

    2014-01-10

    Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. However, literature profiling their social and demographic variables, as well as their traditional healing practices is lacking. Convenience sampling were used to identify and select two traditional healers from 17 municipalities (resulting in 34 healers being used in this pilot survey) of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. Information on the social and demographic variables, and traditional healing practices of these healers was gathered from January 2013 to July 2013, using a semi-structured questionnaire, supplemented by field surveys for plant identification and collection used in the preparation of remedies. Males constituted nearly two-thirds of the participants. Forty eight percent of them became healers through the mentoring of another healer, while 38% acquired their traditional healing knowledge from parents and 14% from grandparents. In contrast to this, 62% of the females obtained theirs from their parents, 30% from fellow traditional healers, and 8% from grandparents. A total of 154 plant species were indicated as used by healers in the treatment of 52 health-related problems. A vast majority (89%) of these practitioners reported that prepared herbal remedies do expire, which is a temperature-dependent process. Determinations of the efficacy of remedies by most healers (67%) were via consultation with ancestors (90%). This study also found that none of the interviewees had any knowledge of provincial or national environmental legislation. The current study has shown that Bapedi traditional healers could play a leading role in both the preservation of indigenous knowledge and the primary health care sector. However, of concern is the traditional methods (via consulting ancestors) employed by most of these healers in determining efficacy of remedies, thus indicating a need for a scientific investigations to establish

  12. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    PubMed

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2016-01-01

    Background Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. Objective To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104) and subordinate nurses (n=383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. Results A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers' competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33-9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest rating

  13. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  14. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage in healthcare workers in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Rosemary J; François, Guido; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Mureithi, John G; Africa, Patricia N; Satekge, Mpho M; Mokonoto, D Maggie; Meheus, André; van Sprundel, Marc

    2011-06-06

    Hepatitis B (HB) virus (HBV) is highly endemic and HBV infection is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Percutaneous/parenteral transmission is an important mode of spread of HBV in the healthcare setting, thus healthcare workers (HCWs) and their patients are at risk for acquiring HBV infections. This study was conducted on three HCW populations in Gauteng Province during 2009, in order to (1) determine HB vaccination coverage of HCWs, and (2) investigate demographic predictors of vaccination uptake. Being a doctor was a statistically significant predictor of vaccination uptake (odds ratio [OR]: 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-6.72; p-value: 0.003), while working in the private sector was also statistically significantly associated with vaccination uptake (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01-2.98; chi-square p-value: 0.035). The majority (67.9% [491/723]) of HCWs had received at least 1 dose of vaccine, but where data on number of doses was available, only 19.9% (94/472) were fully vaccinated. In conclusion, there is a need to increase HB vaccination uptake in Gauteng HCWs through a policy that is properly implemented and routinely monitored and evaluated, and this policy must ensure that all three doses of vaccine are administered.

  15. Midwives' experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maputle, S M; Hiss, D C

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized. This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  16. The accuracy of nurse performance of the triage process in a tertiary hospital emergency department in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, L N; Morrow, L M; Sallie, T A; Gathoo, K; Alli, K; Mothopeng, T M M; Samodien, F

    2017-02-27

    Triage in the emergency department (ED) is necessary to prioritise management according to the severity of a patient's condition.The South African Triage Scale (SATS) is a hospital-based triage tool that has been adopted by numerous EDs countrywide.Many factors can influence the outcome of a patient's triage result, and evaluation of performance is therefore pivotal. To determine how often patients were allocated to the correct triage category and the extent to which they were incorrectly promoted or demoted, and to determine the main reasons for errors in a nurse-led triage system. Triage forms from a tertiary hospital ED in Gauteng Province, South Africa, were collected over a 1-week period and reviewed retrospectively. A total of 1 091 triage forms were reviewed. Triage category allocations were correct 68.3% of the time. Of the incorrect category assignments, 44.4% of patients were promoted and 55.6% demoted. Patients in the green category were most commonly promoted (29.4%) and patients who should have been in orange were most commonly demoted (35.0%). Trauma patients were more likely to be incorrectly promoted and non-trauma patients to be incorrectly demoted. Mistakes were mainly due to discriminator errors (57.8%), followed by numerical miscalculations (21.5%). The leading omitted discriminators were 'abdominal pain', 'chest pain' and 'shortness of breath'. Mis-triaging using the SATS can be attributed to incorrect or lack of discriminator use, numerical miscalculations and other human errors. Quality control and quality assurance measures must target training in these areas to minimise mis-triage in the ED.

  17. Social drift of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Africans from the North West Province of South Africa: the PURE study.

    PubMed

    Pisa, P T; Behanan, R; Vorster, H H; Kruger, A

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether the association between socio-economic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in black South Africans from the North West Province had shifted from the more affluent groups with higher SES to the less affluent, lower SES groups over a period of nine years. Cross-sectional baseline data of 2 010 urban and rural subjects (35 years and older) participating in the Prospective Urban and Rural (PURE) study and collected in 2005 were analysed to examine the relationship of level of education, employment and urban or rural residence with dietary intakes and other CVD risk factors. These relationships were compared to those found nine years earlier in the Transition and Health during the Urbanisation of South Africans (THUSA) study conducted in the same area. The results showed that urban women had higher body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride and fasting glucose levels compared to rural women and that both urban men and women had higher blood pressures and followed a more Westernised diet. However, rural men and women had higher plasma fibrinogen levels. The more highly educated subjects (which included both urban and rural subjects) were younger than those with no or only primary school education. Few of the risk factors differed significantly between education groups, except that more highly educated men and women had lower BMIs, and women had lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels. These women also followed a more prudent diet than those with only primary school education. Employed men and women had higher BMIs, higher energy intakes but lower plasma fibrinogen levels, and employed women had lower triglyceride levels. No significant differences in total serum cholesterol values were observed. These results suggest a drift of CVD risk factors from groups with higher SES to groups with a lower SES from 1996 to 2005, indicating that interventions to prevent CVD should also be targeted at Africans living in rural

  18. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  19. The mammalian fauna associated with an archaic hominin skullcap and later Acheulean artifacts at Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Steele, Teresa E

    2007-02-01

    The Elandsfontein site, Western Cape Province, South Africa, is well known for an archaic hominin skullcap associated with later Acheulean artifacts. The site has also provided nearly 13,000 mammalian bones that can be identified to skeletal part and taxon. The assemblage derives from 49 species, 15 of which have no historic descendants. Comparisons to radiometrically dated faunas in eastern Africa indicate an age between 1 million and 600 thousand years ago. Unique features of the fauna, including the late occurrence of a dirk-toothed cat and a sivathere, may reflect its geographic origin in a region that was notable historically for its distinctive climate and high degree of biotic endemism. Together, taxonomic composition, geomorphic setting, and pollen extracted from coprolites indicate the proximity of a large marsh or pond, maintained by a higher water table. The small average size of the black-backed jackals implies relatively mild temperatures. The sum of the evidence places bone accumulation during one of the mid-Pleistocene interglacials that were longer and cooler than later ones, including the Holocene. The geomorphic context of the fauna presents no evidence for catastrophe, and most deaths probably resulted from attritional factors that disproportionately killed the young and old. However, only the dental-age profile of long-horned buffalo supports this directly. Field collection methods biased skeletal-part representation, but originally, it probably resembled the pattern in the younger, marsh-edge Acheulean occurrence at Duinefontein 2, 45 km to the south. Excavation there exposed multiple vertebral spreads, which probably mark carcasses from which hominins or large carnivores removed the meatier elements. Bone damage at both sites suggests that, despite abundant artifacts, hominins were much less important than carnivores in the bone accumulation. Together with limited observations from other sites, Elandsfontein and Duinefontein provisionally

  20. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, south Africa.

    PubMed

    Makgatho, C N; McCrindle, C M E; Owen, J H

    2005-12-01

    Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984). In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men ( n = 55). The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  1. Public-sector ART in the Free State Province, South Africa: community support as an important determinant of outcome.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; Van Damme, Wim; Van Loon, Francis; van Rensburg, Dingie; Meulemans, Herman

    2009-10-01

    The treatment outcomes for large-scale public antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in developing countries, although promising, are still preliminary. The scaling-up of ART in resource-limited settings is inevitably hampered by human resource shortages. Therefore, community support for ART patients may play an important role in achieving favorable treatment outcomes. This study aimed to extend the current literature by investigating how immunological and virological responses to ART, measured at three points in time (after six, 12, and 24 months of ART), are influenced by patient characteristics (age, sex), health literacy (educational level and knowledge about HIV/AIDS), baseline CD4 cell count, baseline viral load, and three forms of community support (treatment buddy, community health worker [CHW], and HIV/AIDS support group). Cross-lagged regression analysis was used to test these relationships in a sample of 268 patients enrolled in the public-sector ART program of the Free State Province of South Africa (2004-2007). After 24 months of ART, 76.4% of patients were classified as treatment successes (viral load < 400 copies/mL, CD4 > or = 200 cells/microL), compared with 64.1% at 12 months and 46.1% at six months. When we examined the predictors of ART success, baseline health and all three community support initiatives had a positive effect on ART outcomes after six months, whereas patient characteristics had little effect. Six months later, patients with the support of a treatment buddy, CHW, or support group had better ART outcomes, whereas the impact of baseline health had diminished. After two years of treatment, community support again emerged as the most important predictor of treatment success. This study confirms that the ART provided by South African public-sector health services is effective. These results provide evidence from the field that communities can be mobilized to sustain these favorable outcomes under conditions of limited human resources

  2. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Motadi, Selekane A; Mbhatsani, Vanessa; Shilote, Kulani O

    2016-07-29

    Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to determine the women's knowledge on food fortification. The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women's knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0%) of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0%) of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%]) of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  3. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mbhatsani, Vanessa; Shilote, Kulani O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0%) of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0%) of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%]) of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme. PMID:27542291

  4. Two new species and one newly recorded species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Hainan Province, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-qiu; Sha, Zhong-li

    2013-01-01

    A total of 5 species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are identified from Hainan Province, South China Sea. In those, one species, Kamaka excavata Ariyama, 2007, is recorded for the first time in Chinese waters. Two new species, Kamaka corophina sp. n. and Kamaka foliacea sp. n., are described. A key to the Chinese species is provided. They were collected from littoral zone, mud flat in seaweed of mangrove side, brackish water and seawater, sifted out with sieve.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  6. Family experiences of home caring for patients with HIV/AIDs in rural Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tshililo, Azwidihwi R; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu

    2009-06-01

    The increasing rate of patients with HIV/AIDS brings a burden to the already weakened health care delivery systems in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Hospitals alone cannot deal with the needs of AIDS patients effectively; the patients are discharged to be cared for at home. A qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe the experiences of the family members that are caring for patients with HIV/AIDS at home. Interviews were conducted with 12 participants who were purposively selected as the caregivers of patients suffering from AIDS at home. Ethical measures were adhered to for the protection of the participants. The findings revealed that the family members experience negative feelings, characterized by sadness, pain, anger, depression, and frustration, as they care for their loved one within the context of extreme poverty. Quality care was compromised in situations where basic resources were not available. Guidelines to assist families in caring for their loved one with HIV/AIDS at home were developed.

  7. Modelling the trends of inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation for methamphetamine in the Western Cape province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mushanyu, J; Nyabadza, F; Stewart, A G R

    2015-12-18

    Dependence on methamphetamine remains one of the major health and social problem in the Western Cape province of South Africa. We consider a mathematical model that takes into account two forms of rehabilitation, namely; inpatient and outpatient. We examine the trends of these two types of rehabilitation. We also seek to investigate the global dynamics of the developed methamphetamine epidemic model. The model is designed by likening the initiation process to an infection that spreads in a community through interactions between methamphetamine users and non-users. We make use of Lyapunov functions obtained from a suitable combination of common quadratic and Volterra-type functions to establish the global stability of the methamphetamine-persistent steady state. The least squares curve fit routine (lsqcurvefit) in Matlab with optimization is used to estimate the parameter values. The model analysis shows that the model has two equilibria, the methamphetamine free equilibrium and the methamphetamine persistent equilibrium, that are both globally stable when the threshold R(a) < 1 and R(a) > 1, respectively. Upon fitting the model to data on drug users under rehabilitation, parameter values that give the best fit were obtained. The projections carried out the long term trends of these forms of rehabilitation. The results suggest that inpatient rehabilitation programs have an increased potential of enhancing the chances of recovery for methamphetamine addicts.

  8. Factors influencing weight control practices amongst the adolescent girls in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netshikweta, Lizzy M.; Tshitangano, Grace T.; Nemathaga, Hilda L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of overweight is increasing amongst adolescents in many countries around the world. Healthy and unhealthy weight control practices are common amongst overweight and non-overweight adolescents. Aim The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing weight control practices amongst adolescent girls. Setting The study was conducted at selected secondary schools of Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select adolescents who are practicing weight control. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 participants. Data were analysed according to Tesch’s open-coding method. Results This study revealed that adolescent girls are influenced by a variety of factors to control their weights. These included individual factors, such as body image dissatisfaction; family factors, caused by parental criticism about adolescent weight; and environmental factors, which contain peer group endorsement of dieting. Conclusion Adolescents are exposed to many unhealthy weight control practices, as a way of controlling excess weight. So it is of importance for healthcare providers to make them aware of healthy practices. PMID:27380855

  9. Validation of Antimycobacterial Plants Used by Traditional Healers in Three Districts of the Limpopo Province (South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Masoko, Peter; Nxumalo, Kulani Mashudu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to scientifically evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of selected indigenous medicinal plants from the Limpopo Province used for the treatment of humans with symptoms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The leaves of five plant species (Apodytes dimidiata, Artemisia, Combretum hereroense, Lippia javanica, and Zanthoxylum capense) were collected from the Lowveld National Botanical Garden in Nelspruit, South Africa. The dried leaves were powdered and extracted using hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated using microdilution assay and bioautography and ρ-iodonitrotetrazolium violet (INT) as indicator. Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phytochemical content of extracts was further evaluated. The acetone extracts of L. javanica displayed antioxidant activity on BEA chromatogram. T Acetone extracts of A. afra had MIC value of 0.39 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 1441. Acetone extracts of C. hereroense and L. javanica had MIC value of 0.47 mg/mL. Four bands that inhibited the growth of M. smegmatis were observed at Rf values of 0.12, 0.63, and 0.87 on BEA and 0.73 on EMW. The plant species A. dimidiata, A. afra, C. hereroense, and L. javanica in this study demonstrated their potential as sources of anti-TB drug leads. PMID:23956776

  10. Forecasting the number of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in south of Fars province, Iran using seasonal ARIMA time series method.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mehdi; Ghaem, Haleh; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza; Faramarzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    To predict the trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assess the relationship between the disease trend and weather variables in south of Fars province using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. The trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis was predicted using Mini tab software and SARIMA model. Besides, information about the disease and weather conditions was collected monthly based on time series design during January 2010 to March 2016. Moreover, various SARIMA models were assessed and the best one was selected. Then, the model's fitness was evaluated based on normality of the residuals' distribution, correspondence between the fitted and real amounts, and calculation of Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). The study results indicated that SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,0)(12) in general and SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,1)(12) in below and above 15 years age groups could appropriately predict the disease trend in the study area. Moreover, temperature with a three-month delay (lag3) increased the disease trend, rainfall with a four-month delay (lag4) decreased the disease trend, and rainfall with a nine-month delay (lag9) increased the disease trend. Based on the results, leishmaniasis follows a descending trend in the study area in case drought condition continues, SARIMA models can suitably measure the disease trend, and the disease follows a seasonal trend. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxic heavy metals in sediments, seawater, and molluscs in the eastern and western coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Zhang, Jingping; Jiang, Zhijian; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and distribution were studied in sediments, seawater, and molluscs, and the possible heavy metal sources in the coastal waters of Guangdong Province, South China were discussed. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr in sediments in eastern coastal waters were generally higher than those in the western coastal waters. However, concentrations of most metals in seawater and molluscs in western waters were higher than in the eastern waters, which was tightly related to the local economics and urbanization development, especially, the different industrial structure in two regions. The main heavy metal sources were attributed to the industrial and agricultural effluent, domestic sewage, and even waste gas. Furthermore, heavy metal contamination assessment indicated that high contamination levels of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred in sediments in local areas, especially in the bays and harbors. The metal accumulation levels by molluscs ranked following the order of Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Pb > Cr, and the ecological risks introduced by heavy metals in different areas were in the order of Zhanjiang > Yangmao > Shantou > Shanhui.

  12. Random amplified polymorphic DNA typing of clinical and environmental Aeromonas hydrophila strains from Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ramalivhana, J N; Obi, C L; Samie, A; Labuschagne, C; Weldhagen, G F

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relatedness of strains isolated from diarrhoeal stool and water specimens collected from water-storage containers from different geographical areas in the Limpopo province. In total, 32 Aeromonas strains isolated from stool specimens collected from HIV/AIDS patients suffering from gastroenteritis and their household drinking-water stored in 20-L and 25-L containers were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD). The RAPD fingerprints obtained proved reproducible when repeated on three different occasions using whole-cell DNA isolated from the Aeromonas strains. In total, 12 unique RAPD fingerprints were found. The results revealed a tendency of the isolates to cluster according to their origin of isolation (best-cut test 0.80 and bootstrap values >50%). However, a certain degree of similarity was also observed between isolates of water sources and clinical sources which indicated genetic relatedness. There were also genetic similarities between the clinical and the environmental strains of Aeromonas spp. isolated from different geographical areas. This study has demonstrated the genetic relatedness of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from household drinking-water and clinical sources in South Africa, which may be due to cross-contamination from water to patients or vice-versa. This observation is of public-health significance, particularly in the era of HIV/AIDS. This study points to the importance of monitoring and evaluating infection-control measures for improved hygiene and to prevent cross-contaminations.

  13. Metropolitan urban hotspots of chronic sleep deprivation: evidence from a community health survey in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Sun-Bi; Um, Jung-Sup

    2015-11-04

    The geographic concentration of chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) remains largely unexplored. This paper examined the community-specific spatial pattern of the prevalence of CSD and the presence of clustered spatial hotspots among the Korean elderly population in Gyeongbuk Province, South Korea, revealing CSD hotspots and underscoring the importance of geography-focused prevention strategies. The study analysed cross-sectional data collected from 9847 elderly individuals aged 60 years and older who participated in a Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 2012. To assess the level of spatial dependence, an exploratory spatial data analysis was conducted using Global Moran's I statistic and the local indicator of spatial association. The results revealed marked geographic variations in CSD prevalence ranging from 33.4 to 73.4%, with higher values in the metropolitan urban areas and lower in the rural areas. Almost half of the community residents [both men (44.1%) and women (53.5%)] slept 6 h or less per 24 h. The average CSD prevalence (53.6% men and 65.1% women) in the hotspots was about 13.0% higher than that in other areas (42.6% for men and 51.1% for women). To our knowledge, this is the first study to generate a CSD hotspot map that includes data on sleep deprivation across metropolitan district levels. This study demonstrates that not only is sleep deprivation distributed differentially across communities but these differences may be explained by urbanisation.

  14. 'Secrets' that kill: crisis, custodianship and responsibility in ritual male circumcision in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kepe, Thembela

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyses a tension between traditional leaders and the post-apartheid government in South Africa, concerning the crisis in ritual male circumcision. Over the last two decades, following ritual male circumcision, thousands of youth have been admitted to hospitals, hundreds have undergone penile amputations and hundreds have died. Following the government's intervention through legislation and other health measures, traditional leaders allege that this is a violation of cultural rights enshrined in the Constitution. Drawing on newspaper and journal articles, books, policy documents, and legislation, as well as informal interviews with initiates and their parents and field observations in the Eastern Cape Province (2002-2009), this paper explores the validity of the traditional leaders' challenge, arguing that the crisis in the ritual should be seen in a broader context than the tension between traditional leaders and the state. Finally, the paper argues the tension between traditional leaders and government, and the sensational reporting of this by the media, unfortunately takes away focus from the health crisis in the ritual. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the Dzimauli community in Vhembe District, Limpopo province of South Africa, for the MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bessong, Pascal Obong; Nyathi, Emanuel; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Netshandama, Vhonani

    2014-11-01

    The Dzimauli community is located in the Vhembe district in the northern part of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The district is bordered by Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north and Mozambique to the East. The study site population is entirely blacks and 53% female, with a mean household size of 6 persons. Through a consultative process, we engaged and prepared the Dzimauli, a community of low socioeconomic status, to participate in a longitudinal, observational study. In addition to contributing to the objectives of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we established a high degree of public trust and understanding of scientific research within the community and its leaders. This has resulted in creating an entirely new site suitable for potential future field-based intervention studies based on an improved understanding of the factors influencing child health in this community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Partial Melting of Subducted Sediments Produced Early Mesozoic Calc-alkaline Lamprophyres from Northern Guangxi Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Min; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wu, Xiang-Ke

    2017-07-07

    There is growing agreement that subducted sediments recycled into the deep mantle could make a significant contribution to the generation of various mantle-derived rocks. However, solid evidence and examples to support this view are few, and whether or not the subducted sediments can act as the dominating material source for the magma is unclear. Here, we report a comprehensive geochemical study that demonstrates that the newly identified Early Mesozoic calc-alkaline lamprophyres in the northern Guangxi Province, southeastern Yangtze Block in South China were likely derived in large part from the partial melting of the subducted terrigenous sediments in the deep mantle. The investigated lamprophyres are SiO2-rich minettes, characterized by moderate TFeO and MgO and high Mg(#) (>70). The multi-element pattern shows a typical crustal-like signature, such as enrichments in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) with troughs in Nb-Ta, Ti and Eu and peaks in Th-U and Pb. These rocks also show sediment-like ratios of Nb/U, Nb/Th and Ce/Pb, together with extremely radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr (0.71499-0.71919), unradiogenic (143)Nd/(144)Nd (0.51188-0.51195) and radiogenic (207)Pb/(204)Pb (15.701-15.718) isotopic compositions.

  17. Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cegielski, J. Peter; van der Walt, Martie L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed data for a retrospective cohort of patients treated for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in 2 provinces in South Africa and compared predictors of treatment outcome in HIV-positive patients who received or had not received antiretroviral drugs with those for HIV-negative patients. Overall, 220 (62.0%) of 355 patients were HIV positive. After 2 years, 34 (10.3%) of 330 patients with a known HIV status and known outcome had a favorable outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that predictors of favorable outcome were negative results for acid-fast bacilli by sputum microscopy at start of treatment and weight >50 kg. HIV-positive patients were more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. The strongest predictor of unfavorable outcome was weight <50 kg. Overall outcomes were poor. HIV status was not a predictor of favorable outcome, but HIV-positive patients were more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. These results underscore the need for timely and adequate treatment for tuberculosis and HIV infection. PMID:27538119

  18. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and anthelmintic resistance on small-scale farms in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tsotetsi, Ana Mbokeleng; Njiro, Stephen; Katsande, Tendai Charles; Moyo, Gugulethu; Baloyi, Faculty; Mpofu, Jaison

    2013-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths, to detect the presence of anthelmintic resistance in livestock from small-scale farms and to determine the level of helminthosis awareness among small-scale farmers in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Blood and faecal samples were collected from cattle (n = 314), sheep (n = 256) and goats (n = 311). Faecal egg counts and cultures were done, helminth genera identified and packed cell volume was assessed to detect anaemia. A faecal egg count reduction test was used to determine anthelmintic resistance against albendazole (7.5 mg/kg), levamisole (5 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) on five small ruminant farms. A high prevalence of both nematodes and trematodes was observed; however, only 1 % of cattle had high nematode egg counts compared to goats (30 %) and sheep (32 %). Only 5 % of the animals were anaemic. Haemonchus and Calicophoron were the most dominant helminth genera in the studied ruminants. Anthelmintic resistance was detected against the three tested drugs on all the screened farms, except against albendazole and levamisole in sheep from Hammanskraal and Nigel, respectively. About 88 % of interviewed farmers were aware of veterinary helminthosis, 67 % treated against helminths and 83 % provided their livestock with nutritional supplements. This study showed that a high prevalence of helminthosis and anthelmintic resistance does occur in the study area, thus relevant strategic interventions are recommended.

  19. Ectoparasite burdens of the common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) from the Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Archer, Elizabeth K; Bennett, Nigel C; Ueckermann, Edward A; Lutermann, Heike

    2014-02-01

    The members of the African mole-rat family Bathyergidae are widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, the current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited and ambiguous due to recent revisions of the bathyergid taxonomy. The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus) is 1 of the most widely distributed species of these subterranean rodents. Ectoparasites were collected from 268 common mole-rats at 2 localities (Western and Northern Cape provinces) in South Africa over the course of 18 mo with the aim to document species richness, prevalence, and abundance of these ectoparasites. The aggregation of parasite species, sex bias within a species, and seasonal variation in ectoparasite burdens were investigated. A total of 4,830 individual parasites from 4 mite species (Androlaelaps scapularis, Androlaelaps capensis, Radfordia ensifera, and 1 undetermined chigger [family Trombiculidae]), 1 flea species (Cryptopsylla ingrami), and 1 louse species (Eulinognathus hilli) were collected. With the exception of R. ensifera and the chigger, all of these ectoparasites appear to be host specific either for the host species or the Bathyergidae. Aggregation indices indicated that with the exception of E. hilli, the distribution of all parasite species was highly aggregated among hosts and sex biased. Seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and species richness was apparent, with greater burdens in the rainy winter season. This is likely related to seasonal variation in abiotic factors but may also be affected by the timing of host reproduction and dispersal behavior.

  20. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  1. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi-Moghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rezvani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran). The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6%) males and 155 (47.4%) females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%), 48 (14.7%), and 45 (13.8%) cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4%) of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2%) patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years) and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years) cases (P=0.16). The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE) occurring in young people. PMID:27365554

  2. Dietary Intake, Nutrition, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Hamrick, Kari J.; Corbin, Karen D.; Hasken, Julie; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E.; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-hours recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50 percent of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. PMID:24568797

  3. Dietary intake, nutrition, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Hamrick, Kari J; Corbin, Karen D; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Brooke, Lesley E; Blankenship, Jason; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we describe the nutritional status of women from a South African community with very high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Nutrient intake (24-h recall) of mothers of children with FASD was compared to mothers of normal controls. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). More than 50% of all mothers were below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, D, E, and C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Mean intakes were below the Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin K, potassium, and choline. Mothers of children with FASD reported significantly lower intake of calcium, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), riboflavin, and choline than controls. Lower intake of multiple key nutrients correlates significantly with heavy drinking. Poor diet quality and multiple nutritional inadequacies coupled with prenatal alcohol exposure may increase the risk for FASD in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tectonic discrimination of chromian spinels, olivines and pyroxenes in the Northeastern Jiangxi Province ophiolite, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Yang, Jingsui; Pan, Jiayong; Fan, Xiujun; Zhou, Wenting; Duan, Gehong

    2016-11-01

    The peridotites of the Northeastern Jiangxi Province Ophiolite (NJO), including dunite, harzburgite and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgite, are strongly altered under serpentinization, except for minor aggregations of partially-altered olivines, chromian spinels and pyroxenes. The forsterite content of olivines in dunites (Fo 93.6) is slightly higher than in harzburgites (Fo 91.4). Chromian spinels in harzburgites and dunites are very refractory, with restricted chemical compositions of high-Cr varieties. The unaltered cores of chromian spinels have low Al2O3 and TiO2 content, and display a large range of Mg# (100× [Mg/(Mg + Fe)], 41-64) and Cr# (100× [Cr/(Cr + Al)], 53-83) values, suggesting that the peridotites originated from a highly-depleted mantle. The spinels plotted in "olivine-spinel mantle array" (OSMA) diagram and Cr# versus. Mg# diagram both indicate the peridotite of NJO experienced a >25 % partial melting. The positive correlation between the Cr# and the TiO2 content probably resulted from the reaction between boninitic melt and mantle peridotite, as a consequence of melt-mantle interaction within the arc setting. The oxygen fugacity (ƒO2), calculated using chromian spinel-olivine pairs, indicates that the peridotites in the NJO were formed under relatively low oxidizing conditions quite different from those commonly found in supra-subductions zones (SSZ). This might be explained by the reaction between fore-arc magmas and residual mantle in a back-arc oceanic basin during a rapid subduction process. The Neoproterozoic subduction between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks was therefore probably rapid, and the addition of water and other volatiles to the mantle wedge beneath the island arc would have enhanced melting, leading to the production of highly depleted boninitic melts.

  5. Trends in cancer incidence in rural Eastern Cape Province; South Africa, 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Somdyala, Ntuthu I M; Parkin, D Maxwell; Sithole, Nomfuneko; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2015-03-01

    There are few cancer trend data reported in sub-Saharan Africa notably due to the scarcity of population-based cancer registries (PBCRs). The Eastern Cape Province PBCR is amongst the few registries in sub-Saharan Africa that reports data for a rural population. Trends in cancer incidence are reported for the period 1998-2012. Registered cases, age-standardized rates (ASRs) and standardized rate ratios are presented for the most common cancers in both males and females in three periods (1998-2002, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012). In males, the most commonly diagnosed cancer during the 15 year period was cancer of the oesophagus; incidence rates showed a significant decline over the 15 year period, entirely due to a 30% decrease between 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to an ASR of 23.2 per 100,000 population. This was followed by prostate cancer, the incidence of which was more than doubled to a level of 9.9/100,000. In women, cancer of the cervix uteri has become the most common malignancy, with a significant increase in incidence during the period to 29.0/100,000. Oesophageal cancer is second in frequency, with (as in males) a significant decline in the final 10 years to an incidence of 14.5/100,000 in 2008-2012. The incidence of breast cancer increased by 61%, although the absolute rate remains low (12.2/100,000). The incidence rates of colorectal cancer are low, and the increases in incidence, although relatively large (35% in men, 63% in women) were not statistically significant. Kaposi sarcoma showed a dramatic increase in incidence in both sexes (3.5-fold in men, 11-fold in women) although the incidence remains relatively low by southern African standards. Cancer prevention and control activities in the area need to be informed by these data and strengthened. © 2014 UICC.

  6. Tectonic discrimination of chromian spinels, olivines and pyroxenes in the Northeastern Jiangxi Province ophiolite, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Guolin; Liu, Xiaodong; Yang, Jingsui; Pan, Jiayong; Fan, Xiujun; Zhou, Wenting; Duan, Gehong

    2017-06-01

    The peridotites of the Northeastern Jiangxi Province Ophiolite (NJO), including dunite, harzburgite and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgite, are strongly altered under serpentinization, except for minor aggregations of partially-altered olivines, chromian spinels and pyroxenes. The forsterite content of olivines in dunites (Fo 93.6) is slightly higher than in harzburgites (Fo 91.4). Chromian spinels in harzburgites and dunites are very refractory, with restricted chemical compositions of high-Cr varieties. The unaltered cores of chromian spinels have low Al2O3 and TiO2 content, and display a large range of Mg# (100× [Mg/(Mg + Fe)], 41-64) and Cr# (100× [Cr/(Cr + Al)], 53-83) values, suggesting that the peridotites originated from a highly-depleted mantle. The spinels plotted in "olivine-spinel mantle array" (OSMA) diagram and Cr# versus. Mg# diagram both indicate the peridotite of NJO experienced a >25 % partial melting. The positive correlation between the Cr# and the TiO2 content probably resulted from the reaction between boninitic melt and mantle peridotite, as a consequence of melt-mantle interaction within the arc setting. The oxygen fugacity (ƒO2), calculated using chromian spinel-olivine pairs, indicates that the peridotites in the NJO were formed under relatively low oxidizing conditions quite different from those commonly found in supra-subductions zones (SSZ). This might be explained by the reaction between fore-arc magmas and residual mantle in a back-arc oceanic basin during a rapid subduction process. The Neoproterozoic subduction between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks was therefore probably rapid, and the addition of water and other volatiles to the mantle wedge beneath the island arc would have enhanced melting, leading to the production of highly depleted boninitic melts.

  7. Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites at Zuodeng Section, Guangxi Province, South China: Geobiology and palaeoceanographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuheng; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Kershaw, Stephen; Yang, Hao; Luo, Mao

    2017-05-01

    A previously unknown microbialite bed in the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary beds of Zuodeng section, Tiandong County, Guangxi, South China comprises a thin (5 cm maximum thickness) stromatolite in the lower part and the remaining 6 m is thrombolite. The Zuodeng microbialite has a pronounced irregular contact between the latest Permian bioclastic limestone and microbialite, as in other sites in the region. The stromatolite comprises low-relief columnar and broad domal geometries, containing faint laminations. The thrombolite displays an irregular mixture of sparitic dark coloured altered microbial fabric and light coloured interstitial sediment in polished blocks. Abundant microproblematic calcimicrobe structures identified here as Gakhumella are preserved in dark coloured laminated areas of the stromatolite and sparitic areas in thrombolites (i.e. the calcimicrobial part, not the interstitial sediment) and are orientated perpendicular to stromatolitic laminae. Each Gakhumella individual has densely arranged segments, which form a column- to fan-shaped structure. Single segments are arch-shaped and form a thin chamber between segments. Gakhumella individuals in the stromatolite and thrombolite are slightly different from each other, but are readily distinguished from the Gakhumella- and Renalcis-like fossils reported from other P-Tr boundary microbialites in having a smaller size, unbranching columns and densely arranged, arch-shaped segments. Renalcids usually possess a larger body size and branching, lobate outlines. Filament sheath aggregates are also observed in the stromatolite and they are all orientated in one direction. Both Gakhumella and filament sheath aggregates may be photosynthetic algae, which may have played an important role in constructing the Zuodeng microbialites. Other calcimicrobes in the Zuodeng microbialite are spheroids, of which a total of five morphological types are recognized from both stromatolite and thrombolite: (1) sparry calcite

  8. Prevalence of blindness and outcomes of cataract surgery in Hainan Province in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Emmy Y; Liu, Yingpeng; Zhan, Xingkai; Liang, Yuan Bo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zheng, Chongren; Jhanji, Vishal; Xu, Ping; Chang, David F; Lam, Dennis S C

    2013-11-01

    To define the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI) in people in rural Hainan using the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) and to report the outcomes of cataract surgery among the residents. Population-based, cross-sectional survey. A total of 6482 rural residents of the Hainan province. A total of 136 clusters, each of which consisted of 50 people aged ≥50 years, were selected through probability-proportionate-to-size sampling. Door-to-door visits were performed by 2 outreach teams. Visual acuity (VA) was measured on site, and those with VA <6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. Causes of blindness and VI were determined. The causes of poor visual outcome after cataract surgery were evaluated. Information regarding barriers to receiving surgery was collected by trained interviewers. Prevalence and causes of blindness (VA <3/60), severe VI (SVI) (VA <6/60 but ≥3/60), and VI (VA <6/18 but ≥6/60) based on presenting VA (PVA) were assessed. Outcomes of cataract surgery performed in public and private hospitals and charitable organizations were compared. A total of 6482 subjects were examined (response rate, 95.3%). The sample prevalence of blindness was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-6.8). The prevalence of SVI and VI was 1.9% (95% CI, 0-4.3) and 9.9% (95% CI, 7.6-12.2), respectively. Age and sex were associated with increased prevalence of blindness, SVI, and VI. Overall, cataract accounted for approximately 60% of blindness and SVI. Of the 524 eyes that had received cataract surgery, 87.2% had intraocular lenses implanted, 21% had a poor visual outcome (PVA <6 /60), and 20% had a borderline visual outcome (PVA <6/18 but ≥6/60). Eyes that received surgery in charitable organizations had a higher rate of intraocular lens implantation and good visual outcome (VA ≥6/18) compared with eyes that were operated on elsewhere. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and VI was high among rural residents in Hainan

  9. Reasons for the low bacteriological coverage of tuberculosis reported in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mngomezulu, N; Cameron, D; Olorunju, S; Luthuli, T; Dunbar, R; Naidoo, P

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : Hôpitaux publics et centres de santé primaire de la province de Mpumalanga en Afrique du Sud.Objectif : Déterminer si le défaut de respecter les directives de diagnostic de la tuberculose (TB) (c'est-à-dire soumettre des crachats à la microscopie de frottis) a contribué à la faible couverture bactériologique rapportée en 2008.Méthodes : Nous avons revu les dossiers cliniques des nouveaux cas de TB pulmonaire dans 30 de 118 structures sélectionnées au hasard qui ont atteint la couverture bacteriologique visée de 80% et 30 de 87 structures qui ne l'ont pas atteinte. Les données des cas suivis dans les hôpitaux et les dispensaires ont été résumées sur des formulaires, saisies en informatique et comparées aux données du registre électronique de la TB (ETR). Nous avons évalué l'âge, le sexe, l'infection au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et le type de structure en tant que facteurs de confusion de l'enregistrement des frottis.Résultats : L'âge, le sexe et l'infection VIH n'ont pas influencé l'enregistrement des frottis. Dans les hôpitaux, 61,8% des cas de TB pulmonaire ont eu des résultats de frottis de crachats dans leurs dossiers cliniques comparés à 93,6% dans les dispensaires (P < 0,001). Sur les 711 cas (30,3%) qui n'avaient pas de résultats de frottis dans le ETR, 342 (48,1%) avaient des résultats de frottis dans leurs dossiers cliniques.Conclusion : La faible couverture bactériologique constatée est due à la fois à des pratiques cliniques médiocres (surtout dans les hôpitaux) et à une maintenance insuffisante des dossiers. Ces deux problèmes doivent être résolus afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients et la gestion du programme.

  10. Bayesian gravimetric inversion for local crustal model refinement in the Guangdong province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Sampietro, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the Earth crustal structure is a fundamental subject for many geophysical applications. As a first approximation, the crust composition can be subdivided into sediments and crystalline crust; the latter, in the case of the continental crust, can be further subdivided into upper, middle and lower crust, as it is done for example in the CRUST1.0 global model. Gravimetric inversion methods, in order to guarantee the uniqueness of the solution of the inverse problem, are generally used to infer only one boundary between two layers, e.g. the crustal thickness (i.e. the Moho depth). Here a method based on a Bayesian approach is proposed to refine an already existing crustal model by combining gravimetric observations and some a priori conditions on the crustal structure. Basically the method consists in subdividing the crustal volume under investigation into voxels and in estimating a label and a mass density for each voxel in such a way that the resulting gravimetric signal is consistent with the observed one and the a priori conditions are satisfied. The label characterizes the material type of each voxel, e.g. sediments, oceanic crust, upper crust, etc. The estimation procedure is based on a simulated annealing driven by a Gibbs sampler at each iterative step. Moreover, the proposed solution allows to easily integrate seismic profiles available in the study area to further constrain the result of the gravimetric inversion. In this work the method is applied to refine the crustal model beneath the Guangdong province in the Southern China. This region has been selected for its complex geological structure (e.g. both continental and oceanic crust are present) and for the plan of building here a massive detector of neutrino and geo-neutrino flux. For the latter experiment, an accurate knowledge of the underlying crustal structure is required. The gravity signal to be inverted, at a ground level and at a medium-high spatial resolution, comes from a recent

  11. Epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community in the Western Cape Province.

    PubMed Central

    May, P A; Brooke, L; Gossage, J P; Croxford, J; Adnams, C; Jones, K L; Robinson, L; Viljoen, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome in a South African community, and methodology was designed for the multidisciplinary study of fetal alcohol syndrome in developing societies. METHODS: An active case ascertainment, 2-tier methodology was used among 992 first-grade pupils. A case-control design, using measures of growth, development, dysmorphology, and maternal risk, delineated characteristics of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. RESULTS: A high rate of fetal alcohol syndrome was found in the schools--40.5 to 46.4 per 1000 children aged 5 to 9 years--and age-specific community rates (ages 6-7) were 39.2 to 42.9. These rates are 18 to 141 times greater than in the United States. Rural residents had significantly more fetal alcohol syndrome. After control for ethnic variation, children with fetal alcohol syndrome had traits similar to those elsewhere: poor growth and development, congruent dysmorphology, and lower intellectual functioning. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented the highest fetal alcohol syndrome rate to date in an overall community population. Fetal alcohol syndrome initiatives that incorporate innovative sampling and active case ascertainment methods can be used to obtain timely and accurate data among developing populations. PMID:11111264

  12. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  13. Phytotherapeutic Information on Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, I. O.; Grierson, D. S.; Afolayan, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The current rate of deforestation in Africa constitutes a serious danger to the future of medicinal plants on this continent. Conservation of these medicinal plants in the field and the scientific documentation of our knowledge about them are therefore crucial. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) was carried out in selected areas of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. These areas were Hala, Ncera, Sheshegu, and Gquamashe, all within the Nkonkobe Municipality. One hundred informants were interviewed. The survey included the identification of scientific and vernacular names of the plants used for treatment of TB as well as the methods of preparation and administration, the part used, dosage, and duration of treatment. The survey revealed 30 plants belonging to 21 families which are commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of TB and associated diseases. Of these plants Clausena anisata, Haemanthus albiflos, and Artemisia afra were the most cited. The leaves were the most common part used in the medicinal preparations. Our findings are discussed in relation to the importance of the documentation of medicinal plants. PMID:24864158

  14. Modeling the Complexities of Water, Hygiene, and Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Jonathan E.; Smith, James A.; Learmonth, Gerard P.; Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Dillingham, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were sub-optimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings. PMID:23186073

  15. Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records.

    PubMed

    Crafford, Dionne; Luus-Powell, Wilmien; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2014-09-01

    Baseline information on parasitic infections, including monogenean infections on wild fishes, may aid in implementation of proactive measures as opposed to reactive research aimed at crisis control with reference to future aquaculture applications. The aim of this project was to examine the freshwater monogenean fauna of the Vaal Dam, Vaal River system, South Africa. This short communication reports on infection statistics for monogenean species, some representing new locality records. Parasites were collected from host species other than Labeo spp. from the Vaal Dam, during a summer (January 2010) survey. Fish collected using gill nets of varying mesh sizes were weighed and measured. Mucous smears were prepared from the skin and fins with the aid of microscope slides. Fish were killed humanely by severing the spinal cord behind the head. Gills were carefully removed and divided into areas which were separately scraped to investigate potential parasite site preference. The areas examined were dorsal, median and ventral positions on both the anterior and posterior hemibranch. Both mucous smears and gill scrapings were examined with the aid of a stereo microscope. More parasites were collected from the first or second gill arches, the medial position on the gill, and the anterior hemibranch. Preference for either left or right gill set was inconclusive. Spatial distribution of parasites is thought to result from water flow over the gills during respiration. This paper reports a new locality record for the following monogenean species: Quadriacanthus aegypticus, Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus minitus, Gyrodactylus kherulensis and Dactylogyrus lamellatus.

  16. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain

    PubMed Central

    Madrona, Dalmiro Prados; Herrera, María Dolores Fernández; Jiménez, Dalmiro Prados; Giraldo, Sonsoles Gómez; Campos, Rita Robles

    2014-01-01

    Background Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. Materials and methods We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. Results With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. Discussion In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia. PMID

  17. New geological estimates of Pliocene sea levels from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces, Republic of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M.; Raymo, M. E.; Rovere, A.; Inglis, J.; Roberts, D.; Bergh, E.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-late Pliocene warm period (MPWP) is the most recent geologic interval when global atmospheric CO2 reached ~400 ppmv. The MPWP is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and modelers because accurate geological data would help to explain the behavior of sea level (SL) and ice sheets in a past warmer climates. Our modern industrial Earth is rapidly approaching this ominous benchmark (395.77 ppmv 6/2012). The trailing continental margin and far-field sites of western and southern Republic of South Africa (RSA) yield abundant coastal imprints of Miocene to Pleistocene seastands. Existing literature identifies zone fossils, and a few unpublished Sr-isotope ages that correlate these shoreline deposits with Pliocene highstands. Younger Pleistocene SL benchmarks provide indications of the regional tectonic stability, with MIS 5e (125 ka) deposits widely correlated along RSA coasts at about +3 m asl. Precise elevations of geomorphic, sedimentary, and biological SL indicators were measured in Western and Northern Cape Provinces of RSA with decimeter accuracy using an OmniStar differential GPS. High-resolution SL indicators (within 0.5 m of paleo-SL) include abrasion platforms (Fig 1), marine terraces, sub-, inter-, and supratidal sedimentary structures, and in situ marine invertebrates such as shallow water oysters and intertidal barnacles. The coastal geomorphic expression of the MPWP is profound. For more than 0.5 Ma, we hypothesize that high frequency (20-40 ka), low amplitude oscillations of Pliocene SL acted as a shoreline "buzz saw", laterally incising older bedrock, forming extensive planation surfaces along the coastline. We propose these broad geomorphic features are diagnostic of this prolonged interval of low amplitude but consistent SL along relatively stable, non-sediment-dominated coastlines of the world. Although currently uncorrected for post-depositional effects including GIA and dynamic topography, our PLIOMAX team (www.pliomax.org) has documented

  18. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ < 0.01). (2) Cd content in the rice produced in Y county ranges from 0.01 to 2.77 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.46 mg kg(-1). The rate of rice with Cd exceeding the allowable limit specified by the Chinese Grain Security Standards reaches 59.6%; that with Cd exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), called as "Cd rice," reaches 11.1%. (3) Cd content in the rice of Y county is positively significantly correlated with HCl-Cd (r = 0.177, ρ < 0.05) but not significantly with T-Cd in the soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  19. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    PubMed

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of mthatha, eastern cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nxasana, N; Baba, K; Bhat, Vg; Vasaikar, Sd

    2013-10-01

    The presence of intestinal parasites in a population group is indicative of lack of proper sanitation, low economic standards and poor educational background. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Mthatha, South Africa and relate this to their socio-economic status. The study population was randomly selected from four governmental schools, rural and urban, from April 2009 to September 2009. A total of 162 learners (85 boys and 77 girls) participated in this survey. Parasitological data were collected by analyzing stool samples using Formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-economic and epidemiologic data were collected by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire, covering the important relevant aspects, in this descriptive, cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of <0.05 were considered as significant. Out of 162 learners analyzed, 64.8% (105/162) stool samples were positive for ova and cysts of which 57.4% (93/162) were known pathogenic parasites. The most common parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides 29.0% (47/162), followed by Giardia lamblia 9.9% (16/162) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 6.8% (11/162) (Other parasites observed but at lower rates of occurrence were Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp, Chilomastix mesnili, and Fasciola spp. Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between urban and rural learners, gender and the age of these learners. Significant associations between parasitic infections and parents' unemployment and lower education were observed. Prevalence of worm infestation was more than 50%; therefore, there was a need for mass de-worming of school children in these communities and also a need for other public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation.

  1. Duinefontein 2: an Acheulean site in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, R G; Avery, G; Cruz-Uribe, K; Halkett, D; Hart, T; Milo, R G; Volman, T P

    1999-08-01

    Excavations at Duinefontein (DFT) 2 near Cape Town, South Africa have recovered numerous stone artefacts and animal bones on an ancient surface sealed within iron-stained eolian sands. U-series analysis of an overlying calcrete places the sands before 150 ka ago, while the large mammal taxa imply an age between 400 and 200 ka ago. The artefacts include a classic Acheulean handaxe and probable biface shaping flakes that support this age estimate. The principal mammalian species are long-horned buffalo, black wildebeest, greater kudu, Cape zebra, and grysbok/steenbok, which imply a grass-and-bush mosaic instead of the historic small-leafed shrubland. Hippopotamus and reedbuck indicate that water stood nearby, probably in dune swales. The large mammal bones are mostly vertebrae and other axial elements, often in near-anatomical order. Both proximal and distal appendicular elements are rare. Bones with carnivore damage are common, but ones with stone tool marks are scarce. The sum suggests a water-edge attritional death site where people played a minimal role and carcasses were disarticulated mainly by carnivore feeding and by trampling. Stone tool marks tend to be equally rare at other Acheulean attritional death sites, and the implication may be that Acheulean people rarely obtained large mammals, whether by hunting or scavenging. Human scavengers at DFT2 would not have encountered a disproportionate number of distal (versus proximal) limb elements, and it follows that the tendency for distal elements to dominate many archeological assemblages need not reflect scavenging versus hunting. Even if DFT2 was not itself a locus of intense human activity, it provides a useful baseline for evaluating bone damage, skeletal part representation, and other variables at sites where people were deeply involved. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Tang, Xuan; Yang, Chao; Tang, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the former is greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC content is larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formation of an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content

  3. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the middle section of Andean metallogenic zone. Excellent mineralization geological conditions make it the most principal Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCDs) distribution area in southern Peru and there are several super-large PCDs for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. The regional metallogenic regularity of this area is controlled by the NNW fault parallel to the trench on the west of the South American continent. Small porphyry rocks are very common in this area (circular structure pattern in remote sensing image) with typical zoned alteration of PCD - potassic alteration, argillic alteration, phyllic alteration and propylitization (most exposed) from inside to the outside on the surface. These geologic features can be recognized and extracted by using remote sensing image data. Accordingly, the reflectivity curve of main altered minerals of the typical alteration zones of PCD was rebuilt which was corresponded to B1-B9 of ASTER satellite data, based on the altered mineral assemblages and their spectral characteristics of the typical alteration zones of PCD, and ASTER data's ability of identifying minerals with argillic alteration and carbonatite alteration. Based on the standard spectral data of USGS, We found that the information of argillic-and phyllic- altered minerals assemblages in the typical alteration zones can be extracted in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1467 while the information of propylitization altered minerals in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1348 with larger reflectivity of B9 than B8, after comparing and analyzing comprehensively the spectral curve characteristics of main altered minerals. In this method, altered minerals assemblages of argillic-and phyllic- altered zone and propylitization altered zone in this study area was extracted, and the results agree well with the distribution of known PCD. Meanwhile, remote sensing geological interpretation has

  4. Evaluating computerized health information systems: hardware, software and human ware: experiences from the Northern Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Herbst, K; Littlejohns, P; Rawlinson, J; Collinson, M; Wyatt, J C

    1999-09-01

    Despite enormous investment world-wide in computerized health information systems their overall benefits and costs have rarely been fully assessed. A major new initiative in South Africa provides the opportunity to evaluate the introduction of information technology from a global perspective and assess its impact on public health. The Northern Province is implementing a comprehensive integrated hospital information system (HIS) in all of its 42 hospitals. These include two mental health institutions, eight regional hospitals (two acting as a tertiary complex with teaching responsibilities) and 32 district hospitals. The overall goal of the HIS is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of health (and welfare) services through the creation and use of information, for clinical, administrative and monitoring purposes. This multi-site implementation is being undertaken as a single project at a cost of R130 million (which represents 2.5 per cent of the health and welfare budget on an annual basis). The implementation process commenced on 1 September 1998 with the introduction of the system into Mankweng Hospital as the pilot site and is to be completed in the year 2001. An evaluation programme has been designed to maximize the likelihood of success of the implementation phase (formative evaluation) as well as providing an overall assessment of its benefits and costs (summative evaluation). The evaluation was designed as a form of health technology assessment; the system will have to prove its worth (in terms of cost-effectiveness) relative to other interventions. This is more extensive than the traditional form of technical assessment of hardware and software functionality, and moves into assessing the day-to-day utility of the system, the clinical and managerial environment in which it is situated (humanware), and ultimately its effects on the quality of patient care and public health. In keeping with new South African legislation the evaluation process sought to

  5. High prevalence of active and occult hepatitis B virus infections in healthcare workers from two provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sondlane, Tsakani H; Mawela, Lesego; Razwiedani, Lufuno L; Selabe, Selokela G; Lebelo, Ramokone L; Rakgole, J Nare; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Dochez, Carine; De Schryver, Antoon; Burnett, Rosemary J

    2016-07-19

    Hepatitis B (HB) is a vaccine-preventable liver disease caused by infection with the blood-borne hepatitis B virus (HBV). South African healthcare workers (HCWs) may be at high risk of occupational exposure to HBV infection, since previous studies have found suboptimal levels of protection against HBV in HCWs. A descriptive prevalence study based on self-administered questionnaires with data on demographics and HB vaccination status, and stored serum samples collected from 2009 to 2012, from 333 HCWs working or studying in Gauteng and Mpumalanga province hospitals or nursing colleges, was conducted. Samples were tested for HB surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs), antibodies to HB core antigen (anti-HBc), and HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The majority of HCWs from whom the serum samples were drawn were black (91.4% [298/326]), female (82.6% [275/333]) and had received at least one dose of HB vaccine (70.9% [236/333]). The average age was 38.8years (range: 19-62). Of the HCWs, 23.2% (73/314) were susceptible (negative for all markers); 9.6% (30/314) were infected (HBsAg and/or DNA positive); 29.0% (91/314) were exposed (positive for either HBsAg, anti-HBc, or DNA); 18.8% (59/314) were immune due to natural infection (anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive only); while 47.8% (150/314) were immune due to vaccination (anti-HBs positive only). Furthermore, HBV DNA was detected in 8.6% (27/314) and occult HBV infection (OBI) (HBV DNA positive but HBsAg negative) was found in 6.7% (21/314) of samples. This study, which is the first to report OBI in South African HCWs, found high rates of active HBV infection and sub-optimal protection against HBV in HCWs. There is a need to strengthen vaccination programmes through a policy that ensures protection for all HCWs and their patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adherence of doctors to a clinical guideline for hypertension in Bojanala district, North-West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Asafa R; Tumbo, John; Govender, Indiran

    2015-04-13

    Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients to make healthcare decisions for specific clinical circumstances. Non-adherence of doctors to guidelines is thought to contribute significantly to poor delivery of clinical care, resulting in poor clinical outcomes. To investigate adherence of doctors in rural district hospitals to clinical guidelines using the South African Hypertension Guideline 2006 as an example. Four district hospitals in Bojanala district of North-West Province, South Africa. A cross-sectional study determined adherence practices of doctors from records of patients with established hypertension seen at the four district hospitals. Of the 490 total records documented by 29 doctors, screening for co-morbidity or associated factors was carried out as follows: diabetes mellitus 99.2%, obesity 6.1%, smoking 53.5%, dyslipidaemia 36.9%, abdominal circumference 3.3%; organ damage: eye 0, kidney 82%, heart 43.5%, chronic kidney disease 38.2%, stroke/transient ischaemic attack 15.9%, heart failure 23.5%, advanced retinopathy 0.2%, coronary heart disease 23.7%, peripheral arterial disease 13.9%. Critical tests/measurements were documented in the following proportions: blood pressure 99.8%, weight 85.3%, height 65.7%, body mass index 3.1%, urinalysis 74.5%, lipogram 76.1%, urea/creatinine 80.4%, electrocardiogram 42.9%, blood glucose 100%; risk determination and grading: diagnosis by hypertension severity 19%, low added risk 57.1%, moderate added risk 64.7%, high added risk 89.6%, very high added risk 89.2%. Adherence to therapies was as follows: first-line guideline drugs 69.4%, second line 84.7%, third line 87.8% and fourth-line 89.6%. Overall adherence of doctors to treatment guidelines for hypertension was found to be low (51.9%). Low adherence rates were related to age (older doctors) and less clinical experience, and differed with regard to various aspects of the guidelines.

  7. Informing Comprehensive HIV Prevention: A Situational Analysis of the HIV Prevention and Care Context, North West Province South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M.; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objective Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community’s local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. Method The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO’s Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. Results We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Conclusions Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four ‘themes’ identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336 invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqian; Wu, Baiping; Li, Junjun; Chen, Liyu

    2015-03-01

    Existing data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in Hunan province, central south China. To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype among women with invasive cervical cancer in Hunan, a total of 1,336 patients were included in this study between July 2012 and June 2013. Eighteen high-risk and eight low-risk genotypes of HPV were detected by Luminex xMAP technology. The results show that HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in Hunan was 75.7%. A single HPV infection was found in 82.3% of the HPV-positive samples, and 91.8% of the cases had high-risk HPV infection. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (50.6%), followed by HPV 58 (12.4%), HPV 52 (10.9%), HPV 18 (7.3%), HPV 33 (5.5%), HPV 59 (4.2%), HPV 39 (4.0%), HPV 61 (3.4%), HPV 31 (3.3%), and HPV 56 (3.2%). A single infection with HPV 16 was detected in 42.5% of the samples, which was significantly more frequent than any other HPV type in this population. Dual-infection with HPV 16 and HPV 52 were relatively common. The available vaccines for HPV 16 and 18 are therefore expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the burden of cervical cancer in China, even though HPV 18 showed a lower frequency. In addition to HPV 16 and 18, other HPV types including 58, 52, and 33, should be targeted in the next generation HPV vaccines.

  9. Informing comprehensive HIV prevention: a situational analysis of the HIV prevention and care context, North West Province South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lippman, Sheri A; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community's local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO's Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four 'themes' identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills. The situational analysis process successfully

  10. Paenibacillus ginsengisoli sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from soil of a ginseng field in Pocheon Province, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myungjin; Ten, Leonid N; Baek, Sang-Hoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Aslam, Zubair; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2007-02-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic or facultative anaerobic, motile, spore-forming bacterial strain, designated Gsoil 1638T, was isolated from a soil sample of a ginseng field in Pocheon province (South Korea), and was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. It grew well on nutrient agar medium, utilized a fairly narrow spectrum of carbon sources and tolerated 10% NaCl. The isolate was positive for catalase and oxidase tests but negative for the degradation of macromolecules such as casein, collagen, starch, chitin, CM-cellulose, xylan and DNA. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 50.7 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (44%) and C16:0 (25%). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain Gsoil 1638T fell within the radiation of the cluster comprising Paenibacillus species and joined Paenibacillus anaericanus DSM 15890T with a bootstrap value of 100%. These two strains shared 99.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other. The phylogenetic distance from any other validly described species within the genus Paenibacillus was less than 96.2%. DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Gsoil 1638T and its closest phylogenetic neighbor, Paenibacillus anaericanus, was 62%. On the basis of its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain Gsoil 1638T (= KCTC 13931T = LMG 23406T = CCUG 52472T) was classified in the genus Paenibacillus as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed.

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD50) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.01) reduced egg albumin-induced paw oedema and paw licking in mice induced by formalin, signifying antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities respectively. It is concluded that the leaf and rhizome of P. prunelloides are rich in various phytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

  12. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBG<11.1mmol/L but with a self-reported prior diabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBG<7.8mmol/L was considered to be an acceptable level of glycaemia. Among 45,767 Zambian and 12,496 WC participants the age-standardised prevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. An assessment of the levels of phthalate esters and metals in the Muledane open dump, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Adeleke; Dayomi, Matthew; Siebe, Pitso; Okedeyi, Olumuyiwa

    2008-01-01

    Background This work reports the determination of the levels of phthalate esters (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP)) and metals (lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc, iron, calcium) in composite soil samples. The soil samples were collected randomly within the Muledane open dump, Thohoyandou, Limpopo province, South Africa. Control samples were collected about 200 m away from the open dump. The phthalate esters were separated and determined by capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, whilst the metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Open dump values for the phthalate esters and metals to be generally higher in comparison to control samples for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP – the mean values calculated were 0.31 ± 0.12, 0.21 ± 0.05, 0.30 ± 0.07, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, for the open dump soil samples. Nonetheless, the mean open dump values for lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc, iron and calcium were 0.07 ± 0.04, 0.003 ± 0.001, 5.02 ± 1.92, 0.31 ± 0.02, 11.62 ± 9.48 and 0.12 ± 0.13 mg/kg, respectively. The results were compared statistically. Conclusion Our results revealed that the discarding of wastes into the open dump is a potential source of soil contamination in the immediate vicinity and beyond, via dispersal. Increased levels of phthalate esters and metals in the soil pose a risk to public health, plants and animals. Sustained monitoring of these contaminants is recommended, in addition to upgrading the facility to a landfill. PMID:18474112

  14. Association between iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren of the North-West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Onabanjo, Oluseye O; Jerling, Johann C; Covic, Namukolo; Van Graan, Averalda; Taljaard, Christine; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2012-09-01

    Iron deficiency with or without anemia is associated with increased susceptibility to infection owing to impaired immune function; this study aimed to examine the associations between markers of iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study is part of the larger BeForMi study done in the North-West province of South Africa. A total of 556 African schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) were recruited from the three schools participating in the BeForMi multiple micronutrient intervention study. Demographic information of the children was obtained from their parents/caregivers/guardians in the language of choice using validated questionnaires. Anthropometric indices (weight and height), iron status parameters, hematological parameters (hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), total and differential white blood cell counts) were measured using standard procedures. No significant gender differences were observed in most of the iron markers and hematological parameters except in C-reactive protein (CRP) (p=0.004) and eosinophils (p=0.042) which were higher in boys while RBC (p=0.018) and Hb (p=0.023) levels were higher in girls. No relationships were observed between the different iron markers and differential white blood cell counts. A positive correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) and CRP in girls only (r=0.336, p<0.01), and a positive correlation between SF and mean cell volume (MCV) in boys only (r=0.197, p<0.01). In both genders, no correlations were observed between the different iron markers and the differential white blood cell counts. The study revealed no associations between iron status and differential white blood cell counts in children that participated in the BeForMi study calling for more studies to be done in the area of the significance of iron supplementation in healthy children.

  15. Lithic technology and behavioural modernity: new results from the Still Bay site, Hollow Rock Shelter, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Anders; Larsson, Lars

    2011-08-01

    The Hollow Rock Shelter site in Western Cape Province, South Africa, was excavated in 1993 and 2008. This study presents new results from a technological analysis of Still Bay points and bifacial flakes from the site. The results show that Still Bay points from the site are standardized tools. The points in the assemblage consist of a complex mixture of whole and fragmented points in all phases of production. The fragmentation degree is high; approximately 80% of the points are broken. A high proportion of bending fractures shows that several of the points were discarded due to production failures, and points with impact damage or hafting traces show that used points were left in the cave. This illustrates that the production of points as well as replacement of used points took place at the site. The result also shows that worked but not finished preforms and points were left at the site, suggestive of future preparation. The points were produced within the framework of three different chaînes opératoires, all ending up in a typologically uniform tool. This shows that the manufacture of Still Bay points should be regarded as a special bifacial technology, only partly comparable with other bifacial technologies. A raw material analysis shows that locally available quartz and quartzite were used in the production, and that points made of silcrete were brought to the site. Based on the technological analysis, a discussion of behavioural modernity, focusing on hypotheses about social interaction, experimentation, different strategies for learning to knap, and landscape memories, results in an interpretation that behavioural modernity was established at Hollow Rock Shelter in the Still Bay phase of the southern African Middle Stone Age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Faunal assemblage composition and paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake, a Middle Stone Age locality in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; Brophy, Juliet K; Lewis, Patrick J; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2008-12-01

    Plovers Lake is a dolomitic cave infill located approximately 45km northwest of Johannesburg in the Bloubank Valley, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Excavations between 2002-2004 revealed a rich and diverse fauna, a moderate-sized stone tool assemblage of Middle Stone Age (MSA) character, and human skeletal remains. Two principal depositional units are recognized: 1) a disturbed ex situ component that was likely displaced from 2) an otherwise relatively undisturbed in situ component from which the human skeletal material was recovered. The in situ depositional unit is bracketed by 2 flowstone layers, with U-series dates of 62.9 (+/-1.3)ka for the capping flowstone and 88.7 (+/-1.6)ka for the underlying flowstone. A single isochron ESR date of 75.6 (+/-5.6)ka corroborates the U-series dates. This paper presents an analysis of the mammalian, bird, and reptile faunas recovered from these two units. The two faunal assemblages show close correspondence in taphonomic, taxonomic, and ecological composition, supporting a common origin for both the ex situ and in situ components. Although human skeletal material, cut-marked bone, and stone tools have been recovered, these indications are too rare to consider Plovers Lake a human occupation site. Instead, a high abundance of carnivores, coprolites, and carnivore damaged bones point to brown hyenas as the principal, though not exclusive, bone accumulating agent. In the absence of a significant taphonomic bias relating to accumulating agent, Plovers Lake allows us to document an environment occupied by MSA humans, even if the humans were not resident in the cave itself. We reconstruct the paleoenvironment of Plovers Lake as predominantly grassland, though it was colder, moister, and more wooded than at present. Paleoclimatic conditions appear to have been as different from historic norms as those seen in several fossil localities in the Western Cape, pointing to greater environmental heterogeneity than has previously been

  17. Lower Triassic stromatolites in Luodian County, Guizhou Province, South China: evidence for the protracted devastation of the marine environments.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Y; Liu, J B; Adachi, N

    2012-01-01

    Stromatolites are one of the oldest and most intriguing organosedimentary deposits. In contrast to stromatolites of the Precambrian to Early Ordovician, Phanerozoic equivalents occurred episodically under specific conditions. A group of previously undescribed stromatolites in composition occur in the Lower Triassic (Olenekian) at the Dajiang section in the Luodian region of Guizhou Province, South China. We described the textures of these stromatolites with the aim of determining the genetic mechanisms and revealing the nature of interactions between micro-organisms and marine environments. Mesoscopic features show that the stromatolites consist of several sets of stacked slices, and that they are embedded in alternating beds of fine and coarse microsphere packstones that include aggregates of microspheres, forming grapestones and lumps. Microscopically, the stromatolites consist of spar- and dolomite-infilled microspheres (average diameter, 100 μm), micrites, peloids, small-sized pyrite framboids (average diameter, 5.8 μm) and fenestrae. Micrite-dominant intercalations accentuate laminated textures at a mesoscopic level and are laterally continuous with micrite-rich parts in surrounding interstromatolites, indicating the simultaneous, widespread deposition of these layers. The microspheres and associated micrites were the products of in situ microbial activity, probably sulphate-reducing or anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, which led to the formation of these unusual stromatolites. Even during a protracted period of harsh marine conditions, the micrite-rich carpets were deposited intermittently on the stromatolites and their surroundings under severely anoxic/sulphidic conditions. The presence of Early Triassic stromatolites and their subtle but important vertical variations in texture provide a record of temporal changes in marine conditions during geobiologically critical intervals.

  18. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Francis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83%) and assurance (80%) domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. PMID:27380835

  19. Li isotope geochemical study on weathering of granite in Longnan, Jiangxi Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Xu, Z.; Zhao, T.; Yu, C.; Zhou, L.

    2015-12-01

    Li isotopes have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool in silicate weathering research from the continental scale to that of catchments and weathering profiles. In this study, we focus on Li isotopic behavior during granite weathering and pedogenic processes. Study profiles are developed on a granite intrusion in Longnan, South China, under a subtropical monsoon climate. Two soil profiles (JLN-S4 on the ridgetop and JLN-S3 on the midslope; both 120cm deep) and one weathering profiles (JLN-S1 on the toe slope; 1100cm deep) along a hill slope were selected to represent the granite weathering process in near surface condition. Bulk samples of these profiles were analyzed for major element and Li content, and δ7Li value. CIA (chemical index of alteration) values were determined. The uppermost soil profile (JLN-S4) samples have CIA values between 97.6 and 98.3, with δ7Li values from -2.50 to -3.90‰; JLN-S3 profile samples have lower CIA values varing from 94.4 to 96.1 and δ7Li values from -0.73‰ to -1.55‰. The weathering profile JLN-S1 at the toe slope has a generally increasing CIA values (in the range of 57.8~92.4) upward in the profile. The δ7Li values variation with CIA in JLN-S1, shows a two staged relationship: δ7Li increasing from -14.92‰ to 0.66‰ when CIA increases from 57.8 to 74.6 as the first stage (from the bottom to 370cm depth), and no obvious relationship between CIA andδ7Li(-4.74~3.62‰) was observed in the second stage (CIA higher than 74.6, 370cm depth above). Li contents in JLN-S4 vary between 3.84 and 15.03 μg/g, in JLN-S3 between 1.43~8.03 μg/g, and in JLN-S1 between 6.95~22.27μg/g. In the first stage defined by δ7Li and CIA relationship, Li contents decrease with increasing CIA. However, in the second stage, Li abundance decreases upward at the beginning and turns into an increacing tendency (at 175cm depth) to the surface. Two granite bedrock samples have δ7Li value of -0.23 and 0.39‰, and Li contents of 38.58 and 34

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Petroleum Systems and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Denver Basin Province, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming - USGS Province 39

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra K.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Denver Basin Province (USGS Province 39), Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Petroleum is produced in the province from sandstone, shale, and limestone reservoirs that range from Pennsylvanian to Upper Cretaceous in age. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define seven total petroleum systems and twelve assessment units. Nine of these assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Gas was not assessed for two coal bed methane assessment units due to lack of information and limited potential; oil resources were not assessed for the Fractured Pierre Shale Assessment Unit due to its mature development status.

  1. Development and evaluation of clear-water pier and contraction scour envelope curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation collected clear-water pier- and contraction-scour data at 116 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. Pier-scour depths collected in both provinces ranged from 0 to 8.0 feet. Contraction-scour depths collected in the Coastal Plain ranged from 0 to 3.9 feet. Using hydraulic data estimated with a one-dimensional flow model, predicted clear-water scour depths were computed with scour equations from the Federal Highway Administration Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 and compared with measured scour. This comparison indicated that predicted clear-water scour depths, in general, exceeded measured scour depths and at times were excessive. Predicted clear-water contraction scour, however, was underpredicted approximately 30 percent of the time by as much as 7.1 feet. The investigation focused on clear-water pier scour, comparing trends in the laboratory and field data. This comparison indicated that the range of dimensionless variables (relative depth, flow intensity, relative grain size) used in laboratory investigations of pier scour, were similar to the range for field data in South Carolina, further indicating that laboratory relations may have some applicability to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing pier scour in laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence on the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were pier width and approach velocity. Envelope curves developed from the field data are useful tools for evaluating reasonable ranges of clear-water pier and contraction scour in South Carolina. A modified version of the Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 pier-scour equation also was developed as a tool for evaluating clearwater pier

  2. Profile of Community Mental Health Service Needs in the Moretele District (North-West Province) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Modiba, Precious; Schneider, Helen; Porteus, Kimberly; Gunnarson, Veronica

    2001-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergence of democracy in South Africa led to a need to transform all public structures, including the health care system. The aim has been to transform these structures in order to bring them in line with the new culture of human rights. Transformation of the whole health care system is motivated by a number of key objectives, which include achieving equity in resource allocation and health service delivery, developing primary health care infrastructure and decentralising services to promote community participation. AIMS OF THE STUDY: In the context of de-institutionalising mental health services in South Africa, this study aimed to investigate community mental health service needs of mental health service users and that of their families in the Moretele district, North-West province, South Africa. METHODS: The study was conducted in three clinics situated in three different communities in the Moretele district. Data collection consisted of : 147 clinical record reviews, 105 interviews with patients followed by a joint interview with a family member, 83 interviews with caregivers and eight interviews with community key informants (traditional healers, a civic leader, a councillor, a retired teacher, and a physician). RESULTS: The majority of service users were males (54%). The mean age was 41 years and 63% had completed primary schooling.Patients were recorded as having only one of two primary diagnoses, namely schizophrenia (57%) or epilepsy (41%). However, a review of prescribed drugs and caregiver interviews showed that there was a presence of mood disorders among service users. The local hospital was service users primary entry point into the mental health care system, followed by traditional healers (30%). Interviews with service users, service providers and caregivers reveal limited knowledge of patient illness. Nevertheless, service users who had epilepsy were more likely to provide details of their illness than those with mental illness

  3. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  4. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malatji, Dikeledi P; Tsotetsi, Anna M; van Marle-Koster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39) and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48) provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%), Heterakis gallinarum (15.56%) and Capillaria spp. (4.00%); tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10%) and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00%) and Eimeria spp. (29.46%). Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90%) samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49%) from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.

  5. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. Results The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7–19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Conclusion Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified

  6. Prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol disorders among men and women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lena M C; Twum-Antwi, Akwasi; Staland-Nyman, Carin; van Rooyen, Dalena Rm

    2017-09-04

    There is growing concern about alcohol problems in low- and middle-income countries. More research is required, particularly among the younger generation. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alcohol disorders and associated socioeconomic characteristics among young men and women living in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional population-based study of 977 participants (52% male and 48% female) aged 18-40, the majority of whom lived in low-income areas. Data collection was carried out in 2012 by trained fieldworkers. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (DSM-IV) was used to investigate the prevalence of alcohol dependence (increased tolerance to alcohol, failed attempt to cut down, risk of physical and mental effects) and alcohol abuse (harmful use, consistent intoxication, risk behaviour, physically hazardous, social problems). A high 12-month prevalence of alcohol dependence was found (26.5% in total; 39.0% among men and 19.1% among women) as well as of alcohol abuse (9% in total; 19.0% among men and 6.0% among women). Few socioeconomic differences emerged among the men, except older men (OR 1.94, CI 1.11-3.42) and those supported by social grants (OR 2.28, CI 1.06-4.93), who presented higher odd ratios for alcohol dependence than the reference groups. Among the women, more differences emerged: women who were widowed/single (OR 2.35, CI 1.20-4.62), had no education (OR 3.41, CI 1.04-11.21), had a low income (OR 3.26, CI 1.55-6.80) and had no social support from friends when ill presented higher odd ratios (OR 1.73, CI 1.07-2.80). In the adjusted model, marital status and low income remained statistically significant. With regard to alcohol abuse, fewer socioeconomic differences emerged. Interventions need to address the early onset of alcohol misuse in order to meet both current needs and long-standing mental and physical illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were evaluated using standard methods. The assessment was carried out with total of 72 water samples collected from six sites over a 12-month period, from August 2010 to July 2011. Water temperature ranged from 11 to 28 °C, while pH varied from 6.6 to 10.7 and turbidity from 1.7 to 133 NTU. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity showed drastic variations (42.3-46,693 μS/cm, 20.3-23,350 mg/l and 0.02-33.8 PSU, respectively) and the significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean values of these parameters recorded at Parkside reflect the influence of seawater at the Buffalo River estuary. The concentrations of other parameters ranged as follows: chloride (3.7-168 mg/l), DO (6.9-11.1), BOD (0.6-9.4), COD (3.7-45.9), nitrite-nitrogen (0.02-0.21), nitrate-nitrogen (1-4.47) and orthophosphate (0.01-1.72). There was a significant positive correlation between water temperature and DO (r = 0.200; P < 0.01). Significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations also existed between TDS and salinity (r = 0.921), COD and each of salinity (r = 0.398), TDS (r = 0.375) and chloride (r = 0.330), nitrate and phosphate (r = 0.323) and BOD and turbidity (r = 0.290). Significant (p < 0.01) inverse relationships existed between DO and each of phosphate (r = -0.295) and nitrate (r = -0.168). We conclude that the Buffalo River water quality deteriorated in the plains, compared with the upper reaches. Urgent measures are needed to safeguard the river in view of the potential health concerns as many households rely solely on the untreated river water.

  8. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study.

    PubMed

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Venter, Dries; Odoi, Agricola

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles) is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses) were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates. The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95). Significantly (p< 0.05) lower rates were reported during summer (0.55%) than other seasons. Some geographic areas reported significantly (p<0.05) higher rates than others. The identification rates in high throughput abattoirs was significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 9.4; 95% CI: 4.7-19.1) than in low throughput abattoirs. Similarly, the identification rates among animals from feedlots were significantly (p<0.05) higher (RR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.5) than those from non-feedlot sources. No significant (p>0.05) association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services. Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified) need to be collected to help better estimate

  9. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg) over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back) pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048). For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069) and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051) were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011) and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018) Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size and future research

  10. Parasites of South African wildlife. XVI. Helminths of some antelope species from the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces.

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Horak, I G; Watermeyer, R; Booyse, D G

    2000-03-01

    The numbers and species of helminths recovered from one black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, three eland, Taurotragus oryx, 18 mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula, one red hartebeest, AIcelaphus buselaphus and two springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, in the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape Province; two black wildebeest, two grey rhebuck, Pelea capreolus, two mountain reedbuck and four springbok in the Karoo National Park, Western Cape Province; two bontebok, Damaliscus pygargus dorcas, two eland, two gemsbok, Oryx gazella and two springbok in the West Coast National Park, Western Cape Province; and a single springbok on a farm near Bredasdorp, Western Cape Province, are recorded. Nematodes belonging to a total of 12 genera and 20 species were identified. A single cestode was also recovered. Sixteen new host associations are recorded for the nematodes and one for the cestode Moniezia benedeni. Nematodirus spathiger had the widest host spectrum and with the exception of black wildebeest, was collected from all the host species examined.

  11. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic deformation along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province, southeastern and south-central Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill-Haley, M.A. ); Simpson, G.A. ); Lindberg, D.N. ); Craven, G.F.; Carver, G.A.

    1993-04-01

    The northwestern margin of the Basin and Range seismotectonic province in southeastern and south-central Oregon has been characterized by historic low levels of widely dispersed seismicity, a pattern similar to the majority of the Basin and Range. Geologic mapping and limited paleoseismic investigations at locations throughout the region provide evidence for late Pleistocene and Holocene surface rupture events along several faults of two principal orientations, [approximately]N10--20[degree]E, and [approximately]N30[degree]W. Although the historical seismicity is similar to most other portions of the Basin and Range province, the pattern of late Pleistocene and Holocene faulting at the margin of the province suggests continued northward expansion of crustal extension into central Oregon. Estimated earthquake magnitudes for faults in the region, based on rupture segment length and estimated displacement are [approximately]M7. Based on Holocene recurrence estimates derived from paleoseismic sites along the Alvord segment of the Steens Mountain-Pueblo Mountain fault zone and evidence for latest Quaternary earthquakes on other faults in the region, the level of seismic hazard for the northwestern Basin and Range may be higher than was previously thought.

  12. Knowledge and use of emergency contraception among women in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Landon; Mlobeli, Regina; Cooper, Di; Smit, Jennifer; Morroni, Chelsea

    2007-01-01

    Background Emergency contraception (EC) is widely available free of charge at public sector clinics in South Africa. At the same time, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy in South Africa remain high, and there are few data on knowledge of EC in the general population in South Africa, as in other resource-limited settings. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey among 831 sexually active women at 26 randomly selected public sector clinics in the Western Cape province. Results Overall, 30% of the women had ever heard of EC when asked directly, after the method was described to them. Only 15% mentioned EC by name or description spontaneously. Knowledge of EC was independently associated with higher education, being married, and living in an urban setting. Four percent of women had ever used EC. Discussion These data suggest that knowledge of EC in this setting is more common among women of higher socioeconomic status living in urban areas. For EC to play a role in decreasing unintended pregnancy in South Africa, specific interventions are necessary to increase knowledge of the method, where to get it, and the appropriate time interval for its use before the need for EC arises. Future health promotion campaigns should target rural and low socioeconomic status communities. PMID:17850659

  13. The revolving door of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders re-hospitalization in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Moodley, Yoshan

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the extent of mental, neurological and substance-use (MNS) disorders re-hospitalization in South Africa. We examined the extent of one-year MNS re-hospitalization (MNS-R) in a rural South African primary health care facility (PHCF). We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospital administrative data from 10,525 adults discharged from a rural PHCF in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Chi-squared tests were utilized to describe MNS-R within one year of an index hospital admission in individuals with MNS, with a sub-analysis also being conducted to describe schizophrenia re-hospitalization (S-R). The prevalence of MNS and schizophrenia recorded at an index hospitalization was 5% and 1%, respectively. A total of 44/67 (66%) individuals with a diagnosis of MNS at the index hospitalization were classified as having MNS-R during oneyear follow-up period. Half of those diagnosed with schizophrenia at the index hospitalization (6/12 patients) were classified as having S-R during one-year follow-up period. There was a significant association between re-hospitalization outcomes (MNS-R and S-R) and MNS (p<0.01) or schizophrenia diagnosis (p<0.01) at index baseline hospitalization. The extent of MNS-R and S-R remains relatively high in rural South Africa, and needs further health systems strengthening to prevent revolving door occurrences.

  14. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Semenya, Sebua Silas; Maroyi, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) by the Bapedi traditional healers in three districts of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty two traditional healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts were interviewed between January and July 2011. Twenty one medicinal plant species belonging to 20 genera and 18 families were documented. The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. Hyacinthaceae, Moraceae and Rutaceae families were the most represented families in terms of species numbers (9.5% each). Herbs and trees (38% each) constituted the largest proportion of the growth forms of the medicinal plants used. Tuberculosis remedies were mostly prepared from leaves (34%) followed by roots (21%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having antimicrobial properties or have similar ethno medicinal uses in other countries. This study therefore, illustrates the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment and management of TB in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

  15. The incidence and prevalence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the Free State province of South Africa and Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Seedat, R Y

    2014-12-01

    Although the estimated incidence and prevalence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) has been determined in countries in North America and Europe and in Australia, no studies have attempted to determine the incidence or prevalence of JORRP in African countries. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and prevalence of JORRP in the Free State province of South Africa and Lesotho. This was a retrospective study in which the records of all patients with JORRP from the Free State province of South Africa or Lesotho treated at Universitas Academic Hospital or by otorhinolaryngologists in private practice between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were reviewed. The estimated incidence and prevalence of JORRP in the Free State were 1.34 and 3.88 per 100,000 population respectively while the estimated incidence and prevalence in Lesotho were 0.49 and 1.04 per 100,000 population respectively. However, these figures are probably an underestimation. The incidence and prevalence calculated for the Free State were generally higher than those found in other studies, while those calculated for Lesotho was similar to those obtained in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The distribution of green algal micro-propagules and macroalgae at the early stage of green tide in the coastal area of South Jiangsu Province in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangqing; Wang, Zongling; Fan, Shiliang; Zhang, Xuelei; Li, Ruixiang; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    An integrated investigation was carried out during late April to late May of 2014 in the coastal area of South Jiangsu Province to understand the early development of green tide in the Yellow Sea and discover the temporal and spatial distribution of green algal micro-propagules and macroalgae at the early stage of green tide. The results showed that green algal micro-propagules distributed in all stations from late April to late May, and micro-propagules of high density (> 300 ind. L-1) concentrated in the adjacent Porphyra aquaculture area. Floating macroalgae were initially observed in the northern survey areas, and increased gradually. The dominant species was U. prolifera in the floating macroalgae, ranging between 90% and 100%. The seawater surface temperature and salinity in the above mentioned time period were suitable for the growth of macroalgae. This work can help government to strengthen management to reduce the blooms of macroalgae in the coastal area of South Jiangsu Province and also facilitate the decision-making for managers at the early stage of green tide.

  17. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors in African children at one and three years residing in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamabolo, Ramoteme L; Alberts, Marianne

    2014-09-23

    The present study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its determinants in one- and three-year-old children from the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A prospective cohort study conducted in rural villages in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. At birth, a cohort of 219 children was followed until they were one and three years of age. Data collected included the children's anthropometric measurements, blood for biochemical analysis (full blood count, ferritin, folate and vitamin B12) and socio-demographic status. At one year, anaemia (Hb < 11 g/dL) was present in 52% of the children, decreasing to 22% by the third year. Iron deficiency (ferritin < 12 µg/mL) was common in these children (39% and 33% at one year and three years, respectively) particularly in the presence of anaemia. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies (< 5 ng/mL and < 145 pg/mL, respectively) were common at one year, with the children accumulating enough vitamin B12 by three years; however, folate deficiency levels remained fairly constant between the two time points. There was a high prevalence of anaemia in the study participants at one year and three years of age. Factors that increased the risk of anaemia at three years were: a mother with only a primary school education, anaemia at one year, male gender, overweight, and combined overweight and stunting. Protective factors against anaemia were having a younger mother who served as the main caregiver.

  18. Bottom water hydrodynamic provinces and transport patterns of the northern South China Sea: Evidence from grain size of the terrigenous sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yi; Chen, Zhong; Li, Liang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Gang; Zheng, Xufeng; Wang, Shuhong; Mo, Aibin

    2017-05-01

    Sediment transport in the source-to-sink systems of the northern South China Sea (SCS) has been of increasing interest during the past few decades. However, the mechanisms for sediment redistribution remain unclear. Sources and transport patterns in the northern SCS were investigated in this study based on grain size analyses of 205 surface sediment samples. Detailed characterizations of hydrodynamic conditions and sediment transport have been made using the log-ratio method to partition grain size components of surface sediments in the northern SCS. Results reveal that sediment dispersal patterns in the region generally contain traction, saltation, graded and uniform suspension modes. Based on the spatial distribution characteristics, the study area can be classified into three hydrodynamic provinces. Province A contains high traction concentrations that are exposed to the longshore current and topographic features, which are distributed in the Taiwan Shoal, Dongsha Islands and extends from the Pearl River estuary to the southeast of Hainan Island. Province B is characterized by higher values of saltation and graded suspension, which are widespread along the northern slope of the SCS, and its formation is interpreted as the result of interactions between down- and along-slope processes. Province C reaches its greatest concentration in the abyssal areas, particularly in the vicinity of Luzon Island, which settles only under calm conditions. Combined with previous data concerning magnetic susceptibility distributions of surface sediments from the northern SCS, the sediment transport route near the mainland is traced. Furthermore, based on distribution pattern of sortable silts and hydrodynamic provenance of the terrigenous sediments, the sediment transport route in the deep water region of the northern SCS is outlined. It flows along marginal channels which cut across the continental slope along isobaths. Taken together, the combination of grain-size components and

  19. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  20. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  1. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mabaso, Raymond G; Oduntan, Olalekan A

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40-90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  2. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    PubMed

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p < 0.001). Three of five districts had significant decreases in syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  3. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  4. Petrogenesis of Late Jurassic granodiorites from Gutian, Fujian Province, South China: Implications for multiple magma sources and origin of porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Yang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    .%) and trace element (ppm) concentrations of Gutian intrusions in Fujian Province, South China. Supplemental Table S5. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the studied rocks from the Gutian porphyry deposit in Fujian Province, South China. Supplemental Table S6. Pb isotopic compositions of the studied rocks from the Gutian porphyry deposit in South China. Supplemental Table S7. Re-Os isotopic compositions of molybdenite from the Gutian porphyry deposit in South China.

  5. Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research-Active Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Slack, Catherine; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-02-01

    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system and to current patients. Furthermore, relations between research stakeholders were perceived to be somewhat fragile, making it difficult for stakeholders to achieve consensus about the social value of research, as well as on ways to maximize value. Interventions to negotiate a shared perspective on the social value of research would appear to be warranted, and the findings of this study suggest some focus areas for such intervention.

  6. Protozoan Fauna and Abundance in Aeration Tanks of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibewu, M.; Momba, M. N. B.; Okoh, A. L.

    This study focuses on the assessment of the protozoan fauna and abundance in the mixed liquors of aeration tanks of the three municipal wastewater treatment plants located in Fort Beaufort, Dimbaza and East London in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and their implication to the production of effluents of good quality. The samples were collected between September and December 2005 and protozoa species were identified by direct microscopic observations at x400 magnification by comparison with existing protozoa gallery collections. A total of 68 protozoan genera made up of 44 ciliates, 16 flagellates and 8 others were identified in wastewater treatment plants. Although in all aerobic zones the average density of ciliates was 104 cells mL-1, which indicated that these plants were able to produce clear effluent of good quality, a better performance was found in Dimbaza and East London, which had total protozoan genera of 27 and 26, respectively.

  7. Nurses' experiences of delivering voluntary counseling and testing services for people with HIV/AIDS in the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavhandu-Mudzusi, Azwihangwisi H; Netshandama, Vhonani O; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu

    2007-12-01

    Voluntary counseling services are seen as a cost-effective strategy for HIV prevention and management because they help people to cope with their illness and reduce infection rates in others. This study explored and described the experiences of 20 nurses who rendered voluntary counseling in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative and contextual research design was used, with data gathered from in-depth individual interviews and analyzed using an open-coding method. The main experiences of the nurses rendering voluntary counseling and testing arose in the following themes: challenges related to inadequate resources; the emotional drain associated with stress and burnout; and frustration related to certain behaviors and practices of clients and community members. The main conclusions drawn from the findings were that nurses are continuously exposed to emotionally draining activities with very little support from their supervisors, which makes them prone to experiencing burnout.

  8. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  9. Rapid detection of new and expanding human settlements in the Limpopo province of South Africa using a spatio-temporal change detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleynhans, W.; Salmon, B. P.; Wessels, K. J.; Olivier, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    Recent development has identified the benefits of using hyper-temporal satellite time series data for land cover change detection and classification in South Africa. In particular, the monitoring of human settlement expansion in the Limpopo province is of relevance as it is the one of the most pervasive forms of land-cover change in this province which covers an area of roughly 125 000 km2. In this paper, a spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection (STACD) method is developed to improve the performance of a pixel based temporal Autocorrelation change detection (TACD) method previously proposed. The objective is to apply the algorithm to large areas to detect the conversion of natural vegetation to settlement which is then validated by an operator using additional data (such as high resolution imagery). Importantly, as the objective of the method is to indicate areas of potential change to operators for further analysis, a low false alarm rate is required while achieving an acceptable probability of detection. Results indicate that detection accuracies of 70% of new settlement instances are achievable at a false alarm rate of less than 1% with the STACD method, an improvement of up to 17% compared to the original TACD formulation.

  10. Municipal solid waste management on the south coastline of the Caspian Sea (Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan Provinces of Iran).

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan

    2007-12-01

    The Caspian region (including the Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan provinces of Iran) occupies 58,678 square kilometers (22,651 square miles) and has a population of 6,270,192, according to the census of 1996. This part of Iran is attractive to tourists because of its proximity to the Caspian Sea. In addition, the region boasts invaluable forests and grasslands, and is the exclusive producer in the country of key agricultural crops like rice and tea. The lack of systematic solid waste management has put this region on the edge of irreparable environmental damage. The large number and dispersion of open-dumping landfills, as well as the faded role of functional elements like waste minimization and processing, have sped up the environmental deterioration. This article evaluates the current status of solid waste management in the Caspian region and suggests practical alternatives. As a result of a field and desk study, the authors offer some instructions for separation of putrescibles, paper and cardboard, plastics, and so forth. Finally, after considering all aspects of the environmental impact assessments for different alternatives, the authors recommend the construction of two compost-producing facilities in Golestan province with a combined capacity of 500 metric tons per day and a total cost of $60,000, and four incineration sites in southern and southwestern parts of the region (Mazandaran and Guilan provinces) with a total capacity of 2,000 metric tons per day and total cost of $75 million.

  11. Lithofacies analysis of basic lava flows of the Paraná igneous province in the south hinge of Torres Syncline, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Carla Joana Santos; de Lima, Evandro Fernandes; Scherer, Claiton Marlon; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May

    2014-09-01

    The Paraná igneous province records the volcanism of the earlier Cretaceous that preceded the fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Historically, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic pile as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. This work provides a detailed analysis of the emplacement conditions of these basic volcanic rocks, applying the facies analysis method integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. The Torres Syncline is a NW-SE tectonic structure, located in southern Brazil, where a thick sequence of the Paraná-Etendeka volcanic rocks is well preserved. This study was performed in the south hinge of the syncline, where the basaltic lava flows are divided into three lithofacies associations: early compound pahoehoe, early simple pahoehoe and late simple rubbly. The first lavas that erupted were more primitive compound pahoehoe flow fields composed of olivine basalts with higher MgO contents and covered the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flow fields is possibly related to intermittent low effusion rates, whereas the emplacement of simple pahoehoe is related to sustained low effusion rates with continuous supply. The thick simple rubbly lavas are associated with high effusion rates and were formed during the main phase of volcanism in the area. The absence of paleosoils between the lavas and lithofacies associations suggests that the successive emplacement of the lava flows occurred in a relatively short time gap. Geochemically, the lithofacies associations are low-TiO2 and belong to Gramado magma type. The lavas of the south hinge of the Torres Syncline have a similar evolution when compared to other Continental Basaltic Provinces with earlier compound flows at the base and thicker simple flows in the upper portions.

  12. Realist evaluation of the antiretroviral treatment adherence club programme in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of Western Cape Province, South Africa: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C; Van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; Van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Suboptimal retention in care and poor treatment adherence are key challenges to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Community-based approaches to HIV service delivery are recommended to improve patient retention in care and ART adherence. The implementation of the adherence clubs in the Western Cape province of South Africa was with variable success in terms of implementation and outcomes. The need for operational guidelines for its implementation has been identified. Therefore, understanding the contexts and mechanisms for successful implementation of the adherence clubs is crucial to inform the roll-out to the rest of South Africa. The protocol outlines an evaluation of adherence club intervention in selected primary healthcare facilities in the metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province, using the realist approach. Methods and analysis In the first phase, an exploratory study design will be used. Document review and key informant interviews will be used to elicit the programme theory. In phase two, a multiple case study design will be used to describe the adherence clubs in five contrastive sites. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with purposively selected programme implementers and members of the clubs to assess the context and mechanisms of the adherence clubs. For the programme's primary outcomes, a longitudinal retrospective cohort analysis will be conducted using routine patient data. Data analysis will involve classifying emerging themes using the context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configuration, and refining the primary CMO configurations to conjectured CMO configurations. Finally, we will compare the conjectured CMO configurations from the cases with the initial programme theory. The final CMOs obtained will be translated into middle range theories. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted according to the principles of the declaration of Helsinki (1964). Ethics clearance was obtained from the

  13. Resources and infrastructure for the delivery of antiretroviral therapy at primary health care facilities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Janse van Rensburg-Bonthuyzen, Ega; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Steyn, Francois; Jacobs, Nandi; Schneider, Helen; van Rensburg, Dingie

    2008-09-01

    There are concerns as to whether South Africa's public health system has sufficient resources, human and otherwise, to ensure universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). We report on public sector implementation of the Comprehensive Care Management and Treatment (CCMT) programme in the Free State Province, South Africa, in particular whether the primary health care (PHC) infrastructure was able to mobilise the necessary inputs to effectively provide ART, without undermining other services within facilities. A longitudinal study was conducted of the first 16 PHC facilities accredited to provide ART in the province. The facilities were visited on three occasions over 2 years, involving both structured and open-ended interviews with professional and lay staff, and observations of available resources. The resources assessed were staffing, space, essential equipment, drug supplies and laboratory systems. Approximately one-fifth (20%) of professional nurses were allocated to the CCMT programme in the facilities, although the overall number of professional nurses increased by only 14%. This process resulted in some displacement of professional nurses towards the CCMT Programme away from other services in the facilities. However, this could have been partially compensated for by task shifting towards community health workers and the appointment of additional support staff. Staff were largely positive about the programme. Drug supplies, availability of equipment and laboratory systems, although good at the baseline, improved further over the period of observation. The lack of adequate space to accommodate the new programme was a frequently reported problem. Overall, our assessment is that the PHC infrastructure in the Free State's public health system is capable of implementing and benefiting from the CCMT programme. Nevertheless, constraints in the availability of professional staff threaten future implementation of both the CCMT and other PHC programmes.

  14. Prevalence of iron and zinc deficiencies among preschool children ages 3 to 5 y in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Motadi, Selekane Ananias; Mbhenyane, Xikombiso G; Mbhatsani, Hlekani V; Mabapa, Ngoako S; Mamabolo, Ramoteme L

    2015-03-01

    Children under the age of 5 y constitute the most vulnerable group for iron and zinc deficiencies and their nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of zinc and iron deficiency among preschool children aged 3 to 5 y in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa. This study included 349 preschool children recruited from two municipalities of Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa. Municipalities were purposively selected and simple random sampling was used to choose children. Body weight and height were measured using standard techniques. Serum zinc, iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, transferrin and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed, as were hemoglobin levels. The prevalence of wasting, stunting, and underweight was 1.4%, 18.6%, and 0.3%, respectively; whereas 20.9% of the children were overweight and 9.7% were obese. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 42.6% and anemia was 28%; both were higher in girls than in boys. When using serum ferritin and transferrin saturation 7 (2%) of the children had iron-deficiency anemia. Combined iron and zinc deficiencies using ferritin was found in 8 (2.3%) of the children; when using transferrin saturation these deficiencies were found in 42 (12%) of the children. Iron and zinc deficiencies as well as anemia, accompanied by high prevalence of stunting; and overweight and obesity, were common in preschool children. The results observed here call for interventions to combat the escalating problem of child malnutrition in the form of nutritional education for mothers and food handlers at preschools to ensure food diversification in these children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with four or more antenatal care services among pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey in eight South Central Coast provinces of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Bui Tt; Tac, Pham V; Duc, Duong M; Duong, Doan Tt; Thi, Le M

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, four or more antenatal care (ANC4+) visits/services among pregnant women have not been officially reported in the health system. Moreover, the factors associated with the use of ANC4+ services have not been studied in previous studies. In this study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to identify the rate of utilization of ANC4+ services and factors associated with use of ANC4+ services among pregnant women in rural areas of Vietnam. The study was conducted in eight provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam between August 2013 and May 2014. A total of 907 women, who delivered in the past 1 year, participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and utilization of ANC4+ services. The rate of utilization of ANC4+ services by women in eight South Central Coast provinces was 53.9%. Factors negatively associated with using ANC4+ services were belonging to ethnic minority groups having lower education, doing informal works, having lower income, having lower knowledge on ANC4+ services, and receiving no financial support from the husband. In particular, financial support from the husband was considered important in improving the use of ANC4+ services by women in rural areas. The study asserted an inadequacy for ANC4+ utilization and can contribute to missed opportunities to achieve better maternal outcomes for women in rural areas of Vietnam. The necessity of introducing ANC4+ services in the national guidelines on maternal health care should be disseminated to health policy-makers. Strategies to increase ANC4+ utilization should focus on knowledge improvement and on poor, low-income, and ethnic minority women.

  16. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of Two-Month Sputum Smear Non-Conversion in New Sputum Smear Positive Tuberculosis Patients in the Free State Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chikobvu, Perpetual; Heunis, James Christoffel; van der Merwe, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the drivers of two-month sputum smear non-conversion in the South African context. Our study sought to determine these factors in new sputum smear positive tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa’s Free State Province. A retrospective record review was conducted for all TB patients on treatment between 2003 and 2009. Two-month sputum smear non-conversion was defined by a positive sputum smear result. Data was subjected to univariate, bivariate and regression analyses. Generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the risk for two-month sputum smear non-conversion. Age, pre-treatment sputum smear grading, HIV status and TB disease classification influenced two-month sputum smear non-conversion. Significant associations were thus established between health systems, microbiological, clinical and demographic factors, and two-month sputum smear non-conversion. This study provides program managers with evidence to support the development of more tailored TB care. PMID:28299125

  18. An evaluation of serological tests in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chisi, Songelwayo L; Marageni, Yoanda; Naidoo, Prebashni; Zulu, Gloria; Akol, George W; Van Heerden, Henriette

    2017-02-28

    The diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) of the Rose Bengal test (RBT), the complement fixation test (CFT), the serum agglutination test (SAT), the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the indirect ELISA (iELISA) were determined in naturally infected cattle in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa with known infectious status from culture (gold standard). Natural brucellosis infection status of animals was determined by culturing and identification of Brucella abortus biovar 1 from abomasal fluid, milk, hygroma fluid, lymph nodes or uterine discharges samples. The diagnostic specificity (DSp) of the tests mentioned above was determined using samples from known negative herds. There was no statistically significant difference between the tests in their ability to diagnose brucellosis. The RBT and iELISA had the highest DSe of 95.8%, whereas RBT and CFT had the highest DSp of 100%. In South African laboratories, the RBT and CFT serological tests are used, because of the cost efficacy of CFT when compared to the less labour intensive but more expensive iELISA.

  19. Measuring a hidden population: A novel technique to estimate the population size of women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa G; McLaughlin, Katherine R; Rouhani, Shada A; Bartels, Susan A

    2017-03-01

    Successive sampling (SS)-population size estimation (PSE) is a technique used to estimate the sizes of hidden populations using data collected in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys. We assess past estimations and use new data from an RDS survey to calculate a new PSE. In 2012, 852 adult women in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, who self-identified as survivors of sexual violence, resulting in a pregnancy, since the start of the war (in 1996) were sampled using RDS. We used imputed visibility, enrollment order, and prior estimates for PSE using SS-PSE in RDS Analyst. Prior estimates varied between Congolese local experts and researchers. We calculated the PSE of women with a sexual violence-related pregnancy in South Kivu using researchers' priors to be approximately 17,400. SS-PSE is an effective method for estimating the population sizes of hidden populations, useful for providing evidence for services and resource allocation. SS-PSE is beneficial because population sizes can be calculated after conducting the survey and do not rely on separate studies or additional data (as in network scale-up, multiplier, and capture-recapture methods).

  20. The Provision of School Library Resources in a Changing Environment: A Case Study from Gauteng Province, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlamini, Busi; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Before 1994 education in South Africa was divided along racial lines. There were separate departments of education for whites, coloureds (people of mixed decent), Indians (people of East Indian decent), and blacks (black Africans). Education for white children was much better funded than any of the others. The quality of the education that white…

  1. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may significantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. Aim To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. Setting The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. Methods This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profile, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Results Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Conclusion Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population. PMID:26245418

  2. The costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester, medical and surgical safe abortion services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Fetters, Tamara; Sinanovic, Edina; Devjee, Jaymala; Moodley, Jack; Blanchard, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Despite a liberal abortion law, access to safe abortion services in South Africa is challenging for many women. Medication abortion was introduced in 2013, but its reach remains limited. We aimed to estimate the costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester medication abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) services to inform planning for first-trimester service provision in South Africa and similar settings. We obtained data on service provision and outcomes from an operations research study where medication abortion was introduced alongside existing MVA services in public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province. Clinical data were collected through interviews with first-trimester abortion clients and summaries completed by nurses performing the procedures. In parallel, we performed micro-costing at three of the study hospitals. Using a model built in Excel, we estimated the average cost per medical and surgical procedure and determined the cost per complete abortion performed. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars. A total of 1,129 women were eligible for a first trimester abortion at the three study sites. The majority (886, 78.5%) were eligible to choose their abortion procedure; 94.1% (n = 834) chose medication abortion. The total average cost per medication abortion was $63.91 (52.32-75.51). The total average cost per MVA was higher at $69.60 (52.62-86.57); though the cost ranges for the two procedures overlapped. Given average costs, the cost per complete medication abortion was lower than the cost per complete MVA despite three (0.4%) medication abortion women being hospitalized and two (0.3%) having ongoing pregnancies at study exit. Personnel costs were the largest component of the total average cost of both abortion methods. This analysis supports the scale-up of medication abortion alongside existing MVA services in South Africa. Women can be offered a choice of methods, including medication abortion with MVA as a back-up, without

  3. "She drank his money": survival sex and the problem of violence in taverns in Gauteng province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet Maia

    2002-09-01

    This article examines the practice of "survival sex" in the taverns of Soweto and Hammanskraal area, South Africa. Women who engage in survival sex do not self-identify as commercial sex workers, and the community does not identify them as such. Those who structure HIV prevention programs should not confound such women with commercial sex workers, because effective intervention may vary between the two groups. Violence against women who engage in survival sex in taverns is common, as it is argued that, when a woman accepts beer from a man, she is obliged to exchange sex (because she has "drunk his money"). The South African government should prioritize the reduction of violence as a way to reduce HIV transmission, as, in the context of violence, women do not have the option of negotiating safer sex.

  4. From Rifting of a volcanic province to Oceanic Spreading in the Andaman Sea, South-East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, A.; Singh, S. C.; Klinger, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Andaman Sea is an enigmatic feature in the Indian Ocean region. It contains the volcanic provinces of Alcock and Sewell Rises and an active spreading center. The recent rifting in the Andaman Sea initiated 4.5 Ma ago, rifting the Alcock and Seawell Rises that were formed by extensive volcanism between 23-16 Ma. The spreading started with a full spreading rate of 1.6 cm/yr and increased to 3.8 cm/yr in the last 2.5 Ma. We have access to high-resolution deep seismic reflection data crossing the whole spreading center from the rifted volcanic provinces to the spreading center. The data show the whole oceanic crust up to the Moho. The Andaman Sea is covered with a thick pile of sediments that record the tectonic history of the rift system up to the spreading axis, allowing to decipher the whole process from rifting to spreading for the first time. We see a very rapid phase of transition from the rifting of the rises to the spreading in less than 20 km. Then a succession of at least 7 half-grabens is well recorded by the sediments on both sides of the spreading center. These half grabens are separated by outward tilted low angle detachment faults, which form the base of steeply dipping normal faults due to stretching. These low angle faults seem to connect with axial magma chambers that control evolution of the rift valley. We find that new detachment faults develop every 350,000 years, forming a new rift valley. The images of active normal faults within the central rift valley allow us to quantify the formation of oceanic crust by tectonic versus magmatic processes.

  5. Molecular and Microscopic-Based Characterization of Plasmodium spp. in Fars and Hormozgan Provinces, South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Tahereh; Kalantari, Mohsen; Sarkari, Bahador; Motazedian, Mohammad Hosein; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Safari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Despite malaria control programs in recent years, malaria transmission has not been eliminated in Iran. Molecular techniques including PCR, which has proved more sensitive and specific than microscopic examination methods, help to detect infection in low levels of parasitemia and mixed infections. Main our objectives were setting up nested PCR for detection of malaria and evaluating PCR based on plasmodia DNA from blood smears in Fars province, the comparison of this method with traditional microscopy and also evaluate the data in comparison with its neighboring province, Hormozgan. A total of 149 malaria positive samples including 116, 19, and 14 samples from Shiraz, Jask, and Lengeh ports were utilized in this study, respectively. Blood slides were prepared for microscopic observation. DNA from thin smears was extracted and nested PCR was analyzed using rPLU5 and rPLU6 for genus specification, rFAL1, rFAL2, and rVIV1, rVIV2 for P. falciparum and P. vivax detection, respectively. The results showed that 126 (84.6%), 16 (10.7%), and 7 (4.7%) out of 149 cases were positive for P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infections, respectively, by microscopy. The PCR indicated that 95 (63.7%), 15 (10.1%), and 22 (14.8%) cases were infected with P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed mentioned species, respectively, and 17 (11.4%) cases were uninfected. Our results confirmed the considerable sensitivity of nested PCR for detection of the mixed infections. Simultaneous application of PCR even based on microscopy slides can facilitate access to the highest level of confidence in malaria researches. PMID:24799917

  6. Trends and periodicity of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from daily temperature and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, temperature extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 temperature indices, and the nighttime temperature increases faster than the daytime temperature at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme temperature indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all temperature indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme temperature indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 temperature indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns and movement analysis of pigs from smallholder farms and implications for African swine fever spread, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Folorunso O; Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; Van Leengoed, Leo A M L; Bevis, Yvette; Booysen, Ingrid

    2015-11-27

    Infectious and zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to increasing volumes of legal and illegal trade. Spatio-temporal and trade network analyses have been used to evaluate the risks associated with these challenges elsewhere, but few details are available for the pig sector in South Africa. Regarding pig diseases, Limpopo province is important as the greater part of the province falls within the African swine fever control area. Emerging small-scale pig farmers in Limpopo perceived pig production as an important means of improving their livelihood and an alternative investment. They engage in trading and marketing their products with a potential risk to animal health, because the preferred markets often facilitate potential longdistance spread and disease dispersal over broad geographic areas. In this study, we explored the interconnectedness of smallholder pig farmers in Limpopo, determined the weaknesses and critical control points, and projected interventions that policy makers can implement to reduce the risks to pig health. The geo-coordinates of surveyed farms were used to draw maps, links and networks. Predictive risks to pigs were determined through the analyses of trade networks, and the relationship to previous outbreaks of African swine fever was postulated. Auction points were identified as high-risk areas for the spread of animal diseases. Veterinary authorities should prioritise focused surveillance and diagnostic efforts in Limpopo. Early disease detection and prompt eradication should be targeted and messages promoting enhanced biosecurity to smallholder farmers are advocated. The system may also benefit from the restructuring of marketing and auction networks. Since geographic factors and networks can rapidly facilitate pig disease dispersal over large areas, a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexities that exist around the animal disease epidemiology becomes mandatory.

  8. Mafic subvolcanic intrusions and their petrologic relation with the volcanism in the south hinge Torres Syncline, Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmento, Carla Cecília Treib; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The hypabyssal intrusions investigated in this study are located in the east-central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south hinge of the Torres Syncline. The intrusions comprise twenty-four dikes and ten sills, intruding in ponded pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, rubbly and acidic lava flows of the south sub-Province of the Paraná Igneous Province and the sedimentary rocks of the Botucatu, Pirambóia, Santa Maria and Rio do Rasto Formations, on the edge of the Paraná Basin. The intrusive dikes in the flows have preferred NNW-SSE direction and the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks have preferred NE-SW direction. Regarding the morphology, the dikes were separated into two different groups: symmetrical and asymmetrical. The small variation in facies is characterized by fine to aphanitic equigranular rocks. The rocks were divided into two types: Silica Supersaturated Tholeiite (SST) - dikes and sills consisting of plagioclase and clinopyroxene as essential minerals, with some olivine and felsic mesostasis, predominant intergranular texture and subordinate subophitic texture; and Silica Saturated Olivine Tholeiite (SSOT) - dikes consisting mainly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, and predominant ophitic texture. The major and trace element geochemistry allows classifying these hypabyssal bodies as basalts (SSOT), basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (TSS) of tholeiitic affinity. The mineral chemistry data and the REE behavior, combined with the LILE and HFSE patterns, similar to the flows and low-Ti basic intrusions of southern Brazil and northwestern Namibia allow suggesting that these dikes and sills were part of a feeder system of the magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province. The preferred direction of the intrusive dikes in the sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin coincides with tectonic-magmatic lineaments related to extensional processes and faulting systems that served as vents for dike swarms parallel to the Brazilian

  9. Development and Evaluation of Live-Bed Pier- and Contraction-Scour Envelope Curves in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, used ground-penetrating radar to collect measurements of live-bed pier scour and contraction scour at 78 bridges in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain Physiographic Provinces of South Carolina. The 151 measurements of live-bed pier-scour depth ranged from 1.7 to 16.9 feet, and the 89 measurements of live-bed contraction-scour depth ranged from 0 to 17.1 feet. Using hydraulic data estimated with a one-dimensional flow model, predicted live-bed scour depths were computed with scour equations from the Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 and compared with measured scour. This comparison indicated that predicted pier-scour depths generally exceeded the measured pier-scour depths, and at times predicted pier-scour depths were excessive (overpredictions were as large as 23.1 feet). For live-bed contraction-scour depths, predicted scour was sometimes excessive (overpredictions were as large as 14.3 feet), but often observed contraction scour was underpredicted. For live-bed pier scour, trends in laboratory and field data were compared and found to be similar. The strongest explanatory variable was pier width, and an envelope curve for assessing the upper bound of live-bed pier scour was developed using pier width as the primary explanatory variable. Relations in the live-bed contraction-scour data also were investigated, and several envelope curves were developed using the geometric-contraction ratio as the primary explanatory variable. The envelope curves developed with the field data have limitations, but the envelope curves can be used as supplementary tools for assessing the potential for live-bed pier and contraction scour in South Carolina. Data from this study were compiled into a database that includes photographs, measured scour depths, predicted scour depths, limited basin characteristics, limited soil data, and modeled hydraulic data. The South Carolina database can be

  10. An association between decreasing incidence of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis and increased use of antiretroviral therapy, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Keddy, Karen H; Takuva, Simbarashe; Musekiwa, Alfred; Puren, Adrian J; Sooka, Arvinda; Karstaedt, Alan; Klugman, Keith P; Angulo, Frederick J

    2017-01-01

    HIV-infected persons are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, including invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections; antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces this risk. We explored changing iNTS incidence associated with increasing ART availability in South Africa. Laboratory-based surveillance for iNTS was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa, with verification using the National Health Laboratory Service's Central Data Warehouse (CDW), between 2003 and 2013. Isolates were serotyped at the Centre for Enteric Diseases. CDW data on patient numbers obtaining HIV viral load measurements provided estimates of numbers of HIV-infected patients receiving ART. A Poisson regression model was used to measure the changing incidence of iNTS infection from 2003 to 2013. The correlation between the incidence of iNTS and ART use from 2004 to 2013 was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. From 2003-2013, the incidence of iNTS per 100,000 population per year decreased from 5.0 to 2.2 (p < .001). From 2004 to 2013, the incidence per 100,000 population of HIV viral load testing increased from 75.2 to 3,620.3 (p < .001). The most common serotypes causing invasive disease were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium), and Salmonella Enteritidis: 2,469 (55.4%) and 1,156 (25.9%) of 4,459 isolates serotyped, respectively. A strong negative correlation was observed between decreasing iNTS incidence and increasing ART use from 2004 to 2013 (r = -0.94, p < .001). Similarly, decreasing incidence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium infection correlated with increasing ART use (r = -0.93, p < .001). Incidence of invasive Salmonella Enteritidis infection increased, however (r = 0.95, p < .001). Between 2003 and 2004, fewer adult men than women presented with iNTS (male-to-female rate ratio 0.73 and 0.89, respectively). This was reversed from 2005 through 2013 (ranging from 1.07 in 2005 to 1.44 in 2013). Adult men accessed ART less (male

  11. An association between decreasing incidence of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis and increased use of antiretroviral therapy, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Takuva, Simbarashe; Musekiwa, Alfred; Puren, Adrian J.; Sooka, Arvinda; Karstaedt, Alan; Klugman, Keith P.; Angulo, Frederick J.

    2017-01-01

    Background HIV-infected persons are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, including invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections; antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces this risk. We explored changing iNTS incidence associated with increasing ART availability in South Africa. Methods Laboratory-based surveillance for iNTS was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa, with verification using the National Health Laboratory Service’s Central Data Warehouse (CDW), between 2003 and 2013. Isolates were serotyped at the Centre for Enteric Diseases. CDW data on patient numbers obtaining HIV viral load measurements provided estimates of numbers of HIV-infected patients receiving ART. A Poisson regression model was used to measure the changing incidence of iNTS infection from 2003 to 2013. The correlation between the incidence of iNTS and ART use from 2004 to 2013 was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results From 2003–2013, the incidence of iNTS per 100,000 population per year decreased from 5.0 to 2.2 (p < .001). From 2004 to 2013, the incidence per 100,000 population of HIV viral load testing increased from 75.2 to 3,620.3 (p < .001). The most common serotypes causing invasive disease were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium), and Salmonella Enteritidis: 2,469 (55.4%) and 1,156 (25.9%) of 4,459 isolates serotyped, respectively. A strong negative correlation was observed between decreasing iNTS incidence and increasing ART use from 2004 to 2013 (r = -0.94, p < .001). Similarly, decreasing incidence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium infection correlated with increasing ART use (r = -0.93, p < .001). Incidence of invasive Salmonella Enteritidis infection increased, however (r = 0.95, p < .001). Between 2003 and 2004, fewer adult men than women presented with iNTS (male-to-female rate ratio 0.73 and 0.89, respectively). This was reversed from 2005 through 2013 (ranging from 1.07 in 2005 to 1.44 in 2013

  12. Dating the birth, growth and death of Miocene carbonate platforms in the South China Sea, Central Luconia Province, Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, K.; Pierson, B. J.; Pubellier, M.; Menier, D.; Warrlich, G.; Jamaludin, S.

    2012-12-01

    The regional distribution, respective location of the Miocene carbonate platforms of Central Luconia and their internal architecture suggest a development initiated and influenced by the late Neogene evolution of the South China Sea. A first regional fragmentation of an extensive carbonate bank probably took place in the early Mid-Miocene (20-15 Ma) period. Series of NE-SW and NW-SE lineaments separating isolated carbonate platforms suggest this regional fragmentation. This event led to the growth of a number of relatively closely spaced isolated platforms, in what is referred to as the "build-up" stage. A second event or series of events probably occurred during the 15-12Ma period, and may have been linked to the last propagator-associated rifting phase that was specific to the southern part of the South China Sea. It is possible that it triggered gravity-induced faulting, which broke up individual isolated platforms. The movements that affected the platforms during this period were subtle and, although platform fragmentation occurred, most platforms were able to heal. A third event, characterized by further fragmentation and rotation of individual platforms may have resulted from gravitational tectonics during the Late Miocene (12-7Ma) period. The slight rotation of individual platforms that occurred during this period resulted in a significant back-stepping of the margins and contraction of the platforms, caused by partial drowning of the subsided part of the platform in what is referred to as the "build-in" stage.

  13. A Late Pleistocene Guloninae (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from South America (Argentina, Entre Ríos province), biogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiaffini, Mauro I.; Prevosti, Francisco J.; Ferrero, Brenda S.; Noriega, Jorge I.

    2017-10-01

    The record of Guloninae presents mainly a Holarctic distribution, with only Eira barbara occurring in South America (SA). This lineage immigrated from Central America at least in the Pleistocene. The fossil record of Guloninae for SA is limited to a few known specimens of Eira from Late Pleistocene of Brazil. We report a new specimen of E. barbara (an upper carnassial) from Late Pleistocene of Entre Ríos, Argentina. We also discuss the taxonomic assignation of this new fossil and its paleoenvironmental relevance using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM). The new material comes from Ensenada Creek, Salto Ander Egg Formation, from the Late Pleistocene between 120 and 60 ky BP. The locality is farther south than its recent distribution, and SDM shows low suitability values for such area, which also indicates that the species is absent from this area in present time. The P4 is bigger and the protocone has a more anterior position relative to the paracone than that of recent specimens of E. barbara. This new fossil indicates that E. barbara had a wider distribution over the Late Pleistocene and, if our interpretation is correct, it has been present in SA at least since 120-60 ky BP. The presence of E. barbara in such a southern locality, together with other taxa recorded in this site and the associated geological and paleoenvironmental evidences, indicates warmer and more humid conditions, compared with the current conditions, which might have allowed a southern displacement of taxa more related to forested and tropical environments.

  14. Genetic profiling for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ticks collected in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Iweriebor, Benson C; Mmbaga, Elia J; Adegborioye, Abiodun; Igwaran, Aboi; Obi, Larry C; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-02-27

    Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are emerging tick-borne pathogens that cause anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in humans and other animals worldwide. Infections caused by these pathogens are deadly if left untreated. There has been relatively no systematic survey of these pathogens among ticks in South Africa, thus necessitating this study. The presence of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species were demonstrated by PCR in ticks collected from domestic ruminants at some selected communities in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The ticks were identified by morphological characteristics and thereafter processed to extract bacterial DNA, which was analyzed for the presence of genetic materials of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia. Three genera of ticks comprising five species were identified. The screening yielded 16 positive genetic materials that were phylogenetically related to Ehrlichia sequences obtained from GenBank, while no positive result was obtained for Anaplasma. The obtained Ehrlichia sequences were closely related to E. chaffeensis, E. canis, E. muris and the incompletely described Ehrlichia sp. UFMG-EV and Ehrlichia sp. UFMT. The findings showed that ticks in the studied areas were infected with Ehrlichia spp. and that the possibility of transmission to humans who might be tick infested is high.

  15. Relating vegetation condition to grazing management systems in the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakembo, Vincent; Ndou, Naledzani

    2017-04-01

    An investigation of the temporal changes in vegetation condition across the communal villages of the central Keiskamma catchment, Eastern Cape Province, in relation to local grazing management systems was conducted. Landsat TM images of 1984 and 1999, in conjunction with SPOT imagery of 2011 were used to assess the spatial trends in vegetation. Information regarding the functionality of local grazing management structures was obtained through structured interviews. Vegetation condition was related to grazing management systems using the logistic regression in Idrisi Selva remote sensing software. Analysis of vegetation condition trends revealed a consistent deterioration of vegetation condition in villages with weak grazing management systems. A statistically significant correlation between vegetation condition and grazing management systems was identified. High levels of vegetation degradation were associated with villages that did not adhere to sound grazing management practices. The introduction of another layer governance in the form of elected municipal committees weakened traditional village management structures. Strengthening traditional management committees should be the point of departure for vegetation restoration.

  16. Market survey on traditional medicine of the third month fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dequan; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2014-01-01

    The Third Month Fair in Dali is a historical festival and fair. The market of traditional medicine (TM) is one of the main parts in the fair, which has important influence on local and peripheral people. In this study, approaches of ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and participatory rural appraisal were used in market survey. Twenty-six druggists were selected randomly as informants and their TMs were recorded. As a result, 427 TMs were recorded including 362 plant medicines, 33 animal medicines, 13 mineral medicines and 19 unidentified medicines. Xinyi, Shanza and Gancao were the most popular medicines due to their popular usages, whereas Sanqi, Tianma and Renshen were relatively fewer in this investigation probably owing to high price and limited output. The plant medicines were from medicinal plants of 117 families belonged to Angiosperm, Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta, Lichenes and Fungi. Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae provided the maximum numbers of TMs successively. Moreover, these TMs were mainly from the cultivated especially familiar TMs, which reflected significant progress in utilization and conservation of medicinal resource in China. Medicinal market in the Third Month Fair is the most important traditional bazaar in Yunnan province. This study systematically surveyed TMs in the fair for the first time, analyzing and revealing resource compositions and current market situations. These newly gathered data provided precious information for development of medicine cultivation, resource protection and market management as well as further pharmacognostical, pharmacological and clinical researches.

  17. Determination of Asymptomatic Malaria among Afghani and Pakistani Immigrants and Native Population in South of Kerman Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    AMIRSHEKARI, Mohammad Bagher; NATEGHPOUR, Mehdi; RAEISI, Ahmad; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; FARIVAR, Leila; EDRISSIAN, Gholamhosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was proposed to monitor the situation of asymptomatic malaria among the native population and Afghani and Pakistani immigrants in Kahnooj and Ghale-Ganj districts from Kerman Province, Southeastern Iran. Methods: A number of 180 and 120 individuals from Kahnooj and Ghale-Ganj respectively were registered and considered based on a cross-sectional surveillance method. From 300 registered cases, 200 individuals (66.7%) were selected among Afghani and Pakistani immigrants and the rest (33.3%) were native resident individuals. All samples were processed with employing microscopical examination, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and Semi- nested Multiplex PCR techniques. Results: None of the samples collected from native residents showed any malaria parasite, but among Afghani immigrants, one asymptomatic vivax malaria was detected in a 12 yr old girl with 280 parasites per microliter of blood. Moreover, one symptomatic vivax malaria was detected from a Pakistani immigrant with 47560 parasites per microliter of blood. All results obtained via microscopical method, confirmed by RDTs and PCR techniques. Conclusion: To achieve the malaria elimination program different studies are needed that to be performed. Monitoring the asymptomatic malaria in all over the malaria endemic areas especially among the immigrant individuals is the most crucial necessity. PMID:28096860

  18. Life experiences of elderly people with suicide ideation at the long-term care hospitals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok Sun; Sok, Sohyune R

    2017-10-05

    To understand the life experiences of elderly people who are living in long-term care hospitals and are afflicted with suicide ideation. A phenomenological qualitative methodology based on Colaizzi's method was used for the study. Participants included 9 elderly people who are 65 years old or older with suicidal ideas and were admitted in any of the 3 long-term care hospitals in D City, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Data were collected from July to December 2014. Seven categories, 15 theme categories, 30 themes, and 88 significant items were identified as parts of their life experiences. The 7 categories were identified as "being a slave to one's disease", "sadness as a result of being far away from one's family", "vain care and consolation for me", "continued life in a hospital, which feels like living abroad", "plunging life", "moving toward the end of life", and "sad relief from death". The findings from this study provide a deep understanding of the lives of elderly people who were staying in long-term care hospitals, and these will help improve their quality of life. Additionally, they can be used as references in implementing high-quality nursing practices for such elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Health care workers’ perspectives about disclosure to HIV-infected children; cross-sectional survey of health facilities in Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2015-01-01

    The perspectives and practices of health care workers (HCWs) regarding disclosure to HIV-infected children have not been adequately investigated ten years after the roll-out of pediatrics antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of the study was to examine the opinions of HCWs about disclosure to HIV-infected children and determine their role in disclosure to children accessing ART in health centers in South Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire among HCWs in ART centers at three hospitals and 48 primary health facilities in two provinces in South Africa. Of the 206 HCWs, 140 (68.2%) were nurses, 44 (21.5%) were lay counsellors, and 4 (2%) were doctors. The majority (n = 183, 89.3%) felt that disclosure benefits children and they should be told about their HIV status. Over half (n = 93, 51.4%) recommended 11–18 years as the appropriate age to disclose. Half (n = 99, 48.5%) said that caregivers should take the lead to disclose, 87 (42.7%) said that disclosure is a shared responsibility of caregivers and HCWs, and 18 (8.8%) said HCWs should lead disclosure. HCWs perceived their role as that of preparing the caregiver for disclosure and the child to understand the disease. However, the lack of guidelines and training on disclosure counselling for children affects their ability to fully participate in disclosure to children. There is a need to adopt the World Health Organizations’ disclosure guidelines for children and adapt them to the local cultural and community contexts and train HCWs to guide, support, and assist caregivers in their disclosure to HIV-infected children. PMID:25893147

  20. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of Late Mesozoic silicic large igneous province and related epithermal mineralization in South China: Insights from the Zhilingtou volcanic-intrusive complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Guang; Ni, Pei; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Li, Pengfei; Chen, Hui; Zhu, An-Dong; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Silicic large igneous provinces (SLIPs) generally reflect large-scale melting of lower crustal materials and represent significant metal reservoirs. The South China Block-Coastal Region (SCB-CR) SLIP hosts several large epithermal deposits. To better understand these deposits, we document the spatiotemporal framework of the host SLIP across the SCB-CR. Using zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical and isotopic analysis, we identify four stages of emplacement. Stage 1 felsophyre (circa 149 Ma) shows a chemical affinity to highly fractionated I-type granites. Stages 2 and 3 of low-Mg felsic volcanics (circa 128 to 111 Ma) and stage 4 felsite (circa 100 Ma) have higher ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) values than stage 1 felsophyre, suggesting a significant contribution of newly underplated juvenile crust to the magma sources. Stage 4 diabase (circa 101 Ma) was likely produced by melting of subduction˗metasomatized asthenospheric mantle. Together with reliable published data, we build a new spatiotemporal framework of volcanics and infer that the majority of the SCB-CR SLIP was related to the gradual northwestward subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath South China in a continental arc setting during circa 170 to 110 Ma, and minor contribution was from the eastward retreat of the subducting slab in a back-arc setting during circa 110 to 90 Ma. We conclude that the large-scale epithermal mineralization was generated by melting of the metal-rich, thin (30-40 km), newly underplated hydrous juvenile crust during the tectonic transition from arc to back-arc settings.

  1. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013)

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  2. Slow to share: social capital and its role in public HIV disclosure among public sector ART patients in the Free State province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, E; Meulemans, H; van Rensburg, H C J

    2009-04-01

    HIV serostatus disclosure to community members has been shown to have potential public and personal health benefits. This study examined the impact of bonding and bridging social capital (i.e. close and distant ties) on public disclosure and described the complex relationship between bonding and bridging social capital in the context of serostatus disclosure among AIDS patients enrolled in South Africa's public sector antiretroviral treatment (ART) program. Data were collected from a cohort of patients enrolled in the public sector ART program in the Free State province of South Africa. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a random sample of 268 patients at three points in time (<6 months of ART, 6-12 months of ART, and 18-24 of months ART). The relationship between bonding and bridging social capital and the impact of different forms of social capital on public disclosure were determined using a fully cross-lagged regression model. The impact of bonding social capital (treatment and emotional buddy) on public disclosure was positive and invariant across time. The results from the cross-lagged regression indicated that bridging social capital (community health worker and support group) only encouraged public disclosure in the second year of treatment. At the start of treatment, bivariate analysis showed a strong negative association between bonding and bridging social capital, which diminished at follow-up and eventually disappeared in the second year of treatment. This study identified bonding social capital as a leverage to maximize potential benefits and minimize potential risks in order to shift the balance toward consistent public disclosure. Furthermore, the importance of bridging social capital initiatives is demonstrated, especially for the most vulnerable patients, those who cannot capitalize their bonding social capital by disclosing their HIV serostatus to family and friends at the start of treatment.

  3. Professional nurses' views regarding stigma and discrimination in the care of HIV and AIDS patients in rural hospitals of the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manganye, Bumani S; Maluleke, Thelmah X; Lebese, Rachel T

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the views of professional nurses on the manifestations of HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination and their influence on the quality of care rendered to people living with HIV and AIDS in three rural hospitals of Limpopo province, South Africa. The study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population included all professional nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council who were working with confirmed HIV-positive patients in the three hospitals and had received specialised training in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), antiretrovirals (ARV), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and couple counselling. A purposive sampling method was used to select both the wards and participants, based on set criteria. A total of 9 wards (6 adult medical and 3 maternity) and 37 participants were selected. Focus group discussions and semi-structured and key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using a combination of data analysis guidelines from different sources. Results revealed that professional nurses were aware of the existence of HIV and AIDS stigma and discrimination in their wards and regarded these as bad and improper care of HIV-positive patients. Behaviour included leaving care of HIV patients to junior members of staff with limited skills and knowledge of HIV and AIDS; showing HIV-positive patients that their disease was dangerous and contagious; judgmental behaviour towards and stereotyping of HIV-positive patients; and regarding patients with HIV and AIDS as uncooperative and problematic in the wards.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in vegetables sold in the Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abong'o, B O; Momba, M N B; Mwambakana, J N

    2008-04-01

    Fresh vegetables have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in most parts of the world. Microbiological quality of vegetables used as recipes for salads is very crucial. Residents of the Amathole District in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa consume salads frequently, although the microbial quality of recipe vegetables is questionable. The present study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from selected vegetables sold within the Amathole District. One hundred eighty samples of the vegetables were analyzed. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 were isolated by enrichment culture and by immunomagnetic separation and identified by conventional and molecular techniques. In three settlements in this district, the mean counts of presumptive E. coli O157 for the vegetables ranged between 9 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(6) CFU/g for Fort Beaufort, 1.6 x 10(3) and 1.6 x 10(5) CFU/g for Mdantsane, and 1.3 x 10(3) and 4.1 x 10(4) CFU/g for Alice. Four (10.3%) of 39 vegetable samples were confirmed to carry E. coli O157:H7. Four representative E. coli O157:H7 isolates from these vegetables were susceptible to at least one of the eight antimicrobial agents tested against them. Even though the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was low and those isolated were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials, there remains a need for E. coli O157:H7 surveillance in vegetables used in salad recipes in urban and rural areas of South Africa.

  5. Problem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Skaal, Linda; Sinclair, Heidi; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p < 0.001]. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of free helpline services among gamblers and to ensure gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.

  6. Evaluating the Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Treatment Sites in Kwazulu-Natal Province of South Africa: Achievements and Challenges from 2005 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    N, Malangu

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide care to the increasing number of people infected with HIV, there is a need for scaling up the number of treatment sites. For the public health officials and planners, there is a need for a defined methodology to do this, taking into consideration the national targets as enacted by the National Department of Health (NDOH) of South Africa. This commentary is about an evaluation conducted to review the progress made by the Province of KwaZulu-Natal in scaling up antiretroviral treatment sites (ART). Based on a mathematical modelling combined with a geographical information system by Wilson and Blower, the prediction that 54 ART facilities were required for equitable distribution of antiretroviral treatment in KwaZulu-Natal had been exceeded as 89 ART sites had been established by 2010. Despite this success, two major challenges are still lurking into the ART program, namely, the accessibility of ART by those who need it and the shortage of professional human resources particularly pharmacy staff. Innovative strategies are needed to address the shortage of health professionals and related disparities in order to increase access to ART. PMID:24762352

  7. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from meat and meat products sold in Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Abong'o, Benard O; Momba, Maggy N B

    2009-04-01

    Meat and meat products have been implicated in outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in most parts of the world. In the Amathole District Municipality of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, a large number of households consume meat and meat products daily, although the microbiological quality of these types of food is questionable. The present study investigated the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from selected meat and meat products (45 samples each of biltong, cold meat, mincemeat, and polony) sold in this area. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 were isolated by enrichment culture and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also investigated were the antibiogram profiles of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Five (2.8%) out of 180 meat and meat products examined were positive for E. coli O157:H7 that carried the fliC(H7), rfbE(O157), and eaeA genes. Two of the E. coli O157:H7 isolates were resistant against all the eight antibiotics tested. To prevent E. coli O157:H7 infections, meat and meat products such as biltong, cold meat, mincemeat and polony should be properly handled, and packed in sterile polyvinyl wrappers.

  8. Caregivers' knowledge and use of fermented foods for infant and young children feeding in a rural community of odi, gauteng province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to-wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers' awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri-tional value of these foods. It is critical to promote caregivers' knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities.

  9. Professional nurses' attitudes towards providing termination of pregnancy services in a tertiary hospital in the north west province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokgethi, N E; Ehlers, V J; van der Merwe, M M

    2006-03-01

    The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act (no 92 of 1996) was implemented during 1997. This study attempted to investigate professional nurses' attitudes towards rendering termination of pregnancy (TOP) services at a tertiary hospital in the North West Province of South Africa. A quantitative descriptive research design was used to study professional nurses' attitudes towards providing TOP services. The research results, obtained from questionnaires completed by professional nurses, indicated that most professional nurses' attitudes included that women should be at least 16 years of age to access these services; women should not be able to access repeated TOPs; nurses would prefer to administer pills rather than to use vacuum aspirations; nurses should work in TOP services by choice only. TOP centers should have better equipment, more resources and more staff members. Nurses working in TOP services would appreciate receiving more support from their families, friends, managers and communities. Some professional nurses experienced guilt, depression, anxiety and religious conflicts as a result of providing TOP services. Despite the legalisation of TOPs, these services remained stigmatised. Professional nurses did not want to work in these services and also did not want to be associated with them.

  10. Molecular Detection and Conventional Identification of Leishmania Species in Reservoir Hosts of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fars Province, South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, A; Rouhani, S; Kazerooni, PA; Farahmand, M; Parvizi, P

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of our research were to search for Leishmania species in rodents in Fars province, south of Iran, and to compare molecular with conventional methods for detecting these parasites. Methods Rodents were captured using live traps and screened for Leishmania species using molecular and conventional methods, including the taking of smears from each ear. Nested PCR was employed to detect Leishmania in rodents by amplifying a region of the ribosomal RNA amplicon of Leishmania (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) that is species-specific by DNA sequence. Results Totally, 122 rodents were captured. Leishmania parasites were detected using the nested PCR and three conventional methods (direct smear, NNN culture and Balb/C inoculation. 41 (33.6%) out of 122 rodents had Leishmania infections (34 Meriones lybicus and 7 M. persicus). All PCR products of the ITS-rDNA gene were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that 28 out of 41 positive samples were Leishmania major. Thirteen sequences were unreadable and therefore not identified. Conclusion At least two gerbil species common in Fars ZCL foci, M. lybicus and M. persicus, are acquiring infections of L. major and may be reservoir hosts of one predominant parasite haplotype. Most infections were detected molecularly not by conventional methods, because most rodents died in the traps. PMID:23914242

  11. Environmental correlates and co-occurrence of three mitochondrial lineages of striped mice (Rhabdomys) in the Free State Province (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganem, Guila; Meynard, Christine N.; Perigault, Manon; Lancaster, Jennifer; Edwards, Shelley; Caminade, Pierre; Watson, Johan; Pillay, Neville

    2012-07-01

    This study shows how data emanating from very different sources can be integrated using modern statistical and spatially explicit techniques in order to gain insights into ecological processes leading to differentiation between closely related taxa. We test ecological radiation in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys sp.) using a niche modeling approach to compare habitat characteristics of its three mitochondrial lineages, which we show to co-occur in a South African province. Here, we describe and make predictions on the distribution and potential niches of these lineages and locate contact zones between them. Our study involved field investigations, genotyping, GIS and multivariate statistics analyses. We used Maxent, an approach allowing us to produce suitability maps and predict potential contact zones. Our results strongly suggest that the three lineages could have different environmental niches which may explain their co-occurrence in some areas. Further, these results might give credence to the hypothesis of ecological radiation within the genus, which could be further tested in contact zones highlighted in our study.

  12. Analysis of farmland fragmentation in China Modernization Demonstration Zone since “Reform and Openness”: a case study of South Jiangsu Province

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Xia, Nan; Jiang, Penghui; Zhong, Lishan; Pian, Yuzhe; Duan, Yuewei; Huang, Qiuhao; Li, Manchun

    2015-01-01

    Farmland is a fundamental resource for human survival and development. However, farmland fragmentation has become a serious problem, causing ecological damage and low crop production efficiency in many parts of the world. Based on remote sensing and socioeconomic data, we used landscape pattern indices, Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA), and Markov chain models to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern changes in farmland in South Jiangsu Province (the first “Modernization Demonstration Zone” in China) during 1985–2010. Our results demonstrated that the total farmland area decreased by ca. 24% and the farmland pattern became fragmented during 1985–2008: core farmland decreased and islet farmland increased. Additionally, the farmland patch density (PD) increased and three other landscape indices (NLSI, MESH, and COHESION) showed significant decreases. Although the fragmentation rate slowed after 2008, the convergence rate to a stationary farmland distribution became faster, and transitions tended to be less deterministic after 2000. Economic and population growth and policy changes positively contributed to this phenomenon. Therefore, the primary task of farmland protection should be to preserve contiguous farmlands and reduce scattered patches in order to promote farmland connectivity. PMID:26135496

  13. Behaviour planning and problem solving deficiencies in children with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Balobedu culture, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pila-Nemutandani, Refilwe Gloria; Meyer, Anneke

    2016-07-01

    To compare planning behaviour (frontal lobe functioning) in children with and without symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 90 children (45 with symptoms of ADHD and 45 matched controls without ADHD symptoms) of both genders, who were medication naïve, from the Balobedu culture (Limpopo province, South Africa), aged 7-13 years, participated in the study. The performance of the two groups was compared on a test of planning and problem solving, the Tower of London (ToL) task. The results were analysed as a function of gender and ADHD subtype. The Finger Tapping test (testing fine motor skills) was used as a control test to verify that the expected differences were not due to poor motor skills. The children with ADHD symptoms scored significantly lower than the non-ADHD comparison group which indicated deficiency in frontal lobe functioning (p = 0.00). The difference in performance was not due to poor motor control (p = 0.70). Children with ADHD symptoms show deficits in behavioural planning which indicates impairment of functions of the frontal areas supplied by the mesocortical dopamine branch. More so than others, the ADHD Inattentive and Combined subtypes showed poor performance in the Tower of London task, indicating poor organisational and planning skills in these groups. The results also did show that the difference was not due to problems with motor control and that the ToL task is a culture-fair instrument for testing planning behaviour.

  14. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54) and diabetes with retinopathy (44). Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03), P = 0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy. PMID:27433285

  15. Appropriateness of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Becker, J; Jenkins, L S; de Swardt, M; Sayed, R; Viljoen, M

    2014-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are an essential part of modern healthcare. Marked increases in clinical demand for these imaging modalities are straining healthcare expenditure and threatening health system sustainability. The number of CT and MRI scans requested in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape Province, South Africa (SA), almost doubled from 2011 to 2013. To determine the appropriateness of CT and MRI scans and relate this to the requesting department and clinician. This was a retrospective analytical cohort study. All scans during October 2012 were analysed as a sample. Appropriateness of scans was determined using the American College of Radiologists (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria and the Royal College of Radiology Guidelines. Appropriateness was also correlated back to the requesting department and clinician. Of a total of 219 scans, 53.0% were abnormal. Overall 6.4% of scans were considered inappropriate. Interns and registrars requested no inappropriate scans. The orthopaedics department scored the highest rate of appropriate scans (80.0%) and the oncology department the highest rate of inappropriate scans (20.8%). The limited resources available for healthcare in a developing country like SA should be a motivation to implement control mechanisms aimed at appropriate utilisation of imaging examinations. The Eden and Central Karoo districts have a low rate of inappropriate scans (6.4%). We recommend that the current preauthorisation system by consultants and other senior clinicians continues, but with increased clinician awareness of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria and the Royal College guidelines.

  16. Hf isotope study of Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La pampa province and implications for the occurrence of juvenile early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) magmatism in south-central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Zappettini, E. O.; Santos, J. O. S.; Belousova, E.; McNaughton, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    On a global scale, juvenile Tonian (Early Neoproterozoic) magmatic rocks are associated with the extensional events that lead to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Argentina, no geological record is available for this time interval, lasting from 1000 to 850 Ma. We present indirect evidence for the existence of Tonian extension in Argentina, as supported by Hf and Nd isotope determinations on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We mainly focus on our own Hf isotope determinations carried out on U-Pb SHRIMP dated zircons from Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La Pampa province, south-central Argentina, i.e. metagabbros of Valle Daza, dioritic orthogneiss of Estancia Lote 8, and metadiorite of Estancia El Carancho, having found that these rocks were derived from sources of ca. 920 to ca 880 Ma, with ɛHf values between +6.83 and + 9.59. Inherited zircons of this age and character identified in these rocks also point to the same source. We also compile additional Hf and Nd studies from previous work on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We preliminarily compare the age of the juvenile Tonian sources referred to in our work with that of two extensional events identified in the São Francisco craton, Brazil.

  17. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa--a participatory rural appraisal study.

    PubMed

    Getchell, J K; Vatta, A F; Motswatswe, P W; Krecek, R C; Moerane, R; Pell, A N; Tucker, T W; Leshomo, S

    2002-12-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives: to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creation, and health services. Lack of pasture for grazing livestock was also cited as being important. Other most frequently mentioned livestock problems included 'gall sickness' (a vaguely defined condition not necessarily referring to anaplasmosis), parasites (both external and internal), chicken diseases and ingestion of plastic bags discarded in the environment. When livestock owners were questioned during individual interviews, most were able to identify the presence of parasites in either the live or dead animal. However, it seems likely that this is limited to the identification of tapeworms. It was found that most livestock owners use a combination of treatments, ranging from traditional to folklore to commercial. There were some difficulties in using the participatory methods since it was the first time that the facilitators and the communities had been exposed to them. Many communities had difficulty in dealing with the concept of finding solutions within the community, which is such an integral part of participatory methods.

  18. Factors influencing teen mothers' enrollment and participation in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Varga, Christine; Brookes, Heather

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we examine barriers to HIV testing uptake and participation in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services among adolescent mothers aged 15 to 19 years in rural and urban Limpopo Province, South Africa. We used the narrative research method involving key informants constructing typical case studies of adolescent experiences with HIV testing and entry into PMTCT. Case studies formed the basis of a community-based questionnaire and focus group discussions with adolescent mothers. Client-counselor dynamics during pretest counseling were pivotal in determining uptake and participation, and counselor profile strongly influenced the nature of the interaction. Other factors found to influence adherence to PMTCT recommendations included HIV and early premarital pregnancy stigma, fear of a positive test result, and concerns over confidentiality and poor treatment by health care providers. Adolescents described elaborate strategies to avoid HIV disclosure to labor and delivery staff, despite knowing this would mean no antiretroviral therapy for their newborn infants. Theoretical, methodological, and programmatic implications of study findings are also discussed.

  19. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Masika, P J

    2009-04-01

    A survey to document tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers in the control of cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was conducted by interviewing 59 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires and general conversation. Information collected was on external parasites of cattle, their effects and their control methods. Ticks were reported to be a major problem causing diseases like anaplasmosis (89.8%), babesiosis (55.9%) and ehrlichiosis (16.9%), as well as wounds that predispose to screwworm infestation, tick worry and teat damage to cows troubling farmers in their farming enterprises. The main tick control methods were; acaricides provided by government, however 94.9% of the farmers interviewed were of the opinion that the dip wash is not effective in killing the ticks. As a result, farmers complement the government dipping service with their own initiatives like spraying with conventional acaricides (22%), household disinfectants such as Jeyes fluid (18.6%), used engine oil (10.2%), chickens (5.1%), manual removal (5.1%), and pouricides (1.7%). In addition, some farmers also use plants (6.8%), mainly the leaf of Aloe ferox and the bark of Ptaeroxylon obliquum. The study revealed ticks to be a major problem in the study area.

  20. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawi, H. Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large. PMID:25495580

  1. Community support and disclosure of HIV serostatus to family members by public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in the Free State Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; van Loon, Francis; van Rensburg, Dingie; Meulemans, Herman

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the support of close relatives is fundamental in coping with HIV/AIDS and in accessing the emotional and material support necessary for sustained adherence to treatment. Because disclosure to family members is imperative to ensure their support, identifying tools or resources that can minimize the possible risks and maximize the potential benefits of disclosure should be useful in improving the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS. Where health systems require strengthening, engaging the community in HIV/AIDS care could potentially create an environment that encourages disclosure to family members. This study investigated the impact of community support initiatives (community health workers and treatment support groups), patient characteristics (age, gender, and education), and time since first diagnosis on the disclosure of serostatus to family members by a sample of 268 public-sector antiretroviral treatment patients in a province of South Africa between August 2004 and July 2007. Whereas gender, age, and education only weakly influenced disclosure, there was a strong and stable positive association between community support and disclosure to family members. The immediate and long-term impact of community support on the disclosure by seropositive patients to family members indicates that initiatives such as community health workers and HIV support groups run by people living with HIV/AIDS should be strengthened, especially for those patients who cannot disclose their status to immediate family and close friends.

  2. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  3. Concentration of novel brominated flame retardants and HBCD in leachates and sediments from selected municipal solid waste landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olukunle, O I; Okonkwo, O J

    2015-09-01

    In this study leachate and sediment samples were collected from six municipal solid waste landfill sites across Gauteng Province in South Africa to determine the levels of 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5 tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Soxhlet as well as liquid-liquid extraction were employed for sediment and leachates respectively followed by GC-EIMS analysis. Concentrations of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) ranged from below detection (

  4. How front-line healthcare workers respond to stock-outs of essential medicines in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hodes, R; Price, I; Bungane, N; Toska, E; Cluver, L

    2017-08-25

    Shortages of essential medicines are a daily occurrence in many of South Africa (SA)'s public health facilities. This study focuses on the responses of healthcare workers to stock-outs, investigating how actors at the 'front line' of public health delivery understand, experience and respond to shortages of essential medicines and equipment in their facilities. Findings are based on focus groups, observations and interviews with healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of SA, conducted as part of the Mzantsi Wakho study. The research revealed a discrepancy between 'informal' definitions of stock-outs and their reporting through formal stock-out management channels. Front-line healthcare workers had designed their own systems for classifying the severity of stock-outs, based on the product in question, and on their potential to access stocks from other facilities. Beyond formal systems of procurement and supply, healthcare workers had established vast networks of alternative communication and action, often using personal resources to procure medical supplies. Stock-outs were only reported when informal methods of stock-sharing did not secure top-up supplies. These findings have implications for understanding the frequency and severity of stock-outs, and for taking action to prevent and manage stock-outs effectively.

  5. An epidemiological investigation of the African horsesickness outbreak in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in 2004 and its relevance to the current equine export protocol.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, M; Bührmann, G; Gummow, B

    2006-12-01

    African Horsesickness (AHS) is a controlled disease in South Africa. The country is divided into an infected area and a control area. An outbreak of AHS in the control area can result in a ban of exports for at least 2 years. A retrospective epidemiological study was carried out on data collected during the 2004 AHS outbreak in the surveillance zone of the AHS control area in the Western Cape Province. The objective of this study was to describe the 2004 outbreak and compare it with the 1999 AHS outbreak in the same area. As part of the investigation, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the 30 km radius surrounding the index case. Spatial, temporal and population patterns for the outbreak are described. The investigation found that the outbreak occurred before any significant rainfall and that the main AHS vector (Culicoides imicola) was present in abundance during the outbreak. Furthermore, 63% of cases occurred at temperatures < or = 15 degrees C, the Eerste River Valley was a high risk area, only 17% of owners used vector protection as a control measure and 70% of horses in the outbreak area were protected by means of vaccination at the start of the outbreak. The study revealed that the current AHS control measures do not function optimally because of the high percentage of vaccinated horses in the surveillance zone, which results in insufficient sentinel animals and the consequent failure of the early warning system. Alternative options for control that allow continued export are discussed in the paper.

  6. High prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus isolated in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, during 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Gil; Choi, Jang-Hoon; Kim, Woon-Ho; Hong, Hae-Kun; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Kang, Chun; Lim, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Amantadine resistance among influenza A viruses was investigated in South Korea in 2005-2010. Of 308 influenza A viruses examined, 229 had the S31N substitution in the M2 protein. The frequency of amantadine resistance was 30 %, 100 %, and 76 % in influenza A/H1N1, pandemic A/H1N1 2009(A/H1N1pdm), and A/H3N2 subtypes, respectively. The amantadine-resistant influenza A/H1N1pdm and A/H3N2 viruses were circulating continuously from 2008 to 2009 and from 2005 to 2006, respectively. Amantadine resistance among influenza A viruses increased dramatically during the 5-year study period, and this has diminished the usefulness of this class of drugs.

  7. Social Disequilibrium and the Risk of HIV Acquisition: A Multilevel Study in Rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Andrew; Vandormael, Alain M; Bärnighausen, Till; de Oliveira, Tulio; Tanser, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Few population-based multilevel studies have quantified the risks that social context poses in rural communities with high HIV incidence across South Africa. We investigated the individual, social, and community challenges to HIV acquisition risk in areas with high and low incidence of HIV infection (hotspots/coldspots). The cohort (N = 17,376) included all HIV-negative adults enrolled in a population-based HIV surveillance study from 2004 to 2015 in a rural South African community with large labor migrancy. Multilevel survival models were fitted to examine the social determinants (ie, neighborhood migration intensity), community traits (ie, HIV prevalence), and individual determinants of HIV acquisition risk in identified hotspots/coldspots. The HIV acquisition risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.09) was greater in hotspots with higher neighborhood migration intensity among men. In women, higher neighborhood migration intensity (aHR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.02) was associated with a greater HIV acquisition risk, irrespective of whether they lived in hotspot/coldspot communities. HIV acquisition risk was greater in communities with a higher prevalence of HIV in both men (aHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12) and women (aHR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.05), irrespective of hotspot/coldspot locations. HIV acquisition risk was strongly influenced by gender (ie, young women), behavior (ie, sexual debut, contraception, circumcision), and social determinants. Certain challenges (ie, community disease prevalence) for HIV acquisition risk impacted both sexes, regardless of residence in hotspot/coldspot communities, whereas social determinants (ie, neighborhood migration intensity) were pronounced in hotspots among men. Future intervention scale-up requires addressing the social context that contributes to HIV acquisition risk in rural areas with high migration.

  8. Indoor and outdoor PM10 levels at schools located near mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Vusumuzi; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-01-06

    Few studies in South Africa have investigated the exposure of asthmatic learners to indoor and outdoor air pollution at schools. This study compared outdoor PM10 and SO2 exposure levels in exposed (1-2 km from gold mine dumps) and unexposed schools (5 km or more from gold mine dumps). It also examined exposure of asthmatic children to indoor respirable dust at exposed and unexposed schools. The study was conducted between 1 and 31 October 2012 in five schools from exposed and five from unexposed communities. Outdoor PM10 and SO2 levels were measured for 8-h at each school. Ten asthmatic learners were randomly selected from each school for 8-h personal respirable dust sampling during school hours. The level of outdoor PM10 for exposed was 16.42 vs. 11.47 mg.m(-3) for the unexposed communities (p < 0.001). The outdoor SO2 for exposed was 0.02 ppb vs. 0.01 ppb for unexposed communities (p < 0.001). Indoor respirable dust in the classroom differed significantly between exposed (0.17 mg.m(-3)) vs. unexposed (0.01 mg.m(-3)) children with asthma at each school (p < 0.001). The significant differences between exposed and unexposed schools could reveal a serious potential health hazard for school children, although they were within the South African Air Quality Standards' set by the Department of Environmental Affairs. The indoor respirable dust levels in exposed schools could have an impact on children with asthma, as they were significantly higher than the unexposed schools, although there are no published standards for environmental exposure for children with asthma.

  9. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV and AIDS patients at the Kwa-Thema clinic in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eyassu, Melaku A; Mothiba, Tebogo M; Mbambo-Kekana, Nonceba P

    2016-06-24

    Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shown reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity in people living with HIV and AIDS. Since high levels of adherence of more than 95.0% is required to achieve effective suppression of viral load, researchers found it important to establish whether people are pursuing what is expected of them. The study was aimed at determining adherence to ART among HIV and AIDS patients at the Kwa-Thema clinic in Gauteng Province. Quantitative cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Ethical clearance was sort from MEDUNSA Research Ethics Committee. Validity and reliability were maintained throughout the study. A non-probability systematic sampling was used. Data were collected using administered structured questionnaire, and a total of 290 respondents were involved. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 22. The findings indicated that the adherence to ART was 77.0%. Factors that were significantly associated with adherence were gender ( χ2 = 3.78, df = 1, p < 0.05), level of education ( χ2 = 3.52, df = 3, p = 0.032), co-treatment of HIV and other infections ( χ2 = 5.46, df = 4, p = 0.019), ability to follow ART ( χ2 = 12.82, df = 1, p = 0.000 < 0.05), and types of antiretroviral drugs. The study recommends intensification of health education campaign against stigma and gender discrimination. Providing feedback to patients regarding benefits of ART is important. The study concluded that adherence to ART at the Kwa-Thema clinic was suboptimal (less than 95%) at 77%, but comparable with the adherence levels in other developing countries.

  10. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  11. Use of herbal remedies by small-scale farmers to treat livestock diseases in Central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Masika, P J; van Averbeke, W; Sonandi, A

    2000-06-01

    The use of herbal remedies by African farmers in the treatment of livestock diseases was investigated using a range of methods, including group interviews, structured interviews, semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The study was concerned mainly with the 'why' and 'how' of herbal remedy use among African livestock holders farming on communally-owned land in central Eastern Cape Province. We found that the use of herbal remedies was still widespread because these remedies were cheap, locally available and convenient to administer. Farmers also used herbal remedies because they did not have knowledge of conventional remedies or found these too expensive and therefore used herbal remedies as a last resort. Most of the farmers interviewed (73%) had used some form of herbal remedy. A small number of farmers did not use herbal remedies at all. They rejected them because they had bad experiences in the past or because they considered the practice outdated and socially inferior. Often farmers used herbal remedies in combination with conventional ones, but a substantial number relied on herbal remedies only. Farmers obtained herbal remedies principally by preparing their own or by purchasing from herbalists. Different plant parts were used to prepare herbal remedies in the form of infusions, decoctions, powders, pastes, and juices from fresh plant material. Preparations were made from a single plant or from a range of plants. Application of a remedy was by different routes and methods, depending on the perceived cause of the disease condition. Topical applications were used for skin conditions, powders were rubbed into incisions, drenches were common in the treatment of systemic conditions, and drops to treat ears and eyes. We identified several aspects of herbal remedy utilisation that could be subject to improvement, which included the absence of standard dose regimes, the potential toxicity of certain compounds present in plants used, over

  12. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV and AIDS patients at the Kwa-Thema clinic in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eyassu, Melaku A.; Mbambo-Kekana, Nonceba P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has shown reduction in HIV-related mortality and morbidity in people living with HIV and AIDS. Since high levels of adherence of more than 95.0% is required to achieve effective suppression of viral load, researchers found it important to establish whether people are pursuing what is expected of them. Aim and setting The study was aimed at determining adherence to ART among HIV and AIDS patients at the Kwa-Thema clinic in Gauteng Province Methods Quantitative cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Ethical clearance was sort from MEDUNSA Research Ethics Committee. Validity and reliability were maintained throughout the study. A non-probability systematic sampling was used. Data were collected using administered structured questionnaire, and a total of 290 respondents were involved. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 22. Results The findings indicated that the adherence to ART was 77.0%. Factors that were significantly associated with adherence were gender (χ2 = 3.78, df = 1, p < 0.05), level of education (χ2 = 3.52, df = 3, p = 0.032), co-treatment of HIV and other infections (χ2 = 5.46, df = 4, p = 0.019), ability to follow ART (χ2 = 12.82, df = 1, p = 0.000 < 0.05), and types of antiretroviral drugs. Recommendation The study recommends intensification of health education campaign against stigma and gender discrimination. Providing feedback to patients regarding benefits of ART is important. Conclusion The study concluded that adherence to ART at the Kwa-Thema clinic was sub-optimal (less than 95%) at 77%, but comparable with the adherence levels in other developing countries. PMID:27380858

  13. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa’s constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. Methods With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Results Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication – from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Conclusions Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with

  14. Accessing medical and surgical first-trimester abortion services: women's experiences and costs from an operations research study in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Fetters, Tamara; Sinanovic, Edina; Blanchard, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    To explore women's experiences accessing services and estimate costs incurred for first-trimester abortion at four public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Subanalysis from a prospective cohort study (2009-2011) of women aged 18-49years accessing abortion services through 12weeks' gestation. Trained study personnel conducted structured interviews with women about their reason for having an abortion, experiences accessing services and costs incurred. Women who were 9weeks' gestation or less were eligible to choose medication abortion or manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); women 10-12weeks' gestation all had MVA. We enrolled 1167 women; 923 (79.1%) were eligible to choose their procedure. The median age was 25years; most were black African, single and unemployed. Many women reported concerns about the affordability of raising a(nother) child (58.9%) or not being ready for (more) children (43.4%) as their reason for having an abortion. In total, women incurred a median cost of US$9.99 (interquartile range 6.46-14.85) for their procedure which usually required two facility visits. Many had to pay for transportation, a pregnancy test, sanitary pads or pain medication. Despite the availability of government assistance for children through South Africa's "child grant," the affordability of raising a child was a major concern for women. Although theoretically available free of charge in the public sector, women experienced challenges accessing abortion services and incurred costs which may have been burdensome given average local earnings. These potential barriers could be addressed by reducing the number of required visits and improving availability of pregnancy tests and supplies in public facilities. Many women cited concerns about the affordability of having a(nother) child when requesting an abortion. Although public services are technically free or low-cost in South Africa, women incurred costs for first-trimester abortions. Women's costs could be

  15. Implementing community participation through legislative reform: a study of the policy framework for community participation in the Western Cape province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Pardue, Caitlin; London, Leslie

    2012-08-25

    Amidst an evolving post-apartheid policy framework for health, policymakers have sought to institutionalize community participation in Primary Health Care, recognizing participation as integral to realizing South Africa's constitutional commitment to the right to health. With evolving South African legislation supporting community involvement in the health system, early policy developments focused on Community Health Committees (HCs) as the principal institutions of community participation. Formally recognized in the National Health Act of 2003, the National Health Act deferred to provincial governments in establishing the specific roles and functions of HCs. As a result, stakeholders developed a Draft Policy Framework for Community Participation in Health (Draft Policy) to formalize participatory institutions in the Western Cape province. With the Draft Policy as a frame of analysis, the researchers conducted documentary policy analysis and semi-structured interviews on the evolution of South African community participation policy. Moving beyond the specific and unique circumstances of the Western Cape, this study analyzes generalizable themes for rights-based community participation in the health system. Framing institutions for the establishment, appointment, and functioning of community participation, the Draft Policy proposed a formal network of communication - from local HCs to the health system. However, this participation structure has struggled to establish itself and function effectively as a result of limitations in community representation, administrative support, capacity building, and policy commitment. Without legislative support for community participation, the enactment of superseding legislation is likely to bring an end to HC structures in the Western Cape. Attempts to realize community participation have not adequately addressed the underlying factors crucial to promoting effective participation, with policy reforms necessary: to codify clearly

  16. Woody vegetation cover monitoring with multi-temporal Landsat data and Random Forests: the case of the Northwest Province (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas; Petroulaki, Kyriaki

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification (LDD) are serious global threats to humans and the environment. Globally, 10-20% of drylands and 24% of the world's productive lands are potentially degraded, which affects 1.5 billion people and reduces GDP by €3.4 billion. In Africa, LDD processes affect up to a third of savannahs, leading to a decline in the ecosystem services provided to some of the continent's poorest and most vulnerable communities. Indirectly, LDD can be monitored using relevant indicators. The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands, and the subsequent conversion of savannahs and open woodlands into shrublands, has attracted a lot of attention over the last decades and has been identified as an indicator of LDD. According to some assessments, bush encroachment has rendered 1.1 million ha of South African savanna unusable, threatens another 27 million ha (~17% of the country), and has reduced the grazing capacity throughout the region by up to 50%. Mapping woody cover encroachment over large areas can only be effectively achieved using remote sensing data and techniques. The longest continuously operating Earth-observation program, the Landsat series, is now freely-available as an atmospherically corrected, cloud masked surface reflectance product. The availability and length of the Landsat archive is thus an unparalleled Earth-observation resource, particularly for long-term change detection and monitoring. Here, we map and monitor woody vegetation cover in the Northwest Province of South Africa, a mosaic of 12 Landsat scenes that expands over more than 100,000km2. We employ a multi-temporal approach with dry-season TM, ETM+ and OLI data from 15 epochs between 1989 to 2015. We use 0.5m-pixel colour aerial photography to collect >15,000 samples for training and validating a Random Forest model to map woody cover, grasses, crops, urban and bare areas. High classification accuracies are achieved, especially so for the two cover types indirectly

  17. "Students want HIV testing in schools" a formative evaluation of the acceptability of HIV testing and counselling at schools in Gauteng and North West provinces in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Sphiwe; Mokgatle, Mathilda

    2015-04-17

    The proposal by the South African Health Ministry to implement HIV testing and counselling (HTC) at schools in 2011 generated debates about the appropriateness of such testing. However, the debate has been between the Ministries of Education and Health, with little considerations of the students. The main aim of the study was to assess the students' opinions and uptake of HIV testing and counselling in general, and the acceptability of the provision of HIV testing and counselling in schools. The study also determined the association between socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and HIV testing behaviour of the students. A survey was conducted among grade 10-12 high school students in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Seventeen high schools (nine rural and eight urban) were randomly selected for the administration of a researcher-assisted, self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 2970 students aged 14-27 years participated in the study; 1632 (55%) were girls, 1810 (61%) ever had sex, and 1271 (49.8%) had more than one sex partner. The mean age of first sexual activity was 15.6. Half (n = 1494, 50.1%) had been tested for HIV. Having multiple sexual partners, age, and gender were significantly associated with increased odds of having had a HIV test. Fear, being un-informed about HTC, and low HIV risk perceptions were the reasons for not getting tested. The acceptability of HTC at school was high (n = 2282, 76.9%) and 2129 (71.8%) were willing to be tested at school. Appropriateness, privacy, and secrecy were the main arguments for and against HTC at school. One-third (n = 860, 29%) had intentions to disclose their HIV status to students versus 1258 (42.5%) for teachers. Stigma, discrimination and secrecy were the primary reasons students did not intend to disclose. A high acceptability of HTC and willingness to be tested at school suggest that HIV prevention programs tailored to youth have a high potential of success

  18. The costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester, medical and surgical safe abortion services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Devjee, Jaymala; Moodley, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite a liberal abortion law, access to safe abortion services in South Africa is challenging for many women. Medication abortion was introduced in 2013, but its reach remains limited. We aimed to estimate the costs and cost effectiveness of providing first-trimester medication abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) services to inform planning for first-trimester service provision in South Africa and similar settings. Methods We obtained data on service provision and outcomes from an operations research study where medication abortion was introduced alongside existing MVA services in public hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province. Clinical data were collected through interviews with first-trimester abortion clients and summaries completed by nurses performing the procedures. In parallel, we performed micro-costing at three of the study hospitals. Using a model built in Excel, we estimated the average cost per medical and surgical procedure and determined the cost per complete abortion performed. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars. Results A total of 1,129 women were eligible for a first trimester abortion at the three study sites. The majority (886, 78.5%) were eligible to choose their abortion procedure; 94.1% (n = 834) chose medication abortion. The total average cost per medication abortion was $63.91 (52.32–75.51). The total average cost per MVA was higher at $69.60 (52.62–86.57); though the cost ranges for the two procedures overlapped. Given average costs, the cost per complete medication abortion was lower than the cost per complete MVA despite three (0.4%) medication abortion women being hospitalized and two (0.3%) having ongoing pregnancies at study exit. Personnel costs were the largest component of the total average cost of both abortion methods. Conclusion This analysis supports the scale-up of medication abortion alongside existing MVA services in South Africa. Women can be offered a choice of methods, including medication

  19. Prediction of Under-Detection of Paediatric Tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Experience of Six Years in the South-Kivu Province

    PubMed Central

    Lufungulo Bahati, Yvette; Mulume Musafiri, Eric; Bahati Rusumba, Olivier; Van der Linden, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the field of tuberculosis (TB), and particularly in regard to paediatric TB (PedTB), clinical skills of health professionals play an important role in determining quality of care. In an era where novel diagnostic technologies and efficient treatment regimens are being made available for the poorest, we must not divert our attention from the importance of clinical skills, as this deliverable remains the cornerstone of individualized patient care and ultimately the best assurance for optimal use of resources. The aim of our work was to study the epidemiology of PedTB and the determinants of PedTB under-detection in the South-Kivu Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a setting with nearly no technical resources allowing to support the clinical diagnosis of PedTB, i.e. chest X-rays, rapid molecular tests or culture laboratories. Methods We collected TB notification data from 2010 to 2015 and analysed the space-time variations in notification for the different forms of TB among the 113 health facilities (HF) the South-Kivu Province, a region with a low HIV incidence. The different forms of TB notified were: smear positive pulmonary TB (SS+PTB), smear negative pulmonary TB (SS-PTB) and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). We further analysed the distribution of these different forms of the disease per age group and explored the possibility to predict the detection of PedTB. Results Significant differences were observed between HF in regard to the proportion of paediatric TB and the proportion of SS-TB among adults. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of PedTB and three major factors: the proportion of TB cases with no bacteriological confirmation (SS-TB) among adults, the number of TB cases notified by the HF and the fact that the HF was supported or not by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). The proportion of SS-TB among adults was found to be a valid indicator for predicting the level of detection of PedTB at the same HF. Conclusion

  20. Vector-control personnel's knowledge, perceptions and practices towards insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hlongwana, Khumbulani W; Mavundza, Edison J; Mohapi, Elda P; Kruger, Phillip; Urbach, Jasson; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Maharaj, Rajendra

    2013-04-23

    Contradictory arguments regarding the benefits and harm of insecticides, especially DDT, have caused concerns in different societal circles, threatening to undermine the achievements of the indoor residual spraying (IRS) programme in South Africa. These concerns were exacerbated by the screening of a documentary on South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) Television with anti-DDT sentiments. Consequently, Limpopo Malaria Control Programme (LMCP) Management advocated for an investigation to determine the potential effect of such campaigns on vector-control personnel's knowledge and perceived effects of insecticides on human health, with a view to improving the educational materials designed for use in training vector-control personnel. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey using a structured field-piloted questionnaire, administered to 233 randomly selected vector-control personnel. Ethical clearance was granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Approval for the study was granted by the Department of Health, Limpopo. Participation in the study was voluntary and all respondents signed informed consent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data. Most respondents (96.6%) had a positive perception of IRS as a method to control malaria. Despite their positive perception, 93.6% viewed IRS insecticides to be potentially harmful to the users. DDT was perceived to cause long-term reproductive and respiratory effects, whereas alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin were largely associated with skin irritation/itchiness and skin burn. Study participants were more worried about DDT's potential effects on their reproductive system, including poor sexual performance, decline in libido, miscarriage and bearing children with genetic defects. However, none reported personal experience of bearing a child with genetic defects or miscarriage.Most anti-insecticide messages, especially relating to DDT, emanated from sources external to the LMCP

  1. Assessing SPO techniques to constrain magma flow: Examples from sills of the Karoo Igneous Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, Lauren; Watkeys, Michael K.

    2015-08-01

    Shape ellipsoids that define the petrofabrics of plagioclase in Jurassic Karoo dolerite sills in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa are rigorously constrained using the long axis lengths of plagioclase crystals and ellipse incompatibility. This has been undertaken in order to determine the most effective technique to determine petrofabrics when using the SPO-2003 programme (Launeau and Robin, 2005). The technique of segmenting an image for analysis is scrutinised and as a process is found redundant. A grain size threshold is defined to assist with the varying grain sizes observed within and between sills. Where grains exceed the 0.2 mm size threshold, images should be acquired at a high magnification (i.e., 10 × magnification). Petrofabrics are determined using the foliation and the lineation of the ellipsoid as defined by the maximum and minimum principal axes (respectively) of the resultant ellipsoid. Samples with strongly prolate fabrics are isolated allowing further constraint on the petrofabric to be made. Once the efficacy of the petrofabric determination process has been determined, the resultant foliations (and lineations) then elucidate the most accurate petrofabric attainable. The most accurate petrofabrics will be determined by using the correct magnification when the images are obtained and to run the analyses without segmenting the image. The fabrics of the upper and lower contacts of the Karoo dolerite sills are analysed in detail using these techniques and the fabrics are used as a proxy for magma flow.

  2. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among pregnant women living with HIV in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan R; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV) in South Africa (SA) report higher rates of suicidal ideation than those who are HIV uninfected, and antenatal suicidal ideation has been previously associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few studies have attempted to identify correlates and psychosocial predictors of suicidal ideation in this population. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among pregnant WLHIV in rural SA (N = 673). Thirty-nine percent of women endorsed suicidal ideation (95% CI: 35.2% to 42.3%) and in multivariable logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation was associated with intimate partner violence and stigma, which interacted to multiplicatively increase the odds of suicidal thoughts. Given the high rates of reported suicidal ideation identified in this sample, and the potential harm to mothers and neonates, suicide risk assessment and management protocols for pregnant WLHIV should be considered for inclusion in the standard of care in rural SA.

  3. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Wet, H; Nkwanyana, M N; van Vuuren, S F

    2010-07-20

    To document the ethnobotanical knowledge on antidiarrhoeal plant use by lay people in a rural community in northern Maputaland. Interviews were conducted amongst homestead inhabitants, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on the medicinal plants which are growing in and around the immediate vicinity of the homesteads. Twenty-three plant species are used in the study area to treat diarrhoea. Four plants (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena transvaalensis, Cissampelos hirta and Sarcostemma viminale) are recorded for the first time globally as an antidiarrhoel. The three antidiarrhoeal plants most frequently used in the study area are Psidium guajava, Catharanthus roseus and Melia azedarach (all three are exotic to South Africa), followed by Sclerocarya birrea and Strychnos madagascariensis which are indigenous. Seven of the 23 plant species are used in five different plant combinations for increased antidiarrhoeal efficacy. The wide variety of plants that are used to treat diarrhoea in this area supports the traditional value that medicinal plants have in the primary health care system of the rural people in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Middle and Later Stone Age large mammal and tortoise remains from Die Kelders Cave 1, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Klein, R G; Cruz-Uribe, K

    2000-01-01

    Die Kelders Cave 1, South Africa, has provided more than 150,000 taxonomically identifiable mammal and tortoise bones from Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) deposits. Cape dune mole-rats dominate the mammal sample, and they appear to have been accumulated mainly by people during the LSA occupation and mainly by eagle owls in the MSA. In sharp contrast to the LSA fauna, the MSA sample contains extralimital ungulates that imply relatively moist, grassy conditions. The large mean size of the MSA mole-rats also points to greater humidity, while the large size of the gray mongooses implies cooler temperatures. The sum supports luminescence and ESR dates that place the MSA occupation within the early part of the Last Glaciation (global isotope stage 4). The Die Kelders ungulate bones support those from Klasies River Mouth in suggesting that MSA people obtained dangerous terrestrial prey much less frequently than their LSA successors, probably because MSA people lacked the bow and arrow and other projectile weapons. The Die Kelders tortoise bones constrain the extent of climatic change, since their abundance indicates that warm, dry days remained common, at least seasonally. The tortoises tend to be much larger in the MSA layers than in the LSA ones, suggesting that MSA people collected tortoises less intensively, probably because MSA populations were relatively sparse.

  5. Seasonal, Locality, and Habitat Variation in Assemblages of Carrion-Associated Diptera in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Parry, N J; Mansell, M W; Weldon, C W

    2016-11-01

    Seasonal, spatial, and habitat responses of carrion-associated Diptera assemblages can provide valuable information about the presence or absence of species and their relative abundance, and thereby enhance understanding of their responses to environmental variables and how this may have an impact on forensic investigations. Three different nature reserves (localities) within the Municipality of Tshwane, South Africa, were selected to determine whether species assemblages of carrion-feeding flies differ between seasons, localities, and habitat types. A total of 59,511 adult Diptera, identified to 35 species in eight different families, were collected using modified Redtop hanging traps, baited with liver and fish, during four seasons in three different habitat types. Species assemblages differed temporally, with season being the main factor determining species diversity and not locality or habitat. However, savanna and human-disturbed habitats supported a higher abundance and species richness than grassland habitats. Areas adjacent to the localities, such as large urban expanses in Dinokeng or agricultural holdings in Rietvlei, led to an increase in the abundance and mean species richness of carrion-associated Diptera, and in increased numbers of pest or invasive species such as Chrysomya megacephala (F.). Despite this, the overall species assemblages present in human-disturbed areas were very similar to those recorded in natural habitats.

  6. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) implementation in rural community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Prado, Guillermo; Horigian, Viviana; Weiss, Stephen; Cook, Ryan; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This study explores organisational and individual provider influences on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) implementation at 12 community health centres (CHCs) in a rural South African setting. Clinic staff members (N = 103; females = 86%, nurse managers = 9.7%, nurses = 54.4%, lay health workers = 35.9%) were surveyed on PMTCT implementation acceptability and skills. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics comparing PMTCT protocol implementation achievements and clinic-level PMTCT indicators. Results indicate that staff were very positive about the frequency at which each element of the PMTCT protocol was achieved. Several areas where gaps in conformity to the PMTCT protocol were identified including delivery at the clinic, HIV retesting, provision of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and six-week polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. It was unclear what organisational or individual characteristics contributed to this variation. Overall, providers' perception of barriers to care and human resource capacity were unrelated to performance and fidelity of protocol implementation.

  7. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Fingerprints of Water and Sediment Samples of Buffalo River Estuary in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Okoh, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon status of the Buffalo River Estuary in East London, South Africa, was evaluated from January to May, 2016. Surface water and sediment samples were collected from five points in the estuary and extracted using standard methods. The extracts were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 7.65 to 477 μg/L in the water and 12.59 to 1,100 mg/kg in the sediments, with mean values of 146.50 ± 27.96 μg/L and 209.81 ± 63.82 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of TPH in the sediments correlated significantly with organic carbon (OC) in both seasons. TPH and OC levels were slightly lower in summer than in autumn in the two environmental matrices, and the average amount of TPH in the water samples collected from all the sampling stations was generally lower than the EU standard limit of 300 μg/L. However, the levels in the sediments exceeded the EGASPIN target value (50 mg/kg) for mineral oil but were below the intervention value (5,000 mg/kg), indicating a serious impact of industrial growth and urbanization on the area, although the n-alkane ratios and indexes used for source tracking revealed excessive flow from both natural and anthropogenic sources. PMID:28638675

  8. Origin of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous peraluminous granitoids in the northeastern Hunan province (middle Yangtze region), South China: Geodynamic implications for the Paleo-Pacific subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Chu, Yang; Xue, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    The Late Mesozoic granitic belt in the northeastern Hunan province (situated in the south of the middle Yangtze region) represents the western front of the large magmatic province of SE China. In order to determine their ages and petrogenesis, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical analyses for four granitic plutons, namely Taohuashan, Dayunshan-Mufushan, Wangxiang and Lianyunshan. Our SIMS zircon U-Pb ages, together with previously published data, reveal that the magmatic activities in this area can be roughly subdivided into three phases at 151-146 Ma, 132-127 Ma and ca. 117 Ma, and the Dayunshan-Mufushan batholith therein is a composite pluton. These four plutons are mainly composed of weakly to strongly peraluminous biotite or two-mica monzogranites, with a minor amount of biotite granodiorites. Their geochemical features are similar to S-type as well as fractionated S-type granites, with enrichment in LREEs and negative Ba, Sr, Nb, P and Ti anomalies. All samples show negative zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -12.5 to -3.6, corresponding to crustal Hf model (TDMC) ages of 1.4-2.0 Ga. It is inferred that these granitoids were derived from partial melting of metasedimentary rocks analogous to the Neoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group, predominantly with psammitic component. Fractional crystallization probably played an important role in the magma evolution, while input of mantle-derived magma was insignificant. Combined with other geological evidence, our new data allow us to propose that the Cretaceous (132-127 Ma and ca. 117 Ma) magmatism might be response to episodic slab rollback of the Paleo-Pacific plate, while the early-stage (151-146 Ma) magmatism that overlapped the epilogue of Jurassic magmatic flare-up and subsequent magmatic quiescence probably foreshadowed the transformation from foundering of a subducted flat-slab to slab rollback. Alternatively, slab foundering after a SE-directed intracontinental subduction in the

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of mosquito repellent plants in uMkhanyakude district, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mavundza, E J; Maharaj, R; Finnie, J F; Kabera, G; Van Staden, J

    2011-10-11

    The aim of the study was to document plants traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in the uMkhanyakude district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify plant species and their parts being used; (2) determine the condition of plant material used and the method of application. Data was collected from 60 respondents in five villages in the district using standardised and pre-tested questionnaires. Thirteen plant species are used in the study area to repel mosquitoes. These species belong to 11 genera from 9 families. Meliaceae and Anacardiaceae were the most represented families with two species each. The most frequently recorded species were Lippia javanica (91.67%), followed by Aloe ferox (11.67%), Sclerocarya birrea (5%), Melia azedarach (3%), Balanite maughamii (3%) and Mangifera indica (3%). Leaves were the most (38%) common plant part used. The majority (82%) of the plant parts were used in a dry state. Burning of plant materials to make smoke was the most (92%) common method of application. Nine plant species, namely: A. ferox, Calausena anista, Croton menyharthii, S. birrea, B. maughamii, Olax dissitiflora, Trichilia emetic, M. indica, and Atalaya alata are documented for the first time as mosquito repellents. This documentation provides the basis for further studies in developing new, effective, safe and affordable plant-derived mosquito repellents especially for Africa where malaria is highly prevalent. The study also plays a part in documenting and conserving traditional knowledge of mosquito repellent plants for future use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding pathways to breast cancer diagnosis among women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Jennifer; Cairncross, Lydia; Naiker, Thurandrie; Momberg, Mariette

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this study was to explore and understand women's pathways to breast cancer diagnosis and factors influencing this journey. Indepth interviews were conducted with clients at a tertiary level breast cancer clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. A thematic analysis was performed underpinned by the theoretical concepts of the Model of Pathways to Treatment framework. 20 women were interviewed within 1 week of being diagnosed with breast cancer. The average time between discovery of bodily changes to breast cancer diagnosis was 8.5 months. Deficits in breast self-awareness and knowledge of breast cancer symptoms delayed women's interpretation of bodily changes as being abnormal. All women first noticed breast lumps; however, many did not perceive it as abnormal until additional symptoms were present. General good health, attribution of symptoms to ageing, and past benign breast disease resulted in women being complacent about bodily changes. Disclosure to family members served as a trigger to seek healthcare. The initial type of primary level care services women accessed was influenced by perceptions of care each service provided, finances, structural factors, and personal safety related to the physical location of services. Symptom appraisal and interpretation contributed significantly to delayed presentation. To improve timely diagnosis of breast cancer, interventions that increase women's confidence in detecting breast changes, improve knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, address myths, and encourage prompt help-seeking behaviour are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Causes of deaths in children under-five years old at a tertiary hospital in Limpopo province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-02-15

    Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010, were obtained for all patients younger than 5 years and were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected using a data collection form designed for the study. Information abstracted included: date of death, age, sex, and cause of death. A total of 1266 deaths were recorded, the sex ratio was 1.26 boys per girl. About 611 (48%) of deaths were listed as neonatal deaths (0-28 days), 387 (31%) were listed as infant deaths (29 days-11 months), and 268 (21%) as children's death (1-4 years). For neonates the leading causes of death were: prematurity/low birth weight, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. For the infant death group, the leading causes of death were pneumonia, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS; and in the children's group, the leading causes were injuries, diarrhea and pneumonia. There was no statistical significant difference in the proportions of causes of death based on the sex of children. The top 10 leading causes of death in children under-5 years old treated at Pietersburg/Mankweng Hospital Complex were in descending order: prematurity/low birth weight, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, birth asphyxia, and severe malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, hydrocephalus, unintentional injuries, meningitis and other infections. These ten conditions represent 73.9% of causes of death at this facility. A mix of multi-faceted interventions is needed to address these causes of death in children.

  12. Causes of Deaths in Children under-Five Years Old at a Tertiary Hospital in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ntuli, Sam Thembelihle; Malangu, Ntambwe; Alberts, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Accurate and timely information on the causes of child deaths is essential in guiding efforts to improve child survival, by providing data from which health profiles can be constructed and relevant health policies formulated. The purpose of this study was to identify causes of death in children younger than 5 years-old in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods: Death certificates from the Pietersburg/Mankweng hospital complex, for the period of January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010, were obtained for all patients younger than 5 years and were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected using a data collection form designed for the study. Information abstracted included: date of death, age, sex, and cause of death. Results: A total of 1266 deaths were recorded, the sex ratio was 1.26 boys per girl. About 611 (48%) of deaths were listed as neonatal deaths (0-28 days), 387 (31%) were listed as infant deaths (29 days-11 months), and 268 (21%) as children’s death (1-4 years). For neonates the leading causes of death were: prematurity/low birth weight, birth asphyxia and pneumonia. For the infant death group, the leading causes of death were pneumonia, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS; and in the children’s group, the leading causes were injuries, diarrhea and pneumonia. There was no statistical significant difference in the proportions of causes of death based on the sex of children. Conclusion: The top 10 leading causes of death in children under-5 years old treated at Pietersburg/Mankweng Hospital Complex were in descending order: prematurity/low birth weight, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, birth asphyxia, and severe malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, hydrocephalus, unintentional injuries, meningitis and other infections. These ten conditions represent 73.9% of causes of death at this facility. A mix of multi-faceted interventions is needed to address these causes of death in children. PMID:23618479

  13. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  14. Geology of Nicholson's point granite, Natal Metamorphic Province, South Africa: the chemistry of charnockitic alteration and origin of the granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, G. H.; Allen, A. R.; Cornell, D. H.; Harris, C.

    1996-10-01

    In the Port Edward area of southern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, charnockitic aureoles up to ˜4 m in width are developed adjacent to contacts with Port Edward enderbite and pegmatites intruded into the normally garnetiferous Nicholson's Point granite. Other mineralogical differences between the aureoles and the granite include increased myrmekite and significantly less biotite in the former and the replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite in the charnockitic rocks. No significant differences in major element chemistry between the garnet-biotite Nicholson's Point granite and charnockitic Nicholson's Point granite are seen, except possibly for higher CaO and TiO 2 in the charnockite. Higher Rb, Th, Nb and Y contents in the garnet-biotite granite suggest that these elements have been locally depleted from garnet-biotite granite during char nockitisation. This depletion is considered to be related to the reduction in biotite. Strontium and Ba contents are significantly higher in the charnockite. Generally higher S contents in the charnockite suggest S metasomatism, with S possibly being added from the enderbite. No differences in δ18O isotope data are seen between the garnetiferous and hypersthene bearing granite. In the charnockite the LREEs are weakly depleted whereas the HREEs show greater depletion compared to the garnetiferous granite. The depletions in REEs are thought to be related to the breakdown of garnet. Europium is marginally enriched or unchanged in the charnockite relative to the garnetiferous granite. Two-pyroxene thermometry on the Port Edward enderbite suggests that it was intruded at temperatures of ˜1000-1100°C. The replacement of pyrite by pyrrhotite is also consistent with a thermal auroele. Consequently the charnockitic zones developed around the intrusions of Port Edward enderbite may result from the thermally driven dehydration of biotite. The aureoles developed adjacent to pegmatites are not considered to have resulted from heat but probably

  15. Clinical and microbiological features of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella associated with HIV-infected patients, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, Karen H.; Musekiwa, Alfred; Sooka, Arvinda; Karstaedt, Alan; Nana, Trusha; Seetharam, Sharona; Nchabaleng, Maphoshane; Lekalakala, Ruth; Angulo, Frederick J.; Klugman, Keith P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to define factors associated with HIV-infected versus uninfected patients with invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) and factors associated with mortality, which are inadequately described in Africa. Laboratory-based surveillance for iNTS was undertaken. At selected sentinel sites, clinical data (age, sex, HIV status, severity of illness, and outcome) were collected. Surveillance was conducted in Gauteng, South Africa, from 2003 to 2013. Clinical and microbiological differences between HIV-infected and uninfected patients were defined and risk factors for mortality established. Of 4886 iNTS infections in Gauteng from 2003 to 2013, 3106 (63.5%) were diagnosed at sentinel sites. Among persons with iNTS infections, more HIV-infected persons were aged ≥5 years (χ2 = 417.6; P < 0.001) and more HIV-infected children were malnourished (χ2 = 5.8; P = 0.02). Although 760 (30.6%) patients died, mortality decreased between 2003 [97/263 (36.9%)] and 2013 [926/120 (21.7%)]. On univariate analysis, mortality was associated with patients aged 25 to 49 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7–2.7; P < 0.001 and ≥50 years (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 2.2–4.1; P < 0.001) compared with children < 5 years, HIV-infected patients (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.7–3.4; P < 0.001), and severe illness (OR = 5.4; 95% CI = 3.6–8.1; P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, mortality was associated with patients aged ≥50 years [adjusted OR (AOR) = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.1–6.1, P < 0.001] and severe illness (AOR = 6.3; 95% CI = 3.8–10.5; P < 0.001). Mortality due to iNTS in Gauteng remains high primarily due to disease severity. Interventions must be aimed at predisposing conditions, including HIV, other immune-suppressive conditions, and malignancy. PMID:28353576

  16. Connectivity influences on nutrient and sediment migration in the Wartburg catchment, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollongei, Kipkemboi J.; Lorentz, Simon A.

    Non-point-source (NPS) pollution of surface and groundwater by sediment and nutrient loads emanating from agricultural catchments is a prominent environmental issue, with major consequences on water supply and aquatic ecosystem quality. The concept of connectivity has proved invaluable in understanding migration of NPS pollutants in catchments. Observations of sediments or suspended solids (SS), nitrate (NO3) and phosphorous (P) fluxes alongside stable water isotope sampling were made on a nested basis at field and catchment (41 km2) scales for a series of events in the Wartburg catchment, South Africa. The nested catchment scale sampling was focused on control features in the stream network, including road crossings, farm dams and wetland zones. The analyzed stable water (δ18O and δ2H) isotopes results were used to interpret the connectivity of the contributing land forms and the stream network. The results reveal the dominant influences of farm dams and wetlands in limiting the downstream migration of sediment and nutrients for all but the most intense events. Certain events resulted in mixing in the dams and larger resultant outflow than inflow loads. These occurrences appear to be as a result of combinations of reservoir status, catchment antecedent conditions and rainfall depth and intensity. The nutrients loads between Bridge 1 and Bridge 2 stations reflect the bedrock control, where contributions from sugar cane hillslopes between these stations are not retained, even in the short wetland upstream of Bridge 2. Isotope analyses reveal that the headwaters, comprising 70% of the catchment area, contribute as little as 29% of the total catchment discharge, due to impoundments in this area. However, this contribution varies significantly for different events, reaching a maximum of 78% of the catchment discharge. It can therefore be concluded that nutrients and sediment migration in the Wartburg catchment is greatly influenced by connectivity. The δ18O and δ2H

  17. Paleoenvironmental and Human Behavioral Implications of the Boegoeberg 1 Late Pleistocene Hyena Den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Hart, Tim; Parkington, John E.

    1999-11-01

    Boegoeberg 1 (BOG1) is located on the Atlantic coast of South Africa, 850 km north of Cape Town. The site is a shallow rock shelter in the side of a sand-choked gully that was emptied by diamond miners. Abundant coprolites, chewed bones, and partially digested bones implicate hyenas as the bone accumulators. The location of the site, quantity of bones, and composition of the fauna imply it was a brown hyena nursery den. The abundance of Cape fur seal bones shows that the hyenas had ready access to the coast. Radiocarbon dates place the site before 37,000 14C yr ago, while the large average size of the black-backed jackals and the presence of extralimital ungulates imply cool, moist conditions, probably during the early part of the last glaciation (isotope stage 4 or stage 3 before 37,000 14C yr ago) or perhaps during one of the cooler phases (isotope substages 5d or 5b) within the last interglaciation. Comparisons of the BOG1 seal bones to those from regional Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archeological sites suggest (1) that hyena and human seal accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for vertebrae to be much more common in a hyena accumulation and (2) that hyena and LSA accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for hyena-accumulated seals to represent a much wider range of individual seal ages. Differences in the way hyenas and people dismember, transport, and consume seal carcasses probably explain the contrast in skeletal part representation, while differences in season of occupation explain the contrast in seal age representation. Like modern brown hyenas, the BOG1 hyenas probably occupied the coast year-round, while the LSA people focused their coastal visits on the August-October interval when nine-to-eleven-month-old seals were abundant. The MSA sample from Klasies River Mouth Cave 1 resembles BOG1 in seal age composition, suggesting that unlike LSA people, MSA people obtained seals more or less throughout the year.

  18. Seasonal abundance and distribution of Vibrio species in the treated effluent of wastewater treatment facilities in suburban and urban communities of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Obi, Chikwelu L; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-04-01

    We assessed the seasonal abundance and distribution of Vibrio species as well as some selected environmental parameters in the treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), one each located in a suburban and urban community of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Vibrio population density ranged from 2.1 × 10(5) to 4.36 × 10(4) CFU/ml in the suburban community and from 2.80 × 10(5) to 1.80 × 10(5) CFU/ml in the urban community. Vibrio species associated with 180 μ, 60 μ, and 20 μ plankton sizes were observed at densities of 0-136 × 10(3) CFU/ml, 0-8.40 × 10(2) CFU/ml, and 0-6.80 × 10(2) CFU/ml, respectively at the suburban community's WWTP. In the urban community, observed densities of culturable Vibrio were 0-2.80 × 10(2) CFU/ml (180 μ), 0-6.60 × 10(2) CFU/ml (60 μm), and 0-1.80 × 10(3) CFU/ml (20 μm). The abundance of free-living Vibrio species ranged from 0 to 1.0 × 10(2) and 1.0 × 10(3) CFU/ml in the suburban and urban communities' WWTPs, respectively. Molecular confirmation of the presumptive Vibrio isolates revealed the presence of V. fluvialis (41.38%), V. vulnificus (34.48%), and V. parahaemolyticus (24.14%) in the suburban community effluents. In the urban community molecular confirmation revealed that the same species were present at slightly different percentages, V. fluvialis (40%), V. vulnificus (36%), and V. parahaemolyticus (24%). There was no significant correlation between Vibrio abundance and season, either as free-living or plankton-associated entities, but Vibrio species abundance was positively correlated with temperature (r=0.565; p<0.01), salinity, and dissolved oxygen (p<0.05). Turbidity and pH showed significant seasonal variation (p<0.05) across the seasons in both locations. This study underscores the potential of WWTPs to be sources of Vibrio pathogens in the watershed of suburban and urban communities in South Africa.

  19. The costs of accessing abortion in South Africa: women's costs associated with second-trimester abortion services in Western Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    To assess women's costs of accessing second-trimester labor induction and dilation and evacuation (D&E) services at four public hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa. From April to August 2010, in interviews immediately after completion of their abortion, we asked women about specific direct and indirect costs incurred. We collected information on recurring costs (i.e., per visit) and one-time expenditures and calculated total costs. In total, 194 patients participated (136 D&E; 58 induction). Their median age was 26; 37.6% reported being employed or doing paid work. Most (73.2%) women visited two different facilities, including the study facility, while seeking the procedure. Induction women reported a median of three required visits [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0-3.0] to the study facility, while D&E women reported two required visits [IQR 1.0-2.0]. Twenty-seven percent of women missed work due to the procedure, and few (4.6%) paid for childcare. At each visit, almost all women (180, 92.8%) paid for transportation costs and reported additional one-time costs (177, 91.2%) such as sanitary supplies or doctor's fees. The total median cost incurred per woman was $21.23 [IQR 11.94-44.68]. Roughly half (49.0%) received help with these costs. Although technically offered freely or low cost in the public sector, women accessing second-trimester abortion lost income and incurred costs for transport, fees, supplies and childcare. Their total costs could be reduced by minimizing the number of required visits to facilities and freely offering supplies such as sanitary pads and pregnancy tests. Limited access to second-trimester, safe abortion services in South Africa may result in some women incurring unnecessary costs. Women make multiple visits in attempting to obtain an abortion, often because of facility or health systems requirements, and incur costs for lost income, child care, transport, fees and supplies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-12-01

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.

  1. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  2. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  3. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Contaminant characteristics and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in the paddy soils from lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mining areas in Guangdong Province, South China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da-Mao; Yan, Bo; Chen, Tao; Lei, Chang; Lin, Han-Zhi; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2017-09-10

    In November 2016, the total metal concentrations in nine representative locations in lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mining areas, located in Guangdong Province, South China, were determined experimentally by flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The results indicated that the paddy soils were heavily contaminated with Cd (20.25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (1093.03 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (867.0 mg kg(-1)), exceeding their corresponding soil quality standard values and background values. According to the results, the mean enrichment factor levels of the studied metals decreased in the following order: Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Mn > Cr. Among these metals, Cd, Pb, and Zn were predominantly influenced by widespread anthropogenic activities. The highest concentrations of the studied metal pollutants were distributed in the areas surrounding the mining activity district. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the major contributing sources of the studied metals were metal ore mining, smelting, and processing activities. However, the composition of soil background was another potential source. Moreover, the assessment results of environment risks showed that the potential ecological risks, in decreasing order, were Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Mn. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic risk represented the trend of HI Pb > HI Mn > HI Zn > HI Cu , and the carcinogenic risk ranked as CR Cr > CR Cd > CR Ni . Among the environmental risk substances, Cd and Pb were the main contributors that pose ecological harm and health hazards through their serious pollution. Consequently, greater attention should be paid to this situation.

  5. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  6. Assessing quality of existing data sources on road traffic injuries (RTIs) and their utility in informing injury prevention in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chokotho, L C; Matzopoulos, R; Myers, J E

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether the quality of the available road traffic injury (RTI) data was sufficient for determining the burden of RTIs in the Western Cape Province and for implementing and monitoring road safety interventions. Underreporting was assessed by comparing data reported by the South African Police Services (SAPS) in 2008 with data from 18 provincial mortuaries. Completeness of the driver death subset of all RTIs was assessed using the capture-recapture method. The mortuary and police data sets comprised 1696 and 860 fatalities respectively for the year 2008. The corresponding provincial road traffic mortality rates were as follows: 32.2 deaths/100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.7-33.8) and 16.3 deaths/100,000 population per year (95% CI: 15.3-17.5). The police data set contained 820,960 crashes, involving 196,889 persons, indicating substantial duplication of crash events. There were varying proportions of missing data for demographic and other identifying variables, with age missing in nearly half of the cases in the police data set. The estimated total number of driver deaths/year was 588.6 (95% CI: 544.4-632.8), yielding estimated completeness of the mortuary and police data sets of 57.6 and 46.4 percent separately and 77.3 percent combined. This study found extensive data quality problems, including missing data, duplication, and significant underreporting of traffic injury deaths in the police data. Not all assumptions underlying the use of capture-recapture method were met in this study; hence, the estimates provided by this analysis should be interpreted with caution. There is a need to address the problems highlighted by this study in order to improve data utility for informing road safety policies. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file.

  7. Studies on the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and three source water dams along its course in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chigor, Vincent N; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I

    2013-06-01

    The Buffalo River and its dams are major surface water sources used for fresh produce irrigation, raw water abstraction and recreation in parts of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Over a 12-month period (August 2010 to July 2011), we assessed the bacteriological qualities of water from the river and 3 source water dams along its course. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC) and enterococci (ENT) counts, were high and ranged as follows: 1.9 × 10(2)-3.8 × 10(7), 0-3.0 × 10(5) and 0-5.3 × 10(5) cfu/100 ml for TC, FC and ENT, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher concentrations of FC and ENT were observed at the sampling sites located at the lower reaches of the river compared to the upper reaches, and at Bridle Drift Dam compared to the other two dams. FIB counts mostly exceeded the recommended maximum values suggested by national and international guidelines for safe fresh produce irrigation, domestic applications, full-contact recreation and livestock watering. These results show that the bacteriological qualities of the Buffalo River and dams were poor, and suggest that sewage was dumped into the Buffalo River during the study period. Urban runoffs and effluents of wastewater treatment plants appear to be important sources of faecal contamination in the river. We conclude that these water bodies represent significant public health hazards. Provision of adequate sanitary infrastructure will help prevent source water contamination, and public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative.

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-induction of abortion among women accessing second-trimester abortion services in the public sector, Western Cape Province, South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Constant, D; Grossman, D; Lince, N; Harries, J

    2014-04-01

    Despite South Africa's liberal abortion law permitting abortion on request in the first trimester and under restricted conditions for second-trimester pregnancies, the practice of unsafe self-induced abortion persists. However, the prevalence of this practice, the methods used and the reasons behind it are relatively under-researched. As part of a larger study seeking to improve abortion services in the Western Cape Province, we explored reports of prior attempts to self-induce abortion among women undergoing legal second-trimester abortion. To describe the prevalence and methods of and factors related to unsuccessful attempts at self-induction of abortion by women presenting without complications and seeking second-trimester abortion at public health facilities in the Western Cape. In a cross-sectional study from April to August 2010, 194 consenting women undergoing second-trimester abortion were interviewed by trained fieldworkers using structured questionnaires at four public sector facilities near Cape Town. Thirty-four women (17.5%; 95% confidence interval 12.7 - 23.4) reported an unsuccessful attempt to self-induce abortion during the current pregnancy before going to a facility for second-trimester abortion. No factors were significantly associated with self-induction, but a relatively high proportion of this small sample were unemployed and spoke an indigenous African language at home. A readily available herbal product called Stametta was most commonly used; other methods included taking tablets bought from unlicensed providers and using other herbal remedies. No use of physical methods was reported. The prevalence of unsafe self-induction of abortion is relatively high in the Western Cape. Efforts to inform women in the community about the availability of free services in the public sector and to educate them about the dangers of self-induction and unsafe providers should be strengthened to help address this public health issue.

  10. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p < 0.05) adults than kids, and the distribution of breeding animals was biased towards does and less bucks. Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (<3 years; n = 398) were further analyzed for five quantitative traits of chest girth, height, length, and pin bone and there were significant (p < 0.05) breed differences in all. A stepwise discriminatory procedure was used to

  11. The targeting of nutritionally at-risk children attending a primary health care facility in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, S E; Hendricks, M K; Hattingh, S P; Benadé, A J S; Laubscher, J A; Dhansay, M A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the practices of primary health care (PHC) nurses in targeting nutritionally at-risk infants and children for intervention at a PHC facility in a peri-urban area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Nutritional risk status of infants and children <6 years of age was based on criteria specified in standardised nutrition case management guidelines developed for PHC facilities in the province. Children were identified as being nutritionally at-risk if their weight was below the 3rd centile, their birth weight was less than 2500 g, and their growth curve showed flattening or dropping off for at least two consecutive monthly visits. The study assessed the practices of nurses in identifying children who were nutritionally at-risk and the entry of these children into the food supplementation programme (formerly the Protein-Energy Malnutrition Scheme) of the health facility. Structured interviews were conducted with nurses to determine their knowledge of the case management guidelines; interviews were also conducted with caregivers to determine their sociodemographic status. One hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the study. The mean age of their caregivers was 29.5 (standard deviation 7.5) years and only 47 (38%) were married. Of the caregivers, 77% were unemployed, 46% had poor household food security and 40% were financially dependent on non-family members. Significantly more children were nutritionally at-risk if the caregiver was unemployed (54%) compared with employed (32%) (P=0.04) and when there was household food insecurity (63%) compared with household food security (37%) (P<0.004). Significantly more children were found not to be nutritionally at-risk if the caregiver was financially self-supporting or supported by their partners (61%) compared with those who were financially dependent on non-family members (35%) (P=0.003). The weight results of the nurses and the researcher differed significantly (P

  12. Evaluation of the application of a thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine by community volunteers in the North West Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, C M E; Bisschop, S P R; Modise, K

    2007-09-01

    Participatory research on vaccination of village poultry against Newcastle disease (ND) was carried out in the village of Disaneng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Three application methods for ND Inkukhu vaccine were shown to induce sufficient levels of immunity in back-yard poultry when correctly administered. These are eye-droplet administration to individual fowls, in-feed and in-water administration to small flocks. After a community meeting and group discussion to select methods of vaccination, only 2 of the 3 methods were chosen; the individual administration of droplets into the eyes was considered to be too impractical because back-yard fowls are difficult to catch. Visual and practical training material was prepared and presented to volunteer vaccinators (n = 23). Vaccinators were then required to register all the poultry owners in their ward who wished to have poultry vaccinated. Once an indication of the number of chickens to be vaccinated had been made available, ND Nobilis Inkukhu vaccine was supplied to vaccinators free of charge. Community vaccinators were responsible for the organisation of the vaccination campaign, including storage and preparation of vaccine for application. All 9 wards in the village were initially involved with a total of 482 households, owning 6141 chickens, participating. This represented slightly in excess of 60 % of the fowls in the area. Involvement in a 2nd round of vaccinations, 1 month later, was far poorer with only 211 households owning a total of 1636 chickens participating. Serum samples were collected from vaccinated fowls using systematic random sampling and tested for circulating antibodies. The levels of protection varied, with no significant difference found between in-feed and in-water vaccine administration. Volunteer vaccinators were found to be unreliable, easily demotivated, did not keep good records and left the project when offered permanent employment. Contacting them to make arrangements

  13. Genito-anal injury patterns and associated factors in rape survivors in an urban province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Vetten, Lisa; Christofides, Nicola; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2015-03-27

    The prevalence of genito-anal injuries in rape survivors varies significantly and the factors associated with the absence of injuries are not well understood. This plays a major role in the conviction of cases as the absence of injury is equated with a lack of assault. In such cases, health care providers face major challenges in presenting and defending their findings. The aim of this paper is to describe the absence of genito-anal injuries by site in a group of rape survivors and to identify factors associated with the absence of these injuries. In a cross-sectional study rape cases reported to the police in one province in South Africa were randomly sampled using a two stage sampling procedure. Data were obtained on the survivor, the circumstances of the rape and the findings of the medicolegal examination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for the prevalence of genito-anal injuries by site and logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries for all survivors and those reported to be virgins. In the sample of 1472 women injuries ranged from 1% to 36%. No significant injuries were reported for 749 (51%) survivors. In the multivariable model there was a significantly lower odds of having no injuries in survivors who were virgins, those raped by multiple perpetrators and those examined by a doctor with additional qualifications. In the model for survivors who were virgins, those with disabilities had a greater odds of having no injuries while those between the ages of 8 and 17 years had a lower odds of having no injuries compared to survivors below four years of age. This study found that being a virgin, multiple perpetration rape and the examiner's qualifications were significantly associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries. Health providers should thus be aware that in all other respects there was no difference in survivors who had injuries and those who did not. It is important to

  14. Geochronological, geochemical and Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of Late Cretaceous A-type granites from the southeastern coast of Fujian Province, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiao-Long; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Liu, Liang; Wang, Rui-Qiang

    2015-06-01

    We present comprehensive petrological, geochronological, major and trace element, and Nd-Hf isotopic data for the Baishishan, Jingangshan, and Wushan granitic plutons on the southeastern coast of Fujian Province, South China, with the aims of elucidating their origin and gaining new insights into the petrogenesis of aluminous A-type granites. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry show that the three investigated plutons were emplaced at 92-86 Ma, indicating that they were generated during a Late Cretaceous magmatic event. The granites from the three plutons are composed mainly of perthite, quartz, plagioclase, and minor biotite; they have high SiO2 contents, and low CaO, MnO, Fe2O3tot, and MgO contents, and show a metaluminous to slightly peraluminous signature. The granites are enriched in some large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, Th, and U) and high field strength elements (e.g., Nb and Ta) with elevated Ga/Al ratios, and spidergrams show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Ti, and P. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show relative enrichments in light rare earth elements, flat heavy rare earth element profiles, and strongly negative Eu anomalies. These mineralogical and geochemical characteristics suggest that all three plutons can be classified as aluminous A-type granites. The plutons exhibit nearly identical whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, and yield Mesoproterozoic two-stage model ages (1.4-1.1 Ga) for both Nd and Hf isotopes. Based on a synthesis of the geochemical and isotopic data and petrogenetic modelling, we suggest that these A-type granitic rocks were most likely formed by variable degrees of fractional crystallization of magmas produced by the partial melting of a tonalitic to granodioritic source, with plagioclase-rich residual phases in the middle to lower crust, and emplaced at shallow crustal levels along the Changle-Nan'ao Fault. Our data on the Baishishan, Jingangshan, and

  15. Geochronology and petrogenesis of Middle Permian S-type granitoid in southeastern Guangxi Province, South China: Implications for closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Jun; Wei, Jun-Hao; Santosh, M.; Tan, Jun; Fu, Le-Bing; Zhao, Shao-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The Bangxi-Chenxing suture zone is an important region to address the history of closure of the eastern Paleo-Tethys ocean. Among the widespread S-type granite batholiths in the SE Guangxi Province adjacent to this suture is the Nali granodiorite. Here we report zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope geochemistry of a newly found Middle Permian S-type granite in this region. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology yields emplacement ages of 265 ± 2 to 262 ± 2 Ma for the Nali granodiorite. Both the inner and outer phases are characterized by variable SiO2 (66.91-71.39 wt.%), high Al2O3 (12.99-14.04 wt.%), K2O + Na2O (4.78-5.98 wt.%), and A/CNK values (1.11-1.50), resembling those of typical S-type granites. The rocks are enriched in Rb, Th, U and light rare earth elements with weak negative Eu anomalies, and show depletion in Nb, Ta, Ti, with typical arc-like affinity. They have relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7228 to 0.7331, low εNd(t) values of - 13.6 to - 11.9, and low zircon εHf(t) values (- 21.9 to - 8.8). High whole-rock Nd isotopic model ages (2.00-2.02 Ga) and zircon Hf isotopic model ages (1.59-2.20 Ga), indicate that they might have been generated by partial melting of ancient lower crust with minor contribution from mantle sources. The granodiorite shows continental arc affinity and likely formed within a subduction setting. By combining previously extant data for Permo-Triassic arc-/collision-related magmatism in the Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan-Song Ma and Bangxi-Chenxing suture zones, we propose that the subduction of the eastern Paleo-Tethys might have started during Middle Permian triggered by the northward subduction of the Indochina Block (ICB) beneath the South China Block (SCB) and closure during Middle Triassic.

  16. A Nd -and O isotopic study of the carbonatite-syenite association in the Grønnedal-Ika complex, Gardar Province, South Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, R.; Markl, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Grønnedal-Ika alkaline complex in the Gardar Province, South Greenland, comprises layered nepheline syenites which were intruded by a xenolithic syenite and a plug of carbonatite. The complex, dated at 1299 ± 17 Ma by a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron (Blaxland et al. 1978), was emplaced into early Proterozoic gneisses and metasediments. Pearce et al. (1997) concluded on the basis of C and O whole-rock isotope data that the carbonatites and syenites were not genetically related. New O and Nd isotope data of mineral separates from the syenites and of whole-rock carbonatites are presented below. These are consistent with a common mantle source and may indicate that the carbonatites could have been generated by liquid immiscibility from a CO_2-rich nepheline syenite magma. Aegirine-augitic clinopyroxene is the most common mafic mineral in the syenites. Oxygen isotope measurements of clinopyroxene separates show homogeneous δ18O values from 4.2 to 4.8 per mil. δ18O values for the coexisting melts were calculated using fractionation factors by Kalamarides (1986) and a temperature estimate for the syenites of 700 degree C derived from phase equilibria between clinopyroxene, alkali feldspar and nepheline. The resulting δ18Omelt values range between 5.1 and 5.7 per mil. These values are within the lower range of typical mantle-derived magmas. Published oxygen isotope analyses of the carbonatites are also compatible with a mantle origin for the carbonatites (Pearce et al. 1997). Initial ɛNd values at T = 1.30 Ga of selected clinopyroxene separates yield values between +1.8 and +2.8 for the syenites and -1.7 for a gabbroic xenolith. Whole-rock Nd analyses of carbonatites gave initial ɛNd values of +2.4 to +2.8. Hence, there appears to be no significant difference in Nd isotope composition between syenites and carbonatites and both indicate an isotopically slightly depleted mantle source region. The initial ɛNd of the gabbroic xenolith is compatible with minor amounts

  17. Small mammal utilization by Middle Stone Age humans at Die Kelders Cave 1 and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Reported here are the results of a taphonomic analysis of the small mammals (between 0.75 kg and 4.5 kg adult body weight) and size 1 bovids (≤20 kg adult body weight) from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites of Die Kelders Cave 1 (DK1) and Pinnacle Point Site 5-6 (PP5-6), Western Cape Province, South Africa. This study provides a comprehensive taphonomic analysis of MSA small mammals with a focus on discerning the role of humans in their accumulation and the implications for human behavioral adaptations. Based on comparisons with control assemblages of known accumulation, it is evident that humans accumulated many of the Cape dune mole-rats, hares, and size 1 bovids at DK1. The patterning of cut-marked and burned mole-rat remains at DK1 provides evidence in the MSA for the systematic utilization of small mammals for their skins and as a protein source. Unlike DK1, small mammals and size 1 bovids constitute only a small portion of the PP5-6 mammals and they exhibit little evidence of human accumulation. Nocturnal and diurnal raptors accumulated most of the small fauna at PP5-6. The nominal presence of small mammals in the PP5-6 fauna is atypical of MSA sites in the Cape Floristic Region, where they are abundant and often constitute large portions of MSA archaeofaunas. DK1 humans maximized the environmental yield by exploiting low-quality resources, a strategy employed possibly in response to localized environmental conditions and to greater human population densities. In comparison, the MIS5-4 humans at PP5-6 did not exploit small mammals and instead focused on higher-quality resources like shellfish and large ungulates. Humans and predators accumulated few small mammals at PP5-6, suggesting that these taxa may have been less abundant near the site and/or that humans could afford to concentrate on high-quality resources, perhaps because of a higher-yield local environment. This study suggests that an adaptive response to the environmental conditions of MIS4 was

  18. Two Late Cretaceous A-type granites related to the Yingwuling W-Sn polymetallic mineralization in Guangdong province, South China: Implications for petrogenesis, geodynamic setting, and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Haijie; Zhao, Caisheng; Yu, Xiaofei

    2017-03-01

    Major and trace elements, whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating, zircon trace elements and Hf isotope data are reported for a suite of A-type granites from Yingwuling pluton in western Guangdong province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) show that biotite granite and alkali feldspar granite were emplaced in 81.3 ± 0.6 Ma and 80.6 ± 0.5 Ma, respectively. Both of the two suites have the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of A-type granite. These granitic rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and have pronounced contents of total alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 7.80-8.84%), Fe2O3T/MgO and Ga/Al ratios. They exhibit low MgO, CaO and TiO2 contents, enrichment in some LILEs and HFSEs (except for Zr, Eu and Y), depletion in Ba, Sr, P and Ti. They show A2 subtype affinity and were probably formed a temperature of 800 °C. The Yingwuling biotite granite has relatively high (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70655 to 0.70928, low εNd(t) values of - 5.8 to - 4.2 and zircon εHf(t) values (- 5.70-1.37). Whole-rock Nd isotopic and zircon Hf isotopic two-stages model ages mostly vary from 1057 to 1506 Ma. The alkali feldspar granite display bulk rock εNd(t) values and (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios in the range of - 6.6 to - 6.1 and 0.70640 to 0.71077, respectively, and zircon εHf(t) values from - 5.44 to 0.54, with Mesoproterozoic T2DM for both Nd and Hf isotopes. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate the Yingwuling A-type granitic magmas were drived from mantle-crust interaction. Zircon grains of Yingwuling granites have relatively low Eu/Eu* and Ce4 +/Ce3 + ratios, indicating low oxygen fugacity. The visible tetrad effect in the Yingwuling granites indicates that it experienced strong fractionation and is close relationship to the W-Sn mineralization. Our new data together with previous published data indicate that Late Mesozoic A-type granitiods or alkaline intrusive rocks in South

  19. Assessing different airborne EM systems for delivering information on aquifer geometry and character: A case study from the Musgrave Province South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, T. J.; Ley-Cooper, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    When developing their pre-competitive data bases in support of the minerals industry, State and Federal Government agencies in Australia are now looking at the conjunctive use of airborne geophysics. This is particularly so for AEM data sets, which are now being acquired to promote exploration. This reflects a recognition that in the arid regions of Australia development of a given mineral deposit will, in part, be determined by the availability of water to support mining and mineral processing. An emerging trend, linked to the availability of new data processing procedures, sees AEM data now being actively employed for a combination of applications linked to minerals exploration including geological mapping, aquifer characterization and groundwater assessment. New surveys are being commissioned with attention being given as to whether AEM systems are capable of resolving the complexity of aquifer systems. In addition to new surveys, historical AEM data sets acquired to target potential mineralization are being re-processed for groundwater related applications. As part of the South Australian Goyder FLOWS project, regional and local scale AEM data sets are being examined to develop hydrogeological conceptual models in the remote Musgrave Province in the States north. The work has required the re-processing of historical data, including those acquired by TEMPEST, HoisTEM and VTEM. More recently, the project also acquired co-incident data from several new AEM systems, including the new SkyTEM508 (a helicopter TDEM system) and the SPECTREM2000 (a fixed wing TDEM system). Their acquisition aims to inform State agencies about options for acquiring further pre-competitive AEM data to support mineral exploration whilst also addressing groundwater resource requirements for the region. In this paper we examine the results from a comparative study of these systems for defining the variability of aquifers that are expected to provide the main source of groundwater for any

  20. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  1. Petrography, sulfide mineral chemistry, and sulfur isotope evidence for a hydrothermal imprint on Musina copper deposits, Limpopo Province, South Africa: Evidence for a breccia pipe origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumba, Jeff B.; Mundalamo, Humbulani R.; Ogola, Jason S.; Cox, J. A.; Fleisher, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Musina copper deposits are located in the Central Zone of the Limpopo orogenic belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa. We carried out a petrographic, sulfide composition, and δ34S study on samples from Artonvilla and Campbell copper deposits and a country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine to place some constrains on the origin of these deposits. The assemblages at both Artonvilla and Campbell Mines of brecciated quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite, and amphibole are consistent with sericitic alteration. Quartz, amphibole, feldspars, and micas often display angular textures which are consistent with breccias. Sulfur concentrations in pyrite from Artonvilla Mine plot in a narrow range, from 50.2 wt. % to 55.7 wt. %. With the exception of a positive correlation between Fe and Cu, no well defined correlations are shown by data from the Musina copper deposits. The occurrence of sulfides both as inclusions in, or as interstitial phases in silicates, suggests that hydrothermal alteration that affected these deposits most likely helped concentrate the mineralization at the Musina copper deposits. Sulfur concentrations in chalcopyrite samples investigated vary widely whereas the copper concentrations in chalcopyrite are not unusually higher compared to those from chalcopyrite from other tectonic settings, probably indicating that either the Cu in the Musina copper deposits occurs in native form, and/or that it is hosted by other phases. This observation lends support to the Cu having been concentrated during a later hydrothermal event. One sample from Artonvilla Mine (AtCal01) yielded pyrite δ34S values of 3.1and 3.6‰ and chalcopyrite from the same sample yielded a value of 3.9‰. A country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine yielded a δ34Spyrite value of 8.2‰. For Campbell Mine samples, one quartz vein sample has a δ34Spyrite value of 0.5‰ whereas chalcopyrite samples drilled from different areas within the same sample yielded

  2. Effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on pre-weaning performance of Nguni calves in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, T J; Ginindza, M M; Siwendu, N A; Nephawe, K A; Mtileni, B J

    2017-01-01

    . It was concluded that acceptable levels of growth are achievable from Nguni cattle under the different agro-ecological zones of Limpopo province, South Africa.

  3. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  4. Geochronology and geochemistry of Cretaceous Nanshanping alkaline rocks from the Zijinshan district in Fujian Province, South China: Implications for crust-mantle interaction and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2014-10-01

    In situ zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions are reported for Nanshanping alkaline rocks from the Zijingshan district in southwestern Fujian Province (the Interior or Western Cathaysia Block) of South China. The Nanshanping alkaline rocks, which consist of porphyritic quartz monzonite, porphyritic syenite, and syenite, revealed a Late Cretaceous age of 100-93 Ma. All of the rocks show high SiO2, K2O + Na2O, and LREE but low CaO, Fe2O3T, MgO, and HFSE (Nb, Ta, P, and Ti) concentrations. These rocks also exhibit uniform initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7078 to 0.7087 and εNd(t) values of -4.1 to -7.2, thus falling within the compositional field of Cretaceous basalts and mafic dikes occurring in the Cathaysia Block. Additionally, these rocks display initial Pb isotopic compositions with a 206Pb/204Pbi ratio of 18.25 to 18.45, a 207Pb/204Pbi ratio of 15.63 to 15.67, and a 208Pb/204Pbi ratio of 38.45 to 38.88. Combined with the zircon Hf isotopic compositions (εHf(t) = -11.7 to -3.2), which are different from those of the basement rocks, we suggest that Nanshanping alkaline rocks were primarily derived from a subduction-related enriched mantle source. High Rb/Sr (0.29-0.65) and Zr/Hf (37.5-49.2) but relatively low Ba/Rb (4.4-8.1) ratios suggest that the parental magmas of these rocks were most likely formed via partial melting of a phlogopite-bearing mantle source with carbonate metasomatism. The relatively high SiO2 (62.35-70.79 wt.%) and low Nb/Ta (10.0-15.3) ratios, positive correlation between SiO2 and (87Sr/86Sr)I, and negative correlation between SiO2 and εNd(t) of these rocks suggest that the crustal materials were also involved in formation of the Nanshanping alkaline rocks. Combined with geochemical and isotopic features, we infer magmatic processes similar to AFC (assimilation and fractional crystallization) involving early fractionation of clinopyroxene and olivine and subsequent fractionation of

  5. An infrared investigation of inclusion-bearing diamonds from the Venetia kimberlite, Northern Province, South Africa : implications for diamonds from craton-margin settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljoen, (Fanus)

    2002-08-01

    The Venetia kimberlites in the Northern Province of South Africa sampled diamonds from the lithosphere underlying the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Given the general correlation of diamond-bearing kimberlites with old stable cratons, this tectonic setting is somewhat anomalous and, therefore, it is desirable to characterise the diamonds in terms of their infrared characteristics. A suite of diamonds of known paragenesis from the Venetia mine spans a large range of nitrogen concentrations from less than the detection limit to 1,355 ppm. Diamond nitrogen contents are, on average, higher in the eclogitic diamond population relative to the websteritic and peridotitic diamonds. Nitrogen aggregation states are variable, ranging from almost pure type IaA diamond (poorly aggregated nitrogen) to pure type IaB diamond (highly aggregated nitrogen). On a nitrogen aggregation diagram two distinct groups can be identified based on nitrogen content and nitrogen aggregation state. These are a minor population of diamonds with nitrogen contents generally higher than 500 ppm and nitrogen aggregation states of less than 40% IaB, and another, dominant population that is characterised by higher and more variable nitrogen aggregation. The unusually aggregated nature of the majority of the diamonds analysed is unique to Venetia relative to other intrusives on the Kaapvaal-Kalahari craton, but is similar to aggregation states observed for diamonds from other craton margin or adjacent mobile belt settings such as the Argyle lamproite and the George Creek kimberlite. This could be a consequence of diamond mantle residence at mantle temperatures higher than the norm for other kimberlites from the interior of cratons. Deformation of the mantle, associated with dynamic processes such as orogenesis or subduction, might also be responsible for accelerating the rate of nitrogen aggregation in these diamonds. Low numbers of diamonds with degradation of platelets at the Venetia kimberlite

  6. Spinifex-textured komatiites in the south border of the Carajas ridge, Selva Greenstone belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepierski, Lincoln; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Spinifex-textured komatiites in the Selva greenstone belt are the first unequivocal examples of komatiites in the Transition Subdomain of the Carajás Mineral Province. Outcrops of spinifex-textured komatiites, located ∼1.5 km to the south of the Carajás ridge, were discovered during regional exploration for Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits by VALE. They are associated with a 3.8 km long unit consisting of variable types of ultramafic rocks (talc schist, serpentinite and spinifex-textured komatiite). This ultramafic unit follows the steep dipping NW-SE trending Selva greenstone belt composed mainly by quartz-chlorite schists (interpreted as metasediments) and chlorite-actinolite schists (interpreted as metabasalts). Greenschist facies metamorphic parageneses characterize all rock types in the Selva greenstone belt. The komatiitic rocks in the Selva belt comprise a sequence of flows consisting of an upper spinifex-textured layer and a lower olivine cumulate layer. Although the spinifex and cumulus textures are well preserved in the field, the primary mineralogy of the komatiites has been completely replaced by greenschist facies metamorphic minerals. Platy olivine spinifex texture, consisting of an array of roughly parallel olivine plates, and random spinifex texture, consisting of randomly oriented olivine plates, are the most common primary volcanic textures in komatiites in the Selva greenstone belt. Platy and random spinifex texture is defined by former plates of olivine replaced by serpentine with minor actinolite, chlorite and magnetite, alternating with former matrix replaced by abundant actinolite and minor chlorite, talc, serpentine, and magnetite. The domains between olivine plates in both platy and random spinifex-textured rocks contain irregular arrays of fine-grained parallel crystals, representing primary fine-grained "quench" clinopyroxene crystals replaced by actinolite. Spinifex-textured komatiites have MgO contents bracket between 22.8 and 26.9 wt

  7. Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Global Conference (SCRGC) 2016 (August 23-24, 2016 - Gyeonggi-do, Korea).

    PubMed

    Vertès, A

    2016-10-01

    In its third edition, the Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Global Conference (SCRGC) organized by the Global Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Acceleration Center (GSRAC) was focused on breaking barriers to accelerate the pace of innovation and development of the regenerative medicine industry. GSRAC is both a think tank and a global network of key opinion leaders from the public and the private sectors. GSRAC was commissioned in 2011 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) of Korea. GSRAC's primary mission is to enable and accelerate the delivery of innovative technologies to patients who are affected by currently untreatable diseases. This goal is notably achieved by resolving hurdles in the field of regenerative medicine. With a total of 30 speakers and panelists from 8 different countries and more than 400 attendees from an array of institutions including hospitals, clinics, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical companies, scientists, as well as policy makers, the 2-day SCRGC highlighted critical challenges and paths to resolving them in policy and regulatory, and industrial-scale manufacturing of gene-based and cell-based therapies, comprising plenary lectures and sessions covering strategic policy, regulatory, reimbursement and business development, and business of manufacturing, and production technologies. Several of these presentations are summarized in this report.

  8. Strategic planning for saving the lives of mothers, newborns and children and preventing stillbirths in KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa: modelling using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    PubMed

    McGee, Shelley-Ann; Chola, Lumbwe; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mubaiwa, Victoria; Moran, Neil; McKerrow, Neil; Kamugisha, Leonard; Hofman, Karen

    2016-01-19

    KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa has the largest population of children under the age of five and experiences the highest number of child births per annum in the country. Its population has also been ravaged by the dual epidemics of HIV and TB and it has struggled to meet targets for maternal and child mortality. In South Africa's federal system, provinces have decision-making power on the prioritization and allocation of resources within their jurisdiction. As part of strategic planning for 2015-2019, KwaZulu-Natal provincial authorities requested an assessment of current mortality levels in the province and identification and costing of priority interventions for saving additional maternal, newborn and child lives, as well as preventing stillbirths in the province. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to determine the set of interventions, which could save the most additional maternal and child lives and prevent stillbirths from 2015-2019, and the costs of these. The impact of family planning was assessed using two scenarios by increasing baseline coverage of modern contraception by 0.5 percentage points or 1 percentage point per annum. A total of 7,043 additional child and 297 additional maternal lives could be saved, and 2,000 stillbirths could be prevented over five years. Seventeen interventions account for 75% of additional lives saved. Increasing family planning contributes to a further reduction of up to 137 maternal and 3,168 child deaths. The set of priority interventions scaled up to achievable levels, with no increase in contraception would require an additional US$91 million over five years or US$1.72 per capita population per year. By increasing contraceptive prevalence by one percentage point per year, overall costs to scale up to achievable coverage package, decrease by US$24 million over five years. Focused attention on a set of key interventions could have a significant impact on averting stillbirths and maternal and neonatal mortality in

  9. Did in-place rotation of South America during the Early Cretaceous create both the early South Atlantic rift/salt basin and the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province? Peter Szatmari1 and Edison J. Milani1 1Petrobras Research Center (CENPES) Geological Research & Development (PDGEO), Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szatmari, P.; Milani, E.

    2012-12-01

    Large igneous provinces with continental flood basalts, some related to rifting, have been traditionally attributed to mantle plume heads rising from the lower mantle. The early Cretaceous South Atlantic rift, an archetype of plate tectonics, and the Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalts on land outside the rift, formed as South America rotated clockwise about a pole in its northeastern tip (Rabinowitz & LaBrecque, 1979), away from Africa and toward the subduction zone on its Pacific margin. This rotation opened the early South Atlantic southward while it kept the Equatorial Atlantic gateway to the Central Atlantic and the Tethys closed by compression. Rifting started in the late Jurassic in the extreme south, near the subduction zone at the continent's southern tip. It rapidly propagated NNE, mainly along inherited late Proterozoic (mostly Ediacaran) fold belts, and reached what has later become the eastern end of the Equatorial margin still in latest Jurassic time. Massive mostly basaltic volcanism peaked about 20 Ma later in Hauterivian time (136 to 130 Ma), forming dike swarms which, in the south, are accompanied by flood basalts of the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province. The massive rise of mostly tholeiitic magma resulted from hotspot-like high temperatures prevailing beneath the cold and thick Gondwana lithosphere that had remained unbroken since Proterozoic times for about 400 Ma. Early basalt dike swarms trending E-W and SE-NW were transversal to the rift. They are two-three hundred kilometers long and 1000-2000 km apart, penetrating far into the continent's unrifted lithosphere and cutting through all inherited Proterozoic structures that controlled rifting. The successive basalt dike swarms (and their individual dikes) increase in thickness to the southwest, away from the continent's pole of rotation, as does the width of the rift. The E-W-trending Ceará-Mirim dike swarm occurs in the extreme northeast of the continent. Further southwest the

  10. Investigation of the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes using fuzzy AHP (case study: south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to study the relationship between drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components and landform classes in the south of Firozabad, west of Fars province, Iran. For determination of drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components, parameters of calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), magnesium (Mg), thorium (TH), sodium (Na), electrical conductivity (EC), sulfate (SO4), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were used. It was found that 8.29 % of the study area has low water quality; 64.01 %, moderate; 23.33 %, high; and 4.38 %, very high. Areas with suitable drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components are located in parts of the south-eastern and south-western parts of the study area. The relationship between landform class and drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components shows that drinking water quality based on content of inorganic components is high in the stream, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes, and low in the plain small and midslope classes. In fact we can predict water quality using extraction of landform classes from a digital elevation model (DEM) by the Topographic Position Index (TPI) method, so that streams, valleys, upland drainages, and local ridge classes have more water quality than the other classes. In the study we determined that without measurement of water sample characteristics, we can determine water quality by landform classes.

  11. Nematodes from Swainson's spurfowl Pternistis swainsonii and an Orange River francolin Scleroptila levaillantoides in Free State Province, South Africa, with a description of Tetrameres swainsonii n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetrameridae).

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Davies, O R; Jansen, R; Crowe, T M; Boomker, J

    2008-12-01

    Five Swainson's spurfowl collected in Free State Province, South Africa, were examined for helminth parasites, and the nematodes Acuaria gruveli, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria and a new Tetrameres species were recovered. Their respective prevalence was 100, 20, 80, 20, 20 and 20%. These nematodes are all new parasite records for Swainson's spurfowl, and Acuaria gruveli constitutes a new geographical record as well. A single specimen of Cyrnea eurycerca was found in an Orange River francolin, representing a new host and geographical record for this parasite. The new species, for which the name Tetrameres swainsonii is proposed, can be differentiated from its congeners by a combination of the following characters of males: two rows of body spines, a single spicule which is 1152-1392 microm long, and eight pairs of caudal spines arranged in two ventral and two lateral rows of four spines each. The single female has the globular shape typical of the genus.

  12. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach.

    PubMed

    Mabunda, Jabu T; Khoza, Lunic B; Van den Borne, Hubertus B; Lebese, Rachel T

    2016-07-22

    Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.

  13. The Potential Financial Costs of Climate Change on Health of Urban and Rural Citizens: A Case Study of Vibrio cholerae Infections at Bukavu Town, South Kivu Province, Eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    MUNYULI, MB Théodore; KAVUVU, J-M Mbaka; MULINGANYA, Guy; BWINJA, G Mulinganya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in eastern Congo dating to 1971. A study was conducted to find out the linkage between climate variability/change and cholera outbreak and to assess the related economic cost in the management of cholera in Congo. Methods: This study integrates historical data (20 years) on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in South-Kivu province, eastern Congo. Results: Analyses of precipitation and temperatures characteristics in South-Kivu provinces showed that cholera epidemics are closely associated with climatic factors variability. Peaks in Cholera new cases were in synchrony with peaks in rainfalls. Cholera infection cases declined significantly (P<0.05) with the rise in the average temperature. The monthly number of new Cholera cases oscillated between 5 and 450. For every rise of the average temperature by 0.35 °C to 0.75 °C degree Celsius, and for every change in the rainfall variability by 10–19%, it is likely cholera infection risks will increase by 17 to 25%. The medical cost of treatment of Cholera case infection was found to be of US$50 to 250 per capita. The total costs of Cholera attributable to climate change were found to fall in the range of 4 to 8% of the per capita in annual income in Bukavu town. Conclusion: It is likely that high rainfall favor multiplication of the bacteria and contamination of water sources by the bacteria (Vibrio cholerae). The consumption of polluted water, promiscuity, population density and lack of hygiene are determinants favoring spread and infection of the bacteria among human beings living in over-crowded environments. PMID:24427750

  14. The impact of gold mining on the Witwatersrand on the rivers and karst system of Gauteng and North West Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    The Witwatersrand has been subjected to geological exploration, mining activities, parallel industrial development and associated settlement patterns over the past century. The gold mines brought with them not only development, employment and wealth, but also the most devastating war in the history of South Africa, civil unrest, economical inequality, social uprooting, pollution, negative health impacts and ecological destruction. One of the most consistent and pressing problems caused by mining has been its impact on the water bodies in and adjacent to the Witwatersrand. The dewatering and rewatering of the karstic aquifer overlying and adjacent to the Witwatersrand Supergroup and the pollution caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) are some of the most serious consequences of gold mining in South Africa and will affect the lives of many South Africans.

  15. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    PubMed Central

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community. PMID:27542290

  16. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  17. The Teaching of Religious Education in White State Schools in South Africa from 1948 to 1994, with Special Reference to the Province of Natal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Robert William

    2013-01-01

    There have been persistent allegations that the South African political authorities misused religious education (RE) during the years that Christian National Education (CNE) philosophy held sway, in order to achieve political ends. In this article, an attempt is made to locate and evaluate evidence that will demonstrate whether or not the…

  18. The Relationship between Levels of Education of Entrepreneurs and Their Business Success: A Study of the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ricardo M.; Brijlal, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    The small, medium and micro enterprise (SMME) sector has been widely recognized as an engine of economic growth in South Africa. The implementation of the National Small Business Strategy (NSBS) in 1995 established important objectives for the sector to address such problems as lack of access to markets and procurement, lack of access to finance…

  19. The Relationship between Levels of Education of Entrepreneurs and Their Business Success: A Study of the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ricardo M.; Brijlal, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    The small, medium and micro enterprise (SMME) sector has been widely recognized as an engine of economic growth in South Africa. The implementation of the National Small Business Strategy (NSBS) in 1995 established important objectives for the sector to address such problems as lack of access to markets and procurement, lack of access to finance…

  20. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  1. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of Upper Permian to Lower Triassic (?) Beaufort Group Strata, Karoo Basin, South Africa: Can We "See Through" the Karoo Large Igneous Province event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissman, J. W.; Gastaldo, R. A.; Neveling, J.

    2016-12-01

    A multifaceted effort to understand the timing of inferred environmental changes in the Karoo Basin, from Late Permian to possibly Early Triassic (?) time, as recorded in Beaufort Group strata, includes work to establish robust magnetic polarity records for sections previously interpreted to encompass end-Permian extinction events. Demonstrating preservation of early-acquired RM in Karoo strata is challenging, due to thermochemical effects related to the Early Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma) Karoo Large Igneous Province (LIP), the fact that Early Jurassic field directions are similar to those of Late Permian age (and the PDF!), and the NE to SW increase in burial diagenesis attending Cape Fold Belt tectonism. The response of Beaufort strata to such thermal effects bears on extracting meaningful polarity records. We obtain 7-10+ independent samples per individual horizon to assess ChRM uniformity. Eastern Cape Province sections yield a NNW seeking, moderate to steep negative inclination ChRM (normal polarity); NRM intensities are 1 to 5 mA/m. This ChRM persists in progressive thermal demagnetization to about 580o C, the magnetite maximum laboratory unblocking temperature (Tlub). Some beds show unblocking of a normal ChRM by 450oC and then the isolation of a SSE, moderate to steep positive (reverse) ChRM, which is inferred to indicate that any ChRM persisting above Tlub of 425oC is pre-Karoo LIP in origin, and likely primary. If the RM unblocked below about 425oC is thermoviscous, then, based on theoretical relaxation time/magnetization blocking relations, the rocks were heated to 150-300o C for ca. 1 Ma (+/-) (T estimates vary by relaxation time/RM blocking relations). The Bethulie section, Free State Province, is cut by many <2 m wide Karoo LIP dikes. Strata well-removed from dikes yield both normal and reverse polarity ChRM. BT15 (image) is dominated by a well-defined reverse RM with a normal overprint RM unblocked below 400oC, implying elevated temperatures (i.e., 100 to

  3. Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, in a kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from a commercial game farm in the Malelane area of the Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bengis, R G; Keet, D F; Michel, A L; Kriek, N P

    2001-09-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was diagnosed for the first time, in a kudu cow from a commercial game ranch in the Malelane area of the Mpumalanga Province close to the Kruger National Park. This diagnosis has important implications for the eradication of the disease in commercial and communal livestock in the area. Kudus are considered to be a potential maintenance host and, because of discharging fistulae in the parotid area where the lymph nodes are commonly infected, they have the potential of disseminating bacteria over wide areas. Cognisance should be taken of the presence of tuberculosis in a species other than domesticated cattle in this area and its implications for the control of tuberculosis in cattle.

  4. Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Western Cape Province, South Africa) in context: The Cape Floral kingdom, shellfish, and modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Marean, Curtis W

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and anatomical evidence suggests that Homo sapiens arose in Africa between 200 and 100ka, and recent evidence suggests that complex cognition may have appeared between ~164 and 75ka. This evidence directs our focus to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6, when from 195-123ka the world was in a fluctuating but predominantly glacial stage, when much of Africa was cooler and drier, and when dated archaeological sites are rare. Previously we have shown that humans had expanded their diet to include marine resources by ~164ka (±12ka) at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) on the south coast of South Africa, perhaps as a response to these harsh environmental conditions. The associated material culture documents an early use and modification of pigment, likely for symbolic behavior, as well as the production of bladelet stone tool technology, and there is now intriguing evidence for heat treatment of lithics. PP13B also includes a later sequence of MIS 5 occupations that document an adaptation that increasingly focuses on coastal resources. A model is developed that suggests that the combined richness of the Cape Floral Region on the south coast of Africa, with its high diversity and density of geophyte plants and the rich coastal ecosystems of the associated Agulhas Current, combined to provide a stable set of carbohydrate and protein resources for early modern humans along the southern coast of South Africa during this crucial but environmentally harsh phase in the evolution of modern humans. Humans structured their mobility around the use of coastal resources and geophyte abundance and focused their occupation at the intersection of the geophyte rich Cape flora and coastline. The evidence for human occupation relative to the distance to the coastline over time at PP13B is consistent with this model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    PubMed

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  6. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  7. The impacts of the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and climate change on cultural landscape dynamics in the province of Öræfi south of Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental changes can be attributed to both natural processes and human influences. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of volcanism and climate change on the development of land quality and cultural landscapes in the province of Öræfi in the Austur-Skaftafellssýsla district, south of Vatnajökull glacier, over the last 1100 years. Few areas in Iceland are as vulnerable to climate changes and volcanic eruptions as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region has been repeatedly affected by tephra fallout from explosive eruptions, most notably the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical and palaeoenvironmental data will be accumulated and stored in a database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. Preliminary results show that from the onset of the settlement in the late 9th century until AD 1362 Öræfi was a wealthy, densely populated farming society, with many large farm estates and large number of livestock (cattle and sheep) sustained by the natural vegetation. The farm estates were 40 by the mid 14th century and the churches were four. The first records of land ownership show that the Church had accumulated the most valuable holdings in Öræfi shortly before the Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362. Out of the 40 farm estates 12 belonged to the Church and on a national scale the churches in Öræfi were richer in livestock, sacramentals and missals compared to churches in other parts of Iceland. The Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362 had devastating long term impact on the settlement and terrestrial ecosystem in Öræfi. The area was abandoned following the eruption and in the early 15th century only eight out of the 40 farm estates prior to the eruption were settled. The values of the estates shrunk dramatically as did the arable land. The number of churches

  8. Efficacy of SISTA South Africa on sexual behavior, HIV stigma and relationship control among isiXhosa women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wingood, Gina M.; Reddy, Priscilla; Lang, Delia L.; Saleh-Onoya, Dorina; Braxton, Nikia; Sifunda, Sibusiso; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic has a devastating impact among South-African women. The current study evaluated the efficacy of SISTA South Africa, a culturally congruent HIV intervention for isiXhosa women in South Africa that was adapted from SISTA, an HIV intervention for African American women. Methods A randomized controlled trial recruited 342 isiXhosa women 18 – 35 years of age. Participants were randomized to the general health comparison or the SISTA South Africa intervention. Xhosa speaking peer health educators tailored the SISTA South Africa curriculum, while maintaining the core elements of the original SiSTA intervention. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Results Relative to participants in the comparison, participants in the HIV intervention reduced the frequency of unprotected vaginal intercourse acts (adjusted mean difference = 1.06; p = .02), were more likely to report not desiring dry sex (AOR = .229; 95% CI = .10, .47; p = .0001) and, were more likely to perceive that their main sexual partner did not desire dry sex (AOR = .24; 95% CI = .11, .52; p = .0001). Additionally, women randomized to the intervention also reported an increase in HIV knowledge, greater relationship control and had more accepting attitudes towards HIV stigma. The HIV intervention did not reduce STI incidence. Conclusions This trial demonstrates that an HIV intervention which is adapted to enhance its gender and cultural relevance for rural isiXhosa women can reduce self-reported sexual risk behaviors and enhance mediators of HIV among this vulnerable population. PMID:23673889

  9. The Development and Piloting of Parallel Scales Measuring External and Internal HIV and Tuberculosis Stigma Among Healthcare Workers in the Free State Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Edwin; Rau, Asta; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Uebel, Kerry; Siegel, Jacob; Masquillier, Caroline; Kigozi, Gladys; Sommerland, Nina; Yassi, Annalee

    2016-01-01

    Background The dual burden of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is severely impacting the South African healthcare workforce. However, the use of on-site occupational health services is hampered by stigma among the healthcare workforce. The success of stigma-reduction interventions is difficult to evaluate because of a dearth of appropriate scientific tools to measure stigma in this specific professional setting. Methods The current pilot study aimed to develop and test a range of scales measuring different aspects of stigma—internal and external stigma toward tuberculosis as well as HIV—in a South African healthcare setting. The study employed data of a sample of 200 staff members of a large hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Results Confirmatory factor analysis produced 7 scales, displaying internal construct validity: (1) colleagues’ external HIV stigma, (2) colleagues’ actions against external HIV stigma, (3) respondent’s external HIV stigma, (4) respondent’s internal HIV stigma, (5) colleagues’ external tuberculosis stigma, (6) respondent’s external tuberculosis stigma, and (7) respondent’s internal tuberculosis stigma. Subsequent analyses (reliability analysis, structural equation modeling) demonstrated that the scales displayed good psychometric properties in terms of reliability and external construct validity. Conclusions The study outcomes support the use of the developed scales as a valid and reliable means to measure levels of tuberculosis- and HIV-related stigma among the healthcare workforce in a resource-limited context. Future studies should build on these findings to fine-tune the instruments and apply them to larger study populations across a range of different resource-limited healthcare settings with high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. PMID:27118854

  10. Diagnostic hearing testing of infants aged 0-36 months in 3 South African provinces - Comparison of audiology records to HPCSA guidelines.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Selvarani; Störbeck, Claudine

    2016-12-01

    Within the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) pathway, which includes the processes of screening, diagnosis and intervention for paediatric hearing loss, paediatric diagnostic audiology involves a battery of specific tests and procedures. International studies have highlighted a golden standard for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss as based on the Joint Committee of Infant Hearing (2007) diagnostic guidelines, closely resembling the HPCSA diagnostic guidelines. There are limited South African studies on the processes and protocols followed in diagnostic paediatric audiology. This study aims to provide a comparison for how the tests used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa (within both the public and private healthcare sectors) compare to the HPCSA recommended diagnostic guidelines. A retrospective record review of paediatric clients with hearing loss (recruited through nonprobability convenience sampling) was conducted. This study is part of a longitudinal study of 711 deaf or hard of hearing children referred to the HI HOPES early intervention programme from September 2006 to December 2011. Diagnostic data from audiology reports of 117 children between 0 and 36 months were coded and analysed. Large variation was found in the tests included in the diagnostic audiology reports. For 22 children (19%) a comprehensive test battery was used. Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) recommended guidelines for diagnostic testing were not followed in any of the records analysed. Components of the HPCSA recommended test battery most frequently omitted was bone conduction testing. For both electrophysiology and behavioural testing, there was limited frequency specificity information. This exclusion of information is evidence of deficiencies in data recording and management, as well as having an effect on accuracy of classification of degree and type of hearing loss. There are gaps in age-appropriate assessment protocols, which

  11. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  12. Built-Up Area and Land Cover Extraction Using High Resolution Pleiades Satellite Imagery for Midrand, in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fundisi, E.; Musakwa, W.

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas, particularly in developing countries face immense challenges such as climate change, poverty, lack of resources poor land use management systems, and week environmental management practices. Mitigating against these challenges is often hampered by lack of data on urban expansion, urban footprint and land cover. To support the recently adopted new urban agenda 2030 there is need for the provision of information to support decision making in the urban areas. Earth observation has been identified as a tool to foster sustainable urban planning and smarter cities as recognized by the new urban agenda, because it is a solution to unavailability of data. Accordingly, this study uses high resolution EO data Pleiades satellite imagery to map and document land cover for the rapidly expanding area of Midrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. An unsupervised land cover classification of the Pleiades satellite imagery was carried out using ENVI software, whereas NDVI was derived using ArcGIS software. The land cover had an accuracy of 85% that is highly adequate to document the land cover in Midrand. The results are useful because it provides a highly accurate land cover and NDVI datasets at localised spatial scale that can be used to support land use management strategies within Midrand and the City of Johannesburg South Africa.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18), V. metschnikovii (3), V. fluvialis (19) and V. parahaemolyticus (12) strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul), trimethoprim (Tmp), cotrimoxazole (Cot), chloramphenicol (Chl), streptomycin (Str), ampicillin (Amp), tetracycline (Tet) nalidixic acid (Nal), and gentamicin (Gen). The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies. PMID:20470419

  14. [Species-area relationship at different succession stages of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in south subtropical area of Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-De; Su, Jian-Rong; Li, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lang, Xue-Dong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest at its different succession stages (primary, CP; 15 years of succession, CF; and 30 years of succession, CT) in Pu' er of Yunnan Province, this paper studied the species-area relationship of this forest at each succession stage. It was found that in the communities at each succession stage, the number of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas had a significant correlation with sampling area, with the area explained over 94% of the total variation. The Z value of the total species (0.334) and trees (0.394) was the lowest at CT, whereas that of shrubs (0.437) and lianas (0.326) was the lowest at CF. No significant differences were observed in the intercepts of the species-area curve of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas among different succession stages, but the coefficient of determination (R2) of the species-area curve of total species and lianas was the highest at CP. The richness of trees and shrubs at CF explained 99.9% of the variance of Z value, but the richness of total species, trees, shrubs, and lianas at CP and CT had no significant correlations with the Z value.

  15. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    PubMed

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  16. Two novel mutations of pfdhps K540T and I588F, affecting sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant response in uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Basuki, Sukmawati; Fitriah; Riyanto, Sugeng; Budiono; Dachlan, Yoes P; Uemura, Haruki

    2014-04-04

    Mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes have been shown to associate with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, pfdhfr, pfdhps genotypes and the correlations to SP treatment outcome in Indonesia has not yet been well analysed. After obtaining informed consent, 61 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were recruited in Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from October 2009 to August 2010. They were treated by a single oral dose of SP and its effects on clinical and parasitological status were followed until day 28 after treatment. Occasionally, a thick smear blood film for microscopy observation and blood spot on a filter paper for pfdhfr and pfdhps genotype analysis were collected. Pfdhfr and pfdhps genotypes from 24 P. falciparum-infected patients consisting of adequate clinical parasitological response (ACPR) (n = 6; 25.0%) and early treatment failure (ETF) (n = 10; 41.7%) or late parasitological failure (LPF) (n = 8; 33.3%) were obtained by sequencing. Two novel mutations of pfdhps gene, K540T and I588F, were determined in ten and five isolates, respectively. These mutations were present in the pfdhfr/pfdhps combined haplotypes of ANRNI/SGTGA (n = 6), ANRNL/SGTGA (n = 4), and ANRNI/SGEAA(588F) (n = 5), (mutation codons are bold typed); these haplotypes were mostly belonging to parasitological failure (ETF or LPF). The parasites acquiring five mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps haplotypes and four mutations with additional I588F did not respond adequately to SP treatment. Many of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients in Banjar district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia did not respond adequately to SP treatment and these low ineffectiveness of SP in this area was associated with two novel mutations of pfdhps, K540T and I588F.

  17. I don't know what I am doing because I am doing everything: perceptions and experiences of nurses about HIV counselling and testing among children in Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Abiola O; Tsibolane, Yolisa; Van-Turha, Lydia; Monareng, Sibongile; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Boleme, Mohlouoa Sam; Serenata, Celicia

    2016-03-01

    Although HIV/AIDS constitute a significant health burden among children in South Africa, testing and counselling of exposed children are inadequate. It is therefore imperative that factors relating to paediatric HCT services offered by health workers are examined. This study was conducted to explore and describe the perceptions and experiences of trained professional nurses regarding HIV counselling and testing among children. We conducted six focus group discussions among trained professional nurses in health facilities in a district in Free State Province, South Africa. All verbatim transcripts were analysed with a thematic approach and emergent codes were applied. Forty-seven trained professional nurses participated in the study and two of them were males. The age of the participants ranges from 38 to 60 years while the median age was 50 years. Most participants in the focus groups explained how HCT occurs during regular health talks and that lay counsellors are doing most of the counselling. While a few participants thought that children should not be bothered with HCT, most of them seek consent from caregivers for HIV test for children. While children whose parents are negative are usually not tested, most children are tested only when they become ill. Identified barriers to HCT among children include refusal of consent, work overload, lack of encouragement, and poor record keeping. Participants recommended improvement of issues relating to community mobilization and increasing trained staff strength for optimal paediatric HCT service delivery. Developing guidance and policies with respect to obtaining consent, recruiting more health providers, and addressing structural issues in the society to reduce stigma and discrimination were identified as key priority issues by majority of the participants. The perspectives of these participants who provide paediatric HCT services offer vital insight which may be useful to inform policy interventions.

  18. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  19. An assessment of the HIV/TB knowledge and skills of home-based carers working in the North West province in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Justin G; Letsoalo, Mabjala R; Chirowodza, Admire C

    2017-04-19

    Home-based carers (HBCs) play a critical role in ensuring the success of the primary health care re-engineering strategy in South Africa. Their role includes ensuring improved access to and delivery of primary health care at the household level, and better co-ordination and improved linkages between community and health facilities for HIV/TB services. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, skills, challenges and training needs of HBCs involved in HIV/TB care in one sub-district in the North-West province of South Africa. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which 157 HBCs were interviewed to assess their knowledge and skills regarding HIV and TB. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS statistical software and thematic analysis respectively. One hundred and forty-four (92%) of the interviewees were female and 13 (8%) were male. The median age of the participants was 35 years (interquartile range (IQR): 22-27). The median score for knowledge of both HIV and TB questions was 66% (IQR: 57-75). In general, HIV knowledge scores were higher than TB knowledge scores (73% versus 66%). A significant association was found between knowledge scores and formal training (p < 0.05), and knowledge scores and highest educational levels (p < 0.05). Irrespective of knowledge, HBCs reported providing a variety of services to support HIV/TB services in the communities in which they worked. HBCs also reported facing various challenges in their jobs related to stigma and the social contexts in which they work. The study showed that the overall knowledge of HBCs was limited, given the skills required and the services they provide. Given the increasing role of HBCs in various health initiatives, targeted interventions are required to support and improve their competencies and service provision.

  20. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3%) were biological mothers, 85 (10.6%) were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n = 742, 92.9%) parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7%) would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46%) felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV. PMID:27807481

  1. A laboratory-based study to identify and speciate non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from specimens submitted to a central tuberculosis laboratory from throughout KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sookan, L; Coovadia, Y M

    2014-11-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are important environmental pathogens capable of causing a spectrum of infection. The different species exhibit varied geographical prevalence worldwide. Identification of the infecting organism may be helpful in determining the clinical significance of the isolate. To describe the spectrum of NTM isolated from clinical specimens received at the National Health Laboratory Service central tuberculosis laboratory in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. In a laboratory-based prospective study, 200 suspected NTM were randomly selected over a period of 1 year and identified to species level using a commercially available DNA strip assay (GenoType Mycobacterium, CM/AS; Hain Lifescience, Germany). Of the 200 suspected NTM, 133 (66.5%) were confirmed to be NTM by the molecular test. The most frequently isolated NTM species were Mycobacterium intracellulare (45.9%), M. avium subspecies (11.3%), M. gordonae (6.0%) and M. kansasii (4.5%). It is important for laboratories to document the local spectrum of NTM because of the geographical variation in the different NTM species isolated. Although molecular tests for identifying NTM are relatively expensive, they have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of the various NTM species.

  2. Zircon U-Pb dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics of the Jintonghu monzonitic rocks in western Fujian Province, South China: Implication for Cretaceous crust-mantle interactions and lithospheric extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Lu, An-Huai; Zhao, Hai-Xiang; Yang, Tang-Li; Hou, Ming-Lan

    2016-09-01

    Comprehensive petrological, in situ zircon U-Pb dating, Ti-in-zircon temperature and Hf isotopic compositions, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are reported for the Jintonghu monzonitic intrusions in the western Fujian Province (Interior Cathaysia Block), South China. The Jintonghu monzonitic intrusions were intruded at 95-96 Ma. Their Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions are similar to the coeval and nearby enriched lithospheric mantle-derived mafic and syenitic rocks, indicating that the Jintonghu monzonitic rocks were likely derived from partial melting of the enriched mantle sources. Their high Nb/Ta ratios (average 21.6) suggest that the metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved, which was attributed to the modification of slab-derived fluid and melt by the subduction of the paleo-Pacific Plate. The presence of mafic xenoliths, together with geochemical and isotopic features indicates a mafic-felsic magma mixing. Furthermore, the Jintonghu intrusions may have experienced orthopyroxene-, biotite- and plagioclase-dominated crystallization. Crust-mantle interaction can be identified as two stages, including that the Early Cretaceous mantle metasomatism and lithospheric extension resulted from the paleo-Pacific slab subduction coupled with slab rollback, and the Late Cretaceous crustal activation and enhanced extension induced by dip-angle subduction and the underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma.

  3. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  4. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  5. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events.

  6. Vitamin D levels in patients with albinism compared with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van der Walt, Johanna E C; Sinclair, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Associations between vitamin D deficiency and a broad variety of independent diseases, including several bone diseases, various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, have been suggested. It is therefore important to detect and treat vitamin D deficiency in high-risk groups. Because patients with albinism (PWA) practice a policy of strict sun avoidance, they may be at risk for low levels of vitamin D. This study was conducted in patients attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, to determine sun avoidance behavior in the patient population and to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in PWA with those in normally pigmented Black patients attending the same clinics. Serum 25(OH)D levels were assessed in 50 PWA and 50 normally pigmented Black control subjects. Questionnaires on sun exposure avoidance behaviors were administered to all participants. The present study showed no statistically significant difference in median 25(OH)D levels between PWA and controls with normally pigmented Black skin. Rather, the study found a tendency for controls to have lower 25(OH)D levels. A total of 53% (n = 53) of all study participants (PWA and controls) had a 25(OH)D level of <20 ng/ml; thus most participants were deficient in vitamin D. Most of the PWA who participated in the study did not adhere to strict sun avoidance behavior. People with albinism attending dermatology clinics in the Free State, South Africa, need not be viewed as specifically at risk for low vitamin D levels. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah Mpata; Madiba, Sphiwe

    2017-01-01

    Background Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges in two provinces in South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges. Results The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9%) were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI): 1.08–2.75), having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26–2.38), and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42–0.88). Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test. Interpretations The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT) should be considered to educate communities about HIVST. PMID:28141858

  8. Cardiovascular risk and endothelial function in people living with HIV/AIDS: design of the multi-site, longitudinal EndoAfrica study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Strijdom, Hans; De Boever, Patrick; Walzl, Gerhard; Essop, M Faadiel; Nawrot, Tim S; Webster, Ingrid; Westcott, Corli; Mashele, Nyiko; Everson, Frans; Malherbe, Stephanus T; Stanley, Kim; Kessler, Harald H; Stelzl, Evelyn; Goswami, Nandu

    2017-01-07

    There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region. The knowledge gap is further widened by the paucity of data from prospective studies. We present the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the EndoAfrica study, which aims to determine whether HIV-infection and ART are associated with altered cardiovascular risk and changes in vascular endothelial structure and function in adults living in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In this longitudinal study, comprehensive cardiovascular assessments of HIV-negative and HIV-positive (with and without ART) study participants are performed by clinical and biochemical screening for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers of CVD. Vascular and endothelial function is determined by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid-intima-thickness (IMT) measurements and quantitative retinal blood vessel analyses, complemented by vascular endothelial biomarker assays. Finally, we aim to statistically determine whether HIV-infection and/or ART are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular endothelial dysfunction, and determine whether there is progression/regression in these endpoints 18 months after the baseline assessments. The EndoAfrica study provides a unique opportunity to recruit a cohort of HIV-infected patients and HIV

  9. Microstructural observation and chemical dating on monazite from the Shilu Group, Hainan Province of South China: Implications for origin and evolution of the Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Deru; Kusiak, Monika A.; Wang, Zhilin; Chen, Huayong; Bakun-Czubarow, Nonna; Wu, Chuanjun; Konečný, Patrik; Hollings, Peter

    2015-02-01

    New monazite chemical U-Th-total-Pb (CHIME) ages, combined with microstructural observations, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemistry, indicate that the large-scale, banded iron formation (BIF)-type Shilu Fe-Co-Cu ore district in Hainan Province, South China is a multistage product of sedimentation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration associated with multiple orogenies. Two types of monazite, i.e. "polygenetic" and "metamorphic", were identified. The "polygenetic monazite" comprises a magmatic and/or metamorphic core surrounded by a metamorphic rim, and shows complex zoning. Breakdown corona structure, with a core of monazite surrounded by a mantle of fluorapatite, allanite, and/or epidote as concentric growth rings, is commonly observed. This type of monazite yielded three main CHIME-age peaks at ca. 980 Ma, ca. 880 Ma and ca. 450 Ma. The ages which range up to ca. 880 Ma for detrital cores, record a pre-deformational magmatic and/or metamorphic event(s), and is considered to be the depositional time-interval of the Shilu Group and interbedded BIFs in a marine, back-arc foreland basin likely due to the Grenvillian or South China Sibao orogeny. After deposition, the Shilu district was subjected to an orogenic event, which is recorded by the syndeformational metamorphic monazite with ca. 560-450 Ma population. Probably this event not only caused amphibolite facies metamorphism and associated regional foliation S1 but also enriched the original BIFs, and most likely corresponds to the "Pan-African" and/or the South China Caledonian orogeny. The post-deformational "metamorphic" monazite occurs mostly as inclusions in garnet and shows ca. 260 Ma age. It likely represents the Late Permian post-magmatic hydrothermal and related retrograde event(s) initiated by the Indosinian orogeny due to the closure of the Paleo-Tethys. The breakdown of monazite to secondary coronal mineral phases as well as the Fe-remobilization and associated skarnization

  10. Vector-control personnel’s knowledge, perceptions and practices towards insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contradictory arguments regarding the benefits and harm of insecticides, especially DDT, have caused concerns in different societal circles, threatening to undermine the achievements of the indoor residual spraying (IRS) programme in South Africa. These concerns were exacerbated by the screening of a documentary on South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) Television with anti-DDT sentiments. Consequently, Limpopo Malaria Control Programme (LMCP) Management advocated for an investigation to determine the potential effect of such campaigns on vector-control personnel’s knowledge and perceived effects of insecticides on human health, with a view to improving the educational materials designed for use in training vector-control personnel. Methods The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey using a structured field-piloted questionnaire, administered to 233 randomly selected vector-control personnel. Ethical clearance was granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Approval for the study was granted by the Department of Health, Limpopo. Participation in the study was voluntary and all respondents signed informed consent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data. Results Most respondents (96.6%) had a positive perception of IRS as a method to control malaria. Despite their positive perception, 93.6% viewed IRS insecticides to be potentially harmful to the users. DDT was perceived to cause long-term reproductive and respiratory effects, whereas alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin were largely associated with skin irritation/itchiness and skin burn. Study participants were more worried about DDT’s potential effects on their reproductive system, including poor sexual performance, decline in libido, miscarriage and bearing children with genetic defects. However, none reported personal experience of bearing a child with genetic defects or miscarriage. Most anti-insecticide messages, especially relating to DDT, emanated from

  11. Resistance of Strains Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among Salmonella from Duck Carcasses at Slaughterhouses in Three Major Provinces of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Kyoung; Choi, Dasom; Chon, Jung Whan; Seo, Kun Ho

    2016-03-01

    The current study was carried out to estimate Salmonella spp. contamination of duck carcasses and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and serotype distribution of the isolates. Salmonella spp. was detected in 21.7% (26/120) of fresh raw duck carcasses sampled at different slaughterhouses in South Korea. Eight Salmonella serovars were identified; the most prevalent serovar was S. Typhimurium (34