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Sample records for gymnema sylvestre extract

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  2. Hypoglycemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre extracts on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Min Sun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Min, Kwan-Sik; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus, which is associated with oxidative damage, has a significant impact on health, quality of life, and life expectancy. An ethanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate the role of antioxidants in diabetic rats. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the assays, including TBA (56%), SOD-like (92%), and ABTS (54%). Blood glucose levels in the diabetic rats fed G. sylvestre extract decreased to normal levels. The presence of the antihyperglycemic compounds gymnemagenin and gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre extract was detected by LC/MS analysis. Lipid peroxidation levels were decreased by 31.7% in serum, 9.9% in liver, and 9.1% in kidney in the diabetic rats fed the extract. Feeding G. sylvestre extract to the diabetic rats decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in cytosolic liver and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum to normal levels.

  3. Gymnema sylvestre: A Memoir.

    PubMed

    Kanetkar, Parijat; Singhal, Rekha; Kamat, Madhusudan

    2007-09-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is regarded as one of the plants with potent anti diabetic properties. This plant is also used for controlling obesity in the form of Gymnema tea. The active compound of the plant is a group of acids termed as gymnemic acids. It has been observed that there could be a possible link between obesity, Gymnemic acids and diabetes. This review will try to put forth an overall idea about the plant as well as present a molecular perspective linking the common medicine to the most common metabolic disorders.

  4. Gymnema sylvestre: A Memoir

    PubMed Central

    Kanetkar, Parijat; Singhal, Rekha; Kamat, Madhusudan

    2007-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is regarded as one of the plants with potent anti diabetic properties. This plant is also used for controlling obesity in the form of Gymnema tea. The active compound of the plant is a group of acids termed as gymnemic acids. It has been observed that there could be a possible link between obesity, Gymnemic acids and diabetes. This review will try to put forth an overall idea about the plant as well as present a molecular perspective linking the common medicine to the most common metabolic disorders. PMID:18193099

  5. Extraction and quantification of gymnemic acids through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Kanetkar, P V; Singhal, R S; Laddha, K S; Kamat, M Y

    2006-01-01

    The phyto-constituents of Gymnema sylvestre are used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The present work reports on the extraction of gymnemic acid through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of G. sylvestre. Components were separated on pre-coated silica gel 60 GF254 plates with chloroform:methanol (8:2) and scanned using a densitometric scanner at 205 nm in the near-UV region. Linearity of determination of gymnemagenin was observed in the range 2-10 microg. The average percentage recovery of gymnemagenin from leaf callus extracts was 98.9+/-0.3.

  6. Development and biological evaluation of Gymnema sylvestre extract-loaded nonionic surfactant-based niosomes.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Bhagyashree; Talreja, Seema; Gupta, Ankur; Patil, Dada; Pathak, Deepa; Moothedath, Ismail; Duraiswamy, Basavan

    2013-08-01

    To develop and characterize Gymnema sylvestre extract-loaded niosomes using nonionic surfactants, and to evaluate their antihyperglycemic efficacy in comparison with the parent extract. Nonionic surfactant-based G. sylvestre extract-loaded niosomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. The optimized formulation was screened for entrapment efficiency of the constituents, as well as other parameters such as release kinetics, vesicle size, zeta-potential and stability studies. The parent extract and optimized niosomal formulation were evaluated for their antihyperglycemic potential in an alloxan-induced diabetic animal model. Niosomes prepared using Span™ 40 (SD Fine Chemicals Ltd, Mumbai, India) provided sterically stable vesicles 229.5 nm in size with zeta-potential and entrapment efficiency of 150.86 mV and 85.3 ± 4.5%, respectively. The surface morphology of vesicles was confirmed to be spherical by scanning electron microscopy studies. An in vitro release study demonstrated 77.4% of phytoconstituents release within 24 h. The niosome formulation demonstrated significant blood glucose level reduction in an oral glucose tolerance test, and increased antihyperglycemic activity compared with the parent extract in an alloxan-induced diabetic model. This study reveals the merits of G. sylvestre extract-loaded niosomes, and justifies the potential of niosomes for improving the efficacy of G. sylvestre extract as antidiabetic. Original submitted 30 March 2012; Revised submitted 29 August 2012; Published online 24 December 2012.

  7. [Study on volatile components from flowers of Gymnema sylvestre].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qin; Zhen, Han-Shen; Huang, Pei-Qian

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the volatile components from flowers of Gymnema sylvestre. Volatile components of flowers of Gymnema sylvestre were extracted by water vapor distilling, and the components were separated and identified by GC-MS. 55 components were separated and 33 components were identified, accounting for 88.73% of all quantity. The principal volatile components are Phytol, Pentacosane, 10-Heneicosene (c, t), 3-Eicosene, (E) -and 2-Methyl-Z-2-docosane. The research can pro-vide scientific basis for chemical component research of flowers of Gymnema sylvestre.

  8. New pregnane glycosides from Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Yang; Ren, Fengxia; Xu, Jinlong; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhao, Yimin

    2015-02-12

    Four new pregnane glycosides 1-4 were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stem of Gymnema sylvestre and named gymsylvestrosides A-D. Hydrolysis of compound 1 under the catalysis of Aspergilus niger β-glucosidase afforded compound 5 (gymsylvestroside E). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods such as HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, as well as HMQC-TOCSY experiment. Compounds 1-4 were screened for Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

  9. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  10. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Effects of Gymnema sylvestre extract on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glimepiride in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Bhagyashree; Gupta, Ankur; Moothedath, Ismail; Khatal, Laxman; Janrao, Shirish; Jadhav, Amol; Duraiswamy, B

    2016-02-05

    Gymnema sylvestre, important Indian traditional herbal medicine has been used for diabetes from several years and marketed as single or multi-herb formulations globally. People are consuming G. sylvestre along with conventional hypoglycemic drugs. Therefore, there is need of evidence based assessment of risk versus benefits when G. sylvestre co-administered with conventional oral hypoglycemic drugs. In present investigation, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic interactions with oral hypoglycemic drug, glimepiride (GLM) was studied in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A specific and rapid HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous quantification of GLM and gymnemagenin (GMG) in rat plasma. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction studies were carried out in STZ induced diabetic rats after concomitant administration of 400 mg/kg of G. sylvestre extract and 0.8 mg/kg of GLM for 28 days. The developed HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was rapid, specific, and precise. Con-comitant oral administration of G. sylvestre extract (400 mg/kg) and GLM (0.8 mg/kg) in diabetic rats for 28 days showed beneficial pharmacodynamic interactions whereas no major alterations in the pharmacokinetics parameters of GLM and GMG were observed. This interaction demonstrated in animal model implies that significant clinical outcome might occur during concomitant administration of G. sylvestre extract and GLM especially in diabetic patients and warrants further studies in the same set up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-obesity effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract on high fat diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, U; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, G

    2013-12-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) has been used frequently in traditional Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Study was performed in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in murine model. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of HFD for 28 days. The anti obesity effect of water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre extract (120 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days) in HFD fed rats was evaluated by the measurement of body weight gain, food intake, hemodynamic changes (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and heart rate), serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol), leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoproteins A1 and B, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and antioxidant enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels in liver tissues. Organs and visceral fat pad weight were measured. Histopathological studies were also carried out. Water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre ethanolic extract and rimonabant significantly reduced serum lipids, leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B and LDH levels while it significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue as compared to the HFD fed rats. Histopathological studies of tissues showed no pathological changes. The results of this study show that water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre extract possess antiobesity effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. A novel Gymnema sylvestre extract stimulates insulin secretion from human islets in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Asare-Anane, H; Maity, C R; Chatterjee, S K; Koley, N; Biswas, T; Chatterji, A K; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S A; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2010-09-01

    Many plant-based products have been suggested as potential antidiabetic agents, but few have been shown to be effective in treating the symptoms of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in human studies, and little is known of their mechanisms of action. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have been used for the treatment of T2DM in India for centuries. The effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract, Om Santal Adivasi, (OSA(R)) on plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose in a small cohort of patients with T2DM are reported here. Oral administration of OSA(R) (1 g/day, 60 days) induced significant increases in circulating insulin and C-peptide, which were associated with significant reductions in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose. In vitro measurements using isolated human islets of Langerhans demonstrated direct stimulatory effects of OSA(R) on insulin secretion from human ß-cells, consistent with an in vivo mode of action through enhancing insulin secretion. These in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that OSA(R) may provide a potential alternative therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with T2DM. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Role of modifier in microwave assisted extraction of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre: application of green extraction technology for botanicals.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Dewanjee, Saikat; Mandal, Subhash C

    2009-08-01

    This work highlights the development of a green extraction technology for botanicals with the use of microwave energy. Taking into consideration the extensive time involved in conventional extraction methods, coupled with usage of large volumes of organic solvent and energy resources, an ecofriendly green method that can overcome the above problems has been developed. The work compares the effect of sample pretreatment with untreated sample for improved yield of oleanolic acid from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. The pretreated sample with water produced 0.71% w/w oleanolic acid in one extraction cycle with 500 W microwave power, 25 mL methanol and only an 8 min extraction time. On the other hand, a conventional heat reflux extraction for 6 hours could produce only 0.62% w/w oleanolic acid. The detailed mechanism of extraction has been studied through scanning electron micrographs. The environmental impact of the proposed green method has also been evaluated.

  15. [Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: a 52-week dietary toxicity study in Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yukio; Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Inoue, Tohru; Kanno, Jun

    2004-02-01

    A 52-week study of oral-repeated-dose toxicity for the extraction powder of Gymnema sylvestre (GS), Indian-native genus, Metaplexis japonica, was conducted in both genders of Wistar rats. The rats were administered a graded dose of GS at 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00% of basal powder diet, along with a group fed solely with the basal powder diet without GS, for 52 weeks. General conditions were recorded daily. Body weights and food consumptions were recorded weekly up to 12 weeks, and thereafter at longer intervals. At 26 weeks, for an intermediate examination, and 52 weeks, for the final examination, animals were subjected to hematology, serum chemistry, and pathological examination. None of the animals died in the period up to 52 weeks. No exposure-related changes in body-weight, in the food consumption, in the hematological examinations, or in the serum biochemical examinations were recognized. No histopathological alterations were seen. Thus, it was concluded that there was no toxic effect in rats treated with GS at up to 1.00% in the diet for 52 weeks. The no-observable-effect level from this study is 1.00% GS, i.e., 504 mg/kg/day for male and 563 mg/kg/day for female as mean daily intake, for 52 weeks.

  16. Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, Chakra Dhar; Khanna, Geetika

    2012-01-01

    Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was done to assess the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) in the high fat diet (HFD)-induced cellular obesity and cardiac damage in Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats (150-200 g body weight) were used in this study. HFD was used to induce obesity. Body mass index, hemodynamic parameters, serum leptin, insulin, glucose, lipids, apolipoprotein levels, myocardial apoptosis, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Organ and visceral fat pad weights and histopathological studies were also carried out. Oral feeding of HFD (20 g/day) for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant increase in body mass index, organ weights, visceral fat pad weight, cardiac caspase-3, cardiac DNA laddering (indicating apoptotic inter-nucleosomal DNA fragment), and lipid peroxide levels of cardiac tissues of rats. Further, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, serum leptin, insulin, LDH, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein-B levels were enhanced significantly, whereas serum HDL-C, apoliporotein-A1 levels, and cardiac Na(+) K(+) ATPase, antioxidant enzymes levels were significantly decreased. Furthermore, treatment with standardized ethanolic GSE (200 m/kg/p.o.) for a period of 28 days resulted in significant reversal of above mentioned changes in the obese Wistar rats. The present study has demonstrated the significant antiobesity potential of GSE in murine model of obesity.

  17. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mominur; Habib, Md Razibul; Hasan, Md Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment.

  18. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  19. Two new triterpenoid saponins from Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu-Min; Xie, Ping; Di, Ying-Tong; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2008-05-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, gymnemoside-W1 and W2, together with seven known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. By means of spectral and chemical analysis, the structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 16 beta-hydroxyl olean-12-en-3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 16 beta,21 beta,28-trihydroxyl-olean-12-ene-3-O-glucoronopyranoside (2). The EtOH/H(2)O extracts of this plant were shown to be able to inhibit glucose absorption in rats.

  20. Immunomodulatory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) Leaf Extract: An In Vitro Study in Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Chaudhary, B R; Singh, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, obesity, asthma etc. in India for antiquity. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized immunologically by lymphocyte apoptosis and reduced cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate diseases has been of interest, and traditional herbal medicines may play an important role in this regard. In this study, we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf using rat model. HPLC analysis of leaf extract was carried out for gymnemic acid. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin, using gymnemagenin as reference standard. Gymnemic acid content was 2.40% (w/w) in G. sylvestre leaf extract. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf (1-200μg/ml) was evaluated by gauging its effects on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and nitrite release in rat peritoneal macrophages and on mitogen (ConA, PHA and LPS) induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract showed significant (<0.05) enhancement in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and in proliferation of lymphocytes in dose dependent manner. EC50 value was 3.10, 3.75 and 2.68 μg/ml for NBT reduction, nitrite release and lymphoproliferation, respectively. Potential effect was observed at 100 μg/ml in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and 20 μg/ml in lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract stimulates macrophage reactivity, increasing the level of activity even higher when combined with PMA or LPS. These findings suggest the presence of active compounds, gymnemic acid, in methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf that stimulates both myeloid and lymphoid components of immune system, and therefore can restore the innate immune function

  1. Immunomodulatory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) Leaf Extract: An In Vitro Study in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Chaudhary, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae) is a valuable medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, obesity, asthma etc. in India for antiquity. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized immunologically by lymphocyte apoptosis and reduced cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Modulation of immune responses to alleviate diseases has been of interest, and traditional herbal medicines may play an important role in this regard. In this study, we aim to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf using rat model. HPLC analysis of leaf extract was carried out for gymnemic acid. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin, using gymnemagenin as reference standard. Gymnemic acid content was 2.40% (w/w) in G. sylvestre leaf extract. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf (1–200μg/ml) was evaluated by gauging its effects on nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and nitrite release in rat peritoneal macrophages and on mitogen (ConA, PHA and LPS) induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract showed significant (<0.05) enhancement in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and in proliferation of lymphocytes in dose dependent manner. EC50 value was 3.10, 3.75 and 2.68μg/ml for NBT reduction, nitrite release and lymphoproliferation, respectively. Potential effect was observed at 100 μg/ml in NO and ROS generation in macrophages and 20 μg/ml in lymphocyte proliferation. G. sylvestre leaf extract stimulates macrophage reactivity, increasing the level of activity even higher when combined with PMA or LPS. These findings suggest the presence of active compounds, gymnemic acid, in methanolic extract of G. sylvestre leaf that stimulates both myeloid and lymphoid components of immune system, and therefore can restore the innate immune function

  2. Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, Chakra Dhar; Khanna, Geetika

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was done to assess the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) in the high fat diet (HFD)-induced cellular obesity and cardiac damage in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (150–200 g body weight) were used in this study. HFD was used to induce obesity. Body mass index, hemodynamic parameters, serum leptin, insulin, glucose, lipids, apolipoprotein levels, myocardial apoptosis, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Organ and visceral fat pad weights and histopathological studies were also carried out. Results: Oral feeding of HFD (20 g/day) for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant increase in body mass index, organ weights, visceral fat pad weight, cardiac caspase-3, cardiac DNA laddering (indicating apoptotic inter-nucleosomal DNA fragment), and lipid peroxide levels of cardiac tissues of rats. Further, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, serum leptin, insulin, LDH, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein-B levels were enhanced significantly, whereas serum HDL-C, apoliporotein-A1 levels, and cardiac Na+ K+ ATPase, antioxidant enzymes levels were significantly decreased. Furthermore, treatment with standardized ethanolic GSE (200 m/kg/p.o.) for a period of 28 days resulted in significant reversal of above mentioned changes in the obese Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated the significant antiobesity potential of GSE in murine model of obesity. PMID:23112423

  3. In vitro antimicrobial potential of extracts and phytoconstituents from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. leaves and their biosafety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arora, Daljit Singh; Sood, Henna

    2017-12-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial screening of Gymnema sylvestre leaves against 13 test pathogens established its broad spectrum activity with average inhibition zone ranging from 14 to 23 mm. The antimicrobial activity of the classically- optimized aqueous extract was enhanced up to 1.45 folds, when subjected to statistical optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was thermostable. Ethyl acetate was found to be the best organic extractant with Klebsiella pneumoniae 1 (31.5 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (25.5 mm) being the most sensitive among Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, respectively. Among the major group of phytoconstituents detected, tannins were the most abundant followed by flavonoids and phytosterols, while triterpenes were absent. Flavonoids and cardiac glycosides exhibited a broad range of antimicrobial potential, with inhibition zone ranging from 13 to 35 mm, where Candida albicans was the most sensitive organism. Ethyl acetate extract showed better potency with lowest Minimum inhibitory concentration (0.1-1 mg ml -1 ) than the aqueous extract (1-3 mg ml -1 ) and all partially purified phytoconstituents (0.1-10 mg ml -1 ). The ethyl acetate extract and flavonoids were highly potent, as they exhibited a total activity potency ranging from 41.4 to 1045 ml g -1 . Time kill studies revealed their microbicidal action, where ethyl acetate extract had a kill time from 0 to 12 h. However, among phytoconstituents, flavonoids were the most effective (0-8 h). The MIC and time kill study was also compared to that of standard antibiotics. These findings indicate that Gymnema sylvestre can be a potential source for development of leading metabolites against pathogens of clinical importance like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus etc. They were neither mutagenic nor cytotoxic, as revealed by Ames and MTT assay.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre leaves and its effect on insulin-producing RINm-5 F β cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Sunita; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Admane, Prasad S; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Wajid, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is an important anti-diabetic medicinal plant, hence it is necessary to study the effective extraction of its active medicinal components. To develop an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction method for anti-diabetic gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre leaves and measure their effect on insulin-producing RINm-5 F β cells. Box-Behnken's design and response surface methodology was applied to the ultrasound-assisted extraction of gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Analysis of gymnemic acids was carried out by high-performance thin-layer chromatography by converting total gymnemic acids into gymnemagenin by alkali hydrolysis. Effects of extracts on insulin production were tested on cultured, insulin-producing RINm-5 F β cell lines. The point prediction tool of the design expert software predicted 397.9 mg gymnemic acids per gram of the defatted G. sylvestre leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction, with ethanol at 60 °C for 30 min. The predicted condition shows 93.34% validity under experimental conditions. The ultrasound-assisted extract caused up to about four times more insulin production from RINm-5 F β cells than extracts obtained from Soxhlet extraction. Response surface methodology was successfully used to improve the extraction of gymnemic acids from G. sylvestre leaves. The ultrasound-assisted extraction process may be a better alternative to prepare such herbal extracts because it saves time and may prevent excess degradation of the target analytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction of total bioactive saponin fraction from Gymnema sylvestre with reference to gymnemagenin: a potential biomarker.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Dewanjee, Saikat; Mandal, Subhash C

    2009-01-01

    To develop a fast and ecofriendly microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique for the effective and exhaustive extraction of gymnemagenin as an indicative biomarker for the quality control of Gymnema sylvestre. Several extraction parameters such as microwave power, extraction time, solvent composition, pre-leaching time, loading ratio and extraction cycle were studied for the determination of the optimum extraction condition. Scanning electron micrographs were obtained to elucidate the mechanism of extraction. The final optimum extraction conditions as obtained from the study were: 40% microwave power, 6 min irradiation time, 85% v/v methanol as the extraction solvent, 15 min pre-leaching time and 25 : 1 (mL/g) as the solvent-to-material loading ratio. The proposed extraction technique produced a maximum yield of 4.3% w/w gymnemagenin in 6 min which was 1.3, 2.5 and 1.95 times more efficient than 6 h of heat reflux, 24 h of maceration and stirring extraction, respectively. A synergistic heat and mass transfer theory was also proposed to support the extraction mechanism. Comparison with conventional extraction methods revealed that MAE could save considerable amounts of time and energy, whilst the reduction of volume of organic solvent consumed provides an ecofriendly feature.

  6. A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; King, A J; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines, especially plant-derived extracts, have been used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for many centuries, and offer the potential of cheap and readily available alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals in developing countries. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have anti-diabetic activities and have been used as a folk medicine in India for centuries. We have investigated the effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract termed OSA® on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, and on insulin secretion and synthesis by isolated mouse islets. Single administration of OSA® (500 mg/kg) to ob/ob mice 30 min before an intraperitoneal glucose load improved their abnormal glucose tolerance. In vitro studies indicated that OSA® (0.25 mg/ml) initiated rapid and reversible increases in insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets at substimulatory (2 mM) and stimulatory (20 mM) glucose concentrations. In addition, prolonged treatment (24-48 h) of mouse islets with OSA® elevated the expression of preproinsulin mRNA and maintained the total insulin content of mouse islets in the presence of stimulated insulin secretion. These effects of OSA® are consistent with its potential use as a therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with obesity-related T2DM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. In vitro Inhibitory Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Extracts and Total Gymnemic Acids Fraction on Select Cytochrome P450 Activities in Rat Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Madhuri; Iyer, Krishna; Pandita, Nancy

    2018-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is a well-known Indian medicinal herb. Gymnemic acids are pentacyclic triterpenes saponins and active phytoconstituents of Gymnema sylvestre. The study aimed at evaluation of the in vitro rat liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential of extracts and total gymnemic acid (TA)-enriched fractions from G. sylvestre. Standardization of G. sylvestre [ethanolic (EL), hydroethanolic (HE), total acid of ethanolic (TAE), total acid of hydroethanolic (TAHE) and total acid of aqueous (TAAQ) extract] was done with respect to deacyl gymnemic acid (DAGA), using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Total triterpenoid content was determined by vanillin perchloric acid assay. Total triterpene content was found to be the highest in TAAQ (59.86 ± 0.005% w/w) and TAE (49.77 ± 0.009% w/w). TAAQ showed IC 50  ≤ 50 µg/ml for all selected CYP activities. Testosterone 6β-hydroxylation was strongly inhibited by TAE (IC 50 : 15.48 ± 2.13 µg/ml) and was moderately by TAAQ and EL with IC 50  ≥ 50 µg/ml. Flurbiprofen 4'-hydroxylation was subject to strong, weak and moderate inhibition by TAAQ (IC 50 : 34.67 ± 1.38 µg/ml), TAE (IC 50 : ≥ 50 µg/ml) and EL (IC 50 : > 50 µg/ml), respectively. Dextromethorphan O-demethylation was inhibited by TAHE and TAAQ. In vitro inhibition studies suggested that TA strongly inhibits activity of selected CYP. This inhibition may possibly be due to triterpenoids and gymnemic acids that have been reported to be present in it. Data also suggest a potential for possible in vivo herb-drug interactions involving G. sylvestre and other medications that are metabolized by the same CYP.

  8. Biolarvicidal compound gymnemagenol isolated from leaf extract of miracle fruit plant, Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu

    2011-11-01

    Owing to the fact that the application of synthetic larvicide has envenomed the surroundings as well as non-target organisms, natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been tried as an indigenous method for the control of a variety of insect pests and vectors in the recent past. Insecticides of plant origin have been extensively used on agricultural pests and, to a very limited extent, against insect vectors of public health importance, which deserve careful and thorough screening. The use of plant extracts for insect control has several appealing features as these are generally more biodegradable, less hazardous and a rich storehouse of chemicals of diverse biological activities. Moreover, herbal sources give a lead for discovering new insecticides. Therefore, biologically active plant materials have attracted considerable interest in mosquito control study in recent times. The crude leaf extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult (Asclepiadaceae) and purified gymnemagenol compound were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether leaf extract of G. sylvestre led to the separation and identification of gymnemagenol as a potential new antiparasitic compound. Phytochemical analysis of G. sylvestre leaves revealed the presence of active constituents such as carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and tannins. However, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins are absent in the plant extracts. Quantitative analysis results suggested that saponin (5%) was present in a high concentration followed by tannins (1.0%). The 50 g powder was loaded on silica gel column and eluted with chloroform-methanol-water as eluents. From that, 16 mg pure saponin compound was isolated and analysed by thin layer chromatography using chloroform and methanol as the solvent systems. The structure of

  9. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.

  10. A new triterpenoid saponin from Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man-Qi; Liu, Yue; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Xu, Tun-Hai; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Besides four known compounds, a new triterpenoid saponin was isolated from the stems of Gymnema sylvestre. The structure of the new triterpenoid saponin was established as 3β,16β,22α-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, HMQC, and NOESY correlations. Four known compounds 2, 3, 4, and 5 were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  11. Effects of feeding a diet containing Gymnema sylvestre extract: Attenuating progression of obesity in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Hong, Seong-Ho; Chang, Seung-Hee; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Yoonjeong; Davaadamdin, Orkhonselenge; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GS) on initial anti-obesity, liver injury, and glucose homeostasis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). The dry powder of GS was extracted with methanol, and gymnemic acid was identified by high performance liquid chromatography as deacyl gymnemic acid. Male C57BL/6J mice that fed on either a normal diet, normal diet containing 1 g/kg GS (CON+GS), HFD, or HFD containing 1.0 g/kg GS (HFD + GS) for 4 weeks were used to test the initial anti-obesity effect of GS. Body weight gain and food intake, and serum levels about lipid and liver injury markers were measured. Histopathology of adipose tissue and liver stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil-red O were analyzed. After 4 weeks of GS extract feeding, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. The methanol extracts of GS exerted significant anti-obesity effects in HFD + GS group. They decreased body weight gain, a lower food and energy efficiency ratio, and showed lower serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol and leptin compared with the HFD group. The decreases of abdominal as well as epididymal fat weight and adipocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplets in liver, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were also observed. The CON + GS group showed an effect of glucose homeostasis compared to the CON group. This study shows that GS provide the possibility as a key role in an initial anti-obesity effects feeding with a HFD. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin in Gymnema sylvestre extract and its marketed formulations using the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Bhagyashree; Gupta, Ankur; Patil, Dada; Janrao, Shirish; Khatal, Laxman; Duraiswamy, B

    2013-02-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, with gymnemic acids as active pharmacological constituents, is a popular ayurvedic herb and has been used to treat diabetes, as a remedy for cough and as a diuretic. However, very few analytical methods are available for quality control of this herb and its marketed formulations. To develop and validate a new, rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC-ESI (electrospray ionisation)-MS/MS method for quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin in G. sylvestre and its marketed formulations. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method using a multiple reactions monitoring mode was used for quantitation of gymnemagenin. Separation was carried out on a Luna C-18 column using gradient elution of water and methanol (with 0.1% formic acid and 0.3% ammonia). The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation Guideline ICH-Q2B and found to be accurate, precise and linear over a relatively wide range of concentrations (5.280-305.920 ng/mL). Gymnemagenin contents were found from 0.056 ± 0.002 to 4.77 ± 0.59% w/w in G. sylvestre and its marketed formulations. The method established is simple, rapid, with high sample throughput, and can be used as a tool for quality control of G. sylvestre and its formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effects of Inula racemosa root and Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts in the regulation of corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus: involvement of thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Gholap, S; Kar, A

    2003-06-01

    The efficacy of Inula racemosa (root) and Gymnema sylvestre (leaf) extracts either alone or in combination was evaluated in the amelioration of corticosteroid-induced hyperglycaemia in mice. Simultaneously thyroid hormone levels were estimated by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in order to ascertain whether the effects are mediated through thyroid hormones or not. While the corticosteroid (dexamethasone) administration increased the serum glucose concentration, it decreased serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Administration of the two plant extracts either alone or in combination decreased the serum glucose concentration in dexamethasone induced hyperglycaemic animals. However, the administration of Inula racemosa and Gymnema sylvestre extracts in combination proved to be more effective than the individual extracts. These effects were comparable to a standard corticosteroid-inhibiting drug, ketoconazole. As no marked changes in thyroid hormone concentrations were observed by the administration of any of the plant extracts in dexamethasone treated animals, it is further suggested that these plant extracts may not prove to be effective in thyroid hormone mediated type II diabetes, but for steroid induced diabetes.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50–555 nmol/ear. PMID:24734106

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50-555 nmol/ear.

  16. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Bhagat, Ekta; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports the biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and their in vitro free radical scavenging efficacy as well as antiproliferative effect in Hep2 cells. The formation of silver (GYAgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GYAuNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs was found to be 33 and 26 nm, respectively, by DLS particle size analyzer. TEM analysis indicated spherical shape of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs and in EDX analysis they produced strong signal for silver and gold, respectively. Both GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs exhibited strong in vitro free radical quenching ability and their activity was comparable to that of GYLE. The cytotoxic effect of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells was examined by MTT assay in which GYAgNPs displayed an IC50 value of 121 µg ml-1, while GYAuNPs produced up to 38 % of inhibition at the maximum concentration of 250 µg ml-1 used in this study. Distinct morphological changes were observed in Hep2 cells following treatment with GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs at 24 h, and orange-colored apoptotic bodies were located by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double-staining technique. Also, there was increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells as indicated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Further, nuclear changes like chromatin condensation/fragmentation were also observed by propidium iodide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate staining methods. These findings support that the antiproliferative effects of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells are mediated through induction of apoptosis.

  17. Gymnema sylvestre for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J

    2007-11-01

    Across the globe, there are an estimated 150 million people suffering from diabetes mellitus. Each of these people is at increased risk of developing a number of complications, each of which are associated with a reduction in quality of life and an increase in individual morbidity and mortality. However, despite these psychosocial implications, as well as the financial burden associated with the management of the disease, existing treatment options are costly, and have limited, palliative effects. One treatment that is emerging as a potential panacea for the management of diabetes is Gymnema sylvestre. Yet, what evidence is there to support the use of this extract? In order to answer this question, a systematic review of the literature and a discussion of the best available evidence on gymnema are needed. The findings of such a review are presented in this paper.

  18. An evidence-based systematic review of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Abrams, Tracee Rae; Basch, Ethan; Davies-Heerema, Theresa; Foppa, Ivo; Hammerness, Paul; Rusie, Erica; Tanguay-Colucci, Shaina; Taylor, Sarah; Ulbricht, Catherine; Varghese, Minney; Weissner, Wendy; Woods, Jen

    2011-09-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.), including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.

  19. An overview on the advances of Gymnema sylvestre: chemistry, pharmacology and patents.

    PubMed

    Porchezhian, E; Dobriyal, R M

    2003-01-01

    Chemistry and pharmacology of Gymnema sylvestre is reviewed relying on research papers and patent literature. Extracts of this plant are widely used in Australian, Japananese, Vietnamese and Indian folk medicine. Gymnema preparations have a profound action on the modulation of taste, particularly suppressing sweet taste sensations. It is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in food additives against obesity and caries. Anti-allergic, antiviral, lipid lowering and other effects are also reported. From a technological point of view, muchefforts have been made to mask the biter taste of Gymnema preparations.

  20. Determination of gymnemagenin in rat plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetics after oral administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Bhagyashree; Gupta, Ankur; Patil, Dada; Khatal, Laxman; Janrao, Shirish; Moothedath, Ismail; Duraiswamy, Basavan

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of gymnemagenin (GMG), a triterpene sapogenin from Gymnema sylvestre, in rat plasma using withaferin A as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were simply extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with tetra-butyl methyl ether. Chromatographic separation was performed on Luna C(18) column using gradient elution of water and methanol (with 0.1% formic acid and 0.3% ammonia) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. GMG and IS were eluted at 4.64 and 4.36 min, ionized in negative and positive mode, respectively, and quantitatively estimated using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Two MRM transitions were selected at m/z 505.70 → 455.5 and m/z 471.50 → 281.3 for GMG and IS, respectively. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5.280-300.920 ng/mL. The mean plasma extraction recoveries for GMG and IS were found to be 80.92 ± 8.70 and 55.63 ± 0.76%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters of GMG after oral administration of G. sylvestre extract. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate β-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V

    2010-11-01

    A methanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and callus showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating β-cells. Optimum callus was developed under stress conditions of blue light with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l), which induced maximum biomass of green compact callus at 45 days, as determined by growth curve analysis. Leaf and optimum callus extracts contains gymnemic acid, which was analyzed using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC methods. The research reported here deals with leaf and callus extracts of G. sylvestre, which significantly increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Wistar rats). The gymnemic acid of leaf and callus extracts significantly increases the regeneration of β-cells in treated rats, when compared with the standard diabetic rats. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  3. [Research on chemical constituents from stem of Gymnema sylvestre].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Han-shen; Zhu, Xue-yan; Lu, Ru-mei; Liang, Jie; Qiu, Qin; Meng, Qi-miao

    2008-08-01

    To study on the chemical constituents from the stem of Gymnema sylvestre. The constituents were extracted by percolation with ethanol. Then the extract was separated by systemic solvent separation methods. The part of n-butanol extract was isolated and purified by macroporous adsorptive resins, silica gel column chromatography, sephadex gel column chromatography and recrystallization. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrum methods. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as fallows: Conduritol A(I), 1-Heptadecanol(II), Stigmasterol glucoside(III), 1-Quercitol(IV), 1-Octadecanol(V), Potassium nitrate(VI), Lupeol cinnamate(VII), Stigmasterol(VIII). Chemical compounds II, III, V, VII are firstly obtained from this plant.

  4. A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Chagalamarri, Jayasimha; Jangra, Surender; Kumar Kavadi, Praveen

    2014-03-30

    The prevalence of obesity is associated with many health-related problems. Currently, more than 300 million people are considered to be obese. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), by 2030, 87 and 439 million people will be affected in India and the world, respectively. Today, herbal medicines are gaining interest in the treatment of obesity and diabetes, because of their minimal side effects. Gymnemic acid - an active component isolated from Gymnema sylvestre - has anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties, decreases body weight and also inhibits glucose absorption. Several components extracted from Gymnema prevent the accumulation of triglycerides in muscle and liver, and also decrease fatty acid accumulation in the circulation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the effects of various extracts from Gymnema sylvestre in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in both animal and clinical studies. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of Gymnema sylvestre and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Rao, Kiranmayee; Giri, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (CS 149), known to be a rich source of saponins and other valuable phytochemicals, has been analysed for antimicrobial activity. The chloroform extracts of aerial and root parts of G. sylvestre exhibited higher antimicrobial activity as compared to diethyl ether and acetone. The root extracts of chloroform have shown competitive minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.04-1.28 mg mL(-1) and 0.08-2.56 mg/mL, respectively, towards the pathogens. The GC-MS analysis of chloroform extracts has shown the presence of compounds like eicosane, oleic acid, stigmasterol and vitamin E.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre (retz.,) R.Br leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, S.; Kokilavani, R.; Gurusamy, K.

    2008-01-01

    The water extract of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br leaf was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Grated amount (2ml/kg) of the water extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was given to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction of glucose concentration was noticed in normal rats, blood glucose level was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Protein level is also decreased in diabetic rats. Urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were increased in diabetic condition. After the herbal treatment the levels were altered near to normal level. PMID:22557305

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre (retz.,) R.Br leaf in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sathya, S; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K

    2008-10-01

    The water extract of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br leaf was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Grated amount (2ml/kg) of the water extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was given to both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant reduction of glucose concentration was noticed in normal rats, blood glucose level was significantly reduced in diabetic rats. Protein level is also decreased in diabetic rats. Urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were increased in diabetic condition. After the herbal treatment the levels were altered near to normal level.

  8. Characterisation of the insulinotropic activity of an aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre in mouse beta-cells and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Asare-Anane, Henry; Al-Romaiyan, Altaf; Huang, Guocai; Amiel, Stephanie A; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2009-01-01

    Leaves of the Gymnema sylvestre (GS) plant have been used to treat diabetes mellitus for millennia, but the previously documented insulin secretagogue effects of GS extracts in vitro may be non-physiological through damage to the beta-cells. We have now examined the effects of a novel GS extract (termed OSA) on insulin secretion from the MIN6 beta-cell line and isolated human islets of Langerhans. Insulin secretion from MIN6 cells was stimulated by OSA in a concentration-dependent manner, with low concentrations (0.06-0.25 mg/ml) having no deleterious effects on MIN6 cell viability, while higher concentrations (> or = 0.5 mg/ml) caused increased Trypan blue uptake. OSA increased beta-cell Ca2+ levels, an effect that was mediated by Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated calcium channels. OSA also reversibly stimulated insulin secretion from isolated human islets and its insulin secretagogue effects in MIN6 cells and human islets were partially dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. These data indicate that low concentrations of the GS isolate OSA stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, at least in part as a consequence of Ca2+ influx, without compromising beta-cell viability. Identification of the component of the OSA extract that stimulates regulated insulin exocytosis, and further investigation of its mode(s) of action, may provide promising lead targets for Type 2 diabetes therapy. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Two new flavonol glycosides from Gymnema sylvestre and Euphorbia ebracteolata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Ye, Wencai; Yu, Biao; Zhao, Shouxun; Wu, Houming; Che, Chuntao

    2004-03-15

    Two new flavonol glycosides, namely kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-6"-(3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Gymnema sylvestre and Euphorbia ebracteolata, respectively. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  10. Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is an ethno-pharmacologically important medicinal plant used in many polyherbal formulations for its potential health benefits. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were biofunctionalized using aqueous leaf extracts of G. sylvestre. The anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds and the biofunctionalized SNPs were compared using the HT29 human adenoma colon cancer cell line. The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. Biofunctionalized SNPs were synthesized using silver nitrate and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for size and shape. The characterized biofunctionalized G. sylvestre were tested for its in vitro anticancer activity against HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The biofunctionlized G. sylvestre SNPs showed the surface plasmon resonance band at 430 nm. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes, which were further determined using the Scherrer equation. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the biofunctionalized green-synthesized SNPs (GSNPs) indicated that the sensitivity of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells for cytotoxic drugs is higher than that of Vero cell line for the same cytotoxic agents and also higher than the bioactive compound of the aqueous extract. Our results show that the anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds of G. sylvestre can be enhanced through biofunctionalizing the SNPs using the bioactive compounds present in the plant extract without compromising their medicinal properties.

  11. Investigation of intracellular signalling cascades mediating stimulatory effect of a Gymnema sylvestre extract on insulin secretion from isolated mouse and human islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Al-Romaiyan, A; Liu, B; Docherty, R; Huang, G-C; Amiel, S; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional plant-based remedies such as Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extracts have been used to treat diabetes mellitus for many centuries. We have shown previously that a novel GS extract, OSA®, has a direct effect on insulin secretion but its mode of action has not been studied in detail Thus this study investigated the possible underlying mechanism(s) by which OSA® exerts its action. The effects of OSA® on [Ca(2+)]i and K(+) conductances were assessed by Ca(2+) microfluorimetry and electrophysiology in dispersed mouse islets and MIN6 β-cells, respectively. Isolated mouse (from 20 to 25 mice) and human (from 3 donors) islets, and MIN6 β-cells, were used to investigate whether the stimulatory effect of OSA® on insulin secretion was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and protein kinase activation. OSA ®-induced insulin secretion from mouse islets and MIN6 β-cells was inhibited by nifedipine, a voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blocker, and by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+), respectively. OSA® did not affect the activities of KATP channels or voltage-dependent K(+) channels in MIN6 β-cells but it caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) concentrations in Fura-2-loaded mouse islet cells. The insulin secretagogue effect of OSA® was dependent, in part, on protein kinase activation since incubating mouse or human islets with staurosporine, a general protein kinase inhibitor, resulted in partial inhibition of OSA®-induced insulin secretion. Experiments using permeabilized, Ca(2+)-clamped MIN6 β-cells revealed a Ca(2+)-independent component action of OSA® at a late stage in the stimulus-response coupling pathway. OSA®-induced insulin secretion was unexpectedly associated with a decrease in intracellular cAMP levels. These data indicate that the GS isolate OSA® stimulates insulin secretion from mouse and human islets in vitro, at least in part as a consequence of Ca(2+) influx and protein kinase activation. © 2012 Blackwell

  12. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pragya; Mishra, B N; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as "gurmar" for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents.

  13. Rapid Screening for α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Gymnema sylvestre by Affinity Ultrafiltration-HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guilin; Guo, Mingquan

    2017-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) has been known to posses potential anti-diabetic activity, and the gymnemic acids were reported as the main bioactive components in this plant species. However, the specific components responsible for the hypoglycemic effect still remain unknown. In the present study, the in vitro study revealed that the extract of G. sylvestre exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC 50 at 68.70 ± 1.22 μg/mL compared to acarbose (positive control) at 59.03 ± 2.30 μg/mL, which further indicated the potential anti-diabetic activity. To this end, a method based on affinity ultrafiltration coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UF-HPLC-MS) was established to rapidly screen and identify the α-glucosidase inhibitors from G. sylvestre . In this way, 9 compounds with higher enrichment factors (EFs) were identified according to their MS/MS spectra. Finally, the structure-activity relationships revealed that glycosylation could decrease the potential antisweet activity of sapogenins, and other components except gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre could also be good α-glucosidase inhibitors due to their synergistic effects. Taken together, the proposed method combing α-glucosidase and UF-HPLC-MS presents high efficiency for rapidly screening and identifying potential inhibitors of α-glucosidase from complex natural products, and could be further explored as a valuable high-throughput screening (HTS) platform in the early anti-diabetic drug discovery stage.

  14. Possible biochemical effects following inhibition of ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage by Gymnema sylvestre in male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Alkhamees, Osama

    2012-12-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (GS) R. Br. (Gymnema) (Asclepiadaceae) has been used from ancient times as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes, obesity, urinary disorder, and stomach stimulation. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of G. sylvestre leaves ethanol extract on gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gastric mucosal damage was induced by 80% ethanol in 36 h fasted rats. The effect of G. sylvestre on gastric secretions induced in Shay rats was estimated. In stomach, wall mucus, non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total proteins and nucleic acids levels were estimated. Histopathological changes were observed. G. sylvestre pretreatment at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg provided 27, 49, and 63% protection against the ulcerogenic effect of ethanol, respectively. Pylorus ligation accumulated 10.24 mL gastric secretions with 66.56 mEq of acidity in control rats. Pretreatment with G. sylvestre significantly inhibited the secretions volume and acidity in dose-dependent manner. Ethanol caused significant depletion in stomach-wall mucus (p < 0.001), total proteins (p < 0.01), nucleic acids (p < 0.001), and NP-SH (p < 0.001) levels. Pretreatment with G. sylvestre showed protection against these depleted levels in dose-dependent manner. The MDA levels increased from 19.02 to 29.22 nmol/g by ethanol ingestion and decreased with G. sylvestre pretreatments in dose-dependent manner. The protective effect of G. sylvestre observed in the present study is attributed to its effect on mucus production, increase in nucleic acid and NP-SH levels, which appears to be mediated through its free radical scavenging ability and/or possible cytoprotective properties.

  15. Potential anticancer properties of bioactive compounds of Gymnema sylvestre and its biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Arun, Lilly Baptista; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M

    2015-01-01

    Background Gymnema sylvestre is an ethno-pharmacologically important medicinal plant used in many polyherbal formulations for its potential health benefits. Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were biofunctionalized using aqueous leaf extracts of G. sylvestre. The anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds and the biofunctionalized SNPs were compared using the HT29 human adenoma colon cancer cell line. Methods The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. Biofunctionalized SNPs were synthesized using silver nitrate and characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction for size and shape. The characterized biofunctionalized G. sylvestre were tested for its in vitro anticancer activity against HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Results The biofunctionlized G. sylvestre SNPs showed the surface plasmon resonance band at 430 nm. The scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes, which were further determined using the Scherrer equation. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the biofunctionalized green-synthesized SNPs (GSNPs) indicated that the sensitivity of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells for cytotoxic drugs is higher than that of Vero cell line for the same cytotoxic agents and also higher than the bioactive compound of the aqueous extract. Conclusion Our results show that the anticancer properties of the bioactive compounds of G. sylvestre can be enhanced through biofunctionalizing the SNPs using the bioactive compounds present in the plant extract without compromising their medicinal properties. PMID:25565802

  16. Gymnema sylvestre for Diabetes: From Traditional Herb to Future's Therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pragya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Baig, Mohammad Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has increased at an unprecedented rate and is fast emerging as a global threat worldwide. The focus on pharmacological studies pertaining to diabetes has seen a remarkable shift from conventional medicines to therapeutics employing bioactive phytomolecules from natural sources. The prospective effectiveness of natural products together with their low cost and minimal side effects has revolutionized the entire concept of drug discovery and management programs. One such beneficial herb is Gymnema sylvestre, possessing remarkable hypoglycemic properties and forms the platform of diabetes therapeutics in the traditional system of medication. The present article discusses the significance of G. sylvestre in diabetes management, the herbal-formulations from the herb together with its standardization and clinical trials on animal models, and why Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) may serve as a prospective molecular target for Gymnemic acid analogs. Such studies would define the molecular basis of bioactive molecules which would aid in the development of natural product based therapeutics in the treatment of diabetes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre and their pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Giovanni Di; Romanucci, Valeria; De Marco, Anna; Zarrelli, Armando

    2014-07-28

    Because plants are estimated to produce over 200,000 metabolites, research into new natural substances that can be used in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and agro-industrial production of drugs, biopesticides and food additives has grown in recent years. The global market for plant-derived drugs over the last decade has been estimated to be approximately 30.69 billion USD. A relevant specific example of a plant that is very interesting for its numerous pharmacological properties, which include antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, and neuroprotective effects is Gymnema sylvestre, used as a medicinal plant in Asia for thousands of years. Its properties are attributed to triterpenoidic saponins. In light of the considerable interest generated in the chemistry and pharmacological properties of G. sylvestre triterpenes and their analogues, we have undertaken this review in an effort to summarise the available literature on these promising bioactive natural products. The review will detail studies on the isolation, chemistry and bioactivity of the triterpenoids, which are presented in the tables. In particular the triterpenoids oxidised at C-23; their isolation, distribution in different parts of the plant, and their NMR spectral data; their names and physico-chemical characterisation; and the biological properties associated with these compounds, with a focus on their potential chemotherapeutic applications.

  18. A novel dihydroxy gymnemic triacetate isolated from Gymnema sylvestre possessing normoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity on STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Daisy, Pitchai; Eliza, James; Mohamed Farook, Khanzan Abdul Majeed

    2009-11-12

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae) is emerging as a potential treatment for the management of diabetes. The leaves are used in herbal medicine preparations. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the putative antidiabetic compound based on bioassay-guided fractionation. An active compound dihydroxy gymnemic triacetate has been isolated from Gymnema sylvestre acetone extract and its optimum dose has been determined and patented. An optimum dose of dihydroxy gymnemic triacetate (20mg/kg body weight) was orally administered for 45 days to streptozotocin diabetic rats for the assessment of plasma glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), tissue glycogen, lipid parameters such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and activities of hepatic marker enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. Dihydroxy gymnemic triacetate at 20mg dose produced significant effects on all biochemical parameters studied compared to diabetic control group. These results indicate that dihydroxy gymnemic triacetate, the compound from Gymnema sylvestre, possessed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in long-term treatment and hence it could be used as a drug for treating diabetes.

  19. Chromosomal Fragmentation: A Possible Marker for the Selection of High Gymnemic Acid Yielding Accessions of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-10-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. a member of family Asclepiadaceae as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia popular among the researchers because of stimulatory effect of its phytoconstituent on pancreatic cells and potential to treat Type I and II type of diabetes. Development of cost-effective marker system for the selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions of G. sylvestre . Presoaked seeds of Brassica campestris treated with different dilutions of gymnemagenin and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of G. sylvestre . Root tips of germinated seeds were fixed, and chromosomal studies were made by root tip bioassay method. Exposure of seeds to treatment solutions promotes various types of chromosomal anomalies in root meristem, and surprisingly, direct correlation between the percentage of chromosomal fragmentation and the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution were observed. Later finding may be explored for the development of a novel methodology or marker system for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre . An experiment was carried out using root tip bioassay method for the study of effect of different dilutions of standard gymnemic acid and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of Gymnema sylvestre on root tip meristem of Brassica campestris . Various types of chromosomal anomalies were observed. Of which, percentage of chromosomal fragmentation was showed a direct (∞) relationship with the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution. This interesting result after more and more exploration and revalidation could be utilized for the development of a novel methodology for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre . Abbreviations used: MI: Mitotic index; CP: Condensed prophase; CM: Clumped metaphase; MC: Metaphase cleft; FR: Fragmentation; AP: Anaphase with persistent nucleolous; LA: Laggard, BR: Bridge; BI: Bi-nucleated cell; DA: Disturbed

  20. Chromosomal Fragmentation: A Possible Marker for the Selection of High Gymnemic Acid Yielding Accessions of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. a member of family Asclepiadaceae as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia popular among the researchers because of stimulatory effect of its phytoconstituent on pancreatic cells and potential to treat Type I and II type of diabetes. Objectives: Development of cost-effective marker system for the selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. Materials and Methods: Presoaked seeds of Brassica campestris treated with different dilutions of gymnemagenin and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of G. sylvestre. Root tips of germinated seeds were fixed, and chromosomal studies were made by root tip bioassay method. Results: Exposure of seeds to treatment solutions promotes various types of chromosomal anomalies in root meristem, and surprisingly, direct correlation between the percentage of chromosomal fragmentation and the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution were observed. Conclusion: Later finding may be explored for the development of a novel methodology or marker system for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. SUMMARY An experiment was carried out using root tip bioassay method for the study of effect of different dilutions of standard gymnemic acid and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of Gymnema sylvestre on root tip meristem of Brassica campestris. Various types of chromosomal anomalies were observed. Of which, percentage of chromosomal fragmentation was showed a direct (∞) relationship with the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution. This interesting result after more and more exploration and revalidation could be utilized for the development of a novel methodology for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. Abbreviations used: MI: Mitotic index; CP: Condensed prophase; CM: Clumped metaphase; MC: Metaphase cleft; FR: Fragmentation; AP: Anaphase with persistent

  1. Chemical constituents from the stems of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhang, Man-Qi; Li, Xue; Xu, Ya-Juan; Jiang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents of stems of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult. Chromatographic techniques using silica gel, C18 reversed phase silica gel, and prep-HPLC were used. The structures were elucidated on the basis of MS and spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR), as well as chemical methods. Seven compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated as conduritol A (1), stigmasterol (2), lupeol (3), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4), the sodium salt of 22α-hydroxy-longispinogenin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glu-curono-pyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (5), oleanolic acid-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and the sodium salt of 22α-hydroxy-longispinogenin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7). The inhibition activities of compounds 1, 5-7 on non-enzymatic glycation of protein in vitro were evaluated. Compound 7 is a new triterpenoid saponin. It was shown that compounds 1, 5-7 have weak inhibition activities for non-enzymatic glycation of protein in vitro. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid Screening for α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Gymnema sylvestre by Affinity Ultrafiltration–HPLC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guilin; Guo, Mingquan

    2017-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) has been known to posses potential anti-diabetic activity, and the gymnemic acids were reported as the main bioactive components in this plant species. However, the specific components responsible for the hypoglycemic effect still remain unknown. In the present study, the in vitro study revealed that the extract of G. sylvestre exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 at 68.70 ± 1.22 μg/mL compared to acarbose (positive control) at 59.03 ± 2.30 μg/mL, which further indicated the potential anti-diabetic activity. To this end, a method based on affinity ultrafiltration coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UF-HPLC-MS) was established to rapidly screen and identify the α-glucosidase inhibitors from G. sylvestre. In this way, 9 compounds with higher enrichment factors (EFs) were identified according to their MS/MS spectra. Finally, the structure-activity relationships revealed that glycosylation could decrease the potential antisweet activity of sapogenins, and other components except gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre could also be good α-glucosidase inhibitors due to their synergistic effects. Taken together, the proposed method combing α-glucosidase and UF-HPLC-MS presents high efficiency for rapidly screening and identifying potential inhibitors of α-glucosidase from complex natural products, and could be further explored as a valuable high-throughput screening (HTS) platform in the early anti-diabetic drug discovery stage. PMID:28496409

  3. Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses.

  4. Hairy Root Cultures of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. to Produce Gymnemic Acid.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, J; Kumar, Vadlapudi; Veerashree, V; Poornima, D V; Sannabommaji, Torankumar; Gajula, Hari; Giridhara, B

    2016-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is an endangered species extensively used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and treatment of various diseases. Uncontrolled exploitation to meet the increasing demand and low seed viability hastens the disappearance of the plant from its natural habitat. Hairy root culture provides a suitable alternative for the enhanced production of active principles. The current protocol provides the optimized culture conditions for the establishment of hairy root cultures and elicitation studies and also confirmation of stable integration of A. rhizogenes plasmid T-DNA into host genetic material by PCR and RT-PCR. Furthermore, it also discusses the suitable methods for the extraction procedures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of gymnemic acid by HPTLC and HPLC.

  5. EFFECT OF AN ISOLATE FROM GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, R. BR. IN THE CONTROL OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND THE ASSOCIATED PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugasundaram, E. R. B.; Venkatasubrahmanyam, M.; Vijendran, N.; Shanmugasundaram, K. Radha

    1988-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, R. Br., popularly known as Meshashringi in Sanskrit and Sarkaraikolli in Tamil, was investigated for the control of type I (insulin dependent) diabetes in experimental animals. The hypoglycaemic extract was found to bring about blood glucose homeostasis, by increasing serum insulin levels. The islets of langerhans appear to be restored or regulated by the herbal extract. Increased glycoprotein, which is the major metabolic abnormality in diabetes mellitus and the resultant nephropathy, retinopathy and micro and macroangiopathy, is brought under control by the administration of the leaf extract. PMID:22557613

  6. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., an Indian medicinal herb: traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Giovanni; Romanucci, Valeria; Di Marino, Cinzia; Pisanti, Antonio; Zarrelli, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is one of the most important medicinal plants that grows in tropical forests in India and South East Asia. Its active ingredients and extracts of leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments and they are present in the market for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products. Commercial products based on substances of plant origin that are generally connoted as natural have to be subjected to monitoring and evaluation by health authorities for their potential impacts on public health. The monitoring and evaluation of these products are critical because the boundary between a therapeutic action and a functional or healthy activity has not yet been defined in a clear and unambiguous way. Therefore, these products are considered borderline products, and they require careful and rigorous studies, in order to use them as complement and/or even replacement of synthetic drugs that are characterized by side effects and high economic costs. This review explores the traditional uses, chemical composition and biological activity of G. sylvestre extracts, providing a general framework on the most interesting extracts and what are the necessary studies for a complete definition of the range of activities.

  7. Larvicidal activity of Saponin isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) against Japanese Encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elumalai, K; Dhanasekaran, S; Krishnappa, K

    2013-05-01

    To determine the larvicidal activity of various extracts of Gymnema (G.) sylvestre against the Japanese Encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorynchus in Tamilnadu, India. To identify the active principle present in the promising fraction obtained in Chlorofom:Methanol extract of Fraction 2. The G. Sylvestre leaf extracts were tested, employing WHO procedure against fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and the larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (6.25 microg/ml); the 24h LC(50) values of the G. Sylvestre leaf extracts were determined following Probit analysis. It was noteworthy, that treatment level 100 ppm exhibited highest mortality rates for the three different crude extracts and was significantly different from the mean mortalities recorded for the other concentrations. The LC(50) values of 34.756 microg/ml (24.475-51.41), 31.351 microg/ml (20.634-47.043) and 28.577 microg/ml (25.159-32.308) were calculated in acetone, chloroform and methanol extract with the chi-square values of 10.301, 31.351 and 4.093 respectively. The present investigation proved that G. Sylvestre could be possibly utilized as an important component in the Vector control Programme.

  8. Molecular decodification of gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre. Discovery of a new class of liver X receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Renga, Barbara; Festa, Carmen; De Marino, Simona; Di Micco, Simone; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Fiorucci, Stefano; Zampella, Angela

    2015-04-01

    The individual chemical components of commercial extract of Gymnema sylvestre, a medicinal plant used in the traditional systems of the Indian medicine for its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, were isolated and evaluated for their capability to act as modulators of nuclear and membrane receptors involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. The study disclosed for the first time that individual gymnemic acids are potent and selective antagonists for the β isoform of LXR. Indeed the above activity was shared by the most abundant aglycone gymnemagenin (10) whereas gymnestrogenin (11) was endowed with a dual LXRα/β antagonistic profile. Deep pharmacological investigation demonstrated that gymnestrogenin, reducing the expression of SREBP1c and ABCA1 in vitro, is able to decrease lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. The results of this study substantiate the use of G. sylvestre extract in LXR mediated dislypidemic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Pragya; Mishra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae), popularly known as “gurmar” for its distinct property as sugar destroyer, is a reputed herb in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The phytoconstituents responsible for sweet suppression activity includes triterpene saponins known as gymnemic acids, gymnemasaponins, and a polypeptide, gurmarin. The herb exhibits a broad range of therapeutic effects as an effective natural remedy for diabetes, besides being used for arthritis, diuretic, anemia, osteoporosis, hypercholesterolemia, cardiopathy, asthma, constipation, microbial infections, indigestion, and anti-inflammatory. G. sylvestre has good prospects in the treatment of diabetes as it shows positive effects on blood sugar homeostasis, controls sugar cravings, and promotes regeneration of pancreas. The herbal extract is used in dietary supplements since it reduces body weight, blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and holds great prospects in dietary as well as pharmacological applications. This review explores the transition of a traditional therapeutic to a modern contemporary medication with an overview of phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the herb and its phytoconstituents. PMID:24511547

  10. Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Rao, C V S; Dey, D K; Satyanarayana, S

    2004-05-01

    The efficacy of optimal doses of highly bioavailable (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) alone and in combination with niacin-bound chromium (NBC) and a standardized Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) on weight loss in moderately obese subjects was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), appetite, lipid profiles, serum leptin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis and decrease body weight without stimulating the central nervous system. NBC has demonstrated its ability to maintain healthy insulin levels, while GSE has been shown to regulate weight loss and blood sugar levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human study was conducted in Elluru, India for 8 weeks in 60 moderately obese subjects (ages 21-50, BMI >26 kg/m(2)). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was administered HCA-SX 4667 mg, group B was administered a combination of HCA-SX 4667 mg, NBC 4 mg and GSE 400 mg, while group C was given placebo daily in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals. All subjects received a 2000 kcal diet/day and participated in supervised walking. At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5-6% in both groups A and B. Food intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced in both groups, while high-density lipoprotein levels and excretion of urinary fat metabolites increased in both groups. A marginal or non-significant effect was observed in all parameters in group C. The present study shows that optimal doses of HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX, NBC and GSE can serve as an effective and safe weight-loss formula that can facilitate a reduction in excess body weight and BMI, while promoting healthy blood lipid levels.

  11. Standardisation of Gymnema sylvestre r. Br. with reference to gymnemagenin by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Puratchimani, V; Jha, S

    2004-01-01

    A simple and reproducible HPTLC method for the determination of gymnemagenin (1) in Gymnema sylvestre has been developed. Components were separated on pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:methanol (9:1) and scanned using a densitometric scanner in the UV reflectance mode at 290 nm. Linearity of determination of 1 was observed in the range 4-10 microg. The average percentage recovery of 1 from an extract was 99.09 +/- 0.29, and the content of 1 in leaves of the title plant was 1.61% (dry weight).

  12. Methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre augments glucose uptake and ameliorates insulin resistance by upregulating glucose transporter-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and leptin levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLGS) on glucose transport (GLUT) and insulin resistance in vitro. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and GLUT-4 expression were assessed in L6 myotubes for concluding the GLUT activity, and adiponectin and leptin expression was studied in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line to determine the effect of MLGS (250-750 μg/ml) on insulin resistance. The findings of the experiments have demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake in all the tested concentrations of MLGS, further the glucose uptake activity of MLGS (750 μg/ml) was at par with rosiglitazone (50 μg/ml). Concomitantly, MLGS has shown enhanced GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, cycloheximide (CHX) had completely abolished the glucose uptake activity of MLGS when co-incubated, which further confirmed that glucose uptake activity of MLGS was linked to enhanced expression of GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ. In addition, in another experimental set, MLGS showed enhanced expression of adiponectin and leptin, thus confirms the ameliorative effect of MLGS on insulin resistance. These findings suggest that MLGS has an enhanced glucose uptake activity in L6 myotubes, and ameliorate the insulin resistance in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line in vitro.

  13. Methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre augments glucose uptake and ameliorates insulin resistance by upregulating glucose transporter-4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and leptin levels in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Puttanarasaiah Mahesh; Venkataranganna, Marikunte V.; Manjunath, Kirangadur; Viswanatha, Gollapalle L.; Ashok, Godavarthi

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLGS) on glucose transport (GLUT) and insulin resistance in vitro. Materials and Methods: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and GLUT-4 expression were assessed in L6 myotubes for concluding the GLUT activity, and adiponectin and leptin expression was studied in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line to determine the effect of MLGS (250-750 μg/ml) on insulin resistance. Results: The findings of the experiments have demonstrated a significant and dose-dependent increase in glucose uptake in all the tested concentrations of MLGS, further the glucose uptake activity of MLGS (750 μg/ml) was at par with rosiglitazone (50 μg/ml). Concomitantly, MLGS has shown enhanced GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ gene expressions in L6 myotubes. Furthermore, cycloheximide (CHX) had completely abolished the glucose uptake activity of MLGS when co-incubated, which further confirmed that glucose uptake activity of MLGS was linked to enhanced expression of GLUT-4 and PPAR-γ. In addition, in another experimental set, MLGS showed enhanced expression of adiponectin and leptin, thus confirms the ameliorative effect of MLGS on insulin resistance. Conclusion: These findings suggest that MLGS has an enhanced glucose uptake activity in L6 myotubes, and ameliorate the insulin resistance in 3T3 L1 murine adipocyte cell line in vitro. PMID:27104035

  14. C-4 gem-dimethylated oleanes of Gymnema sylvestre and their pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Giovanni; Romanucci, Valeria; Zarrelli, Mauro; Giordano, Michele; Zarrelli, Armando

    2013-12-04

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., one of the most important medicinal plants of the Asclepiadaceae family, is a herb distributed throughout the World, predominantly in tropical countries. The plant, widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as a diuretic in Indian proprietary medicines, possesses beneficial digestive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and anti-helmentic effects. Furthermore, it is believed to be useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, hemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A literature survey revealed that some other notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti-obesity, hypolipidemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties have been proven too. This paper aims to summarize the chemical and pharmacological reports on a large group of C-4 gem-dimethylated pentacyclic triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre.

  15. [Structural alterations in pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with of bioactive additive on the basis of Gymnema sylvestre].

    PubMed

    Snigur, G L; Samokhina, M P; Pisarev, V B; Spasov, A A; Bulanov, A E

    2008-01-01

    The structural alterations in pancreatic islets in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were studied after the administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract or its composition. Diabetes mellitus was modeled by daily injection of streptozotocin (20 mg/kg for 5 days) and single injection of 0.2 ml of complete Freund's adjuvant, Only the animals with the blood glucose level exceeding 15 mmol/l were included in the experiment. B- and A-endocrinocytes were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. The proportions of the area of the pancreatic islets, occupied by B- and A-endocrinocytes, as well as the volume fraction of the pancreatic islets within the pancreas, were determined. In the model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the part of the total islet area occupied by B-endocrinocytes, was diminished in the pancreatic islets located in all the zones of the gland. Prophylactic administration of Gymnema sylvestre extract or its composition tended to restore the area occupied by B-endocrinocytes in the pancreatic islets. These results indicate the equal potency of the composition and extract of Gymnema sylvestre to induce the regeneration of B-endocrinocytes.

  16. Production of Gymnemic Acid from Cell Suspension Cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Nagella, Praveen; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana

    2016-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in ayurvedic system of medicine for thousands of years. It is popularly called as "Gur-mar" for its distinctive property of temporarily destroying the taste of sweetness and is used in the treatment of diabetes. The leaves of gymnema possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-sweetener, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties and have traditional uses in the treatment of asthma, eye complaints, and snake bite. The leaves contain triterpene saponins such as gymnemic acid which is an active ingredient of Gymnema. Since the cultivation of G. sylvestre is a very slow process and the content of gymnemic acid depends on the environmental factors, cell suspension culture is sought as an alternative means for the production of Gymnema biomass and to enhance the gymnemic acid content. In this chapter, the methods employed for the induction of callus and subsequent establishment of cell suspension cultures for the production of biomass and analysis of gymnemic acid using high performance liquid chromatography are described.

  17. Toxic hepatitis induced by Gymnema sylvestre, a natural remedy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Nesher, Lior

    2010-12-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury (DILI) encompasses a spectrum of conditions ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. Recent studies report that 35% to 48% of patients with diabetes use some form of complementary and alternative medical therapy. Moreover, >800 plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Despite this widespread use, only few were supported by rigorous clinical evidence. Gymnema sylvestre, also known as gurmar (sugar destroyer in Hindi), is a plant considered to be with potent antidiabetic effects and, hence, widely used in folk, ayurvedic and homeopathic systems in medicine. The authors were unable to find previous reports associating G sylvestre to liver injury. Herein, the authors report a case of DILI in a patient who was treated with G sylvestre for diabetes mellitus and review the literature to suggest possible mechanisms that led to this acute condition.

  18. Evaluation of evidenced-based radioprotective efficacy of Gymnema sylvestre leaves in mice brain.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Singh, Umang; Vats, Sharad; Priyadarsini, K; Bhatia, A; Kamal, Raka

    2009-01-01

    A Gymnema sylvestre leaves extract (GSE) rich in gymnemic acids was examined for its antioxidant activities through various in vitro assays, along with its radioprotective efficacy in mice brain. The IC(50) values of GSE for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging assays, superoxide radical scavenging assays, inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation assays, and protein carbonyl formation assay were 238, 140, 99.46, and 28.03 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the total phenolic content in GSE was equivalent to 18.06 microg/mL of Gallic acid. The rate of *OH radical scavenging activity of GSE is 0.46 times slower than SCN- derived from nanosecond pulse radiolysis studies. Results of in vivo studies showed that radiation (8 Gy)-induced augmentation in the levels of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in mice brain were significantly ameliorated by GSE pretreatment. Results suggest that the radioprotective efficacy of GSE may be due to its antioxidant properties.

  19. The Effects of Gymnema sylvestre in High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Ah Young; Jang, Yoonjeong; Davaadamdin, Orkhonselenge; Hong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jun Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2017-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate the effects of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract as a functional dietary supplement with a high-fat diet. This approach examined insulin resistance, the dysfunction of adipose tissue, and liver steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for the acute and chronic study, in addition to GS in different doses (100, 250 and 500[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight). Their body composition changes, serum lipid and glucose parameters, adipose and liver tissue histology, and gene expression were measured. It was found that GS significantly suppressed the increase of body weight, serum levels of lipid, insulin and leptin, and adipose tissue, and liver inflammation. GS also demonstrated hypoglycemic effects due to the amylase inhibition activity. Our results support the existence of a relationship between the HFD induced insulin resistance, adipose dysfunction and liver steatosis. In conclusion, GS works as a functional dietary supplement with preventative effects against metabolic disorder.

  20. EFFECT OF-GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE, CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS AND ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND LIPID PROFILE IN DIABETIC HUMAN.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zheng, Min; Zhai, Xing; Huang, Youliang; Khalid, Anwar; Malik, Aneela; Shah, Pervaiz; Karim, Sabiha; Azhar, Saira; Hou, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manage diabetes with medicinal plants (Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citillus colocynthis) in human patients with type II diabetes. Thirty two patients of type II diabetes from both sexes of 30-60 years age were registered for this study and distributed them into four groups, each having 8 patients. Capsules of each, Gymnema sylvestre, Artemisia absinthium and Citrullus colocynthis were given to patients twice a day for 30 days in 1 g per day dosage and investigated for glucose, triglyceride (TGL) and cholesterol level. Gymnema sylvestre reduced 37% glucose, 5% TGL, 13% cholesterol and 19% low desity lipoproteins (LDL) level in diabetic individuals. Citrullus colocynth reduced glucose, cholesterol and TGL and HDL-cholesterol level by 35, 6, 6, and 5%, respectively. Artemisia absinthium reduced 3% high desity lipoproteins (HDL) and 6% LDL level. From results, it can be concluded that the powdered Gymnema sylvestre, Citrulus colocynthis, and Artemisia absinthium possess good anti-diabetic features, however these herbal products had no significant effect on lipid profiles of the diabetic human.

  1. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Joseph A; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb's impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb's intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation.

  2. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Joseph A.; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb’s impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb’s intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation. PMID:23493970

  3. Standardisation of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. by high-performance thin-layer chromatography: an improved method.

    PubMed

    Raju, Valivarthi S R; Kannababu, S; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V

    2006-01-01

    An improved high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the standardisation of Gymnema sylvestre is reported. The method involves the initial hydrolysis of gymnemic acids, the active ingredients, to a common aglycone followed by the quantitative estimation of gymnemagenin. The present method rectifies an error found in an HPTLC method reported recently.

  4. Toxicity of saponin isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) Japanese encephalitis vector mosquito in India.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Kupppusamy; Dhanasekaran, Shanmugan; Krishnappa, Kaliamoorthy

    2012-12-01

    To determine the larvicidal activity of various extracts of Gymnema sylvestre against the Japanese Encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorynchus in Tamilnadu, India. To identify the active principle present in the promising fraction obtained in Chlorofom:Methanol extract of Fraction 2. The G. sylvestre leaf extracts were tested, employing WHO procedure against fourth instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus and the larval mortalities were recorded at various concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50 and 100 µg/mL); the 24h LC50 values of the G. Sylvestre leaf extracts were determined following Probit analysis. It was noteworthy that treatment level 100 µg/mL exhibited highest mortality rates for the three different crude extracts and was significantly different from the mean mortalities recorded for the other concentrations. The LC50 values of 34.756 µg/mL (24.475-51.41), 31.351 µg/mL (20.634-47.043) and 28.577 µg/mL (25.159-32.308) were calculated for acetone, chloroform and methanol extract with the chi-square values of 10.301, 31.351 and 4.093 respectively. The present investigation proved that G. Sylvestre could be possibly utilized as an important component in the Vector Control Program.

  5. Hypolipidaemic Effects of Gymnema sylvestre on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidaemia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narendra; Sachan, Anjula; Lakhani, Preet; Tutu, Sachin; Nath, Rajendra; Sachan, Amod Kumar; Dixit, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipidaemia is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle modification can be the initial step to reduce cholesterol levels. There are various drugs which are used to control dyslipidaemia. Treatment of lipid abnormalities is a lifelong battle. Moreover, the safety and effectiveness of long term lipid lowering treatment are questionable. Gymnema Sylvestre (GS) is a well known herb with various medicinal properties. Aim To explore the hypolipidaemic activity of GS leaves extract. Materials and Methods Adult healthy female wistar rats, 30 in number, divided into five groups, weighing 150- 200 g were used. Dyslipidaemia was induced in rats by feeding them on high fat diet for four weeks. For the next four weeks GS extract was used as test drug while Atorvastatin was used as standard drug. Blood sample was collected for estimation of lipid profile on day 0, week 4 and week 8. Data was recorded as mean±SEM (Standard error of mean). Paired t-test and one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test was used for comparison. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. SPSS Statistics 20 (IBM software) was used for the analysis. Results Feeding rats with high fat diet for four weeks led to obesity and dyslipidaemia in rats. GS at both the doses (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) significantly improved the lipid profile. Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) values reduced significantly while that of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly. GS 200 mg/kg was found more effective than GS 100 mg/kg. GS improved the value of lipid profile significantly but the effect was found inferior to Atorvastatin. Conclusion From the present study it can be concluded that GS possess an effective hypolipidaemic effect. Hence it can be included as an add on therapy in dyslipidaemia after further confirmatory studies. PMID:28658801

  6. Hypolipidaemic Effects of Gymnema sylvestre on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidaemia in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Sachan, Anjula; Lakhani, Preet; Tutu, Sachin; Nath, Rajendra; Sachan, Amod Kumar; Dixit, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle modification can be the initial step to reduce cholesterol levels. There are various drugs which are used to control dyslipidaemia. Treatment of lipid abnormalities is a lifelong battle. Moreover, the safety and effectiveness of long term lipid lowering treatment are questionable. Gymnema Sylvestre (GS) is a well known herb with various medicinal properties. To explore the hypolipidaemic activity of GS leaves extract. Adult healthy female wistar rats, 30 in number, divided into five groups, weighing 150- 200 g were used. Dyslipidaemia was induced in rats by feeding them on high fat diet for four weeks. For the next four weeks GS extract was used as test drug while Atorvastatin was used as standard drug. Blood sample was collected for estimation of lipid profile on day 0, week 4 and week 8. Data was recorded as mean±SEM (Standard error of mean). Paired t-test and one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's post hoc test was used for comparison. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. SPSS Statistics 20 (IBM software) was used for the analysis. Feeding rats with high fat diet for four weeks led to obesity and dyslipidaemia in rats. GS at both the doses (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) significantly improved the lipid profile. Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) values reduced significantly while that of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) increased significantly. GS 200 mg/kg was found more effective than GS 100 mg/kg. GS improved the value of lipid profile significantly but the effect was found inferior to Atorvastatin. From the present study it can be concluded that GS possess an effective hypolipidaemic effect. Hence it can be included as an add on therapy in dyslipidaemia after further confirmatory studies.

  7. Variation in gymnemic acid content and non-destructive harvesting of Gymnema sylvestre (Gudmar).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Yadav, Swati

    2010-09-01

    Madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.) commonly known as 'Gudmar' in Hindi is an important medicinal climber and extensively used in almost all Indian System of Medicine as a remedy for diabetes, rheumatism, cough, ulcer, jaundice, dyspepsia, constipation, eyes pain and also in snakebite. In India, it is found growing in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The major phytoconstituents are gymnemic acids, gudmarin and saponins. In the present study, Gymnema germplasm collected from various regions of Madhya Pradesh was evaluated on the basis of their morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content. Gymnemic acid content in the leaves was estimated by HPLC. We have also standardized the non-destructive harvesting practices of Gudmar. Selective harvesting was done without harming the main plant. Only mature leaves (60%) were hand plucked in the month of October. Second harvest was done in the month of June. Data revealed that gymnemic acid content varied between 0.96% ± 0.03 (Seoni) to 1.58% ±0.03 (Amarkantak). It was also observed that the leaves left at the time of 1(st) harvest during October matured in June at the time of 2(nd) harvest. Non destructive harvesting practice did not have any negative impact on overall development of the plant. It is evident that there is wide variation in the morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content in G. sylvestre collected from various locations, which can be exploited for further crop improvement programmes.

  8. Human Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Modulation by Gymnema sylvestre: A Predictive Safety Evaluation by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Bera; Samit, Karmakar; Chinmoy, Das; Arup, Saha; Amit, Kundu; Ratul, Sarkar; Sanmoy, Karmakar; Dipan, Adhikari; Tuhinadri, Sen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditionally GS is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Drug-herb interaction of GS via cytochrome P450 enzyme system by substrate cocktail method using HLM has not been reported. Objective: To evaluate the in-vitro modulatory effects of GS extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) and deacylgymnemic acid (DGA) on human CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 activities in HLM. Material and Methods: Probe substrate-based LCMS/MS method was established for all CYPs. The metabolite formations were examined after incubation of probe substrates with HLM in the presence or absence of extracts and DGA. The inhibitory effects of GS extracts and DGA were characterized with kinetic parameters IC50 and Ki values. Results: GS extracts showed differential effect on CYP activities in the following order of inhibitory potency: ethyl acetate > Chloroform > methanol > n-hexane > aqueous > DGA. This differential effect was observed against CYP1A2, 2C9 and less on CYP3A4 and 2C8 but all CYPs were unaffected by aqueous extract and DGA. The ethyl acetate and chloroform extract exhibited moderate inhibition towards CYP1A2 and 3A4. The aqueous extract and DGA however showed negligible inhibition towards all five major human CYPs with very high IC50 values (>90μg/ml). Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that phytoconstituents contained in GS, particularly in ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts, were able to inhibit CYP1A2, 3A4 and 2C9. The presence of relatively small, lipophillic yet slightly polar compounds within the GS extracts may be attributed for inhibition activities. These suggest that the herb or its extracts should be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo. Abbreviations used: GS: Gymnema sylvestre, GSE: Gymnema sylvestre extract, DGA: deacyl gymnemic acid, CYP: cytochrome P450, DMSO: dimethylsulphoxide, HLM: human liver microsomes, LC-MS/MS: liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy, NADPH: reduced

  9. Human Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Modulation by Gymnema sylvestre: A Predictive Safety Evaluation by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Bera; Samit, Karmakar; Chinmoy, Das; Arup, Saha; Amit, Kundu; Ratul, Sarkar; Sanmoy, Karmakar; Dipan, Adhikari; Tuhinadri, Sen

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally GS is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Drug-herb interaction of GS via cytochrome P450 enzyme system by substrate cocktail method using HLM has not been reported. To evaluate the in-vitro modulatory effects of GS extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n -hexane) and deacylgymnemic acid (DGA) on human CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 activities in HLM. Probe substrate-based LCMS/MS method was established for all CYPs. The metabolite formations were examined after incubation of probe substrates with HLM in the presence or absence of extracts and DGA. The inhibitory effects of GS extracts and DGA were characterized with kinetic parameters IC50 and Ki values. GS extracts showed differential effect on CYP activities in the following order of inhibitory potency: ethyl acetate > Chloroform > methanol > n -hexane > aqueous > DGA. This differential effect was observed against CYP1A2, 2C9 and less on CYP3A4 and 2C8 but all CYPs were unaffected by aqueous extract and DGA. The ethyl acetate and chloroform extract exhibited moderate inhibition towards CYP1A2 and 3A4. The aqueous extract and DGA however showed negligible inhibition towards all five major human CYPs with very high IC50 values (>90μg/ml). The results of our study revealed that phytoconstituents contained in GS, particularly in ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts, were able to inhibit CYP1A2, 3A4 and 2C9. The presence of relatively small, lipophillic yet slightly polar compounds within the GS extracts may be attributed for inhibition activities. These suggest that the herb or its extracts should be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo . Abbreviations used: GS: Gymnema sylvestre , GSE: Gymnema sylvestre extract, DGA: deacyl gymnemic acid, CYP: cytochrome P450, DMSO: dimethylsulphoxide, HLM: human liver microsomes, LC-MS/MS: liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy, NADPH: reduced nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate, NRS: nicotinamide

  10. Leishmanicidal activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Eclipta prostrata and Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Getti, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of saponin, dasyscyphin C of Eclipta prostrata and sapogenin, gymnemagenol from Gymnema sylvestre leaves under in vitro conditions. Dasyscyphin C/Gymnemagenol were dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and diluted with liquid medium to obtain concentrations ranging from 1000 to 15 mug /ml. The leishmanicidal activity against leishmanial parasites, Leishmania major, Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica promastigotes was studied by the MTS assay. The Dasyscyphin C isolated from E. prostrata showed good leishmanicidal activity at 1000mug/ml concentration, with the IC(50) value of 450mug/ml against L. major promastigote and the percentage of parasitic death was 73; whereas, gymnemagenol of G. sylvestre showed only 52% parasitic death at 1000 mug/ml concentration. The other Leishmania species, L. aethiopica and L. tropica promastigotes, were less sensitive to the saponins of E. prostrata and G. sylvestre. From this study, it can be concluded that the dasyscyphin C of E. prostrata has significant leishmanicidal activity against L. major promastigote.

  11. Leishmanicidal activity of saponins isolated from the leaves of Eclipta prostrata and Gymnema sylvestre

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Kannabiran, Krishnan; Getti, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of saponin, dasyscyphin C of Eclipta prostrata and sapogenin, gymnemagenol from Gymnema sylvestre leaves under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Dasyscyphin C/Gymnemagenol were dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and diluted with liquid medium to obtain concentrations ranging from 1000 to 15 μg /ml. The leishmanicidal activity against leishmanial parasites, Leishmania major, Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica promastigotes was studied by the MTS assay. Result: The Dasyscyphin C isolated from E. prostrata showed good leishmanicidal activity at 1000μg/ml concentration, with the IC50 value of 450μg/ml against L. major promastigote and the percentage of parasitic death was 73; whereas, gymnemagenol of G. sylvestre showed only 52% parasitic death at 1000 μg/ml concentration. The other Leishmania species, L. aethiopica and L. tropica promastigotes, were less sensitive to the saponins of E. prostrata and G. sylvestre. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the dasyscyphin C of E. prostrata has significant leishmanicidal activity against L. major promastigote. PMID:20177579

  12. In vivo pharmacokinetic interaction by ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre with CYP2C9 (Tolbutamide), CYP3A4 (Amlodipine) and CYP1A2 (Phenacetin) in rats.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Madhuri; Sahu, Niteshkumar; Kharkar, Prashant; Pandita, Nancy

    2017-12-25

    Gymnema sylvestre (GS) is a medicinal herb used for diabetes mellitus (DM). Herbs are gaining popularity as medicines in DM for its safety purpose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between allopathic drugs tolbutamide (TOLBU), amlodipine (AMLO), and phenacetin (PHENA) at low (L) and high (H) doses with ethanolic extract (EL) from GS. EL was extracted and subjected to TLC, total triterpenoid content (19.76 ± 0.02 W/W) and sterol content (0.1837 ± 0.0046 W/W) estimation followed by identification of phytoconstituents using HRLC-MS and GC-MS. PK interaction study with CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes were assessed using TOLBU, AMLO and PHENA respectively to index cytochrome (CYP) mediated interaction in rats after concomitant administration of EL extract (400 mg/kg) from GS for 7 days. The rats were divided into four groups for each PK study where, group I and II were positive control for low and high dose of test drugs (CYP substrates) while group II and IV were orally administered EL. The PK study result of PHENA indicated that area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-24 ) was significantly (P < 0.0001) increased by 1.4 (L) and 1.3-fold (H), plasma concentration (C max ) was significantly (P < 0.001) increased by 1.6 (L) and 1.4-fold (H). Whereas for TOLBU; clearance rate (CL) was significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased by 2.4 (L) and 2.3-fold (H), C max, was significantly (P < 0.001) decreased by 26.5% (L) and 50.4% (H) and AUC 0-24 was significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased by 59.8% (L) and 57.5% (H). Thus, EL is seen to be interacting with CYP1A2 by inhibiting its metabolic activity. HRLC-MS and GC-MS helped identify the presence of gymnemic acid (GA), triterpenoids and steroids in EL which could be the reason for PK interaction of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9. Also, in silico structure based site of metabolism study showed Fe accessibility and intrinsic activity for GA-IV, GA-VI, GA-VII and GA

  13. Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats. Methods Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed. Results In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited

  14. Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ola, Mohammed S; Parmar, Mihir Y; Ahmed, Mohammed M

    2014-02-10

    Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats. Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed. In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited AA-induced elevation of pro

  15. The Influence of Assay Design, Blinding, and Gymnema sylvestre on Sucrose Detection by Humans.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Max G; Marconi, Lauren J; Nguyen, Nam H; Park, Jae M; Patino, Maria M; Wang, Yuchi; Watkins, Celeste S; Shelley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The detection and grading of tastes corresponding to different taste modalities can be tested in engaging laboratory sessions using students themselves as test subjects. This article describes a series of experiments in which data pertaining to the detection of salty and sweet tastes are obtained, and the ability of the herb Gymnema sylvestre to disrupt the detection of sucrose is quantified. The effects of blinding and different assay designs on EC50 estimation are also investigated. The data obtained allow for substantial data analysis, including non-linear regression using fixed and free parameters to quantify dose-response relationships, and the use of often under-utilized permutation tests to determine significant differences when the underlying data display heteroscedasticity.

  16. The Influence of Assay Design, Blinding, and Gymnema sylvestre on Sucrose Detection by Humans

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Max G.; Marconi, Lauren J.; Nguyen, Nam H.; Park, Jae M.; Patino, Maria M.; Wang, Yuchi; Watkins, Celeste S.; Shelley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The detection and grading of tastes corresponding to different taste modalities can be tested in engaging laboratory sessions using students themselves as test subjects. This article describes a series of experiments in which data pertaining to the detection of salty and sweet tastes are obtained, and the ability of the herb Gymnema sylvestre to disrupt the detection of sucrose is quantified. The effects of blinding and different assay designs on EC50 estimation are also investigated. The data obtained allow for substantial data analysis, including non-linear regression using fixed and free parameters to quantify dose-response relationships, and the use of often under-utilized permutation tests to determine significant differences when the underlying data display heteroscedasticity. PMID:27980466

  17. Variation in gymnemic acid content and non-destructive harvesting of Gymnema sylvestre (Gudmar)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Yadav, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.) commonly known as ‘Gudmar’ in Hindi is an important medicinal climber and extensively used in almost all Indian System of Medicine as a remedy for diabetes, rheumatism, cough, ulcer, jaundice, dyspepsia, constipation, eyes pain and also in snakebite. In India, it is found growing in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The major phytoconstituents are gymnemic acids, gudmarin and saponins. Methods: In the present study, Gymnema germplasm collected from various regions of Madhya Pradesh was evaluated on the basis of their morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content. Gymnemic acid content in the leaves was estimated by HPLC. We have also standardized the non-destructive harvesting practices of Gudmar. Selective harvesting was done without harming the main plant. Only mature leaves (60%) were hand plucked in the month of October. Second harvest was done in the month of June. Results: Data revealed that gymnemic acid content varied between 0.96% ± 0.03 (Seoni) to 1.58% ±0.03 (Amarkantak). It was also observed that the leaves left at the time of 1st harvest during October matured in June at the time of 2nd harvest. Conclusion: Non destructive harvesting practice did not have any negative impact on overall development of the plant. It is evident that there is wide variation in the morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content in G. sylvestre collected from various locations, which can be exploited for further crop improvement programmes. PMID:21589758

  18. Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-08-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a medicinal plant whose consumption has demonstrated benefits on lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight (BWt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of G. sylvestre administration on metabolic syndrome (MetS), insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients (without pharmacological treatment), 30-60 years old, with diagnosis of MetS in accordance with the modified International Diabetes Federation criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to receive G. sylvestre or placebo twice daily before breakfast and dinner in 300 mg capsules for a total of 600 mg per day for 12 weeks. Before and after the intervention, the components of MetS were evaluated as well as BWt, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Area under the curve of glucose and insulin, phases of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests; P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. After G. sylvestre administration, significant decreases in BWt (81.3 ± 10.6 kg vs. 77.9 ± 8.4 kg, P = .02), BMI (31.2 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 vs. 30.4 ± 2.2 kg/m 2 , P = .02), and VLDL levels (0.45 ± 0.15 mmol/dL vs. 0.35 ± 0.15 mmol/dL, P = .05) were observed, without modifying the components of MetS, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, G. sylvestre administration decreased BWt, BMI, and VLDL levels in subjects with MetS, without changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of Gymnema sylvestre on streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Amal Jamil; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Al-Assaf, Abdullah; Parmar, Mihir Yogeshkumar; Ola, Mohammad Shamsul; Ahmed, Mohammed Mahboobuddin

    2015-05-01

    The application of traditional medicine for diabetes and associated complications, such as diabetic neuropathy (DN), has received increasing attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of Gymnema sylvestre (Gs) in a rat model of DN. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). Treatment with Gs extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) began two weeks following the administration of STZ and was continued for five weeks. Pain threshold behavior tests were performed subsequent to the five-week Gs treatment period. In addition, the serum levels of glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were determined. Furthermore, the sciatic tissue levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced glutathione were determined, as well as the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also assessed in the sciatic tissue. In addition, the sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for histopathological alterations. The diabetic rats exhibited apparent reductions in the paw-withdrawal (31%; P<0.01) and tail-flick latencies (38%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the diabetic rats demonstrated an evident elevation in serum and sciatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Measured oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly altered in the sciatic nerve tissue of the diabetic rats. Treatment with Gs attenuated diabetes-induced modifications with regard to the levels of serum glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines. In the sciatic nerve tissue, the diabetes-induced alterations in IL levels and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly improved in the Gs-treated rats. Furthermore, the reduction in the sciatic tissue expression levels of IGF

  20. Neuroprotective effects of Gymnema sylvestre on streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    FATANI, AMAL JAMIL; AL-REJAIE, SALIM SALIH; ABUOHASHISH, HATEM MUSTAFA; AL-ASSAF, ABDULLAH; PARMAR, MIHIR YOGESHKUMAR; OLA, MOHAMMAD SHAMSUL; AHMED, MOHAMMED MAHBOOBUDDIN

    2015-01-01

    The application of traditional medicine for diabetes and associated complications, such as diabetic neuropathy (DN), has received increasing attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of Gymnema sylvestre (Gs) in a rat model of DN. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). Treatment with Gs extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) began two weeks following the administration of STZ and was continued for five weeks. Pain threshold behavior tests were performed subsequent to the five-week Gs treatment period. In addition, the serum levels of glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were determined. Furthermore, the sciatic tissue levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced glutathione were determined, as well as the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also assessed in the sciatic tissue. In addition, the sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for histopathological alterations. The diabetic rats exhibited apparent reductions in the paw-withdrawal (31%; P<0.01) and tail-flick latencies (38%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the diabetic rats demonstrated an evident elevation in serum and sciatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Measured oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly altered in the sciatic nerve tissue of the diabetic rats. Treatment with Gs attenuated diabetes-induced modifications with regard to the levels of serum glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines. In the sciatic nerve tissue, the diabetes-induced alterations in IL levels and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly improved in the Gs-treated rats. Furthermore, the reduction in the sciatic tissue expression levels of IGF

  1. Treating Diabetes Mellitus: Pharmacophore Based Designing of Potential Drugs from Gymnema sylvestre against Insulin Receptor Protein.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md Arif; Rakib-Uz-Zaman, S M; Ali, Mohammad Tuhin; Islam, Md Saidul; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders which can affect the quality of life severely. Injectable insulin is currently being used to treat DM which is mainly associated with patient inconvenience. Small molecules that can act as insulin receptor (IR) agonist would be better alternatives to insulin injection. Herein, ten bioactive small compounds derived from Gymnema sylvestre (G. sylvestre) were chosen to determine their IR binding affinity and ADMET properties using a combined approach of molecular docking study and computational pharmacokinetic elucidation. Designing structural analogues were also performed for the compounds associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the ten parent compounds, six were found to have significant pharmacokinetic properties with considerable binding affinity towards IR while four compounds were associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the forty structural analogues, four compounds demonstrated considerably increased binding affinity towards IR and less toxicity compared with parent compounds. Finally, molecular interaction analysis revealed that six parent compounds and four analogues interact with the active site amino acids of IR. So this study would be a way to identify new therapeutics and alternatives to insulin for diabetic patients.

  2. Abiotic elicitation of gymnemic acid in the suspension cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Ch, Bhuvaneswari; Rao, Kiranmayee; Gandi, Suryakala; Giri, Archana

    2012-02-01

    Elicitation is one of the few strategies that find commercial application in the enhancement of secondary metabolite production from plants as well as cell culture systems. Due to their immense medicinal value, production of saponins in suspension cultures has been attempted by many researchers. Gymnema sylvestre is a rich source of gymnemic acids (saponins) that find application in the treatment of diabetes. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of various metal salts (cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, cupric chloride, cobaltous chloride and calcium chloride) in eliciting the response from G. sylvestre suspension cultures. The maximum gymnemic acid production in the suspensions was achieved on day 12 of culture, though the maximum biomass was obtained on day 16. Among the different salts, CdCl(2) gave maximum response (59.97 mg/gDCW) at 2 mM concentration after a 24 h time period, while, AgNO(3) gave the least response (18.35 mg/gDCW) on incubation of 48 h at 1 mM concentration, in terms of gymnemic acid accumulation. The accumulation of gymnemic acid was found to be dependent on treatment time and concentration of the elicitor. The enhanced gymnemic acid production shown by the suspensions in response to the metal salts indicates their role in evoking the plant defense mechanisms. These elicitation studies help in providing a platform for improved commercial supply of bioactive gymnemic acids.

  3. Treating Diabetes Mellitus: Pharmacophore Based Designing of Potential Drugs from Gymnema sylvestre against Insulin Receptor Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md. Arif; Rakib-Uz-Zaman, S. M.; Ali, Mohammad Tuhin; Islam, Md. Saidul; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders which can affect the quality of life severely. Injectable insulin is currently being used to treat DM which is mainly associated with patient inconvenience. Small molecules that can act as insulin receptor (IR) agonist would be better alternatives to insulin injection. Herein, ten bioactive small compounds derived from Gymnema sylvestre (G. sylvestre) were chosen to determine their IR binding affinity and ADMET properties using a combined approach of molecular docking study and computational pharmacokinetic elucidation. Designing structural analogues were also performed for the compounds associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the ten parent compounds, six were found to have significant pharmacokinetic properties with considerable binding affinity towards IR while four compounds were associated with toxicity and less IR affinity. Among the forty structural analogues, four compounds demonstrated considerably increased binding affinity towards IR and less toxicity compared with parent compounds. Finally, molecular interaction analysis revealed that six parent compounds and four analogues interact with the active site amino acids of IR. So this study would be a way to identify new therapeutics and alternatives to insulin for diabetic patients. PMID:27034931

  4. In vivo anti-ulcer, anti-stress, anti-allergic, and functional properties of Gymnemic Acid Isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R Br

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gymnema sylvestre is a highly valued ethno pharmacologically important medicinal plant used currently in many poly-herbal formulations due to its potential antidiabetic activity and other health benefits. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-stress, anti-allergic, and antiulcer activity of the bioactive compounds present in Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Methods The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method. The characterization of the extract was carried out using standard compound by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and phytochemical analysis in terms of total phenol, total flavonoids, reducing power and antioxidant potentials, etc. The in vivo studies on albino mice proved the purified fraction has anti-stress/anti-allergic activity against milk induced leucocytosis/eosinophilia and able to inhibit the aspirin induced gastric ulcers. Results The quantitative estimation for aqueous extract exhibited total antioxidant (9.13 ± 0.04 μg/g), flavonoids (125.62 ± 26.84 μg/g), tannin (111.53 ± 15.13 μg/g), total phenol content (285.23 ± 1.11 μg/g) and free radical scavenging (52.14 ± 0.32%). Further the aqueous extract was consecutively purified by TLC and silica column chromatography. The purified fractions were characterized by HPTLC and GC-MS and the component was identified as gymnemic acid. The potency of the antimicrobial activity of the extract was studied with bacteria. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated that the extracts of all plants given orally showed significant gastric protection against the asprin-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Furthermore, healing effects were also confirmed through histopathological examination. Conclusions The aqueous extracts of the leaves

  5. In vivo anti-ulcer, anti-stress, anti-allergic, and functional properties of gymnemic acid isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R Br.

    PubMed

    Arun, Lilly Baptista; Arunachalam, Aarrthy M; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kumar, Kalaivani Amit

    2014-02-22

    Gymnema sylvestre is a highly valued ethno pharmacologically important medicinal plant used currently in many poly-herbal formulations due to its potential antidiabetic activity and other health benefits. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-stress, anti-allergic, and antiulcer activity of the bioactive compounds present in Gymnema sylvestre leaves. The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method. The characterization of the extract was carried out using standard compound by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and phytochemical analysis in terms of total phenol, total flavonoids, reducing power and antioxidant potentials, etc. The in vivo studies on albino mice proved the purified fraction has anti-stress/anti-allergic activity against milk induced leucocytosis/eosinophilia and able to inhibit the aspirin induced gastric ulcers. The quantitative estimation for aqueous extract exhibited total antioxidant (9.13 ± 0.04 μg/g), flavonoids (125.62 ± 26.84 μg/g), tannin (111.53 ± 15.13 μg/g), total phenol content (285.23 ± 1.11 μg/g) and free radical scavenging (52.14 ± 0.32%). Further the aqueous extract was consecutively purified by TLC and silica column chromatography. The purified fractions were characterized by HPTLC and GC-MS and the component was identified as gymnemic acid. The potency of the antimicrobial activity of the extract was studied with bacteria. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated that the extracts of all plants given orally showed significant gastric protection against the asprin-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Furthermore, healing effects were also confirmed through histopathological examination. The aqueous extracts of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre possess anti

  6. AFLP marking and polymorphism among progenies of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant of India.

    PubMed

    Osman, Magda Abbaker; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Bahl, Janak Raj; Darokar, Mahendra P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2011-11-01

    The level of polymorphism among twelve selected progenies of Gymnema sylvestre was investigated through AFLP markers by multiplexing PCR reactions using 64 (8x8) primer combinations. Fourteen primer combinations were selected as the most suitable combination for G. sylvestre. Analysis of the 12 progenies with these 14 primer pairs produced 1689 fragments of which 972 (57.5%) were polymorphic and 485 (28.7%) were unique to a particular genotype. The number of fragments produced by individual primer pairs was in the range of 55 to 225. Out of these, polymorphic fragments were in the range of 34 (E-ACC/M-CAC) to 157 (E-AGG/M-CAG) and unique bands observed were 8 (E-ACC / M-CAC) to 69 (E-AGG/M-CAC). Different primer combinations detected different levels of polymorphism, ranging from 33% (E-AGG/ M-CAC) to 69.8% (E-AGG/ M-CAC). From the observations, it appears that the primer combinations E-AGG/M-CAC, E-AGG/CTG, E-AGG/CAG and E-ACA/CAT were the most informative for the detection of polymorphism among the progenies compared with others, since they produced a high number of unique fragments. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.212 to 0.731. High similarity was observed between progeny S8 and S9 (73%) and high divergence between progenies S3 and S11. Among the selected progeny, S9 was found to be the most similar to the parent (63%), while genotype S11 was the most distant (36.9%).

  7. An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  8. [Experimental [corrected] study of hypoglycemic activity of conduritol A of stems of Gymnema sylvestre].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Hua; Zhen, Han-Shen; Qiu, Qin; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Fang

    2008-12-01

    To investigates the mechanism of hypooglycemic effect of conduritol A of stems of Gymnema sylvestre. Fourteen days later after administration, observation is taken on the change of these mice and rats weight, the FBG, TG, CHO, SOD, MDA, INS, TNF in serum were also detected with enzymology method and Radioimmuoassay method. Take the liver to determine the disposal of glucose. Take the pancreas to do the HE and immunohistochemistrial staining, and show pancreas islet beta-cell. Calulate thymus, pancreas, splenica index. Compared with diabetic model mice, high and middosage of conduritol A could remarkably reduce fasted blood sugar in diabetic rats induced by alloxan (P < 0.01). Significantly increase the level of serum insulin (P < 0.05). Activity of SOD was obviously increased, and amount of MDA was obviously decreased (P < 0.05). The amount of conduritol A disposal of glucose was obviously increased (P < 0.05). Significantly increase thymus, pancreas, splencia index (P < 0.01 or 0.05); inhibited the atrophy of thymus, pancreas, splencias of the diabetic rats induced by alloxan. Compared with diabetic model group, cell structure and form of conduritol A had been some way improved. The immunohistochemistry results showed that beta-cells numbers of pancreas in each conduritol A group were more than those in the model group. Conduritol A could have an effect on regulating the metabolism of blood lipid, free-radical scavenging, enhancing the antioxidant ability, potentiating immune function. Promoting synthesis of hepatic to decrease fasted blood suger.

  9. A molecular connection of Pterocarpus marsupium, Eugenia jambolana and Gymnema sylvestre with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Dubala, Anil; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-02-01

    Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) (Leguminosae), Eugenia jambolana (EJ) (Myrtaceae) and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) (Asclepiadaceae) are the most important medicinal plants in the Indian system of traditional medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are the emerging class of anti-diabetic agents. However, only few compounds are commercially available. Therefore, in the present study we tried to explore the naturally occurring PM, EJ and GS semi-standardized extracts for their potential DPP-4 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. DPP-4 inhibition was evaluated by in vitro inhibitory assay, and enzyme kinetics were calculated using one-phase exponential decay equation. Glucose load (2 g/kg) was administered to control and diabetic rats 30 min following extract administration (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) orally once, and blood samples were withdrawn at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 h to measure plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. PM and EJ inhibit DPP-4 potently with IC50 values of 273.73 ± 2.96 and 278.94 ± 6.73 µg/mL, respectively, compared to GS (773.22 ± 9.21 µg/mL). PM, EJ and GS exhibit long duration of action with enzyme inhibitory half-lives of 462.3, 317.2 and 153.8 min, respectively. Extracts significantly increase GLP-1 levels compared to negative control groups and peak GLP-1 level was observed at 2 h for PM and EJ, whereas for GS it was at 1.5 h Taken together, results suggest the extracts may have potent DPP-4 inhibitory action, and their hypoglycemic action attributed through an increase in plasma active GLP-1 levels.

  10. Discrimination of different geographic varieties of Gymnema sylvestre, an anti-sweet plant used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Ha Thanh Tung; Hoang, Minh Chau; Ha, Thi Kim Quy; Dang, Lan Huong; Tran, Van On; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thu; Lee, Chul Ho; Oh, Won Keun

    2018-06-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. ex Sm. (Asclepiadaceae) is a well-known Ayurvedic anti-sweet plant for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it was previously proposed that G. sylvestre exhibits chemical variation based on geography, most research on G. sylvestre has used material originating from India. Morphological and anatomical descriptions, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 DNA sequencing, and acid hydrolysis analyses showed that G. sylvestre samples from Vietnam are distinguishable from those of Indian origin and thus suggest a dissimilarity among G. sylvestre samples with different geographic distributions. An LC-MS-guided strategy targeting 3β-glucuronide oleane-triterpenes in the Vietnamese G. sylvestre variety led to the isolation of four known compounds and nine previously undescribed compounds, named gymnemosides ND1-ND9. None of the isolated compounds were reported in the Indian sample, further supporting the geo-diversity of G. sylvestre. Three compounds, gymnemosides ND7-9, exerted significant stimulatory effects on the uptake of 2-NBDG in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells and thus have potential as lead molecules for anti-diabetes agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In-silico analysis of gymnemagenin from Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br. with targets related to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Poonam K; Arathy, V; Attimarad, Vijaylaxmi S; Kumar, Pramod; Roy, Subarna

    2016-02-21

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by higher than normal glucose in the blood. Most oral hypoglycemic drugs available in market produce adverse side effects which have resulted in continued search for new therapeutic agents with little or no side effects. Herbal drugs are considered relatively safer alternatives and Gymnema sylvestre is one of the most well established natural remedy for diabetes and is traded worldwide under several brands. In the present study an attempt has been made to use in silico techniques to understand and predict the drug likeliness of gymnemagenin, one of the key constituents of G. sylvestre against 15 proteins having key role in carbohydrate metabolism. Gymnemagenin was found to dock well with crystallographic structures of 7 of the 15 selected targets and was found even better than the two known clinically used antidiabetic compounds, repaglinide and sitagliptin taken in the study for comparison. Gymnemagenin therefore can be considered further for development into a potent anti-diabetic drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gymnema

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination of gymnema, hydroxycitric acid, and niacin-bound chromium by mouth can reduce body weight in people ... these products include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, ...

  13. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly ( P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.

  14. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  15. Elicitation of gymnemic acid production in cell suspension cultures of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. through endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-12-01

    The enhancement of plant secondary metabolite production in cell suspension cultures through biotic or abiotic elicitation has become a potential biotechnological approach for commercialization or large-scale production of bioactive compounds. Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. is an important medicinal plant, rich in a group of oleanane triterpenoid saponins called gymnemic acid, well known for its anti-diabetic activity. Two endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the leaves of G. sylvestre and identified as Polyancora globosa and Xylaria sp. based on the PCR amplification and internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2) sequencing of 18S rRNA gene. The process of elicitation of cell suspension cultures of G. sylvestre with dried powder of fungal mycelia (DPFM) and extracellular culture filtrate (ECF) of endophytic fungi consistently enhanced the accumulation of gymnemic acid and the DPFM was proved to be an effective elicitor when compared to the ECF. The DPFM elicited the gymnemic acid content in the range of 2.57-10.45-fold, while the ECF elicited the gymnemic acid content in the range of 2.39-7.8-fold. P. globosa, a novel and a rare endophytic fungal strain, has shown a great influence on the production of gymnemic acid. Cell suspension cultures elicited with DPFM of P. globosa produced higher amount of gymnemic acid content (124.23 mg/g dried cell weight) compared to the cultures elicited with DPFM of Xylaria sp. (102.24 mg/g DCW). But the cultures treated with consortium of DPFM of both fungi showed great influence on the production of gymnemic acid (139.98 mg/g DCW) than the cultures treated with DPFM alone. Similarly, cultures treated with consortium of ECF of both fungi produced more gymnemic acid content (94.86 mg/g DCW) compared with cultures treated with ECF of Xylaria sp. (77.93 mg/g DCW) and ECF of P. globosa (78.65 mg/g DCW) alone.

  16. Suppression of Oral Sweet Taste Sensation with Gymnema sylvestre Affects Postprandial Gastrointestinal Blood Flow and Gastric Emptying in Humans.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kanae; Fujimoto, Masaki; Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Aso-Someya, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2.5% roasted green tea (control) or 2.5% GS solution. During each protocol, gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying were measured by ultrasonography and 13C-sodium acetate breath test, respectively. Decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS group. The time to attain a peak value of blood flow in the celiac artery and gastric emptying were delayed in the GS group compared with the control group. At the initial phase after glucose intake, blood-glucose and plasma-insulin responses were lower in the GS group than those for the control group. These results suggest that the OSTS itself has a substantial role in controlling postprandial gastrointestinal activities, which may affect subsequent glycemic metabolism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  18. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-07-01

    Gymnema sylvestre , a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug. Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre . Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods. Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site. Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre -based various herbal preparations. Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre .Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl Trimethylammonium Bromide, DNTP: Deoxynucleotide Triphosphates.

  19. Antihyperglycemic drug Gymnema sylvestre also shows anticancer potentials in human melanoma A375 cells via reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debrup; Ghosh, Samrat; Bishayee, Kausik; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Sikdar, Sourav; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves is used as a potent antidiabetic drug in various systems of alternative medicine, including homeopathy. The present study was aimed at examining if GS also had anticancer potentials, and if it had, to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. We initially tested possible anticancer potential of GS on A375 cells (human skin melanoma) through MTT assay and determined cytotoxicity levels in A375 and normal liver cells; we then thoroughly studied its apoptotic effects on A375 cells through protocols such as Hoechst 33258, H2DCFDA, and rhodamine 123 staining and conducted ELISA for cytochrome c, caspase 3, and PARP activity levels; we determined the mRNA level expression of cytochrome c, caspase 3, Bcl2, Bax, PARP, ICAD, and EGFR signaling genes through semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and conducted Western blot analysis of caspase 3 and PARP. We also analyzed cell cycle events, determined reactive oxygen species accumulation, measured annexin V-FITC/PI and rhodamine 123 intensity by flow cytometry. Compared with both normal liver cells and drug-untreated A375, the mortality of GS-treated A375 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, GS induced nuclear DNA fragmentation and showed an increased level of mRNA expression of apoptotic signal related genes cytochrome c, caspase 3, PARP, Bax, and reduced expression level of ICAD, EGFR, and the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. Overall results indicate GS to have significant anticancer effect on A375 cells apart from its reported antidiabetic effect, indicating possibility of its palliative use in patients with symptoms of both the diseases.

  20. Production of Gymnemic Acid Depends on Medium, Explants, PGRs, Color Lights, Temperature, Photoperiod, and Sucrose Sources in Batch Culture of Gymnema sylvestre

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A. S.; Rao, M. V.; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2012-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) is an important diabetic medicinal plant which yields pharmaceutically active compounds called gymnemic acid (GA). The present study describes callus induction and the subsequent batch culture optimization and GA quantification determined by linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Best callus induction of GA was noticed in MS medium combined with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L) and KN (0.5 mg/L). Evaluation and isolation of GA from the calluses derived from different plant parts, namely, leaf, stem and petioles have been done in the present case for the first time. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose, and photoperiod were studied to observe their effect on GA production. Temperature conditions completely inhibited GA production. Out of the different sucrose concentrations tested, the highest yield (35.4 mg/g d.w) was found at 5% sucrose followed by 12 h photoperiod (26.86 mg/g d.w). Maximum GA production (58.28 mg/g d.w) was observed in blue light. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of GA in callus cultures of G. sylvestre. The factors optimized for in vitro production of GA during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors. PMID:22629221

  1. Production of gymnemic acid depends on medium, explants, PGRs, color lights, temperature, photoperiod, and sucrose sources in batch culture of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2012-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br.) is an important diabetic medicinal plant which yields pharmaceutically active compounds called gymnemic acid (GA). The present study describes callus induction and the subsequent batch culture optimization and GA quantification determined by linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Best callus induction of GA was noticed in MS medium combined with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L) and KN (0.5 mg/L). Evaluation and isolation of GA from the calluses derived from different plant parts, namely, leaf, stem and petioles have been done in the present case for the first time. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose, and photoperiod were studied to observe their effect on GA production. Temperature conditions completely inhibited GA production. Out of the different sucrose concentrations tested, the highest yield (35.4 mg/g d.w) was found at 5% sucrose followed by 12 h photoperiod (26.86 mg/g d.w). Maximum GA production (58.28 mg/g d.w) was observed in blue light. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of GA in callus cultures of G. sylvestre. The factors optimized for in vitro production of GA during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors.

  2. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a recombinant sterol 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glucosides.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Pragya; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B N; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant Sterol 3-O-Glucosyltransferase from Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. Catalyzing Biosynthesis of Steryl Glucosides

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Asha; Mishra, B. N.; Sangwan, Neelam S.

    2014-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R.Br., a pharmacologically important herb vernacularly called Gur-Mar (sugar eliminator), is widely known for its antidiabetic action. This property of the herb has been attributed to the presence of bioactive triterpene glycosides. Although some information regarding pharmacology and phytochemical profiles of the plant are available, no attempts have been made so far to decipher the biosynthetic pathway and key enzymes involved in biosynthesis of steryl glucosides. The present report deals with the identification and catalytic characterization of a glucosyltransferase, catalyzing biosynthesis of steryl glycosides. The full length cDNA (2572 bp) contained an open reading frame of 2106 nucleotides that encoded a 701 amino acid protein, falling into GT-B subfamily of glycosyltransferases. The GsSGT was expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme suggested its key role in the biosynthesis of steryl glucosides with catalytic preference for C-3 hydroxyl group of sterols. To our knowledge, this pertains to be the first report on cloning and biochemical characterization of a sterol metabolism gene from G. sylvestre R.Br. catalyzing glucosylation of a variety of sterols of biological origin from diverse organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. PMID:25250339

  4. In vitro production of gymnemic acid from Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) R. Br. ex roemer and schultes through callus culture under abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ali Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen; Rao, Adhikarla Suryanarayana; Rao, Mandali Venkateswara

    2009-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have enormous potential for research and new drug development. Many secondary metabolites have a complex and unique structure and their production is often enhanced by biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Gymnemic acid (C(43)H(68)O(14)), a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, exhibits potent inhibitory effect on diabetes. The gymnemic acid content is determined by chromatographic methods: Camag HPTLC system equipped with a sample applicator Linomat IV and TLC scanner and integration software CAT 4.0. In HPLC C(18) (ODS) reverse phase column; water 486 UV detector; mobile phase, water/methanol (35:65, HPLC grade) + 0.1% acetic acid are used. Sample (20 microL) is applied with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and read at 230 nm with UV detector. The production of gymnemic acid is significantly higher in callus treated with 2,4-dichloro phenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and kinetin (KN). The blue light increases gymnemic acid accumulation upto 4.4-fold as compared with fluorescent light treatment and out of which 2.8 is found in leaves. Gymnemic acid is isolated from callus, grown under stress conditions followed by preparative TLC, simple and reproducible character based on HPTLC and high performance liquid chromatography.

  5. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of sterols from Gymnema sylvestrte R. Br.

    PubMed

    Vats, Sharad; Kamal, Raka

    2013-12-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. is an important medicinal plant known for its antidiabetic potential. In the present study, phytosterols from G. sylvestre was identified and quantified in vivo and in vitro. Maximum callus induction was observed in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) of 2, 4-D. The protein content was significantly high both in aerial plant parts and callus tissue. Phytosterols were identified using chromatographic and spectral studies. beta-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol were identified both in vivo and in vitro. Lanosterol was identified only in callus culture. Phytosterols have reported for the first time in callus culture of G. sylvestre.

  6. Convergent synthesis of a trisaccharide as its 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl glycoside related to the flavonoid triglycoside from Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Balaram; Field, Robert A

    2006-07-24

    The glycone part of the flavonoid triglycoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-galactopyranoside, has been synthesized in good yield and stereoselectivity using N-iodosuccinimide and HClO4-silica promoted glycosylations of thioglycoside donors.

  7. Potential in vitro antioxidant and protective effects of Gymnema montanum H. on alloxan-induced oxidative damage in pancreatic beta-cells, HIT-T15.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Kunga Mohan; Manjula, Chinnasamy; Sankar, Lakshmanan; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Rajaguru, Palanisamy

    2009-09-01

    The present study describes the antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Gymnema montanum (GLEt) which is an endemic plant of India. Antioxidant activity of the GLEt was studied in vitro based on scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation estimated in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Further, we examined its protective effect against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells, HIT-T15 by measuring the free radical generation, malonaldehyde formation and antioxidant levels such as CAT, GPx and GSH. Results showed that G. montanum leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activities measured by various in vitro model systems. The HIT-T15 cell line studies showed the tendency of GLEt to increase antioxidant levels meanwhile decrease the free radical formation and inhibit the lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant activity was found to be well correlated with the phenolic phytochemicals present in the extract. GC-MS analyses revealed the presence of few phenolic compounds in the extract. As this plant has already been demonstrated for a variety of medicinal properties from our laboratory, results of this study suggest that G. montanum is an interesting source for antioxidant compounds and useful for various therapeutic applications.

  8. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS.

  9. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  10. Analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices.

    PubMed

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Handuwalage, Charith Sandaruwan

    2015-06-09

    Protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. Glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method. Methanol extracts of thirteen plants including nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were used. Lysozyme and fructose were incubated at 37 °C in the presence or absence of different concentrations of plant extracts up to 31 days. Standard glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine and other appropriate controls were included. A recently established sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to detect the products of protein cross-linking in the incubation mixtures. High molecular weight protein products representing the dimer, trimer and tetramer of lysozyme were detected in the presence of fructose. Among the nine antidiabetic plants, seven showed glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects namely Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark, Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves, Musa paradisiaca (MP) yam, Phyllanthus debilis (PD) whole plant, Phyllanthus emblica (PE) fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) latex and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) leaves. Inhibition observed with Coccinia grandis (CG) leaves and Strychnos potatorum (SP) seeds were much low. Leaves of Gymnema lactiferum (GL), the plant without known antidiabetic effects showed the lowest inhibition. All three spices namely Coriandrum sativum (CS) seeds, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark and Syzygium aromaticum (SA) flower buds showed cross-link inhibitory effects with higher effects in CS and SA. PD, PE, PM, CS and SA showed almost complete inhibition on the formation of cross-linking with 25 μg/ml extracts. Methanol extracts of PD, PE, PM, CS and SA have shown promising inhibitory effects on glycation induced protein cross-linking.

  11. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  13. Biomolecule-loaded chitosan nanoparticles induce apoptosis and molecular changes in cancer cell line (SiHa).

    PubMed

    Sujima Anbu, Anbu; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Byung-Taek; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports on the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) using methanol extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark. Biomolecule-loaded nanoparticles induced apoptosis in a human cervical cancer (SiHa) cell line, and experiments were carried out to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. FT-IR and XRD showed possible functional groups of the biomolecules and the crystalline nature of CNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs had a smooth spherical shape with average sizes of about 58-80 and 60-120nm, respectively. Dynamic light scattering studies indicated that both GSCNPs and CZCNs were structurally stable with homogenous and heterogeneous natures, respectively. Furthermore, synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against the SiHa cancer cell line, with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 102.17μg/ml, 87.75μg/ml, 132.74μg/ml and 90.35μg/ml for GS leaf extract, GSCNPs, CZBE and CZCNPs, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  15. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  16. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  17. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  18. Sensory techniques for measuring differences in California navel oranges treated with doses of gamma-radiation below 0. 6 Kgray

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mahony, M.; Goldstein, L.R.

    Navel oranges from California were given low post harvest doses of gamma radiation: 0.32-0.37 and 0.52-0.60 KGy (32-37 and 52-60 Krad); they were compared with nonirradiated controls for visual appearance, flavor by mouth, odor, taste and taste after sweetness suppression by gymnema sylvestre. Practiced judges were used as an analytical tool, with minimum cross-sensory interference, while untrained subjects were used to determine whether changes might be distinguished by nonexperts. Differences were found in appearance, flavor, taste and odor although they were less extreme at the lower dose. Untrained judges could discriminate the juice at the higher irradiation level only.

  19. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  1. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875

  2. Short-term effect of G-400, polyherbal formulation in the management of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia conditions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Gino A; Manjusha, V; Nair, Sunitha S; Varghese, Thomas; Padikkala, Jose

    2014-10-01

    Salacia oblonga, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica offinalis Gaertn, Curcuma longa and Gymnema sylvestre are Ayurvedic medicinal plants reported to lower plasma glucose levels in animal models. To our knowledge, however, no clinical validations of those extracts for efficacy have been. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polyherbal combination in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We screened 250 patients enrolled in a diabetes mellitus screening camp held at District Ayurvedic Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Of these, 89 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 50 healthy volunteers of similar age group were included in the study. Patients were treated with a polyherbal combination drug namely G-400 (1000 mg/d) for 8 wk with a follow-up of 2wk interval. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels measured after 8 wk of G-400 treatment in patients were significantly lower. Indeed diabetic rats showed similar protection with G-400 administration. Furthermore, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, both high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides showed a significant improvement in G-400-administered patients. Toxicologic profile of the drug was assessed by analyzing the enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase along with the concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood and found insignificant change compared with control. Short-term supplementation of G-400 not only attenuates the hyperglycemia, but also acts as hypolipidemic agent in patients with diabetes. Further study should be done for the long-term effect of the drug in larger populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or "natural" compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro ; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum ), gurmar ( Gymnema sylvestre ), ivy gourd ( Coccinia indica ), nopal ( Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon ( Artemisia dracunculus ), cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ), psyllium ( Plantago ovata ), and garlic ( Allium sativum ). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can

  4. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Gloria Y; Eisenberg, David M; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Phillips, Russell S

    2003-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy and safety of herbal therapies and vitamin/mineral supplements for glucose control in patients with diabetes. We conducted an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Cochrane Library Database, and HealthSTAR, from database inception to May 2002, in addition to performing hand searches and consulting with experts in the field. Available clinical studies published in the English language that used human participants and examined glycemic control were included. Data were extracted in a standardized manner, and two independent investigators assessed methodological quality of randomized controlled trials using the Jadad scale. A total of 108 trials examining 36 herbs (single or in combination) and 9 vitamin/mineral supplements, involving 4,565 patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 58 controlled clinical trials involving individuals with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (42 randomized and 16 nonrandomized trials). Most studies involved patients with type 2 diabetes. Heterogeneity and the small number of studies per supplement precluded formal meta-analyses. Of these 58 trials, the direction of the evidence for improved glucose control was positive in 76% (44 of 58). Very few adverse effects were reported. There is still insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions about the efficacy of individual herbs and supplements for diabetes; however, they appear to be generally safe. The available data suggest that several supplements may warrant further study. The best evidence for efficacy from adequately designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available for Coccinia indica and American ginseng. Chromium has been the most widely studied supplement. Other supplements with positive preliminary results include Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal.

  5. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  6. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  7. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  8. Information extraction system

    DOEpatents

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  9. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  10. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Richard; Moher, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To review clinical evidence supporting complementary and alternative medicine interventions for improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 1966 to August 2008 using the term type 2 diabetes in combination with each of the following terms for specific therapies selected by the authors: cinnamon, fenugreek, gymnema, green tea, fibre, momordica, chromium, and vanadium. Only human clinical trials were selected for review. MAIN MESSAGE Chromium reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in a large meta-analysis. Gymnema sylvestre reduced HbA1c levels in 2 small open-label trials. Cinnamon improved FBG but its effects on HbA1c are unknown. Bitter melon had no effect in 2 small trials. Fibre had no consistent effect on HbA1c or FBG in 12 small trials. Green tea reduced FBG levels in 1 of 3 small trials. Fenugreek reduced FBG in 1 of 3 small trials. Vanadium reduced FBG in small, uncontrolled trials. There were no trials evaluating microvascular or macrovascular complications or other clinical end points. CONCLUSION Chromium, and possibly gymnema, appears to improve glycemic control. Fibre, green tea, and fenugreek have other benefits but there is little evidence that they substantially improve glycemic control. Further research on bitter melon and cinnamon is warranted. There is no complementary and alternative medicine research addressing microvascular or macrovascular clinical outcomes. PMID:19509199

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nahas, Richard; Moher, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    To review clinical evidence supporting complementary and alternative medicine interventions for improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 1966 to August 2008 using the term type 2 diabetes in combination with each of the following terms for specific therapies selected by the authors: cinnamon, fenugreek, gymnema, green tea, fibre, momordica, chromium, and vanadium. Only human clinical trials were selected for review. Chromium reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in a large meta-analysis. Gymnema sylvestre reduced HbA(1c) levels in 2 small open-label trials. Cinnamon improved FBG but its effects on HbA(1c) are unknown. Bitter melon had no effect in 2 small trials. Fibre had no consistent effect on HbA(1c) or FBG in 12 small trials. Green tea reduced FBG levels in 1 of 3 small trials. Fenugreek reduced FBG in 1 of 3 small trials. Vanadium reduced FBG in small, uncontrolled trials. There were no trials evaluating microvascular or macrovascular complications or other clinical end points. Chromium, and possibly gymnema, appears to improve glycemic control. Fibre, green tea, and fenugreek have other benefits but there is little evidence that they substantially improve glycemic control. Further research on bitter melon and cinnamon is warranted. There is no complementary and alternative medicine research addressing microvascular or macrovascular clinical outcomes.

  13. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  14. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  16. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  17. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  1. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  2. Extracting concentrated guided light.

    PubMed

    Ries, H; Segal, A; Karni, J

    1997-05-01

    The maximum concentration of radiation is proportional to the square of the refractive index of the medium in which it propagates. A medium with a high refractive index can also serve as a lightguide for concentrated radiation. However, if concentrated radiation is extracted from one medium, with a high refractive index, to another, whose index is lower (e.g., from fused silica into air), part of the radiation may be lost because of the total internal reflection at the interface. We present polygonal shapes suitable for efficient extraction of the concentrated radiation in a controllable way, without increasing the cross-section area (or diameter) of the lightguide. It is shown analytically and experimentally that the use of a secondary concentrator, followed by such a light extractor, both having a high refractive index, can provide considerably more power to a solar receiver with a specific aperture.

  3. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  4. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  5. [Skeleton extractions and applications].

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses on the extraction of skeletons of CAD models and its applications in finite element (FE) mesh generation. The term 'skeleton of a CAD model' can be visualized as analogous to the 'skeleton of a human body'. The skeletal representations covered in this paper include medial axis transform (MAT), Voronoi diagram (VD), chordal axis transform (CAT), mid surface, digital skeletons, and disconnected skeletons. In the literature, the properties of a skeleton have been utilized in developing various algorithms for extracting skeletons. Three main approaches include: (1) the bisection method where the skeleton exists at equidistant from at leastmore » two points on boundary, (2) the grassfire propagation method in which the skeleton exists where the opposing fronts meet, and (3) the duality method where the skeleton is a dual of the object. In the last decade, the author has applied different skeletal representations in all-quad meshing, hex meshing, mid-surface meshing, mesh size function generation, defeaturing, and decomposition. A brief discussion on the related work from other researchers in the area of tri meshing, tet meshing, and anisotropic meshing is also included. This paper concludes by summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of the skeleton-based approaches in solving various geometry-centered problems in FE mesh generation. The skeletons have proved to be a great shape abstraction tool in analyzing the geometric complexity of CAD models as they are symmetric, simpler (reduced dimension), and provide local thickness information. However, skeletons generally require some cleanup, and stability and sensitivity of the skeletons should be controlled during extraction. Also, selecting a suitable application-specific skeleton and a computationally efficient method of extraction is critical.« less

  6. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  7. Understanding extractive bleed : wood extractives: distribution, properties, and classes

    Treesearch

    Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  9. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  10. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  11. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  12. Medico-botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A

    2011-04-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the local people. Among them the most common plants viz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Cissus quadrangularis L., Gymnema sylvestre R. Br., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., Justisia adhatoda L., Ocimum sanctum L., Phyllanthes amarus Schum. & Thonn., Piper nigrum L., Solanum nigrum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Tridax procumbens L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe which are used in their daily life to cure various ailments.

  13. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  14. Anti-obesity effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum NCDC 625 alone and in combination with herbs on high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, R; Sharma, R K; Kavadi, P K; Chagalamarri, J; Jangra, S; Bhakri, G; De, S

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation of milk fermented with indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum (LP625) alone and in combination with herbs (Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre) was investigated on high fat diet (HFD, 60 kcal% fat) fed mice for 12 weeks. Administration of LP625 alone or in combination with both herbs lowered the final body weight, however, a significant difference was observed with LP625 supplemented Gymnema sylvestre only as compared to the HFD fed group (25.06±0.18 vs 27.29±0.72 g, P<0.05). Similarly, the epididymal fat mass, fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by all treatment groups. In addition, a protective effect against the rise in serum and liver triglycerides, and in liver total cholesterol levels was found with the consumption of LP625 alone or in combination with herbs. Furthermore, the HFD fed mice showed a remarkable increase in the epididymal fat cell size, whereas administration of LP625 alone or in combination with herbs exhibited a significant decrease in the size. Finally, a significant increase in the relative mRNA expression of thermogenic proteins, i.e. uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2, 1.16±0.25 fold change, P<0.05) and a decrease in pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (1.55±0.18 and 3.10±0.58 fold change, respectively, P<0.05) were due to LP625 supplementation in the HFD fed group. This shows that LP625 alone or supplemented with herbs seems to protect against diet induced obesity by decreasing the body and epididymal fat weight through upregulation of UCP-2 expression and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  16. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  17. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  18. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  19. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  20. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  1. An Overview of Herbal Products and Secondary Metabolites Used for Management of Type Two Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Ajda; Ulrih, Nataša P.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. These are often used as treatments for diabetes, sometimes because they have lower costs, or are more accessible or “natural” compared to prescribed medications. Several vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and secondary metabolites have been reported to elicit beneficial effects in hypoglycemic actions in vivo and in vitro; however, the data remain conflicting. Many pharmaceuticals commonly used today are structurally derived from natural compounds from traditional medicinal plants. Botanicals that are most frequently used to help manage blood glucose include: bitter melon (Momordica charantia), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), gurmar (Gymnema sylvestre), ivy gourd (Coccinia indica), nopal (Opuntia spp.), ginseng, Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), psyllium (Plantago ovata), and garlic (Allium sativum). In majority of the herbal products and secondary metabolites used in treating diabetes, the mechanisms of action involve regulation of insulin signaling pathways, translocation of GLUT-4 receptor and/or activation the PPARγ. Several flavonoids inhibit glucose absorption by inhibiting intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In-depth studies to validate the efficacies and safeties of extracts of these traditional medicinal plants are needed, and large, well designed, clinical studies need to be carried out before the use of such preparations can be recommended

  2. [Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder calculi].

    PubMed

    Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R

    1984-06-29

    Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.

  3. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  4. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  5. Extraction of neptunium by trilaurylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S.K.; Swarup, R.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1972-07-01

    Trilaurylamine (TLA) is considered as useful solvent for the final purification of plutonium and neptunium. As TLA is considered as an alternate possible extractant for the final purification of plutonium and neptunium at Tarapur Reprocessing Plant under construction, it was considered necessary to study the optimum conditions for the extraction of neptunium using TLA.

  6. Traditional plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Sursagar constituency, Jodhpur, Rajasthan - An ethnomedicinal survey.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manoj

    2015-11-04

    In Jodhpur, large number of people suffering with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes). They are using medicinal plants along with modern medicine for the management of diabetes. The aim of this work is to document the anti-diabetic plants and determine the most relevant anti-diabetic plant species using the Disease Consensus Index. Ethnomedicinal survey was conducted for selection of anti-diabetic plant. Structured questionnaire was developed for calculation of Disease Consensus Index and administered to fifty Type 2 diabetic patients for recording their response. Twenty-one species of anti-diabetic plants were recorded, Momordica charantia (score: 0.71), Azadirachta indica (score: 0.64), Trigonella foenum-graecum (score: 0.63), Capparis decidua (score: 0.60), Withania coagulans (score: 0.54), Gymnema sylvestre (score: 0.52) and Syzygium cumini (score: 0.51) were the most significant anti-diabetic plants of the area of study, having DCI more than 0.5. Use of anti-diabetic plants is prevalent diabetic patients of the area. C. decidua, W. coagulans and G. sylvestre are recommend the further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation due to high DCI score and relatively unexplored status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  8. ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION COMBINED WITH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  9. Plant extracts: sense or nonsense?

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, Stephan; Berger, Ingrid; Ponholzer, Anton; Marszalek, Martin

    2008-01-01

    To assess the current role of plant extracts in the medical management of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement/benign prostatic obstruction. In 2006, two clinical trials meeting the WHO benign prostatic hyperplasia consensus conference criteria (randomized against placebo/standard therapy, study duration 12 months) were published. One trial compared a saw palmetto extract with placebo. This industry-independent trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine was negative, that is, this saw palmetto extract had no effect on symptoms, Qmax and postvoid residual volume. In another trial, a saw palmetto/urtica combination was compared with tamsulosin. After 12 months, the improvement of symptoms was identical in both study arms. No detailed data were presented, however, on Qmax, postvoid residual or prostate volume. The biological mechanisms of plant extracts in vivo are still unknown and the numerous metaanalyses cannot supplement high-quality prospective trials. Further prospective studies according to WHO benign prostatic hyperplasia standards are required to reliably determine the role of plant extracts in contemporary lower urinary tract symptoms management and to be able to answer the question in the title: 'plant extracts: sense or nonsense?' Plant extracts are currently not recommended by the American and European Association of Urology benign prostatic hyperplasia guidelines.

  10. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  12. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not...

  13. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not...

  14. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  15. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  16. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  17. Combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction.

    PubMed

    Demeler, U; Hinzpeter, E N

    1977-04-01

    A short film showing our technique of combined penetrating keratoplasty and intracapsular cataract extraction was shown, and the postoperative results in 72 eyes after an average of 3 years were reported.

  18. Subsidence Induced by Underground Extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Devin L.

    2016-01-01

    Subsidence induced by underground extraction is a class of human-induced (anthropogenic) land subsidence that principally is caused by the withdrawal of subsurface fluids (groundwater, oil, and gas) or by the underground mining of coal and other minerals.

  19. Soil Vapor Extraction Implementation Experiences

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper identifies issues and summarizes experiences with soil vapor extraction (SVE) as a remedy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils. The issues presented here reflect discussions with over 30 Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)...

  20. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  1. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans or...

  2. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans or...

  3. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is not... less than one unit per gallon. The vanilla constituent may be extracted directly from vanilla beans or...

  4. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  5. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  6. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  7. NEFI: Network Extraction From Images

    PubMed Central

    Dirnberger, M.; Kehl, T.; Neumann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Networks are amongst the central building blocks of many systems. Given a graph of a network, methods from graph theory enable a precise investigation of its properties. Software for the analysis of graphs is widely available and has been applied to study various types of networks. In some applications, graph acquisition is relatively simple. However, for many networks data collection relies on images where graph extraction requires domain-specific solutions. Here we introduce NEFI, a tool that extracts graphs from images of networks originating in various domains. Regarding previous work on graph extraction, theoretical results are fully accessible only to an expert audience and ready-to-use implementations for non-experts are rarely available or insufficiently documented. NEFI provides a novel platform allowing practitioners to easily extract graphs from images by combining basic tools from image processing, computer vision and graph theory. Thus, NEFI constitutes an alternative to tedious manual graph extraction and special purpose tools. We anticipate NEFI to enable time-efficient collection of large datasets. The analysis of these novel datasets may open up the possibility to gain new insights into the structure and function of various networks. NEFI is open source and available at http://nefi.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:26521675

  8. Piezoelectric extraction of ECG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al

    2016-11-01

    The monitoring and early detection of abnormalities or variations in the cardiac cycle functionality are very critical practices and have significant impact on the prevention of heart diseases and their associated complications. Currently, in the field of biomedical engineering, there is a growing need for devices capable of measuring and monitoring a wide range of cardiac cycle parameters continuously, effectively and on a real-time basis using easily accessible and reusable probes. In this paper, the revolutionary generation and extraction of the corresponding ECG signal using a piezoelectric transducer as alternative for the ECG will be discussed. The piezoelectric transducer pick up the vibrations from the heart beats and convert them into electrical output signals. To this end, piezoelectric and signal processing techniques were employed to extract the ECG corresponding signal from the piezoelectric output voltage signal. The measured electrode based and the extracted piezoelectric based ECG traces are well corroborated. Their peaks amplitudes and locations are well aligned with each other.

  9. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-07

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  10. [Efficient extraction of transmembrane proteins using ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit].

    PubMed

    Błachnio, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Detergents commonly used for solubilization of membrane proteins may be ionic or non-ionic. Exposing membrane proteins to detergents, however, can adversely affect their native structure, which can be a major hindrance for functional studies. This is especially true for proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. The ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit (TM-PEK), offered by Merck, provides a detergent-free novel reagents to enable the mild and efficient extraction of proteins containing seven transmembrane domains, such as GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) e.g.: Frizzled-4 and CELSR-3, from mammalian cells. The fraction enriched in transmembrane proteins using TM-PEK is directly compatible with enzyme assays, non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, 1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE, MS analysis, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA. Unlike many alternatives, TM-PEK extraction procedure does not require sonication, extended rigorous vortexing, ultracentrifugation, or incubation of samples at elevated temperatures--thus minimizing the risk of post-extraction degradation or modifications.

  11. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ≥ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. PMID:28933376

  12. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  13. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  14. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  15. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  16. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meat extract. 319.720 Section 319.720 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY..., Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25 percent...

  17. TES: A Text Extraction System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, A.; Hui, S. C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how TES, a text extraction system, is able to electronically retrieve a set of sentences from a document to form an indicative abstract. Discusses various text abstraction techniques and related work in the area, provides an overview of the TES system, and compares system results against manually produced abstracts. (LAM)

  18. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  19. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  20. Uranium extraction: Fuel from seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Tsouris, Costas; Oak Ridge National Lab.

    2017-02-17

    Over four billion tonnes of uranium are currently in the oceans that could be harvested for nuclear fuel, but current capture methods have limited performance and reusability. Now, an electrochemical method using modified carbon electrodes is shown to be promising for the extraction of uranium from seawater.

  1. Development of new natural extracts.

    PubMed

    Lavoine-Hanneguelle, Sophie; Périchet, Christine; Schnaebele, Nicolas; Humbert, Marina

    2014-11-01

    For over the past 20 years, a remarkable development in the study and search of natural products has been observed. This is linked to a new market trend towards ecology and also due to new regulations. This could be a rupture, but also a real booster for creativity. Usually, in the flavor and fragrance field, creativity was boosted by the arrival of new synthetic molecules. Naturals remained the traditional, century-old products, protected by secrecy and specific know-how from each company. Regulatory restrictions or eco-friendly certification constraints like hexane-free processes triggered an important brainstorming in the industry. As a result, we developed new eco-friendly processes including supercritical CO2 extraction, allowing fresh plants to be used to obtain industrial flower extracts (Jasmine Grandiflorum, Jasmine Sambac, Orange blossom). These extracts are analyzed by GC, GC/MS, GCO, and HPTLC techniques. New or unusual raw materials can also be explored, but the resulting extracts have to be tested for safety reasons. Some examples are described. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  3. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  5. [Studies on extraction process of Radix Platycodi].

    PubMed

    Wu, Biyuan; Sun, Jun; Jiang, Hongfang

    2002-06-01

    The orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction process of Radix Platycodi with content of total saponin and yield of the extract as markers. Factors that have been chosen were alcohol concentration, alcohol consumption, extraction times and extraction time. Each factor has three levels. The result showed that the optimum extraction condition obtained was 70% alcohol, 3 times the amount of material, refluxing for 5 times, 60 minutes each time, the optimized process was stable and workable.

  6. [Study on extraction process of Radix Bupleuri].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Liu, Benliang; Wu, Fuxiang; Tao, Lanping; Liu, Jian

    2004-10-01

    The orthogonal design was used to optimize extraction process of Radix Bupleuri with content of total saponin and yield of the extract as markers. Factors that have been chosen were ethanol concentration, ethanol consumption, extraction times and extraction time. Each factor had three levels. The result showed that the optimum extraction condition was 80% ethanol, 4 times the amount of material, refluxing for 4 times, 60 minutes each time. The optimized process was stable and workable.

  7. [Study on extraction process of zhanjin ruji].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-qian; Du, Tian-xin; Wang, Zhong-dong; Li, Gen-lin

    2003-01-01

    To select the optimum extraction process of Zhanjin Ruji. To observe influence of extraction time upon the extraction rate of volatile oil, the orthogonal test was adopted to observe the extraction process by alcohol from the extraction rate and content of the total saponins in Radix Notoginseng. The three kinds of herbs including Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Resina Olibani and Myrrha were extracted with water for 3 hours, 95% of volatile oil can be distilled. The three kinds of herbs including Radix Notoginseng, Herba Lycopodii and Radix Gentianae Macrophyllac were extracted by alcohol. Four factors such as alcohol concentration(A), extraction times(B), extraction time(C), and solvent amount(D), had not significant effect on the content of total saponins in Radix Notoginseng in herbal extraction, but factor A and B had significant effect on the extraction rate. The optimum extraction process was as follows extracted with 5 times the amount of the solvent volum 60% alcohol for 3 times and with each time for 1 hour. Three times experiments showed that the extraction rate was 26.5% and the content of the total saponins in Radix Notoginseng was 17.28% mg.g-1. The above experimental results can provide experimental basis for deciding the extraction process of Zhanjin Ruji.

  8. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  9. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, N.R.

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of amore » fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.« less

  10. Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Internation Flavors and Fragrances Inc. proprietary research technology, Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) utilizes a special fiber needle placed directly next to the bloom of the living flower to collect the fragrance molecules. SPME was used in the Space Flower experiment aboard STS-95 space shuttle mission, after which Dr. Braja Mookherjee (left) and Subha Patel of IFF will analyze the effects of gravity on the Overnight Scentsation rose plant.

  11. Information based universal feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  12. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximatelymore » 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.« less

  13. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: a comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Meng, Bingjun; Lu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yu; Tao, Shu

    2007-10-29

    The methods of simultaneous extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from soils using Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were established, and the extraction efficiencies using the three methods were systemically compared from procedural blank, limits of detection and quantification, method recovery and reproducibility, method chromatogram and other factors. In addition, soils with different total organic carbon contents were used to test the extraction efficiencies of the three methods. The results showed that the values obtained in this study were comparable with the values reported by other studies. In some respects such as method recovery and reproducibility, there were no significant differences among the three methods for the extraction of PAHs and OCPs. In some respects such as procedural blank and limits of detection and quantification, there were significant differences among the three methods. Overall, ASE had the best extraction efficiency compared to MAE and Soxhlet extraction, and the extraction efficiencies of MAE and Soxhlet extraction were comparable to each other depending on the property such as TOC content of the studied soil. Considering other factors such as solvent consumption and extraction time, ASE and MAE are preferable to Soxhlet extraction.

  14. Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-28

      Vertical Feature Mask Feature Classification Flag Extraction This routine demonstrates extraction of the ... in a CALIPSO Lidar Level 2 Vertical Feature Mask feature classification flag value. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) ...

  15. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  16. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  17. Chassis unit insert tightening-extract device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haerther, L. W.; Zimmerman, P. A. (Inventor)

    1964-01-01

    The invention relates to the insertion and extraction of rack mounted electronic units and in particular to a screw thread insert tightening and extract device, for chassis units having a collar which may be rotatably positioned manually for the insert tightening or extraction of various associated chassis units, as desired.

  18. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  19. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  20. Gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handmer, Casey J.; Szilágyi, Béla; Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster spectral Einstein code (SpEC).

  1. PROCESS FOR UTILIZING ORGANIC ORTHOPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1958-11-11

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores, the steps comprising producing the uranium in solution in the trivalent state, extracting the uranium from solution in an lmmiscible organic solvent extract phase which lncludes mono and dialkyl orthophosphorlc acid esters having a varying number of carbon atoms on the alkyl substituent, amd recovering the uranium from tbe extract phase.

  2. Lipid extraction from isolated single nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnov, I. V.

    1977-01-01

    A method of extracting lipids from single neurons isolated from lyophilized tissue is described. The method permits the simultaneous extraction of lipids from 30-40 nerve cells and for each cell provides equal conditions of solvent removal at the conclusion of extraction.

  3. Extractives in eastern hardwoods : a review

    Treesearch

    John W. Rowe

    1979-01-01

    This report extensively reviews the chemistry of extractives from wood and bark of hardwoods from the eastern United States. While such extractives are not used to a great extent commercially, they may influence properties of the wood and performance of wood products. For example, extractives can protect wood from decay, add color and odor to wood, accent grain pattern...

  4. Keyword extraction by nonextensivity measure.

    PubMed

    Mehri, Ali; Darooneh, Amir H

    2011-05-01

    The presence of a long-range correlation in the spatial distribution of a relevant word type, in spite of random occurrences of an irrelevant word type, is an important feature of human-written texts. We classify the correlation between the occurrences of words by nonextensive statistical mechanics for the word-ranking process. In particular, we look at the nonextensivity parameter as an alternative metric to measure the spatial correlation in the text, from which the words may be ranked in terms of this measure. Finally, we compare different methods for keyword extraction. © 2011 American Physical Society

  5. Parameter extraction and transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rykken, Charles; Meiser, Verena; Turner, Greg; Wang, QI

    1985-01-01

    Using specified mathematical models of the MOSFET device, the optimal values of the model-dependent parameters were extracted from data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Three MOSFET models, all one-dimensional were used. One of the models took into account diffusion (as well as convection) currents. The sensitivity of the models was assessed for variations of the parameters from their optimal values. Lines of future inquiry are suggested on the basis of the behavior of the devices, of the limitations of the proposed models, and of the complexity of the required numerical investigations.

  6. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  7. The extractive metallurgy of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongolo, K.; Mwema, M. D.

    1998-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been successfully used in investigation of the gold compounds present in ores and the gold species which occur during the process metallurgy of this metal. This paper is a survey of the basic recovery methods and techniques used in extractive metallurgy of gold. Process fundamentals on mineral processing, ore leaching, zinc dust cementation, adsorption on activated carbon, electrowinning and refining are examined. The recovery of gold as a by-product of the copper industry is also described. Alternative processing methods are indicated in order to shed light on new interesting research topics where Mössbauer spectroscopy could be applied.

  8. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  9. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  10. Ion extraction from a plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes governing ion extraction from a plasma have been examined experimentally. The screen hole plasma sheath (the transition region wherein significant ion acceleration and complete electron retardation occurs) has been defined by equipotential plots for a variety of ion accelerator system geometries and operating conditions. It was found that the screen hole plasma sheath extends over a large distance, and influences ion and electron trajectories at least 15 Debye lengths within the discharge chamber. The electron density variation within the screen hole plasma sheath satisfied a Maxwell-Boltzmann density distribution at an effective electron temperature dependent on the discharge plasma primary-to-Maxwellian electron density ratio. Plasma ion flow up to and through the sheath was predominantly one-dimensional, and the ions entered the sheath region with a modified Bohm velocity. Low values of the screen grid thickness to screen hole diameter ratio were found to give good ion focusing and high extracted ion currents because of the effect of screen webbing on ion focusing.

  11. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-10-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Jasmine flower extract lowers prolactin.

    PubMed

    Finny, Philip; Stephen, Charles; Jacob, Rajesh; Tharyan, Prathap; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-04-01

    Antipsychotic drugs frequently cause amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. Jasmine flowers used topically were as effective as oral Bromocriptine in suppressing puerperal lactation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal jasmine flower extract (JFE) to reduce prolactin levels of patients on stable doses of antipsychotic drugs. This is a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial. An aqueous-ethanol extract of jasmine flowers was prepared and used as nasal drops. A decrease in serum prolactin of ≥25 ng/mL was considered a significant response. Ten out of 35 women had a significant drop in the serum prolactin while on the JFE. The non-responders to JFE were on higher doses of antipsychotic drugs. The main side effect was a transient and mild burning sensation in the nose. A cost analysis favoured JFE over dopamine agonists. JFE contains a prolactin-lowering substance which needs further characterisation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  14. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  15. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  16. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  17. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  18. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  19. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  1. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  2. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  4. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  7. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  8. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  9. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  11. [Study on condition for extraction of arctiin from fruits of Arctium lappa using supercritical fluid extraction].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-hong; Liu, Ben

    2006-08-01

    To study the feasibility of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for arctiin from the fruits of Arctium lappa. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC, optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. The optimal extraction conditions were: pressure 40 MPa, temperature 70 degrees C, using methanol as modifier carrier at the rate of 0.55 mL x min(-1), static extraction time 5 min, dynamic extraction 30 min, flow rate of CO2 2 L x min(-1). SFE has the superiority of adjustable polarity, and has the ability of extracting arctiin.

  12. Bioactivity studies of extracts from Tridax procumbens.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    2000-06-01

    An updated review on the biological activity of Tridax procumbens is presented. A detailed biological screening comprised of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi using crude extracts of this plant was undertaken. The n-hexane extract of the flowers showed activity against Escherichia coli. The same extract of the whole aerial parts was active against Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Salmonella paratyphi. The ethyl-acetate extract of the flowers was active against Bacillus cereus and Klebsiella sp. The aerial parts extract also showed activity only against Mycobacterium smegmatis and Staphylococcus aureus, while the aqueous extract showed no antimicrobial activity. None of the tested extracts was active against the yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula rubra; or the fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp. and Trichophyton rubrum.

  13. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  14. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  15. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    PubMed

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects.

  16. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  17. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  18. High recall document content extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Chang; Baird, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    We report methodologies for computing high-recall masks for document image content extraction, that is, the location and segmentation of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. The resulting segmentation is pixel-accurate, which accommodates arbitrary zone shapes (not merely rectangles). We describe experiments showing that iterated classifiers can increase recall of all content types, with little loss of precision. We also introduce two methodological enhancements: (1) a multi-stage voting rule; and (2) a scoring policy that views blank pixels as a "don't care" class with other content classes. These enhancements improve both recall and precision, achieving at least 89% recall and at least 87% precision among three content types: machine-print, handwriting, and photo.

  19. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  20. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way ofmore » the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.« less

  1. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, recirculation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; iso-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for (co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  2. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  3. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  5. Reactive extraction at liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieszczycka, Karolina

    2018-01-01

    The chapter summarizes the state of knowledge about a metal transport in two-phase system. The first part of this review focuses on the distribution law and main factors determination in classical solvent extraction (solubility and polarity of the solute, as well as inter- and intramolecules interaction. Next part of the chapter is devoted to the reactive solvent extraction and the molecular modeling requiring knowledge on type of extractants, complexation mechanisms, metals ions speciation and oxidation during complexes forming, and other parameters that enable to understand the extraction process. Also the kinetic data that is needed for proper modeling, simulation and design of processes needed for critical separations are discussed. Extraction at liquid-solid system using solvent impregnated resins is partially identical as in the case of the corresponding solvent extraction, therefore this subject was also presented in all aspects of separation process (equilibrium, mechanism, kinetics).

  6. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  7. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  8. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of leaf and stem extract of Santalum album

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Giriram; Jeyraaj, Indira A.; Jeyaraaj, R.; Loganathan, P.

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract leaf and stem of Santalum album was performed against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas. S. album leaf extract showed inhibition to E.coli (0.8mm), Staphylococcus aureus (1.0mm) and Pseudomonas (1.4mm) were as stem extract showed inhibition on E.coli (0.6mm), Staphylococcus aureus (0.4mm) and seudomonas (1.0mm) respectively. However leaf extract showed significantly higher inhibition when compared to stem extract. This might be due to presence of higher amount of secondary metabolites in the aqueous leaf extract. PMID:22557199

  10. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  11. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    PubMed

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  12. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  13. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOEpatents

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  15. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  16. Parameter extraction with neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzanti, Luca; Khan, Mumit; Cerrina, Franco

    1998-06-01

    In semiconductor processing, the modeling of the process is becoming more and more important. While the ultimate goal is that of developing a set of tools for designing a complete process (Technology CAD), it is also necessary to have modules to simulate the various technologies and, in particular, to optimize specific steps. This need is particularly acute in lithography, where the continuous decrease in CD forces the technologies to operate near their limits. In the development of a 'model' for a physical process, we face several levels of challenges. First, it is necessary to develop a 'physical model,' i.e. a rational description of the process itself on the basis of know physical laws. Second, we need an 'algorithmic model' to represent in a virtual environment the behavior of the 'physical model.' After a 'complete' model has been developed and verified, it becomes possible to do performance analysis. In many cases the input parameters are poorly known or not accessible directly to experiment. It would be extremely useful to obtain the values of these 'hidden' parameters from experimental results by comparing model to data. This is particularly severe, because the complexity and costs associated with semiconductor processing make a simple 'trial-and-error' approach infeasible and cost- inefficient. Even when computer models of the process already exists, obtaining data through simulations may be time consuming. Neural networks (NN) are powerful computational tools to predict the behavior of a system from an existing data set. They are able to adaptively 'learn' input/output mappings and to act as universal function approximators. In this paper we use artificial neural networks to build a mapping from the input parameters of the process to output parameters which are indicative of the performance of the process. Once the NN has been 'trained,' it is also possible to observe the process 'in reverse,' and to extract the values of the inputs which yield outputs

  17. Do prevailing XAD extraction methods used to generate extracts from disinfected water adequately link extract toxicology to disinfected water chemistry?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivation: It is common to use XAD resins to extract disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from disinfected water. The resulting extract is used in toxicological assays to study the effects of DBP mixtures and has been considered representative of the original disinfected water. Howeve...

  18. Improvements in aircraft extraction programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flight data from an F-8 Corsair and a Cessna 172 was analyzed to demonstrate specific improvements in the LRC parameter extraction computer program. The Cramer-Rao bounds were shown to provide a satisfactory relative measure of goodness of parameter estimates. It was not used as an absolute measure due to an inherent uncertainty within a multiplicative factor, traced in turn to the uncertainty in the noise bandwidth in the statistical theory of parameter estimation. The measure was also derived on an entirely nonstatistical basis, yielding thereby also an interpretation of the significance of off-diagonal terms in the dispersion matrix. The distinction between coefficients as linear and non-linear was shown to be important in its implication to a recommended order of parameter iteration. Techniques of improving convergence generally, were developed, and tested out on flight data. In particular, an easily implemented modification incorporating a gradient search was shown to improve initial estimates and thus remove a common cause for lack of convergence.

  19. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  20. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  1. Effects of a Stimulant-Free Dietary Supplement on Body Weight and Fat Loss in Obese Adults: A Six-Week Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. Methods: In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20–50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m2) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Results: Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21–48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m2 [range, 28.9–50.9 kg/m2]) were assigned to the treatment

  2. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume was prepared as part of an evaluation of groundwater extraction remedies completed under EPA Contract No. 68-W8-0098. It presents 19 case studies of individual sites where ground-water extraction systems have been implemented. These case studies present site characte...

  3. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  4. Extractive waste management: A risk analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neha; Dino, Giovanna Antonella; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Lasagna, Manuela; Romè, Chiara; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Abandoned mine sites continue to present serious environmental hazards because the heavy metals associated with extractive waste are continuously released into the environment, where they threaten human life and the environment. Remediating and securing extractive waste are complex, lengthy and costly processes. Thus, in most European countries, a site is considered for intervention when it poses a risk to human health and the surrounding environment. As a consequence, risk analysis presents a viable decisional approach towards the management of extractive waste. To evaluate the effects posed by extractive waste to human health and groundwater, a risk analysis approach was used for an abandoned nickel extraction site in Campello Monti in North Italy. This site is located in the Southern Italian Alps. The area consists of large and voluminous mafic rocks intruded by mantle peridotite. The mining activities in this area have generated extractive waste. A risk analysis of the site was performed using Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) guidelines, considering the properties of extractive waste and water for the properties of environmental matrices. The results showed the presence of carcinogenic risk due to arsenic and risks to groundwater due to nickel. The results of the risk analysis form a basic understanding of the current situation at the site, which is affected by extractive waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  6. [The evolution of vacuum extraction in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum extraction is one of the methods for assisted vaginal delivery. In this article the evolution of vacuum extraction in obstetrics is been discussed. Historical facts and data from the invention up to state-of-the-art vacuum systems in modern obstetrics are presented.

  7. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. Annatto extract may be safely used for...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mixtures for coloring ingested drugs. (b) Uses and restrictions. Annatto extract may be safely used for...

  9. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  10. EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION REMEDIES - VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume is the third of a three-volume report documenting the results of an evaluation of ground-water extraction remedies at hazardous waste sites. It consists of a collection of 112 data base reports presenting general information on sites where ground-water extraction sys...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1030 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annatto extract. 73.1030 Section 73.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...) The color additive annatto extract shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  14. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.520 Hemicellulose extract. Hemicellulose extract may be safely used in animal feed when incorporated therein in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The additive is produced...

  15. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  16. Recent patents on the extraction of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Riggi, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the patents that have been presented during the last decade related to the extraction of carotenoids from various forms of organic matter (fruit, vegetables, animals), with an emphasis on the methods and mechanisms exploited by these technologies, and on technical solutions for the practical problems related to these technologies. I present and classify 29 methods related to the extraction processes (physical, mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic). The large number of processes for extraction by means of supercritical fluids and the growing number of large-scale industrial plants suggest a positive trend towards using this technique that is currently slowed by its cost. This trend should be reinforced by growing restrictions imposed on the use of most organic solvents for extraction of food products and by increasingly strict waste management regulations that are indirectly promoting the use of extraction processes that leave the residual (post-extraction) matrix substantially free from solvents and compounds that must subsequently be removed or treated. None of the reviewed approaches is the best answer for every extractable compound and source, so each should be considered as one of several alternatives, including the use of a combination of extraction approaches.

  17. Extraction of Caffeine--A Modern Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul Shea; Smith, Eileen Patricia

    1969-01-01

    Describes an organic chemistry experiment suitable for high school students in second year or an advanced chemistry course. The techniques for the extraction and purification of caffeine from various household materials are described. Further experimentation with the extracted caffeine is suggested. (LC)

  18. IN SITU SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is designed to physically remove volatile compounds, generally from the vadose or unsaturated zone. t is an in situ process employing vapor extraction wells alone or in combination with air injection wells. acuum blowers supply the motive force, induci...

  19. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  20. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  1. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  2. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

    1996-12-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  3. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  4. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S M; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undiluted (0.2 ml per application) to the shorn dorsal skin twice weekly for up to 78 weeks, with 48 mice in each treatment group and 96 in the untreated control group; two further groups, each of 48 mice, were similarly treated either with a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract (PCA content, 19.7% w/v) or with a low dose of benzo(a)pyrene (12.5 micrograms/ml acetone). The mice were housed individually in polypropylene cages in specified pathogen free conditions. The incidence of cutaneous and systemic tumours was determined from histological analysis of haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. The results were correlated with the PCA content of the extracts and compared with those from female mice exposed to a non-hydrotreated commercial aromatic extract. Four of the hydrotreated extracts were carcinogenic for murine skin; the two products with the lower PCA contents were less carcinogenic than the products with the higher PCA contents and all were less carcinogenic than the commercial extract. One extract with the lowest PCA content was non-carcinogenic. Thus refining by severe hydrotreatment was an effective method of reducing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum aromatic extracts. Although other physicochemical properties may influence the biological activity of oil products, the PCA content determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction may be a useful indicator of the potential of oil products to induce cutaneous tumours in experimental animals. There was no

  5. Hypoxia affects cellular responses to plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Liew, Sien-Yei; Stanbridge, Eric J; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah

    2012-11-21

    Microenvironmental conditions contribute towards varying cellular responses to plant extract treatments. Hypoxic cancer cells are known to be resistant to radio- and chemo-therapy. New therapeutic strategies specifically targeting these cells are needed. Plant extracts used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can offer promising candidates. Despite their widespread usage, information on their effects in hypoxic conditions is still lacking. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of a series of known TCM plant extracts under normoxic versus hypoxic conditions. Pereskia grandifolia, Orthosiphon aristatus, Melastoma malabathricum, Carica papaya, Strobilanthes crispus, Gynura procumbens, Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides, Pereskia bleo and Clinacanthus nutans leaves were dried, blended into powder form, extracted in methanol and evaporated to produce crude extracts. Human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were treated with various concentrations of the plant extracts under normoxia or hypoxia (0.5% oxygen). 24h after treatment, an MTT assay was performed and the IC(50) values were calculated. Effect of the extracts on hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) activity was evaluated using a hypoxia-driven firefly luciferase reporter assay. The relative cytotoxicity of each plant extract on Saos-2 cells was different in hypoxic versus normoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased the IC(50) values for Pereskia grandifola and Orthosiphon aristatus extracts, but decreased the IC(50) values for Melastoma malabathricum and Carica papaya extracts. Extracts of Strobilanthes crispus, Gynura procumbens, Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides had equivalent cytotoxic effects under both conditions. Pereskia bleo and Clinacanthus nutans extracts were not toxic to cells within the concentration ranges tested. The most interesting result was noted for the Carica papaya extract, where its IC(50) in hypoxia was reduced by 3-fold when compared to the normoxic condition. This reduction was found to be associated with HIF

  6. Clinical research of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Guo, S G; Guan, S H; Wang, G M; Liu, G Y; Sun, H; Wang, B J; Xu, F

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to compare the curative effects of persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of headache and dizziness caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sixty patients were observed, who underwent therapy with persimmon leaf extract and ginkgo biloba extract based on the treatment of nimodipine and aspirin. After 30 days, 30 patients treated with persimmon leaf extract and 30 patients with ginkgo biloba extract were examined for changes in hemodynamic indexes and symptoms, such as headache and dizziness. The results showed statistically significant differences of 88.3% for the persimmon leaf extract and 73.1% for the ginkgo biloba extract, P < 0.05. Compared to the group of ginkgo biloba extract, the group of persimmon leaf extract had more apparent improvement in the whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematokrit, and platelet adhesion rate, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Based on these analyses, it can be concluded that persimmon leaf extract is better than ginkgo biloba extract in many aspects, such as cerebral circulation improvement, cerebral vascular expansion, hypercoagulable state lowering and vertebrobasilar insufficiency-induced headache and dizziness relief.

  7. Natural colorants: Pigment stability and extraction yield enhancement via utilization of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-13

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration, and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have been widely used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in terms of smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time, and more environment-friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this paper, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using pigment stability and extraction yield as assessment criteria.

  8. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  9. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  10. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  11. Total lipid extraction of homogenized and intact lean fish muscles using pressurized fluid extraction and batch extraction techniques.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Eriksson, Ulla; Odham, Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2005-07-13

    The reliability and efficiency of pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) technique for the extraction of total lipid content from cod and the effect of sample treatment on the extraction efficiency have been evaluated. The results were compared with two liquid-liquid extraction methods, traditional and modified methods according to Jensen. Optimum conditions were found to be with 2-propanol/n-hexane (65:35, v/v) as a first and n-hexane/diethyl ether (90:10, v/v) as a second solvent, 115 degrees C, and 10 min of static time. PFE extracts were cleaned up using the same procedure as in the methods according to Jensen. When total lipid yields obtained from homogenized cod muscle using PFE were compared yields obtained with original and modified Jensen methods, PFE gave significantly higher yields, approximately 10% higher (t test, P < 0.05). Infrared and NMR spectroscopy suggested that the additional material that inflates the gravimetric results is rather homogeneous and is primarily consists of phospholipid with headgroups of inositidic and/or glycosidic nature. The comparative study demonstrated that PFE is an alternative suitable technique to extract total lipid content from homogenized cod (lean fish) and herring (fat fish) muscle showing a precision comparable to that obtained with the traditional and modified Jensen methods. Despite the necessary cleanup step, PFE showed important advantages in the solvent consumption was cut by approximately 50% and automated extraction was possible.

  12. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  14. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (<0.2 µm) P that, at least partly, took place at the expense of the large-sized (>0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP

  15. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distancemore » required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.« less

  16. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  17. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  18. Frequency of data extraction errors and methods to increase data extraction quality: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Tim; Klaßen, Pauline; Pieper, Dawid

    2017-11-28

    Our objective was to assess the frequency of data extraction errors and its potential impact on results in systematic reviews. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different extraction methods, reviewer characteristics and reviewer training on error rates and results. We performed a systematic review of methodological literature in PubMed, Cochrane methodological registry, and by manual searches (12/2016). Studies were selected by two reviewers independently. Data were extracted in standardized tables by one reviewer and verified by a second. The analysis included six studies; four studies on extraction error frequency, one study comparing different reviewer extraction methods and two studies comparing different reviewer characteristics. We did not find a study on reviewer training. There was a high rate of extraction errors (up to 50%). Errors often had an influence on effect estimates. Different data extraction methods and reviewer characteristics had moderate effect on extraction error rates and effect estimates. The evidence base for established standards of data extraction seems weak despite the high prevalence of extraction errors. More comparative studies are needed to get deeper insights into the influence of different extraction methods.

  19. Enzyme assisted extraction of biomolecules as an approach to novel extraction technology: A review.

    PubMed

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Rao, Priyanka; Rathod, Virendra K

    2018-06-01

    An interest in the development of extraction techniques of biomolecules from various natural sources has increased in recent years due to their potential applications particularly for food and nutraceutical purposes. The presence of polysaccharides such as hemicelluloses, starch, pectin inside the cell wall, reduces the extraction efficiency of conventional extraction techniques. Conventional techniques also suffer from low extraction yields, time inefficiency and inferior extract quality due to traces of organic solvents present in them. Hence, there is a need of the green and novel extraction methods to recover biomolecules. The present review provides a holistic insight to various aspects related to enzyme aided extraction. Applications of enzymes in the recovery of various biomolecules such as polyphenols, oils, polysaccharides, flavours and colorants have been highlighted. Additionally, the employment of hyphenated extraction technologies can overcome some of the major drawbacks of enzyme based extraction such as longer extraction time and immoderate use of solvents. This review also includes hyphenated intensification techniques by coupling conventional methods with ultrasound, microwave, high pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide. The last section gives an insight on application of enzyme immobilization as a strategy for large scale extraction. Immobilization of enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles can be employed to enhance the operational performance of the system by multiple use of expensive enzymes making them industrially and economically feasible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A review on solid phase extraction of actinides and lanthanides with amide based extractants.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K

    2017-05-26

    Solid phase extraction is gaining attention from separation scientists due to its high chromatographic utility. Though both grafted and impregnated forms of solid phase extraction resins are popular, the later is easy to make by impregnating a given organic extractant on to an inert solid support. Solid phase extraction on an impregnated support, also known as extraction chromatography, combines the advantages of liquid-liquid extraction and the ion exchange chromatography methods. On the flip side, the impregnated extraction chromatographic resins are less stable against leaching out of the organic extractant from the pores of the support material. Grafted resins, on the other hand, have a higher stability, which allows their prolong use. The goal of this article is a brief literature review on reported actinide and lanthanide separation methods based on solid phase extractants of both the types, i.e., (i) ligand impregnation on the solid support or (ii) ligand functionalized polymers (chemically bonded resins). Though the literature survey reveals an enormous volume of studies on the extraction chromatographic separation of actinides and lanthanides using several extractants, the focus of the present article is limited to the work carried out with amide based ligands, viz. monoamides, diamides and diglycolamides. The emphasis will be on reported applied experimental results rather than on data pertaining fundamental metal complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential of mangrove Avicennia rumphiana extract as an antioxidant agent using multilevel extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulmartiwi, L.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Jariyah

    2018-04-01

    Avicennia rumphiana is one of abundant mangrove found in Indonesia. Multilevel extraction methods were simultaneously conducted to screen the antioxidant activity from mangrove. The leaves, fruits and barks were consequently extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The presence of phenolic, flavonoids and tannins compounds were characterized by quantitative and qualitative phytochemical assay as well as the antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH-free radical scavenging assay. The phytochemical test revealed that all of the extracts showed positive result. The fruits extract exhibited the highest phenolic, flavonoid and tannin (23.86 mg/g, 13.77 mg/g and 74.63 mg/g), respectively. The extracts were further confirmed for antioxidant using IC50 value and revealed that ethyl acetate extract has antioxidant activity better than n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract. Furthermore, this study indicated that mangrove Avicennia rumphiana could be subsequently explored for other biological activities due to their potential secondary metabolites.

  2. [DNA extraction from bones and teeth using AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Lin; Xu, Nian-Lai; Xie, Wei; Ding, Shao-Cheng; Wang, Dong-Jing; Ma, Li-Qin; Li, You-Ying

    2013-04-01

    To explore a new method in order to extract DNA from bones and teeth automatically. Samples of 33 bones and 15 teeth were acquired by freeze-mill method and manual method, respectively. DNA materials were extracted and quantified from the triturated samples by AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. DNA extraction from bones and teeth were completed in 3 hours using the AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. There was no statistical difference between the two methods in the DNA concentration of bones. Both bones and teeth got the good STR typing by freeze-mill method, and the DNA concentration of teeth was higher than those by manual method. AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system is a new method to extract DNA from bones and teeth, which can be applied in forensic practice.

  3. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the systemmore » reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  5. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  6. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  7. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  8. Experience improves feature extraction in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yueqing; Xi, Wang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Guo, Aike

    2007-05-09

    Previous exposure to a pattern in the visual scene can enhance subsequent recognition of that pattern in many species from honeybees to humans. However, whether previous experience with a visual feature of an object, such as color or shape, can also facilitate later recognition of that particular feature from multiple visual features is largely unknown. Visual feature extraction is the ability to select the key component from multiple visual features. Using a visual flight simulator, we designed a novel protocol for visual feature extraction to investigate the effects of previous experience on visual reinforcement learning in Drosophila. We found that, after conditioning with a visual feature of objects among combinatorial shape-color features, wild-type flies exhibited poor ability to extract the correct visual feature. However, the ability for visual feature extraction was greatly enhanced in flies trained previously with that visual feature alone. Moreover, we demonstrated that flies might possess the ability to extract the abstract category of "shape" but not a particular shape. Finally, this experience-dependent feature extraction is absent in flies with defective MBs, one of the central brain structures in Drosophila. Our results indicate that previous experience can enhance visual feature extraction in Drosophila and that MBs are required for this experience-dependent visual cognition.

  9. Smooth light extraction in lighting optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; Garcia-Botella, A.; Martinez-Anton, J. C.; Bernabeu, E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in LED technology have relegated the use of optical fibre for general lighting, but there are several applications where it can be used as scanners lighting systems, daylight, cultural heritage lighting, sensors, explosion risky spaces, etc. Nowadays the use of high intensity LED to inject light in optical fibre increases the possibility of conjugate fibre + LED for lighting applications. New optical fibres of plastic materials, high core diameter up to 12.6 mm transmit light with little attenuation in the visible spectrum but there is no an efficient and controlled way to extract the light during the fibre path. Side extracting fibres extracts all the light on 2π angle so is not well suited for controlled lighting. In this paper we present an extraction system for mono-filament optical fibre which provides efficient and controlled light distribution. These lighting parameters can be controlled with an algorithm that set the position, depth and shape of the optical extraction system. The extraction system works by total internal reflection in the core of the fibre with high efficiency and low cost. A 10 m length prototype is made with 45° sectional cuts in the fibre core as extraction system. The system is tested with a 1W white LED illuminator in one side.

  10. Methanol Generates Numerous Artifacts during Sample Extraction and Storage of Extracts in Metabolomics Research

    PubMed Central

    Sauerschnig, Claudia; Doppler, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Many metabolomics studies use mixtures of (acidified) methanol and water for sample extraction. In the present study, we investigated if the extraction with methanol can result in artifacts. To this end, wheat leaves were extracted with mixtures of native and deuterium-labeled methanol and water, with or without 0.1% formic acid. Subsequently, the extracts were analyzed immediately or after storage at 10 °C, −20 °C or −80 °C with an HPLC-HESI-QExactive HF-Orbitrap instrument. Our results showed that 88 (8%) of the >1100 detected compounds were derived from the reaction with methanol and either formed during sample extraction or short-term storage. Artifacts were found for various substance classes such as flavonoids, carotenoids, tetrapyrrols, fatty acids and other carboxylic acids that are typically investigated in metabolomics studies. 58 of 88 artifacts were common between the two tested extraction variants. Remarkably, 34 of 73 (acidified extraction solvent) and 33 of 73 (non-acidified extraction solvent) artifacts were formed de novo as none of these meth(ox)ylated metabolites were found after extraction of native leaf samples with CD3OH/H2O. Moreover, sample extracts stored at 10 °C for several days, as can typically be the case during longer measurement sequences, led to an increase in both the number and abundance of methylated artifacts. In contrast, frozen sample extracts were relatively stable during a storage period of one week. Our study shows that caution has to be exercised if methanol is used as the extraction solvent as the detected metabolites might be artifacts rather than natural constituents of the biological system. In addition, we recommend storing sample extracts in deep freezers immediately after extraction until measurement. PMID:29271872

  11. Nootropic effect of meadowsweet (Filipendula vulgaris) extracts.

    PubMed

    Shilova, I V; Suslov, N I

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the extracts of the aboveground parts of Filipendula vulgaris Moench on the behavior and memory of mice after hypoxic injury and their physical performance in the open-field test were studied using the models of hypoxia in a sealed volume, conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR), and forced swimming with a load. The extracts improved animal resistance to hypoxia, normalized orientation and exploration activities, promoted CPAR retention after hypoxic injury, and increased physical performance. Aqueous extract of meadowsweet had the most pronounced effect that corresponded to the effect of the reference drug piracetam. These effects were probably caused by modulation of hippocampal activity.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Gentiana lutea L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Savikin, Katarina; Menković, Nebojsa; Zdunić, Gordana; Stević, Tatjana; Radanović, Dragoja; Janković, Teodora

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of flowers and leaves of Gentiana lutea L., together with the isolated compounds mangiferin, isogentisin and gentiopicrin, were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant. A variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the yeast Candida albicans has been included in this study. Both extracts and isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity with MIC values ranging from 0.12-0.31 mg/ml. Our study indicated that the synergistic activity of the pure compounds may be responsible for the good antimicrobial effect of the extracts. Quantification of the secondary metabolites was performed using HPLC.

  13. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  14. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM BY EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for the recovery and separation of uranium and thorium values contained in an aqueous nitric acid solution which is more than 3 M in nitric acid. The uranium and thorium containing solution preferable about 7 M in nitric acid is contacted with tributyl phosphatekerosene mixture. Both U and Th are extracted by the immiscible organic. After phase separation the Th is selectively back extracted by contacting with an aqueous nitric acid solution preferably between 0.1 to 1.5 M in nitric acid. The uranium which is still in the organic extractant phase may be recovered by contacting with water.

  15. Allergenically active components of cat allergen extracts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M C; Baer, H

    1981-09-01

    The allergens involved in cat allergy have been studied in pelt extracts, saliva, serum, and urine. Using crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) to examine the antigenic content, and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE) and RAST to examine the allergenic content, it was found that allergen 1 of Dr. Ohman is the most important allergenic component, whereas albumin and several unidentified proteins play a minor role. Allergen 1 was not detectable in serum and urine. The allergenic and nonallergenic proteins of pelt extract and saliva were identical by CIE, suggesting that pelt extract proteins are mainly of salivary origin.

  16. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  17. 3D Feature Extraction for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques provide tools that help scientists identify observed phenomena in scientific simulation. To be useful, these tools must allow the user to extract regions, classify and visualize them, abstract them for simplified representations, and track their evolution. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This article explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and those from Finite Element Analysis.

  18. Pain and chewing sensitivity during fixed orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction patients.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Gulsilay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females) were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females) and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females). The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  19. Ultraviolet light assisted extraction of flavonoids and allantoin from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Symphytum officinale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nimer, Marwan S. M.; Wahbee, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Symphytum officinale (comfrey) is a medicinal plant commonly used in decoction and to treat ailments. It protects the skin against ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation. UV irradiation may induce variable effects on the constituents of herbal extracts and thereby may limit or improve the advantages of using these extracts as medicinal supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of UV radiations including UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C on the constituents of S. officinale aqueous and alcoholic extracts. Materials and Methods: Comfrey extracts (1% w/v) were prepared using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol. They were exposed to wavelengths of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C for 10 min. The principal peak on the UV-spectroscopy scanning, the flavonoids, reducing power, and the allantoin levels were determined before and after irradiation. Results: UV irradiation reduces the magnitude of the principle peak at 355 nm wavelength of the aqueous infusion and methanol extracts. It improves the levels of flavonoids and reducing power of the aqueous extracts and increases the levels of allanotoin in aqueous and methanol extracts. Conclusions: UV-radiation enhances the yields of active ingredient of comfrey extracted with methanol, whereas improves the flavonoids, reducing power, and allantoin levels of comfrey extracted by the aqueous infusion method. UV-radiation reduces the levels of flavonoids, reducing power and allantoin when the comfrey extracted by alcohols. PMID:28894626

  20. Antidiabetic effects of extracts from Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won Keun; Lee, Chul Ho; Lee, Myung Sun; Bae, Eun Young; Sohn, Cheon Bae; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2005-01-15

    During a screening of medicinal plants for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase1B (PTP1B), an extract from Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) leaves exhibited significant inhibitory effect on PTP1B. Thus, its antidiabetic effect on Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice was evaluated. Significant blood glucose lowering effects of the extract were observed after intraperitoneal injection of the extract at a dose of 10mg/kg in both 1- and 3-month-old Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice. In addition, histological analysis of the liver from the butanol-soluble fraction treated Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) mice revealed a significant decrease in the number of lipid droplets compared to the control mice. Taken together, it was suggested that the extract from Psidium guajava leaves possesses antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic mice model and these effect is, at least in part, mediated via the inhibition of PTP1B.

  1. Convolutional neural network for road extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junping; Ding, Yazhou; Feng, Fajie; Xiong, Baoyu; Cui, Weihong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the convolution neural network with large block input and small block output was used to extract road. To reflect the complex road characteristics in the study area, a deep convolution neural network VGG19 was conducted for road extraction. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of different sizes of input block, output block and the extraction effect, the votes of deep convolutional neural networks was used as the final road prediction. The study image was from GF-2 panchromatic and multi-spectral fusion in Yinchuan. The precision of road extraction was 91%. The experiments showed that model averaging can improve the accuracy to some extent. At the same time, this paper gave some advice about the choice of input block size and output block size.

  2. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  3. Recent Developments in Australian Gold Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Rodney B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes new technologies that have greatly improved the extraction efficiency of gold ore, including: altering plant layout to promote efficiency, engaging Filiblast forced oxidation and bioxidation systems, and updating the electrowinning procedure at the gold recovery stage. (JRH)

  4. Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Mistletoe extracts have been studied as a complementary and alternative medicine for many illnesses including cancer. Read about the use of mistletoe therapy in cancer patients and the results of clinical trials in this expert-reviewed summary.

  5. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils

  6. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Rybarczyk, Anna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits of Morus nigra and Morus alba using methanol and acetone. The sugar-free extracts (SFEs) were prepared using Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. All of the SFEs exhibited antioxidant potential as determined by ABTS (0.75–1.25 mmol Trolox/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) (EC50 from 48 μg/mL to 79 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. However, a stronger activity was noted for the SFEs obtained from Morus nigra fruits. These extracts also possessed the highest contents of total phenolics: 164 mg/g (methanolic SFE) and 173 mg/g (acetonic SFE). The presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the extracts was confirmed using HPLC method and chlorogenic acid and rutin were found as the dominant phenolic constituents in the SFEs. PMID:22408465

  8. [Extraction, isolation and purification for ginkgolide B].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenfeng; Li, Minghui; Tang, Yun; Zhang, Yanhai; Shi, Min; Sheng, Longsheng

    2010-08-01

    To establish a simple extraction, isolation and purification method for ginkgolide B from ginkgo leaf. The optimum conditions of extraction, isolation and purification were studied by taking the transfer rate of ginkgolide B as index. Ginkgo leaf was extracted with 70% ethanol for three times, the extracts were concentrated to remove ethanol and diluted by water till the crude drug density reached 0.1 g x mL(-1). The dilution was adsorbed with HPD-450 macroporous resin. The impurities were eluted with 20% ethanol and ginkgolide B was eluted with 80% ethanol. Then the 80% ethanol eluant was concentrated and crystallized. Finally the crude crystals were recrystallized with isopropanol. The purity of the ginkgolide B recrystallization was 95%. The process was stable and easy to operate, which was suited to industrialized production.

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effect of Ultrasound in Soybean Protein Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukase, Hirokazu; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    Application of ultrasound for accelerating the extraction of nutriments in food processing has been attempted. However, conditions of exposure to ultrasound were not clear in previous studies. This paper reports on the relationship between the ultrasonic pressure and the amount of extracted protein from soybeans. Experiments were conducted using a beaker, in which the ultrasonic fields were precisely measured. Soybean flakes suspended in water were put in the beaker and placed in a water tank. The amount of extracted protein in water upon ultrasonic exposure was calculated by the Kjeldahl method. It was found that the amount of extracted protein increased in proportion to ultrasonic pressure up to the total amount of soybean protein soluble in water. Furthermore, this paper describes the denaturation of the protein produced by the ultrasonic cavitation.

  12. Texture Analysis and Cartographic Feature Extraction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Investigations into using various image descriptors as well as developing interactive feature extraction software on the Digital Image Analysis Laboratory...system. Originator-supplied keywords: Ad-Hoc image descriptor; Bayes classifier; Bhattachryya distance; Clustering; Digital Image Analysis Laboratory

  13. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  14. Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 211)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulatory information for oil and gas extraction sectors, including oil and natural gas drilling. Includes information about NESHAPs for RICE and stationary combustion engines, and effluent guidelines for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  15. Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview and documents for the Unconventional Oil and Gas Extraction Pretreatment Standards final rule (6/28/2016), direct final rule (Sept. 2016) and proposed rule (Sept. 2016). 40 CFR Part 435, Subpart C.

  16. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  17. Analysis of extractables from one euphorbia

    SciTech Connect

    Nemethy, E.K.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1979-12-01

    Chemical analyses have been made of the heptane extractable material of Euphorbia lathyris, a plant which has been proposed as an energy farm candidate. The heptane extract is 4 to 5% of the dry plant weight and has a heat value of approx. 18 x 10/sup 3/ Btu/lb. This reduced photosynthetic material consists almost entirely of polycyclic triterpenoids. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  19. Immunomodulation with bacterial extracts in respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Palma-Carlos, A G; Palma-Carlos, M L

    1990-01-01

    A lyophilized bacterial extract (Broncho-Vaxom) has been studied in a large number of models and found to induce specific and nonspecific responses by oral administration. It stimulates the systemic and local immune response. It activates the macrophages that play a key part in the immune system, modulates the immunoglobulin level, and potentiates the lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and other mitogens. The effect of this bacterial extract on T-lymphocyte subpopulations is currently under study.

  20. Pharmacological characterisation of extracts of coffee dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S

    1983-01-01

    The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717

  1. Device for Extracting Flavors and Fragrances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    Machine for making coffee and tea in weightless environment may prove even more valuable on Earth as general extraction apparatus. Zero-gravity beverage maker uses piston instead of gravity to move hot water and beverage from one chamber to other and dispense beverage. Machine functions like conventional coffeemaker during part of operating cycle and includes additional features that enable operation not only in zero gravity but also extraction under pressure in presence or absence of gravity.

  2. Whitening effect of Sophora flavescens extract.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Hyun; Cha, Youn Jeong; Joe, Gi Jung; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Kim, Bo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Min

    2013-11-01

    Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) has been proposed as a new whitening agent for cosmetics, because it has a strong ability to inhibit tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the formation of melanin. We conducted a study to determine whether ethanol extract of the roots of S. flavescens has the potential for use as a whitening cosmetic agent by investigating its underlying mechanisms of action. To elucidate the mechanism of action of S. flavescens extract, we used DNA microarray technology. We investigated the changes in the mRNA levels of genes associated with the formation and transport of melanosomes. We also identified the formation and transport of melanosomes with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Finally, the skin-whitening effect in vivo of S. flavescens extract was analyzed on human skin. We found that S. flavescens extract strongly inhibited tyrosinase activity (IC50, 10.4 μg/mL). Results also showed that key proteins involved in the formation and transport of melanosomes were dramatically downregulated at both mRNA and protein level in keratinocytes exposed to S. flavescens extract. In addition, a clinical trial of a cream containing 0.05% S. flavescens extract on human skin showed it had a significant effect on skin whitening by mechanical and visual evaluation (1.14-fold). This study provides important clues toward understanding the effects of S. flavescens extract on the formation and transport of melanosomes. From these results, we suggest that naturally occurring S. flavescens extract might be useful as a new whitening agent in cosmetics.

  3. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  4. Integrated CO 2 Storage and Brine Extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Hunter, Kelsey; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Middleton, Richard; ...

    2017-08-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) can reduce CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants by injecting CO 2 into deep saline aquifers for storage. CCUS typically increases reservoir pressure which increases costs, because less CO 2 can be injected, and risks such as induced seismicity. Extracting brine with enhanced water recovery (EWR) from the CO 2 storage reservoir can manage and reduce pressure in the formation, decrease the risks linked to reservoir overpressure (e.g., induced seismicity), increase CO 2 storage capacity, and enable CO 2 plume management. We modeled scenarios of CO 2 injection withmore » EWR into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formation in southwest Wyoming. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) was used to model CO 2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding increase in pressure within the RSU. We analyzed the model for pressure management, CO 2 storage, CO 2 saturation, and brine extraction due to the quantity and location of brine extraction wells. The model limited CO 2 injection to a constant pressure increase of two MPa at the injection well with and without extracting brine at hydrostatic pressure. Finally, we found that brine extraction can be used as a technical and cost-effective pressure management strategy to limit reservoir pressure buildup and increase CO 2 storage associated with a single injection well.« less

  5. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  6. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  7. Integrated CO 2 Storage and Brine Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Kelsey; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Middleton, Richard

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) can reduce CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants by injecting CO 2 into deep saline aquifers for storage. CCUS typically increases reservoir pressure which increases costs, because less CO 2 can be injected, and risks such as induced seismicity. Extracting brine with enhanced water recovery (EWR) from the CO 2 storage reservoir can manage and reduce pressure in the formation, decrease the risks linked to reservoir overpressure (e.g., induced seismicity), increase CO 2 storage capacity, and enable CO 2 plume management. We modeled scenarios of CO 2 injection withmore » EWR into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formation in southwest Wyoming. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) was used to model CO 2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding increase in pressure within the RSU. We analyzed the model for pressure management, CO 2 storage, CO 2 saturation, and brine extraction due to the quantity and location of brine extraction wells. The model limited CO 2 injection to a constant pressure increase of two MPa at the injection well with and without extracting brine at hydrostatic pressure. Finally, we found that brine extraction can be used as a technical and cost-effective pressure management strategy to limit reservoir pressure buildup and increase CO 2 storage associated with a single injection well.« less

  8. Oil extraction from algae: A comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh Derakhshan, Mehrab; Nasernejad, Bahram; Abbaspour-Aghdam, Farzin; Hamidi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In this article, various methods including soxhlet, Bligh & Dyer (B&D), and ultrasonic-assisted B&D were investigated for the extraction of lipid from algal species Chlorella vulgaris. Relative polarity/water content and impolar per polar ratios of solvents were considered to optimize the relative proportions of each triplicate agent by applying the response surface method (RSM). It was found that for soxhlet, hexane-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with total lipid extraction of 14.65% and chloroform-methanol (54-46%, respectively) with the extraction of 19.87% lipid were the best set of triplicate where further addition of acetone to the first group and ethanol to the second group did not contributed to further extraction. In B&D, however, chloroform-methanol-water (50%-35%-15%, respectively) reached the all-time maximum of 24%. Osmotic shock as well as ultrasonication contributed to 3.52% of further extraction, which is considered to promote the total yield up to almost 15%. From the growth data and fatty acid analysis, the applied method was assessed to be appropriate for biodiesel production with regard to selectivity and extraction yield. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    PubMed

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds.

  10. Screening for bioactivity of Mutinus elegans extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajendiran, A.; Cyriac, RE; Abraham, J.

    2017-11-01

    Mutinus elegans is a species of fungi that is commonly called as Elegant Stinkhorn. The aim of this study was to screen the crude extracts of the fungus for phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant assay and anticancer activity. Extraction of the fungal sample in Soxhlet apparatus was done with n-hexane and methanol as the solvent. Stock solutions of the crude methanol extract were prepared and used for microbiological assay. Thin layer chromatography was performed in order to determine the number of active components in n-hexane, and methanol solvent system for the fungus Mutinus elegans. Further, antioxidant assay was performed using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The fungal sample was then tested for cytotoxicity assay against MG63 osteosarcoma cell lines. The antimicrobial assay of Mutinus elegans extract exhibited activity against five pathogens. The zone of inhibition was measured with respect to standard antibiotics. Gas chromatography and Mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis), revealed the presence of dibromo-tetradecan-1-ol-acetate, 2-myristynoyl-glycinamide, fumaric acid, and cyclohexylmethyldecyl ester compounds were presented in methanol and n-hexane extract of Mutinus elegans. The present study concludes the presence of bioactive compound in the extract which exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activity in Mutinus elegans.

  11. Virus inactivation by nucleic acid extraction reagents.

    PubMed

    Blow, Jamie A; Dohm, David J; Negley, Diane L; Mores, Christopher N

    2004-08-01

    Many assume that common methods to extract viral nucleic acids are able to render a sample non-infectious. It may be that inactivation of infectious virus is incomplete during viral nucleic acid extraction methods. Accordingly, two common viral nucleic acid extraction techniques were evaluated for the ability to inactivate high viral titer specimens. In particular, the potential for TRIzol LS Reagent (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA) and AVL Buffer (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) were examined to render suspensions of alphaviruses, flaviviruses, filoviruses and a bunyavirus non-infectious to tissue culture assay. The dilution series for both extraction reagents consistently caused cell death through a 100-fold dilution. Except for the DEN subtype 4 positive control, all viruses had titers of at least 10(6)pfu/ml. No plaques were detected in any extraction reagent plus virus combination in this study, therefore, the extraction reagents appeared to inactivate completely each of the high-titer viruses used in this study. These results support the reliance upon either TRIzol LS Reagent or AVL Buffer to render clinical or environmental samples non-infectious, which has implications for the handling and processing of samples under austere field conditions and low level containment.

  12. Information extraction during simultaneous motion processing.

    PubMed

    Rideaux, Reuben; Edwards, Mark

    2014-02-01

    When confronted with multiple moving objects the visual system can process them in two stages: an initial stage in which a limited number of signals are processed in parallel (i.e. simultaneously) followed by a sequential stage. We previously demonstrated that during the simultaneous stage, observers could discriminate between presentations containing up to 5 vs. 6 spatially localized motion signals (Edwards & Rideaux, 2013). Here we investigate what information is actually extracted during the simultaneous stage and whether the simultaneous limit varies with the detail of information extracted. This was achieved by measuring the ability of observers to extract varied information from low detail, i.e. the number of signals presented, to high detail, i.e. the actual directions present and the direction of a specific element, during the simultaneous stage. The results indicate that the resolution of simultaneous processing varies as a function of the information which is extracted, i.e. as the information extraction becomes more detailed, from the number of moving elements to the direction of a specific element, the capacity to process multiple signals is reduced. Thus, when assigning a capacity to simultaneous motion processing, this must be qualified by designating the degree of information extraction. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiplexed Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Fritz, James S.; Porter, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplexed colorimetric solid-phase extraction (MC-SPE) is an extension of colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) an analytical platform that combines colorimetric reagents, solid phase extraction, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to quantify trace analytes in water. In CSPE, analytes are extracted and complexed on the surface of an extraction membrane impregnated with a colorimetric reagent. The analytes are then quantified directly on the membrane surface using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. Importantly, the use of solid-phase extraction membranes as the matrix for impregnation of the colorimetric reagents creates a concentration factor that enables the detection of low concentrations of analytes in small sample volumes. In extending C-SPE to a multiplexed format, a filter holder that incorporates discrete analysis channels and a jig that facilitates the concurrent operation of multiple sample syringes have been designed, enabling the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes. Separate, single analyte membranes, placed in a readout cartridge create unique, analyte-specific addresses at the exit of each channel. Following sample exposure, the diffuse reflectance spectrum of each address is collected serially and the Kubelka-Munk function is used to quantify each water quality parameter via calibration curves. In a demonstration, MC-SPE was used to measure the pH of a sample and quantitate Ag(I) and Ni(II).

  14. A comparison of accelerated solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinchao; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-11-01

    The performance of accelerated solvent extraction in the analysis of terpenoids and sterols in tobacco samples was investigated and compared with those of Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonically assisted extraction with respect to yield, extraction time, reproducibility and solvent consumption. The results indicate that although the highest yield was achieved by Soxhlet extraction, ASE appears to be a promising alternative to classical methods since it is faster and uses less solvent, especially when applied to the investigation of large batch tobacco samples. However, Soxhlet extraction is still the preferred method for analyzing sterols since it gives a higher extraction efficiency than other methods.

  15. Extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube by alcohol extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y. B.; Ru, X.; Yu, M.; Wang, S. W.; Lu, L.; Qiao, A. N.; Guo, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Jujube is a ripe fruit of Rhamnaceae. Its main active component is flavonoids, so the extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube will help to develop and utilize the medicinal value of jujube. In this study, the total flavonoids were extracted from jujube by alcohol extraction method. Through single factor investigation and orthogonal test, it was found that the total flavonoids content in jujube was the highest under the condition of 70°C, material ratio of 1:40, and extraction of 30 min by 70% ethanol. The content of total flavonoids in the extract of jujube was 1.57% at the wavelength of 510 nm by UV and rutin as the standard. The method was evaluated by methodological study, and it was determined that this method could be used as the detection of total flavonoids in jujube extraction.

  16. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A.; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives' harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). PMID:26904608

  17. Salt Content Determination for Bentonite Mine Spoil: Saturation Extracts Versus 1:5 Extracts

    Treesearch

    Marguerite E. Voorhees; Daniel W. Uresk

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of estimating salt content in saturated extracts from 1:5 (1spoil:5water) extract levels for bentonite mine spoil was examined by regression analyses. Nine chemical variables were examined that included pH, EC, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4-, and Cl-. Ion concentrations from 1:5 extracts were estimated with high predictability for Ca++, Mg++, Na+, SO4...

  18. [Studies on extraction process optimization of Panax notogingseng saponins].

    PubMed

    Qu, Lin-hai; Zheng, Ming; Lou, Yi-jia

    2006-06-01

    To optimize the conditions for the extraction of panax notogingseng saponins (PNS). After selected extraction solvent and suitable particle, we employed orthogonal experimental design to examine the conditions for the extraction by determination of PNS. Significant effect was observed only in extraction times. The optimum condition for extraction of PNS was to extract panax notogingseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen with 10 times 70% ethanol for 1.5 hours for 3 times.

  19. Mandibular third molar angulation in extraction and non extraction orthodontic cases.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imtiaz; Gul-e-Erum; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the angulation of mandibular third molar in orthodontic cases which are planned for extraction and non extraction. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which pre-treatment panoramic radiographs of 49 patients, age range 11-26 years were taken from the OPD of Department of Orthodontics, Dr. Ishrat- ul -Ebad Khan Institute of Oral and Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Dow University of Health Sciences. The angles between the long axis of the second and third molars were measured. Descriptive statistics were applied. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for intergroup comparison extraction and non extraction cases. This study consists of 49 patients with mean age of 17.94 years. Over all result concluded that mandibular third molar angulations were from 8-94 degrees in extraction cases and 10-73 degrees in non extraction cases. However, the pre-treatment 3rd molar angulation differences in extraction and non extraction cases were statistically insignificant with p-value >0.05. This study evaluates third molar angulations in pre-treatment cases, the differences in angulation were like other morphological differences but changes in angulation after treatment may or may not be related to extractions.

  20. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root.

    PubMed

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2015-06-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.

  1. [Study on new extraction technology of astragaloside IV].

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Guan, Su; Huang, Min

    2005-08-01

    To explore the possibility and the optimal extraction technology of astragaloside IV by SFE-CO2. According the content of astragaloside IV, the optimum extraction technology parameters such as extraction temperature, pressure, extraction time, velocity of fluid and co-solvent were investigated and the result was compared with that of water extraction. The optimum technical parameters were as follows: Extracting pressure 40 Mpa, temperature 45 degrees C, extracting time 2h, co-solvent was 95% ethanol and its dosage was 4ml/g, the ratio of CO2 fluid was 10 kg/kg x h. Extraction technology of astragaloside IV by SFE-CO2 is reliable, stable.

  2. Uranium extraction by complexation with siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahamonde Castro, Cristina

    One of the major concerns of energy production is the environmental impact associated with the extraction of natural resources. Nuclear energy fuel is obtained from uranium, an abundant and naturally occurring element in the environment, but the currently used techniques for uranium extraction leave either a significant fingerprint (open pit mines) or a chemical residue that alters the pH of the environment (acid or alkali leaching). It is therefore clear that a new and greener approach to uranium extraction is needed. Bioleaching is one potential alternative. In bioleaching, complexants naturally produced from fungi or bacteria may be used to extract the uranium. In the following research, the siderophore enterobactin, which is naturally produced by bacteria to extract and solubilize iron from the environment, is evaluated to determine its potential for complexing with uranium. To determine whether enterobactin could be used for uranium extraction, its acid dissociation and its binding strength with the metal of interest must be determined. Due to the complexity of working with radioactive materials, lanthanides were used as analogs for uranium. In addition, polyprotic acids were used as structural and chemical analogs for the siderophore during method development. To evaluate the acid dissociation of enterobactin and the subsequent binding constants with lanthanides, three different analytical techniques were studied including: potentiometric titration, UltraViolet Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). After evaluation of three techniques, a combination of ITC and potentiometric titrations was deemed to be the most viable way for studying the siderophore of interest. The results obtained from these studies corroborate the ideal pH range for enterobactin complexation to the lanthanide of interest and pave the way for determining the strength of complexation relative to other naturally occurring metals. Ultimately, this

  3. Enhancement of Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Dietz, Travis; Tsinas, Zois

    2016-04-01

    Even at a concentration of 3 μg/L, the world’s oceans contain a thousand times more uranium than currently know terrestrial sources. In order to take advantage of this stockpile, methods and materials must be developed to extract it efficiently, a difficult task considering the very low concentration of the element and the competition for extraction by other atoms in seawater such as sodium, calcium, and vanadium. The majority of current research on methods to extract uranium from seawater are vertical explorations of the grafting of amidoxime ligand, which was originally discovered and promoted by Japanese studies in the late 1980s.more » Our study expands on this research horizontally by exploring the effectiveness of novel uranium extraction ligands grafted to the surface of polymer substrates using radiation. Through this expansion, a greater understanding of uranium binding chemistry and radiation grafting effects on polymers has been obtained. While amidoxime-functionalized fabrics have been shown to have the greatest extraction efficiency so far, they suffer from an extensive chemical processing step which involves treatment with powerful basic solutions. Not only does this add to the chemical waste produced in the extraction process and add to the method’s complexity, but it also significantly impacts the regenerability of the amidoxime fabric. The approach of this project has been to utilize alternative, commercially available monomers capable of extracting uranium and containing a carbon-carbon double bond to allow it to be grafted using radiation, specifically phosphate, oxalate, and azo monomers. The use of commercially available monomers and radiation grafting with electron beam or gamma irradiation will allow for an easily scalable fabrication process once the technology has been optimized. The need to develop a cheap and reliable method for extracting uranium from seawater is extremely valuable to energy independence and will extend the

  4. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Tannin Extract and Yeast Extract on Color Preservation and Anthocyanin Content of Mulberry Wine.

    PubMed

    You, Yilin; Li, Na; Han, Xue; Guo, Jielong; Liu, Guojie; Huang, Weidong; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-04-01

    The color of mulberry wine is extremely unstable in processing and aging. This paper investigates the effects of tannin extract and yeast extract on the color and color-preserving characteristics of mulberry wine made from the Dashi cultivar. The results showed that the maximum absorption wavelength in both tannin extract and yeast extract groups changed generating the red shift effect. The color of the tannin extract maintained a good gloss in the first 4 months, while the yeast extract group showed remarkable color preservation for the first 3 months. The total anthocyanin and cyanidin-3-rutinoside contents in both experiment groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, thus proving that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during its aging. Moreover, sensory analysis indicated that the quality of mulberry wine treated with tannin extract was significantly higher than that of the control. The distinct color of mulberry wine is one of the foremost qualities that imprints on consumers' senses, but it is extremely unstable in processing and aging. However, the color protection of mulberry wine was not studied previously. In this study, we found that tannin extract and yeast extract both exert a remarkably positive effect on preserving the color of mulberry wine during aging. The study is of great significance as a guide to improving the color stability of mulberry wine, thereby also improving and promoting the development of the mulberry deep processing industry. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Maintaining perspective on third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Boughner, Julia C

    2013-01-01

    Third molar extraction is one of the most common oral surgeries performed on Canadian patients, particularly young adults. Vigorous debate persists about the risks of retention of asymptomatic impacted third molars, compared to extraction. The controversy centres on whether medical necessity justifies the cost of third molar extraction for the patient in terms of substantial pain and potential loss of income during recovery and for the federal or provincial health care systems, which may be billed for a portion of the surgical fees. Several research studies initiated by the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) report new associations between oral disease and asymptomatic impacted third molars. These findings merit careful attention because they are being used by the AAOMS to advocate for prophylactic third molar extraction--an approach that contradicts the conclusions of a Canadian health technology report, American Public Health Association policy, and health technology reports from Sweden, Belgium and the UK. The decision to extract third molars seems most effective when made on a case-by-case basis that is tailored to each patient's health status and access to professional oral health care.

  7. Interpretations of complications following third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Arad, Devorah; Lipovsky, Anat; Pardo, Michal; Adut, Oren; Dolev, Eran

    2017-11-21

    Surgical removal of third molars is often associated with complications. The aim of the present study was to analyze the incidence of complications following extraction of third molars relative to the risk factors. This retrospective study included 463 patients who had mandibular third molar extraction (performed by a single surgeon, DSA) in the years 2001 to 2011. In total, 665 mandibular third molars were extracted. The average patient's age was 29 ± 11.30 years, median 26 years, and the patient age ranged from 13 to 75 years. Patients' records were obtained for medical/general data. The overall prevalence of postsurgical complications was 17%. Dry sockets showed the highest incidence (11.6%). Partially impacted teeth showed the highest incidence of complications (67.3%). Cigarette smoking correlated with increased complications and dry sockets, and complications were more prevalent on the left side (62.8%). Complications after mandibular third molar extraction increase with age, level of impaction, side of extraction, and cigarette smoking.

  8. Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan

    2012-08-10

    For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Allelopathy of grape root aqueous extracts].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Guo, Xiu-wu; Guo, Yin-shan; Li, Cheng-xiang; Xie, Hong-gang; Hu, Xi-xi; Zhang, Li-heng; Sun, Ying-ni

    2010-07-01

    Taking the tissue-cultured seedlings of grape cultivar Red Globe as test objects, this paper examined the effects of their root aqueous extracts on seedling's growth, with the allelochemicals identified by LC-MS. The results showed that 0.02 g x ml(-1) (air-dried root mass in aqueous extracts volume; the same below), 0.1 g x ml(-1), and 0.2 g x ml(-1) of the aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of the seedlings significantly, and the inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The identified allelochemicals of the extracts included p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, phenylpropionic acid, and coumaric acid. Pot experiment showed that different concentration (0.1, 1, and 10 mmol x L(-1)) salicylic acid and phenylpropionic acid inhibited the seedling' s growth remarkably. With the increasing concentration of the two acids, the plant height, stem diameter, shoot- and root fresh mass, leaf net photosynthetic rate and starch content, and root activity of the seedlings decreased, while the leaf soluble sugar and MDA contents increased. No obvious change pattern was observed in leaf protein content.

  10. Ultrahigh hydrostatic pressure extraction of flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Shouqin; Dou, Jianpeng; Zhu, Junjie; Liang, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Herba Epimedii is one of the most famous Chinese herbal medicines listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, as one of the representatives of traditional Chinese herb, it has been widely applied in the field of invigorate the kidney and strengthen 'Yang'. The attention to Epimedium extract has more and more increased in recent years. In this work, a novel extraction technique, ultra-high hydrostatic pressure extraction (UPE) technology was applied to extract the total flavonoids of E. koreanum. Three factors (pressure, ethanol concentration and extraction time) were chosen as the variables of extraction experiments, and the optimum UPE conditions were pressure 350 MPa; ethanol concentration 50% (v/v); extraction time 5 min. Compared with Supercritical CO2 extraction, Reflux extraction and Ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE has excellent advantages (shorter extraction time, higher yield, better antioxidant activity, lower energy consumption and eco-friendly).

  11. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead.

  12. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dejoye, Céline; Vian, Maryline Abert; Lumia, Guy; Bouscarle, Christian; Charton, Frederic; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2) extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2). Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight) at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73%) compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged. PMID:22272135

  13. Porous extraction paddle: a solid phase extraction technique for studying the urine metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Gang; MacNeil, Michael; Yao, Yuanyuan; Giese, Roger W.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE A method was needed to accomplish solid phase extraction of a large urine volume in a convenient way where resources are limited, towards a goal of metabolome and xenobiotic exposome analysis at another, distant location. METHODS A porous extraction paddle (PEP) was set up, comprising a porous nylon bag containing extraction particles that is flattened and immobilized between two stainless steel meshes. Stirring the PEP after attachment to a shaft of a motor mounted on the lid of the jar containing the urine accomplishes extraction. The bag contained a mixture of nonpolar and partly nonpolar particles to extract a diversity of corresponding compounds. RESULTS Elution of a urine-exposed, water-washed PEP with aqueous methanol containing triethylammonium acetate (conditions intended to give a complete elution), followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, demonstrated that a diversity of compounds had been extracted ranging from uric acid to peptides. CONCLUSION The PEP allows the user to extract a large liquid sample in a jar simply by turning on a motor. The technique will be helpful in conducting metabolomics and xenobiotic exposome studies of urine, encouraging the extraction of large volumes to set up a convenient repository sample (e.g. 2 g of exposed adsorbent in a cryovial) for shipment and re-analysis in various ways in the future, including scaled-up isolation of unknown chemicals for identification. PMID:27624170

  14. Selective extraction of metal ions with polymeric extractants by ion exchange/redox

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1987-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for the extraction of metal ions having a reduction potential of above about +0.3 from an aqueous solution. The method includes contacting the aqueous solution with a polymeric extractant having primary phosphinic acid groups, secondary phosphine oxide groups, or both phosphinic acid and phosphine oxide groups.

  15. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Farahziela; Mohd Akhir, Sobri

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v), 100% ethanol (w/v), and 100% water (w/v). The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract) and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS) flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium. PMID:28761496

  16. Extracting data from figures with software was faster, with higher interrater reliability than manual extraction.

    PubMed

    Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Vucic, Katarina; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Sapunar, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2016-06-01

    To compare speed and accuracy of graphical data extraction using manual estimation and open source software. Data points from eligible graphs/figures published in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 2009 to 2014 were extracted by two authors independently, both by manual estimation and with the Plot Digitizer, open source software. Corresponding authors of each RCT were contacted up to four times via e-mail to obtain exact numbers that were used to create graphs. Accuracy of each method was compared against the source data from which the original graphs were produced. Software data extraction was significantly faster, reducing time for extraction for 47%. Percent agreement between the two raters was 51% for manual and 53.5% for software data extraction. Percent agreement between the raters and original data was 66% vs. 75% for the first rater and 69% vs. 73% for the second rater, for manual and software extraction, respectively. Data extraction from figures should be conducted using software, whereas manual estimation should be avoided. Using software for data extraction of data presented only in figures is faster and enables higher interrater reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficient extraction of vaccines formulated in aluminum hydroxide gel by including surfactants in the extraction buffer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daming; Huang, Shuhui; McClellan, Holly; Dai, Weili; Syed, Najam R; Gebregeorgis, Elizabeth; Mullen, Gregory E. D.; Long, Carole; Martin, Laura B.; Narum, David; Duffy, Patrick; Miller, Louis H.; Saul, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Efficient antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on aluminum hydroxide gels is a critical step for the evaluation of the quality of vaccines following formulation. It has been shown in our laboratory that the efficiency of antigen extraction from vaccines formulated on Alhydrogel decreased significantly with increased storage time. To increase antigen extraction efficiency, the present study determined the effect of surfactants on antigen recovery from vaccine formulations. The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated on Alhydrogel and stored at 2-8 °C for three years was used as a model in this study. The AMA1 on Alhydrogel was extracted in the presence or absence of 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 20 mM cetylpyridinium chloride in the extraction buffer (0.60 M citrate, 0.55 M phosphate, pH 8.5) using our standard antigen extraction protocols. Extracted AMA1 antigen was analyzed by 4-20% Tris-glycine SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining or western blotting. The results showed that inclusion of SDS or cetylpyridinium chloride in extraction buffer increased the antigen recovery dramatically and can be used for efficient characterization of Alhydrogel vaccines. PMID:22107848

  18. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.

  19. Porous extraction paddle: a solid phase extraction technique for studying the urine metabolome.

    PubMed

    Shao, Gang; MacNeil, Michael; Yao, Yuanyuan; Giese, Roger W

    2016-09-14

    A method was needed to accomplish solid phase extraction of a large urine volume in a convenient way where resources are limited, towards a goal of metabolome and xenobiotic exposome analysis at another, distant location. A porous extraction paddle (PEP) was set up, comprising a porous nylon bag containing extraction particles that is flattened and immobilized between two stainless steel meshes. Stirring the PEP after attachment to a shaft of a motor mounted on the lid of the jar containing the urine accomplishes extraction. The bag contained a mixture of nonpolar and partly nonpolar particles to extract a diversity of corresponding compounds. Elution of a urine-exposed, water-washed PEP with aqueous methanol containing triethylammonium acetate (conditions intended to give a complete elution), followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, demonstrated that a diversity of compounds had been extracted ranging from uric acid to peptides. The PEP allows the user to extract a large liquid sample in a jar simply by turning on a motor. The technique will be helpful in conducting metabolomics and xenobiotic exposome studies of urine, encouraging the extraction of large volumes to set up a convenient repository sample (e.g. 2 g of exposed adsorbent in a cryovial) for shipment and re-analysis in various ways in the future, including scaled-up isolation of unknown chemicals for identification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Equilibrium of molybdenum in selected extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tkac, Peter; Paulenova, Alena

    2007-07-01

    The concentration of molybdenum(VI) in dissolved irradiated nuclear fuel is comparable with the concentrations of Tc, Am and Np. Therefore it is of big interest to understand its behavior under conditions related to the UREX/TRUEX process. The effect of the poly-speciation of molybdenum in aqueous solution on its extraction by neutral solvents TBP and CMPO/TBP was studied. Extraction yields of molybdenum decreased significantly when AHA was added to aqueous phase. Our investigation confirmed a strong ability of the aceto-hydroxamic acid to form complexes with Mo in high acidic solutions. Spectroscopic data (UV-Vis) confirmed that a fraction of the Mo(VI)-AHA complexmore » is present in the organic phase after extraction. (authors)« less

  1. Maxillary second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wilson; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Ikegami, Tomio; Hägg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the rationales, indications, methods, and effects of orthodontic treatment with maxillary second molar extractions. In addition to the patient's malocclusion, specific considerations about the status and position of the maxillary second and third molars should be taken into account. In recent years, the development of temporary anchorage devices, in addition to extraoral traction and intraoral distalization appliances, has become another armamentarium in the distalization of the maxillary posterior teeth, which may affect the selection of teeth to be extracted from second to third molars. In conclusion, extraction of maxillary second molars is a viable option in selected cases at present, but it is important to understand the indications and limitations of this treatment choice.

  2. Support Vector Machine-Based Endmember Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Filippi, Anthony M; Archibald, Richard K

    Introduced in this paper is the utilization of Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to automatically perform endmember extraction from hyperspectral data. The strengths of SVM are exploited to provide a fast and accurate calculated representation of high-dimensional data sets that may consist of multiple distributions. Once this representation is computed, the number of distributions can be determined without prior knowledge. For each distribution, an optimal transform can be determined that preserves informational content while reducing the data dimensionality, and hence, the computational cost. Finally, endmember extraction for the whole data set is accomplished. Results indicate that this Support Vector Machine-Based Endmembermore » Extraction (SVM-BEE) algorithm has the capability of autonomously determining endmembers from multiple clusters with computational speed and accuracy, while maintaining a robust tolerance to noise.« less

  3. Cytokinins extracted from pinto bean fruit.

    PubMed

    Krasnuk, M; Witham, F H; Tegley, J R

    1971-09-01

    Extracts from various parts of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto plants were found to exhibit cytokinin activity with the highest levels present in extracts of the fruit tissue. To separate the cytokinins present in the fruit, extracts were chromatographed in several solvent systems. Bioassays of chromatograms indicated the presence of active factors in those regions of migration associated with several known N-6-substituted aminopurines.Ultraviolet and mass spectral studies confirm the presence of a mixture of N-6-substituted aminopurines in the active material isolated by cation exchange resin chromatography. The evidence strongly supports the conclusions that dihydrozeatin is naturally occurring as the free base and possibly as a ribonucleoside. Further, zeatin appears to occur mainly as a glycosidic compound which is altered by KMnO(4) treatment and is hydrolyzed under acid conditions.

  4. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana; Bartosik, Hannes; Cornelis, Karel

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towardsmore » a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.« less

  5. Extracting tissue deformation using Gabor filter banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montillo, Albert; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for accurate extraction of tissue deformation imaged with tagged MR. Our method, based on banks of Gabor filters, adjusts (1) the aspect and (2) orientation of the filter"s envelope and adjusts (3) the radial frequency and (4) angle of the filter"s sinusoidal grating to extract information about the deformation of tissue. The method accurately extracts tag line spacing, orientation, displacement and effective contrast. Existing, non-adaptive methods often fail to recover useful displacement information in the proximity of tissue boundaries while our method works in the proximity of the boundaries. We also present an interpolation method to recover all tag information at a finer resolution than the filter bank parameters. Results are shown on simulated images of translating and contracting tissue.

  6. Method for contour extraction for object representation

    DOEpatents

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2005-08-30

    Contours are extracted for representing a pixelated object in a background pixel field. An object pixel is located that is the start of a new contour for the object and identifying that pixel as the first pixel of the new contour. A first contour point is then located on the mid-point of a transition edge of the first pixel. A tracing direction from the first contour point is determined for tracing the new contour. Contour points on mid-points of pixel transition edges are sequentially located along the tracing direction until the first contour point is again encountered to complete tracing the new contour. The new contour is then added to a list of extracted contours that represent the object. The contour extraction process associates regions and contours by labeling all the contours belonging to the same object with the same label.

  7. Audio fingerprint extraction for content identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Yu; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C. C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we present an audio content identification system that identifies some unknown audio material by comparing its fingerprint with those extracted off-line and saved in the music database. We will describe in detail the procedure to extract audio fingerprints and demonstrate that they are robust to noise and content-preserving manipulations. The main feature in the proposed system is the zero-crossing rate extracted with the octave-band filter bank. The zero-crossing rate can be used to describe the dominant frequency in each subband with a very low computational cost. The size of audio fingerprint is small and can be efficiently stored along with the compressed files in the database. It is also robust to many modifications such as tempo change and time-alignment distortion. Besides, the octave-band filter bank is used to enhance the robustness to distortion, especially those localized on some frequency regions.

  8. Object extraction method for image synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Seiki

    1991-11-01

    The extraction of component objects from images is fundamentally important for image synthesis. In TV program production, one useful method is the Video-Matte technique for specifying the necessary boundary of an object. This, however, involves some manually intricate and tedious processes. A new method proposed in this paper can reduce the needed level of operator skill and simplify object extraction. The object is automatically extracted by just a simple drawing of a thick boundary line. The basic principle involves a thinning of the thick boundary line binary image using the edge intensity of the original image. This method has many practical advantages, including the simplicity of specifying an object, the high accuracy of thinned-out boundary line, its ease of application to moving images, and the lack of any need for adjustment.

  9. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  10. Automatic Extraction of Planetary Image Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troglio, G.; LeMoigne, J.; Moser, G.; Serpico, S. B.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    With the launch of several Lunar missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Chandrayaan-1, a large amount of Lunar images will be acquired and will need to be analyzed. Although many automatic feature extraction methods have been proposed and utilized for Earth remote sensing images, these methods are not always applicable to Lunar data that often present low contrast and uneven illumination characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new method for the extraction of Lunar features (that can be generalized to other planetary images), based on the combination of several image processing techniques, a watershed segmentation and the generalized Hough Transform. This feature extraction has many applications, among which image registration.

  11. Extracting laboratory test information from biomedical text

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yanna Shen; Kayaalp, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: No previous study reported the efficacy of current natural language processing (NLP) methods for extracting laboratory test information from narrative documents. This study investigates the pathology informatics question of how accurately such information can be extracted from text with the current tools and techniques, especially machine learning and symbolic NLP methods. The study data came from a text corpus maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, containing a rich set of information on laboratory tests and test devices. Methods: The authors developed a symbolic information extraction (SIE) system to extract device and test specific information about four types of laboratory test entities: Specimens, analytes, units of measures and detection limits. They compared the performance of SIE and three prominent machine learning based NLP systems, LingPipe, GATE and BANNER, each implementing a distinct supervised machine learning method, hidden Markov models, support vector machines and conditional random fields, respectively. Results: Machine learning systems recognized laboratory test entities with moderately high recall, but low precision rates. Their recall rates were relatively higher when the number of distinct entity values (e.g., the spectrum of specimens) was very limited or when lexical morphology of the entity was distinctive (as in units of measures), yet SIE outperformed them with statistically significant margins on extracting specimen, analyte and detection limit information in both precision and F-measure. Its high recall performance was statistically significant on analyte information extraction. Conclusions: Despite its shortcomings against machine learning methods, a well-tailored symbolic system may better discern relevancy among a pile of information of the same type and may outperform a machine learning system by tapping into lexically non-local contextual information such as the document structure. PMID:24083058

  12. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  13. Optimal Management of Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, I. H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy technologies use the constant heat flux from the subsurface in order to produce heat or electricity for societal use. As such, a geothermal energy system is not inherently variable, like systems based on wind and solar resources, and an operator can conceivably control the rate at which heat is extracted and used directly, or converted into a commodity that is used. Although geothermal heat is a renewable resource, this heat can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal (Rybach, 2003). For heat extraction used for commodities that are sold on the market, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into profit, on a net present value basis. We present a model that couples natural resource economic approaches for managing renewable resources with simulations of geothermal reservoir performance in order to develop an optimal heat mining strategy that balances economic gain with the performance and renewability of the reservoir. Similar optimal control approaches have been extensively studied for renewable natural resource management of fisheries and forests (Bonfil, 2005; Gordon, 1954; Weitzman, 2003). Those models determine an optimal path of extraction of fish or timber, by balancing the regeneration of stocks of fish or timber that are not harvested with the profit from the sale of the fish or timber that is harvested. Our model balances the regeneration of reservoir temperature with the net proceeds from extracting heat and converting it to electricity that is sold to consumers. We used the Non-isothermal Unconfined-confined Flow and Transport (NUFT) model (Hao, Sun, & Nitao, 2011) to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are incorporated into the natural resource economics model to determine production strategies that

  14. [Technical questions of the transrectal specimen extraction].

    PubMed

    Lukovich, Péter; Csibi, Noémi; Bokor, Attila

    2016-03-01

    During laparoscopic partial colectomy the specimen can be extracted transrectally. This technique decreases the invasiveness of the surgery, because the abdominal wall incision is avoided. Premises of a new surgical technique are precise technical description as well as a favourable balance of advantages and disadvantages. In this paper the authors review the technique they apply and analyse their first results. 45 laparoscopic bowel resections were performed by a multidisciplinary team between 16th April 2014 and 1st November 2015. Indication of surgery was endometriosis, and the specimen was extracted transrectally in 11 patients. Having ligated both bowel ends proximal and distal to the section infiltrated with endometriosis, and the proximal bowel secured with a laparoscopic bulldog. Then the bowel was resected and the specimen was extracted in a camera bag transrectally. A purse-string suture was placed into the proximal bowel end, and the anvil of the circular stapler--which was introduced transrectally--was inserted into the bowel. After closing the rectal stump, the anastomosis was performed with a circular stapler. We used this technique when the upper third of the rectum or sigmoid colon was infiltrated with endometriosis. The difference between the operation time of the two techniques (transabdominal vs. transrectal specimen extraction: 108 min vs. 118 min) was not significant. There was not difference in the WBC count between the first and second postoperative day, and there was not any anastomosis leakage detected either. By using the above technique, postoperative infections could have been reduced to minimum. Transrectal specimen extraction did not increase postoperative complication The authors believe this is a safe way of specimen extraction after partial colectomy.

  15. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1994-10-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) seed extracts are known to activate the local cell-mediated immune reactions after a single intrauterine administration, leading to a long term reversible block of fertility. In order to identify and characterize the active fraction responsible for this activity, neem seeds were extracted by both mechanical expression and solvent extraction using a range of polar to non-polar solvents which yielded 3 broad fractions. The mechanically expressed oil was fractionated using different approaches and studied for antifertility activity. The hexane extract and a corresponding column fraction showed potent and reproducible antifertility activity. Other fractions were less stable with regard to reproducibility of effects and composition. It is our conclusion that for subsequent fractionation to reach the last active fraction, the hexane extract is the most useful starting material.

  16. Extraction and identification of flavonoids from parsley extracts by HPLC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.

    2012-02-01

    Flavonoids are phenolic compounds isolated from a wide variety of plants, and are valuable for their multiple properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In the present work, parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) extracts were obtained by three different extraction techniques: maceration, ultrasonic-assisted and microwave-assisted solvent extractions. The extractions were performed with ethanol-water mixtures in various ratios. From these extracts, flavonoids like the flavones apigenin and luteolin, and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol were identified using an HPLC Shimadzu apparatus equipped with PDA and MS detectors. The separation method involved a gradient step. The mobile phase consisted of two solvents: acetonitrile and distilled water with 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a RP-C18 column.

  17. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid.

  18. Cloud point extraction: an alternative to traditional liquid-liquid extraction for lanthanides(III) separation.

    PubMed

    Favre-Réguillon, Alain; Draye, Micheline; Lebuzit, Gérard; Thomas, Sylvie; Foos, Jacques; Cote, Gérard; Guy, Alain

    2004-06-17

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) was used to extract and separate lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) nitrate from an aqueous solution. The methodology used is based on the formation of lanthanide(III)-8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) complexes soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant. The lanthanide(III) complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at a temperature above the cloud point temperature (CPT). The structure of the non-ionic surfactant, and the chelating agent-metal molar ratio are identified as factors determining the extraction efficiency and selectivity. In an aqueous solution containing equimolar concentrations of La(III) and Gd(III), extraction efficiency for Gd(III) can reach 96% with a Gd(III)/La(III) selectivity higher than 30 using Triton X-114. Under those conditions, a Gd(III) decontamination factor of 50 is obtained.

  19. Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

  20. Orbital penetration associated with tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smith, Eric M; La Croix, Noelle; Mould, John

    2003-03-01

    Three cats and 2 dogs were evaluated for ophthalmologic complications associated with tooth extraction procedures. Orbital penetration leading to ocular and, in one case, brain trauma was secondary to iatrogenic injury from a dental elevator. Outcomes included enucleation of the affected eye in 3 cases, and death from brain abscessation in 1 case. Early treatment or, preferably, referral to a veterinary ophthalmology specialist may prevent such outcomes. Awareness of the anatomical proximity of caudal maxillary tooth roots and the orbit, appropriate interpretation of diagnostic intraoral dental radiographs, and technical proficiency in tooth extraction techniques will minimize these complications in veterinary dental practice.

  1. Barrier Island Shorelines Extracted from Landsat Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Kristy K.

    2015-10-13

    The shoreline is a common variable used as a metric for coastal erosion or change (Himmelstoss and others, 2010). Although shorelines are often extracted from topographic data (for example, ground-based surveys and light detection and ranging [lidar]), image-based shorelines, corrected for their inherent uncertainties (Moore and others, 2006), have provided much of our understanding of long-term shoreline change because they pre-date routine lidar elevation survey methods. Image-based shorelines continue to be valuable because of their higher temporal resolution compared to costly airborne lidar surveys. A method for extracting sandy shorelines from 30-meter (m) resolution Landsat imagery is presented here.

  2. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Guo, R; Ernst, E

    2008-01-23

    Hawthorn extract is advocated as an oral treatment option for chronic heart failure. Also, the German Commission E approved the use of extracts of hawthorn leaf with flower in patients suffering from heart failure graded stage II according to the New York Heart Association. To assess the benefits and harms as reported in double-blind randomised clinical trials of hawthorn extract compared with placebo for treating patients with chronic heart failure. We searched CENTRAL on The Cochrane Library (issue 2, 2006), MEDLINE (1951 to June 2006), EMBASE (1974 to June 2006), CINAHL (1982 to June 2006) and AMED (1985 to June 2006). Experts and manufacturers were contacted. Language restrictions were not imposed. To be included, studies were required to state that they were randomised, double-blind, and placebo controlled, and used hawthorn leaf and flower extract monopreparations. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of studies, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality. Data were entered into RevMan 4.2 software. Results from continuous data were reported as weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Where data were suitable for combining, pooled results were calculated. Fourteen trials met all inclusion criteria and were included in this review. In most of the studies, hawthorn was used as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Ten trials including 855 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association classes I to III) provided data that were suitable for meta-analysis. For the physiologic outcome of maximal workload, treatment with hawthorn extract was more beneficial than placebo (WMD (Watt) 5.35, 95% CI 0.71 to 10.00, P < 0.02, n = 380). Exercise tolerance were significantly increased by hawthorn extract (WMD (Watt x min) 122.76, 95% CI 32.74 to 212.78, n = 98). The pressure-heart rate product, an index of cardiac oxygen consumption, also showed a beneficial decrease with hawthorn treatment (WMD (mm

  3. Extraction, bioavailability, and bioefficacy of capsaicinoids.

    PubMed

    Lu, Muwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicinoids are active constituents responsible for the pungent and spicy flavor in chili peppers. During the past few decades, various extraction methods of capsaicinoids from peppers have been developed with high yields. Through biological studies, pharmacological benefits have been reported such as pain relief, antiinflammation, anticancer, cardio-protection, as well as weight loss. In this paper, the extraction methods and bioavailability of capsaicinoids are reviewed and discussed. In addition, the pharmacological effects and their underlying mechanisms are also studied. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Mining of the social network extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Hardi, M.; Syah, R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of Web as social media is steadily gaining ground in the study of social actor behaviour. However, information in Web can be interpreted in accordance with the ability of the method such as superficial methods for extracting social networks. Each method however has features and drawbacks: it cannot reveal the behaviour of social actors, but it has the hidden information about them. Therefore, this paper aims to reveal such information in the social networks mining. Social behaviour could be expressed through a set of words extracted from the list of snippets.

  5. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  6. Figure Text Extraction in Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daehyun; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. Methodology We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR) tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT) to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. Results/Conclusions The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total) randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19

  7. ODES (Online Data Extraction Service) for hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmorduc, Vinca; Birol, Florence; Briol, Frederic; Bronner, Emilie; Dibarboure, Gerald; Guinle, Thierry; Nicolas, Clara; Nino, Fernando; Valladeau, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    AVISO+ proposes a new dissemination service, the Online Data Extraction Service (ODES), in order to provide users and applications with a wider range of altimetry-derived data (including high-resolution and experimental data). The platform is designed to distribute both operational products from CNES and partner Agencies (Eumetsat, ESA, NOAA, NASA) but also research-grade data from LEGOS/CTOH and CLS and other contributions from the OSTST research community. An example of use of ODES to extract hydrology experimental expert product (from Pistach processor) for hydrology will be shown. ODES is available at http://odes.altimetry.cnes.fr, download with your Aviso FTP login / password.

  8. Allelopathic potential of Rapanea umbellata leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Paula; Imatomi, Maristela; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Lacret, Rodney; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-08-01

    The stressful conditions associated with the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) environment were supposed to favor higher levels of allelochemicals in Rapanea umbellata from this ecosystem. The allelopathic potential of R. umbellata leaf extracts was studied using the etiolated wheat coleoptile and standard phytotoxicity bioassays. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation, which allowed identifying lutein (1) and (-)-catechin (2) as potential allelochemicals. Finally, the general bioactivity of the two compounds was studied, which indicated that the presence of 1 might be part of the defense mechanisms of this plant. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-13

    Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org) to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures. We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR) tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT) to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons. The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total) randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for text

  10. Evaluating operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction.

    PubMed

    Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a practical methodology for estimating the operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction from municipal landfills. The procedure is based on two sub-models which simulate landfill gas production from organic waste decomposition and distribution of gas pressure and gas movement induced by suction at a blower station. The two models are coupled in a single mass balance equation, obtaining a relationship between the operational vacuum and the amount of landfill gas that can be extracted from an assigned system of vertical wells. To better illustrate the procedure, it is applied to a case study, where a good agreement between simulated and measured data, within +/- 30%, is obtained.

  11. Extracting knowledge from the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Henzinger, Monika; Lawrence, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unprecedented opportunity to automatically analyze a large sample of interests and activity in the world. We discuss methods for extracting knowledge from the web by randomly sampling and analyzing hosts and pages, and by analyzing the link structure of the web and how links accumulate over time. A variety of interesting and valuable information can be extracted, such as the distribution of web pages over domains, the distribution of interest in different areas, communities related to different topics, the nature of competition in different categories of sites, and the degree of communication between different communities or countries. PMID:14745041

  12. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  13. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for the 6-Shogaol-rich Extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    PubMed

    Ok, Seon; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-06-01

    6-Shogaol, a dehydrated form of 6-gingerol, is a minor component in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and has recently been reported to have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol. Based on the thermal instability of gingerols (their dehydration to corresponding shogaols at high temperature), we aimed to develop an optimal process to maximize the 6-shogaol content during ginger extraction by modulating temperature and pH. Fresh gingers were dried under various conditions: freeze-, room temperature (RT)- or convection oven-drying at 60 or 80°C, and extracted by 95% ethanol at RT, 60 or 80°C. The content of 6-shogaol was augmented by increasing both drying and extraction temperatures. The highest production of 6-shogaol was achieved at 80°C extraction after drying at the same temperature and the content of 6-shogaol was about 7-fold compared to the lowest producing process by freezing and extraction at RT. Adjustment of pH (pH 1, 4, 7 and 10) for the 6-shogaol-richest extract (dried and extracted both at 80°C) also affected the chemical composition of ginger and the yield of 6-shogaol was maximized at the most acidic condition of pH 1. Taken together, the current study shows for the first time that a maximized production of 6-shogaol can be achieved during practical drying and extraction process of ginger by increasing both drying and extracting temperatures. Adjustment of pH to extraction solvent with strong acid also helps increase the production of 6-shogaol. Our data could be usefully employed in the fields of food processing as well as nutraceutical industry.

  14. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the... prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that for each unit of vanilla constituent, as defined in...

  15. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of the...

  16. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the... prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that for each unit of vanilla constituent, as defined in...

  17. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of the...

  18. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the... prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that for each unit of vanilla constituent, as defined in...

  19. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the... prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that for each unit of vanilla constituent, as defined in...

  20. 21 CFR 169.180 - Vanilla-vanillin extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin extract. 169.180 Section 169.180... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.180 Vanilla-vanillin extract. (a) Vanilla-vanillin extract conforms to the... prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that for each unit of vanilla constituent, as defined in...

  1. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of the...

  2. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of the...

  3. 21 CFR 169.176 - Concentrated vanilla extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla extract. 169.176 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.176 Concentrated vanilla extract. (a) Concentrated vanilla extract conforms... ingredients prescribed for vanilla extract by § 169.175, except that it is concentrated to remove part of the...

  4. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is...

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from which...

  6. Influence of extractives on wood gluing and finishing- a review

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse; Mon-Lin Kuo

    1988-01-01

    Migration of extractives to the wood surface alters the properties of wood as an adherent. Extractives change the wettability and the curing properties of adhesives. A desirable wettability-permeability relationship is sometimes affected by extractives, thus reducing the gluebond strength and performance. Past efforts to determine which of the components of extractives...

  7. Application of fermentation for isoflavone extraction from soy molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, K. C.; Kovaleva, E. G.; Glukhareva, T. V.

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of isoflavones from soy products remains a major challenge for researchers. Different extraction techniques have been employed but the need to use a cheap green extraction technique remains the main focus. This study applied fermentation of soy molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for extraction of isoflavones and compared this technique to the conventional extraction method. The aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for the determination of total flavonoid content of extracts. The highest yield was observed from extraction using ethyl acetate after fermentation of soy molasses and the lowest one was given by the extract from conventional extraction method. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of the extracts were also compared. The extract obtained using ethyl acetate after fermentation showed the highest antioxidant activity (0.0269 meq), while extract from conventional extraction had the lowest antioxidant activity (0.0055 meq). The effect of time on daidzein yield was studied using HPLC standard addition method. Daidzein concentration was higher in extract obtained at t = 80 min (3.82 ± 0.11 mg of daidzein /g of extract) as compared to that obtained at t = 60 min (2.89 ± 0.10 mg of daidzein /g of extract).

  8. Thermal behavior of extracted and delignified pine wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark; Yongming Fan; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of extractives and lignin on the thermal stability of wood flour (WF), thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine thermal degradation behavior of extracted and delignified mixed pine WF. The contribution of lignin to thermal stability was greater than that of extractives. Removing extractives resulted in improved thermal stability by...

  9. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces...

  10. Antibiotics to prevent complications following tooth extractions.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Giovanni; Figini, Lara; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Furness, Susan

    2012-11-14

    The most frequent indications for tooth extractions are dental caries and periodontal infections, and these extractions are generally done by general dental practitioners. Antibiotics may be prescribed to patients undergoing extractions to prevent complications due to infection. To determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the development of infectious complications following tooth extractions. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 25 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 25 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 25 January 2012) and LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 25 January 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. We included randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing tooth extraction(s) for any indication. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias for the included studies and extracted data. We contacted trial authors for further details where these were unclear. For dichotomous outcomes we calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. For continuous outcomes we used mean differences (MD) with 95% CI using random-effects models. We examined potential sources of heterogeneity. The quality of the body of evidence has been assessed using the GRADE tool. This review included 18 double-blind placebo-controlled trials with a total of 2456 participants. Five trials were assessed at unclear risk of bias, thirteen at high risk, and none at low risk of bias. Compared to placebo, antibiotics probably reduce the risk of infection in patients undergoing third molar extraction(s) by approximately 70% (RR 0.29 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.50) P < 0.0001, 1523 participants, moderate quality evidence) which means that 12 people (range 10-17) need to be treated with

  11. Extraction Behaviors of Heavy Rare Earths with Organophosphoric Extractants: The Contribution of Extractant Dimer Dissociation, Acid Ionization, and Complexation. A Quantum Chemistry Study.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yu; Chen, Ji; Chen, Li; Su, Wenrou; Liu, Yu; Li, Deqian

    2017-03-30

    Heavy rare earths (HREs), namely Ho 3+ , Er 3+ , Tm 3+ , Yb 3+ and Lu 3+ , are rarer and more exceptional than light rare earths, due to the stronger extraction capacity for 100 000 extractions. Therefore, their incomplete stripping and high acidity of stripping become problems for HRE separation by organophosphoric extractants. However, the theories of extractant structure-performance relationship and molecular design method of novel HRE extractants are still not perfect. Beyond the coordination chemistry of the HRE-extracted complex, the extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation behaviors can be crucial to HRE extraction and reactivity of ionic species for understanding and further improving the extraction performance. To address the above issues, three primary fundamental processes, including extractant dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and HRE complexation, were identified and investigated systematically. The intrinsic extraction performances of HRE cations with four acidic organophosphoric extractants (P507, P204, P227 and Cyanex 272) were studied by using relativistic energy-consistent 4f core pseudopotentials, combined with density functional theory and a solvation model. Four acidic organophosphoric extractants have been qualified quantitatively from microscopic structures to chemical properties. It has been found that the Gibbs free energy changes of the overall extraction process (sequence: P204 > P227 > P507 > Cyanex 272) and their differences as a function of HREs (sequence: Ho/Er > Er/Tm > Tm/Yb > Yb/Lu) are in good agreement with the experimental maximum extraction capacities and separation factors. These results could provide an important approach to evaluate HRE extractants by the comprehensive consideration of dimer dissociation, acid ionization, and complexation processes. This paper also demonstrates the importance of the P-O bond, the P-C bond, isomer substituent, and solvation effects on the structure

  12. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  13. Study on extraction process and activity of plant polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogen; Wang, Xiaojing; Fan, Shuangli; Chen, Jiezhong

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that plant polysaccharides have many pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and tumor inhibition. The pharmacological activities of plant polysaccharides were summarized. The extraction methods of plant polysaccharides were discussed. Finally, the extraction process of Herba Taraxaci polysaccharides was optimized by ultrasonic assisted extraction. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment to optimize the optimum extraction process from dandelion polysaccharide, optimum conditions of dandelion root polysaccharide by ultrasonic assisted extraction method for ultrasonic power 320W, temperature 80°C, extraction time 40min, can get higher dandelion polysaccharide extract.

  14. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  15. Sophia: A Expedient UMLS Concept Extraction Annotator.

    PubMed

    Divita, Guy; Zeng, Qing T; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Duvall, Scott; Nebeker, Jonathan; Samore, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    An opportunity exists for meaningful concept extraction and indexing from large corpora of clinical notes in the Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical record. Currently available tools such as MetaMap, cTAKES and HITex do not scale up to address this big data need. Sophia, a rapid UMLS concept extraction annotator was developed to fulfill a mandate and address extraction where high throughput is needed while preserving performance. We report on the development, testing and benchmarking of Sophia against MetaMap and cTAKEs. Sophia demonstrated improved performance on recall as compared to cTAKES and MetaMap (0.71 vs 0.66 and 0.38). The overall f-score was similar to cTAKES and an improvement over MetaMap (0.53 vs 0.57 and 0.43). With regard to speed of processing records, we noted Sophia to be several fold faster than cTAKES and the scaled-out MetaMap service. Sophia offers a viable alternative for high-throughput information extraction tasks.

  16. Obstetric management in vacuum-extraction deliveries.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Mia; Saltvedt, Sissel; Ekéus, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was to describe the obstetric management in vacuum extraction (VE) deliveries and to compare these findings to instructions in clinical guidelines on VE. In 2013, detailed data on management of 600 VE cases were consecutively collected from six different delivery units in Sweden. Each unit also contributed their own clinical VE guideline. In total, 93% of the VEs ended with a vaginal delivery while 7% failed and were converted to an emergency cesarean section. In 2.3% extraction time exceeded 20 minutes, and in 6% more than six pulls were used to deliver the fetus. Cup detachment occurred in 14.6%, and fundal pressure was used in 11% of the deliveries. In 2.3%, fetal station was assessed as above the level of the maternal ischial spines. The clinical guidelines on VE varied in scope and content between units, and were often incomplete according to best practice. The vast majority of the VEs were conducted in accordance with safety recommendations. However, in a few extractions, safety rules were disregarded and more than six pulls or an extraction time of more than 20 minutes were used to complete the delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Doppler extraction with a digital VCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starner, E. R.; Nossen, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Digitally controlled oscillator in phased-locked loop may be useful for data communications systems, or may be modified to serve as information extraction component of microwave or optical system for collision avoidance or automatic braking. Instrument is frequency-synthesizing device with output specified precisely by digital number programmed into frequency register.

  18. Is Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide anaphylactic?

    PubMed

    Richard, Edwin Jothie; Murugan, Sasikumar; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Chinampudur Velusami, Chandrasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata, "King of bitters" is a popularly known medicinal plant extensively used in many parts of the world for treatment of various diseases. Since recent past, anaphylactic/allergic type adverse events were reported upon A. paniculata usage, the study aimed to evaluate the anaphylactic and anaphylactoid potential of A. paniculata extract and andrographolide (a major phytoactive of A. paniculata ). The anaphylactic potential was evaluated using active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) assay in guinea pigs. Further, the release of allergic mediators was measured in immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitized and non-IgE sensitized Rat Basophilic Leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell lines in-vitro . A. paniculata extract or andrographolide sensitized guinea pigs following the challenge antigen administration orally and intravenously did not demonstrate any clinical signs of anaphylaxis. IgE sensitized and non- IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 cells treated with A. paniculata extract did not induce release of allergic mediators. Whereas IgE sensitized and non- IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 cells treated with andrographolide demonstrated mild to moderate release of allergic mediators. A. paniculata extract has no anaphylactic and anaphylactoid potential in in-vivo and in-vitro studies. Whereas, andrographolide effects on allergic mediators in in-vitro studies needs to be scrutinized if they are of biologically important.

  19. Feature Extraction Using an Unsupervised Neural Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-03

    with this neural netowrk is given and its connection to exploratory projection pursuit methods is established. DD I 2 P JA d 73 EDITIONj Of I NOV 6s...IS OBSOLETE $IN 0102- LF- 014- 6601 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Daoes Enlered) Feature Extraction using an Unsupervised Neural Network

  20. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOEpatents

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  1. Heat Extraction of Corn Fiber Hemicellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkő, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Alexandra; Szengyel, Zsolt; Gáspár, Melinda; Réczey, Kati; Stålbrand, Henrik

    Water-soluble hemicellulose was extracted from corn fiber with microwave-assisted heat treatment. The effects of treatment temperature and initial pH of the aqueous extraction media were investigated regarding hemicellulose recovery and molecular mass of the isolated polysaccharides. In treatments carried out at neutral pH (simple water extraction), it has been demonstrated that hemicellulose recovery could be increased by applying higher treatment temperatures. However, the molecular weight of isolated hemicellulose gets significantly lower. For example, 10% of the raw materials' xylan was extracted at 160°C and about 30% recovery was reached at 210°C. However, the molecular mass of the isolated polysaccharide at 210°C (5.82×104) was about half of that measured at 160°C (1.37×105). Reducing the pH with sulfuric acid resulted in shorter polymer chains (1.7×104) and lower hemicellulose yields (2.2%). Application of sodium hydroxide in the treatment showed that, compared with acid, considerably higher yields (11%) with longer polysaccharide chains (1.3×105) could be obtained.

  2. Visual Routines for Extracting Magnitude Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michal, Audrey L.; Uttal, David; Shah, Priti; Franconeri, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Linking relations described in text with relations in visualizations is often difficult. We used eye tracking to measure the optimal way to extract such relations in graphs, college students, and young children (6- and 8-year-olds). Participants compared relational statements ("Are there more blueberries than oranges?") with simple…

  3. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  4. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with...

  5. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with...

  6. 21 CFR 73.530 - Spirulina extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.530 Spirulina extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive... listed in this subpart as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications...

  7. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with...

  8. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with...

  9. 21 CFR 73.30 - Annatto extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.30 Annatto extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., methyl alcohol, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR..., pursuant to section 505 of the act, is in effect for it. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR..., pursuant to section 505 of the act, is in effect for it. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR..., pursuant to section 505 of the act, is in effect for it. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR..., pursuant to section 505 of the act, is in effect for it. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1410 - Logwood extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Logwood extract. 73.1410 Section 73.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR..., pursuant to section 505 of the act, is in effect for it. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive...

  15. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  16. Automatic concept extraction from spoken medical reports.

    PubMed

    Happe, André; Pouliquen, Bruno; Burgun, Anita; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate methods whereby a combination of speech recognition and automated indexing methods substitute for current transcription and indexing practices. We based our study on existing speech recognition software programs and on NOMINDEX, a tool that extracts MeSH concepts from medical text in natural language and that is mainly based on a French medical lexicon and on the UMLS. For each document, the process consists of three steps: (1) dictation and digital audio recording, (2) speech recognition, (3) automatic indexing. The evaluation consisted of a comparison between the set of concepts extracted by NOMINDEX after the speech recognition phase and the set of keywords manually extracted from the initial document. The method was evaluated on a set of 28 patient discharge summaries extracted from the MENELAS corpus in French, corresponding to in-patients admitted for coronarography. The overall precision was 73% and the overall recall was 90%. Indexing errors were mainly due to word sense ambiguity and abbreviations. A specific issue was the fact that the standard French translation of MeSH terms lacks diacritics. A preliminary evaluation of speech recognition tools showed that the rate of accurate recognition was higher than 98%. Only 3% of the indexing errors were generated by inadequate speech recognition. We discuss several areas to focus on to improve this prototype. However, the very low rate of indexing errors due to speech recognition errors highlights the potential benefits of combining speech recognition techniques and automatic indexing.

  17. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  18. Extraction and Analysis of Food Lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Along with proteins and carbohydrates, lipids are one of the main components of foods. Lipids are often defined as a group of biomolecules that are insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents such as hexane, diethyl ether or chloroform. Modern methods for the extraction and analysis of lipi...

  19. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOEpatents

    Shiang, Joseph John [Niskayuna, NY

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  20. Extraction of linear features on SAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyi; Li, Deren; Mei, Xin

    2006-10-01

    Linear features are usually extracted from SAR imagery by a few edge detectors derived from the contrast ratio edge detector with a constant probability of false alarm. On the other hand, the Hough Transform is an elegant way of extracting global features like curve segments from binary edge images. Randomized Hough Transform can reduce the computation time and memory usage of the HT drastically. While Randomized Hough Transform will bring about a great deal of cells invalid during the randomized sample. In this paper, we propose a new approach to extract linear features on SAR imagery, which is an almost automatic algorithm based on edge detection and Randomized Hough Transform. The presented improved method makes full use of the directional information of each edge candidate points so as to solve invalid cumulate problems. Applied result is in good agreement with the theoretical study, and the main linear features on SAR imagery have been extracted automatically. The method saves storage space and computational time, which shows its effectiveness and applicability.