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Sample records for gypsy moth

  1. Gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    William Wallner

    1989-01-01

    The gypsy moth is the most important hardwood defoliating insect in North America. Since its inadvertent introduction into Massachusetts in 1869, it has spread naturally south and west at approximately 5 miles per year. Long distance spread has occurred from human activities such as moving household belongings, camping equipment, motor homes, or other articles...

  2. Gypsy Moth (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    M. McManus; N. Schneeberger; R. Reardon; G. Mason

    1989-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, is one of the most notorious pests of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States. Since 1980, the gypsy moth has defoliated close to a million or more forested acres each year. In 1981, a record 12.9 million acres were defoliated. This is an area larger than Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut combined.

  3. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  4. Gypsy Moth (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Northern Area State & Private Forestry and Region 8; Region 8

    1995-01-01

    The gypsy moth has been a primary defoliator of hardwoods in the Northeastern United States since its introduction in 1869. Although Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and New England are generally infested, isolated infestations have been noted in some North Central, Southern, and Western Seacoast States and are now subject to eradication by the USDA Animal and Plant...

  5. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  6. Defoliation potential of gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; David A. Drake; Stanford L. Arner; Rachel R. Hershey; Susan L. King; Susan L. King

    1993-01-01

    A model that uses forest stand characteristics to estimate the likelihood of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation has been developed. It was applied to recent forest inventory plot data to produce susceptibility ratings and maps showing current defoliation potential in a seven-state area where gypsy moth is an immediate threat.

  7. Gypsy moth life system model

    Treesearch

    J. J. Colbert; G. E. Racin

    1991-01-01

    The model is composed of four major subsystems that are driven by weather. The stand subsystem incorporates the effects of damage by the gypsy moth into annual tree diameter and height growth as well as tree mortality.

  8. Gypsy Moth (Pest Alert-2001)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Southern Region and Northern Area State & Private Forestry

    2001-01-01

    The gypsy moth has been an important pest of hardwoods in the Northeastern United States since its introduction in 1869. Established populations exist in all or parts of 19 states from Maine to Wisconsin and south to Illinois and generally in a southeasterly line from Illinois to northeastern North Carolina.

  9. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These data shows the historical frequency (1972-2002) pattern of gypsy moth defoliation as it spreads south and west from the New England states. forested areas with repeated annual defoliation become more stressed and are at increased risk of permanent damage. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  10. Leading edge gypsy moth population dynamics

    Treesearch

    M. R. Carter; F. W. Ravlin; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Leading edge gypsy moth populations have been the focus of several intervention programs (MDIPM, AIPM). Knowledge of gypsy moth population dynamics in leading edge area is crucial for effective management. Populations in these areas tend to reach outbreak levels (noticeable defoliation) within three to four years after egg masses are first detected. Pheromone traps...

  11. Forest susceptibility to the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Douglas A. Mason; Renate R. Bush

    1997-01-01

    Since 1868 or 1869, when it was introduced near Boston, the gypsy moth has been slowly expanding its range to include the entire northeastern United States and portions of Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, and Michigan (Liebhold et al. 1992, 1996). It is inevitable that the gypsy moth will continue to spread south and west over the next century.

  12. Forecasting gypsy moth egg-mass density

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    Several multiple regression models for gypsy moth egg-mass density were developed from data accumulated in eastern New England between 1911 and 1931. Analysis of these models indicates that: (1) The gypsy moth population system was relatively stable in either the OUTBREAK phase or the INNOCUOUS one; (2) Several naturally occurring processes that could terminate the...

  13. Using silviculture to minimize gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1989-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments can be used to minimize gypsy moth impacts on hardwood stands. There are two major strategies of these treatments: (1) to decrease susceptibility to defoliation by gypsy moth and (2) to strengthen the stand against mortality and encourage growth after defoliation.

  14. Using silviculture to minimize gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Several studies are underway to test and evaluate the use of silvicultural treatments to minimize gypsy moth impacts. Treatment objectives are to change stand susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation or stand vulnerability to damage after defoliation. Decision charts have been developed to help forest and land managers to select the appropriate treatment for their...

  15. Does thinning affect gypsy moth dynamics?

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Rose-Marie Muzika; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1998-01-01

    In northeastern U.S. forests there is considerable variation in susceptibility (defoliation potential) and vulnerability (tree mortality) to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar [L.]). Thinning has been suggested as a way to reduce susceptibility and/or vulnerability. We evaluated how thinning affected the dynamics of gypsy moth populations by experimentally...

  16. Gypsy moth impacts on oak acorn production

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth outbreaks can have drastic effects on many f a s t resources and uses. Because gypsy moth prefers oak foliage, oak stands are the most susceptible to defoliation and resultant damage. The value of oak mast for many wildlife species is high. The high carbohydrate content of acorns provides the energy necessary for winter survival. Loss of mast crops due to...

  17. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Treesearch

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  18. Hazard rating forest stands for gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1991-01-01

    A gypsy moth hazard exists when forest conditions prevail that are conducive to extensive damage from gypsy moth. Combining forest hazard rating with information on insect population trends provides the basis for predicting the probability (risk) of an event occurring. The likelihood of defoliation is termed susceptibility and the probability of damage (mortality,...

  19. Bt: One Option for Gypsy Moth Management

    Treesearch

    Deborah C. Mccullough; Leah S. Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Though the gypsy moth will never go away, you have a variety of options to help manage this pest during outbreaks. One option involves the use of Bt to protect tree foliage and reduce the annoyance caused by gypsy moth caterpillars during an outbreak. Bt or Btk refers to a microorganism called Bacillus Thuringeniesis var. kurstaki. Bt has been widely adopted for...

  20. Gypsy moth effects on mast production

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1990-01-01

    Gypsy moth outbreaks can have drastic effects on many forest resources and uses. Because the gypsy moth prefers oak foliage, oak stands are the most susceptible to defoliation and resultant damage. The value of oak mast for many wildlife species is high. The high carbohydrate content of acorns provides the energy necessary for winter survival. Loss of mast crops due to...

  1. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Treesearch

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  2. Optimal control of gypsy moth populations.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Andrew; Lenhart, Suzanne; White, K A J

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates an optimal strategy for the cost effective control of gypsy moth populations. Gypsy moth populations cycle between low sparse numbers to high outbreak levels and it is during the outbreak levels that the moths cause extensive damage to plant foliage which can lead to deforestation. Deforestation can result in significant economic damage to infested areas, and consequently, there have been many efforts to control moth populations. One effective method of control is the use of the biocontrol agent, Gypchek, but its production is costly. We develop a mathematical model which combines population dynamics and optimal control of the moth population to explore strategies by which the total cost of the gypsy moth problem (economic damage and cost of Gypchek) can be minimized.

  3. General and specific gypsy moth predators

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1991-01-01

    General larval predators of low-density gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), populations have been assessed by exposing caterpillars tethered by threads. Most mortality occurred on tree trunks and in leaf litter.

  4. Relative potencies of gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes isolated from Gypchek

    Treesearch

    J.D. Podgwaite; R.T. Zerillo; J.M. Slavicek; N. Hayes-Plazolles

    2011-01-01

    Gypchek is a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) - specific biopesticide whose primary use is for treating areas where environmental concerns outweigh the use of broad-spectrum pesticides for gypsy moth management. Gypchek is a lyophilized powder produced from larvae that have been infected with the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). The product...

  5. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and... of decision for the final supplemental environmental impact statement for the Gypsy Moth Program... name Mimic) to their list of treatments for the control of gypsy moth. In addition to the proposal...

  6. Mapping the defoliation potential of gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Susan L. King

    1993-01-01

    A model that uses forest stand characteristics to estimate the likelihood of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation has been developed. It was applied to recent forest inventory plot data to produce susceptibility ratings and a map showing defoliation potential for counties in Pennsylvania and six adjacent states on new frontiers of infestation.

  7. Effects of defoliation by gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery

    1991-01-01

    Defoliation of trees by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) has many and varied effects. It causes economic losses through lost forest production and reduced aesthetic qualities of the forest. However, defoliation may improve habitat for many species of wildlife and contribute to increased diversity of eastern forests. Effects on water resources,...

  8. Anthropogenic drivers of gypsy moth spread

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Bigsby; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

    2011-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a polyphagous defoliator introduced to Medford, Massachusetts in 1869. It has spread to over 860,000 km2 in North America, but this still only represents 1/4 of its susceptible host range in the United States. To delay defoliation in the remaining susceptible host range, the government...

  9. Epizootiology of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Joseph S. Elkinton; John P. Burand; Kathleen D. Murray; Stephen A. Woods

    1991-01-01

    Recent experimental findings demonstrate that two distinct waves of mortality of gypsy moth larvae from nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) occurs during larval development. The evidence suggests that early instars acquire lethal doses of NPV from the surface of the egg mass and the cadavers of these larvae produce inoculum that causes a second wave of mortality among...

  10. Predicting tree mortality following gypsy moth defoliation

    Treesearch

    D.E. Fosbroke; R.R. Hicks; K.W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Appropriate application of gypsy moth control strategies requires an accurate prediction of the distribution and intensity of tree mortality prior to defoliation. This prior information is necessary to better target investments in control activities where they are needed. This poster lays the groundwork for developing hazard-rating systems for forests of the...

  11. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Treesearch

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  12. Microsporidian pathogens in European gypsy moth populations

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus; Leellen Solter

    2003-01-01

    The significance of microsporidian pathogens as mortality agents of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in Europe frequently is overlooked. Collections of isolates from 10 different countries suggest that three genera and several biotypes are extant. It is important that the taxonomic placement and phylogeny of currently described genera and species be...

  13. Rating forest stands for gypsy moth defoliation

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1986-01-01

    The severity of future defoliation can be estimated from the percentages of basal area in oaks (Quercus), black oak (Q. velutina) and chestnut oak (a prinus), and in trees with good crowns, along with the average diameter of the stand. With information on these variables, the defoliation potential of any hardwood forest stand in an approaching gypsy moth (Lymantria...

  14. Mesoscale landscape model of gypsy moth phenology

    Treesearch

    Joseph M. Russo; John G. W. Kelley; Andrew M. Liebhold

    1991-01-01

    A recently-developed high resolution climatological temperature data base was input into a gypsy moth phenology model. The high resolution data were created from a coupling of 30-year averages of station observations and digital elevation data. The resultant maximum and minimum temperatures have about a 1 km resolution which represents meteorologically the mesoscale....

  15. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  16. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  17. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  18. Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity

    Treesearch

    Kyle J. Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Derek M. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit two significant...

  19. Landscape ecology of gypsy moth in the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Andrew Liebhold; Joel Halverson; Gregory Elmes; Jay Hutchinson

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth was accidentally introduced to North America near Boston by E. Leopold Trouvelot in 1869. Since that time, the range of the gypsy moth has slowly spread and the generally infested region presently extends as far as Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina. A separate isolated but expanding population exists in Michigan. The goal of this study was...

  20. The Homeowner and the Gypsy Moth: Guidelines for Control

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus; David R. Houston; William E. Wallner

    1979-01-01

    The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States (fig. 1). Since the turn of the century, millions of dollars have been spent in efforts to control or eliminate gypsy moth populations and to retard natural and artificial spread. In the early decades of this century, outbreaks occurred only in New England; today...

  1. What causes the patterns of gypsy moth defoliation?

    Treesearch

    Clive G. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is typically observed to occur on xeric ridge tops before more mesic, lowland forest, in oak-dominated habitats in the Northeast. In subsequent years defoliation may also occur in mesic forests. What causes this pattern of defoliation? Differences in the degree of defoliation may be due to differences in the density of gypsy moth populations in...

  2. Characteristics of Stands Susceptible and Resistant to Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1983-01-01

    Site conditions strongly influence where gypsy moth defohation will occur. In New England, where gypsy moths and foresta have interacted for over a century, some foreats have had a history of repeated defoliation while others have been defo1iated only rarely. The often defohated or susceptible forests characteristically grow on dry sitea such as rocky ridges or...

  3. Status and trends in gypsy moth defoliation hazard in Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; Bruce W. Kauffman

    1990-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), a major defoliator of eastern hardwood forests, has become established in Virginia and is moving towards Tennessee. In preparation for its inevitable arrival, Tennessee’s timberlands are hazard rated to identify those areas most susceptible to gypsy moth defoliation. Tree, stand, and site characteristics...

  4. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  5. Mortality Risks for Forest Trees Threatened with Gypsy Moth Infestation

    Treesearch

    Owen W. Herrick; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1987-01-01

    Presents guidelines for estimating potential tree mortality associated with gypsy moth defoliation. A tree's crown condition, crown position, and species group can be used to assign probabilities of death. Forest-land managers need such information to develop marking guides and implement silvicultural treatments for forest trees threatened with gypsy moth...

  6. Susceptibility of regeneration in clearcuts to defoliation by gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Ray R., Jr. Hicks; Robert M. Fultineer; Barbara S. Ware; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 and 1992, we observed gypsy moth defoliation of oak regeneration in clearcuts of varying sizes and ages. We established plots in the surrounding mature forests to document ambient gypsy moth population levels and placed subplots within the clearcuts designed to examine the effect of location relative to the clearcut edge. We found that the levels of defoliation...

  7. The effects of gypsy moth defoliation on soil water chemistry

    Treesearch

    Thomas R., Jr. Eagle; Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-eight plots were established in oak stands along the leading edge of gypsy moth migration into north-central West Virginia. Plots were arranged in a 3-chain square grid pattern in areas of varying aspect, percent slope, elevation, site index and species composition. Soft water, gypsy moth frass and leaf fragments generated by larval feeding were collected weekly...

  8. Selection of active strains of the gypsy moth nuclearpolyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    M. Shapiro; E. Dougherty

    1985-01-01

    The gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) has grown in economic importance as an insect pest over the past 75 years. From a localized infestation of a small geographical area of New England, the gypsy moth has spread to such an extent that is now found over much of the United States. Control measures are varied, but effective biological control is...

  9. Enzyme immunoassays for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Michael Ma

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for detecting gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). They were used to detect the presence of NPV in hemoplymph samples collected from infected larvae. The incorporation of hybridoma antibodies with these procedures would make them even more specific for gypsy moth...

  10. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    Ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it....

  11. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  12. Forest stand conditions after 13 years of gypsy moth infestation

    Treesearch

    David L. Feicht; Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Mark J. Twery

    1993-01-01

    Of 603 central Pennsylvania plots that were established in 1978 to measure the short-term impact of repeated gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation, 228 were selected for continued study in 1985. Individual observations of defoliation and tree vigor were continued through 1992. Although two gypsy moth outbreaks occurred across central Pennsylvania...

  13. Analysis of spatial density dependence in gypsy moth mortality

    Treesearch

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is perhaps the most widely studied forest insect in the world and much of this research has focused on various aspects of population dynamics. But despite this voluminous amount of research we still lack a good understanding of which, if any, natural enemy species regulate gypsy moth populations. The classical approach to analyzing insect population...

  14. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  15. Gypsy moths get sick too!

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer

    1999-01-01

    In June, those large, black, hairy caterpillars really begin to get your attention as they devour your trees, pelt you car with unpleasent dropping, and lounge about on your porch. I am describing the gysy moth, of course, an annoying caterpillar because of its voracious appette, large size, and abundance in many parts of eastern North America.

  16. Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kyle J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M

    2009-03-01

    Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit two significant periodicities: a dominant period of 8-10 years and a subdominant period of 4-5 years. In this study, we used a simulation model and spatially referenced time series of outbreak intensity data from the Northeastern United States to show that the bimodal periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth outbreaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy moth abundance at and above a 4 km(2) scale of resolution. We also used geographically weighted regression models to explore the effects of gypsy moth host-tree abundance on the periodicity of gypsy moths. We found that the strength of 5-year cycles increased relative to the strength of 10-year cycles with increasing host tree abundance. We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability enhances the growth rates of gypsy moth populations.

  17. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs.

  18. Forecasting defoliation by the gypsy moth in oak stands

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Joseph P. Standaert

    1974-01-01

    A multiple-regression model is presented that reflects statistically significant correlations between defoliation by the gypsy moth, the dependent variable, and a series of biotic and physical independent variables. Both possible uses and shortcomings of this model are discussed.

  19. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  20. Gypsy moth larval defense mechanisms against pathogenic microorganisms

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Shields; Tariq M. Butt

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the response of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval hemocytes to L. dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) administered per os and by injection, and to injected hyphal bodies and natural protoplasts of some entomopathogenic, entomophthoralean fungi.

  1. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  2. Impact of small mammal predators on gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Joseph S. Elkinton; Harvey R. Smith; Andrew M. Liebhold

    1991-01-01

    Research in western Massachusetts, on Cape Cod, and on Bryant Mountain in Vermont conducted over the past decade has confirmed the importance of mortality during the late larval and pupal stages to gypsy moth population dynamics.

  3. History of research on modelling gypsy moth population ecology

    Treesearch

    J. J. Colbert

    1991-01-01

    History of research to develop models of gypsy moth population dynamics and some related studies are described. Empirical regression-based models are reviewed, and then the more comprehensive process models are discussed. Current model- related research efforts are introduced.

  4. Pennsylvania's experiences with microbial control of the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    James O. Nichols

    1985-01-01

    Pennsylvania's first experience with using Bt on insect control occurred in 1964. For the next 17 years, various projects were conducted, in cooperation with the USFS and industry, in an effort to secure operational status of Bt for gypsy moth suppression. This point was reached in 1982, and the Governor was convinced that the time was right to convert most gypsy...

  5. Global gypsy--the moth that gets around

    Treesearch

    W.E. Wallner

    1998-01-01

    It is difficult to document the total economic impacts of exotic insect pests on eastern U.S. forests. Annual losses to a single introduced pest, the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., have exceeded $30 million from 1980 to 1996. The complicated behavior and actions of humans in accelerating the spread of this "global gypsy" are discussed....

  6. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: IV. Forest Stand Hazard Ratings for Gypsy Moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; William B. White

    1978-01-01

    Provides a practical method for rating the potential hazard of impending gypsy moth attacks to forest stands. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to develop equations for estimating tree mortality from easy-to-measure key characteristics of stand condition.

  7. Proceedings, U. S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; Shirley I. Smith; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

  8. Silvicultural treatments and logging costs for minimizing gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is a serious threat to eastern hardwood forests. Felling and skidding costs for harvesting timber in silvicultural thinnings designed to reduce the impacts of the moth were evaluated. Cost of felling the nonmerchantable component of the thinnings to achieve treatment objectives are reported, along with a discussion of the economic feasibility of...

  9. Lymantria monacha (nun moth) and L. dispar (gypsy moth) survival and development on improved Pinus radiata

    Treesearch

    T.M. Withers; M.A. Keena

    2001-01-01

    The lymantriid forest defoliators, Lymantria monacha L. (nun moth) and Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth) are particularly severe pests in other countries in the world, but the ability of these moths to utilise and complete development on Pinus radiata D. Don had never been established. In laboratory trials, colonies of central European L. monacha and Russian far east (...

  10. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions... detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on September...

  11. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  12. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this action...

  13. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this action...

  14. Long-distance dispersal of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) facilitated its initial invasion of Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn

    2008-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread is dominated by stratified dispersal, and, although spread rates are variable in space and time, the gypsy moth has invaded Wisconsin at a consistently higher rate than in other regions. Allee effects, which act on low-density populations ahead of the moving population that contribute to gypsy moth spread, have...

  15. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. This document corrects errors... necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States...

  16. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin... infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of the gypsy moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on October 24, 2013, we are...

  17. Effect of nucleopolyhedrosis virus on two avian predators of the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    J. D. Podgwaite; P. R. Galipeau

    1978-01-01

    The nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth was fed to black-capped chickadees and house sparrows in the form of NPV-infected gypsy moth larvae. Body weight and results of histological examination of organs of treated and control birds indicated that NPV had no apparent short term effect on these two important predators of the gypsy moth.

  18. What causes male-biased sex ratios in the gypsy moth parasitoid Glyptapanteles flavicoxis?

    Treesearch

    R. W. Fuester; K. S. Swan; G. Ramaseshiah

    2007-01-01

    Glyptapanteles flavicoxis (Marsh) is an oligophagous, gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata (Walker), that readily attacks the European gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). This species is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth populations, because...

  19. Gypsy moth role in forest ecosystems: the good, the bad, and the indifferent

    Treesearch

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    Despite a century of attempts to control populations of the gypsy moth, it remains one of the most destructive forest pests introduced to North America. Research has yielded valuable, albeit sometimes conflicting information about the effects of gypsy moth on forests. Anecdotal accounts and scientific data indicate that impacts of gypsy moth defoliation can range from...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  1. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  2. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  4. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  5. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  7. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  8. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  9. An epidemiologic study of gypsy moth rash.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, R W; Canada, A T; Wilcock, K; Etkind, P H; O'Dell, T M; Shama, S K

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, outbreaks of itchy skin rashes were reported accompanying the heavy infestation of gypsy moths (GM) in the Northeastern United States. The rash problem was widespread and a considerable public annoyance. In the spring of 1982, during the period of greatest contact with the caterpillars, a telephone survey was carried out in a highly infested community (HI) and a minimally infested community (LO). Information was collected from 1,000 persons, representing more than 90 per cent of those selected for study. The one-week risk of rash was 10.4 per cent in the HI area and 1.6 per cent in the LO area, for a risk ratio (RR) of 6.5. The occurrence of rash was strongly related to a history of having had a rash in the previous year or having had a caterpillar crawl on the affected area. The combination of both factors additively increased the risk of rash. Hay fever and hanging the wash outside were other related variables. History of allergies other than hay fever since childhood and the use of insecticides were unrelated to rash occurrence.

  10. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  11. Potency of nucleopolyhedrovirus genotypes for European and Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    J.D. Podgwaite; V.V. Martemyanov; J.M. Slavicek; S.A. Bakhavalov; S.V. Pavlushin; N. Hayes-Plazolles; R.T. Zerillo

    2013-01-01

    Gypchek is a gypsy nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product used for management of European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar L.) in the Unlted States, primarily in areas where the use of broad-spectrum pesticides is not appropriate. Similar LdMNPV products are used in Russia for control of a flighted-female strain of Asian gypsy moth (...

  12. Cost analysis and biological ramifications for implementing the gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin

    2008-01-01

    The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program aims to reduce the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), spread into new areas in the United States. The annual budget for this program has ranged from $10-13 million. Changes in funding levels can have important ramifications to the implementation of this program, and consequently affect the rate of gypsy...

  13. Recent field research using microbial insecticides against gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Lawrence P. Abrahamson; Donald A. Eggen

    1985-01-01

    Field research since 1978 using different formulations, dosages, and spray volumes of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) against the gypsy moth are reviewed. Problems associated with inconsistent results are discussed, with an emphasis on timing of application. Recommendations for proper use of Bt are presented along with suggestions for further...

  14. Pupal abnormalities among laboratory-reared gypsy moths

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hansen

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth cohorts from 10 near-wild strains (one to six previous generations in culture), six wild strains (field-collected egg masses), and the standard "New Jersey" lab strain (34th and 35th generation in culture) were reared on Otis wheat germ-based artificial diet, in a constant environment. Rearings were begun with newly-hatched first instars; pupae...

  15. Interactions between microbial agents and gypsy moth parasites

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1985-01-01

    The parasite Cotesia melanoscelus attacks small gypsy moth larvae more successfully than large ones, and Bacillus thuringiensis retards the growth of caterpillars it does not kill. Together, both factors lead to higher parasitism by C. melanoscelus in areas sprayed with B. thuringiensis than...

  16. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  17. Variation in gypsy moth, with comparisons to other Lymantria spp.

    Treesearch

    Paul W. Schaefer

    1991-01-01

    Specimens of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) sensu lato were displayed in museum trays. Many specimens were quarantine laboratory reared during the 1989 season to provide samples (wing venation, frozen adults, prepupal haemolymph, larval feeding behavior, egg mass hair color, head capsule coloration and larval development) for...

  18. Gypsy moth egg-mass density and subsequent defoliation

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell

    1966-01-01

    The relationship between insect density and subsequent defoliation is usually important among the many factors involved in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth. Unfortunately, the proportion of the foliage that will be removed by a defoliator in any given place and year depends not only upon the number of...

  19. Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between expected defoliation and the subsequent condition and mortality rate among the defoliated trees are almost always important factors in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L. )

  20. The disease complex of the gypsy moth. 1. Major components

    Treesearch

    R.W. Campbell; J.D. Podgwaite

    1971-01-01

    A study was undertaken to elucidate the impact of the various components of disease on natural populations of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar. Diseased larvae from both sparse and dense populations were examined and categorized on the basis of etiologic and nonetiologic mortality factors. Results indicated a significantly higher incidence of...

  1. Geographical variation in the periodicity of gypsy moth outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Derek M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bj& #248rnstad

    2006-01-01

    The existence of periodic oscillations in populations of forest Lepidoptera is well known. While information exists on how the periods of oscillations vary among different species, there is little prior evidence of variation in periodicity within the range of a single Lepidopteran species. The exotic gypsy moth is an introduced foliage-feeding insect in North America....

  2. Entomophaga maimaiga panzootic in northeastern gypsy moth populations

    Treesearch

    Ann E. Hajek; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The fungal pathogen causing extensive mortality in gypsy moth larval populations during the 1989 field season has been identified as Entomophaga maimaiga. Identification was based on morphology and in vitro culture requirements, as well as results from allozyme and restriction fragment linked polymorphism analyses. E....

  3. Gypcheck environmentally safe viral insecticide for gypsy moth control

    Treesearch

    Richard Reardon; John Podgwaite; Roger. Zerillo

    2012-01-01

    This handbook is an update of handbook FHTET-2009-01, Gypchek - Bioinsecticide for the Gypsy Moth, printed in July, 2009. This update contains information on virus production, safety evaluations, results of efficacy and deposition evaluations, commercial production, and a copy of the revised registration label, material safety data sheet, and...

  4. The cost of gypsy moth sex in the city

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Bigsby; Mark J. Ambrose; Patrick C. Tobin; Erin O. Sills

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in the 1860s, gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), has periodically defoliated large swaths of forest in the eastern United States. Prior research has suggested that the greatest costs and losses from these outbreaks accrue in residential areas, but these impacts have not been well quantified. We addressed this lacuna with a case...

  5. Gypsy moth impacts in pine-hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery

    1989-01-01

    Gypsy moth has affected pine-hardwood mixtures, especially oak-pine stands, since the late 1800's. Several old and new studies on impacts in mixed stands are reviewed. When pines are heavily defoliated, considerable growth loss and mortality can occur. Mortality is heaviest in understory white pine trees, Impact information is used to suggest silvicultural...

  6. Forest stand losses to gypsy moth in the Poconos

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick

    1978-01-01

    A Study of forest stand losses associated with the gypsy moth outbreak of the early 1970's in the Pocono Mountain Region of northeastern Pennsylvania, showed that while most of the stands incurred little or no loss, a few suffered heavy damage

  7. Mapping forest risk associated with the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Randall S. Morin; Andrew Lister; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Eugene Luzader; Daniel Twardus

    2003-01-01

    The gypsy moth was originally introduced near Boston in 1868 or 1869; it has been slowly expanding its range mostly to the south and west. Its slow spread through the Northeast can be attributed to the limited dispersal capabilities of this insect (females do not fly).

  8. New turf for gypsy moth; there's more at risk downrange

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Paul S. DeBald; Jesus A. Cota

    1983-01-01

    Data collected from 600 field plots in central Pennsylvania forests threatened by gypsy moth point to a greater potential for damage downrange. Though greater than in the Poconos, losses are not expected to be spectacular. Still, some forest landowners will suffer heavy tree mortality to the pest.

  9. Estimating the Benefits of Gypsy Moth Control on Timberland

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Owen W. Herrick

    1987-01-01

    A recent study of forest stand losses to gypsy moth has provided basic information for evaluating the benefits of control on new frontiers of infestation. Protecting highly susceptible trees from impending attack can prevent a potential loss of 15 percent in their timber value and 2.8 percent in their compound rate of value growth.

  10. Tree mortality risk of oak due to gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    K.W. Gottschalk; J.J. Colbert; D.L. Feicht

    1998-01-01

    We present prediction models for estimating tree mortality resulting from gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, defoliation in mixed oak, Quercus sp., forests. These models differ from previous work by including defoliation as a factor in the analysis. Defoliation intensity, initial tree crown condition (crown vigour), crown position, and...

  11. Forest type affects predation on gypsy moth pupae

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; K.F. Raffa; A.L. Diss; A.L. Diss

    2005-01-01

    Predation by small mammals has previously been shown to be the largest source of mortality in low-density gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), populations in established populations in north-eastern North America. Fluctuations in predation levels are critical in determining changes in population densities. We compared small mammal communities and levels of predation on...

  12. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  13. Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Whitmire, Stefanie L; Tobin, Patrick C

    2006-03-01

    Exotic invasive species are a mounting threat to native biodiversity, and their effects are gaining more public attention as each new species is detected. Equally important are the dynamics of exotic invasives that are previously well established. While the literature reports many examples of the ability of a newly arrived exotic invader to persist prior to detection and population growth, we focused on the persistence dynamics of an established invader, the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States. The spread of gypsy moth is largely thought to be the result of the growth and coalescence of isolated colonies in a transition zone ahead of the generally infested area. One important question is thus the ability of these isolated colonies to persist when subject to Allee effects and inimical stochastic events. We analyzed the US gypsy moth survey data and identified isolated colonies of gypsy moth using the local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. We then determined region-specific probabilities of colony persistence given the population abundance in the previous year and its relationship to a suite of ecological factors. We observed that colonies in Wisconsin, US, were significantly more likely to persist in the following year than in other geographic regions of the transition zone, and in all regions, the abundance of preferred host tree species and land use category did not appear to influence persistence. We propose that differences in region-specific rates of persistence may be attributed to Allee effects that are differentially expressed in space, and that the inclusion of geographically varying Allee effects into colony-invasion models may provide an improved paradigm for addressing the establishment and spread of gypsy moth and other invasive exotic species.

  14. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR AERIAL APPLICATION OF PESTICIDE FOR GYPSY MOTH CONTROL ANDREWS AIR FORCE BASE...to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control Andrews Air Force Base...of gypsy moths at Andrews Air Force Base (AFB), Maryland (MD). The EA is prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of

  16. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-23

    Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin Jillian L. Sanford1, Sharon A...the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and...JC, Shields VDC (2014) Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin. PLOS ONE 9

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  18. Proceedings U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency gypsy moth research forum 1992; 1992 January 13-16; Annapolis, MD.

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; [Editors

    1992-01-01

    Contains abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  20. Space travel shortens diapause in gypsy moth eggs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D K; Morgan, N O; Webb, R E; Bell, R A

    1991-02-01

    Field-collected and laboratory-reared gypsy moth eggs were exposed to microgravity, cosmic radiation, sub-freezing temperatures, unusual vibrations, and other extraterrestrial phenomena while they were sealed for 6 days, in January, in a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the open bay of a NASA earth-orbiting spacecraft, the Columbia. Insects were not exposed to light after preparation for and during space flight. Under field conditions, out-of-doors, the eggs should have hatched in April, after 3-4 months of chilling temperatures and should not have hatched after the 6 days of chilling to -11 degrees C during flight in the Columbia spacecraft. However by April 1, more than 4000 larvae had hatched from eggs that had travelled in space, as opposed to approximately 350 from a similar number of control, earthbound eggs. These results indicate that the period of a circannual rhythm in field- and lab-reared insects had been shortened, presumably as result of exposure to microgravity, other factors associated with space flight, and/or conditions of outer space. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop methods for rearing the gypsy moth year round, without the necessity of three months chilling interspersed in the development process. This, in turn, would facilitate production of large numbers of insects for sterile male release or for use as a rearing medium for parasites, predators and pathogens of the gypsy moth.

  1. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  2. Relationships between overstory composition and gypsy moth egg-mass density

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell

    1974-01-01

    Most of the silvicultural recommendations for reducing the hazard of gypsy moth outbreaks have been based in part on the premise that gypsy moth density levels are related closely to the proportion of favored food trees in the overstory. This premise did not prove to be true for a series of plots observed in eastern New England between 1911 and 1931.

  3. Slow the Spread: a national program to manage the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    The gypsy moth is a destructive, nonindigenous pest of forest, shade, and fruit trees that was introduced into the United States in 1869, and is currently established throughout the Northeast and upper Midwest. The Slow the Spread Program is a regional integrated pest management strategy that aims to minimize the rate of gypsy moth spread into uninfested areas. The...

  4. The effects of tree species and site conditions on gypsy moth survival and growth in Michigan

    Treesearch

    John A. Witter; Michael E. Montgomery; Charley A. Chilcote; Jennifer L. Stoyenoff

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, we began a study to determine the relationships between gypsy moth growth and survival and forest site factors. The major objectives of this study were to determine the (1) relationships between gypsy moth survival and growth and different ecosystem conditions, (2) relationships among egg hatch, host phenology, and distribution of small larvae in the...

  5. Gypsy moth in the southeastern U.S.: Biology, ecology, and forest management strategies

    Treesearch

    Bruce W. ​Kauffman; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Andrew M. Liebhold; David R. Coyle

    2017-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is a non-native insect that was accidentally introduced to North America in 1869 when it escaped cultivation by a French amateur entomologist living near Boston, MA. Despite early efforts to eradicate the species, it became established throughout eastern Massachusetts. Since then, the gypsy moth has...

  6. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; John W. Quimby; Susan L. King; Stanford L. Arner; David A. Drake

    1994-01-01

    Does forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) become less susceptible to defoliation? A model for estimating the likelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantify trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of...

  7. Outcrossing colonies of the Otis New Jersey gypsy moth strain and its effect on progeny development

    Treesearch

    John Allen Tanner; Charles P. Schwalbe

    1991-01-01

    The Otis New Jersey gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) strain is considered the "white rat" of gypsy moth research. This strain has been laboratory reared for 34 generations. It currently consists of 35 subcolonies or cohorts that have been genetically isolated from one another for several generations. Usually, larvae that hatch at the same...

  8. Introduction and establishment of Entomophaga maimaiga, a fungal pathogen of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Michigan

    Treesearch

    D. R. Smitley; L. S. Bauer; A. E. Hajek; F. J. Sapio; R. A. Humber

    1995-01-01

    In 1991, late instars of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), were sampled and diagnosed for infections of the pathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu & Soper and for gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) at 50 sites in Michigan. Approximately 1,500 larvae were collected and reared from these sites, and no...

  9. Effects of gypsy moth-oriented silvicultural treatments on vertebrate predator communities

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Greer; Robert C. Whitmore

    1991-01-01

    The impact of forest thinning, as an alternative gypsy moth management technique, on insectivorous birds and small mammals is being investigated in the West Virginia University Forest. The effects of thinning on predation of gypsy moth larvae and pupae by vertebrates are also being examined. Pre-thinning studies were conducted during the spring, summer, and fall of...

  10. Preliminary results on predation of gypsy moth pupae during a period of latency in Slovakia

    Treesearch

    Marek Turcani; Andrew M. Liebhold; Michael McManus; J& #250; lius Novotn& #253

    2003-01-01

    Predation of gypsy moth pupae was studied from 2000 -2003 in Slovakia. Predation on artificially reared pupae was recorded and linear regression was used to test the hypothesis that predation follows a type II vs. type III functional response. The role of pupal predation in gypsy moth population dynamics was also investigated. The relative importance of predation of...

  11. Fine structure of selected mouthpart sensory organs of gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    Vonnie D.C. Shields

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.), are major pest defoliators in most of the United States and destroy millions of acres of trees annually. They are highly polyphagous and display a wide host plant preference, feeding on the foliage of hundreds of plants, such as oak, maple, and sweet gum. Lepidopteran larvae, such as the gypsy moth, depend...

  12. Persistent effects of aerial applications of disparlure on gypsy moth: trap catch and mating success

    Treesearch

    Kevin W. Thorpe; Ksenia S. Tcheslavskaia; Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; E. Anderson Roberts

    2007-01-01

    In forest plots treated aerially with a plastic laminated flake formulation (Disrupt® II) of the gypsy moth sex pheromone disparlure to disrupt gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating was monitored the year of treatment and 1-2 years after treatment to determine the effects of the treatment on suppression of...

  13. Effect of Nucleopolyhedrosis Virus on Selected Mammalian Predators of the Gypsy Moth

    Treesearch

    R.A. Lautenschlager; C.H. Kircher; J.D. Podgwaite

    1977-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth was fed to three mammalian predators of the insect: the white-footed mouse, the short-tailed shrew, and the Virginia opposum in the form of NPV-infected 5th instar gypsy moth larvae, polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB's) mixed in dog food and PIB's mixed in a standard spray formulation. The total amount of NPV...

  14. Interactions between nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Nosema sp. infecting gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    L. S. Bauer; M. McManus; J. Maddox

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is the only entomopathogen that plays an important role in the natural regulation of North American gypsy moth populations. Recent European studies suggest that populations of gypsy moth in Eurasia are regulated primarily by the interactions between NPV and several species of microsporidia. Researchers have proposed that the...

  15. Passage of nucleopolyhedrosis virus by avian and mammalian predators of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    R.A. Lautenschlager; J.D. Podgwaite

    1979-01-01

    Five species of mammals and 3 species of birds passed polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) through their alimentary tracts in amounts great enough to kIll gypsy moth larvae. In bioassays. Opossums and raccoons passed roughly 5% of the PIB administered by intubation while white-footed mice, a short-tailed shrew, and southern...

  16. A comparison of tree crown condition in areas with and without gypsy moth activity

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the crown condition of trees within and outside areas of gypsy moth defoliation in Virginia via hypothesis tests of mean differences for five U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis phase 3 crown condition indicators. Significant differences were found between the trees located within and outside gypsy moth...

  17. Determining the economic feasibility of salvaging gypsy moth-killed hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1990-01-01

    Oak sawlog and pulpwood losses in stands defoliated by gypsy moths have become a critical problem for some forest landowners. The salvage of gypsy moth-killed hardwoods can become an important source of pulpwood and sawlogs. This study documents a methodology and provides guidelines to determine defoliated oak stands that are economically salvageable. Stand data from...

  18. Spread of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and Its Relationship to Defoliation

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Stefanie L. Whitmire

    2005-01-01

    Gypsy moth management is divided into three components: eradication, suppression, and transition zone management. All three components require knowledge of the boundaries that delimit these areas. Additional interest is also placed on the relationship between population spread and defoliation to prepare for the gypsy moth advance in new areas and minimize its impact....

  19. Preparing for the gypsy moth - design and analysis for stand management Dorr Run, Wayne National Forest

    Treesearch

    J. J. Colbert; Phil Perry; Bradley Onken

    1997-01-01

    As the advancing front of the gypsy moth continues its spread throughout Ohio, silviculturists on the Wayne National Forest are preparing themselves for potential gypsy moth outbreaks in the coming decade. Through a cooperative effort between the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area, Forest Health Protection, the Wayne National Forest, Ohio, is...

  20. Preliminary results on predation of gypsy moth egg masses in Slovakia

    Treesearch

    Marek Turcani; Andrew Liebhold; Michael McManus; Julius Novotny

    2003-01-01

    Predation of gypsy moth egg masses was studied in Slovakia from 1999-2002. Predation on naturally laid egg masses was recorded and linear regression was used to test the hypothesis that predation follows a type II vs. type III functional response. We also investigated the role of egg mass predation in gypsy moth population dynamics. The relative contribution of...

  1. Guidelines for the use of GYPCHEK to control the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Franklin B. Lewis; Michael L. McManus; Noel F. Schneeberger

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents positive and negative attributes of GYPCHEK for evaluation by land managers contemplating gypsy moth control. Special precautions and procedures are outlined. Environmental and ecological considerations are discussed and results to be expected from the use of GYPCHEK in gypsy moth control are presented.

  2. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  3. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth.

  4. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics.

  5. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek M; Liebhold, Andrew M; Tobin, Patrick C; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2006-11-16

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most thoroughly studied biological invasion in the world, providing a unique opportunity to explore spatiotemporal variability in rates of spread. Here we describe evidence for periodic pulsed invasions, defined as regularly punctuated range expansions interspersed among periods of range stasis. We use a theoretical model with parameter values estimated from long-term monitoring data to show how an interaction between strong Allee effects (negative population growth at low densities) and stratified diffusion (most individuals disperse locally, but a few seed new colonies by long-range movement) can explain the invasion pulses. Our results indicate that suppressing population peaks along range borders might greatly slow invasion.

  6. Sex pheromone components of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Hahn, Roger; Khaskin, Grigori; Ramaseshiah, Gujjandadu; Singh, Balbir; Hehar, Gagandeep K; Gries, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    The Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), has been recognized as a distinct species since 1865 but closely resembles a diminutive form of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We tested the hypothesis that the sex pheromones of L. obfuscata and L. dispar are similar. In laboratory mate acceptance studies, very few male L. dispar made copulatory attempts when paired with female L. obfuscata, suggesting that female L. obfuscata emit one or more pheromone components antagonistic to male L. dispar. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract of female L. obfuscata, (Z)-2-methyloctadec-7-ene (2Me-7Z-18Hy) and (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] were most abundant and elicited the strongest responses from male L. obfuscata antennae. In field experiments near Solan (Himachal Pradesh, India), 2Me-7Z-18Hy and (+)-disparlure in combination attracted more male L. obfuscata than did either component alone. This two-component sex pheromone contrasts with the single-component sex pheromone [(+)-disparlure] of L. dispar. The contrasting composition of the lymantriid communities inhabited by L. obfuscata and L. dispar may explain why 2Me-7Z-18Hy is a pheromone component in L. obfuscata and a pheromone antagonist in L. dispar and why (-)-disparlure reduces pheromonal attraction of male L. dispar but not male L. obfuscata.

  7. Microbial control of the gypsy moth in recently infested states: experiences and expectations

    Treesearch

    Timothy C. Tigner

    1985-01-01

    Experiences and expectations concerning microbial control of the gypsy moth in recently infested states are summarized. Initial experience included mixed results, but expectations remain optimistic. Public sentiment assures continued pressure for improvement in microbial control technology.

  8. A simple technique for collecting chyle from the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L.

    Treesearch

    Frank S. Kaczmarek; Normand R. Dubois

    1979-01-01

    A procedure for rapidly obtaining significant quantities of chyle is described. The amount and composition of chyle collected from larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), varied according to the instar examined and the age within the instar.

  9. Discovery of Entomophaga maimaiga in North American gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed Central

    Andreadis, T G; Weseloh, R M

    1990-01-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophaga maimaiga, was found causing an extensive epizootic in outbreak populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, throughout many forested and residential areas of the northeastern United States. This is the first recognized occurrence of this or any entomophthoralean fungus in North American gypsy moths, and its appearance was coincident with an abnormally wet spring. Most fungal-infected gypsy moth larvae were killed in mass during the fourth and fifth stadium and were characteristically found clinging to the trunks of trees with their heads pointed downward. The fungus produces thick-walled resistant resting spores within dried gypsy moth cadavers and infectious conidia when freshly killed larvae are held in a wet environment. The morphology and development of the fungus are described. The fungus appears to have had its origin in Japan, and the current epizootic may have resulted from the survival and inapparent spread of an early introduction in 1910-1911. Images PMID:11607071

  10. Radiographing puparia of tachinid parasites of the gypsy moth, and application in parasite-release programs

    Treesearch

    T. M. Odell; P. A. Godwin; W. B. White

    1974-01-01

    A radiographic technique has been developed for observing and quantifying development and mortality of Blepharipa scutellata ( Robineau-Desvoidy), Parasetigena agilis (Robineau-Desvoidy), and Compsilura concinnata (Meigen), tachinid parasites of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.). Puparia...

  11. The effect of various doses of pheromone on mating disruption in gypsy moth population

    Treesearch

    Ksenia Tcheslavskaia; Alexei A. Sharov; Kevin W. Thorpe; Carlyle C. Brewster

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in June-August 2001 in the Cumberland and Appomattox- Buckingham State Forests, Virginia to evaluate the effects of various doses of synthetic pheromone (racemic disparlure) on mating disruption of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.).

  12. Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  14. Histochemical study of lectin binding sites in fourth and fifth instar gypsy moth larval midgut epithelium

    Treesearch

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, midgut epithelial brush border membrane has membrane-bound glycoconjugates, such as BTR-270 and aminopeptidase N (APN), which function as high affinity binding sites (receptors) for the insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). As gypsy...

  15. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  16. Evaluation of the Abington isolate of the gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus against a formulation of Gypchek in small field plots

    Treesearch

    R. E. Webb; M. Shapiro; J. D. Podgwaite; D. D. Cohen; R. L. Ridgway

    1991-01-01

    The "Abington" isolate of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was compared with a formulation of Gypchek against a natural gypsy moth population in the Swallow Falls State Forest in Garrett County, MD.

  17. Interaction between gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and some competitive defoliators

    Treesearch

    Milka M. Glavendeki& #263; ; Ljubodrag S. Mihajlovi& #263

    2007-01-01

    Insect defoliators liable to frequent or occasional outbreaks can endanger forestry production and disturb the stability of forest ecosystems. There were studied life cycles, parasitoids, predators and population dynamics of leaf rollers, the winter moths, noctuids and gypsy moth, which occur in oak forests.

  18. Felling and skidding cost estimates for thinnings to reduce gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is a serious threat to the hardwood forests of the eastern United States. Although chemical treatments currently exist which can be used to help control the impacts of the moth, silvicultural control measures are just now being proposed and tested. Felling and skidding cost estimates for harvesting merchantable timber under two such proposed...

  19. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  20. Effects of winter temperatures on gypsy moth egg masses in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

    Treesearch

    J.A. Andresen; D.G. McCullough; B.E. Potter; C.N. Koller; L.S. Bauer; C. W. Ramm

    2001-01-01

    Accurate prediction of winter survival of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) eggs and phenology of egg hatch in spring are strongly dependent on temperature and are critical aspects of gypsy moth management programs. We monitored internal temperatures of egg masses at three heights aboveground level and at the four cardinal aspects on oak tree stems at two different...

  1. Preliminary results of the FVS gypsy moth event monitor using remeasurement plot data from Northern West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Matthew P. Perkowski; John R. Brooks; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2008-01-01

    Predictions based on the Gypsy Moth Event Monitor were compared to remeasurement plot data from stands receiving gypsy moth defoliation. These stands were part of a silvicultural treatment study located in northern West Virginia that included a sanitation thinning, a presalvage thinning and paired no-treatment controls. In all cases the event monitor under predicted...

  2. Inference of adult female dispersal from the distribution of gypsy moth egg masses in a Japanese city

    Treesearch

    A.M. Liebhold; Marek Turcani; Naoto Kamata

    2008-01-01

    The native range of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) spans the temperate forests of Eurasia. Across this region, a clinal female flight polymorphism exists; gypsy moth females in eastern Asia are mostly capable of directed flight, those in western and southern Europe are largely incapable of flight and populations distributed across the centre of...

  3. Tree mortality in mixed pine-hardwood stands defoliated by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.)

    Treesearch

    Mark H. Eisenbies; Christopher Davidson; James Johnson; Ralph Amateis; Kurt Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and subsequent tree mortality have been well documented in the northeastern United States. In this study we evaluate tree mortality after initial defoliation in mixed pine?hardwood stands in the southeastern United States as the range of European gypsy moth expands.

  4. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Treesearch

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  5. User's guide to the stand-damage model: a component of the gypsy moth life system model

    Treesearch

    J. J. Colbert; George Racin

    1995-01-01

    The Stand-Damage Model (a component of the Gypsy Moth Life System Model) simulates the growth of a mixed hardwood forest and incorporates the effects of defoliation by gypsy moth or tree harvesting as prescribed by the user. It can be used to assess the damage from expected defoliation, view the differences between various degrees of defoliation, and describe the...

  6. Proceedings, 16th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2005

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2005-01-01

    Contains 61 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species.

  7. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2003

    Treesearch

    Kurt W., ed. Gottschalk

    2004-01-01

    Contains 56 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species.

  8. Proceedings, 18th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2007

    Treesearch

    Kurt W., ed. Gottschalk

    2008-01-01

    Contains 60 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  9. Proceedings, 17th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2006

    Treesearch

    Kurt W., ed. Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Contains three abstracts and papers from the 2005 Forum and 70 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species.

  10. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2002

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk; [Editors

    2003-01-01

    Contains 75 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species.

  11. Proceedings, XV U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2004

    Treesearch

    Kurt W., ed. Gottschalk

    2005-01-01

    Contains 61 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Research Forum on Gypsy Moth and Other Invasive Species. The online version contains two additional papers that were not available at...

  12. Interactive effects of defoliation and low resource levels on photosynthesis, growth, and gypsy moth larval response to red oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    James B. McGraw; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    The potential for defoliation of oak seedlings by gypsy moth is quite high. We were interested in examining the interactions between various natural stresses and resulting gypsy moth feeding preferences and the results of defoliation stress on the growth and photosynthetic responses of the oak seedlings.

  13. Long-distance dispersal of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) facilitated its initial invasion of Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Blackburn, Laura M

    2008-02-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread is dominated by stratified dispersal, and, although spread rates are variable in space and time, the gypsy moth has invaded Wisconsin at a consistently higher rate than in other regions. Allee effects, which act on low-density populations ahead of the moving population that contribute to gypsy moth spread, have also been observed to be consistently weaker in Wisconsin. Because a major cause of an Allee effect in the gypsy moth is mate-finding failure at low densities, supplementing low-density populations with immigrants that arrive through dispersal may facilitate establishment and consequent spread. We used local indicator of spatial autocorrelation methods to examine space-time gypsy moth monitoring data from 1996 to 2006 and identify isolated, low-density colonies that arrived through dispersal. We measured the distance of these colonies from the moving population front to show that long-distance dispersal was markedly present in earlier years when Wisconsin was still mainly uninfested. Recently, however, immigrants arriving through long-distance dispersal may no longer be detected because instead of invading uninfested areas, they are now supplementing high-density colonies. In contrast, we observed no temporal pattern in the distance between low-density colonies and the population front in West Virginia and Virginia. We submit that long-distance dispersal, perhaps facilitated through meteorological mechanisms, played an important role in the spread dynamics of the initial Wisconsin gypsy moth invasion, but it currently plays a lesser role because the portion of Wisconsin most susceptible to long-distance immigrants from alternate sources is now heavily infested.

  14. Computer analysis and mapping of gypsy moth levels in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT-1 digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of using LANDSAT-1 multispectral digital data and imagery, supplemented by ground truth and aerial photography, was investigated as a new method of surveying gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar (L.)) (Lepidoptera; Lymantriidae) defoliation, which has greatly increased in Pennsylvania in recent years. Since the acreage and severity of gypsy moth defoliation reaches a peak from mid-June through the first few days of July, the July 8, 1973, LANDSAT-1 scene was chosen for analysis. Results indicate that LANDSAT-1 data can be used to discriminate between defoliated and healthy vegetation in Pennsylvania and that digital processing methods can be used to map the extent and degree of defoliation.

  15. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  16. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand’s North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand’s climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  17. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand's North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand's climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  18. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Treesearch

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  19. Attraction of male gypsy and nun moths to disparlure and some of its chemical analogues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D; Lange, R; Schwarz, F; Beroza, M; Bierl, B A

    1974-03-01

    The attractive power of disparlure-the sex attractant of the gypsy moth (Lymantria/Porthetria dispar)-vs. four synthetic analogous epoxides was tested in 1972 in a pine forest near Heidelberg. With two levels of concentration in the traps (2 and 20 μg), a total of 1112 nun moths (Lymantria/Porthetria monacha) and 257 gypsy moths were caught in 9 experiments. Approximately equal percentages of the two species were caught with a given compound. Disparlure was by far the most effective attractant. The other substances were between three and twenty times less effective. These experiments support the assumption that disparlure is also at least part of the sexual attractant of the nun moth. In two additional experiments, moth captures by a series of increasing disparlure concentrations (2-100 μg/trap) were determined. The catches of both species increased nonlinearly with the bait concentration. The experiments are discussed with respect to new (unpublished) electrophysiological recordings from disparlure receptor cells in both species. Special attention is given to the supposed masking effect of the disparlure precursor (an olefin). This substance is ineffective as an attractant, but has been reported to reduce the attraction of gypsy moth males to disparlure or to live females. However, the olefin elicits excitatory reactions in the same type of receptor cell that responds to disparlure and the related epoxides. Furthermore, no masking of the electrophysiological response was observed with the receptor cells when the olefin was added to disparlure.

  20. [The effect of fodder on the susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) to nuclear polyhedrosis virus].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalov, S A; Bakhvalova, V N

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) growing on different feeding substrates was shown to affect their susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). The insects feeding on birch leaves had the lowest sensitivity to NPV than those on willow leaves, but the insects growing on pine needles showed the highest susceptibility. The sensitivity of the gypsy moths on willow leaves was higher than that of the gypsy moths on birch leaves and lower than that of those on pine needles. At the same time, it did not differ from that of the caterpillars on artificial feeding. The virus polyhedrons formed in the caterpillars on birch or willow leaves were more than those on another fodder.

  1. Host Preferences of Gypsy Moth on a New Frontier of Infestation

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Owen W. Herrick

    1985-01-01

    Knowing what gypsy moth likes to eat can aid forest managers in making cost-effective control decisions. A recent 5-year study of defoliation in central Pennsylvania gives an up-to-date index of host species preferences. Chestnut oak is the most preferred species. Following in relatively close order are the other oaks and aspen. Hardwood species that rank low on the...

  2. The gypsy moth in the central hardwoods: research and management needs

    Treesearch

    Robert Lawrence; Susan Burks; Dennis Haugen; Marc Linit

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is the most serious insect defoliator of trees in the Eastern United States. It is currently established in the area northeast of a line from Michigan to Virginia, and occupies most of the Adirondack and Laurentian Mixed Forest Provinces dominated by northern hardwood, spruce and fir forests. The range of the...

  3. Use of molecular probes to detect parasites and retrotransposons in gypsy moths

    Treesearch

    John H. Werren; Thomas O' Dell

    1991-01-01

    Retrotransposon screen: Gypsy moth families containing straggling and nonstraggling individuals were divided into categories of straggling, medium, and nonstraggling individuals, from which DNA was extracted. Four families were tested by southern hybridization and probing with ribosomal sequences designed to detect R1 and R2 retrotransposon insertions. Results showed...

  4. Predicting the female flight capability of gypsy moths by using DNA markers

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Marie-José Côté; Phyllis S. Grinberg; William E. Wallner

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.) from different geographic origins have different biological and behavioral traits that can affect the risk of establishment and spread in new areas. One behavioral trait of major concern is the capacity of females from some geographic origins to fly, thus increasing the potential rate of spread and making detection...

  5. Biological efficacy of Gypchek against a low-density leading-edge gypsy moth population

    Treesearch

    R.E. Webb; G.B. White; T. Sukontarak; J.D. Podgwaite; D. Schumacher; R.C. Reardon

    2004-01-01

    The USDA's Slow-the-Spread (STS) program seeks to retard the continued spread of the gypsy moth using ecologically desirable treatments such as Gypchek. At "trace" population levels, evaluation of treatment success by defoliation reduction, egg mass reduction, burlap counts, or larval collection is not feasible. We adapted the "bugs-in-bags"...

  6. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm

    Treesearch

    K.L. Frank; P.C. Tobin; Jr. Thistle; Laurence S. Kalkstein

    2013-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a nonnative species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented...

  7. Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): Field studies in Slovakia

    Treesearch

    Leellen F. Solter; Daniela K. Pilarska; Michael L. McManus; Milan Zubrik; Jan Patocka; Wei-Fone Huang; Julius. Novotny

    2010-01-01

    Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we...

  8. Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry: effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Lindroth, Richard L

    1995-07-01

    Individual quaking aspen trees vary greatly in foliar chemistry and susceptibility to defoliation by gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. To relate performance of these insects to differences in foliar chemistry, we reared larvac from egg hatch to pupation on leaves from different aspen trees and analyzed leaf samples for water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, phenolic glycosides, and condensed tannins. Larval performance varied markedly among trees. Pupal weights of both species were strongly and inversely related to phenolic glycoside concentrations. In addition, gypsy moth performance was positively related to condensed tannin concentrations, whereas forest tent caterpillar pupal weights were positively associated with leaf nitrogen concentrations. A subsequent study with larvae fed aspen leaves supplemented with the phenolic glycoside tremulacin confirmed that the compound reduces larval performance. Larvae exhibited increased stadium durations and decreased relative growth rates and food conversion efficiencies as dietary levels of tremulacin increased. Differences in performance were more pronounced for gypsy moths than for forest tent caterpillars. These results suggest that intraspecific variation in defensive chemistry may strongly mediate interactions between aspen, gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars in the Great Lakes region, and may account for differential defoliation of aspen by these two insect species.

  9. Overall aspects of Bt in forest service cooperative gypsy moth suppression projects

    Treesearch

    Noel F. Schneeberger

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in Bt performance and cost, coupled with public concerns over human health risks have elevated Bt to a viable alternative to chemical insecticides. Operational use of Bt in recent years has demonstrated that while foliage protection can generally be achieved in most situations, gypsy moth population reduction cannot. Efforts are needed to improve Bt...

  10. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  11. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Treesearch

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  12. A new species of Proteus isolated from larvae of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.)

    Treesearch

    B.J. Cosenza; J.D. Podgwaite

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics of a slime-producing bacterium isolated from living and dead gypsy moth larvae were determined. The bacterium was found to be a motile, gram-negative rod, which fermented glucose, but not lactose. It was oxidase-negative, hydrolyzed urea, deaminated phenylalanine and produced H2S. These characteristics are common to several...

  13. Parasitoid Complex of the Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) in the Increase-phase Populations in Korea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The species composition of the parasitoid complex and the degree of parasitism by each species were analyzed for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the increasing phase. Total of 7,826 mid-late instar larvae and pupae were collected and reared from two collection sites in Gangwon Province,...

  14. Developing Effective Brochures for Increasing Knowledge of Environmental Problems: The Case of the Gypsy Moth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)

  15. Survival of diverse bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pest insects, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. By attempting to repeatedly pass lepidopteran-active B. thuringiensis strains through gypsy moth larvae, we found that only those str...

  16. Comparative studies on the influence of Bulgarian Nosema isolates on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L.

    Treesearch

    Doerte Goertz; Daniela Pilarska; Andreas Linde

    2003-01-01

    During an outbreak in 1995 to 1997, two microsporidian isolates were recovered from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.; GM) populations in the vicinities of Veslec and Levishte in northern Bulgaria. Preliminary studies have confirmed that both isolates are morphologically very similiar and belong to the genus Nosema. In this...

  17. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  18. VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

  19. Field transmission of a microsporidian pathogen of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    Thomas Kolling; Andreas Linde

    2007-01-01

    The quantification of the transmission of entomopathogens is important for the evaluation of their establishment and potential as biological control agents, however, only few field or semi-field studies were performed. The microsporidium Vairimorpha sp. was isolated from a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) population in Bulgaria and is...

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Treesearch

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  1. A technique for marking first-stage larvae of the gypsy moth for dispersal studies

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Odell; Ian H. von Lindern

    1976-01-01

    Zinc cadmium sulfide fluorescent particles can be used to mark first stage larvae of the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.), without effecting changes in their development and behavior. Marked larvae dispersed readily; so the technique could be used to correlate dispersed larvae with any particular source point.

  2. Development of regeneration following gypsy moth defoliation of Appalachian Plateau and Ridge & Valley hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    D.M. Hix; D.E. Fosbroke; R.R., Jr. Hicks; K.W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gypsy moth defoliation and subsequent overstory mortality on regeneration were located in the Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, and the Maryland stands were located in the Ridge & Valley province. Pre-defoliation data (1984-1986) were compared with post-defoliation data (1989) from the same 315 six-foot-radius plots.

  3. Defoliation and mortality patterns in forests silviculturally managed for gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Rose-Marie Muzika

    1995-01-01

    Mixed hardwood forests of the Appalachian region support one of the most diverse communities of woody plants in North America, but the composition and relative dominance of the forest changes substantially with slight changes in physiography, soil type, or microclimate. Composition of oak and other species highly preferred by the gypsy moth determines the...

  4. Prediction of stand susceptibility and gypsy moth defoliation in Coastal Plain mixed pine-hardwoods

    Treesearch

    C.B. Davidson; J.E. Johnson; K.W. Gottschalk; R.L. Amateis

    2001-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an introduced defoliator that has become endemic in forests of the northeastern United States. During the last five decades, populations have continued to advance into the southeastern United States. Defoliation outbreaks continue to occur along the leading edge of the infestation, and the potential...

  5. Short-term effects of gypsy moth defoliation on nongame birds

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Whitmore; Richard D. Greer

    1991-01-01

    The response of a nongame bird community to tree defoliation and mortality caused by gypsy moths was studied during the summers of 1984, 1985, 1987, and 1988 in deciduous forest habitat of eastern West Virginia. Birds and structural vegetation characteristics were sampled on 42 permanent stations. The 1984 and 1985 stations were considered undefoliated because whole...

  6. Performance of gypsy moth larvae on hosts from the Deep South: survival, development and host preferences

    Treesearch

    C. Wayne Berisford; Todd J. Lanigan; Michael E. Montgomery

    1991-01-01

    Survival, development time and pupal weights of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., which had fed on southern tree hosts were determined. Five species of oaks, Quercus spp.; sweetgum, Liquidambar styracflua L.; and river birch, Betula nigra L., were found to be acceptable hosts. Survival and...

  7. Identification of a non-LTR retrotransposon from the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1999-01-01

    A family of highly repetitive elements, named LDT1, has been identified in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The complete element is 5.4 kb in length and lacks long-terminal repeats, The element contains two open reading frames with a significant amino acid sequence similarity to several non-LTR retrotransposons. The first open reading frame contains...

  8. Behavior of the gypsy moth life system model and development of synoptic model formulations

    Treesearch

    J. J. Colbert; Xu Rumei

    1991-01-01

    Aims of the research: The gypsy moth life system model (GMLSM) is a complex model which incorporates numerous components (both biotic and abiotic) and ecological processes. It is a detailed simulation model which has much biological reality. However, it has not yet been tested with life system data. For such complex models, evaluation and testing cannot be adequately...

  9. Response of birds to aerial application of nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    R.A. Lautenschlager; J.D. Podgwaite

    1979-01-01

    Resident populations of wild birds and caged quail, Colinus virginianus L., were evaluated to detect short-term effects from aerial applications of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth. NPV in 2 formulations was sprayed on woodland plots in central Pennsylvania. Comparisons of prespray and postspray censuses of the common birds on the...

  10. Vectoring gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus by Apanteles melanoscelus (Hym.:Braconidae)

    Treesearch

    B. Raimo; R.C. Reardon; J.D. Podgwaite

    1977-01-01

    Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. larvae were exposed to Apanteles melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) females contaminated with nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Three methods of contamination (ovipositor, total body surface, and exposure to infected hosts) and two exposure periods (2 and 24 hours) were tested. A significantly greater incidence of...

  11. Impact of enhancin genes on potency of LdNPV in gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kelli Hoover; Jim McNeil; Alyssa Gendron; James. Slavicek

    2011-01-01

    Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) contains two enhancin genes (E1 and E2) encoding proteases that degrade key peritrophic matrix (PM) proteins, thereby promoting infection and mortality by the virus. In a previous study, gypsy moth larvae inoculated with LdNPV in which both E1 and E2 were deleted (double deletion virus) resulted in a non-...

  12. Isolation and characterization of juvenile hormone esterase from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)

    Treesearch

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Joan Jolliff

    1991-01-01

    Insect metamorphosis is under precise hormonal control. During the last larval stadium, the degradation of juvenile hormone by juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) is essential for the initiation of pupation. Therefore, we have targeted this system for disruption with a strategy to produce a recombinant gypsy moth virus which expresses JHE. In order to clone and insert the...

  13. Response of gypsy moth larvae to homologous and heterologous nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Treesearch

    Kathleen S. Shields; Edward M. Dougherty

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is not particularly susceptible to baculoviruses other than the nuclear polyhedrosis virus originally isolated from the species (LdMNPV). The multiple enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV), a very virulent baculovirus that replicates in a large number of...

  14. Environmental persistence of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L

    Treesearch

    J.D. Podgwaite; Kathleen Stone Shields; R.T. Zerillo; R.B. Bruen

    1979-01-01

    A bioassay technique was used to estimate the concentrations of infectious gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) that occur naturaIly in leaf, bark, litter, and soil samples taken from woodland plots in Connecticut and Pennsylvania. These concentrations were then compared to those in samples taken sequentially after treatment of these plots with NPV. Results...

  15. Pathways of nucleopolyhedrosis virus infection in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    K. S. Shields

    1985-01-01

    Gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus polyhedral inclusion bodies dissolve slowly in host digestive fluids, in vitro. Infectious viral material is in the hemocoel two hours after ingestion of inclusion bodies. Hemocytes produce and release nucleocapsids throughout the course of infection, but in the fat body, nearly all nucleocapsids are enveloped and...

  16. Hybridization and introgression of the two strains of Hokkaikdo gypsy moths as invasions by alien species

    Treesearch

    Yasutomo Higashiura; Michio Ishihara; Hirofumi Yamaguchi; Nanako Ono; Shin-ichi Tokishita; Hideo Yamagata; Takema Fukatsu

    2007-01-01

    Male-killing refers to the death of male embryos or larvae, and is well known in a variety of organisms, such as plants, mites, and insects (Hurst et al. 1997). We have found male-killing by about 10 percent females in a Bibai, Hokkaido, Japan, population of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., and have found maternal inheritance of the trait (...

  17. A technique for sexing fully developed embryos and early-instar larvae of the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Gilbert Levesque

    1963-01-01

    Because variation in sex ratio is an important factor in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), it is necessary to have some means of determining the ratio of males to females in a population at the beginning of the larval period as well as in the later stages. For determining the sex of fully developed embryos and early-...

  18. Economic analysis of the gypsy moth problem in the northeast: I. applied to commercial forest stands

    Treesearch

    Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1973-01-01

    A method of calculating immediate and future losses caused by the gypsy moth is presented, using examples of pulpwood and sawtimber stands. Discounting of future losses to evaluate their cost in terms of current expenditure is explained. The effect of infestation on forest management is discussed and a format is given for considering control decisions.

  19. The effects of thinning and gypsy moth defoliation on wood volume growth in oaks

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Jim Rentch; Kurt Gottschalk

    2008-01-01

    Stem dissection and dendroecological methods were used to examine the effects of thinning and defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) on wood volume increment in oaks (Quercus rubra L., Q. alba L., Q. prinus L.). A model was developed to evaluate radial volume increment growth at three...

  20. Monitoring, and mapping gypsy moth data in AIPM: the process and problems of implementation

    Treesearch

    S. J. Fleischer; E. A. Roberts; F. W. Ravlin; R.C. Reardon

    1991-01-01

    The Appalachian IPM program (AIPM), due to its size (12.8 million acres), location along the leading edge, and use of new technology, will influence the development of gypsy moth management programs. This paper reviews the data collection, management and mapped display of the adult male and egg mass life stages in the AIPM project. Data are field-collected using...

  1. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Treesearch

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  2. Sterile insect technique as a tool for increasing the efficacy of gypsy moth biocontrol

    Treesearch

    Julius Novotny; Milan Zubrik

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics such as the duration of the larval stage and attraction of larvae to oviposition by an endoparasitic wasp were evaluated between groups of irradiated and non irradiated gypsy moth larvae. Untreated larvae required a shorter time to reach the adult stage (both male and female). The mortality of larvae was highest at the highest irradiation dose. Pupae...

  3. Potent sex attractant of the gypsy moth: its isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bierl, B A; Beroza, M; Collier, C W

    1970-10-02

    The sex attractant emitted by the female gypsy moth has been identified as cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane. The structure was verified by spectral, gas chromatographic, and biological comparisons with the synthesized compound. Nine closely related isomers were considerably less effective.

  4. Gypsy Moth Defoliation Potential in the Ouachita/Ozark Highlands Region

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James M. Guldin; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The gypsy moth is expanding its range in North America and is likely to invade the Ouachita/ Ozark Highlands region sometime during this century. A previous analysis indicated that forests in this area are among the most susceptible in North America to defoliation by this insect. We used USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  5. "Slow the spread" a national program to contain the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; E. Anderson Roberts; Willard Dickerson; Willard Dickerson

    2002-01-01

    Invasions by alien species can cause substantial damage to our forest resources. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) represents one example of this problem, and we present here a new strategy for its management that concentrates on containment rather than suppression of outbreaks. The "Slow the Spread" project is a combined federal and state...

  6. Russian and Ukrainian literature on the gypsy moth: an annotated bibliography

    Treesearch

    Yuri N Baranchikov; Galina N. Nikitenko; Michael E. Montgomery

    1998-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1185 references to literature on the gypsy moth published from 1837 to 1991 in the territory occupied by the former U.S.S.R. The bibliography is designed to assist researchers within and outside the former U.S.S.R. to identify, locate, and correctly cite the original Russian or Ukrainian references in English. The bibliography contains...

  7. Predicting the rate of change in timber value for forest stands infested with gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick

    1982-01-01

    Presents a method for estimating the potential impact of gypsy moth attacks on forest-stand value. Robust regression analysis is used to develop an equation for predicting the rate of change in timber value from easy-to-measure key characteristics of stand condition.

  8. Predictability of gypsy moth defoliation in central hardwoods: a validation study

    Treesearch

    David E. Fosbroke; Ray R., Jr. Hicks

    1993-01-01

    A model for predicting gypsy moth defoliation in central hardwood forests based on stand characteristics was evaluated following a 5-year outbreak in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Study area stand characteristics were similar to those of the areas used to develop the model. Comparisons are made between model predictive capability in two physiographic provinces. The tested...

  9. Predicting defoliation by the gypsy moth using egg mass counts and a helper variable

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Montgomery

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, counts of egg masses have been used to predict defoliation by the gypsy moth. Regardless of the method and precision used to obtain the counts, estimates of egg mass density alone often do not provide satisfactory predictions of defoliation. Although defoliation levels greater than 50% are seldom observed if egg mass densities are less than 600 per...

  10. Variation in the suitability of tree species for the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Montgomery

    1991-01-01

    Lymantria dispar L. is a polyphagous defoliator that feeds on a variety of trees and shrubs. These hosts vary considerably in their nutritional value for the gypsy moth. Classifications patterned after that of Mosher (1915) are used to group potential hosts into categories that correspond to suitable, marginal, and inadequate. Within species...

  11. The role of behavior in the dispersal of newly hatched gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    Michael L. Mcmanus; Michael L. Mcmanus

    1973-01-01

    Newly hatched gypsy moth larvae are morphologically and behaviorally adapted for airborne dispersal. The diel periodicity of both hatching and dispersal from the egg mass and photopositive behavior assure that larvae are in optimal position for dispersal when air turbulence is maximal at midday. The rate of larval activity depends upon ambient temperature and relative...

  12. Effectiveness of artificial bark flaps in mediating migration of late-instar gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus; Harvey R. Smith

    1984-01-01

    Field studies demonstrated that migrating larval instars of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), preferred resting locations placed on tree boles at 4.6 m over those placed at 1.5 and 3 m. More larvae were found beneath bark flaps than beneath flaps of hard black plastic.

  13. Effects of previous stand management on mortality following gypsy moth defoliation: preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1989-01-01

    Oak-hickory forest stands were sampled for tree mortality using a series of temporary plots. Stands were classified by gypsy moth defoliation and by thinning treatment timing. Thinning of forest stands does accomplish its goal of reducing mortality in undefoliated stands; however, the effect is not clear when stands are defoliated.

  14. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Treesearch

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  15. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    V. D' Amico; J.D. Podgwaite; R. Zerillo; P. Taylor; R. Fuester

    2013-01-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an...

  16. Economic analysis of the gypsy moth problem in the northeast: II. applied to residential property

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Payne; William B. White; Roger E. McCay; Robert R. McNichols

    1973-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for determining dollar losses in residential property values from tree mortality caused by the gypsy moth. The method is based on an earlier study in Amherst, Massachusetts, of the contribution of trees to property values. For each target area, the method requires data on property value, lot size, and number of trees 6 inches dbh and larger for...

  17. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on near-view aesthetic preferences and recreation behavior intentions

    Treesearch

    S.J. Hollenhorst; S.M. Brock; W.A. Freimund; M.J. Twery

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, near-view color photographs were taken of 25 forested sites exhibiting gypsy moth induced tree mortality from 6% - 97%. A quadratic function of tree mortality by preference rating best described the variability in ratings ( R2 = .60). The effect of flowering mountain laurel flowers was also...

  18. Using thinning as a management tool for gypsy moth: the influence on small mammal abundance

    Treesearch

    R.M. Muzika; S.T. Grushecky; A.M. Liebhold; R.L. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Silvicultural manipulations may be used to reduce forest susceptibility or vulnerability to defoliation by the gypsy moth. The effects of this management strategy on small mammal abundance were determined by pitfall trapping small mammals 1 year before silvicultural thinnings and for 3 years following thinning in a deciduous montane forest. Sorex cinereus...

  19. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  20. VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

  1. Developing Effective Brochures for Increasing Knowledge of Environmental Problems: The Case of the Gypsy Moth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)

  2. The disease complex of the gypsy moth. II. Aerobic bacterial pathogens

    Treesearch

    J.D. Podgwaite; R.W. Campbell

    1972-01-01

    Eighty-six pathogenic aerobic bacterial isolates from diseased gypsy moth larvae collected in both sparse and dense populations were characterized and identified as members of the families Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Achromobacteraceae. The commonest pathogens were Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus...

  3. Within-population variation in response of red oak seedlings to herbivory by gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    T. Scott Byington; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James B. McGraw

    1994-01-01

    The potential for an evolutionary response to gypsy moth (Lymantna dispar L.) herbivory was investigated in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a preferred host. Seedlings of nine open-pollinated families were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally defoliated by fourth instar larvae in the summer of 1991 to assay for intraspecific...

  4. Storage of resting spores of the gypsy moth fungal pathogen, Entomophaga maimaiga

    Treesearch

    Ann E. Hajek; Micheal M. Wheeler; Callie C. Eastburn; Leah S. Bauer

    2001-01-01

    The fungal pathogen, Entomophaga maimaiga causes epizootics in populations of the important North American forest defoliator gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Increasing use of thisfungus for biological control is dependent on our ability to produce and manipulate the long-lived overwintering resting spores (azygospores). E. maimaiga resting spores undergo obligate...

  5. Symposium on formulation and application of microbials for spruce budworm and gypsy moth control

    Treesearch

    J. A. Armstrong; W. G. Yendol

    1985-01-01

    This panel of experts from Canada and the United States has been brought together to discuss control techniques and strategies employed against these important defoliators - the spruce budworm and the gypsy moth. In selecting the panel we have chosen people with experience ranging from research to control.

  6. Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah.

    PubMed

    Logan, J A; Régnière, J; Gray, D R; Munson, A S

    2007-01-01

    The importance of efficaciously assessing the risk for introduction and establishment of pest species is an increasingly important ecological and economic issue. Evaluation of climate is fundamental to determining the potential success of an introduced or invasive insect pest. However, evaluating climatic suitability poses substantial difficulties; climate can be measured and assessed in a bewildering array of ways. Some physiological filter, in essence a lens that focuses climate through the requirements and constraints of a potential pest introduction, is required. Difficulties in assessing climate suitability are further exacerbated by the effects of climate change. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic, tree-defoliating insect that is frequently introduced into the western United States. In spite of an abundance of potential host species, these introductions have yet to result in established populations. The success of eradication efforts and the unsuccessful establishment of many detected and undetected introductions may be related to an inhospitable climate. Climatic suitability for gypsy moth in the western United States, however, is potentially improving, perhaps rapidly, due to a general warming trend that began in the mid 1970s and continues today. In this work, we describe the application of a physiologically based climate suitability model for evaluating risk of gypsy moth establishment on a landscape level. Development of this risk assessment system first required amassing databases that integrated the gypsy moth climatic assessment model, with host species distributions, and climate (historical, present, and future). This integrated system was then used to evaluate climate change scenarios for native host species in Utah, with the result that risk of establishment will dramatically increase during the remainder of the 21st century under reasonable climate change scenarios. We then applied the risk assessment system to several case histories of

  7. Interaction between a Nosema sp. (Microspora: Nosematidae) and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infecting the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)1

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Joseph V. Maddox; Michael L. McManus

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential per os inoculations of gypsy moth larvae with the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) and a Nosema sp. from Portugal demonstrated that the interaction of two pathogens during coinfection was variable, ranging from synergistic to antagonistic. Susceptibility of gypsy...

  8. Age-dependent postdiapause development in the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) life stage model.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2009-02-01

    For the last approximately 10 yr, the Gypsy Moth Life Stage (GLS) model has been used by pest managers to predict when important events in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., life cycle will occur (e.g., peak second larval instar population and male moth flight). Although the GLS model has been shown to outperform other gypsy moth phenology models, its predictions have not always been as accurate as desired. Differences between predicted and observed egg hatch phenology prompted a re-examination of the original experimental data that were used in the construction of the egg hatch submodels of the original GLS model, and a data processing error was discovered to have truncated the postdiapause experimental data. Analysis of the complete data set confirmed that developmental rates in the postdiapause phase were age and temperature dependent but that the developmental response to temperature is distinctly nonlinear at postdiapause initiation, in contrast to the indeterminate response previously reported. By incorporating the new estimates of developmental rate patterns and parameters into the GLS model, errors in the GLS-simulated egg hatch period were reduced by 33-71% and error in date of 50% cumulative egg hatch by 25-100%.

  9. Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, E; Kramer, A M; Tobin, P C; Drake, J M

    2011-01-01

    Allee effects are important dynamical mechanisms in small-density populations in which per capita population growth rate increases with density. When positive density dependence is sufficiently severe (a ‘strong’ Allee effect), a critical density arises below which populations do not persist. For spatially distributed populations subject to dispersal, theory predicts that the occupied area also exhibits a critical threshold for population persistence, but this result has not been confirmed in nature. We tested this prediction in patterns of population persistence across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in data collected between 1996 and 2008. Our analysis consistently provided evidence for effects of both population area and density on persistence, as predicted by the general theory, and confirmed here using a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical documentation of critical patch size induced by an Allee effect. PMID:21138513

  10. Critical patch size generated by Allee effect in gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.).

    PubMed

    Vercken, E; Kramer, A M; Tobin, P C; Drake, J M

    2011-02-01

    Allee effects are important dynamical mechanisms in small-density populations in which per capita population growth rate increases with density. When positive density dependence is sufficiently severe (a 'strong' Allee effect), a critical density arises below which populations do not persist. For spatially distributed populations subject to dispersal, theory predicts that the occupied area also exhibits a critical threshold for population persistence, but this result has not been confirmed in nature. We tested this prediction in patterns of population persistence across the invasion front of the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States in data collected between 1996 and 2008. Our analysis consistently provided evidence for effects of both population area and density on persistence, as predicted by the general theory, and confirmed here using a mechanistic model developed for the gypsy moth system. We believe this study to be the first empirical documentation of critical patch size induced by an Allee effect. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Geographic variation in North American gypsy moth cycles: subharmonics, generalist predators, and spatial coupling.

    PubMed

    Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Robinet, Christelle; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2010-01-01

    Many defoliating forest lepidopterans cause predictable periodic deforestation. Several of these species exhibit geographical variation in both the strength of periodic behavior and the frequency of cycles. The mathematical models used to describe the population dynamics of such species commonly predict that gradual variation in the underlying ecological mechanisms may lead to punctuated (subharmonic) variation in outbreak cycles through period-doubling cascades. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, in its recently established range in the northeastern United States may represent an unusually clear natural manifestation of this phenomenon. In this study we introduce a new statistical spatial-smoothing method for estimating outbreak periodicity from space-time defoliation data collected with spatial error. The method statistically confirms the existence of subharmonic variation in cyclicity among different forest types. Some xeric forest types exhibit a statistical 4-5 year period in outbreak dynamics, some mesic forest types a 9-10 year period, and some intermediate forest types a dominant 9-10 year period with a 4-5 year subdominant superharmonic. We then use a theoretical model involving gypsy moth, pathogens, and predators to investigate the possible role of geographical variation in generalist predator populations as the cause of this variation in dynamics. The model predicts that the period of gypsy moth oscillations should be positively associated with predator carrying capacity and that variation in the carrying capacity provides a parsimonious explanation of previous reports of geographical variation in gypsy moth periodicity. Furthermore, a two-patch spatial extension of the model shows that, in the presence of spatial coupling, subharmonic attractors can coexist whereas nonharmonic attractors (i.e., where the cycle lengths are not integer multiples of one another) cannot.

  12. Field test with helicopter applications of Gardona against gypsy moth in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Jack H. Barger; Kenneth Helrich

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, Gardona® WP was field tested against the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L.), in Pennsylvania. Treatments of 1 gal/acre were applied by helicopter on six 100-acre plots, three at 1 pound AI/gal and three at 1.5 pound Al/gal. Check subplots of 0.1-acre were established throughout the area. Before and after spraying, evaluations were...

  13. Influences on individual initiative to use gypsy moth control in New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Bruce E.

    1993-11-01

    Socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal factors likely to influence individual initiative to use control measures against gypsy moth infestation in New Hampshire are examined. Data were acquired through a mail survey from 629 individuals in three targeted towns: Bow, Conway, and Exeter. Using logit regression analysis, numerous variables are shown to be statistically significant in influencing an individual's willingness to use control measures. The influencing factors include: the individual knowing the difference between the gypsy moth caterpillar and the eastern tent caterpillar; the individual being a homeowner rather than a renter; the number of acres of land accompanying the individual's dwelling; the number of trees on the individual's property; the individual's gender; and the individual's level of income. Aesthetic damage and the nuisance caused by gypsy moth infestation were the primary reasons for individuals to use control measures. The results from this study indicate that the motivation behind an individual's initiative to use control measures is influenced by diverse and varying factors. The models, methodology, and results as applied and presented here are exploratory in nature, yet could prove informative for researchers seeking a greater understanding of the interaction between humans and insect pests.

  14. Semipermissive replication of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica in a gypsy moth cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.; Dougherty, E.M.; Weiner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several gypsy moth cell lines have been previously described as nonpermissive for the multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV). In this report, the authors demonstrate the semipermissive infection of a gypsy moth cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y, with AcMNPV. IPLB-LD-652Y cells infected with AcMNPV produced classic cytopathic effects but failed to yield infectious progeny virus. Results of experiments employing DNA-DNA dot hybridization suggested that AcMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated from 8 to 12 h postinfection (p.i.), continued at a maximum rate from 12 to 20 h p.i., and declined from 20 to 36 h p.i. The rate of AcMNPV DNA synthesis approximated that observed in the permissive TN-368 cell line. AcMNPV-infected IPLB-LD-652Y cells, pulse-labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine at various time intervals p.i. and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed four virus-induced proteins, one novel to the semipermissive system and three early ..cap alpha.. proteins, synthesized from 1 to 20 h p.i. Thereafter, both host and viral protein synthesis was completely suppressed. These results suggest that AcMNPV adsorbed, penetrated, and initiated limited macromolecular synthesis in the semipermissive gypsy moth cell line. However, the infection cycle was restricted during the early phase of AcMNPV replication.

  15. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Screening Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the United States for Evidence of an Asian Genotype.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Barr, N B; Braswell, W E; Martinez, M; Ledezma, L A; Molongoski, J; Mastro, V; Schuenzel, E L

    2015-10-01

    European gypsy moth populations (Lymantria dispar L.) are well established and a proven destructive force in hardwood trees throughout the United States and Canada. Introduction of the exotic Asian gypsy moth into North America would be even more impactful, as Asian gypsy moth populations have wider host ranges, and are capable of naturally dispersing more rapidly due to female flight ability. To support early detection and exclusion of Asian gypsy moth, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) uses molecular techniques to screen moths trapped in North America for evidence of common Asian genotype. In order to strengthen U.S. domestic capacity to screen moths quickly and efficiently, we report a real-time PCR assay for this pest. A probe system using TaqMan 5' nuclease chemistry is reported for detection of an allele associated with common Asian gypsy moth genotypes. The targeted allele is located at the nuclear FS1 locus currently used by the USDA in conventional PCR tests to screen for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introductions or introgression. The diagnostic probe is successfully multiplexed with a conserved 18S probe system to detect reaction failure due to poor sample quality or quantity. The specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the FS1-18S multiplex real-time PCR assay were tested on laboratory-reared and field-collected moths to demonstrate diagnostic utility. Implications of the new assay as a screening tool for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introgression and introduction are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Treesearch

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  17. An insect out of control? The potential for spread and establishment of the gypsy moth in new forest areas in the United States

    Treesearch

    Max W. McFadden; Michael E. McManus

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was introduced from Europe into North America near Boston, Massachusetts, in 1869, and is now well established as a serious defoliator of forest, shade, and fruit trees over much of the eastern United States. Despite substantial efforts to eradicate, contain, or control this pest, the gypsy moth has persisted and...

  18. Passage of infectious nuclear polyhedrosis virus through the alimentary tracts of two small mammal predators of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    R.A. Lautenschlager; J.D. Podgwaite

    1977-01-01

    The white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and the short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda Say, 2 small mammal predators of the gypsy moth, have demonstrated the ability to pass significant amounts of infectious nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) through their alimentary tracts. Ninety-five percent of the gypsy moth...

  19. Molecular characterization of the insect immune protein hemolin and its high induction during embryonic diapause in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    Treesearch

    K.-Y. Lee; F. M. Horodyski; A. P. Valaitis; D. L. Denlinger

    2002-01-01

    During the embryonic (pharate first instar) diapause of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, a 55 kDa protein is highly up-regulated in the gut. We now identify that protein as hemolin, an immune protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily. We isolated a gypsy moth hemolin cDNA and demonstrated a high degree of similarity with hemolins from three other...

  20. Evaluation of potential versus realized primary infection of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) by Entomophaga maimaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales).

    PubMed

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Wheeler, Micheal M; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-10-01

    The fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has provided important biological control of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), since the first epizootics occurred in the northeastern United States in 1989. Epizootics are initiated by germination of soil-borne resting spores, which are highly sensitive to spring temperature and moisture. We compared gypsy moth infection by E. maimaiga in 33 oak stands in Michigan with infection under optimal laboratory conditions from 1999 to 2001 to assess differences between potential and realized efficacy of E. maimaiga. Field bioassays were conducted by exposing laboratory-reared, fourth-instar gypsy moth to soil at the base of oak trees for 4 d. Additional larvae were similarly exposed to soil collected from the field plots in laboratory bioassays with temperature, humidity, and moisture levels optimal for fungal germination. Overall E. maimaiga infection ranged from means of 3.2-29.8% in the field compared with 20.9-59.7% in the laboratory during three field seasons. Resting spore density in soil and gypsy moth egg mass density were significant predictors of field infections in two of the 3 yr, whereas resting spore density was a significant predictor of laboratory infections each year. Other variables that significantly predicted laboratory infections in one of the 3 yr included egg mass density, canopy cover, and soil pH. In laboratory bioassays, soil pH and E. maimaiga resting spore density were positively associated with increasing E. maimaiga infection rates of gypsy moth larvae.

  1. Disulfide connectivity and reduction in pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honson, Nicolette S.; Plettner, Erika

    2006-06-01

    Males of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are attracted by a pheromone released by females. Pheromones are detected by olfactory neurons housed in specialized sensory hairs located on the antennae of the male moth. Once pheromone molecules enter the sensilla lymph, a highly abundant pheromone-binding protein (PBP) transports the molecule to the sensory neuron. The PBPs are members of the insect odorant-binding protein family, with six conserved cysteine residues. In this study, the disulfide bond connectivities of the pheromone-binding proteins PBP1 and PBP2 from the gypsy moth were found to be cysteines 19-54, 50-109, and 97-118 for PBP1, and cysteines 19-54, 50-110, and 97-119 for PBP2, as determined by cyanylation reactions and cyanogen bromide chemical cleavage. We have discovered that the second disulfide linkage is the most easily reduced of the three, and this same linkage is missing among four cysteine-containing insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). We are the first to identify the unique steric and electronic properties of this second disulfide linkage.

  2. Disulfide connectivity and reduction in pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Honson, Nicolette S; Plettner, Erika

    2006-06-01

    Males of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are attracted by a pheromone released by females. Pheromones are detected by olfactory neurons housed in specialized sensory hairs located on the antennae of the male moth. Once pheromone molecules enter the sensilla lymph, a highly abundant pheromone-binding protein (PBP) transports the molecule to the sensory neuron. The PBPs are members of the insect odorant-binding protein family, with six conserved cysteine residues. In this study, the disulfide bond connectivities of the pheromone-binding proteins PBP1 and PBP2 from the gypsy moth were found to be cysteines 19-54, 50-109, and 97-118 for PBP1, and cysteines 19-54, 50-110, and 97-119 for PBP2, as determined by cyanylation reactions and cyanogen bromide chemical cleavage. We have discovered that the second disulfide linkage is the most easily reduced of the three, and this same linkage is missing among four cysteine-containing insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). We are the first to identify the unique steric and electronic properties of this second disulfide linkage.

  3. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Klein, Kenneth T; Leonard, Donna S

    2009-12-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps. We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap. We deployed a total of 352 automated traps under field conditions across several U.S. states over a 5-yr period. In many cases, there was general congruence between male moth capture and the number of recorded events. Although it was difficult to decipher an individual recording event because of the tendency for over-recording, the overall distribution of recorded events was useful in assessing male gypsy moth flight behavior and phenology. The time stamp for recorded events corroborated a previous report of crepuscular gypsy moth male flight behavior, because, although most moths were trapped between 12 and 16 h, there was a consistent period of flight activity between 20 and 22 h. The median male flight duration was 24 d (228 DD, base threshold = 10 degrees C), but there were several traps that recorded flight periods >42 d that could not be explained by overcounting given the congruence between moth capture and the number of recorded events. Unusually long flight periods could indicate the introduction of male moths or other life stages that developed under different climatic conditions.

  4. Stand-damage model: A component of the gypsy moth life system model (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Stand-Damage Model (a component of the Gypsy Moth Life System Model) simulates the growth of a mixed hardwood forest and incorporates the effects of defoliation by gypsy moth or tree harvesting as prescribed by the user. It can be used to assess the damage from expected defoliation, view the differences between various degrees of defoliation, and describe the effects of defoliation on a standard under user-defined silvicultural prescriptions and defoliation scenarios. The user`s guide provides the information necessary to install and use the model software on DOS microcomputers. A reference section provides a more experienced user with a structure map of the system.

  5. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

  6. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change.

  7. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    PubMed

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  8. Gypsy moth herbivory induced volatiles and reduced parasite attachment to cranberry hosts.

    PubMed

    Tjiurutue, Muvari C; Sandler, Hilary A; Kersch-Becker, Monica F; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn S

    2017-08-12

    Interactions between species can have cascading effects that shape subsequent interactions. For example, herbivory can induce plant defenses that affect subsequent interactions with herbivores, pathogens, mycorrhizae, and pollinators. Parasitic plants are present in most ecosystems, and play important roles in structuring communities. However, the effects of host herbivory on parasitic plants, and the potential mechanisms underlying such effects, are not well known. We conducted a greenhouse study to ask whether gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) damage, host cultivar, and their interaction affected preference of the stem parasite dodder (Cuscuta spp.) on cranberry hosts (Vaccinium macrocarpum). We then assessed the mechanisms that could underlie such effects by measuring induced changes in phytohormones and secondary compounds. We found that damage by gypsy moths delayed dodder attachment by approximately 0.3 days when dodder stems were added 2 days after damage, and reduced attachment by more than 50% when dodder stems were added 1 week after host plant damage. Gypsy moth damage significantly increased jasmonic acid (JA) levels, total volatile emissions, and the flavonol, quercetin aglycone, suggesting possible mechanisms underlying variation in dodder ability to locate or attach to hosts. Dodder preference also differed between cranberry cultivars, with the highest attachment on the cultivar that had significantly lower levels of total volatile emissions and total phenolic acids, suggesting that volatile composition and phenolics may mediate dodder preference. Our results indicate that herbivory can reduce subsequent attachment by a highly damaging parasitic plant, demonstrating the potential importance of early damage for shaping subsequent species interactions.

  9. Effects of pathogen exposure on life history variation in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)

    PubMed Central

    Páez, David J.; Fleming-Davies, Arietta E.; Dwyer, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Investment in host defenses against pathogens may lead to tradeoffs with host fecundity. When such tradeoffs arise from genetic correlations, rates of phenotypic change by natural selection may be affected. However, genetic correlations between host survival and fecundity are rarely quantified. To understand tradeoffs between immune responses to baculovirus exposure and fecundity in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we estimated genetic correlations between survival probability and traits related to fecundity, such as pupal weight. In addition, we tested whether different virus isolates have different effects on male and female pupal weight. To estimate genetic correlations, we exposed individuals of known relatedness to a single baculovirus isolate. To then evaluate the effect of virus isolate on pupal weight, we exposed a single gypsy moth strain to 16 baculovirus isolates. We found a negative genetic correlation between survival and pupal weight. In addition, virus exposure caused late-pupating females to be identical in weight to males, whereas unexposed females were 2–3 times as large as unexposed males. Finally, we found that female pupal weight is a quadratic function of host mortality across virus isolates, which is likely due to tradeoffs and compensatory growth processes acting at high and low mortality levels, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that fecundity costs may strongly affect the response to selection for disease resistance. In nature, baculoviruses contribute to the regulation of gypsy moth outbreaks, as pathogens often do in forest-defoliating insects. We therefore argue that tradeoffs between host life-history traits may help explain outbreak dynamics. PMID:26201381

  10. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Tobin, P. C.; Thistle, H. W.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  11. Monitoring the defoliation of hardwood forests in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT. [gypsy moth surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dottavio, C. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Williams, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    An automated system for conducting annual gypsy moth defoliation surveys using LANDSAT MSS data and digital processing techniques is described. A two-step preprocessing procedure was developed that uses multitemporal data sets representing forest canopy conditions before and after defoliation to create a digital image in which all nonforest cover types are eliminated or masked out of a LANDSAT image that exhibits insect defoliation. A temporal window for defoliation assessment was identified and a statewide data base was established. A data management system to interface image analysis software with the statewide data base was developed and a cost benefit analysis of this operational system was conducted.

  12. Possible role of ozone in tree defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffords, M.R.; Endress, A.G.

    1984-10-01

    Third-instar gypsy moth larvae were used to assess their feeding preference for white oak foliage which had been exposed to three concentrations of ozone. In separate experiments the insects preferred to feed on plant material exposed to the highest concentration of ozone (15 pphm). However, plant material exposed to the median concentration (9 pphm) was less preferred than the control (ambient air), which indicated a change in the chemistry of the foliage, making it less suitable as a host plant. A further experiment showed that this switch from preference to lack of preference occurred between 6 and 9 pphm ozone and reversed itself between 9 and 12 pphm.

  13. Mapping Historic Gypsy Moth Defoliation with MODIS Satellite Data: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Ryan, Robert E.; Smooth, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a project, the goal of which is to study the potential of MODIS data for monitoring historic gypsy moth defoliation. A NASA/USDA Forest Service (USFS) partnership was formed to perform the study. NASA is helping USFS to implement satellite data products into its emerging Forest Threat Early Warning System. The latter system is being developed by the USFS Eastern and Western Forest Threat Assessment Centers. The USFS Forest Threat Centers want to use MODIS time series data for regional monitoring of forest damage (e.g., defoliation) preferably in near real time. The study's methodology is described, and the results of the study are shown.

  14. Gypsy moths: Pest control research. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning control and research regarding gypsy moths or lymantria dispar. Both natural and synthetic controls are discussed, including parasites, viral diseases, fungal diseases, bird predation, bacterial diseases, pheromone trapping, insecticides, and physical and chemical localized protection. Laboratory and field studies on sex pheromones, environmental effects on life cycles, effects of feeding behavior, plant-insect interactions, and other research relating to the control of this forest pest are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Suitability of north American tree species to the gypsy moth: A summary of field and laboratory tests. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Muzika, R.M.; Montgomery, M.E.; Young, R.

    1995-09-01

    As the gypsy moth expands its range into new portions of the United States, There is a need to predict which tree species will be attacked by this defoliating insect. There have been several studies describing feeding preferences of the gypsy moth, but these results have not been summarized in a single list. We report and summarize all of the major tests of foliage suitability to gypsy moth is a trait that is correlated among closely related species. As a result, it is possible to extrapolate foliage suitability of North American tree species for which no screenings have been performed. A list of suitability as suscepible, resistant, or immune.

  16. Some negative aspects of using Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in operational programs against the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    John D. Kegg

    1985-01-01

    Operational programs to suppress gypsy moth populations in residential and recreational areas first began in New Jersey in May of 1980. Bacillus thuringiensis was used on approximately 17,000 acres applied at the dosage rate of 8 B.I.U.'s in one gallon of water per acre. Two treatments approximately one week apart were applied.

  17. Synchronous Crepuscular Flight of Female Asian Gypsy Moths: Relationships of Light Intensity and Ambient and Body Temperatures

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. Charlton; Ring T. Carde; William E. Wallner; William E. Wallner

    1999-01-01

    Female gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) of Asian heritage studied in central Siberia and Germany exhibit a highly synchronous flight at dusk, after light intensity falls to about 2 lux. This critical light intensity sets the timing of flight behaviors independent of ambient temperature. Flight follows several minutes of preflight wing fanning during which females in...

  18. Midgut transcriptomic response of the gypsy moth, lymantria dispar, to infection with l. dispar and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedroviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developmental resistance of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae to baculovirus infection consists of both midgut-based and systemic components. To characterize the midgut response of larvae to baculovirus infection and identify larval host genes putatively involved in the midgut component of devel...

  19. Pathogenicity of two nucleopolyhedrovirus products, Virin NSh and Gypchek, for Asian and North American gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    John Podgwaite; Viatcheslav Martemyanov; Stanislav Bakhvalov

    2007-01-01

    Periodic intrusions of Asian strains of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., into North America have occurred over the past several years. Preventative measures in the countries of origin and around ports of entry in North America have lowered the risk of invasion and establishment but the threat remains current. Asian strains have a wider host range...

  20. Hazard rating for gypsy moth on a Macintosh computer: a component of the GypsES system

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; Gregory A. Elmes

    1991-01-01

    As gypsy moth expands into a new region, the threat of damage from its infestation is increasing greatly. The potential economic damage from the pest is extensive, considerably compounding the already substantial aesthetic damage and urban nuisance problems. One way to help forest managers deal with this threat is by providing them with a computer program which can...

  1. A multiple regression model for parasitization of gypsy moths by the introduced larval parasite Cotesia melanoscelus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Fuester

    1991-01-01

    Cotesia melanoscelus (Ratzeburg) is a bivoltine, solitary, endoparasite of larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). Imported from Europe after the turn of the century, it readily became established and now occurs throughout the generally infested area. Rates of parasitization are highly variable, particularly during the...

  2. Transcriptome of the lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larval midgut and its response to infection by bacillus thuringiensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control in nature. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of ...

  3. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  4. Development of appropriate methodologies for sampling gypsy moth populations in moderately sized urban parks and other wooded public lands

    Treesearch

    K. W. Thorpe; R. L. Ridgway; R. E. Webb

    1991-01-01

    Egg mass survey data from operational gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) management programs in five Maryland county parks and the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) have demonstrated that improved survey protocols are needed to increase the precision and accuracy of the surveys.

  5. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates of...

  6. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Treesearch

    Harrison Robert L.; Daniel L. Rowley; Melody A. Keena

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Aba624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054...

  7. Complete genome sequence of the strain of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus found in the gypsy moth biopesticide, Virin-ENSh.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the genome sequence of an alphabaculovirus from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) biopesticide, VirinENSh. The genome sequence is 161,712 bp, and its structure and sequence similarity indicates that the VirinENSh virus is a strain of the species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovi...

  8. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Treesearch

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  9. Evaluation of Aerially-Applied Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Suppression of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar L.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Wollam; W.G. Yendol; F.B. Lewis

    1978-01-01

    Single and double applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar L. were evaluated for suppression of a gypsy moth infestation in Pennsylvania. The virus material, purified by isopynic centrifugation, was applied by air at the rate of 2.47 x 1012 polyhedral inclusion bodies per hectare. Two formulations of...

  10. Commercial production of microbials by Reuter Laboratories, inc., for control of the gypsy moth and the spruce budworm

    Treesearch

    F. D. Obenchain

    1985-01-01

    Reuter Laboratories announces additions to its line of microbial insecticides with the 1984-85 introduction of a Bacillus thuringiensis, Berliner, variety Kurstaki (HD-1, H-3A3B) wettable powder formulation. Gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus, in experimental production since 1982, is scheduled for commercial introduction as a...

  11. Natural occurrence of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar [Lep. : Lymantriidae] in wild birds and mammals

    Treesearch

    R.A. Lautenschlager; J.D. Podgwaite; D.E. Watson

    1980-01-01

    Three species of birds and 5 species of mammals were captured in the wild from 2 plots in which mortality from naturally occurring nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV) among gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), larvae was 15 % and 70 %. Bioassays of intestinal contents showed that blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), towhees, ...

  12. Comparison of aerially-applied Gypchek strains against gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in the presence of an Entomophaga maimaiga epizootic

    Treesearch

    R.E. Webb; G.B. White; J.D. Podgwaite; V. D' Amico; J. Slavicek; J. Swearingen; B. Onken; K.W. Thorpe

    2005-01-01

    The standard strain (LDP-226) of Gypchek®, a nucleopolyhedrovirus product registered by the USDA Forest Service against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), was compared against a strain, LdMNPV-203NL (NL = nonliquefying), that was developed for production in cell culture. Both strains were applied by air to U.S. government property in...

  13. Development of insect viruses as pesticides: The case of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in North America

    Treesearch

    J.D. Podgwaite; H.M. Mazzone

    1981-01-01

    Biological control, one component of integrated pest management, encompasses the use of several types of biological agents to control insect pest populations. Of these biological control agents, the insect viruses appear to offer one logical alternative to the chemical insecticides. One such virus, the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth, Lymantria...

  14. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy

    Treesearch

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2011-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the...

  15. Selection of new more potent strains of Bacillus thuringiensis for use against gypsy moth and spruce budworm

    Treesearch

    Normand R. Dubois

    1985-01-01

    The increased use of B. thuringiensis as an alternative to chemical insecticides has stimulated the search for more potent strains. Presently over 1100 strains have been isolated from worldwide sources. Some of these appear to be more effective than the commercially developed HD-1 strain against both the gypsy moth and spruce budworm. One strain in...

  16. Tree mortality following defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in the United States: a review

    Treesearch

    Christopher B. Davidson; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James E. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This review presents information related to defoliation by the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and subsequent tree mortality in the eastern United States. The literature describing defoliation-induced tree mortality is extensive, yet questions still remain concerning (1) the association between initial stand composition and subsequent tree...

  17. The role of phenotype structure in the population dynamics of gypsy moth in the Lower Dnieper region

    Treesearch

    Nikolaj M. Derevyanko

    1991-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of the gypsy moth population in the Lower Dnieper area is its variable larval coloring. Phenotype frequency has been recorded over the years in separate micropopulations at different density levels. The data show the population to consist mainly of gray larvae in all life stages, and their abundance varying from 85 to 99.6 percent....

  18. Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  19. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and related spore-forming bacteria from soil after application for gypsy moth control

    Treesearch

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Elizabeth A. Mongeon; Michael B. Blackburn; Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) has been applied for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) control in forests in the northeastern U.S. for many years. The subspecies of Bt that is used (urstaki) is not common in U.S. soil. We attempted to recover Bt from...

  20. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Treesearch

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  1. Synthesis and biological activity of conformationally restricted gypsy moth pheromone mimics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gong, Yongmei; Gries, Regine M; Plettner, Erika

    2010-04-15

    The design and synthesis of a series of conformationally constrained mimics of gypsy moth sex pheromone, (+)-disparlure (7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, are described. The core structure of the mimics is derived from 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl)cyclopent-2-en-1-ol. Substituent optimization of the analogs was accomplished through the synthesis of mini-libraries and pure individual compounds, followed by electrophysiological experiments with male gypsy moth antennae. The electroantennogram results show that the analogs elicited weak to no antennal responses themselves. There was a clear structure-activity pattern for odorant activity, with ethyl substituents being best. Further, when puffed simultaneously with the pheromone, some of the compounds gave a significant enhancement of the antennal depolarization, indicating an additive or synergistic effect. A pure pheromone stimulus following a mixed compound/pheromone stimulus was generally not affected, with two exceptions: one compound enhanced and another inhibited a subsequent stimulus. The compounds also prolonged the stimulation of the antenna, which manifested itself in widened electroantennogram peaks. We tested the hypothesis that this prolonged stimulation may be due to the stabilization of a particular conformer of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP). Compounds that caused PBP2 to adopt a similar conformation than in the presence of pheromone also caused peak widening. This was not the case with PBP1. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Responses of condensed tannins in poplar roots to fertilization and gypsy moth defoliation.

    PubMed

    Kosola, Kevin R; Parry, Dylan; Workmaster, Beth Ann A

    2006-12-01

    We examined the effects of fertilization and gypsy moth defoliation on condensed tannin concentration (%CT) of hybrid poplar (Populus x canadensis cv 'Eugeneii') fine roots in the summers of 1997 and 1998. This factorial experiment included two defoliation treatments (defoliated and a foliated control) and fertilization treatments (100 kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1) and an unfertilized control). Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) populations were experimentally increased to obtain defoliation in the summers of 1996, 1997 and 1998; fertilization subplots were supplemented with NH4NO3 (100 kg N ha(-1)) in the spring of each year. Despite the severity of defoliation, the effects were small, and significant on only two sampling dates: in May 1997, when fine root %CT was 23% lower in the defoliated trees, and in November 1997, when trees in the defoliated unfertilized plots had 35% higher root %CT than trees in all other plots. Defoliation effects on root %CT did not follow the same seasonal pattern as defoliation effects on root starch content, N uptake capacity or leaf %CT. Regulation of root condensed tannin concentration appeared to be partially uncoupled from these traits. The small transient effects on root defense reflect the resilience of this early successional tree to severe early season defoliation.

  3. Transcriptome of the Lymantria dispar (Gypsy Moth) Larval Midgut in Response to Infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Michael E.; Blackburn, Michael B.; Kuhar, Daniel; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which 838, 1,248 and 3,305 were respectively partitioned into high-, mid- and low-quality tiers on the basis of homology information. Digital gene expression profiles suggested genes differentially expressed at 24 hours post infection, and qRT-PCR analyses were performed for verification. The differentially expressed genes primarily associated with digestive function, including α-amylase, lipase and carboxypeptidase; immune response, including C-type lectin 4; developmental genes such as arylphorin; as well as a variety of binding proteins: cellular retinoic acid binding protein (lipid-binding), insulin-related peptide binding protein (protein-binding) and ovary C/EBPg transcription factor (nucleic acid-binding). This is the first study conducted to specifically investigate gypsy moth response to a bacterial infection challenge using large-scale sequencing technologies, and the results highlight important genes that could be involved in biopesticide resistance development or could serve as targets for biologically-based control mechanisms of this insect pest. PMID:23658687

  4. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-Qing; Sun, Shuang-Yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

  5. Dispersion in time and space affect mating success and Allee effects in invading gypsy moth populations.

    PubMed

    Robinet, C; Lance, D R; Thorpe, K W; Onufrieva, K S; Tobin, P C; Liebhold, A M

    2008-09-01

    1. Understanding why invading populations sometimes fail to establish is of considerable relevance to the development of strategies for managing biological invasions. 2. Newly arriving populations tend to be sparse and are often influenced by Allee effects. Mating failure is a typical cause of Allee effects in low-density insect populations, and dispersion of individuals in space and time can exacerbate mate-location failure in invading populations. 3. Here we evaluate the relative importance of dispersal and sexual asynchrony as contributors to Allee effects in invading populations by adopting as a case study the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), an important insect defoliator for which considerable demographic information is available. 4. We used release-recapture experiments to parameterize a model that describes probabilities that males locate females along various spatial and temporal offsets between male and female adult emergence. 5. Based on these experimental results, we developed a generalized model of mating success that demonstrates the existence of an Allee threshold, below which introduced gypsy moth populations are likely to go extinct without any management intervention.

  6. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization.

  7. Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-06-01

    Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities.

  8. [Horizontal transmission routes of baculovirus infection in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.)].

    PubMed

    Kolosov, A V; Kosogova, T A; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, A N

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers horizontal transmission routes of baculovirus infection in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). The original method for modeling natural processes in controllable conditions allowed one to estimate the influence of factors on the occurrence of epizooties. The authors investigated 3 possible models of virus transmission from infected to uninfected gypsy moths: 1) infected and test caterpillars were kept and fed together (a complex route); 2) those which were in the immediate vicinity, but deprived of eating together (an aerial route); 3) test caterpillars were fed on the leaves on which infected caterpillars had eaten (an oral route). The investigations have shown that the complex and oral routes out of the considered models may be considered to be effective infection transmission routes for the horizontal spread of epizooties. Furthermore, the availability of sufficient amount of infected caterpillars in the population leads to a reduction in the resistance of healthy insects to other diseases. Thus, by taking into account the capacity of larvae for passive migration, the purpose of insecticidal treatment is to set up a few infection foci that will be a source for the spread of epizootias and contribute to an overall viability reduction of a pest population.

  9. Transcriptome of the Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Michael E; Blackburn, Michael B; Kuhar, Daniel; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which 838, 1,248 and 3,305 were respectively partitioned into high-, mid- and low-quality tiers on the basis of homology information. Digital gene expression profiles suggested genes differentially expressed at 24 hours post infection, and qRT-PCR analyses were performed for verification. The differentially expressed genes primarily associated with digestive function, including α-amylase, lipase and carboxypeptidase; immune response, including C-type lectin 4; developmental genes such as arylphorin; as well as a variety of binding proteins: cellular retinoic acid binding protein (lipid-binding), insulin-related peptide binding protein (protein-binding) and ovary C/EBPg transcription factor (nucleic acid-binding). This is the first study conducted to specifically investigate gypsy moth response to a bacterial infection challenge using large-scale sequencing technologies, and the results highlight important genes that could be involved in biopesticide resistance development or could serve as targets for biologically-based control mechanisms of this insect pest.

  10. Genetic Characterization of the Gypsy Moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-qing; Sun, Shuang-yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei’s, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (FST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei’s and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern. PMID:23951339

  11. The first record of nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa; Bekircan, Cağrı; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) is a common pest of forests and fruit trees throughout the world. This insect is also a major serious pest in Turkey. Nowadays L. dispar can be managed by biological control methods especially, using entomopathogenic viruses. The aim of this study is to characterize entomopathogenic viruses and is the first record of nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the gypsy moth in Turkey. PIBs obtained from infected larvae were measured and photographed using an Olympus BX51 microscope with a DP-25 digital camera and a DP2-BSW Soft Imaging System and examined with a Philips 208 electron microscope (TEM). The virus had the typical characteristics of nucleopolyhedroviruses. The dimension of the polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) was 2.03±0.25 µm. PIBs varied in size from 1.65 to 2.21 µm and were usually polygonal in shape. Virions in PIBs contained 1 to 8 nucleocapsids per virion. The size of the viral particles was 366.67±54.72 (312-500) x 42.95±6.12 (30-47) nm. The isolation and characterization of a pure isolate of Lymantria dispar multinucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV-TR) from Turkey is presented for the first time.

  12. Influence of weather on the synchrony of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) outbreaks in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Outbreaks of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), were partially synchronous across New England states (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont) from 1938 to 1992. To explain this synchrony, we investigated the Moran effect, a hypothesis that local population oscillations, which result form similar density-dependent mechanisms operating at time lags, may be synchronized over wide areas by exposure to common weather patterns. We also investigated the theory of climatic release, which ostulates that outbreaks are triggered by climatic factors favorable for population growth. Time series analysis revealed defoliation series in 2 states as 1st-order autoregressive processes and the other 2 as periodic 2nd-order autoregressive processes. Defoliation residuals series computed using the autoregressive models for each state were cross correlated with series of weather variables recorded in the respective states. The weather variables significantly correlated with defoliation residuals in all 4 states were minimum temperature and precipitation in mid-December in the same gypsy moth generation and minimum temperature in mid- to late July of the previous generation. These weather variables also were correlated strongly among the 4 states. The analyses supported the predictions of the Moran effect and suggest the common weather may synchronize local populations so as to produce pest outbreaks over wide areas. We did not find convincing evidence to support the theory of climatic release. 41 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Viral and host cellular transcription in Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus-infected gypsy moth cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Guzo, D; Rathburn, H; Guthrie, K; Dougherty, E

    1992-01-01

    Infection of two gypsy moth cell lines (IPLB-Ld652Y and IPLB-LdFB) by the Autographa californica multiple-enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is characterized by extremely attenuated viral protein synthesis followed by a total arrest of all viral and cellular protein production. In this study, AcMNPV- and host cell-specific transcription were examined. Overall levels of viral RNAs in infected gypsy moth cells were, at most measured times, comparable to RNA levels from an infected cell line (TN-368) permissive for AcMNPV replication. Northern blot (RNA) analyses using viral and host gene-specific probes revealed predominantly normal-length virus- and cell-specific transcripts postinfection. Transport of viral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and transcript stability in infected gypsy moth cells also appeared normal compared with similar parameters for AcMNPV-infected TN-368 cells. Host cellular and viral mRNAs extracted from gypsy moth and TN-368 cells at various times postinfection and translated in vitro yielded similar spectra of host and viral proteins. Treatment of infected gypsy moth cells with the DNA synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin eliminated the total protein synthesis shutoff in infected IPLB-LdFB cells but had no effect on protein synthesis inhibition in infected IPLB-Ld652Y cells. The apparent selective block in the translation of viral transcripts early in infection and the absence of normal translation or transcription of host cellular genes at later times is discussed. Images PMID:1560533

  14. Use of a secondary host by non-outbreak populations of the gypsy moth. [Pinus rigida; Quercus spp; Lymantria dispar

    SciTech Connect

    Rossiter, M.

    1987-08-01

    Oaks are the favored host of gypsy moths in the northeastern US, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of ecological and behavioral factors that can contribute to the use of a secondary host under low-density conditions by an irruptive herbivore species. A series of manipulative field and laboratory experiments plus a study of natural history provided data on the pattern of pitch pine use during the life cycle of the gypsy moth, the effect of pitch pine on larval growth, and the differential impact of natural enemies depending on host use. It was found that: 1) egg masses occurred far more frequently on pitch pine than was expected based on the frequency of pitch pine in forests with low-density gypsy moth populations; 2) in the laboratory, early-instar larvae could not survive on pitch pine while late-instar larvae grew well; 3) in the field, larvae began to use pitch pine to feed and rest after the onset of the fourth instar. Compared to oak, 4) egg masses on pitch pine experienced less parasitism; 5) the microhabitat of pitch pine held less nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), a major mortality agent of the gypsy moth; 6) individuals hatching from eggs laid on pitch pine were less infected with NPV; and 7) larvae dosed with a known amount of NPV survived longer when feeding on pitch pine foliage. The use of pitch pine by individuals in low-density gypsy moth populations appeared to be beneficial and may have an important effect on population dynamics. The mobility associated with host switching by late-instar larvae and with dispersal by first-instar larvae oviposited on unacceptable food may represent an important mechanism for host-range extension.

  15. Susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki used for gypsy moth suppression in Michigan

    Treesearch

    Catherine Papp Herms; Deborah G. McCullough; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Norman R. Dubois

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the phenological and physiological susceptibility of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt), a product widely used for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) suppression in Michigan and other infested states. We...

  16. Simulation Modeling to Interpret the Captures of Moths in Pheromone-Baited Traps Used for Surveillance of Invasive Species: the Gypsy Moth as a Model Case.

    PubMed

    Bau, Josep; Cardé, Ring T

    2016-09-01

    When pheromone traps are used for detection of an invasive pest and then delimitation of its distribution, an unresolved issue is the interpretation of failure to capture any target insects. Is a population present but not detected, a so-called false negative? Using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as an exemplar, we modeled the probability of males being captured in traps deployed at densities typical for surveillance (1 per 2.6 km(2) or 1 per mi(2)) and delimitation (up to 49 per 2.6 km(2)). The simulations used a dynamic wind model generating a turbulent plume structure and varying wind direction, and a behavior model based on the documented maneuvers of gypsy moths during plume acquisition and along-plume navigation. Several strategies of plume acquisition using Correlated Random Walks were compared to ensure that the generated dispersions over three days were not either overly clumped or ranged many km. Virtual moths were released into virtual space with patterns mimicking prior releases of gypsy moth males in Massachusetts at varying distance from a baited trap. In general, capture rates of virtual and real moths at varying trap densities were similar. One application of this approach was to estimate through bootstrapping the probabilities of not detecting populations having densities ranging from 1 to 100 moths per 2.6 km(2) and using traps that varied from 25 to 100 % in their efficiencies of capture. Low-level populations (e.g., 20-30 per 2.6 km(2)) often were not detected with one trap per 2.6 km(2), especially when traps had low efficiencies.

  17. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, V; Podgwaite, J D; Zerillo, R; Taylor, P; Fuester, R

    2013-10-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an injection of calyx-derived extract. LdMNPV was delivered per os, integrated into artificial diet. Mortality from all sources was recorded over the subsequent three-week period. Neither parasitism nor injections of purified CmeBV with toxin had any effect on the amount of mortality caused by concurrent challenges with LdMNPV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents: DEET, IR3535, and picaridin.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Jillian L; Barski, Sharon A; Seen, Christina M; Dickens, Joseph C; Shields, Vonnie D C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects.

  19. Plastic responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase to cadmium in the gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Lazarević, Jelica; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija

    2009-05-01

    Biochemical analyses can point to toxicant presence before its effects can be detected at higher organizational levels. We investigated responses of larval mass and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to different cadmium treatments in 4th instar gypsy moth larvae from 20 full-sib families. Changes in trait values and trait plasticities as well as their variation were monitored after acute and chronic exposure or recovery from two cadmium concentrations (Cd(1)=10microg and Cd(2)=30microg Cd/g dry food). Larval mass only decreased, without returning to the control level at recovery stage following chronic cadmium challenge. Acute stress did not change trait value but increased genetic variance of larval mass. Significant ALP activity changes, sensitivity of isozyme patterns (Mr of 60, 64, and 85kDa) and increased variation in ALP plasticity during acute exposure to cadmium point to its possible aplication as an exposure biomarker.

  20. Resident microbiota of the gypsy moth midgut harbors antibiotic resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heather K; Cloud-Hansen, Karen A; Wolinski, Joseph M; Guan, Changhui; Greene, Serena; Lu, Shyue; Boeyink, Mallory; Broderick, Nichole A; Raffa, Kenneth F; Handelsman, Jo

    2009-03-01

    Little is known about the significance of insects as environmental reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We characterized the antibiotic resistome of the microbial community in gypsy moth larval midguts by applying functional metagenomics to cultured isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antibiotics were determined for 44 cultured isolates, and antibiotic resistance genes were selected from metagenomic libraries derived from DNA extracted from a pool of the isolates. Six unique clones were identified. Two were highly resistant to penicillin-type beta-lactams, two were moderately resistant to erythromycin, and two were moderately resistant to a range of antibiotics, including erythromycin, carbenicillin, and chloramphenicol. Sequence analysis predicted that the active genes encoded efflux pumps, a transcriptional activator of efflux pump protein expression, and an extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamase. Insect guts are a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes with the potential for dissemination.

  1. Partial characterization of a lipase from gypsy moth (lymantria dispar L.) larval midgut.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Lazarević, Jelica; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Lipase activity of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) was studied by the spectrophotometric method using crude homogenate of fifth-instar larval midgut tissues as the enzyme source and p-nitrophenyl caprylate (pNPC) as substrate. A Km value of 0.310 mM and a Vmax value of 1.479 U/mg prot. were obtained for this substrate. Among various p-nitrophenyl esters tested, maximum activity was obtained for p-nitrophenyl caprylate and p-nitrophenyl caprate. The enzyme was most active at alkaline pH, with maximum at pH 8.2. Decreased activity was detected after preincubation in buffers of pH below 7.0 and above 8.2. The enzyme was unstable at room temperature. The enzyme was Ca2+ independent. Its activity was inhibited by PMSF, Fe2+, Ag+ and Pb2+, while Fe3+ inhibited enzyme activity by about 40%.

  2. Impact of Temperature on Postdiapause and Diapause of the Asian Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

  3. Impact of temperature on postdiapause and diapause of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

    2014-01-14

    Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  4. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the Asian gypsy moth transcriptome using the Illumina platform.

    PubMed

    Xiaojun, Fan; Chun, Yang; Jianhong, Liu; Chang, Zhang; Yao, Li

    2017-01-01

    The Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a serious pest of forest and shade trees in many Asian and some European countries. However, there have been few studies of L. dispar genetic information and comprehensive genetic analyses of this species are needed in order to understand its genetic and metabolic sensitivities, such as the molting mechanism during larval development. In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome of the Asian subspecies of the gyspy moth, after which a comprehensive analysis of chitin metabolism was undertaken. We generated 37,750,380 high-quality reads and assembled them into contigs. A total of 37,098 unigenes were identified, of which 15,901 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 9,613 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. We mapped 4,329 unigenes onto 317 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Chitin metabolism unigenes were found in the transcriptome and the data indicated that a variety of enzymes was involved in chitin catabolic and biosynthetic pathways.

  5. Genetic structure, admixture and invasion success in a Holarctic defoliator, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunke; Molongoski, John J; Winograd, Deborah F; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Louyakis, Artemis S; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    Characterizing the current population structure of potentially invasive species provides a critical context for identifying source populations and for understanding why invasions are successful. Non-native populations inevitably lose genetic diversity during initial colonization events, but subsequent admixture among independently introduced lineages may increase both genetic variation and adaptive potential. Here we characterize the population structure of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), one of the world's most destructive forest pests. Native to Eurasia and recently introduced to North America, the current distribution of gypsy moth includes forests throughout the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. Analyses of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA sequences for 1738 individuals identified four genetic clusters within L. dispar. Three of these clusters correspond to the three named subspecies; North American populations represent a distinct fourth cluster, presumably a consequence of the population bottleneck and allele frequency change that accompanied introduction. We find no evidence that admixture has been an important catalyst of the successful invasion and range expansion in North America. However, we do find evidence of ongoing hybridization between subspecies and increased genetic variation in gypsy moth populations from Eastern Asia, populations that now pose a threat of further human-mediated introductions. Finally, we show that current patterns of variation can be explained in terms of climate and habitat changes during the Pleistocene, a time when temperate forests expanded and contracted. Deeply diverged matrilines in Europe imply that gypsy moths have been there for a long time and are not recent arrivals from Asia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [THE PROOF OF VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF THE NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS IN MANY GENERATIONS OF THE GYPSY MOTH LYMANTRIA DISPAR L].

    PubMed

    Ilyinykh, A V; Polenogova, O V

    2016-01-01

    Insect viruses can play an important role in population dynamics of their hosts. That is why the problem of permanent viral infection support among virus-positive insects is associated with one of the intriguing problems of general biology and virology. Under laboratory conditions, the modeling of the vertical transmission of the nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) gypsy moth was implemented at relatively high level of mortality among insects of parental generation (60%). The diagnostics of the occult virus was executed by the PCR method among insects before their infection under laboratory conditions, as well as among insects that survived after inoculation. The NPV-caused mortality among insects that survived after infection in generations F1, F2, and F3 was 14 ± 4%, 10 ± 4%, and 5 ± 0.5%, respectively. In the following three generations NPV-induced mortality was not noticed. The level of the virus-positive individuals among the gypsy moth embryos in all occasions was higher than the NPV-induced mortality of insects. Thus, the given results show that the presence of virus among insect does not mean inevitable mortality of their hosts. Perhaps, the viral DNA can completely or partly lose its infectivity but may exist in the analyzed insect samples. The viral infection can be formed among progeny surviving after inoculation of insects. It can be actuated during three generations of the gypsy moth. The level of the virus-positive individuals among the gypsy moth embryos determined by the PCR method in daughter generations was higher than the NPV- induced mortality of insects.

  7. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  9. Microorganisms associated with production lots of the nucleopolyhedrosis virus of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (Lep.: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    J.D. Podgwaite; R.B. Bruen; M. Shapiro

    1983-01-01

    Samples of a gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrosis virus product, Gypchek®, were taken each day during a 100-day production run and monitored for the presence of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The standard plate count/g of product was 5.97 ± 1.51 x 108 over the 100-day period, while the sporulating bacteria count was 3.81 ± 1.21 x 106...

  10. Effect of clonal variation among hybrid poplars on susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Nichole A; Vasquez, Eric; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-06-01

    Trees in the genus Populus can provide substantial commercial and ecological benefits, including sustainable alternatives to traditional forestry. Realization of this potential requires intensive management, but damage by defoliating insects can severely limit productivity in such systems. Two approaches to limiting these losses include cultivation of poplar varieties with inherent resistance to pests and application of microbial pesticides. Little is known about the interaction between host resistance and the ability of poplars to support the efficacy of biocontrol agents. The research described here was conducted to survey the effect of hybrid poplar clones on gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a pest on these trees. We assessed the effect of various poplar clones on larval performance and susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Larvae were reared from hatching on the foliage of 25 hybrid poplar clones and we monitored larval survival, development time, and weight at fourth instar. Eight of these clones showed high resistance against gypsy moth. The remaining clones showed high variation in their effect on larval performance. We evaluated the susceptibility of third-instar larvae to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki when reared on the 17 remaining clones. There was a significant effect of poplar clone on time to death after ingestion of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The susceptibility of gypsy moth larvae to B. thuringiensis on various clones was not correlated with the effects of these clones on larval performance in the absence of B. thuringiensis, suggesting this interaction is more complex than merely reflecting higher mortality to previously stressed larvae.

  11. Small mammal abundance and habitat relationships on deciduous forested sites with different susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahner, Richard H.; Smith, Harvey R.

    1991-01-01

    Small mammals are important predators of gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar L.), which are major defoliators of deciduous forests in the northeastern United States. Abundance and habitat relationships of small mammals were studied during summers 1984 and 1985 on forested sites at Moshannon and Rothrock state forests in two physiographic regions of Pennsylvania (Allegheny High Plateaus Province and Valley and Ridge Province, respectively) that varied in potential susceptibility to defoliation. The white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), which is a major vertebrate predator of gypsy moths, was the most common small mammal on all sites. Of the four common species, northern short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda), southern red-backed voles ( Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mice were more abundant at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, but masked shrews ( Sorex cinereus) were more abundant at Rothrock. Elevation was a major factor affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals. Because of the greater abundance of small mammals and more suitable physiographic features at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, small mammals may be more effective as predators on gypsy moths in the Allegheny High Plateaus than the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania.

  12. Simulating temperature-dependent ecological processes at the sub-continental scale: male gypsy moth flight phenology as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régnière, J.; Sharov, Alexei

    We simulated male gypsy moth flight phenology for the location of 1371 weather stations east of 100° W longitude and north of 35° N latitude in North America. The output of these simulations, based on average weather conditions from 1961 to 1990, was submitted to two map-interpolation methods: multiple regression and universal kriging. Multiple regression was found to be as accurate as universal kriging and demands less computing power. A map of the date of peak male gypsy moth flight was generated by universal kriging. This map itself constitutes a useful pest-management planning tool; in addition, the map delineates the potential range of the gypsy moth based on its seasonality at the northern edge of its current distribution in eastern North America. The simulation and map-interpolation methods described in this paper thus constitute an interesting approach to the study and monitoring of the ecological impacts of climate change and shifts in land-use patterns at the sub-continental level.

  13. Predicted effects of gypsy moth defoliation and climate change on forest carbon dynamics in the New Jersey pine barrens.

    PubMed

    Kretchun, Alec M; Scheller, Robert M; Lucash, Melissa S; Clark, Kenneth L; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years.

  14. Predicted Effects of Gypsy Moth Defoliation and Climate Change on Forest Carbon Dynamics in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    PubMed Central

    Kretchun, Alec M.; Scheller, Robert M.; Lucash, Melissa S.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years. PMID:25119162

  15. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains.

  16. Effects of aromatic compounds on antennal responses and on the pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongmei; Plettner, Erika

    2011-03-01

    Female gypsy moths emit a pheromone, (+)-disparlure, which the males follow until they locate the emitter. The male moths' antennae are covered with innervated sensory hairs, specialized in detection of the pheromone. The neurons in these sensory hairs are bathed by a solution rich in pheromone-binding protein (PBP). PBPs are soluble proteins that bind the pheromone and other odorants reversibly with variable thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity and are essential for olfactory responses. Here, we have studied the interaction between 2 gypsy moth PBPs with aromatic compounds that modulate the responses of male moth antennae to (+)-disparlure. The aromatic compounds do not elicit responses by themselves, but when administered together with pheromone, they inhibit, enhance, or prolong the electrophysiological response to the pheromone. Three interactions between the compounds and PBPs were studied: 1) the equilibrium binding of the compounds by themselves to the PBPs, 2) the equilibrium binding of the compounds in the presence of pheromone or a fluorescent reporter ligand, and 3) the effect of the compounds on the conformation of the pheromone-PBP complex. A subset of compounds causes a prolongation of the electroantennogram response, and from this study, we conclude that these compounds follow a structure-activity pattern and stabilize a particular conformer of the PBPs that appears to activate the olfactory response.

  17. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki for managing gypsy moth populations under the Slow the Spread Program, 1996-2010, relative to the distributional range of threatened and endangered species

    Treesearch

    Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2011-01-01

    The Slow the Spread Program operates along the expanding population front of the gypsy moth, from Minnesota to North Carolina. The primary objective of the program is to eliminate newly-founded colonies that form ahead of the leading edge to reduce the gypsy moth's rate of spread and delay the costs associated with infestation and outbreaks. Although the majority...

  18. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 2 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  19. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 4 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  20. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 7 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  1. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 6 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  2. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 5 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  3. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 1 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W., Gottschalk

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  4. Proceedings, U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2001; 2001 January 16-19; Annapolis, MD. Part 3 of 7

    Treesearch

    Sandra L. C. Fosbroke; Kurt W. Gottschalk; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    Contains 68 abstracts and papers of oral and poster presentations on gypsy moth and other invasive species biology, molecular biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the annual U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum of gypsy moth and other invasive species.

  5. Development of gypsy moth larvae feeding on red maple saplings at elevated CO2 and temperature.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ray S; Lincoln, David E; Norby, Richard J

    2003-09-01

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO(2) and global mean temperature may alter important plant-insect associations due to the direct effects of temperature on insect development and the indirect effects of elevated temperature and CO(2) enrichment on phytochemicals important for insect success. We investigated the effects of CO(2) and temperature on the interaction between gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) saplings by bagging first instar larvae within open-top chambers at four CO(2)/temperature treatments: (1) ambient temperature, ambient CO(2), (2) ambient temperature, elevated CO(2) (+300 microl l(-1) CO(2)), (3) elevated temperature (+3.5 degrees C), ambient CO(2), and (4) elevated temperature, elevated CO(2). Larvae were reared to pupation and leaf samples taken biweekly to determine levels of total N, water, non-structural carbohydrates, and an estimate of defensive phenolic compounds in three age classes of foliage: (1) immature, (2) mid-mature and (3) mature. Elevated growth temperature marginally reduced (P <0.1) leaf N and significantly reduced ( P <0.05) leaf water across CO(2) treatments in mature leaves, whereas leaves grown at elevated CO(2) concentration had a significant decrease in leaf N and a significant increase in the ratio of starch:N and total non-structural carbohydrates:N. Leaf N and water decreased and starch:N and total non-structural carbohydrates:N ratios increased as leaves aged. Phenolics were unaffected by CO(2) or temperature treatment. There were no interactive effects of CO(2) and temperature on any phytochemical measure. Gypsy moth larvae reached pupation earlier at the elevated temperature (female =8 days, P <0.07; male =7.5 days, P <0.03), whereas mortality and pupal fresh weight of insects were unrelated to either CO(2), temperature or their interaction. Our data show that CO(2) or temperature-induced alterations in leaf constituents had no effect on insect performance; instead, the long

  6. Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of aspen: effects on gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S-Y; Lindroth, Richard L

    1997-06-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) exhibits striking intraspecific variation in concentrations of phenolic glycosides, compounds that play important roles in mediating interactions with herbivorous insects. This research was conducted to assess the contribution of genetic variation to overall phenotypic variation in aspen chemistry and interactions with gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria). Thirteen aspen clones were propagated from field-collected root material. Insect performance assays, measuring survival, development, growth, and food utilization indices, were conducted with second and/or fourth instars. Leaf samples were assayed for water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, condensed tannins, and phenolic glycosides. Results showed substantial among-clone variation in the performance of both insect species. Chemical analyses revealed significant among-clone variation in all foliar constituents and that variation in allelochemical contents differed more than variation in primary metabolites. Regression analyses indicated that phenolic glycosides were the dominant factor responsible for among-clone variation in insect performance. We also found significant genetic trade-offs between growth and defense among aspen clones. Our results suggest that genetic factors are likely responsible for much of the tremendous phenotypic variation in secondary chemistry exhibited by aspen, and that the genetic structure of aspen populations may play important roles in the evolution of interactions with phytophagous insects.

  7. Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

    2006-03-01

    Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

  8. Gypsy moth-induced dermatitis: a hospital review and community survey.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Ken; Sakata, Kiyomi; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth [GM]) is found in most temperate forests. Although GM caterpillars are known to cause outbreaks of dermatitis, there have been few clinical/epidemiological studies of this problem. Here, we investigated GM caterpillar-induced health problems in a heavily infested area. We reviewed the records of 229 GM caterpillar-induced dermatitis patients treated at Kuzumaki Hospital and conducted a questionnaire survey covering all 2,891 households (7,770 residents) in Kuzumaki town. Affected areas were located primarily on the neck and arms. 180 patients (79%) did not notice direct contact with GM caterpillars on their affected areas. There were no significant differences in demographics, history, and symptoms between the group of patients with direct contact and those without direct contact. In the questionnaire survey, of the 4,871 people who responded (63%), 2039 people (42%) reported having dermatitis. When the data were adjusted for age, gender was not associated with dermatitis; however, the age groups 70-79 years and ≥80 years showed lower incidences of dermatitis. Those experiencing similar dermatitis the previous year had a significantly higher occurrence of dermatitis: odds ratio (OR)=42.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 33.5-53.6. Thus, when GM infestation occurs, physicians should expect an outbreak of dermatitis.

  9. Identification and Knockdown of the Olfactory Receptor (OrCo) in Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Junhua; Dou, Liduo; Hao, Qin; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is an important economic pest that causes large-scale damage to forests worldwide. Because of its important role in initiating and controlling insect behavior, olfaction-and olfaction-based pest management-has drawn increasing attention from entomologists. In this study, we identified the gene that encodes the olfactory receptor co-receptor (OrCo). Through amino acid sequence alignment, we found that LdisOrCo shares high identity with other OrCo proteins from different insect orders. Next, we performed RNA-interference (RNAi) to assess the role of OrCo in olfaction. Electroantennographic assays showed that after RNAi, the average value of males' response to sex pheromones was 0.636 mV, significantly lower than that of the positive control (average = 1.472 mV). Females showed no response to sex pheromones before or after RNAi. Finally, quantitative PCR showed a strong decrease in the expression of OrCo after RNAi, by ~74% in males and by 23% in females relative to the positive controls. These results indicate that OrCo is not only critical to odor recognition, but it may also represent a new target for development of semiochemicals that can influence insect behavior.

  10. Identification and Knockdown of the Olfactory Receptor (OrCo) in Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Junhua; Dou, Liduo; Hao, Qin; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is an important economic pest that causes large-scale damage to forests worldwide. Because of its important role in initiating and controlling insect behavior, olfaction—and olfaction-based pest management—has drawn increasing attention from entomologists. In this study, we identified the gene that encodes the olfactory receptor co-receptor (OrCo). Through amino acid sequence alignment, we found that LdisOrCo shares high identity with other OrCo proteins from different insect orders. Next, we performed RNA-interference (RNAi) to assess the role of OrCo in olfaction. Electroantennographic assays showed that after RNAi, the average value of males' response to sex pheromones was 0.636 mV, significantly lower than that of the positive control (average = 1.472 mV). Females showed no response to sex pheromones before or after RNAi. Finally, quantitative PCR showed a strong decrease in the expression of OrCo after RNAi, by ~74% in males and by 23% in females relative to the positive controls. These results indicate that OrCo is not only critical to odor recognition, but it may also represent a new target for development of semiochemicals that can influence insect behavior. PMID:26078719

  11. Signal Mimics Derived from a Metagenomic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Gut Microbiota▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Changhui; Ju, Jianhua; Borlee, Bradley R.; Williamson, Lynn L.; Shen, Ben; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Handelsman, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial signaling is an important part of community life, but little is known about the signal transduction pathways of the as-yet-uncultured members of microbial communities. To address this gap, we aimed to identify genes directing the synthesis of signals in uncultured bacteria associated with the midguts of gypsy moth larvae. We constructed a metagenomic library consisting of DNA extracted directly from the midgut microbiota and analyzed it using an intracellular screen designated METREX, which detects inducers of quorum sensing. In this screen, the metagenomic DNA and a biosensor reside in the same cell. The biosensor consists of a quorum-sensing promoter, which requires an acylhomoserine lactone or other small molecule ligand for activation, driving the expression of the reporter gene gfp. We identified an active metagenomic clone encoding a monooxygenase homologue that mediates a pathway of indole oxidation that leads to the production of a quorum-sensing inducing compound. The signal from this clone induces the activities of LuxR from Vibrio fischeri and CviR from Chromobacterium violaceum. This study is the first to identify a new structural class of quorum-sensing inducer from uncultured bacteria. PMID:17435000

  12. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway for disparlure in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell A.; Subchev, Mitko; Abad, José-Luis; Choi, Man-Yeon; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2003-01-01

    The pheromone biosynthetic pathway for production of the sex pheromone disparlure, 2-methyl-7R,8S-epoxy-octadecane, was determined for the gypsy moth. Each step in the pathway was followed by using deuterium-labeled compounds that could be identified by using GC/MS. This approach provides unequivocal determination of specific reactions in the pathway. It was shown that the alkene precursor, 2-methyl-Z7-octadecene, is most likely made in oenocyte cells associated with abdominal epidermal cells. The pathway begins with valine contributing carbons for chain initiation, including the methyl-branched carbon, followed by chain elongation to 19 carbons. The double bond is introduced with an unusual Δ12 desaturase that utilizes a methyl-branched substrate. The resulting 18-methyl-Z12-nonadecenoate is decarboxylated to the hydrocarbon, 2-methyl-Z7-octadecene. The alkene is then transported to the pheromone gland through the hemolymph, most probably by lipophorin. At the pheromone gland, the alkene is unloaded and transformed into the epoxide disparlure for release into the environment. A chiral HPLC column was used to demonstrate that the (R,S)-stereoisomer of the epoxide, (+)-disparlure is found in pheromone glands. PMID:12533665

  13. Enzymatic biomarkers as indicators of dietary cadmium in gypsy moth caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Mataruga, Vesna Perić; Mrdaković, Marija; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Nenadović, Vera; Ilijin, Larisa

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals damage the structure, chemistry, and function of cells, including enzyme systems inside them. Variation in the profile of biochemical biomarkers in prevalent species should be used for assessing environmental contamination. The present study pays attention to the phosphatases present in the midgut of gypsy moth fourth instar caterpillars, which had been exposed to short- and long-term cadmium intake at 10 and 30 μg Cd/g dry food. Chronic cadmium ingestion significantly inhibited the activity of all examined phosphatases, while only the activity of lysosomal phosphatase was acutely decreased. Total acid phosphatase activity recovered from both long-term cadmium treatments within 3 days. The low index of phenotypic plasticity was connected to high variability of plasticity. Dependence of phosphatase isoforms on genotype and duration of cadmium treatment was determined. We concluded that, with further investigations, profiling of total acid phosphatase activity, as well as the lysosomal fraction can be used as a biomarker for acute sublethal metal toxicity.

  14. Aerial spraying for gypsy moth control: A handbook of technology. Updated version, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, R.; Mierzejewski, K.; Bryant, J.; Twardus, D.; Yendol, W.

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a native pest of the forests of Europe and Asia that was introduced into the United States in Eastern Massachusetts in 1869 and in New Jersey in the 1920's. It is now established in all or parts of the 13 Northeastern States from western Pennsylvania, eastern West Virginia, and northern Virginia to central Maine, and extends into eastern Ohio and central Michigan. In Canada, this pest is established in southern Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario. In addition to existing populations in the generally infested area, 68 isolated infestations have been eradicated since 1982. The effectiveness of these Federal/State cooperative suppression projects using the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and, to a lesser extent, the chemical insecticide Dimilin, are monitored using a computer-based system (Treatment Monitoring Data Base) developed by Twardus. The effectiveness of these projects has been highly variable. It is thought that a large portion of the treatment failures has been due to ineffective aerial application techniques.

  15. Agonists and antagonists of antennal responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) to the pheromone (+)-disparlure and other odorants.

    PubMed

    Plettner, Erika; Gries, Regine

    2010-03-24

    Insects use the sense of smell to guide many behaviors that are important for their survival. The gypsy moth uses a pheromone to bring females and males together over long distances. Male moth antennae are equipped with innervated sensory hairs that selectively respond to pheromone components and other odors. Host plant odors, in particular, are detected by moths and sometimes cause an enhancement of the antennal and behavioral responses of the moths to their pheromone. Inspired by naturally occurring agonists and antagonists of insect pheromone responses, we have screened, by electroantennogram (EAG) recordings, a collection of compound sets and of individual compounds. We have detected interference of some compounds with the EAG responses of male gypsy moth antennae to the pheromone. We describe three activities: (1) short-term inhibition or enhancement of mixed compound + pheromone plumes, (2) long-term inhibition of pure pheromone plumes following a mixed compound + pheromone plume, and (3) inhibition of the recovery phase of mixed compound + pheromone plumes. Long-term inhibition was robust, decayed within 30 s, and correlated with the inhibition of recovery; for both activities clear structure-activity patterns were detected. The commercial repellent N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET) was included for comparison. The most active and reproducible short-term inhibitor was a mixture of 1-allyl-2,4-dimethoxybenzene and 2-allyl-1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The most active long-term inhibitors were a set of 1-alkoxy-4-propoxybenzenes, DEET, and 1-ethoxy-4-propoxybenzene. DEET was more specific in the olfactory responses it inhibited than 1-ethoxy-4-propoxybenzene, and DEET did not inhibit recovery, whereas 1-ethoxy-4-propoxybenzene did. Target sites for the three activities are discussed.

  16. Effects of pathogen exposure on life-history variation in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).

    PubMed

    Páez, D J; Fleming-Davies, A E; Dwyer, G

    2015-10-01

    Investment in host defences against pathogens may lead to trade-offs with host fecundity. When such trade-offs arise from genetic correlations, rates of phenotypic change by natural selection may be affected. However, genetic correlations between host survival and fecundity are rarely quantified. To understand trade-offs between immune responses to baculovirus exposure and fecundity in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we estimated genetic correlations between survival probability and traits related to fecundity, such as pupal weight. In addition, we tested whether different virus isolates have different effects on male and female pupal weight. To estimate genetic correlations, we exposed individuals of known relatedness to a single baculovirus isolate. To then evaluate the effect of virus isolate on pupal weight, we exposed a single gypsy moth strain to 16 baculovirus isolates. We found a negative genetic correlation between survival and pupal weight. In addition, virus exposure caused late-pupating females to be identical in weight to males, whereas unexposed females were 2-3 times as large as unexposed males. Finally, we found that female pupal weight is a quadratic function of host mortality across virus isolates, which is likely due to trade-offs and compensatory growth processes acting at high and low mortality levels, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that fecundity costs may strongly affect the response to selection for disease resistance. In nature, baculoviruses contribute to the regulation of gypsy moth outbreaks, as pathogens often do in forest-defoliating insects. We therefore argue that trade-offs between host life-history traits may help explain outbreak dynamics. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  18. Glutathione S-transferase in the midgut tissue of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars exposed to dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2016-06-01

    Activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in midgut of gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food was examined. Based on the enzyme reaction through conjugation with glutathione, overall activity remained unaltered after acute and chronic treatment. No-observed-effect-concentration (10μg Cd/g dry food) significantly increased activity only after 3-day recovery following cadmium administration. Almost all comparisons of the indices of phenotypic plasticity revealed statistically significant differences. Despite the facts that GST has important role in xenobiotic biotransformation, our results indicate that this enzyme in insect midgut does not represent the key factor in cadmium detoxification.

  19. Hitchhikers on trade routes: A phenology model estimates the probabilities of gypsy moth introduction and establishment.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2010-12-01

    As global trade increases so too does the probability of introduction of alien species to new locations. Estimating the probability of an alien species introduction and establishment following introduction is a necessary step in risk estimation (probability of an event times the consequences, in the currency of choice, of the event should it occur); risk estimation is a valuable tool for reducing the risk of biological invasion with limited resources. The Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a pest species whose consequence of introduction and establishment in North America and New Zealand warrants over US$2 million per year in surveillance expenditure. This work describes the development of a two-dimensional phenology model (GLS-2d) that simulates insect development from source to destination and estimates: (1) the probability of introduction from the proportion of the source population that would achieve the next developmental stage at the destination and (2) the probability of establishment from the proportion of the introduced population that survives until a stable life cycle is reached at the destination. The effect of shipping schedule on the probabilities of introduction and establishment was examined by varying the departure date from 1 January to 25 December by weekly increments. The effect of port efficiency was examined by varying the length of time that invasion vectors (shipping containers and ship) were available for infection. The application of GLS-2d is demonstrated using three common marine trade routes (to Auckland, New Zealand, from Kobe, Japan, and to Vancouver, Canada, from Kobe and from Vladivostok, Russia).

  20. How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jonathan A; Meixler, Marcia S; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony, due to differences in elevation and local heterogeneity in elevation (hilliness), can explain spatial heterogeneity in the population growth rate of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along its invasion front in Virginia and West Virginia, USA. We used a spatially explicit model of the effects of reproductive asynchrony on mating success to develop predictions of the influences of elevation and elevational heterogeneity on local population growth rates. Population growth rates declined with increased elevation and more modestly with increased elevational heterogeneity. As in earlier work, we found a positive relationship between the population growth rate and the number of introduced egg masses, indicating a demographic Allee effect. At high elevations and high heterogeneity in elevation, the population growth rate was lowest and the density at which the population tended to replace itself (i.e. the Allee threshold) was highest. An analysis of 22 years of field data also showed decreases in population growth rates with elevation and heterogeneity in elevation that were largely consistent with the model predictions. These results highlight how topographic characteristics can affect reproductive asynchrony and influence mate-finding Allee effects in an invading non-native insect population. Given the dependence of developmental rates on temperature in poikilotherms, topographic effects on reproductive success could

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  2. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas; Clark, Kenneth L.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2014-04-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models for dead stem respiration rates, (3) model stand-level respiration rates of dead stems using forest inventory and analysis data sets and environmental variables predisturbance and postdisturbance, and (4) compare total dead stem respiration rates with total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange. Respiration rates were measured on selected Pinus and Quercus snags and coarse woody debris each month for 1 year in a northeastern U.S. temperate forest. Multiple linear regression using environmental and biometric variables including wood temperature, diameter, density, species, and decay class was used to model respiration rates of dead stems. The mass of snags and coarse woody debris increased more than fivefold after disturbance and respiration rates increased more than threefold. The contribution of dead stems to total ecosystem respiration more than tripled from 0.85% to almost 3% and respiration from dead stems alone was approximately equal to the net ecosystem exchange of the forest in 2011 (fourth year postdisturbance). This study highlights the importance of dead stem C pools and fluxes particularly during disturbance and recovery cycles. With climate change increasing the ranges of many forest pests and pathogens, these data become particularly important for accurately modeling future C cycling.

  3. Quantifying horizontal transmission of Nosema lymantriae, a microsporidian pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lep., Lymantriidae) in field cage studies

    Treesearch

    Gernot Hoch; Vincent D' Amico; Leellen F. Solter; Milan Zubrik; Michael L. McManus

    2008-01-01

    Nosema lymantriae is a microsporidian pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar that has been documented to be at least partially responsible for the collapse of L. dispar outbreak populations in Europe. To quantify horizontal transmission of this pathogen under field conditions we performed caged-tree...

  4. A field evaluation of the effect of temperature on the release of disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor the gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. Consequently, the lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varyin...

  5. Forest defoliators and climatic change: potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    David W. ​Williams; Andrew M. Liebhold

    1995-01-01

    Changes in geographical ranges and spatial extent of outbreaks of pest species are likely consequences of climatic change. We investigated potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), in Oregon and Pennsylvania,...

  6. Deletion of the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase gene enhances viral killing speed in the last instar of the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; Holly J.R. Popham; C.I. Riegel

    1999-01-01

    The Lymantria dispar multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) is used on a limited basis as a gypsy moth (L. dispar) control agent. In an effort to improve the efficacy (i.e., killing speed) of the LdMNPV, we generated a recombinant viral strain (vEGT-) that does not produce the enzyme ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (EGT). We...

  7. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Treesearch

    Kevin W. Thorpe; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Ralph E. Webb

    1998-01-01

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (1011 and 1012 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons) ) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-...

  8. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  9. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of gypsy moth BTR-270, an anionic brush border membrane glycoconjugate that binds Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with high affinity

    Treesearch

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Jeremy L. Jenkins; Mi Kyong Lee; Donald H. Dean; Karen J. Garner

    2001-01-01

    BTR-270, a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) brush border membrane molecule that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins with high affinity, was purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antibodies specific for the Bt toxin-binding molecule were raised. Attempts to label BTR-270 by protein-directed techniques were...

  11. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Treesearch

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  12. Four terpene synthases produce major compounds of the gypsy moth feeding-induced volatile blend of Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Danner, Holger; Boeckler, G Andreas; Irmisch, Sandra; Yuan, Joshua S; Chen, Feng; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Köllner, Tobias G

    2011-06-01

    After herbivore damage, many plants increase their emission of volatile compounds, with terpenes usually comprising the major group of induced volatiles. Populus trichocarpa is the first woody species with a fully sequenced genome, enabling rapid molecular approaches towards characterization of volatile terpene biosynthesis in this and other poplar species. We identified and characterized four terpene synthases (PtTPS1-4) from P. trichocarpa which form major terpene compounds of the volatile blend induced by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) feeding. The enzymes were heterologously expressed and assayed with potential prenyl diphosphate substrates. PtTPS1 and PtTPS2 accepted only farnesyl diphosphate and produced (-)-germacrene D and (E,E)-α-farnesene as their major products, respectively. In contrast, PtTPS3 and PtTPS4 showed both mono- and sesquiterpene synthase activity. They produce the acyclic terpene alcohols linalool and nerolidol but exhibited opposite stereospecificity. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of the respective terpene synthase genes was induced after feeding of gypsy moth caterpillars. The TPS enzyme products may play important roles in indirect defense of poplar to herbivores and in mediating intra- and inter-plant signaling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

  14. The state of microbial complexes in soils of forest ecosystems after fires and defoliation of stands by gypsy moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Baranchikov, Yu. N.; Ivanova, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The state of microbial cenoses in the soils of forest ecosystems damaged by fires of different strengths and gypsy moth outbreaks (Central Siberia) was assessed by the intensity of the basal respiration, the content of carbon of the microbial biomass, and the microbial metabolic quotient. The degree of the disturbance of the microbial cenoses in the soils under pine forests after fires was higher than that in the soils under the forests defoliated by gypsy moths. The greatest changes of the microbial complexes were recorded after the fires of high and medium intensity. In the litters, the content of the microbial biomass, the intensity of basal respiration, and the microbial metabolic quotient value were restored on the fifth year after the fires, whereas in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer, these parameters still differed from those in the control variant, especially after the highly intense fires. After the weak fires, the ecophysiological state of the microbial complexes was restored within two-three years.

  15. Leaf Surface Lipophilic Compounds as One of the Factors of Silver Birch Chemical Defense against Larvae of Gypsy Moth

    PubMed Central

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V.; Pavlushin, Sergey V.; Dubovskiy, Ivan M.; Belousova, Irina A.; Yushkova, Yuliya V.; Morosov, Sergey V.; Chernyak, Elena I.; Glupov, Victor V.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females’ pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  16. Are the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein anti-herbivore defenses? A test using the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).

    PubMed

    Karowe, David Nathan; Radi, Joshua Karl

    2011-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are compounds that have moderate estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity toward mammals. Although genistein and daidzein, the main phytoestrogens of soybean, have been the subject of thousands of studies that address their benefit to human health, relatively little is known about their benefits to plants that produce them. It has been suggested that genistein and daidzein protect plants against arthropod herbivores, but direct tests of this hypothesis are rare. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genistein and daidzein on the survivorship, growth, and fecundity of the gypsy moth, a generalist insect herbivore that does not encounter phytoestrogens in its normal diet. We compared survivorship, egg-to-pupa growth rate, and 4th instar performance of gypsy moth caterpillars on artificial diets containing no phytoestrogen, genistein, daidzein, or a combination of genistein and daidzein. Our results indicate that genistein and daidzein do not decrease survivorship, growth, or fecundity of this insect herbivore. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the primary function of these compounds in aboveground plant tissues is anti-herbivore defense.

  17. Release mechanism of sex pheromone in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar: a morpho-functional approach.

    PubMed

    Solari, Paolo; Crnjar, Roberto; Spiga, Saturnino; Sollai, Giorgia; Loy, Francesco; Masala, Carla; Liscia, Anna

    2007-07-01

    A morpho-functional investigation of the sex pheromone-producing area was correlated with the pheromone release mechanism in the female gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. As assessed by male electroantennograms (EAG) and morphological observations, the pheromone gland consists of a single-layered epithelium both in the dorsal and ventral halves of the intersegmental membrane between the 8th and 9th abdominal segments. By using the male EAG as a biosensor of real-time release of sex pheromone from whole calling females, we found this process time coupled with extension movements of the ovipositor. Nevertheless, in females in which normal calling behavior was prevented, pheromone release was detected neither in absence nor in presence of electrical stimulation of the ventral nerve cord/terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG) complex. Tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran amine stainings also confirm the lack of any innervation of the gland from nerves IV to VI emerging from the TAG. These findings indicate that the release of sex pheromone from the glands in female gypsy moths is independent of any neural control exerted by the TAG on the glands, at least by way of its three most caudally located pairs of nerves, and appears as a consequence of a squeezing mechanism in the pheromone-producing area.

  18. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

  19. Landscape-Level Patterns of Elevated FS1 Asian Allele Frequencies in Populations of Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) at a Northern U.S. Boundary.

    PubMed

    Streifel, Marissa A; Tobin, Patrick C; Hunt, Lucia; Nadel, Hannah; Molongoski, John J; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    From a regulatory perspective, Asian gypsy moth is a species complex consisting of three species of Lymantria and two subspecies of Lymantria dispar (L.), differing from the European subspecies, L. dispar dispar (L.), by having consistently flight-capable females. As such, the invasion potential in North America is thought to exceed that of European gypsy moth. USDA-APHIS therefore has a monitoring program to detect Asian gypsy moth at high-risk introduction pathways. Molecular markers are used to improve the diagnosis of Asian gypsy moth. One such marker, which targets the FS1 locus, detects an allele, FS1-A, prevalent in Asian populations but occurring at low frequencies (3-6%) throughout the European gypsy moth's range in North America. However, some locales, such as Minnesota, exhibit elevated FS1-A frequencies. We studied the distribution of the FS1-A allele in northern Minnesota, 2013-2014, assessing spatial patterns in the distribution of the FS1-A allele using Moran's I and using spatial regression techniques to examine if the FS1-A allele was associated with putative movement pathways. We also used time series analysis to discern if temporal patterns in FS1-A or possible introduction events occurred. Our results indicated that FS1-A occurred randomly in space and time. We found no evidence that elevated FS1-A frequencies were associated with movement pathways or possible immigration events into this region over the two years. Elevated frequencies of the FS1-A allele within this region could be due to genetic drift and allelic surfing along the expanding population front, or to selection of physiological or behavioral traits. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture.

  1. Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J.

    1995-08-01

    Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  3. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988-2003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Amy E.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Galloway, James N.

    2007-03-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p < 0.0001) over the time period from 1988 to 2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term data sets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  4. Feeding Experience Affects the Behavioral Response of Polyphagous Gypsy Moth Caterpillars to Herbivore-induced Poplar Volatiles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Andrea C; Reinecke, Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2016-05-01

    Plant volatiles influence host selection of herbivorous insects. Since volatiles often vary in space and time, herbivores (especially polyphagous ones) may be able to use these compounds as cues to track variation in host plant quality based on their innate abilities and previous experience. We investigated the behavioral response of naïve (fed on artificial diet) and experienced (fed on poplar) gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, a polyphagous species, towards constitutive and herbivore-induced black poplar (Populus nigra) volatiles at different stages of herbivore attack. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, both naïve and experienced caterpillars were attracted to constitutive volatiles and volatiles released after short-term herbivory (up to 6 hr). Naïve caterpillars also were attracted to volatiles released after longer-term herbivory (24-30 hr), but experienced caterpillars preferred the odor of undamaged foliage. A multivariate statistical analysis comparing the volatile emission of undamaged plants vs. plants after short and longer-term herbivory, suggested various compounds as being responsible for distinguishing between the odors of these plants. Ten compounds were selected for individual testing of caterpillar behavioral responses in a four-arm olfactometer. Naïve caterpillars spent more time in arms containing (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate than in solvent permeated arms, while avoiding benzyl cyanide and salicyl aldehyde. Experienced caterpillars avoided benzyl cyanide and preferred (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) over solvent. Only responses to DMNT were significantly different when comparing experienced and naïve caterpillars. The results show that gypsy moth caterpillars display an innate behavioral response towards constitutive and herbivore-induced plant volatiles, but also that larval behavior is plastic and can be modulated by previous feeding experience.

  5. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  6. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  7. Neurometamorphosis of the ear in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its homologue in the earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F P; Fullard, J H

    1996-10-01

    The adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae: Noctuoidea) has a pair of metathoracic tympanic ears that each contain a two-celled auditory chordotonal organ (CO). The earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae: Bombycoidea), has a homologous pair of three-celled, nonauditory hindwing COs in their place. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the adult CO in both species arises from a preexisting larval organ or if it develops as a novel structure during metamorphosis. We describe the larval metathoracic nervous system of L. dispar and M. disstria, and identify a three-celled chordotonal organ in the anatomically homologous site as the adult CO. If the larval CO is severed from the homologue of the adult auditory nerve (IIIN1b1) in L. dispar prior to metamorphosis, the adult develops an ear lacking an auditory organ. Axonal backfills of the larval IIIN1b1 nerve in both species reveal three chordotonal sensory neurons and one nonchordotonal multipolar cell. The axons of these cells project into tracts of the central nervous system putatively homologous with those of the auditory pathway in adult L. dispar. Following metamorphosis, M. disstria moths retain all four cells (three CO and one multipolar) while L. dispar adults possess two cells that service the auditory CO and one nonauditory, multipolar cell. We conclude that the larval IIIN1b1 CO is the precursor of both the auditory organ in L. dispar and the putative proprioceptor CO in M. disstria and represents the premetamorphic condition of these insects. The implications of our results in understanding the evolution of the ear in the Lepidoptera and insects in general are discussed.

  8. [Detection of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA in samples from eggs and caterpillars at different stages of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) population dynamics].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalov, S A; Martem'ianov, V V; Bakhvalova, V N; Morozova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) DNA was detected in samples from eggs and caterpillars of the gypsy moth collected in natural populations of the Western Siberia and Ural by means of PCR with primers corresponding to the polyhedrin gene. According to censuring data, the gypsy moth populations of Western Siberia were at the depression stage. The NPV DNA detection frequencies in eggs (8.6 +/- 4.8% - 13.6 +/- 5.2%) and caterpillars (21.0 +/- 6.3% - 22.2 +/- 6.7%) were not significantly differed. In the Urals, collection of the insects was performed in their gradation focus at the phase of maximal abundance. The DNA detection rate in eggs (11.4 +/- 5.0%) was confidently (p < 0.001) lower than in caterpillars (59.8 +/- 5.6%). Consequently, variations of the NPV infection prevalence during ontogenesis of Lymantria dispar (L.) was associated with the gradation cycle of the insect population dynamics.

  9. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  10. Forest defoliators and climatic change: Potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Changes in geographical ranges and spatial extent of outbreaks of pest species are likely consequences of climatic change. We investigated potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), in Oregon and Pennsylvania, respectively using maps of historial defoliation, climate, and forest type in a geographic information system. Maps of defoliation frequency at a resolution of 2 x 2 km were assembled from historical aerial survey data. Weather maps for mean monthly temperature maxima and minima and precipitation over 30 yr were developed by interpolation. Relationships between defoliation status and environmental variables were estimated using linear discriminant analysis. Five climatic change scenarios were investigated: an increase of 2{degrees}C, a 2{degrees}C increase with a small increase and a small decrease in precipitation, and projections of two general circulation models (GCMs) after 100 yr at doubled carbon dioxide. With an increase in temperature alone, the projected defoliated area decreased relative to ambient conditions for budworm and increased slightly for gypsy moth. With an increase in temperature and precipitation, defoliated area increased for both species. Conversely, defoliated area decreased for both when temperature increased and precipitation decreased. Results for the GCM scenarios contrasted sharply. For one GCM, defoliation by budworm was projected to cover Oregon completely, whereas no defoliation was projected by gypsy moth in Pennsylvania. For the other, defoliation disappeared completely for budworm and slightly exceeded that under ambient conditions for gypsy moth. The results are discussed in terms of current forest composition and its potential changes. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Weight differences of male and female pupae of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and host-sex preference by two parasitoid species Lymantrichneumon disparis and Exorista larvarum.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Mohammad-Reza; Barari, H; Kara, K

    2009-03-01

    Weight differences of male and female pupae of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] and its two parasitoids Lymantrichneumon disparis (Poda) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Exorista larvarum (L.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) host preference were examined in this study. Lymantria dispar pupae were collected from trunks and branches of 20 Ironwood trees (Parotia persica) in two sampling dates, 10 July 2005 and 24 July 2005. The pest pupae were weighted and then saved at room temperature until adults of gypsy moth or its parasitoids emerged. The most L. dispar pupae collected in the first sampling were male whereas those in the second one were female and both male and female pupae in the second sampling were smaller than those in first sampling. The majority of male pupae (98.29%) were less than 0.6 g and most of female pupae (79.39%) were more than 0.6 g in weight. The most of L. disparis emerged from male pupae of L. dispar, whereas the majority of E. larvarum emerged from female pupae. Implications of the results for biological control strategy of gypsy moth are discussed.

  12. Enantiomer and conformer recognition of (+) and (-)-disparlure and their analogs by the pheromone binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Adult female gypsy moths produce a sex pheromone (+)-(7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, to attract male gypsy moths. To better understand the recognition of (+)-disparlure by the male's olfactory system, we synthesized racemic and enantiopure oxa and thia analogs of (+)-disparlure (ee>98%). Ab initio calculations of the conformeric landscapes around the dihedral angles C5-6-7-8 and C7-8-9-10 of (+)-disparlure and corresponding dihedral angles of analogs revealed that introduction of the heteroatom changes the conformeric landscape around these important epitopes. The energy difference between HOMO and LUMO decreased after oxygen or sulfur was introduced into the backbone. Consistent with this, an enhancement of binding affinity between sulfur analogs and the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) was observed in vitro. Docking of the pheromone and analogs onto models of the two known PBPs of the gypsy moth revealed that the internal binding pocket of PBP1 showed higher selectivity than that of PBP2, consistent with in vitro binding assays. Further energy analysis revealed that enantiomers adopted different conformations with different energies when docked in the internal binding pocket of PBPs, resulting in enantiomer discrimination of PBPs towards disparlure and its analogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Field testing Chinese and Japanese gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus and disparvirus against a Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica in Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Duan, L Q; Otvos, I S; Xu, L B; Conder, N; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    The activity of three geographic isolates of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was evaluated in field trials against larvae of the Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Although the Chinese isolate of the virus, LdMNPV-H, was the most pathogenic of the isolates tested, having the lowest mean lethal concentration causing 50% and 95% larval mortality, the increase in efficacy that would be obtained by incorporating this isolate into a commercial product does not justify the time or expense required to register it for use in the United States or Canada. The commercially available North American isolate, LdMNPV-D, was moderately pathogenic, whereas the Japanese isolate, LdMNPV-J, was the least pathogenic. The slopes of the dose-response regression lines for the three virus isolates indicated that the Chinese gypsy moth larvae were more homogenously susceptible to LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D than to LdMNPV-J. Time-response data showed that LdMNPV-J was significantly more virulent, but at a much higher dose, than the other two isolates, causing 50% mortality in the shortest time, followed by LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D. Rainfall immediately after the application of LdMNPV-D in 2005 resulted in significantly reduced gypsy moth larval mortality.

  14. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  15. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valaitis, Algimantas P

    2011-10-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins have been identified: an aminopeptidase N (APN-1) and a 270kDa anionic glycoconjugate (BTR-270). Studies have shown that APN-1 has a relatively weak affinity and a very narrow specificity to Cry1Ac, the only Cry1A toxin that it binds. In contrast, BTR-270 binds all toxins that are active against L. dispar larvae, and the affinities for these toxins to BTR-270 correlate positively with their respective toxicities. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was coupled with fluorescence microscopy to localize APN-1 and BTR-270 in paraffin embedded midgut sections of L. dispar larvae. The distribution of cadherin and alkaline phosphatase in the gut tissue was also examined. A strong reaction indicative of polyanionic material was detected with alcian blue staining over the entire epithelial brush border, suggesting the presence of acidic glycoconjugates in the microvillar matrix. The Cry1A toxin-binding sites were confined to the apical surface of the gut epithelial cells with intense labeling of the apical tips of the microvilli. APN-1, BTR-270, and alkaline phosphatase were found to be present exclusively along the brush border microvilli along the entire gut epithelium. In contrast, cadherin, detected only in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the basement membrane anchoring the midgut epithelial cells. The topographical relationship between the Bt Cry toxin-binding molecules BTR-270 and APN-1 and the Cry1A toxin-binding sites that were confined to the apical brush border of the midgut cells is consistent with findings implicating their involvement in the mechanism of the

  16. Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the γ-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the α-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community. PMID:14711655

  17. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales.

  18. Using mechanistic models to understand synchrony in forest insect populations: the North American gypsy moth as a case study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Karen C; Dwyer, Greg

    2008-11-01

    In many forest insects, subpopulations fluctuate concurrently across large geographical areas, a phenomenon known as population synchrony. Because of the large spatial scales involved, empirical tests to identify the causes of synchrony are often impractical. Simple models are, therefore, a useful aid to understanding, but data often seem to contradict model predictions. For instance, chaotic population dynamics and limited dispersal are not uncommon among synchronous forest defoliators, yet both make it difficult to achieve synchrony in simple models. To test whether this discrepancy can be explained by more realistic models, we introduced dispersal and spatially correlated stochasticity into a mechanistic population model for the North American gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. The resulting model shows both chaotic dynamics and spatial synchrony, suggesting that chaos and synchrony can be reconciled by the incorporation of realistic dynamics and spatial structure. By relating alterations in model structure to changes in synchrony levels, we show that the synchrony is due to a combination of spatial covariance in environmental stochasticity and the origins of chaos in our multispecies model.

  19. Density-dependent resistance of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar to its nucleopolyhedrovirus, and the consequences for population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E

    2008-01-01

    The processes controlling disease resistance can strongly influence the population dynamics of insect outbreaks. Evidence that disease resistance is density-dependent is accumulating, but the exact form of this relationship is highly variable from species to species. It has been hypothesized that insects experiencing high population densities might allocate more energy to disease resistance than those at lower densities, because they are more likely to encounter density-dependent pathogens. In contrast, the increased stress of high-density conditions might leave insects more vulnerable to disease. Both scenarios have been reported for various outbreak Lepidoptera in the literature. We tested the relationship between larval density and disease resistance with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and one of its most important density-dependent mortality factors, the nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) LdMNPV, in a series of bioassays. Larvae were reared in groups at different densities, fed the virus individually, and then reared individually to evaluate response to infection. In this system, resistance to the virus decreased with increasing larval density. Similarly, time to death was faster at high densities than at lower densities. Implications of density-resistance relationships for insect-pathogen population dynamics were explored in a mathematical model. In general, an inverse relationship between rearing density and disease resistance has a stabilizing effect on population dynamics.

  20. The effect of varying alkaloid concentrations on the feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Vonnie D.C.; Smith, Kristen P.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Gordon, Ineta M.; Shaw, Taharah E.; Waranch, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Nine alkaloids (acridine, aristolochic acid, atropine, berberine, caffeine, nicotine, scopolamine, sparteine, and strychnine) were evaluated as feeding deterrents for gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar (L.); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Our aim was to determine and compare the taste threshold concentrations, as well as the ED50 values, of the nine alkaloids to determine their potency as feeding deterrents. The alkaloids were applied to disks cut from red oak leaves (Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by larvae of this polyphagous insect species. We used two-choice feeding bioassays to test a broad range of biologically relevant alkaloid concentrations spanning five logarithmetic steps. We observed increasing feeding deterrent responses for all the alkaloids tested and found that the alkaloids tested exhibited different deterrency threshold concentrations ranging from 0.1 mM to 10 mM. In conclusion, it appears that this generalist insect species bears a relatively high sensitivity to these alkaloids, which confirms behavioral observations that it avoids foliage containing alkaloids. Berberine and aristolochic acid were found to have the lowest ED50 values and were the most potent antifeedants. PMID:21278814

  1. Characterization of the transcriptome of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar identifies numerous transcripts associated with insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, ChuanWang; Sun, LiLi; Wen, RongRong; Shang, QingLi; Ma, Ling; Wang, ZhiYing

    2015-03-01

    Although the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar causes extensive forest damage worldwide, little is known regarding the genes involved in its development or response to insecticides. Accordingly, characterization of the transcriptome of L. dispar larvae would promote the development of toxicological methods for its control. RNA-seq analysis of L. dispar larvae messenger RNA (mRNA) generated 62,063 unigenes with N50 of 993 bp, from which 23,975 unique sequences (E-value < 10(-5)) were identified using a BLASTx search of the NCBI non-redundant (nr) database. Using functional classification in the Gene Ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) databases, 7,309 indentified sequences were categorized into 51 functional groups and 8,079 sequences were categorized into 25 functional groups, respectively. Moreover, we identified a large number of transcripts encoding known insecticide targets, or proteins involved in the metabolism of insecticides. Reads per kilobase of unigene length per million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis identified 39 high abundance transcripts, of which 27 exhibited significantly altered expression patterns across the egg, larvae, pupae, male and female adult stages. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic sequence resource for L. dispar, which will form the basis for future identification of candidate insecticide resistance genes in L. dispar.

  2. Gypsy moth pheromone-binding protein-ligand interactions: pH profiles and simulations as tools for detecting polar interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanes, Jurgen T; Plettner, Erika

    2016-09-15

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to control diffusion of pheromones in sensory hairs of insects. The interactions of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) PBPs with the sex attractant pheromone, (+)-Disparlure ((7R,8S)-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane), and the enantioselectivity of recognition are not completely understood. Enantioselectivity is important for L. dispar, because (-)-disparlure cancels the attraction of (+)-disparlure, so these moths use enantiopure (+)-disparlure for communication. We performed docking simulations of the protonated homology PBP models with the enantiomers of disparlure, 5-oxadisparlure, 10-oxadisparlure, 5-thiadisparlure and 10-thiadisparlure, together with a binding assay experiment, in which the pH profiles for the PBP-ligand combinations were surveyed. The molecular simulations revealed different amino acid residues in the binding sites, movement of specific amino acid residues at certain pH values, distinct amino acid-ligand interactions (side chain donors/acceptors, H-arene bonding, backbone donors/acceptors) and differences in the conformations of each protein-ligand complex. The pKa values obtained from the binding experiment and the results from the molecular simulations served as tools for detecting polar interactions between the PBPs and ligands. The differences found between structures docked with ligand enantiomers reveal the enantioselectivity of the gypsy moth PBPs towards the pheromone and its antipode, as well as towards enantiomers of pheromone analogs with heteroatom substitutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Zhang, Aijun; Onufrieva, Ksenia; Leonard, Donna S

    2011-08-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate of disparlure release. We evaluated the release rate of disparlure from delta traps baited with disparlure string dispenser from 1 to 3 yr across a broad geographic gradient, from northern Minnesota to southern North Carolina. Traps were deployed over approximately 12 wk that coincided with the period of male moth flight and the deployment schedule of traps under gypsy moth management programs. We measured a uniform rate of release across all locations when considered over the accumulation of degree-days; however, due to differences in degree-day accumulation across locations, there were significant differences in release rates over time among locations. The initial lure load seemed to be sufficient regardless of climate, although rapid release of the pheromone in warmer climates could affect trap efficacy in late season. Daily rates of release in colder climates, such as Minnesota and northern Wisconsin, may not be optimal in detection efforts. This work highlights the importance of local temperatures when deploying pheromone-baited traps for monitoring a species across a large and climatically diverse landscape.

  4. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I.; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C.; Hamelin, Richard C.; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a “molecular key” (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3’ region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the “FS1” nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  5. Genetic diversity in the gypsy moth fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga from founder populations in North America and source populations in Asia.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Milgroom, Michael G; Hajek, Ann E

    2005-08-01

    Entomophaga maimaiga is a naturally occurring fungal pathogen specific to larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. E. maimaiga is thought to be native to Asia where its epizootics can suppress gypsy moth outbreaks. However, in the USA this beneficial fungal pathogen was not observed until 1989, although an isolate of E. maimaiga from Tokyo was released in Massachusetts to control gypsy moths as early as in 1910-1911, and another isolate from Ishikawa Prefecture in Japan was later released in 1985 and 1986 in New York and Virginia. Our objectives were to: (1) test the hypothesis that E. maimaiga populations in the USA have reduced genetic variability due to founder effects compared to the putative ancestral populations in Asia; (2) track the origin of the North American populations of this fungus; and (3) assess whether genetic differences among E. maimaiga isolates are correlated to morphological differences. We compared genetic diversity among 30 E. maimaiga isolates originating from seven states in the USA, five prefectures in Japan, one province of China and one region of far eastern Russia by AFLPs. Among 14 USA isolates, only ten polymorphic AFLP loci were found, whereas 56 polymorphic loci were found among 16 Asian isolates; 29 loci were polymorphic among 12 isolates from Japan alone. Average gene diversity (h) for the polymorphic loci was 0.223 +/- 0.005 for Asia (including Japan), 0.131 +/- 0.006 for Japan only, and 0.041 +/- 0.004 for the USA. Thus, native populations from Asia were more diverse than the USA populations. These results are consistent with the expectation of a population founded from a source population by a small number of individuals. Distance and parsimony analyses of AFLP data showed that the isolates from the USA formed one distinct clade that was most closely related to Japanese isolates collected outside the Tokyo area. No morphological variation of E. maimaiga from different geographical locations was detected.

  6. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C; Hamelin, Richard C; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a "molecular key" (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3' region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the "FS1" nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS.

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity.

  8. Gypsy moth caterpillar feeding has only a marginal impact on phenolic compounds in old-growth black poplar.

    PubMed

    Boeckler, G Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2013-10-01

    Species of the Salicaceae produce phenolic compounds that may function as anti-herbivore defenses. Levels of these compounds have been reported to increase upon herbivory, but only rarely have these changes in phenolics been studied under natural conditions. We profiled the phenolics of old-growth black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and studied the response to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) herbivory in two separate field experiments. In a first experiment, foliar phenolics of 20 trees were monitored over 4 weeks after caterpillar infestation, and in a second experiment the bark and foliar phenolics of a single tree were measured over a week. Of the major groups of phenolics, salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) showed no short term response to caterpillar feeding, but after 4 weeks they declined up to 40 % in herbivore damaged and adjacent undamaged leaves on the same branch when compared to leaves of control branches. Flavonol glycosides, low molecular weight flavan-3-ols, and condensed tannins were not affected by herbivory in the first experiment. However, in the single-tree experiment, foliar condensed tannins increased by 10-20 % after herbivory, and low molecular weight flavan-3-ols decreased by 10 % in the leaves but increased by 10 % in the bark. Despite 15 % experimental leaf area loss followed by a 5-fold increase in foliar jasmonate defense hormones, we found no evidence for substantial induction of phenolic defense compounds in old growth black poplar trees growing in a native stand. Thus, if phenolics in these trees function as defenses against herbivory, our results suggest that they act mainly as constitutive defenses.

  9. Phenological asynchrony between host plant and gypsy moth reduces insect gut microbiota and susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Belousova, Irina A; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Ershov, Nikita I; Alikina, Tatyana Y; Kabilov, Marsel R; Glupov, Victor V

    2016-10-01

    The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota. The lysozyme-like activity in both the midgut and hemolymph plasma and the nonspecific esterase activity and antimicrobial peptide gene expression in the midgut were studied in both noninfected and B. thuringiensis-infected larvae. Our results provide the first evidence that phenologically asynchronous larvae are less susceptible to B. thuringiensis infection than phenologically synchronous larvae, and our results show that these effects are related to the high basic levels and B. thuringiensis-induced levels of lysozyme-like activities. Moreover, a 16S rRNA analysis revealed that dramatic decreases in the diversity of the larval gut bacterial consortia occurred under the effect of asynchrony. Larvae infected with B. thuringiensis presented decreased microbiota diversity if the larvae were reared synchronously with the host plant but not if they were reared asynchronously. Our study demonstrates the significant effect of phenological asynchrony on innate immunity-mediated interactions between herbivores and entomopathogenic bacteria and highlights the role of nonpathogenic gut bacteria in these interactions.

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the spray zone was 739 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of air. Outdoor air concentrations decreased over time, quickly in an initial phase with a half time of 3.3 hr, and then more slowly over the following 9 days, with an overall half-time of about 2.4 days. Inside residences during spraying, average concentrations were initially 2-5 times lower than outdoors, but at 5-6 hr after spraying began, indoor concentrations exceeded those outdoors, with an average of 244 CFU/m3 vs. 77 CFU/m3 outdoors, suggesting that the initial benefits of remaining indoors during spraying may not persist as outside air moves indoors with normal daily activities. There was drift of culturable Btk throughout a 125- to 1,000-meter band outside the spray zone where measurements were made, a consequence of the fine aerosol sizes that remained airborne (count median diameters of 4.3 to 7.2 microm). Btk concentrations outside the spray zone were related to wind speed and direction, but not to distance from the spray zone. PMID:11171524

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    PubMed

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the spray zone was 739 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of air. Outdoor air concentrations decreased over time, quickly in an initial phase with a half time of 3.3 hr, and then more slowly over the following 9 days, with an overall half-time of about 2.4 days. Inside residences during spraying, average concentrations were initially 2-5 times lower than outdoors, but at 5-6 hr after spraying began, indoor concentrations exceeded those outdoors, with an average of 244 CFU/m3 vs. 77 CFU/m3 outdoors, suggesting that the initial benefits of remaining indoors during spraying may not persist as outside air moves indoors with normal daily activities. There was drift of culturable Btk throughout a 125- to 1,000-meter band outside the spray zone where measurements were made, a consequence of the fine aerosol sizes that remained airborne (count median diameters of 4.3 to 7.2 microm). Btk concentrations outside the spray zone were related to wind speed and direction, but not to distance from the spray zone.

  12. Proceedings, forest defoliator--host interactions: A comparison between gypsy moth and spruce budworms; 1983 April 5-7; New Haven, CT: Summary of Life History and Hosts of the Spruce Budworms

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Talerico; Michael Montgomery

    1983-01-01

    The Canada/U.S. Spruce Budworms Program in cooperation with the Center for Biological Control of Northeastern Forest Insects and Diseases of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station co-sponsored this Forest Defoliator-Host Interaction Workshop.This invitational workshop was limited to investigators of the spruce bud worms and gypsy moth in the Forest Service,...

  13. Dose responses of in vivo- and in vitro-produced strains of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) applied with and without the virus enhancer Blankophor BBH

    Treesearch

    John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Kevin W. Thorpe; Ralph E. Webb; Roger W. Fuester; Vincent D' Amico; Randel A. Peiffer; Michael A. Valenti

    2013-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product Gypchek is a microbial pesticide produced by the USDA Forest Service. Gypchek is a mixture of LdMNPV genotypes produced in vivo. Commercial interests prefer to develop a stable, high-potency genotype that can be produced at low cost, preferably in vitro. We sprayed 2 LdMNPV...

  14. Volatile organic compound emission from holm oak infested by gypsy moth larvae: evidence for distinct responses in damaged and undamaged leaves.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Michael; Lhoutellier, Louise

    2007-10-01

    Foliage of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak), a widespread Mediterranean species, constitutively emits large quantities of a complex genotype-dependent mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During a mass outbreak of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in southern France, we examined the effects of gypsy moth feeding on VOC production from whole apices and single leaves of Q. ilex. Feeding induced the emission of new VOCs at rates up to 240 ng m(-2) s(-1) (16% of the total VOC release), which mainly consisted of sesquiterpenes, a homoterpene and a monoterpene alcohol. The new compounds were emitted after a delay of several hours following infestation and their production declined rapidly when caterpillars were removed. Undamaged leaves of infested trees emitted new VOCs, but with a different composition to those of damaged leaves and at lower rates. Neither caterpillars nor caterpillar excrement released VOCs. Emission of constitutive VOCs by undamaged leaves of infested trees temporary increased by up to 30%, whereas, in damaged leaves, they remained stable and decreased after some days when necrotic spots occurred around the feeding sites. In continuous light and at constant temperature, emissions of new VOCs showed a marked diurnal cycle, whereas those of constitutive VOCs did not. The results suggest that induced VOCs make a significant contribution to the atmospheric VOC load and may mediate trophic interactions. The observed differential local and systemic responses in composition, quantity and time courses of emissions mirror the existence of several regulation processes triggered by different signaling compounds and elicitors.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) GPCR in Asian gypsy moth development and transcriptional expression of heat-shock protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, LiLi; Wang, ZhiYing; Wu, HongQu; Liu, Peng; Zou, ChuanShan; Xue, XuTing; Cao, ChuanWang

    2016-01-01

    The ocular albinism type 1 gene, named OA1, is a coding pigment cell-specific G protein-coupled receptor exclusively localized in intracellular organelles. However, the function of OA1 in insects remains generally unknown. In the present study, we explore for the first time the function of LdOA1 in the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. To identify the function of LdOA1 gene in the development and growth of the Asian gypsy moth, the LdOA1 gene in third instar larvae was knocked down by RNAi. Compared with the controls, the knockdown of LdOA1 increased larval mortality but did not significantly affect their utilization of nutrition. Moreover, LdOA1 was stably transformed into the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The LdOA1 gene in the transformed D. melanogaster modulated the expression of heat-shock protein (hsp) and increased the expression of hsp genes under deltamethrin stress, which indicates that LdOA1 is involved in the regulation of hsp gene expression. These results deepen our understanding of the molecular function of OA1 in insects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates

    PubMed Central

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S.; Thorpe, Kevin W.; Hickman, Andrea D.; Leonard, Donna S.; Roberts, E. Anderson; Tobin, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GMTM, in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment. PMID:26466798

  18. Ligand-interaction kinetics of the pheromone- binding protein from the gypsy moth, L. dispar: insights into the mechanism of binding and release.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongmei; Pace, Tamara C S; Castillo, Carlos; Bohne, Cornelia; O'Neill, Melanie A; Plettner, Erika

    2009-02-27

    The pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs), which exist at a high concentration in the sensillum lymph surrounding olfactory neurons, are proposed to be important in pheromone detection and discrimination in insects. Here, we present a systematic study of PBP-ligand interaction kinetics. We find that PBP2, from the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, associates and dissociates slowly with its biofunctional ligands, (+)- and (-)-disparlure. Tryptophan anisotropy measurements detect PBP multimers in solution as well as an increase in the multimeric state of the protein upon long exposure to ligand. We propose a kinetic model that includes monomer/multimer equilibria and a two-step binding process: (1) external binding of the pheromone assisted by the C terminus of PBP2, and (2) slow embedding of the pheromone into the internal pocket. This experimentally derived model sheds light on the potential biological function and mechanism of PBPs as ligand scavengers.

  19. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-309-1739, Oregon Department of Human Resources, Health Division, Gypsy Moth Control Project, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.J.; Huemann, M.; Sokolow, R.; Elefant, S.

    1986-10-01

    Evaluation of occupational and general public exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during application of this microbial agent for control of the gypsy moth was requested by the Oregon State Department of Human Resources, Health Division, located in Portland. Bt was applied by helicopter on about 250,000 acres of forest, rural, and urban areas in 1985 and 1986. Project operational plans, accident prevention, safety plans, personal protective-equipment usage, and work practices were reviewed and evaluated. Personal exposure and area air monitoring for Bt was carried out during application. Air sampling indicated there was a widespread exposure potential. The author recommends that care be taken by those employees handling Bt in solution and that splashing of Bt to the eye be avoided due to possible corneal ulcer development. The dispersing-agent Plyac is recommended for use in handling the waste-disposal problem. Access to the mixing and application areas should be restricted.

  20. Effects of parent age at mating on reproductive response of Glyptapanteles flavicoxis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Fuester, R W; Swan, K S; Taylor, P B; Ramaseshiah, G

    2008-08-01

    Glyptapanteles flavicoxis (Marsh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval parasitoid of the Indian gypsy moth Lymantria obfuscata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), that is believed to have potential for inundative releases against gypsy moth populations, because it can be reared in large numbers with few hosts. Unfortunately, sex ratios in laboratory reared G. flavicoxis are usually male-biased, hindering efforts to mass release this species for biological control by making the production of females costly. Because parental age at time of mating is known to affect the sex ratio in some Braconidae, we crossed haploid males and virgin females at 0, 1, 4, 9, and 16 d old with at least 10 trials for each of the 25 combinations. Numbers and sex ratios of progeny produced by females each day were recorded. Both progeny and sex ratios (percentage of females) among progeny produced by ovipositing females of G. flavicoxis decreased markedly over time, so only the first days production need be used in mass rearing. The reduction in the proportion and numbers of females among progeny as females aged is consistent with sperm depletion. Approximately 30% of females in all age classes mated to newly emerged males (day 0) produced all male progeny, whereas only 10-15% of those mated to older males failed to produce any daughters. When crosses with only male progeny were excluded from the analysis, females mated to males 1 d old had higher sex ratios in progeny than those mated to males in other age classes. In addition, females mated the day that they emerged tended to have progeny with the highest sex ratios.

  1. Structural and Functional Difference of Pheromone Binding Proteins in Discriminating Chemicals in the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria Dispar

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanxue; Ma, Fei; Cao, Yixia; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Yongan; Duan, Shengnan; Wei, Yadong; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Naizhong

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal), Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl) adipate (Bis), L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074). The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+)-Disparlure ((+)-D), and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+)-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+)-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1) was 0.68±0.01μM, for (+)-D was 5.32±0.11μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+)-D were 1.88±0.02μM and 5.54±0.04μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+)-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than (+)-D at pH7

  2. Structural and functional difference of pheromone binding proteins in discriminating chemicals in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanxue; Ma, Fei; Cao, Yixia; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Yongan; Duan, Shengnan; Wei, Yadong; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Naizhong

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal), Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl) adipate (Bis), L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074). The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+)-Disparlure ((+)-D), and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+)-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+)-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1) was 0.68 ± 0.01 μM, for (+)-D was 5.32 ± 0.11 μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+)-D were 1.88 ± 0.02 μM and 5.54 ± 0.04 μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+)-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than

  3. Modeling gypsy moth seasonality

    Treesearch

    J. A. Logan; D. R. Gray

    1991-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate seasonality is perhaps the most basic ecological requisite for insects living in temperate environments. The basic ecological importance of seasonality is enough to justify expending considerable effort to accurately model the processes involved. For insects of significant economic consequence, seasonality assumes additional importance...

  4. Gypsy moth IPM

    Treesearch

    Michael L. McManus; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, North American forests have been inundated by a multitude of alien pest invasions. Among these, noteworthy invaders include the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease. These species have greatly altered both the ecological and...

  5. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy Moth Host Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal... information collection associated with regulations to prevent the introduction of gypsy moth from Canada into... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of gypsy moth host material...

  6. The effects of defoliation-induced delayed changes in silver birch foliar chemistry on gypsy moth fitness, immune response, and resistance to baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Rantala, Markus J; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Belousova, Irina A; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Bakhvalov, Stanislav A; Glupov, Victor V

    2012-03-01

    We tested the effects of defoliation-induced changes in silver birch, Betula pendula, foliar chemistry (delayed induced resistance, DIR) on the fitness and immune defense of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We measured larval developmental time, pupal weight, rate of survival to the adult stage, and five characteristics of larval immune defense: (1) encapsulation response; (2) phenoloxidase activity; (3) hemocyte concentration and (4) lysozyme-like activity in the hemolymph; and (5) resistance to infection by L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV). The latter is an entomopathogenic baculovirus that often causes epizootics during outbreaks of L. dispar. We also measured the involvement of foliage non-tannin phenolic compounds in resistance of B. pendula to herbivory as well as the relationship between the compounds we identified and L. dispar development, growth, and survival. Leaves of B. pendula with previous defoliation history contained increased levels of myricetin glycoside, two flavonoid aglycones (acacetin and tetrahydroxy-flavone dimethyl ether), as well as one unidentified simple phenolic. The concentrations of two glycosides of quercetin, as well as the content of one unidentified flavonoid glycoside were significantly decreased under defoliation treatment. DIR of B. pendula retarded larval growth rate and increased lysozyme-like activity in the hemolymph, but did not affect encapsulation response, phenoloxidase activity, or hemocyte count. We did not find any DIR-mediated tritrophic interactions among birch, gypsy moth, and LdMNPV. After viral inoculation, the mean hemocyte counts in larvae reared on an individual tree correlated significantly with the survival of larvae reared on that same tree, indicating that hemocyte density in hemolymph might be associated with resistance to viral infection. We found a strong positive correlation between the concentration of 1-(4″-hydroxyphenyl)-3'-oxopropyl-β-D-glucopyranose and L. dispar survival rate, which

  7. Preoutbreak dynamics of a recently established invasive herbivore: roles of natural enemies and habitat structure in stage-specific performance of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations in northeastern Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Hoffman Gray, Rebecca; Lorimer, Craig G; Tobin, Patrick C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2008-10-01

    A major challenge to addressing biological invasions is that the need for emergency responses often precludes opportunities to analyze the dynamics between initial establishment and population eruption. Thus, a broader understanding of underlying processes and management opportunities is often lacking. We examined the effects of habitat structure and natural enemies on recently established preeruptive gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., populations over 4 yr in northeastern Wisconsin. Forty-five sites were established across a range of habitat structures in oak-dominated northern hardwood forests. The number of egg masses was positively related to percent composition of oaks and other favored species. Other life stages were not related to habitat structure variables. Abundance of each life stage can predict the subsequent life stage with variable degrees of accuracy, but male moth densities were only a weak predictor of egg mass or larval densities the following year. The parasitic fly Compsilura concinnata (Meigen), an introduced generalist with deleterious nontarget effects, caused the highest mortality to larvae. The specialist pathogens Entomophaga maimaiga and nucleopolyhedrosis virus were widely distributed but caused less mortality than reported in the northeastern United States, where gypsy moth has been established much longer. Small mammals are the major predators of pupae as elsewhere, but invertebrates seem less important along the western than southern advancing front of gypsy moth. Overall habitat structure did not influence natural enemy populations. These results suggest that the pre-eruptive phase is distinct from the pre-establishment phase by high mating success and from the eruptive phase by the prominent role of generalist natural enemies. Improved understanding of these dynamics can help guide silvicultural and biocontrol strategies in newly invaded regions of the Midwest and provide general insight into invasive forest defoliators.

  8. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  9. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Binding conformation and kinetics of two pheromone-binding proteins from the Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar with biological and nonbiological ligands.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongmei; Tang, Hao; Bohne, Cornelia; Plettner, Erika

    2010-02-02

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) in insects can bind various substances and selectively deliver the message of a signal molecule to the downstream components of the olfactory system. This can be achieved either through a ligand-specific conformational change of the C-terminal peptide of the PBP or by selectively binding/releasing the ligand. PBP may also act as a scavenger to protect the sensory neurons from saturating at high ligand doses. We have compared two PBPs from the gypsy moth (PBP1 and PBP2) and their truncated forms (TPBPs), which lack the C-terminal peptide, in this study. Stopped-flow kinetics with N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) have revealed a diffusion-controlled collisional step, between PBP and NPN, after which the NPN relocates into a hydrophobic environment. This work supports the hypothesis that binding between PBPs and ligands occurs stepwise. With the method of tryptophan fluorescence quenching, we have shown different local conformational changes around Trp 37, induced by different ligands, manifested in changes of both the steric and electronic environment around the residue. Importantly, we have noticed a significant difference in the changes induced by the biological ligand (the pheromone) and nonbiological ligands. Therefore, we hypothesize that PBP may serve a different function in each kinetic step, displaying a unique P.L conformation.

  11. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

  12. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  13. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of (/sup 35/S)-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early ..cap alpha.. phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate ..beta.. phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late ..gamma.. phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with (/sup 3/H)-mannose, (/sup 3/H)-N-acetyl-glucosamine or (/sup 32/P)-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter.

  14. Laboratory evaluation of transgenic Populus davidiana×Populus bolleana expressing Cry1Ac + SCK, Cry1Ah3, and Cry9Aa3 genes against gypsy moth and fall webworm.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Chen, Yajuan; Wei, Xiaoli; Ni, Mi; Zhang, Jiewei; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhu, Zhen; Wei, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic poplar lines 'Shanxin' (Populus davidiana×Populus bolleana) were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic lines carried the expression cassettes of Cry1Ac + SCK, Cry1Ah3, and Cry9Aa3, respectively. The expression levels of the exogenous insect resistance genes in the transgenic lines were determined by Q-PCR and Western blot. Leaves of the transgenic lines were used for insect feeding bioassays on first instar larvae of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea). At 5 d of feeding, the mean mortalities of larvae feeding on Cry1Ac + SCK and Cry1Ah3 transgenic poplars leaves were 97% and 91%, while mortality on Cry9Aa3 transgenic lines was about 49%. All gypsy moth and fall webworm larvae were killed in 7-9 days after feeding on leaves from Cry1Ac + SCK or Cry1Ah3 transgenic poplars, while all the fall webworm larvae were killed in 11 days and about 80% of gypsy moth larvae were dead in 14 days after feeding on those from Cry9Aa3 transgenic lines. It was concluded that the transgenic lines of Cry1Ac + SCK and Cry1Ah3 were highly toxic to larvae of both insect species while lines with Cry9Aa3 had lower toxicity,and H. cunea larvae are more sensitive to the insecticidal proteins compared to L. dispar. Transgenic poplar lines toxic to L. dispar and H. cunea could be used to provide Lepidoptera pest resistance to selected strains of poplar trees.

  15. Response of Adult Lymantriid Moths to Illumination Devices in the Russian Far East

    Treesearch

    William E. Wallner; Lee M. Humble; Robert E. Levin; Yuri N. Baranchikov; Ring T. Carde; Ring T. Carde

    1995-01-01

    In field studies in the Russian Far East, five types of illuminating devices were evaluated for attracting adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), pink gypsy moth, L. mathura Moore, and nun moth, L. monacha (L.). Our objective was to determine if light from commercial lamps suited to out-of-doors floodlighting could be modified to reduce their attractiveness to moths...

  16. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  17. Quantifying horizontal transmission of Nosema lymantriae, a microsporidian pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lep., Lymantriidae) in field cage studies.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Gernot; D'Amico, Vincent; Solter, Leellen F; Zubrik, Milan; McManus, Michael L

    2008-10-01

    Nosema lymantriae is a microsporidian pathogen of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar that has been documented to be at least partially responsible for the collapse of L. dispar outbreak populations in Europe. To quantify horizontal transmission of this pathogen under field conditions we performed caged-tree experiments that varied (1) the density of the pathogen through the introduction of laboratory-infected larvae, and (2) the total time that susceptible (test) larvae were exposed to these infected larvae. The time frame of the experiments extended from the early phase of colonization of the target tissues by the microsporidium to the onset of pathogen-induced mortality or pupation of test larvae. Upon termination of each experiment, the prevalence of infection in test larvae was evaluated. In the experiments performed over a range of pathogen densities, infection of test larvae increased with increasing density of inoculated larvae, from 14.2+/-3.5% at density of 10 inoculated per 100 larvae to 36.7+/-5.7% at 30 inoculated per 100 larvae. At higher densities, percent infection in test larvae appeared to level off (35.7+/-5.5% at 50 inoculated per 100 larvae). When larval exposure to the pathogen was varied, transmission of N. lymantriae did not occur within the first 15 d post-inoculation (dpi) (11 d post-exposure of test larvae to inoculated larvae). We found the first infected test larvae in samples taken 20dpi (16 d post-exposure). Transmission increased over time; in the cages sampled 25dpi (21 d post-exposure), Nosema prevalence in test larvae ranged from 20.6% to 39.2%.

  18. Aminopeptidase N purified from gypsy moth brush border membrane vesicles is a specific receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAc toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M K; You, T H; Young, B A; Cotrill, J A; Valaitis, A P; Dean, D H

    1996-01-01

    We have evaluated the binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins to aminopeptidase N (APN) purified from Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV). CryIAc toxin bound strongly to APN, while either the structurally related CryIAa and CryIAb toxins or CryIC, CryIIA, and CryIIIA toxins showed weak binding to APN. An in vitro competition binding study demonstrated that the binding of CryIAc to L. dispar BBMV was inhibited by APN. Inhibition of short circuit current for CryIAc, measured by voltage clamping of whole L. dispar midgut, was substantially reduced by addition of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, which is known to release APN from the midgut membrane. In contrast, addition of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C had only a marginal effect on the inhibition of short circuit current for CryIAa. These data suggest that APN is the major functional receptor for CryIAc in L. dispar BBMV. A ligand blotting experiment demonstrated that CryIAc recognized a 120-kDa peptide (APN), while CryIAa and CryIAb recognized a 210-kDa molecule in L. dispar BBMV. In contrast, CryIAa and CryIAb bound to both the 120- and 210-kDa molecules in Manduca sexta BBMV, while CryIAc recognized only the 120-kDa peptide. The 120-kDa peptide (APN) in L. dispar BBMV reacted with soybean agglutinin, indicating that N-acetylgalactosamine is a component of this glycoprotein. PMID:8702277

  19. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) consumption and utilization of northern red oak and white oak foliage exposed to simulated acid rain and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, W.N. Jr. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year-old seedlings of white oak, Quercus alba L., and red oak, Q. rubra L., were exposed to ozone (O[sub 3]) fumigations in four continuously stirred tank reactor chambers in the greenhouse for 8 h/d, 3 d/wk for 6 wk. Fumigation treatments were charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and CFA + 0.15 ppm O[sub 3]. Two simulated rain treatments, pH 4.2 and pH 3.0, of-1.25 cm were applied once each week in rain-simulation chambers. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), third instars were allowed to feed on leaf disks from treated seedlings for 24 h. Leaf area consumed, food assimilated, weight gain, and relative growth rate (RGR) were examined. Overall, larvae fed white oak foliage consumed more foliage and gained more weight than those fed red oak foliage. Response to the fumigation and rain treatments was different for each oak species. On white oak foliage, larvae consumed significantly less foliage treated with CFA + pH 3.0 rain, but the lowest RGR occurred with the 0.15 ppm O[sub 3] + pH 4.2 rain treatment. The most food assimilated, greatest weight gain, and highest RGR occurred with the CFA + pH 4.2 rain control. Red oak foliage consumed was equivalent for all treatments, but foliage exposed to CFA + pH 3.0 rain resulted in more food assimilated, greater weight gain, and higher RGR for that species.

  20. Response of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar to Transgenic Poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, Expressing Fusion Protein Gene of the Spider Insecticidal Peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ω?-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ω?-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The growth and development of L. dispar were significantly affected by continually feeding on the transgenic poplar, with the larval instars displaying significantly shorter developmental times than those fed on nontransgenic poplar, but pupation was delayed. Mortality was higher in populations fed transgenic poplar leaves, than for larvae fed nontransgenic poplar leaves. The cumulative mortality during all stages of larvae fed transgenic leaves was 92% compared to 16.7% of larvae on nontransgenic leaves. The highest mortality observed was 71.7% in the last larval instar stage. A two-choice test showed that fifth-instar larvae preferred to feed on nontransgenic leaves at a ratio of 1:1.4. Feeding on transgenic leaves had highly significant negative effects on relative growth of larvae, and the efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food. Activity of major midgut proteinases was measured using substrates TAME and BTEE showed significant increases in tryptase and chymotrypsinlike activity (9.2- and 9.0-fold, respectively) in fifth-instar larvae fed on transgenic leaves over control. These results suggest transgenic poplar is resistant to L. dispar, and the mature L. dispar may be weakened by the transgenic plants due to Bt protoxins activated by elevated major midgut proteinase activity. The new transgenic poplar expressing fusion protein genes of Bt and a new spider insecticidal peptide are good candidates for managing gypsy moth. PMID:21268699

  1. Response of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar to transgenic poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, expressing fusion protein gene of the spider insecticidal peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ω-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ω-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The growth and development of L. dispar were significantly affected by continually feeding on the transgenic poplar, with the larval instars displaying significantly shorter developmental times than those fed on nontransgenic poplar, but pupation was delayed. Mortality was higher in populations fed transgenic poplar leaves, than for larvae fed nontransgenic poplar leaves. The cumulative mortality during all stages of larvae fed transgenic leaves was 92% compared to 16.7% of larvae on nontransgenic leaves. The highest mortality observed was 71.7% in the last larval instar stage. A two-choice test showed that fifth-instar larvae preferred to feed on nontransgenic leaves at a ratio of 1:1.4. Feeding on transgenic leaves had highly significant negative effects on relative growth of larvae, and the efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food. Activity of major midgut proteinases was measured using substrates TAME and BTEE showed significant increases in tryptase and chymotrypsinlike activity (9.2- and 9.0-fold, respectively) in fifth-instar larvae fed on transgenic leaves over control. These results suggest transgenic poplar is resistant to L. dispar, and the mature L. dispar may be weakened by the transgenic plants due to Bt protoxins activated by elevated major midgut proteinase activity. The new transgenic poplar expressing fusion protein genes of Bt and a new spider insecticidal peptide are good candidates for managing gypsy moth.

  2. Moth-Inspired Chemical Plume Tracing on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Missouri [12]. C.H. Fernald also demonstrated evident location of distant females in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in New England: a few males...and R. T. Cardé, “Pheromone puff trajectory and upwind flight of male gypsy moths in a forest,” Physio- logic. Entomol., vol. 12, pp. 399–406, 1987. [12...R. T. Carde, “Pheromone-mediated upwind flight of male gypsy moths , Lymantria dispar, in a forest,” Physiolog. Entomol., vol. 16, pp. 507–521, 1991

  3. Gypsies and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the treatment of Gypsies and the handicapped by Nazi Germany. Emphasizes that Gypsy populations were decimated in the same percentages as the Jews. Presents information and dates to show parallel developments of racial regulations against Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped. Urges further research and historiography on the fate of Gypsies…

  4. Gypsies and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the treatment of Gypsies and the handicapped by Nazi Germany. Emphasizes that Gypsy populations were decimated in the same percentages as the Jews. Presents information and dates to show parallel developments of racial regulations against Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped. Urges further research and historiography on the fate of Gypsies…

  5. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  6. GYPCHEK biological insecticide for the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    John D. Podgwaite

    1999-01-01

    With administrative and financial support from its State and Private Forestry division, the USDA Forest Service has directed much effort toward developing viral pesticides that kill forest insect pests. Most environmentally benign viral pesticides are narrow host-range products (Groner 1986) that are most useful in situations where environmental concerns are paramount...

  7. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  8. Gypsies and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, A

    1992-01-01

    Gypsies in the United States are not a healthy group. They have a high incidence of heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. When they seek medical care, Gypsies often come into conflict with medical personnel who find their behavior confusing, demanding, and chaotic. For their part, Gypsies are often suspicious of non-Gypsy people and institutions, viewing them as a source of disease and uncleanliness. Gypsy ideas about health and illness are closely related to notions of good and bad fortune, purity and impurity, and inclusion and exclusion from the group. These basic concepts affect everyday life, including the way Gypsies deal with eating and washing, physicians and hospitals, the diagnosis of illness, shopping around for cures, and coping with birth and death. PMID:1413769

  9. Gypsies, The Hidden Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Anne

    1975-01-01

    An examination of the social organization of the American Rom Gypsies, focusing on the mechanisms and dynamics by which they maintain a distinct way of life in the face of assimilative pressures. (EH)

  10. The Education of Gypsy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowden, Lady

    1973-01-01

    The Chairman of the National Gypsy Education Council here describes sympathetically and factually the Gypsy parents' predicament over their children's education, and gives examples of the arrangements made in the last few years to overcome their problems. (Author/JM)

  11. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  12. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of…

  13. Gypsies and American medical care.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J D

    1985-06-01

    Gypsies are a cohesive cultural group who may have difficult relations with the American medical community. There are several hundred thousand Gypsies in this country; they maintain a private society with an internal moral code and legal system. There is a strong cultural basis for obesity, tobacco use, fatty diet, and inbreeding among Gypsies. These traits predispose them to hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and occlusive vascular disease. When ill they present a striking dichotomy of primitive fears of disease process with surprising sophistication for medical terms and the workings of the hospital hierarchy. Specific recommendations are made for more effective and compassionate relations with Gypsy patients.

  14. Toward a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., introduced from Europe in the 19th century, has become ...

  15. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  16. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  17. Protein engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin: Mutations at domain II of CryIAb enhance receptor affinity and toxicity toward gypsy moth larvae

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, Francis; Alzate, Oscar; Cotrill, Jeffrey A.; Curtiss, April; Dean, Donald H.

    1996-01-01

    Substitutions or deletions of domain II loop residues of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin CryIAb were constructed using site-directed mutagenesis techniques to investigate their functional roles in receptor binding and toxicity toward gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Substitution of loop 2 residue N372 with Ala or Gly (N372A, N372G) increased the toxicity against gypsy moth larvae 8-fold and enhanced binding affinity to gypsy moth midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) ≈4-fold. Deletion of N372 (D3), however, substantially reduced toxicity (>21 times) as well as binding affinity, suggesting that residue N372 is involved in receptor binding. Interestingly, a triple mutant, DF-1 (N372A, A282G and L283S), has a 36-fold increase in toxicity to gypsy moth neonates compared with wild-type toxin. The enhanced activity of DF-1 was correlated with higher binding affinity (18-fold) and binding site concentrations. Dissociation binding assays suggested that the off-rate of the BBMV-bound mutant toxins was similar to that of the wild type. However, DF-1 toxin bound 4 times more than the wild-type and N372A toxins, and it was directly correlated with binding affinity and potency. Protein blots of gypsy moth BBMV probed with labeled N372A, DF-1, and CryIAb toxins recognized a common 210-kDa protein, indicating that the increased activity of the mutants was not caused by binding to additional receptor(s). The improved binding affinity of N372A and DF-1 suggest that a shorter side chain at these loops may fit the toxin more efficiently to the binding pockets. These results offer an excellent model system for engineering δ-endotoxins with higher potency and wider spectra of target pests by improving receptor binding interactions. PMID:8962052

  18. Portland's Gypsies See School in Their Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Yvonne Michie

    1980-01-01

    Gypsy children have been disadvantaged in education by poor attendance and parental attitudes toward education and child rearing. The Portland Schools' Gypsy Education Project attempts the gradual mainstreaming of Gypsies into regular classrooms through special group instruction within a normal elementary school environment. (SK)

  19. Everyday Drama: Impression Management of Urban Gypsies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes the adaptation of Gypsies to urban contexts through "performances" (such as "passing" as a non-Gypsy, playing up stereotypes, and enacting the role of fortune teller). Reports that a Gypsy's survival depends on knowing which performance role to enact to which audience in which setting. (KH)

  20. Children of Minorities: Gypsies. Innocenti Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costarelli, Sandro, Ed.

    The case of the Gypsies provides a clear example of a minority group suffering especially severe discrimination. In the majority of European countries, access to basic services is extremely limited for Gypsies, with serious results for the health and education of Gypsy children. This publication originated in a 2-day UNICEF workshop,"Growing…

  1. Circumpolar variation in periodicity and synchrony among gypsy moth populations

    Treesearch

    Derek M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjornstad; Michael L. Mcmanus; Michael L. Mcmanus

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies or insect dynamics have detected spatial synchrony in intraspecific population dynamics up to, but not exceeding, 1000 km. Oddly, interspecific synchrony has recently been reported at distances well over 1000 km (at continental and circumpolar scales). While the authors implicated climatic effects as the cause for the apparent largescale interspecific...

  2. Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States

    Treesearch

    Stefanie L. Whitmire; Patrick C. Tobin

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Exotic invasive species are a mounting threat to native biodiversity, and their effects are gaining more public attention as each new species is detected. Equally important are the dynamics of exotic invasives that are previously well established. While the literature reports many examples of the ability of a newly arrived exotic invader to persist prior to...

  3. Demonstration of the gypsy moth energy budget microclimate model

    Treesearch

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; W. E. Wallner

    1991-01-01

    The use of a "User friendly" version of "GMMICRO" model to quantify the local environment and resulting core temperature of GM larvae under different conditions of canopy defoliation, different forest sites, and different weather conditions was demonstrated.

  4. Symposium on microbial control of spruce budworm and gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    F. B. Lewis

    1985-01-01

    The principal purpose of this Symposium is to take advantage of the CANUSA experience, which has engaged so many of us recently, to share and place in the context of our total experience, the current situation regarding microbial insecticides and their use. The exercise will be useful not only for information exchange ? the traditional purpose of symposia -- but also...

  5. DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

  6. Pheromone-trapping the nun moth, Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Guo-Fa; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Xue, Qi; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Qing-He

    2017-08-01

    The nun moth, Lymantria monacha L., is one of the most important defoliators of Eurasian coniferous forests. Outbreaks during 2011-2015 in the natural/planted larch, and larch-birch mixed forests of the Greater Khingan Range in Inner Mongolia, China, caused tremendous timber losses from severe defoliation and tree mortality. A series of trapping experiments were conducted in these outbreak areas to evaluate the efficacy of a synthetic species-specific pheromone lure based on the female pheromone blend of European nun moth populations. Our results clearly show that the nun moth in Inner Mongolia is highly and specifically attracted to this synthetic pheromone, with few gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) captured. Flight activity monitoring of L. monacha male moths using pheromone-baited Unitraps at 2 locations during the summer of 2015 indicated that the flight period started in mid-July, peaking in early August at both locations. Based on male moth captures, there was a strong diurnal rhythm of flight activity throughout the entire scotophase, peaking between 22:00 and 24:00. Unitraps and wing traps had significantly and surprisingly higher catches than the gypsy moth traps. Unitraps fastened to tree trunks 2 m above ground caught significantly more male moths than those at the ground level or at 5 m height. Male L. monacha moths can be attracted to pheromone-baited traps in open areas 150-200 m distant from the infested forest edge. Our data should allow improvement on the performance of pheromone-baited traps for monitoring or mass-trapping to combat outbreaks of this pest in northeastern China. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  8. Gypsy Education: At the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses the largely unsatisfied need for education among Gypsy children in England, notes the government's lack of action in the area, discusses the unique problems of mobile families, and urges the development of a clear national vision for the problem. (CL)

  9. Including Gypsy Travellers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynned; Stead, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and…

  10. Gypsies' response to road traffic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, I. D.; Raw, G. J.; Hill, C. A.; Storrar, J. M.

    1985-07-01

    A survey was carried out at 11 gypsy sites, in order to determine the extent to which gypsies are bothered by road traffic noise. Interviews were obtained with 149 gypsies, providing data on noise bother and satisfaction with other aspects of the sites. Noise measurements were carried out at each site, providing values of 18 hr L eq dB(A). The hypothesis, that gypsies would be less bothered by road traffic noise than the settled population, was based on consideration of the importance of the road in gypsies' lives, and on a small pilot study. This hypothesis was supported. In addition, there was no indication that noise bother was correlated with noise level. From a closer inspection of this result, a further hypothesis has been developed, that gypsies living in caravans may tend to migrate to sites at which the noise level is acceptable in the context of other site features.

  11. Molecular structure of a gypsy element of Drosophila subobscura (gypsyDs) constituting a degenerate form of insect retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Alberola, T M; de Frutos, R

    1996-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a 7.5 kb full-size gypsy element from Drosophila subobscura strain H-271. Comparative analyses were carried out on the sequence and molecular structure of gypsy elements of D.subobscura (gypsyDs), D.melanogaster (gypsyDm) and D.virilis (gypsyDv). The three elements show a structure that maintains a common mechanism of expression. ORF1 and ORF2 show typical motifs of gag and pol genes respectively in the three gypsy elements and could encode functional proteins necessary for intracellular expansion. In the three ORF1 proteins an arginine-rich region was found which could constitute a RNA binding motif. The main differences among the gypsy elements are found in ORF3 (env-like gene); gypsyDm encodes functional env proteins, whereas gypsyDs and gypsyDv ORF3s lack some motifs essential for functionality of this protein. On the basis of these results, while gypsyDm is the first insect retrovirus described, gypsyDs and gypsyDv could constitute degenerate forms of these retroviruses. In this context, we have found some evidence that gypsyDm could have recently infected some D.subobscura strains. Comparative analyses of divergence and phylogenetic relationships of gypsy elements indicate that the gypsy elements belonging to species of different subgenera (gypsyDs and gypsyDv) are closer than gypsy elements of species belonging to the same subgenus (gypsyDs and gypsyDm). These data are congruent with horizontal transfer of gypsy elements among different Drosophila spp. PMID:8600460

  12. Sexual culture of gypsy population.

    PubMed

    Semerdjieva, M; Mateva, N; Dimitrov, I

    1998-01-01

    The number of the gypsy population in Bulgaria has increased with 85,419 persons for the period 1965-1992 that is higher than the prognosis made about a mean rate of increase of 2000 persons per year. The aim of the present study was to describe demographic changes and main problems of intrafamily planning of this population. The primary information was collected by the method of indirect individual inquiry as the opinion of 495 gypsy women at reproductive age was studied. Sexual behaviour of this ethnic group was analysed with the needs and social, economical and cultural status. The results have revealed particular patterns of the sexual behaviour about the beginning of early sexual relationships, use of modern contraceptive methods, number of abortions, etc. It should be noted that only about 61% from the gypsy women use any kind of contraceptive measures but irregularly. The mean number of abortions per woman was 2.41 and about 33% of women had undergone 3 and more abortions-on-demand. The low level of sexual culture and the lack of knowledge about the methods of contraception have led to early first births, high proportion of abortions-on-demand and high rate of increase of the population among gypsies. This may be explained by the life-style traditions of this ethnic group and their intention to the multi-child model of the family. We must emphasize the lack of modern information system for early warning, publicity and formation of sexual habits of this population.

  13. Gypsy Ethnicity and the Social Contexts of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Carol

    Gypsy music is an example of the way Gypsies absorb and relate to the culture in which they live. The music that Gypsies play has two social dimensions. In the exoteric dimension, "folk" music performed by paid Gypsy musicians varies as to its rhythm, style, and content from country to country, year to year, person to person. Their…

  14. Gypsy Children, Space, and the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin P.; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on data generated from a 3-1/2-year ethnographic study of the interface between Gypsy culture and the educational system in England. The evidence suggests that Gypsy children have distinctive spatial orientations that are embedded in their own culture and life experience. These relate to issues revolving around degrees of…

  15. Gypsy Children, Space, and the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin P.; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on data generated from a 3-1/2-year ethnographic study of the interface between Gypsy culture and the educational system in England. The evidence suggests that Gypsy children have distinctive spatial orientations that are embedded in their own culture and life experience. These relate to issues revolving around degrees of…

  16. Gypsies and Jews under the Nazis.

    PubMed

    Lewy, G

    1999-01-01

    This article compares the fate of the Gypsies under the Third Reich to that of the Jews, arguing that, despite parallels, the treatment each group underwent differed fundamentally. The Nazis never formulated a plan for a "Final Solution" to the Gypsy problem analogous to that for the Jews. Compulsory sterilization affected only a relatively small portion of the Gypsy population, and killings that did take place were carried out to achieve Nazi solutions to specific local situations. Numerous sources, especially recently discovered local police files, show that large numbers of "racially pure" and "socially adjusted" Gypsies were exempted from deportation to the Gypsy family camp in Auschwitz and were allowed to survive the war.

  17. Mutation History of the Roma/Gypsies

    PubMed Central

    Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmár, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; de Pablo, Rosario; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-01-01

    The 8–10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of written records, has to be inferred from current genetic data. In this study, we have used five disease loci harboring private Gypsy mutations to examine some missing historical parameters and current structure. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the five mutations in 832–1,363 unrelated controls, representing 14 Gypsy populations, and the diversification of chromosomal haplotypes in 501 members of affected families. Sharing of mutations and high carrier rates supported a strong founder effect, and the identity of the congenital myasthenia 1267delG mutation in Gypsy and Indian/Pakistani chromosomes provided the best evidence yet of the Indian origins of the Gypsies. However, dramatic differences in mutation frequencies and haplotype divergence and very limited haplotype sharing pointed to strong internal differentiation and characterized the Gypsies as a founder population comprising multiple subisolates. Using disease haplotype coalescence times at the different loci, we estimated that the entire Gypsy population was founded ∼32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring ∼16–25 generations ago. The existence of multiple subisolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease. PMID:15322984

  18. Mutation history of the roma/gypsies.

    PubMed

    Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmuller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmar, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; de Pablo, Rosario; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-10-01

    The 8-10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of written records, has to be inferred from current genetic data. In this study, we have used five disease loci harboring private Gypsy mutations to examine some missing historical parameters and current structure. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the five mutations in 832-1,363 unrelated controls, representing 14 Gypsy populations, and the diversification of chromosomal haplotypes in 501 members of affected families. Sharing of mutations and high carrier rates supported a strong founder effect, and the identity of the congenital myasthenia 1267delG mutation in Gypsy and Indian/Pakistani chromosomes provided the best evidence yet of the Indian origins of the Gypsies. However, dramatic differences in mutation frequencies and haplotype divergence and very limited haplotype sharing pointed to strong internal differentiation and characterized the Gypsies as a founder population comprising multiple subisolates. Using disease haplotype coalescence times at the different loci, we estimated that the entire Gypsy population was founded approximately 32-40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16-25 generations ago. The existence of multiple subisolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease.

  19. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens

    1982-01-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  20. Browntail Moth Pest Alert

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service; Maine Forest Service; National Park Service

    2002-01-01

    The browntail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, a native of Europe, was first found in North America in Somerville, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1897. The lack of natural control agents contributed to its rapid spread throughout the Northeast. By 1915, the moth's range included most of the area east of the Connecticut River and as far north as Nova Scotia....

  1. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Harry O. III Yates; Nell A. Overgaard; Thomas W. Koerber

    1981-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock),4 is a major forest insect pest in the United States. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. It was found in San Diego County, California, in 1971 and traced to infested pine seedlings shipped from Georgia in 1967. The moth has since spread north and east in California and is now...

  2. The flaming gypsy skirt injury.

    PubMed

    Leong, S C L; Emecheta, I E; James, M I

    2007-01-01

    On review of admissions over a 12-month period, we noted a significant number of women presenting with gypsy skirt burns. We describe all six cases to highlight the unique distribution of the wounds and the circumstances in which the accidents occurred. Four skirts were ignited by open fire heaters: two skirts ignited whilst the women were standing nearby, distracted with a telephone conversation; one brushed over the flame as she was walking past the heater; other whilst dancing in the lounge. One skirt was ignited by decorative candles placed on the floor during a social gathering. Another skirt was set alight by cigarette ember, whilst smoking in the toilet. Percentage surface area burned, estimated according to the rule of nines, showed that gypsy skirt burns were significant ranging from 7 to 14% total body surface area (TBSA) and averaging 9% TBSA. Two patients required allogenic split-skin grafts. Common sense care with proximity to naked flame is all that is needed to prevent this injury.

  3. Teaching Gypsy Children in Hungarian Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1980-01-01

    Problems of serving Gypsy children in Hungarian schools are ascribed to the children's disadvantaged background. Examples of corrective measures suggested by the Ministry of Public Instruction are reviewed, as well as specific activities developed by teachers. (Author/CL)

  4. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  5. Education and Gypsies/Travellers: "Contradictions and Significant Silences"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; McCluskey, Gillean

    2008-01-01

    For centuries there have been strong tensions between Gypsy/Traveller communities and their nation states. Today, discrimination against Gypsies/Travellers in the UK is still so widespread that it has been described as the last "respectable" form of racism. The paper argues that the experiences of Gypsies/Travellers, as they come into…

  6. Rom (Gypsy), Merime, and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Albert W.; Elsasser, Nan

    1981-01-01

    A high percentage of Rom (Gypsy) families do not send their children to school. Most Rom in the United States are illiterate. Rom families believe that from the viewpoint of their culture, formal education is a destructive force. The strictures that govern their everyday lives influence standards of personal cleanliness, food preparation, sex…

  7. Roma, Gypsies, Travellers. Revised Edition. Collection Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegeois, Jean-Pierre

    In Europe, prejudice and stereotyping of Gypsies and Travellers often result in the failure of measures aimed at helping this group. This book resulted from a request of the Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe to the Council of Europe to prepare teacher information packs on the history, culture, and family life of nomadic…

  8. The Forgotten Holocaust of the Gypsies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrnauer, Gabrielle

    1991-01-01

    Traces the systematic murder of 250,000-500,000 Gypsies by the Nazis in the 1930s. Concludes little scholarship has been completed on this incident. States that files documenting the systematic extermination of these people on the grounds of Nazi claims to national security, genetic health, racial purity, and crime prevention are now available at…

  9. School and Ethnicity: The Case of Gypsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enguita, Mariano F.

    2004-01-01

    The schooling of Gypsy children has become a major challenge for the Spanish educational system. After centuries of, first, exclusion and then segregation in separate schools, an egalitarian policy and a sudden enforcement of compulsory schooling have resulted in difficulties and conflicts in numerous Spanish schools. The specificity of the Gypsy…

  10. Roma, Gypsies, Travellers. Revised Edition. Collection Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegeois, Jean-Pierre

    In Europe, prejudice and stereotyping of Gypsies and Travellers often result in the failure of measures aimed at helping this group. This book resulted from a request of the Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe to the Council of Europe to prepare teacher information packs on the history, culture, and family life of nomadic…

  11. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  12. Voices in the "Gypsy Developmental Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalueza, Jose Luis; Crespo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this article is, What are the hegemonic models of man and woman that educational practices are orientated toward in gypsy communities (models that are often in conflict with mainstream schooling institution's models of socialization)? We do not find the collectivism/individualism approach for explaining socialization in…

  13. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  14. School and Ethnicity: The Case of Gypsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enguita, Mariano F.

    2004-01-01

    The schooling of Gypsy children has become a major challenge for the Spanish educational system. After centuries of, first, exclusion and then segregation in separate schools, an egalitarian policy and a sudden enforcement of compulsory schooling have resulted in difficulties and conflicts in numerous Spanish schools. The specificity of the Gypsy…

  15. The Forgotten Holocaust of the Gypsies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrnauer, Gabrielle

    1991-01-01

    Traces the systematic murder of 250,000-500,000 Gypsies by the Nazis in the 1930s. Concludes little scholarship has been completed on this incident. States that files documenting the systematic extermination of these people on the grounds of Nazi claims to national security, genetic health, racial purity, and crime prevention are now available at…

  16. Banded Sunflower Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is an important insect pest of cultivated sunflower. Eggs are deposited on the bracts of sunflower heads. Larvae develop through five instars within the heads and are present in fields from mid-July to mid-September. Larvae feed initially on the...

  17. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  18. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  19. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  20. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.