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Sample records for gyrus ca3 ca1

  1. Synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex of mice: effects of deprived rearing and voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  2. Synaptic Remodeling in the Dentate Gyrus, CA3, CA1, Subiculum, and Entorhinal Cortex of Mice: Effects of Deprived Rearing and Voluntary Running

    PubMed Central

    Schaefers, Andrea T. U.; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils. PMID:20508828

  3. Regional differences in GABAergic modulation for TEA-induced synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuko; Okada, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a K(+)-channel blocker, reportedly induces long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA1 synaptic responses, but at CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG), the characteristics of TEA-induced plasticity and modulation by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. This study recorded field EPSPs from CA1, CA3 and DG to examine the involvement of GABAergic modulation in TEA-induced synaptic plasticity for each region. In Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses and associational fiber (AF)-CA3 synapses, bath application of TEA-induced LTP in the presence and absence of picrotoxin (PTX), a GABA(A) receptor blocker, whereas TEA-induced LTP at mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses was detected only in the absence of GABA(A) receptor blockers. MF-CA3 LTP showed sensitivity to Ni(2+), but not to nifedipine. In DG, synaptic plasticity was modulated by GABAergic inputs, but characteristics differed between the afferent lateral perforant path (LPP) and medial perforant path (MPP). LPP-DG synapses showed TEA-induced LTP during PTX application, whereas at MPP-DG synapses, TEA-induced long-term depression (LTD) was seen in the absence of PTX. This series of results demonstrates that TEA-induced DG and CA3 plasticity displays afferent specificity and is exposed to GABAergic modulation in an opposite manner.

  4. Prenatal Nicotine and Maternal Deprivation Stress De-Regulate the Development of CA1, CA3, and Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Hippocampus of Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse experiences by the developing fetus and in early childhood are associated with profound effects on learning, emotional behavior, and cognition as a whole. In this study we investigated the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (NIC), postnatal maternal deprivation (MD) or the combination of the two (NIC+MD) to determine if hippocampal neuron development is modulated by exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stress. Growth of rat offspring exposed to MD alone or NIC+MD was repressed until after weaning. In CA1 but not CA3 of postnatal day 14 (P14) pups, MD increased pyramidal neurons, however, in dentate gyrus (DG), decreased granule neurons. NIC had no effect on neuron number in CA1, CA3 or DG. Unexpectedly, NIC plus MD combined caused a synergistic increase in the number of CA1 or CA3 neurons. Neuron density in CA regions was unaffected by treatment, but in the DG, granule neurons had a looser packing density after NIC, MD or NIC+MD exposure. When septotemporal axes were analyzed, the synergism of stress and drug exposure in CA1 and CA3 was associated with rostral, whereas MD effects were predominantly associated with caudal neurons. TUNEL labeling suggests no active apoptosis at P14, and doublecortin positive neurons and mossy fibers were diminished in NIC+MD relative to controls. The laterality of the effect of nicotine and/or maternal deprivation in right versus left hippocampus was also analyzed and found to be insiginificant. We report for the first time that early life stressors such as postnatal MD and prenatal NIC exposure, when combined, may exhibit synergistic consequences for CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron development, and a potential antagonistic influence on developing DG neurons. These results suggest that early stressors may modulate neurogenesis, apoptosis, or maturation of glutamatergic neurons in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner during critical periods of neurodevelopment. PMID:23785432

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein and neuropeptide Y decline as early as middle age in the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S; Shetty, Geetha A; Shetty, Ashok K

    2005-10-01

    The hippocampus is very susceptible to aging. Severely diminished dentate neurogenesis at middle age is one of the most conspicuous early changes in the aging hippocampus, which is likely linked to an early decline in the concentration of neurotrophic factors and signaling proteins that influence neurogenesis. We analyzed three proteins that are well-known to promote dentate neurogenesis and learning and memory function in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields of young, middle-aged and aged F344 rats. These include the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the transcription factor phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) and the neuropeptide neuropeptide Y (NPY). The BDNF was analyzed via ELISA and BDNF immunohistochemistry, the p-CREB through densitometric analysis of p-CREB immunopositive cells, and the NPY via stereological counting of NPY-immunopositive interneurons. We provide new evidence that the BDNF concentration, the p-CREB immunoreactivity and the number of NPY immunopositive interneurons decline considerably by middle age in both dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus. However, both BDNF concentration and NPY immunopositive interneuron numbers exhibit no significant decrease between middle age and old age. In contrast, the p-CREB immunoreactivity diminishes further during this period, which is also associated with reduced BDNF immunoreaction within the soma of dentate granule cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Collectively, these results suggest that severely dampened dentate neurogenesis observed at middle age is linked at least partially to reduced concentrations of BDNF, p-CREB and NPY, as each of these proteins is a positive regulator of dentate neurogenesis. Dramatically diminished CREB phosphorylation (and persistently reduced levels of BDNF and NPY) at old age may underlie the learning and memory impairments observed during senescence.

  6. The CA3 “Backprojection” to the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is typically described in the context of the trisynaptic circuit, a pathway that relays information from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus, dentate to area CA3, and CA3 to area CA1. Associated with this concept is the assumption that most hippocampal information processing occurs along the trisynaptic circuit. However, the entorhinal cortex may not be the only major extrinsic input to consider, and the trisynaptic circuit may not be the only way information is processed in hippocampus. Area CA3 receives input from a variety of sources, and may be as much of an “entry point” to hippocampus as the dentate gyrus. The axon of CA3 pyramidal cells targets diverse cell types, and has commissural projections, which together make it able to send information to much more of the hippocampus than granule cells. Therefore, CA3 pyramidal cells seem better designed to spread information through hippocampus than the granule cells. From this perspective, CA3 may be a point of entry that receives information which needs to be “broadcasted,” whereas the dentate gyrus may be a point of entry that receives information with more selective needs for hippocampal processing. One aspect of the argument that CA3 pyramidal cells have a widespread projection is based on a part of its axonal arbor that has received relatively little attention, the collaterals that project in the opposite direction to the trisynaptic circuit, “back” to the dentate gyrus. The evidence for this “backprojection” to the dentate gyrus is strong, particularly in area CA3c, the region closest to the dentate gyrus, and in temporal hippocampus. The influence on granule cells is indirect, through hilar mossy cells and GABAergic neurons of the dentate gyrus, and appears to include direct projections in the case of CA3c pyramidal cells of ventral hippocampus. Physiological studies suggest that normally area CA3 does not have a robust excitatory influence on granule cells, but serves

  7. The CA3 "backprojection" to the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampus is typically described in the context of the trisynaptic circuit, a pathway that relays information from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus, dentate to area CA3, and CA3 to area CA1. Associated with this concept is the assumption that most hippocampal information processing occurs along the trisynaptic circuit. However, the entorhinal cortex may not be the only major extrinsic input to consider, and the trisynaptic circuit may not be the only way information is processed in hippocampus. Area CA3 receives input from a variety of sources, and may be as much of an "entry point" to hippocampus as the dentate gyrus. The axon of CA3 pyramidal cells targets diverse cell types, and has commissural projections, which together make it able to send information to much more of the hippocampus than granule cells. Therefore, CA3 pyramidal cells seem better designed to spread information through hippocampus than the granule cells. From this perspective, CA3 may be a point of entry that receives information which needs to be "broadcasted," whereas the dentate gyrus may be a point of entry that receives information with more selective needs for hippocampal processing. One aspect of the argument that CA3 pyramidal cells have a widespread projection is based on a part of its axonal arbor that has received relatively little attention, the collaterals that project in the opposite direction to the trisynaptic circuit, "back" to the dentate gyrus. The evidence for this "backprojection" to the dentate gyrus is strong, particularly in area CA3c, the region closest to the dentate gyrus, and in temporal hippocampus. The influence on granule cells is indirect, through hilar mossy cells and GABAergic neurons of the dentate gyrus, and appears to include direct projections in the case of CA3c pyramidal cells of ventral hippocampus. Physiological studies suggest that normally area CA3 does not have a robust excitatory influence on granule cells, but serves instead to inhibit

  8. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit.

    PubMed

    Prince, Luke Y; Bacon, Travis J; Tigaret, Cezar M; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

  9. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Luke Y.; Bacon, Travis J.; Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval. PMID:27799909

  10. Differential properties of dentate gyrus and CA1 neural precursors.

    PubMed

    Becq, H; Jorquera, I; Ben-Ari, Y; Weiss, S; Represa, A

    2005-02-05

    In the present article we investigated the properties of CA1 and dentate gyrus cell precursors in adult rodents both in vivo and in vitro. Cell proliferation in situ was investigated by rating the number of cells incorporating BrdU after kainate-induced seizures. CA1 precursors displayed a greater proliferation capacity than dentate gyrus precursors. The majority of BrdU-labeled cells in CA1 expressed Nestin and Mash-1, two markers of neural precursors. BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus expressed Nestin, but only a few expressed Mash-1. In animals pretreated with the antimitotic azacytidine, the capacity of kainate to enhance the proliferation was higher in CA1 than in the dentate gyrus. Differences in intrinsic progenitor cell activity could underlie these different expansion capacities. Thus, we compared the renewal- expansion and multipotency of dentate gyrus and CA1 precursors isolated in vitro. We found that the dissected CA1 region, including the periventricular zone, is enriched in neurosphere-forming cells (presumed stem cells), which respond to either EGF or FGF-2. Dentate gyrus contains fewer neurosphere-forming cells and none that respond to FGF-2 alone. Neurospheres generated from CA1 were multipotent and produced neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, while dentate gyrus neurospheres mostly produced glial cells. The analysis of the effects of EGF on organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices depicted similar features: BrdU and Nestin immunoreactivities increased after EGF treatment in CA1 but not in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that CA1 precursors are more stem-cell-like than granule cell precursors, which may represent a more restricted precursor cell.

  11. Altered Network Timing in the CA3-CA1 Circuit of Hippocampal Slices from Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanak, Daniel J.; Rose, Gregory M.; Zaveri, Hitten P.; Patrylo, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Network patterns are believed to provide unique temporal contexts for coordinating neuronal activity within and across different regions of the brain. Some of the characteristics of network patterns modeled in vitro are altered in the CA3 or CA1 subregions of hippocampal slices from aged mice. CA3CA1 network interactions have not been examined previously. We used slices from aged and adult mice to model spontaneous sharp wave ripples and carbachol-induced gamma oscillations, and compared measures of CA3CA1 network timing between age groups. Coherent sharp wave ripples and gamma oscillations were evident in the CA3CA1 circuit in both age groups, but the relative timing of activity in CA1 stratum pyramidale was delayed in the aged. In another sample of aged slices, evoked Schaffer collateral responses were attenuated in CA3 (antidromic spike amplitude) and CA1 (orthodromic field EPSP slope). However, the amplitude and timing of spontaneous sharp waves recorded in CA1 stratum radiatum were similar to adults. In both age groups unit activity recorded juxtacellularly from unidentified neurons in CA1 stratum pyramidale and stratum oriens was temporally modulated by CA3 ripples. However, aged neurons exhibited reduced spike probability during the early cycles of the CA3 ripple oscillation. These findings suggest that aging disrupts the coordination of patterned activity in the CA3CA1 circuit. PMID:23593474

  12. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  13. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  14. Topographic specificity of functional connections from hippocampal CA3 to CA1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivanlou, Iman H.; Dantzker, Jami L. M.; Stevens, Charles F.; Callaway, Edward M.

    2004-02-01

    The hippocampus is a cortical region thought to play an important role in learning and memory. Most of our knowledge about the detailed organization of hippocampal circuitry responsible for these functions is derived from anatomical studies. These studies present an incomplete picture, however, because the functional character and importance of connections are often not revealed by anatomy. Here, we used a physiological method (photostimulation with caged glutamate) to probe the fine pattern of functional connectivity between the CA3 and CA1 subfields in the mouse hippocampal slice preparation. We recorded intracellularly from CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons while scanning with photostimulation across the entire CA3 subfield with high spatial resolution. Our results show that, at a given septotemporal level, nearby CA1 neurons receive synaptic inputs from neighboring CA3 neurons. Thus, the CA3 to CA1 mapping preserves neighbor relations.

  15. Differential behavioral state-dependence in the burst properties of CA3 and CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Tropp Sneider, J; Chrobak, J J; Quirk, M C; Oler, J A; Markus, E J

    2006-09-15

    Brief bursts of fast high-frequency action potentials are a signature characteristic of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons. Understanding the factors determining burst and single spiking is potentially significant for sensory representation, synaptic plasticity and epileptogenesis. A variety of models suggest distinct functional roles for burst discharge, and for specific characteristics of the burst in neural coding. However, little in vivo data demonstrate how often and under what conditions CA3 and CA1 actually exhibit burst and single spike discharges. The present study examined burst discharge and single spiking of CA3 and CA1 neurons across distinct behavioral states (awake-immobility and maze-running) in rats. In both CA3 and CA1 spike bursts accounted for less than 20% of all spike events. CA3 neurons exhibited more spikes per burst, greater spike frequency, larger amplitude spikes and more spike amplitude attenuation than CA1 neurons. A major finding of the present study is that the propensity of CA1 neurons to burst was affected by behavioral state, while the propensity of CA3 to burst was not. CA1 neurons exhibited fewer bursts during maze running compared with awake-immobility. In contrast, there were no differences in burst discharge of CA3 neurons. Neurons in both subregions exhibited smaller spike amplitude, fewer spikes per burst, longer inter-spike intervals and greater spike amplitude attenuation within a burst during awake-immobility compared with maze running. These findings demonstrate that the CA1 network is under greater behavioral state-dependent regulation than CA3. The present findings should inform both theoretic and computational models of CA3 and CA1 function.

  16. Neural Signals Related to Outcome Evaluation Are Stronger in CA1 than CA3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hyun; Huh, Namjung; Lee, Jong Won; Ghim, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Inah; Jung, Min W

    2017-01-01

    We have shown previously that CA1 conveys significant neural signals necessary to update value of the chosen target, namely chosen value and reward signals. To better understand hippocampal neural processes related to valuation, we compared chosen value- and reward-related neural activity between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Single units were recorded with tetrodes from the dorsal CA3 and CA1 regions of rats performing a dynamic foraging task, and chosen value- and reward-related neural activity was estimated using a reinforcement learning model and multiple regression analyses. Neural signals for chosen value and reward converged in both CA3 and CA1 when a trial outcome was revealed. However, these neural signals were stronger in CA1 than CA3. Consequently, neural signals for reward prediction error and updated chosen value were stronger in CA1 than CA3. Together with our previous finding that CA1 conveys stronger value signals than the subiculum, our results raise the possibility that CA1 might play a particularly important role among hippocampal subregions in evaluating experienced events.

  17. Dissociated signals in human dentate gyrus and CA3 predict different facets of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Watabe, Joseph; Ly, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    A wealth of evidence has implicated the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe cortices in support of recognition memory. However, the roles of the various subfields of the hippocampus are poorly understood. In this study, we concurrently varied stimulus familiarization and repetition to engage different facets of recognition memory. Using high-resolution fMRI (1.5 mm isotropic), we observed distinct familiarity and repetition-related recognition signal profiles in the dentate gyrus (DG)/CA3 subfield in human subjects. The DG/CA3 demonstrated robust response suppression with repetition and familiarity-related facilitation. Both of these discrete responses were predictive of different aspects of behavioral performance. Consistent with previous work, we observed novelty responses in CA1 consistent with "match/mismatch detection," as well as mixed recognition signaling distributed across medial temporal lobe cortices. Additional analyses indicated that the repetition and familiarity-related signals in the DG/CA3 were strikingly dissociated along the hippocampal longitudinal axis and that activity in the posterior hippocampus was strongly correlated with the retrosplenial cortex. These data provide novel insight into the roles of hippocampal subfields in support of recognition memory and further provide evidence of a functional heterogeneity in the human DG/CA3, particularly along the longitudinal axis.

  18. Modulation of LTP at rat hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses by direct current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, F; Podda, M V; Riccardi, E; Frisullo, G; Dileone, M; Profice, P; Pilato, F; Di Lazzaro, V; Grassi, C

    2012-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can produce a lasting polarity-specific modulation of cortical excitability in the brain, and it is increasingly used in experimental and clinical settings. Recent studies suggest that the after-effects of tDCS are related to molecular mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here we investigated the effect of DCS on the induction of one of the most studied N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-dependent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. We show that DCS applied to rat brain slices determines a modulation of LTP that is increased by anodal and reduced by cathodal DCS. Immediate early genes, such as c-fos and zif268 (egr1/NGFI-A/krox24), are rapidly induced following neuronal activation, and a specific role of zif268 in the induction and maintenance of LTP has been demonstrated. We found that both anodal and cathodal DCS produce a marked subregion-specific increase in the expression of zif268 protein in the cornus ammonis (CA) region, whereas the same protocols of stimulation produce a less pronounced increase in c-fos protein expression in the CA and in dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression was also investigated, and it was found to be reduced in cathodal-stimulated slices. The present data demonstrate that it is possible to modulate LTP by using DCS and provide the rationale for the use of DCS in neurological diseases to promote the adaptive and suppress the maladaptive forms of brain plasticity.

  19. Entorhinal theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus trisynaptically evokes hippocampal CA1 LTP

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Fenzl, Thomas; Polta, Stephanie A.; von Wolff, Gregor; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Eder, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    There exists substantial evidence that some forms of explicit learning in mammals require long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. While CA1 LTP has been well characterized at the monosynaptic level, it still remains unclear how the afferent systems to the hippocampus can initiate formation of this neuroplastic phenomenon. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in a mouse brain slice preparation, we show that evoked entorhinal cortical (EC) theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus highly effectively generates waves of neuronal activity which propagate through the entire trisynaptic circuit of the hippocampus (“HTC-Waves”). This flow of activity, which we also demonstrate in vivo, critically depends on frequency facilitation of mossy fiber to CA3 synaptic transmission. The HTC-Waves are rapidly boosted by the cognitive enhancer caffeine (5 μM) and the stress hormone corticosterone (100 nM). They precisely follow the rhythm of the EC input, involve high-frequency firing (>100 Hz) of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and induce NMDA receptor-dependent CA1 LTP within a few seconds. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that synchronous theta-rhythmical spiking of EC stellate cells, as occurring during EC theta oscillations, has the capacity to drive induction of CA1 LTP via the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway. Moreover, we present data pointing to a basic filter mechanism of the hippocampus regarding EC inputs and describe a methodology to reveal alterations in the “input–output relationship” of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. PMID:22988432

  20. Progressive alterations of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in an animal model of depression.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui; An, Shu-Cheng; Ren, Wei; Ma, Xin-Ming

    2014-12-15

    Major depressive disorder is the most prevalent psychiatric condition, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown, although multiple hypotheses have been proposed. The aim of this study was to characterize the progressive alteration of neuronal plasticity in the male rat hippocampus during depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), an established animal model of depression. The data in the hippocampus were collected on days 7, 14 and 21 after the onset of three-week CUMS. When analyzed on day 21, three-week CUMS induced typically depressive-like behaviors, impaired LTP induction, and decreased basal synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses recorded in vivo, which was accompanied by decreased density of dendritic spines in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. The levels of both Kalirin-7 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were decreased at the same time. On day 14 (middle phase), some depressive-like behaviors were observed, which was accompanied by depressed basal synaptic transmission and enhanced LTP induction at the CA3-CA1 synapses. However, BDNF expression was decreased without alteration of Kalirin7 expression in comparison with no-stress control. Depressed basal synaptic transmission occurred in the middle phase of CUMS may contribute to decreased expression of BDNF. On day 7, depressive-like behaviors were not observed, and LTP induction, spine density, Kalirin-7 and BDNF expression were not altered by CUMS in comparison with no-stress control. These results showed that the functional changes at CA3-CA1synapses occurred earlier than the structural alteration during three-week CUMS as a strategy of neural adaptation, and rats required three weeks to develop depressive-like behaviors during CUMS. Our results suggest an important role of Kalirin-7 in CUMS-mediated alterations in spine density, synaptic function and overall depressive-like behaviors on day 21.

  1. Convergence of entorhinal and CA3 inputs onto pyramidal neurons and interneurons in hippocampal area CA1--an anatomical study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Riichi; Wouterlood, Floris G; Sah, Anupam; Boekel, Amber J; Baks-te Bulte, Luciënne T G; Witter, Menno P

    2008-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) conveys information to hippocampal field CA1 either directly by way of projections from principal neurons in layer III, or indirectly by axons from layer II via the dentate gyrus, CA3, and Schaffer collaterals. These two pathways differentially influence activity in CA1, yet conclusive evidence is lacking whether and to what extent they converge onto single CA1 neurons. Presently we studied such convergence. Different neuroanatomical tracers injected into layer III of EC and into CA3, respectively, tagged simultaneously the direct entorhino-hippocampal fibers and the indirect innervation of CA1 neurons by Schaffer collaterals. In slices of fixed brains we intracellularly filled CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (LM) and stratum radiatum (SR). Sections of these slices were scanned in a confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D-reconstruction was used to determine whether boutons of the labeled input fibers were in contact with the intracellularly filled neurons. We analyzed 12 pyramidal neurons and 21 interneurons. Perforant path innervation to pyramidal neurons in our material was observed to be denser than that from CA3. All pyramidal neurons and 17 of the interneurons received contacts of both perforant pathway and Schaffer input on their dendrites and cell bodies. Four interneurons, which were completely embedded in LM, received only labeled perforant pathway input. Thus, we found convergence of both projection systems on single CA1 pyramidal and interneurons with dendrites that access the layers where perforant pathway fibers and Schaffer collaterals end.

  2. Implication of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the release of noradrenaline in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions under oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Milusheva, E A; Baranyi, M

    2003-11-01

    A strong linkage between adrenergic and glutamatergic systems exists in the CNS but it is still unclear whether the excessive release of noradrenaline under ischemic conditions is modulated by excitatory amino acids. We studied the effect of selective glutamate receptor antagonists on the release of [3H]noradrenaline evoked by glucose and oxygen deprivation in hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus subregions. The release of glutamate, aspartate and GABA was measured by HPLC. Omission of oxygen and glucose increased the release of [3H]noradrenaline as well as the release of amino acids. Maximum effect on noradrenaline release was observed in CA1 region. The relative increase of the release after 30 min energy deprivation (R(2)) versus the basal release under normal conditions (R(1)), i.e. the R(2)/R(1) ratio was 7.1+/-1.0, 3.87+/-0.4 and 3.26+/-0.27 for CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus, respectively. The [3H]noradrenaline outflow in response to glucose and oxygen deprivation was abolished at low temperature, but not by Ca(2+) removal, suggesting a cytoplasmic release process. In CA1 and CA3 [3H]noradrenaline release was significantly attenuated by MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist. The AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI-53784 had no effect in CA3, but partly reduced noradrenaline release in CA1. Our results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors seem to be implicated in the massive cytoplasmic release of noradrenaline in CA1 what may contribute to its selective vulnerability.

  3. Feedforward inhibition underlies the propagation of cholinergically induced gamma oscillations from hippocampal CA3 to CA1.

    PubMed

    Zemankovics, Rita; Veres, Judit M; Oren, Iris; Hájos, Norbert

    2013-07-24

    Gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations are implicated in memory processing. Such rhythmic activity can be generated intrinsically in the CA3 region of the hippocampus from where it can propagate to the CA1 area. To uncover the synaptic mechanisms underlying the intrahippocampal spread of gamma oscillations, we recorded local field potentials, as well as action potentials and synaptic currents in anatomically identified CA1 and CA3 neurons during carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in mouse hippocampal slices. The firing of the vast majority of CA1 neurons and all CA3 neurons was phase-coupled to the oscillations recorded in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region. The predominant synaptic input to CA1 interneurons was excitatory, and their discharge followed the firing of CA3 pyramidal cells at a latency indicative of monosynaptic connections. Correlation analysis of the input-output characteristics of the neurons and local pharmacological block of inhibition both agree with a model in which glutamatergic CA3 input controls the firing of CA1 interneurons, with local pyramidal cell activity having a minimal role. The firing of phase-coupled CA1 pyramidal cells was controlled principally by their inhibitory inputs, which dominated over excitation. Our results indicate that the synchronous firing of CA3 pyramidal cells rhythmically recruits CA1 interneurons and that this feedforward inhibition generates the oscillatory activity in CA1. These findings identify distinct synaptic mechanisms underlying the generation of gamma frequency oscillations in neighboring hippocampal subregions.

  4. Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Norris, Christopher M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Roberts, Kelly N; Ansari, Mubeen; Scheff, Stephen W

    2016-02-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC) is a patented mix of bioflavonoids with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we showed that PYC administration to rats within hours after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury significantly protects against the loss of several synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effects of PYC on CA3-CA1 synaptic function following CCI. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received an ipsilateral CCI injury followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of saline vehicle or PYC (10 mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from the injured (ipsilateral) and uninjured (contralateral) hemispheres were prepared at seven and fourteen days post-CCI for electrophysiological analyses of CA3-CA1 synaptic function and induction of long-term depression (LTD). Basal synaptic strength was impaired in slices from the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hemisphere at seven days post-CCI and susceptibility to LTD was enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere at both post-injury timepoints. No interhemispheric differences in basal synaptic strength or LTD induction were observed in rats treated with PYC. The results show that PYC preserves synaptic function after CCI and provides further rationale for investigating the use of PYC as a therapeutic in humans suffering from neurotrauma.

  5. Pycnogenol protects CA3-CA1 synaptic function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sompol, Pradoldej; Roberts, Kelly N.; Ansari, Mubeen

    2015-01-01

    Pycnogenol (PYC) is a patented mix of bioflavonoids with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we showed that PYC administration to rats within hours after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury significantly protects against the loss of several synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated the effects of PYC on CA3-CA1 synaptic function following CCI. Adult Sprague Dawley rats received an ipsilateral CCI injury followed 15 min later by intravenous injection of saline vehicle or PYC (10mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from the injured (ipsilateral) and uninjured (contralateral) hemispheres were prepared at seven and fourteen days post-CCI for electrophysiological analyses of CA3-CA1 synaptic function and induction of long-term depression (LTD). Basal synaptic strength was impaired in slices from the ipsilateral, relative to the contralateral, hemisphere at seven days post-CCI and susceptibility to LTD was enhanced in the ipsilateral hemisphere at both post-injury timepoints. No interhemispheric differences in basal synaptic strength or LTD induction were observed in rats treated with PYC. The results show that PYC preserves synaptic function after CCI and provides further rationale for investigating the use of PYC as a therapeutic in humans suffering from neurotrauma. PMID:26607913

  6. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-03-22

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus.

  7. Encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of contextual memory: Differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subregions

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Francés, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting as an autoassociative memory network and the CA1 area as a critical output structure. In order to understand the respective roles of the CA3- and CA1-hippocampal areas in the formation of contextual memory, we studied the effects of the reversible inactivation by lidocaine of the CA3 or CA1 areas of the dorsal hippocampus on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of a contextual fear conditioning. Whereas infusions of lidocaine never impaired elementary tone conditioning, their effects on contextual conditioning provided interesting clues about the role of these two hippocampal regions. They demonstrated first that the CA3 area is necessary for the rapid elaboration of a unified representation of the context. Secondly, they suggested that the CA1 area is rather involved in the consolidation process of contextual memory. Third, they showed that CA1 or CA3 inactivation during retention test has no effect on contextual fear retrieval when a recognition memory procedure is used. In conclusion, our findings point as evidence that CA1 and CA3 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus play important and different roles in the acquisition and consolidation of contextual fear memory, whereas they are not required for context recognition. PMID:16027176

  8. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M.; Tort, Adriano BL; Kullander, Klas

    2012-01-01

    The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types have been hampered by the lack of cell specific tools. Here we report a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining novel transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we demonstrate that OLM cells have a key role in gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). We further demonstrate that OLM cells are interconnected by gap junctions, receive direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents, and account for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus. PMID:23042082

  9. OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M; Tort, Adriano B L; Kullander, Klas

    2012-11-01

    The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types has been hampered by the lack of cell-specific tools. We identified a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we found that OLM cells are important for gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). Furthermore, we found that OLM cells were interconnected by gap junctions, received direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents and accounted for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus.

  10. Activity-dependent upregulation of presynaptic kainate receptors at immature CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Vernon R J; Molchanova, Svetlana M; Hirvonen, Teemu; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E

    2014-12-10

    Presynaptic kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) regulate glutamate release probability and short-term plasticity in various areas of the brain. Here we show that long-term depression (LTD) in the area CA1 of neonatal rodent hippocampus is associated with an upregulation of tonic inhibitory KAR activity, which contributes to synaptic depression and causes a pronounced increase in short-term facilitation of transmission. This increased KAR function was mediated by high-affinity receptors and required activation of NMDA receptors, nitric oxide (NO) synthetase, and postsynaptic calcium signaling. In contrast, KAR activity was irreversibly downregulated in response to induction of long-term potentiation in a manner that depended on activation of the TrkB-receptor of BDNF. Both tonic KAR activity and its plasticity were restricted to early stages of synapse development and were lost in parallel with maturation of the network due to ongoing BDNF-TrkB signaling. These data show that presynaptic KARs are targets for activity-dependent modulation via diffusible messengers NO and BDNF, which enhance and depress tonic KAR activity at immature synapses, respectively. The plasticity of presynaptic KARs in the developing network allows nascent synapses to shape their response to incoming activity. In particular, upregulation of KAR function after LTD allows the synapse to preferentially pass high-frequency afferent activity. This can provide a potential rescue from synapse elimination by uncorrelated activity and also increase the computational dynamics of the developing CA3-CA1 circuitry.

  11. How Informative Are Spatial CA3 Representations Established by the Dentate Gyrus?

    PubMed Central

    Cerasti, Erika; Treves, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    In the mammalian hippocampus, the dentate gyrus (DG) is characterized by sparse and powerful unidirectional projections to CA3 pyramidal cells, the so-called mossy fibers. Mossy fiber synapses appear to duplicate, in terms of the information they convey, what CA3 cells already receive from entorhinal cortex layer II cells, which project both to the dentate gyrus and to CA3. Computational models of episodic memory have hypothesized that the function of the mossy fibers is to enforce a new, well separated pattern of activity onto CA3 cells, to represent a new memory, prevailing over the interference produced by the traces of older memories already stored on CA3 recurrent collateral connections. Can this hypothesis apply also to spatial representations, as described by recent neurophysiological recordings in rats? To address this issue quantitatively, we estimate the amount of information DG can impart on a new CA3 pattern of spatial activity, using both mathematical analysis and computer simulations of a simplified model. We confirm that, also in the spatial case, the observed sparse connectivity and level of activity are most appropriate for driving memory storage – and not to initiate retrieval. Surprisingly, the model also indicates that even when DG codes just for space, much of the information it passes on to CA3 acquires a non-spatial and episodic character, akin to that of a random number generator. It is suggested that further hippocampal processing is required to make full spatial use of DG inputs. PMID:20454678

  12. The similarity of astrocytes number in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield of rats hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Y; Hosseini, A; Naghdi, N

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a part of hippocampal formation that it contains granule cells, which project to the pyramidal cells and interneurons of the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus. Astrocytes play a more active role in neuronal activity, including regulating ion flux currents, energy production, neurotransmitter release and synaptogenesis. Astrocytes are the only cells in the brain that contain the energy molecule glycogen. The close relationship between dentate gyrus and CA3 area can cause the similarity of the number of astrocytes in these areas. In this study 5 male albino wistar rats were used. Rats were housed in large plastic cage in animal house and were maintained under standard conditions, after histological processing, The 7 microm slides of the brains were stained with PTAH staining for showing the astrocytes. This staining is specialized for astrocytes. We showed that the number of astrocytes in different (ant., mid., post) parts of dentate gyrus and CA3 of hippocampus is the same. For example, the anterior parts of two area have the most number of astrocytes and the middle parts of two area have the least number of astrocytes. We concluded that dentate gyrus and CA3 area of hippocampus have the same group of astrocytes.

  13. Functional interconnections between CA3 and the dentate gyrus revealed by current source density analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, K; Canning, K J; Leung, L S

    1998-01-01

    The physiological interactions between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 were studied in urethane-anesthetized rats by using field potential recording and current source density (CSD) analysis. Stimulation of CA3b resulted in a short-latency (<2.5-ms onset latency) antidromic population spike in both the DG and CA3c. An excitation (current sink) at the middle molecular layer (MML) was observed at 3-ms latency, possibly mediated by the backfiring of perforant path fibers that projected to both DG and CA3. CA3 stimulation also resulted in a sink at the dendritic layers of CA3c, which was likely mediated by excitatory CA3 recurrent collaterals. It was inferred that the DG was excited at the inner molecular layer (IML) after stimulation near the CA3b/CA3c border. This IML excitation (sink) probably resulted from orthodromic CA3 or hilar projections to the IML and not from mossy fiber backfiring. The IML and the CA3c dendritic sinks were blocked by an intracerebroventricular injection of a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, but not by a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor antagonist, bicuculline. CA3b stimulation evoked population spike bursts (3-7-ms latency) in both DG and CA3c when GABA(A) inhibition was suppressed by bicuculline, thus confirming that the excitatory afferents project from CA3b to DG and CA3c. A CA3 conditioning stimulus pulse given 30-200 ms before a perforant-path test pulse increased the amplitude of the perforant-path-evoked DG population spike (as compared with the test response without conditioning). After a moderate-intensity stimulation of CA3, a late (<20-ms latency) excitation of the MML of the DG was found. The late DG excitation was blocked by procaine injection at the medial perforant path, suggesting its origin from the medial entorhinal cortex. In conclusion, rich interactions between CA3 and other hippocampal structures were studied quantitatively by CSD analysis in vivo. We

  14. Differential roles for hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3 in the contextual encoding and retrieval of extinguished fear

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jinzhao; Maren, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that context-specific memory retrieval after extinction requires the hippocampus. However, the contribution of hippocampal subfields to the context-dependent expression of extinction is not known. In the present experiments, we examined the roles of areas CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus in the context specificity of extinction. After pairing an auditory conditional stimulus (CS) with an aversive footshock (unconditional stimulus or US), rats received extinction sessions in which the CS was presented without the US. In Experiment 1, pretraining neurotoxic lesions in either CA1 or CA3 eliminated the context dependence of extinguished fear. In Experiment 2, lesions of CA1 or CA3 were made after extinction training. In this case, only CA1 lesions impaired the context dependence of extinction. Collectively, these results reveal that both hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3 contribute to the acquisition of context-dependent extinction, but that only area CA1 is required for contextual memory retrieval. PMID:18391185

  15. Preictal Activity of Subicular, CA1, and Dentate Gyrus Principal Neurons in the Dorsal Hippocampus before Spontaneous Seizures in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Satoshi; Toyoda, Izumi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that spontaneous seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy might be preceded by increased action potential firing of hippocampal neurons. Preictal activity is potentially important because it might provide new opportunities for predicting when a seizure is about to occur and insight into how spontaneous seizures are generated. We evaluated local field potentials and unit activity of single, putative excitatory neurons in the subiculum, CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus in epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Average action potential firing rates of neurons in the subiculum, CA1, and dentate gyrus, but not CA3, increased significantly and progressively beginning 2–4 min before locally recorded spontaneous seizures. In the subiculum, CA1, and dentate gyrus, but not CA3, 41–57% of neurons displayed increased preictal activity with significant consistency across multiple seizures. Much of the increased preictal firing of neurons in the subiculum and CA1 correlated with preictal theta activity, whereas preictal firing of neurons in the dentate gyrus was independent of theta. In addition, some CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons displayed reduced firing rates preictally. These results reveal that different hippocampal subregions exhibit differences in the extent and potential underlying mechanisms of preictal activity. The finding of robust and significantly consistent preictal activity of subicular, CA1, and dentate neurons in the dorsal hippocampus, despite the likelihood that many seizures initiated in other brain regions, suggests the existence of a broader neuronal network whose activity changes minutes before spontaneous seizures initiate. PMID:25505320

  16. Memory-guided learning: CA1 and CA3 neuronal ensembles differentially encode the commonalities and differences between situations.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Amir S; Shirvalkar, Prasad R; Shapiro, Matthew L

    2011-08-24

    Memory influences learning, but how neural signals support such transfer are unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, we trained rats to perform a standard spatial memory task in a plus maze and tested how training affected learning and neural coding in two new task variants. A switch task exchanged the start and goal locations in the same environment, whereas, an altered environment task contained unfamiliar local and distal cues. Learning was facilitated in both variants compared with the acquisition of the standard task. In the switch task, performance was largely maintained, and was accompanied by immediate and stable place-field remapping. Place-field maps in CA1 were anticorrelated in the standard and switch sessions, and the anticorrelation covaried with switch performance. Simultaneously, CA3 maps were uncorrelated overall in the standard and switch, though many CA3 cells had fields in shifted locations in the same maze arms. In the altered environment, performance was initially impaired, and place fields changed dynamically. CA1 fields were initially unstable, and their stabilization correlated with improving performance. Most CA3 cells, however, stopped firing on the maze in the altered environment, even as the same cells maintained prominent fields in standard sessions recorded before and after. CA1 and CA3 place fields thus revealed different coding dynamics that correlated with both learning and memory performance. Together, CA1 and CA3 ensembles represented the similarities and differences between new and familiar situations through concurrent rate and place remapping.

  17. Differential NMDA receptor-dependent calcium loading and mitochondrial dysfunction in CA1 vs. CA3 hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stanika, Ruslan I.; Winters, Christine A.; Pivovarova, Natalia B.; Andrews, S. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are selectively vulnerable to ischemia, while adjacent CA3 neurons are relatively resistant. Although glutamate receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and dysfunction is a major component of ischemia-induced neuronal death, no direct relationship between selective neuronal vulnerability and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in intact brain preparations. Here, we show that in organotypic slice cultures NMDA induces much larger Ca2+ elevations in vulnerable CA1 neurons than in resistant CA3. Consequently, CA1 mitochondria exhibit stronger calcium accumulation, more extensive swelling and damage, stronger depolarization of their membrane potential, and a significant increase in ROS generation. NMDA-induced Ca2+ and ROS elevations were abolished in Ca2+-free medium or by NMDAR antagonists, but not by zinc chelation. We conclude that Ca2+-overload-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction is a determining factor in the selective vulnerability of CA1 neurons. PMID:19879359

  18. Differential NMDA receptor-dependent calcium loading and mitochondrial dysfunction in CA1 vs. CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Stanika, Ruslan I; Winters, Christine A; Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian

    2010-02-01

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are selectively vulnerable to ischemia, while adjacent CA3 neurons are relatively resistant. Although glutamate receptor-mediated mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and dysfunction is a major component of ischemia-induced neuronal death, no direct relationship between selective neuronal vulnerability and mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in intact brain preparations. Here, we show that in organotypic slice cultures NMDA induces much larger Ca(2+) elevations in vulnerable CA1 neurons than in resistant CA3. Consequently, CA1 mitochondria exhibit stronger calcium accumulation, more extensive swelling and damage, stronger depolarization of their membrane potential, and a significant increase in ROS generation. NMDA-induced Ca(2+) and ROS elevations were abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium or by NMDAR antagonists, but not by zinc chelation. We conclude that Ca(2)(+) overload-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction is a determining factor in the selective vulnerability of CA1 neurons.

  19. Increased size and stability of CA1 and CA3 place fields in HCN1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hussaini, Syed A.; Kempadoo, Kimberly A.; Thuault, Sébastien J.; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neuron place cells encode the spatial location of an animal through localized firing patterns called “place fields”. To explore the mechanisms that control place cell firing and their relationship to spatial memory, we studied mice with enhanced spatial memory resulting from forebrain-specific knockout of the HCN1 hyperpolarization-activated cation channel. HCN1 is strongly expressed in CA1 neurons and entorhinal cortex grid cells, which provide spatial information to the hippocampus. Both CA1 and CA3 place fields were larger but more stable in the knockout mice, with the effect greater in CA1 than CA3. As HCN1 is only weakly expressed in CA3 place cells, their altered activity likely reflects loss of HCN1 in grid cells. The more pronounced changes in CA1 likely reflect the intrinsic contribution of HCN1. The enhanced place field stability may underlie the effect of HCN1 deletion to facilitate spatial learning and memory. PMID:22099465

  20. Endogenous serotonin facilitates hippocampal long-term potentiation at CA3/CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, Boris; Stocca, Gabriella; Corradetti, Renato

    2015-02-01

    Encoding of episodic memory requires long-term potentiation (LTP) of neurotransmission at excitatory synapses of the hippocampal circuitry. Previous data obtained with the application of exogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in hippocampal slices indicate that 5-HT blocks LTP, which contrasts with the facilitatory effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on learning and memory observed in vivo. Here, we investigated the effects of endogenous 5-HT, released from terminals by the monoamine releaser 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), on LTP of field EPSPs induced by theta-burst stimulation and recorded at CA3/CA1 synapses of rat hippocampal slices. LTP was greater in the presence of MDMA (10 µM; 45.76 ± 15.75%; n = 28) than in controls (31.26 ± 11.03; n = 21; p < 0.01). This facilitatory effect on LTP persisted when the entry of MDMA in noradrenergic terminals was prevented by the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine (44.90 ± 14.07%; n = 27 vs. 34.49 ± 12.94%; n = 20 in controls; p < 0.05). In both conditions, the facilitation of LTP was abolished by the SSRI citalopram that prevented the entry of MDMA in 5-HT terminals and the subsequent 5-HT release. These data show that, unlike exogenous 5-HT application, release of endogenous 5-HT does not impair cellular mechanisms responsible for induction of LTP, indicating that 5-HT is not detrimental to learning and memory. Moreover, facilitation of LTP by endogenous 5-HT may underlie the in vivo positive effects of augmented 5-HT tone on cognitive performance.

  1. GABA application to hippocampal CA3 or CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare excites an interneuron network.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Katherine L

    2002-03-01

    Whole cell voltage-clamp recording and focal application of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were used to investigate the ability of exogenous GABA applied to different locations within the guinea pig hippocampal slice to trigger a giant GABA-mediated postsynaptic current (GPSC) in pyramidal cells. A GPSC reflects the synchronous release of GABA from a group of interneurons. Recordings were done in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and blockers of ionotropic glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Spontaneous GPSCs occurred rhythmically in pyramidal cells under these conditions. Brief focal pressure application of GABA (500 microM; 30-200 ms) to CA3 stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) or to the border between CA3 s. radiatum (SR) and SLM triggered an "all-or-none" GPSC in CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells that looked like the spontaneous GPSCs. During the refractory period following a spontaneous GPSC, application of GABA could not trigger a GPSC. Both spontaneous GPSCs and GPSCs triggered by exogenous GABA were blocked by suppressing synaptic transmission with high Mg(2+)/low Ca(2+) bath solution. On the other hand, focal application of GABA to CA3 s. oriens (SO) or to proximal SR did not trigger a GPSC in the CA3 pyramidal cell; instead it produced a graded response. Focal application of GABA to regions other than CA3 was also tested. Focal application of GABA to CA1 SLM always triggered a GPSC in the CA3 pyramidal cell. Focal application of GABA within the outer two-thirds of the dentate molecular layer often elicited a GPSC in the CA3 pyramidal cell. In contrast, focal application of GABA to CA1 SO, to CA1 SR, or to the hilus elicited no current response in the CA3 pyramidal cell. These data indicate that the GPSC recorded in pyramidal cells that was triggered by focal GABA application resulted from the synchronous synaptic release of GABA from activated interneurons rather than from the binding of exogenous GABA to receptors on the pyramidal cell

  2. Model-Based Assessment of an In-Vivo Predictive Relationship from CA1 to CA3 in the Rodent Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2014-01-01

    Although an anatomical connection from CA1 to CA3 via the Entorhinal Cortex (EC) and through backprojecting interneurons has long been known it exist, it has never been examined quantitatively on the single neuron level, in the in-vivo nonpatholgical, nonperturbed brain. Here, single spike activity was recorded using a multi-electrode array from the CA3 and CA1 areas of the rodent hippocampus (N=7) during a behavioral task. The predictive power from CA3CA1 and CA1CA3 was examined by constructing Multivariate Autoregressive (MVAR) models from recorded neurons in both directions. All nonsignificant inputs and models were identified and removed by means of Monte Carlo simulation methods. It was found that 121/166 (73%) CA3CA1 models and 96/145 (66%) CA1CA3 models had significant predictive power, thus confirming a predictive ‘Granger’ causal relationship from CA1 to CA3. This relationship is thought to be caused by a combination of truly causal connections such as the CA1→EC→CA3 pathway and common inputs such as those from the Septum. All MVAR models were then examined in the frequency domain and it was found that CA3 kernels had significantly more power in the theta and beta range than those of CA1, confirming CA3’s role as an endogenous hippocampal pacemaker. PMID:25260381

  3. Model-based asessment of an in-vivo predictive relationship from CA1 to CA3 in the rodent hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Roman A; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z

    2015-02-01

    Although an anatomical connection from CA1 to CA3 via the Entorhinal Cortex (EC) and through backprojecting interneurons has long been known it exist, it has never been examined quantitatively on the single neuron level, in the in-vivo nonpatholgical, nonperturbed brain. Here, single spike activity was recorded using a multi-electrode array from the CA3 and CA1 areas of the rodent hippocampus (N = 7) during a behavioral task. The predictive power from CA3CA1 and CA1CA3 was examined by constructing Multivariate Autoregressive (MVAR) models from recorded neurons in both directions. All nonsignificant inputs and models were identified and removed by means of Monte Carlo simulation methods. It was found that 121/166 (73 %) CA3CA1 models and 96/145 (66 %) CA1CA3 models had significant predictive power, thus confirming a predictive 'Granger' causal relationship from CA1 to CA3. This relationship is thought to be caused by a combination of truly causal connections such as the CA1→EC→CA3 pathway and common inputs such as those from the Septum. All MVAR models were then examined in the frequency domain and it was found that CA3 kernels had significantly more power in the theta and beta range than those of CA1, confirming CA3's role as an endogenous hippocampal pacemaker.

  4. Mossy fiber synaptic transmission: communication from the dentate gyrus to area CA3.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, David B; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Communication between the dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus proper is transmitted via axons of granule cells--the mossy fiber (MF) pathway. In this review we discuss and compare the properties of transmitter release from the MFs onto pyramidal neurons and interneurons. An examination of the anatomical connectivity from DG to CA3 reveals a surprising interplay between excitation and inhibition for this circuit. In this respect it is particularly relevant that the major targets of the MFs are interneurons and that the consequence of MF input into CA3 may be inhibitory or excitatory, conditionally dependent on the frequency of input and modulatory regulation. This is further complicated by the properties of transmitter release from the MFs where a large number of co-localized transmitters, including GABAergic inhibitory transmitter release, and the effects of presynaptic modulation finely tune transmitter release. A picture emerges that extends beyond the hypothesis that the MFs are simply "detonators" of CA3 pyramidal neurons; the properties of synaptic information flow from the DG have more subtle and complex influences on the CA3 network.

  5. Modeling sharp wave-ripple complexes through a CA3-CA1 network model with chemical synapses.

    PubMed

    Taxidis, Jiannis; Coombes, Stephen; Mason, Robert; Owen, Markus R

    2012-05-01

    The hippocampus, and particularly the CA3 and CA1 areas, exhibit a variety of oscillatory rhythms that span frequencies from the slow theta range (4-10 Hz) up to fast ripples (200 Hz). Various computational models of different complexities have been developed in an effort to simulate such population oscillations. Nevertheless the mechanism that underlies the so called Sharp Wave-Ripple complex (SPWR), observed in extracellular recordings in CA1, still remains elusive. We present here, the combination of two simple but realistic models of the rat CA3 and CA1 areas, connected together in a feedforward scheme mimicking Schaffer collaterals. Both network models are computationally simple one-dimensional arrays of excitatory and inhibitory populations interacting only via fast chemical synapses. Connectivity schemes and postsynaptic potentials are based on physiological data, yielding a realistic network topology. The CA3 model exhibits quasi-synchronous population bursts, which give rise to sharp wave-like deep depolarizations in the CA1 dendritic layer accompanied by transient field oscillations at ≈ 150-200 Hz in the somatic layer. The frequency and synchrony of these oscillations is based on interneuronal activity and fast-decaying recurrent inhibition in CA1. Pyramidal cell spikes are sparse and come from a subset of cells receiving stronger than average excitatory input from CA3. The model is shown to accurately reproduce a large number of basic characteristics of SPWRs and yields a new mechanism for the generation of ripples, offering an interpretation to a range of neurophysiological observations, such as the ripple disruption by halothane and the selective firing of pyramidal cells during ripples, which may have implications for memory consolidation during SPWRs.

  6. Closed head injury causes hyperexcitability in rat hippocampal CA1 but not in CA3 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, Désirée; Mautes, Angelika M

    2007-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury frequently elicits epileptic seizures hours or days after the impact. The mechanisms on cellular level are poorly understood. Because posttraumatic epilepsy appears in many cases as a temporal-lobe epilepsy which originated the hippocampus, we studied trauma-induced hyperexcitability on the cellular level in this brain area. We used the model of closed head injury to analyse the electrophysiological changes in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and in interneurones of the CA1 field, which is extremely sensitive to ischemia. We found that morphologically closed head injury (CHI) led to a gradual progressive, cell type specific time course in neuronal degeneration. To analyse electrophysiological impairment we measured resting membrane potential, recorded spontaneous action potentials and induced action potentials by current pulses at different times after CHI. We found a dramatic increase in the frequency of spontaneous action potentials of CA1 but not of CA3 pyramidal cells after CHI. This hyperexcitability was maximal at 2 h (4.5-fold higher than sham), was also observed at 24 h after CHI and disappeared after 3 days. We found that CA1 interneurones responded by a much weaker increase of AP frequency after CHI. We conclude that the strong hyperexcitability after CHI is cell-type specific and transient. The understanding of the complex neuronal interactions probably offers a promising possibility for pharmacological intervention to prevent posttraumatic epilepsy.

  7. Nonlinear analysis of the hippocampal subfields of CA1 and the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Ning, T; Bronzino, J D

    1993-09-01

    The paper discusses the use of nonlinear bispectral analysis in examining the hippocampal EEG collected at subfields of CA1 and the dentate gyrus during the vigilance state of REM sleep. The cross-bispectrum and its unique capabilities of detecting and quantifying quadratic nonlinear interactions occurring between these two hippocampal subfields are explained and demonstrated with simulation examples and EEG data. It was found in this study that quadratic nonlinear interactions exist between CA1 and the dentate gyrus in the 6-8 frequency band which dominates the theta (theta) rhythm observed in the hippocampal EEG during REM sleep. As a result, energy components around the frequency band of the second-order harmonics of theta rhythm are not totally spontaneous, but generated largely due to quadratic nonlinear interactions.

  8. Melamine Alters Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission of CA3-CA1 Synapses Presynaptically Through Autophagy Activation in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Xi; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Melamine is an industrial chemical that can cause central nervous system disorders including excitotoxicity and cognitive impairment. Its illegal use in powdered baby formula was the focus of a milk scandal in China in 2008. One of our previous studies showed that melamine impaired glutamatergic transmission in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. However, the underlying mechanism of action of melamine is unclear, and it is unknown if the CA3-CA1 pathway is directly involved. In the present study, a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of melamine on the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway in vitro. Both the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (eEPSC) and the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) were recorded. Furthermore, we examined whether autophagy was involved in glutamatergic transmission alterations induced by melamine. Our data showed that melamine significantly increased the amplitude of eEPSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor did not prevent the increase in eEPSC amplitude. In addition, the PPR was remarkably decreased by a melamine concentration of 5 × 10(-5) g/mL. It was found that autophagy could be activated by melamine and an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, prevented the melamine-induced increase in eEPSC amplitude. Overall, our results show that melamine presynaptically alters glutamatergic synaptic transmission of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in vitro and this is likely associated with autophagy alteration.

  9. Kindling induces transient fast inhibition in the dentate gyrus--CA3 projection.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R; Heinemann, U

    2001-04-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) send a strong glutamatergic projection, the mossy fibre tract, toward the hippocampal CA3 field, where it excites pyramidal cells and neighbouring inhibitory interneurons. Despite their excitatory nature, granule cells contain small amounts of GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), the main synthetic enzyme for the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy results in transient upregulation of GAD and GABA in granule cells, giving rise to the speculation that following overexcitation, mossy fibres exert an inhibitory effect by release of GABA. We therefore stimulated the DG and recorded synaptic potentials from CA3 pyramidal cells in brain slices from kindled and control rats. In both preparations, DG stimulation caused excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)/inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) sequences. These potentials could be completely blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists in control rats, while in the kindled rats, a bicuculline-sensitive fast IPSP remained, with an onset latency similar to that of the control EPSP. Interestingly, this IPSP disappeared 1 month after the last seizure. When synaptic responses were evoked by high-frequency stimulation, EPSPs in normal rats readily summate to evoke action potentials. In slices from kindled rats, a summation of IPSPs overrides that of the EPSPs and reduces the probability of evoking action potentials. Our data show for the first time that kindling induces functionally relevant activity-dependent expression of fast inhibition onto pyramidal cells, coming from the DG, that can limit CA3 excitation in a frequency-dependent manner.

  10. Ongoing intrinsic synchronous activity is required for the functional maturation of CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Huupponen, Johanna; Molchanova, Svetlana M; Lauri, Sari E; Taira, Tomi

    2013-11-01

    Fine-tuning of synaptic connectivity during development is guided by intrinsic activity of the immature networks characteristically consisting of intermittent bursts of synchronous activity. However, the role of synchronous versus asynchronous activity in synapse maturation in the brain is unclear. Here, we have pharmacologically prevented generation of synchronous activity in the immature rat CA3-CA1 circuitry in a manner that preserves unitary activity. Long-term desynchronization of the network resulted in weakening of AMPA-receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells. This weakening was dependent on protein phosphatases and mGluR activity, associated with an increase in the proportion of silent synapses and a decrease in the protein levels of GluA4 suggesting postsynaptic mechanisms of expression. The findings demonstrate that synchronous activity in the immature CA3-CA1 circuitry is critical for the induction and maintenance of glutamatergic synapses and underscores the importance of temporal activity patterns in shaping the synaptic circuitry during development.

  11. TRPV1 receptors augment basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, F; Eslamizade, M J; Mousavi, S M M; Abraki, S B; Hadjighassem, M R; Gorji, A

    2016-02-09

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in human and animals is attributed to alterations in brain function especially hippocampus formation. Changes in synaptic activity might be causally related to the alterations during epileptogenesis. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) as one of the non-selective ion channels has been shown to be involved in synaptic transmission. However, the potential role of TRPV1 receptors in synaptic function in the epileptic brain needs to be elucidated. In the present study, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to assess hippocampal TRPV1 mRNA expression, protein content, and distribution. Moreover, the effects of pharmacologic activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors on the slope of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were analyzed in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, after 3months of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). SE induced an upregulation of TRPV1 mRNA and protein content in the whole hippocampal extract, as well as its distribution in both CA1 and CA3 regions. Activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors (via capsaicin 1μM and capsazepine 10μM, respectively) did not influence basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 regions of control slices, however, capsaicin increased and capsazepine decreased synaptic transmission in both regions in tissues from epileptic animals. Taken together, these findings suggest that a higher expression of TRPV1 in the epileptic condition is accompanied by alterations in basal synaptic transmission.

  12. Midbrain dopamine neurons bidirectionally regulate CA3-CA1 synaptic drive.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Zev B; Cheung, Stephanie; Siegelbaum, Steven A

    2015-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) is required for hippocampal-dependent memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA1 Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses. It is therefore surprising that exogenously applied DA has little effect on SC synapses, but suppresses CA1 perforant path (PP) inputs. To examine DA actions under more physiological conditions, we used optogenetics to release DA from ventral tegmental area inputs to hippocampus. Unlike exogenous DA application, optogenetic release of DA caused a bidirectional, activity-dependent modulation of SC synapses, with no effect on PP inputs. Low levels of DA release, simulating tonic DA neuron firing, depressed the SC response through a D4 receptor-dependent enhancement of feedforward inhibition mediated by parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Higher levels of DA release, simulating phasic firing, increased SC responses through a D1 receptor-dependent enhancement of excitatory transmission. Thus, tonic-phasic transitions in DA neuron firing in response to motivational demands may cause a modulatory switch from inhibition to enhancement of hippocampal information flow.

  13. The functional genome of CA1 and CA3 neurons under native conditions and in response to ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Newrzella, Dieter; Pahlavan, Payam S; Krüger, Carola; Boehm, Christine; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Schröck, Helmut; Eisenhardt, Gisela; Bischoff, Nadine; Vogt, Gerhard; Wafzig, Oliver; Rossner, Moritz; Maurer, Martin H; Hiemisch, Holger; Bach, Alfred; Kuschinsky, Wolfgang; Schneider, Armin

    2007-01-01

    Background The different physiological repertoire of CA3 and CA1 neurons in the hippocampus, as well as their differing behaviour after noxious stimuli are ultimately based upon differences in the expressed genome. We have compared CA3 and CA1 gene expression in the uninjured brain, and after cerebral ischemia using laser microdissection (LMD), RNA amplification, and array hybridization. Results Profiling in CA1 vs. CA3 under normoxic conditions detected more than 1000 differentially expressed genes that belong to different, physiologically relevant gene ontology groups in both cell types. The comparison of each region under normoxic and ischemic conditions revealed more than 5000 ischemia-regulated genes for each individual cell type. Surprisingly, there was a high co-regulation in both regions. In the ischemic state, only about 100 genes were found to be differentially expressed in CA3 and CA1. The majority of these genes were also different in the native state. A minority of interesting genes (e.g. inhibinbetaA) displayed divergent expression preference under native and ischemic conditions with partially opposing directions of regulation in both cell types. Conclusion The differences found in two morphologically very similar cell types situated next to each other in the CNS are large providing a rational basis for physiological differences. Unexpectedly, the genomic response to ischemia is highly similar in these two neuron types, leading to a substantial attenuation of functional genomic differences in these two cell types. Also, the majority of changes that exist in the ischemic state are not generated de novo by the ischemic stimulus, but are preexistant from the genomic repertoire in the native situation. This unexpected influence of a strong noxious stimulus on cell-specific gene expression differences can be explained by the activation of a cell-type independent conserved gene-expression program. Our data generate both novel insights into the relation of

  14. Prenatal morphine exposure reduces pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA2 and CA3 subfields of mice hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Soraya; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of maternal morphine exposure during gestational and lactation period on pyramidal neurons of hippocampus in 18 and 32 day mice offspring. Materials and Methods: Thirty female mice were randomly allocated into cases and controls. In case group, animals received morphine sulfate 10 mg/kg.body weight intraperitoneally during 7 days before mating, gestational period (GD 0-21), 18 and 32 days after delivery in the experimental groups. The control animals received an equivalent volume of normal saline. Cerebrum of six offsprings in each group was removed and stained with cresyl violet and a monoclonal antibody NeuN for immunohistochemical detection of surviving pyramidal neurons. Quantitative computer-assisted morphometric study was done on hippocampus. Results: The number of pyramidal neurons in CA1, CA2 and CA3 in treated groups was significantly reduced in postnatal day 18 and 32 (P18, P32) compared to control groups (P<0.05). The mean thickness of the stratum pyramidal layer was decreased in the treated groups in comparison with controls (P<0.05), whereas the mean thickness of the stratum oriens, stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare in CA1 field and stratum oriens, stratum lucidum, stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare in CA3 were significantly increased in morphine treated group in comparison with controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Morphine administration before and during pregnancy and during lactation period causes pyramidal neurons loss in 18 and 32 days old infant mice. PMID:24847417

  15. Transition between fast and slow gamma modes in rat hippocampus area CA1 in vitro is modulated by slow CA3 gamma oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Pietersen, Alexander N J; Ward, Peter D; Hagger-Vaughan, Nicholas; Wiggins, James; Jefferys, John G R; Vreugdenhil, Martin

    2014-01-01

    AbstractHippocampal gamma oscillations have been associated with cognitive functions including navigation and memory encoding/retrieval. Gamma oscillations in area CA1 are thought to depend on the oscillatory drive from CA3 (slow gamma) or the entorhinal cortex (fast gamma). Here we show that the local CA1 network can generate its own fast gamma that can be suppressed by slow gamma-paced inputs from CA3. Moderate acetylcholine receptor activation induces fast (45 ± 1 Hz) gamma in rat CA1 minislices and slow (33 ± 1 Hz) gamma in CA3 minislices in vitro. Using pharmacological tools, current-source density analysis and intracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and fast-spiking stratum pyramidale interneurons, we demonstrate that fast gamma in CA1 is of the pyramidal–interneuron network gamma (PING) type, with the firing of principal cells paced by recurrent perisomal IPSCs. The oscillation frequency was only weakly dependent on IPSC amplitude, and decreased to that of CA3 slow gamma by reducing IPSC decay rate or reducing interneuron activation through tonic inhibition of interneurons. Fast gamma in CA1 was replaced by slow CA3-driven gamma in unlesioned slices, which could be mimicked in CA1 minislices by sub-threshold 35 Hz Schaffer collateral stimulation that activated fast-spiking interneurons but hyperpolarised pyramidal cells, suggesting that slow gamma frequency CA3 outputs can suppress the CA1 fast gamma-generating network by feed-forward inhibition and replaces it with a slower gamma oscillation driven by feed-forward inhibition. The transition between the two gamma oscillation modes in CA1 might allow it to alternate between effective communication with the medial entorhinal cortex and CA3, which have different roles in encoding and recall of memory. PMID:24277864

  16. Transition between fast and slow gamma modes in rat hippocampus area CA1 in vitro is modulated by slow CA3 gamma oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pietersen, Alexander N J; Ward, Peter D; Hagger-Vaughan, Nicholas; Wiggins, James; Jefferys, John G R; Vreugdenhil, Martin

    2014-02-15

    Hippocampal gamma oscillations have been associated with cognitive functions including navigation and memory encoding/retrieval. Gamma oscillations in area CA1 are thought to depend on the oscillatory drive from CA3 (slow gamma) or the entorhinal cortex (fast gamma). Here we show that the local CA1 network can generate its own fast gamma that can be suppressed by slow gamma-paced inputs from CA3. Moderate acetylcholine receptor activation induces fast (45 ± 1 Hz) gamma in rat CA1 minislices and slow (33 ± 1 Hz) gamma in CA3 minislices in vitro. Using pharmacological tools, current-source density analysis and intracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and fast-spiking stratum pyramidale interneurons, we demonstrate that fast gamma in CA1 is of the pyramidal-interneuron network gamma (PING) type, with the firing of principal cells paced by recurrent perisomal IPSCs. The oscillation frequency was only weakly dependent on IPSC amplitude, and decreased to that of CA3 slow gamma by reducing IPSC decay rate or reducing interneuron activation through tonic inhibition of interneurons. Fast gamma in CA1 was replaced by slow CA3-driven gamma in unlesioned slices, which could be mimicked in CA1 minislices by sub-threshold 35 Hz Schaffer collateral stimulation that activated fast-spiking interneurons but hyperpolarised pyramidal cells, suggesting that slow gamma frequency CA3 outputs can suppress the CA1 fast gamma-generating network by feed-forward inhibition and replaces it with a slower gamma oscillation driven by feed-forward inhibition. The transition between the two gamma oscillation modes in CA1 might allow it to alternate between effective communication with the medial entorhinal cortex and CA3, which have different roles in encoding and recall of memory.

  17. Chronic fluoxetine administration enhances synaptic plasticity and increases functional dynamics in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Dina, Popova; Castren, Eero; Taira, Tomi

    2017-09-05

    Recent studies demonstrate that chronic administration of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) promotes neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus, cortex and amygdala. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and how are they related to the clinical antidepressant efficacy are still poorly understood. We show here that chronic FLX administration decreases hippocampus-associated neophobia in naïve mice. In parallel, electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry revealed that the FLX treatment resulted in increased short- and long-term plasticity likely attributed to changes in presynaptic function. These changes were accompanied by enhancement in the expression of proteins related to vesicular trafficking and release, namely synaptophysin, synaptotagmin 1, MUNC 18 and syntaxin 1. Thus, chronic FLX administration is associated with enhanced synaptic dynamics atypical of mature CA1 synapses, elevated hippocampal plasticity, improved hippocampus-dependent behavior as well as altered expression of synaptic proteins regulating neurotransmitter trafficking and release. The results support the idea that antidepressants can promote neuronal plasticity and show that they can increase the functional dynamic range and information processing in synaptic circuitries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Pharmacotherapy with Fluoxetine Restores Functional Connectivity from the Dentate Gyrus to Field CA3 in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Sandra; Ciani, Elisabetta; Mangano, Chiara; Calzà, Laura; Bartesaghi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a high-incidence genetic pathology characterized by severe impairment of cognitive functions, including declarative memory. Impairment of hippocampus-dependent long-term memory in DS appears to be related to anatomo-functional alterations of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit formed by the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells - CA3 pyramidal neurons - CA1 pyramidal neurons. No therapies exist to improve cognitive disability in individuals with DS. In previous studies we demonstrated that pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine restores neurogenesis, granule cell number and dendritic morphology in the DG of the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. The goal of the current study was to establish whether treatment rescues the impairment of synaptic connectivity between the DG and CA3 that characterizes the trisomic condition. Euploid and Ts65Dn mice were treated with fluoxetine during the first two postnatal weeks and examined 45–60 days after treatment cessation. Untreated Ts65Dn mice had a hypotrophyc mossy fiber bundle, fewer synaptic contacts, fewer glutamatergic contacts, and fewer dendritic spines in the stratum lucidum of CA3, the terminal field of the granule cell projections. Electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons showed that in Ts65Dn mice the frequency of both mEPSCs and mIPSCs was reduced, indicating an overall impairment of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to CA3 pyramidal neurons. In treated Ts65Dn mice all these aberrant features were fully normalized, indicating that fluoxetine can rescue functional connectivity between the DG and CA3. The positive effects of fluoxetine on the DG-CA3 system suggest that early treatment with this drug could be a suitable therapy, possibly usable in humans, to restore the physiology of the hippocampal networks and, hence, memory functions. PMID:23620781

  19. Distinct pattern separation related transfer functions in human CA3/dentate and CA1 revealed using high-resolution fMRI and variable mnemonic similarity.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Joyce W; Yassa, Michael A; Stark, Shauna M; Muftuler, L Tugan; Stark, Craig E L

    2011-01-01

    Producing and maintaining distinct (orthogonal) neural representations for similar events is critical to avoiding interference in long-term memory. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence for separation-like signals in the human CA3/dentate. Here, we extended this by parametrically varying the change in input (similarity) while monitoring CA1 and CA3/dentate for separation and completion-like signals using high-resolution fMRI. In the CA1, activity varied in a graded fashion in response to increases in the change in input. In contrast, the CA3/dentate showed a stepwise transfer function that was highly sensitive to small changes in input.

  20. Sparse and Specific Coding during Information Transmission between Co-cultured Dentate Gyrus and CA3 Hippocampal Networks.

    PubMed

    Poli, Daniele; Thiagarajan, Srikanth; DeMarse, Thomas B; Wheeler, Bruce C; Brewer, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli. We used the evoked responses in CA3 to decode the stimulation sites in DG (and vice-versa) by means of learning algorithms for classification (support vector machine, SVM). The device was placed over an 8 × 8 grid of extracellular electrodes (micro-electrode array, MEA) in order to provide a platform for monitoring development, self-organization, and improved access to stimulation and recording at multiple sites. The micro-tunnels were designed with dimensions 3 × 10 × 400 μm allowing axonal growth but not migration of cell bodies and long enough to exclude traversal by dendrites. Paired-pulse stimulation (inter-pulse interval 50 ms) was applied at 22 different sites and repeated 25 times in each chamber for each sub-region to evoke time-locked activity. DG-DG and CA3-CA3 networks were used as controls. Stimulation in DG drove signals through the axons in the tunnels to activate a relatively small set of specific electrodes in CA3 (sparse code). CA3-CA3 and DG-DG controls were less sparse in coding than CA3 in DG-CA3 networks. Using all target electrodes with the three highest spike rates (14%), the evoked responses in CA3 specified each stimulation site in DG with optimum uniqueness of 64%. Finally, by SVM learning, these evoked responses in CA3 correctly decoded the stimulation sites in DG for 43% of the

  1. Sparse and Specific Coding during Information Transmission between Co-cultured Dentate Gyrus and CA3 Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Daniele; Thiagarajan, Srikanth; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand encoding and decoding of stimulus information in two specific hippocampal sub-regions, we isolated and co-cultured rat primary dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons within a two-chamber device with axonal connectivity via micro-tunnels. We tested the hypothesis that, in these engineered networks, decoding performance of stimulus site information would be more accurate when stimuli and information flow occur in anatomically correct feed-forward DG to CA3 vs. CA3 back to DG. In particular, we characterized the neural code of these sub-regions by measuring sparseness and uniqueness of the responses evoked by specific paired-pulse stimuli. We used the evoked responses in CA3 to decode the stimulation sites in DG (and vice-versa) by means of learning algorithms for classification (support vector machine, SVM). The device was placed over an 8 × 8 grid of extracellular electrodes (micro-electrode array, MEA) in order to provide a platform for monitoring development, self-organization, and improved access to stimulation and recording at multiple sites. The micro-tunnels were designed with dimensions 3 × 10 × 400 μm allowing axonal growth but not migration of cell bodies and long enough to exclude traversal by dendrites. Paired-pulse stimulation (inter-pulse interval 50 ms) was applied at 22 different sites and repeated 25 times in each chamber for each sub-region to evoke time-locked activity. DG-DG and CA3-CA3 networks were used as controls. Stimulation in DG drove signals through the axons in the tunnels to activate a relatively small set of specific electrodes in CA3 (sparse code). CA3-CA3 and DG-DG controls were less sparse in coding than CA3 in DG-CA3 networks. Using all target electrodes with the three highest spike rates (14%), the evoked responses in CA3 specified each stimulation site in DG with optimum uniqueness of 64%. Finally, by SVM learning, these evoked responses in CA3 correctly decoded the stimulation sites in DG for 43% of the

  2. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri JY

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicates DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N=9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N=167) and CA3 (N=94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations “rescued” performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps specifically by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. PMID:20082295

  3. The relationship between the field-shifting phenomenon and representational coherence of place cells in CA1 and CA3 in a cue-altered environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inah; Knierim, James J

    2007-11-01

    Subfields of the hippocampus display differential dynamics in processing a spatial environment, especially when changes are introduced to the environment. Specifically, when familiar cues in the environment are spatially rearranged, place cells in the CA3 subfield tend to rotate with a particular set of cues (e.g., proximal cues), maintaining a coherent spatial representation. Place cells in CA1, in contrast, display discordant behaviors (e.g., rotating with different sets of cues or remapping) in the same condition. In addition, on average, CA3 place cells shift their firing locations (measured by the center of mass, or COM) backward over time when the animal encounters the changed environment for the first time, but not after that first experience. However, CA1 displays an opposite pattern, in which place cells exhibit the backward COM-shift only from the second day of experience, but not on the first day. Here, we examined the relationship between the environment-representing behavior (i.e., rotation vs. remapping) and the COM-shift of place fields in CA1 and CA3. Both in CA1 and CA3, the backward (as well as forward) COM-shift phenomena occurred regardless of the rotating versus remapping of the place cell. The differential, daily time course of the onset/offset of backward COM-shift in the cue-altered environment in CA1 and CA3 (on day 1 in CA1 and from day 2 onward in CA3) stems from different population dynamics between the subfields. The results suggest that heterogeneous, complex plasticity mechanisms underlie the environment-representating behavior (i.e., rotate/remap) and the COM-shifting behavior of the place cell.

  4. Changes in synaptic plasticity and expression of glutamate receptor subunits in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus after transient global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin-Jia; Shi, Zhong-Shan; Xia, Luo-Xing; Zhu, Li-Hui; Zeng, Ling; Nie, Jun-Hua; Xu, Zao-Cheng; Ruan, Yi-Wen

    2016-07-07

    Excess glutamate release from the presynaptic membrane has been thought to be the major cause of ischemic neuronal death. Although both CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons receive presynaptic glutamate input, transient cerebral ischemia induces CA1 neurons to die while CA3 neurons remain relatively intact. This suggests that changes in the properties of pyramidal cells may be the main cause related to ischemic neuronal death. Our previous studies have shown that the densities of dendritic spines and asymmetric synapses in the CA1 area are increased at 12h and 24h after ischemia. In the present study, we investigated changes in synaptic structures in the CA3 area and compared the expression of glutamate receptors in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions of rats after ischemia. Our results demonstrated that the NR2B/NR2A ratio became larger after ischemia although the expression of both the NR2B subunit (activation of apoptotic pathway) and NR2A subunit (activation of survival pathway) decreased in the CA1 area from 6h to 48h after reperfusion. Furthermore, expression of the GluR2 subunit (calcium impermeable) of the AMPA receptor class significantly decreased while the GluR1 subunit (calcium permeable) remained unchanged at the same examined reperfusion times, which subsequently caused an increase in the GluR1/GluR2 ratio. Despite these notable differences in subunit expression, there were no obvious changes in the density of synapses or expression of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits in the CA3 area after ischemia. These results suggest that delayed CA1 neuronal death may be related to the dramatic fluctuation in the synaptic structure and relative upregulation of NR2B and GluR1 subunits induced by transient global ischemia.

  5. Sustained increase of spontaneous input and spike transfer in the CA3-CA1 pathway following long-term potentiation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is commonly used to study synaptic plasticity but the associated changes in the spontaneous activity of individual neurons or the computational properties of neural networks in vivo remain largely unclear. The multisynaptic origin of spontaneous spikes makes it difficult to estimate the impact of a particular potentiated input. Accordingly, we adopted an approach that isolates pathway-specific postsynaptic activity from raw local field potentials (LFPs) in the rat hippocampus in order to study the effects of LTP on ongoing spike transfer between cell pairs in the CA3-CA1 pathway. CA1 Schaffer-specific LFPs elicited by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells involved a regular succession of elementary micro-field-EPSPs (gamma-frequency) that fired spikes in CA1 units. LTP increased the amplitude but not the frequency of these ongoing excitatory quanta. Also, the proportion of Schaffer-driven spikes in both CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons increased in a cell-specific manner only in previously connected CA3-CA1 cell pairs, i.e., when the CA3 pyramidal cell had shown pre-LTP significant correlation with firing of a CA1 unit and potentiated spike-triggered average (STA) of Schaffer LFPs following LTP. Moreover, LTP produced subtle reorganization of presynaptic CA3 cell assemblies. These findings show effective enhancement of pathway-specific ongoing activity which leads to increased spike transfer in potentiated segments of a network. They indicate that plastic phenomena induced by external protocols may intensify spontaneous information flow across specific channels as proposed in transsynaptic propagation of plasticity and synfire chain hypotheses that may be the substrate for different types of memory involving multiple brain structures.

  6. Hemi-ovariectomies promote a decrease in the dendritic lengths of CA1 and CA3 neurons: A dimorphic effect of the cerebral hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Durán, Dolores Adriana Bravo; Silva Gómez, Adriana Berenice; Rosas, Ana Coral Gutiérrez; Trujillo, Angélica

    2017-03-03

    Certain structures of the central nervous system (CNS) are morphologically and functionally related to the ovaries. Ovariectomy has been used to study the functional role of the ovaries in the CNS, as well as the role of the CNS on the reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of left and right hemi-ovariectomy on the morphology of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 and CA3 regions of the ventral hippocampus were studied. During the estrus phase, female Long-Evans rats underwent either left and right hemi-ovariectomies or left and right sham surgeries. Three estrous cycles later, the animals were sacrificed, and their brains were processed in Golgi-Cox stain and analyzed by the Sholl method to calculate the dendritic length of the CA1 and CA3 neurons of the left and right hemispheres. The results indicate that the dendritic lengths of the basilar and apical arbors of the CA1 neurons from the left hemisphere were shorter after both left and right hemi-ovariectomy, while the CA1 neurons from the right hemisphere were not affected by either procedure. However, the basilar dendritic arbors of the CA3 neurons from both hemispheres were affected by right hemi-ovariectomy. The spine density only decreased in the apical arbors in the CA3 neurons from the left hemisphere of rats that underwent right hemi-ovariectomy. This study's results indicate that hemi-ovariectomy in adult rats changes in the morphology of the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons in the ventral hippocampus and that there are dimorphic responses between the hemispheres.

  7. Influence of slow oscillation on hippocampal activity and ripples through cortico-hippocampal synaptic interactions, analyzed by a cortical-CA3-CA1 network model

    PubMed Central

    Taxidis, Jiannis; Mizuseki, Kenji; Mason, Robert; Owen, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SWRs) involve the synchronous discharge of thousands of cells throughout the CA3-CA1-subiculum-entorhinal cortex axis. Their strong transient output affects cortical targets, rendering SWRs a possible means for memory transfer from the hippocampus to the neocortex for long-term storage. Neurophysiological observations of hippocampal activity modulation by the cortical slow oscillation (SO) during deep sleep and anesthesia, and correlations between ripples and UP states, support the role of SWRs in memory consolidation through a cortico-hippocampal feedback loop. We couple a cortical network exhibiting SO with a hippocampal CA3-CA1 computational network model exhibiting SWRs, in order to model such cortico-hippocampal correlations and uncover important parameters and coupling mechanisms controlling them. The cortical oscillatory output entrains the CA3 network via connections representing the mossy fiber input, and the CA1 network via the temporoammonic pathway (TA). The spiking activity in CA3 and CA1 is shown to depend on the excitation-to-inhibition ratio, induced by combining the two hippocampal inputs, with mossy fiber input controlling the UP-state correlation of CA3 population bursts and corresponding SWRs, whereas the temporoammonic input affects the overall CA1 spiking activity. Ripple characteristics and pyramidal spiking participation to SWRs are shaped by the strength of the Schaffer collateral drive. A set of in vivo recordings from the rat hippocampus confirms a model-predicted segregation of pyramidal cells into subgroups according to the SO state where they preferentially fire and their response to SWRs. These groups can potentially play distinct functional roles in the replay of spike sequences. PMID:23386827

  8. Intrinsic Hippocampal Excitability Changes of Opposite Signs and Different Origins in CA1 and CA3 Pyramidal Neurons Underlie Aging-Related Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Simkin, Dina; Disterhoft, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Aging-related cognitive deficits have been attributed to dysfunction of neurons due to failures at synaptic or intrinsic loci, or both. Given the importance of the hippocampus for successful encoding of memory and that the main output of the hippocampus is via the CA1 pyramidal neurons, much of the research has been focused on identifying the aging-related changes of these CA1 pyramidal neurons. We and others have discovered that the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following a train of action potentials is greatly enlarged in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged animals. This enlarged postburst AHP is a significant factor in reducing the intrinsic excitability of these neurons, and thus limiting their activity in the neural network during learning. Based on these data, it has largely been thought that aging-related cognitive deficits are attributable to reduced activity of pyramidal neurons. However, recent in vivo and ex vivo studies provide compelling evidence that aging-related deficits could also be due to a converse change in CA3 pyramidal neurons, which show increased activity with aging. In this review, we will incorporate these recent findings and posit that an interdependent dynamic dysfunctional change occurs within the hippocampal network, largely due to altered intrinsic excitability in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which ultimately leads to the aging-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27375440

  9. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  10. Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval of Contextual Memory: Differential Involvement of Dorsal CA3 and CA1 Hippocampal Subregions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daumas, Stephanie; Halley, Helene; Frances, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting…

  11. Long-term potentiation of evoked presynaptic response at CA3-CA1 synapses by transient oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    Ai, Jinglu; Baker, Andrew

    2006-02-01

    Physiological activity-dependent long-term changes in synaptic transmission, as long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to be the substrate of learning and memory. However, a form of postsynaptic pathological LTP at the CA3-CA1 synapses has been demonstrated following few minutes of anoxia and aglycemia in vitro. The ischemia LTP shared many molecular mechanisms with the physiological LTP, and was believed to be involved in the delayed neuronal death following ischemia. However, the role of the presynaptic component in this regard is not known. Here we show that a short period of oxygen-glucose deprivation can induce a form of LTP (lasting for hours) of the presynaptic response at the CA3-CA1 synapses. This form of LTP is independent of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but Ca(2+) dependent. This presynaptic LTP may represent a presynaptic hyperexcitability of the afferent fibers following ischemia, and responsible for the excitotoxicity to the CA1 neurons (ischemia-induced increases of glutamate release that kills neurons) and the postsynaptic pathological ischemic LTP.

  12. Pattern separation deficits associated with increased hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus activity in nondemented older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yassa, Michael A.; Lacy, Joyce W.; Stark, Shauna M.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Gallagher, Michela; Stark, Craig E.L.

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread evidence that memory deteriorates with aging, however the exact mechanisms that underlie these changes are not well understood. Given the growing size of the aging population, there is an imperative to study age-related neurocognitive changes in order to better parse healthy from pathological aging. Using a behavioral paradigm that taxes pattern separation (the ability to differentiate novel yet similar information from previously learned information and thus avoid interference), we investigated age-related neural changes in the human hippocampus using high-resolution (1.5 mm isotropic) BOLD fMRI. Recent evidence from animal studies suggests that hyperactivity in the CA3 region of the hippocampus may underlie behavioral deficits in pattern separation in aged rats. Here, we report evidence that is consistent with findings from the animal studies. We found a behavioral impairment in pattern separation in a sample of healthy older adults compared to young controls. We also found a related increase in CA3/dentate gyrus activity levels during an fMRI contrast that stresses pattern separation abilities. In a detailed analysis of behavior, we also found that the pattern of impairment was consistent with the predictions of the animal model, where larger changes in the input (greater dissimilarity) were required in order for elderly adults to successfully encode new information as distinct from previously learned information. These findings are also consistent with recent fMRI and behavioral reports in healthy aging, and further suggest that a specific functional deficit in the CA3/dentate network contributes to memory difficulties with aging. PMID:20865732

  13. Recognition memory: Cellular evidence of a massive contribution of the LEC to familiarity and a lack of involvement of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3.

    PubMed

    Atucha, Erika; Karew, Artem; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2017-10-01

    A highly debated issue in memory research is whether familiarity is supported by the parahippocampal region, especially the lateral (LEC) and the perirhinal (PER) cortices, or whether it is supported by the same brain structure as recollection: the hippocampus. One reason for this is that conflicting results have emerged regarding the contribution of the hippocampus to familiarity. This might stem from the lack of dissociation between hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 as these areas are involved to a different extent in processes which are pertinent to familiarity. Another reason is that empirical evidence for a contribution of the LEC is still missing. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the superficial and the deep layers of the LEC would equally contribute to this process as these layers are differentially recruited during memory retrieval which partly relies on familiarity. To identify the specific contribution of the LEC, CA1, and CA3, we imaged with cellular resolution activity in the brain of rats performing a version of a standard human memory task adapted to rats that yields judgments based on familiarity. Using this translational approach, we report that in striking contrast to CA1 and CA3, the LEC is recruited for familiarity-judgments and that its contribution is comparable to that of the PER. These results show for the first time that the LEC, specifically its deep layers, contributes to familiarity and constitute the first cellular evidence that the hippocampus does not, thus establishing that familiarity does not share the same neural substrate as recollection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ketogenic diets cause opposing changes in synaptic morphology in CA1 hippocampus and dentate gyrus of late-adult rats.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Marta; Giorgetti, Belinda; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Grossi, Yessica; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Casoli, Tiziana; Platano, Daniela; Solazzi, Moreno; Orlando, Fiorenza; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo

    2008-06-01

    Ketogenic diets (KDs) have beneficial effects on several diseases, such as epilepsy, mitochondriopathies, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, little is known about their effects on aging individuals. In the present study, late-adult (19-month-old) rats were fed for 8 weeks with two medium chain triglycerides (MCT)-KDs, and the following morphologic parameters reflecting synaptic plasticity were evaluated in stratum moleculare of hippocampal CA1 region (SM CA1) and outer molecular layer of hippocampal dentate gyrus (OML DG): average area (S), numeric density (Nv(s)), and surface density (Sv) of synapses, and average volume (V), numeric density (Nv(m)), and volume density (Vv) of synaptic mitochondria. In SM CA1, MCT-KDs induced the early appearance of the morphologic patterns typical of old animals (higher S and V, and lower Nv(s) and Nv(m)). On the contrary, in OML DG, Sv and Vv of MCT-KDs-fed rats were higher (as a result of higher Nv(s) and Nv(m)) versus controls; these modifications are known to improve synaptic function and metabolic supply. The opposite effects of MCT-KDs might reflect the different susceptibility to aging processes: OML DG is less vulnerable than SM CA1, and the reactivation of ketone bodies uptake and catabolism might occur more efficiently in this region, allowing the exploitation of their peculiar metabolic properties. Present findings provide the first evidence that MCT-KDs may cause opposite morphologic modifications, being potentially harmful for SM CA1 and potentially advantageous for OML DG. This implies risks but also promising potentialities for their therapeutic use during aging.

  15. Presynaptic ultrastructural plasticity along CA3CA1 axons during long-term potentiation in mature hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Jennifer N; Chirillo, Michael A; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-12-01

    In area CA1 of the mature hippocampus, synaptogenesis occurs within 30 minutes after the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP); however, by 2 hours many small dendritic spines are lost, and those remaining have larger synapses. Little is known, however, about associated changes in presynaptic vesicles and axonal boutons. Axons in CA1 stratum radiatum were evaluated with 3D reconstructions from serial section electron microscopy at 30 minutes and 2 hours after induction of LTP by theta-burst stimulation (TBS). The frequency of axonal boutons with a single postsynaptic partner was decreased by 33% at 2 hours, corresponding perfectly to the 33% loss specifically of small dendritic spines (head diameters <0.45 μm). Docked vesicles were reduced at 30 minutes and then returned to control levels by 2 hours following induction of LTP. By 2 hours there were fewer small synaptic vesicles overall in the presynaptic vesicle pool. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was used as a marker of local activity, and axonal boutons containing clathrin-coated pits showed a more pronounced decrease in presynaptic vesicles at both 30 minutes and 2 hours after induction of LTP relative to control values. Putative transport packets, identified as a cluster of less than 10 axonal vesicles occurring between synaptic boutons, were stable at 30 minutes but markedly reduced by 2 hours after the induction of LTP. APV blocked these effects, suggesting that the loss of axonal boutons and presynaptic vesicles was dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activation during LTP. These findings show that specific presynaptic ultrastructural changes complement postsynaptic ultrastructural plasticity during LTP. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Influence of Ectopic Migration of Granule Cells into the Hilus on Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Function

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Catherine E.; Bermudez-Hernandez, Keria; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal neurogenesis of granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) produces GCs that normally migrate from the subgranular zone to the GC layer. However, GCs can mismigrate into the hilus, the opposite direction. Previous descriptions of these hilar ectopic GCs (hEGCs) suggest that they are rare unless there are severe seizures. However, it is not clear if severe seizures are required, and it also is unclear if severe seizures are responsible for the abnormalities of hEGCs, which include atypical dendrites and electrophysiological properties. Here we show that large numbers of hEGCs develop in a transgenic mouse without severe seizures. The mice have a deletion of BAX, which normally regulates apoptosis. Surprisingly, we show that hEGCs in the BAX-/- mouse have similar abnormalities as hEGCs that arise after severe seizures. We next asked if there are selective effects of hEGCs, i.e., whether a robust population of hEGCs would have any effect on the DG if they were induced without severe seizures. Indeed, this appears to be true, because it has been reported that BAX-/- mice have defects in a behavior that tests pattern separation, which depends on the DG. However, inferring functional effects of hEGCs is difficult in mice with a constitutive BAX deletion because there is decreased apoptosis in and outside the DG. Therefore, a computational model of the normal DG and hippocampal subfield CA3 was used. Adding a small population of hEGCs (5% of all GCs), with characteristics defined empirically, was sufficient to disrupt a simulation of pattern separation and completion. Modeling results also showed that effects of hEGCs were due primarily to “backprojections” of CA3 pyramidal cell axons to the hilus. The results suggest that hEGCs can develop for diverse reasons, do not depend on severe seizures, and a small population of hEGCs may impair DG-dependent function. PMID:23840835

  17. Neuroprotective Effect of Amantadine on Corticosterone-induced Abnormal Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission of CA3-CA1 pathway in rat's hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hui; Li, Qun; Zhang, Tao

    2017-09-13

    Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs), miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and the action potentials of CA3 neurons were recorded. Our data showed that corticosterone increased the amplitude of eEPSCs and decreased the value of paired-pulse ratio (PPR), but both of them were significantly reversed by amantadine. In addition, the frequency of mEPSC was considerably increased by corticosterone, but it was reduced by amantadine. Moreover, we used the Fluo-3/AM image to detect the Ca(2+) influx in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The results showed that the intracellular calcium levels were significantly decreased by amantadine in the corticosterone treated neurons. Additionally, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were reduced by corticosterone, while they were enhanced by either amantadine or low-calcium artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF). These results suggest that amantadine significantly improves corticosterone-induced abnormal glutamatergic synaptic transmission of CA3-CA1 synapses presynaptically and alleviates the activities of antioxidant enzymes via regulating the calcium influx. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Estradiol and the Relationship between Dendritic Spines, NR2B Containing NMDA Receptors, and the Magnitude of Long-Term Potentiation at Hippocampal CA3-CA1 Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caroline C.; Vedder, Lindsey C.; McMahon, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary When circulating estrogen levels decline as a natural consequence of menopause and aging in women, there is an increased incidence of deficits in working memory. In many cases, these deficits are rescued by estrogen replacement therapy. These clinical data therefore highlight the importance of defining the biological pathways linking estrogen to the cellular substrates of learning and memory. It has been known for nearly two decades that estrogen enhances dendritic spine density on apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells in hippocampus, a brain region required for learning. Interestingly, at synapses between CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells, estrogen has also been shown to enhance synaptic NMDA receptor current and the magnitude of long term potentiation, a cellular correlate of learning and memory. Given that synapse density, NMDAR function, and long term potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses in hippocampus are associated with normal learning, it is likely that modulation of these parameters by estrogen facilitates the improvement in learning observed in rats, primates and humans following estrogen replacement. To facilitate the design of clinical strategies to potentially prevent or reverse the age-related decline in learning and memory during menopause, the relationship between the estrogen-induced morphological and functional changes in hippocampus must be defined and the role these changes play in facilitating learning must be elucidated. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the proposed mechanisms by which this hormone increases synaptic function and in doing so, it briefly addresses potential mechanisms contributing to the estrogen-induced increase in synaptic morphology and plasticity, as well as important future directions. PMID:19596521

  19. Perirhinal cortical inactivation impairs object-in-place memory and disrupts task-dependent firing in hippocampal CA1, but not in CA3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inah; Park, Seong-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Objects and their locations can associatively define an event and a conjoint representation of object-place can form an event memory. Remembering how to respond to a certain object in a spatial context is dependent on both hippocampus and perirhinal cortex (PER). However, the relative functional contributions of the two regions are largely unknown in object-place associative memory. We investigated the PER influence on hippocampal firing in a goal-directed object-place memory task by comparing the firing patterns of CA1 and CA3 of the dorsal hippocampus between conditions of PER muscimol inactivation and vehicle control infusions. Rats were required to choose one of the two objects in a specific spatial context (regardless of the object positions in the context), which was shown to be dependent on both hippocampus and PER. Inactivation of PER with muscimol (MUS) severely disrupted performance of well-trained rats, resulting in response bias (i.e., choosing any object on a particular side). MUS did not significantly alter the baseline firing rates of hippocampal neurons. We measured the similarity in firing patterns between two trial conditions in which the same target objects were chosen on opposite sides within the same arm [object-in-place (O-P) strategy] and compared the results with the similarity in firing between two trial conditions in which the rat chose any object encountered on a particular side [response-in-place (R-P) strategy]. We found that the similarity in firing patterns for O-P trials was significantly reduced with MUS compared to control conditions (CTs). Importantly, this was largely because MUS injections affected the O-P firing patterns in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3. The results suggest that PER is critical for goal-directed organization of object-place associative memory in the hippocampus presumably by influencing how object information is associated with spatial information in CA1 according to task demand. PMID:23966912

  20. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase C Is Not Required for Post-Tetanic Potentiation at the Hippocampal CA3 to CA1 Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Chieh; Weyrer, Christopher; Paturu, Mounica; Fioravante, Diasynou

    2016-01-01

    Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is a widespread form of short-term synaptic plasticity in which a period of elevated presynaptic activation leads to synaptic enhancement that lasts tens of seconds to minutes. A leading hypothesis for the mechanism of PTP is that tetanic stimulation elevates presynaptic calcium that in turn activates calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms to phosphorylate targets and enhance neurotransmitter release. Previous pharmacological studies have implicated this mechanism in PTP at hippocampal synapses, but the results are controversial. Here we combine genetic and pharmacological approaches to determine the role of classic PKC isoforms in PTP. We find that PTP is unchanged in PKC triple knock-out (TKO) mice in which all calcium-dependent PKC isoforms have been eliminated (PKCα, PKCβ, and PKCγ). We confirm previous studies and find that in wild-type mice 10 μm of the PKC inhibitor GF109203 eliminates PTP and the PKC activator PDBu enhances neurotransmitter release and occludes PTP. However, we find that the same concentrations of GF109203 and PDBu have similar effects in TKO animals. We also show that 2 μm GF109203 does not abolish PTP even though it inhibits the PDBu-dependent phosphorylation of PKC substrates. We conclude that at the CA3 to CA1 synapse Ca2+-dependent PKC isoforms do not serve as calcium sensors to mediate PTP. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons dynamically regulate neurotransmitter release through many processes known collectively as synaptic plasticity. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) is a widespread form of synaptic plasticity that lasts for tens of seconds that may have important computational roles and contribute to short-term memory. According to a leading mechanism, presynaptic calcium activates protein kinase C (PKC) to increase neurotransmitter release. Pharmacological studies have also implicated this mechanism at hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synapses, but there are concerns about the specificity of PKC

  1. Differential neurogenic potential of progenitor cells in dentate gyrus and CA1 sector of the postischemic adult monkey hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tonchev, Anton B; Yamashima, Tetsumori

    2006-03-01

    The adult mammalian hippocampus contains neural progenitor cells capable of neuronal production under normal conditions. Cerebral injuries such as ischemia lead to their upregulation in rodent models, resulting in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 sector. The adult primate DG also has neurogenic potential under normal conditions, and we have previously shown that transient global cerebral ischemia increases progenitor cell proliferation in monkey DG, with a peak in the second postischemic week. Until now, however, long-term effects of ischemia on adult-generated cells in the primate hippocampus have not been described. We show here that nearly 15% of the adult-generated cells in monkey DG express neuronal features in the dentate granule layer for at least 79 days after the insult. At the same time, most adult-born cells in DG sustained their localization in the subgranular zone with an immature progenitor phenotype. In contrast to DG, no signs of neuronal production were observed in the postischemic hippocampus proper and in particular in the CA1 sector, where the newly-born cells were consistently of glial phenotype. Proliferating progenitors in DG but not in the subventricular zone adjacent to CA1 expressed the pro-neural transcription factors Emx2, Pax6 and Ngn2. Taken together, these results suggest that the neuronal production in adult monkey hippocampus after global brain ischemia is limited to DG and does not occur in the hippocampus proper. The present data implicate the proteins Emx2, Pax6 and Ngn2 as putative molecular signals controlling the fate of progenitor cells of the adult primate hippocampus.

  2. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Contribution of Egr1/zif268 to Activity-Dependent Arc/Arg3.1 Transcription in the Dentate Gyrus and Area CA1 of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Penke, Zsuzsa; Chagneau, Carine; Laroche, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Egr1, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, and Arc are immediate early genes known to play major roles in synaptic plasticity and memory. Despite evidence that Egr family members can control Arc transcriptional regulation, demonstration of a selective role of Egr1 alone is lacking. We investigated the extent to which activity-dependent Arc expression is dependent on Egr1 by analyzing Arc mRNA expression using fluorescence in situ hybridization in the dorsal dentate gyrus and CA1 of wild-type (WT) and Egr1 knockout mice. Following electroconvulsive shock, we found biphasic expression of Arc in area CA1 in mice, consisting in a rapid (30 min) and transient wave followed by a second late-phase of expression (8 h), and a single but prolonged wave of expression in the dentate gyrus. Egr1 deficiency abolished the latest, but not the early wave of Arc expression in CA1, and curtailed that of the dentate gyrus. Since the early wave of Arc expression was not affected in Egr1 mutant mice, we next analyzed behaviorally induced Arc expression patterns as an index of neural ensemble activation in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 of WT and Egr1 mutant mice. Spatial exploration of novel or familiar environments induced in mice a single early and transient wave of Arc expression in the dentate gyrus and area CA1, which were not affected in Egr1 mutant mice. Analyses of Arc-expressing cells revealed that exploration recruits similar size dentate gyrus and CA1 neural ensembles in WT and Egr1 knockout mice. These findings suggest that hippocampal neural ensembles are normally activated immediately following spatial exploration in Egr1 knockout mice, indicating normal hippocampal encoding of information. They also provide evidence that in condition of strong activation Egr1 alone can control late-phases of activity-dependent Arc transcription in the dentate gyrus and area CA1 of the hippocampus. PMID:21887136

  4. Presynaptic calcium stores contribute to nicotine-elicited potentiation of evoked synaptic transmission at CA3-CA1 connections in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Le Magueresse, Corentin; Cherubini, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. It is well established that presynaptic, alpha7-containing nAChRs modulate glutamate release in several brain areas, and that this modulation requires extracellular calcium. However, the intracellular mechanisms consecutive to nAChR opening are unclear. Recent studies have suggested a role for presynaptic calcium stores in the increase of neurotransmitter release following nAChR activation. Using the minimal stimulation protocol at low-probability Schaffer collateral synapses in acute hippocampal slices from neonatal rats, we show that nicotine acting on presynaptic alpha7 nAChRs persistently upregulates glutamate release. We tested the role of calcium stores in this potentiation. First, we examined the relationship between calcium stores and glutamate release. We found that bath application of SERCA pump inhibitors (cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin), as well as an agonist of ryanodine receptors (ryanodine 2 microM) increases the probability of glutamate release at CA3-CA1 synapses, decreases the coefficient of variation and the paired-pulse ratio, indicating that presynaptic activation of calcium-induced calcium release can modulate glutamatergic transmission. Next, we investigated whether blocking calcium release from internal stores could alter the effect of nicotine. Preincubation with thapsigargin (10 microM), cyclopiazonic acid (30 microM), or with a high (blocking) concentration of ryanodine (100 microM) for 30 min to 5 h failed to block the effect of nicotine. However, after preincubation in ryanodine, nicotine-elicited potentiation was significantly shortened. These results indicate that at immature Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, activation of presynaptic calcium stores is not necessary for but contributes to nicotine-elicited increase of neurotransmitter release.

  5. Repeating Spatial-Temporal Motifs of CA3 Activity Dependent on Engineered Inputs from Dentate Gyrus Neurons in Live Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Aparajita; Desai, Harsh; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical and behavioral studies, and in vivo and slice electrophysiology of the hippocampus suggest specific functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the CA3 subregions, but the underlying activity dynamics and repeatability of information processing remains poorly understood. To approach this problem, we engineered separate living networks of the DG and CA3 neurons that develop connections through 51 tunnels for axonal communication. Growing these networks on top of an electrode array enabled us to determine whether the subregion dynamics were separable and repeatable. We found spontaneous development of polarized propagation of 80% of the activity in the native direction from DG to CA3 and different spike and burst dynamics for these subregions. Spatial-temporal differences emerged when the relationships of target CA3 activity were categorized with to the number and timing of inputs from the apposing network. Compared to times of CA3 activity when there was no recorded tunnel input, DG input led to CA3 activity bursts that were 7× more frequent, increased in amplitude and extended in temporal envelope. Logistic regression indicated that a high number of tunnel inputs predict CA3 activity with 90% sensitivity and 70% specificity. Compared to no tunnel input, patterns of >80% tunnel inputs from DG specified different patterns of first-to-fire neurons in the CA3 target well. Clustering dendrograms revealed repeating motifs of three or more patterns at up to 17 sites in CA3 that were importantly associated with specific spatial-temporal patterns of tunnel activity. The number of these motifs recorded in 3 min was significantly higher than shuffled spike activity and not seen above chance in control networks in which CA3 was apposed to CA3 or DG to DG. Together, these results demonstrate spontaneous input-dependent repeatable coding of distributed activity in CA3 networks driven by engineered inputs from DG networks. These functional configurations at measured times

  6. CAPS1 stabilizes the state of readily releasable synaptic vesicles to fusion competence at CA3CA1 synapses in adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Yo; Ishii, Chiaki; Fukazawa, Yugo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Ishii, Yuki; Sano, Yoshitake; Iwasato, Takuji; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) regulates exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells and of synaptic vesicles in neurons. However, the synaptic function of CAPS1 in the mature brain is unclear because Caps1 knockout (KO) results in neonatal death. Here, using forebrain-specific Caps1 conditional KO (cKO) mice, we demonstrate, for the first time, a critical role of CAPS1 in adult synapses. The amplitude of synaptic transmission at CA3CA1 synapses was strongly reduced, and paired-pulse facilitation was significantly increased, in acute hippocampal slices from cKO mice compared with control mice, suggesting a perturbation in presynaptic function. Morphological analysis revealed an accumulation of synaptic vesicles in the presynapse without any overall morphological change. Interestingly, however, the percentage of docked vesicles was markedly decreased in the Caps1 cKO. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAPS1 stabilizes the state of readily releasable synaptic vesicles, thereby enhancing neurotransmitter release at hippocampal synapses. PMID:27545744

  7. Electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal ca1 and the dentate gyrus of rats chronically exposed to 1-bromopropane, a substitute for specific chlorofluorocarbons.

    PubMed

    Fueta, Y; Fukuda, T; Ishidao, T; Hori, H

    2004-01-01

    1-Bromopropane is a newly introduced substitute for specific chlorofluorocarbons whose production was prohibited because of depletion of ozone layers. In this study, we analyzed disinhibitory effects induced by repetitive inhalation of 1-bromopropane for 12 weeks in the hippocampal CA1 and the dentate gyrus. In addition, reversal of the disinhibitory effects was examined 4 weeks after 1-bromopropane inhalation ceased. Exposure rats were placed in a stainless steel inhalation chamber at a concentration of 700 ppm, while the control group was provided only room air in the same type of chamber. Paired-pulse inhibition of population spike was considerably decreased (P<0.05) at 5 ms interpulse intervals in the CA1, and at 10 and 20 ms (P<0.05) interpulse intervals in the dentate gyrus in slices obtained from exposed rats following 4-, 8- and 12-week inhalation periods. The paired-pulse inhibition was decreased at 5 ms interpulse intervals in the dentate gyrus after 12 weeks of inhalation. These changes were not associated with the paired-pulse ratio of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials, suggesting a reduction of recurrent inhibition. The disinhibition was counteracted with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonopentameric acid in the dentate gyrus, whereas it was unchanged in the CA1. Tiagabine, a selective inhibitor of GABA transporter GAT1, increased the paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus, and the increase was less in the exposed rats compared with control rats (P<0.0003). The changes in both areas recovered to control levels 4 weeks after cessation of inhalation. Our electrophysiological studies suggest differential and reversible disinhibitory effects in the dentate gyrus and the CA1. 1-Bromopropane-induced disinhibition was further analyzed by immunohistochemical methods. There were no apparent morphological defects in either excitatory or inhibitory neuronal components, supporting the reversibility of physiological

  8. Changes in the content of fatty acids in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats after single and fivefold audiogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Savina, Tatyana; Aripovsky, Alexander; Kulagina, Tatyana

    2017-09-01

    Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures. The total content of fatty acids in field СА3 decreased at all times of examination after a single seizure, whereas it remained unchanged on days 3 and 14 following five AS. The content of omega-3 fatty acids in both fields at all times of observation after a single seizure and fivefold AS did not significantly differ from that in intact animals. The absence of significant changes in the content of stearic and α-linolenic acids and a considerable decrease in the levels of palmitic, oleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids were common to both fields at all times after both a single seizure or fivefold AS. The changes in the content of fatty acids in the СА3 and СА1 fields of the brain of AS-susceptible rats indicate that fatty acids are involved in both the development of seizure activity and neuroprotective anticonvulsive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator S 47445 rescues in vivo CA3-CA1 long-term potentiation and structural synaptic changes in old mice.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Albert; Gómez-Climent, María Ángeles; Alcalá, Rafael; Bretin, Sylvie; Bertrand, Daniel; María Delgado-García, José; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Alberch, Jordi; Gruart, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are small molecules that decrease deactivation of AMPARs via an allosteric site. These molecules keep the receptor in an active state. Interestingly, this type of modulator has been proposed for treating cognitive decline in ageing, dementias, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). S 47445 (8-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-7,8-dihydro-3H-[1,3]oxazino[6,5-g][1,2,3]benzotriazine-4,9-dione) is a novel AMPAR positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM). Here, the mechanisms by which S 47445 could improve synaptic strength and connectivity were studied and compared between young and old mice. A single oral administration of S 47445 at 10 mg/kg significantly increased long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses in alert young mice in comparison to control mice. Moreover, chronic treatment with S 47445 at 10 mg/kg in old alert animals significantly counteracted the deficit of LTP due to age. Accordingly, chronic treatment with S 47445 at 10 mg/kg seems to preserve synaptic cytoarchitecture in old mice as compared with young control mice. It was shown that the significant decreases in number and size of pre-synaptic buttons stained for VGlut1, and post-synaptic dendritic spines stained for spinophilin, observed in old mice were significantly prevented after chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg of S 47445. Altogether, by its different effects on LTP, VGlut1-positive particles, and spinophilin, S 47445 is able to modulate both the structure and function of hippocampal excitatory synapses known to be involved in learning and memory processes. These results open a new window for the treatment of specific age-dependent cognitive decline and dementias such as AD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Stimulation-Evoked Ca2+ Signals in Astrocytic Processes at Hippocampal CA3CA1 Synapses of Adult Mice Are Modulated by Glutamate and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Szokol, Karolina; Jensen, Vidar; Enger, Rune; Trivedi, Chintan A.; Hvalby, Øivind; Helm, P. Johannes; Looger, Loren L.; Sprengel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    To date, it has been difficult to reveal physiological Ca2+ events occurring within the fine astrocytic processes of mature animals. The objective of the study was to explore whether neuronal activity evokes astrocytic Ca2+ signals at glutamatergic synapses of adult mice. We stimulated the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers in acute hippocampal slices from adult mice transduced with the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator GCaMP5E driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Two-photon imaging revealed global stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca2+ signals with distinct latencies, rise rates, and amplitudes in fine processes and somata. Specifically, the Ca2+ signals in the processes were faster and of higher amplitude than those in the somata. A combination of P2 purinergic and group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists reduced the amplitude of the Ca2+ transients by 30–40% in both astrocytic compartments. Blockage of the mGluRs alone only modestly reduced the magnitude of the stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in processes and failed to affect the somatic Ca2+ response. Local application of group I or I/II mGluR agonists or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) elicited global astrocytic Ca2+ signals that mimicked the stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca2+ responses. We conclude that stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at CA3CA1 synapses of adult mice (1) differ from those in astrocytic somata and (2) are modulated by glutamate and ATP. PMID:25698739

  11. Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wannan; Szokol, Karolina; Jensen, Vidar; Enger, Rune; Trivedi, Chintan A; Hvalby, Øivind; Helm, P Johannes; Looger, Loren L; Sprengel, Rolf; Nagelhus, Erlend A

    2015-02-18

    To date, it has been difficult to reveal physiological Ca(2+) events occurring within the fine astrocytic processes of mature animals. The objective of the study was to explore whether neuronal activity evokes astrocytic Ca(2+) signals at glutamatergic synapses of adult mice. We stimulated the Schaffer collateral/commissural fibers in acute hippocampal slices from adult mice transduced with the genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator GCaMP5E driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Two-photon imaging revealed global stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca(2+) signals with distinct latencies, rise rates, and amplitudes in fine processes and somata. Specifically, the Ca(2+) signals in the processes were faster and of higher amplitude than those in the somata. A combination of P2 purinergic and group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists reduced the amplitude of the Ca(2+) transients by 30-40% in both astrocytic compartments. Blockage of the mGluRs alone only modestly reduced the magnitude of the stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) signals in processes and failed to affect the somatic Ca(2+) response. Local application of group I or I/II mGluR agonists or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) elicited global astrocytic Ca(2+) signals that mimicked the stimulation-evoked astrocytic Ca(2+) responses. We conclude that stimulation-evoked Ca(2+) signals in astrocytic processes at CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice (1) differ from those in astrocytic somata and (2) are modulated by glutamate and ATP.

  12. Chronic 17β-estradiol or cholesterol prevents stress-induced hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in ovariectomized female rats: Possible correspondence between CA1 spine properties and spatial acquisition

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie J.; Wilson, Jessica O.; Harman, James; Wright, Ryan L.; Wieczorek, Lindsay A.; Gomez, Juan; Korol, Donna L.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic stress may have different effects on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neuronal morphology and function depending upon hormonal status, but rarely are manipulations of stress and gonadal steroids combined. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of chronic restraint and 17β-estradiol replacement on CA3 and CA1 dendritic morphology and spatial learning in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats. Ovariectomized rats were implanted with 25% 17β-estradiol, 100% cholesterol or blank silastic capsules, and then chronically restrained (6h/d/21d) or kept in home cages. 17β-estradiol or cholesterol prevented stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction, increased CA1 apical spine density, and altered CA1 spine shape. The combination of chronic stress and 17β-estradiol facilitated water maze acquisition compared to chronic stress + blank implants and nonstressed controls + 17β-estradiol. To further investigate the interaction between 17β-estradiol and stress on hippocampal morphology, Experiment 2 was conducted on gonadally intact, cycling female rats that were chronically restrained (6h/d/21d) and then euthanized at proestrus (high ovarian hormones) or estrus (low ovarian hormones). Cycling female rats failed to show chronic stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction at either estrous phase. Chronic stress enhanced the ratio of CA1 basal spine heads to headless spines as found in Experiment 1. In addition, proestrous rats displayed increased CA1 spine density regardless of stress history. These results show that 17β-estradiol or cholesterol protect against chronic stress-induced CA3 dendritic retraction in females. These stress- and 17β-estradiol-induced morphological changes may provide insight into how dendritic complexity and spine properties contribute to spatial ability. PMID:19650122

  13. Beta/gamma oscillatory activity in the CA3 hippocampal area is depressed by aberrant GABAergic transmission from the dentate gyrus after seizures.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario; Vivar, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2007-01-03

    Oscillatory activity in the CA3 region is thought to be involved in the encoding and retrieval of information. These oscillations originate from the recurrent excitation between pyramidal cells that are entrained by the synchronous rhythmic inhibition of local interneurons. We show here that, after seizures, the dentate gyrus (DG) tonically inhibits beta/gamma (20-24 Hz) field oscillations in the CA3 area through GABA-mediated signaling. These oscillations originate in the interneuron network because they are maintained in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, and they can be blocked by GABA(A) receptor antagonists or by perfusion of a calcium-free extracellular medium. Inhibition of this oscillatory activity requires intact DG-to-CA3 connections, and it is suppressed by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). The influence of mGluR activation was reflected in the spontaneous subthreshold membrane oscillations of CA3 interneurons after one seizure but could also be observed in pyramidal cells after several seizures. Coincident stimulation of the DG at and beta/gamma frequencies produced a frequency-dependent excitation of interneurons and the inhibition of pyramidal cells. Indeed, these effects were maximal at the frequency that matched the mGluR-sensitive spontaneous field oscillations, suggesting a resonance phenomenon. Our results shed light on the mechanisms that may underlie the deficits in memory and cognition observed after epileptic seizures.

  14. Nicotine-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses requires GABAergic interneurons in adult anti-NGF mice.

    PubMed

    Rosato-Siri, Marcelo; Cattaneo, Antonino; Cherubini, Enrico

    2006-10-15

    The hippocampus, a key structure for learning and memory processes, receives an important cholinergic innervation and is densely packed with a variety of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) localized on principal cells and interneurons. Activation of these receptors by nicotine or endogenously released acetylcholine enhances activity-dependent synaptic plasticity processes. Deficits in the cholinergic system produce impairment of cognitive functions that are particularly relevant during senescence and in age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. In particular, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and nAChRs in particular regions controlling memory processes such as the cortex and the hippocampus. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded in order to examine whether nicotine was able to regulate induction of long-term potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices from adult anti-NGF transgenic mice (AD 11), a comprehensive animal model of AD, in which cholinergic deficits due to nerve growth factor depletion are accompanied by progressive Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration. Both AD 11 and wild-type (WT) mice exhibited short- and long-lasting synaptic plasticity processes that were boosted by nicotine. The effects of nicotine on WT and AD 11 mice were mediated by both alpha7- and beta2-containing nAChRs. In the presence of GABA(A) receptor antagonists, nicotine failed to boost synaptic plasticity in AD 11 but not in WT mice, indicating that in anti-NGF transgenic mice GABAergic interneurons are able to compensate for the deficit in cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission. This compensation may occur at different levels and may involve the reorganization of the GABAergic circuit. However, patch-clamp whole-cell recordings from principal cells failed to reveal any change in spontaneous release of GABA following pressure application of nicotine to nearby

  15. HIF-1α-mediated upregulation of SERCA2b: The endogenous mechanism for alleviating the ischemia-induced intracellular Ca(2+) store dysfunction in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kopach, Olga; Maistrenko, Anastasiia; Lushnikova, Iryna; Belan, Pavel; Skibo, Galina; Voitenko, Nana

    2016-05-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus possess differential susceptibility to the ischemia-induced damage with the highest vulnerability of CA1 and the lower sensitivity of CA3 neurons. This damage is triggered by Ca(2+)-dependent excitotoxicity and can result in a delayed cell death that might be potentially suspended through activation of endogenous neuroprotection with the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF). However, the molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotection remain poorly understood. Here we show that prolonged (30min) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in situ impairs intracellular Ca(2+) regulation in CA1 rather than in CA3 neurons with the differently altered expression of genes coding Ca(2+)-ATPases: the mRNA level of plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCA1 and PMCA2 subtypes) was downregulated in CA1 neurons, whereas the mRNA level of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases (SERCA2b subtype) was increased in CA3 neurons at 4h of re-oxygenation after prolonged OGD. These demonstrate distinct susceptibility of CA1 and CA3 neurons to the ischemic impairments in intracellular Ca(2+) regulation and Ca(2+)-ATPase expression. Stabilization of HIF-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α hydroxylation prevented the ischemic decrease in both PMCA1 and PMCA2 mRNAs in CA1 neurons, upregulated the SERCA2b mRNA level and eliminated the OGD-induced Ca(2+) store dysfunction in these neurons. Cumulatively, these findings reveal the previously unknown HIF-1α-driven upregulation of Ca(2+)-ATPases as a mechanism opposing the ischemic impairments in intracellular Ca(2+) regulation in hippocampal neurons. The ability of HIF-1α to modulate expression of genes coding Ca(2+)-ATPases suggests SERCA2b as a novel target for HIF-1 and may provide potential implications for HIF-1α-stabilizing strategy in activating endogenous neuroprotection.

  16. Differential Vulnerability of CA1 versus CA3 Pyramidal Neurons After Ischemia: Possible Relationship to Sources of Zn2+ Accumulation and Its Entry into and Prolonged Effects on Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, Yuliya V; Ji, Sung G; Yin, Hong Z; Weiss, John H

    2017-01-18

    Excitotoxic mechanisms contribute to the degeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after recurrent seizures and brain ischemia. However, susceptibility differs, with CA1 neurons degenerating preferentially after global ischemia and CA3 neurons after limbic seizures. Whereas most studies address contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) entry, it is apparent that Zn(2+) also contributes, reflecting accumulation in neurons either after synaptic release and entry through postsynaptic channels or upon mobilization from intracellular Zn(2+)-binding proteins such as metallothionein-III (MT-III). Using mouse hippocampal slices to study acute oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-triggered neurodegeneration, we found evidence for early contributions of excitotoxic Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) accumulation in both CA1 and CA3, as indicated by the ability of Zn(2+) chelators or Ca(2+) entry blockers to delay pyramidal neuronal death in both regions. However, using knock-out animals (of MT-III and vesicular Zn(2+) transporter, ZnT3) and channel blockers revealed substantial differences in relevant Zn(2+) sources, with critical contributions of presynaptic release and its permeation through Ca(2+)- (and Zn(2+))-permeable AMPA channels in CA3 and Zn(2+) mobilization from MT-III predominating in CA1. To assess the consequences of the intracellular Zn(2+) accumulation, we used OGD exposures slightly shorter than those causing acute neuronal death; under these conditions, cytosolic Zn(2+) rises persisted for 10-30 min after OGD, followed by recovery over ∼40-60 min. Furthermore, the recovery appeared to be accompanied by mitochondrial Zn(2+) accumulation (via the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter MCU) in CA1 but not in CA3 neurons and was markedly diminished in MT-III knock-outs, suggesting that it depended upon Zn(2+) mobilization from this protein.

  17. Distinct Pattern Separation Related Transfer Functions in Human CA3/Dentate and CA1 Revealed Using High-Resolution fMRI and Variable Mnemonic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Joyce W.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Shauna M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Producing and maintaining distinct (orthogonal) neural representations for similar events is critical to avoiding interference in long-term memory. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence for separation-like signals in the human CA3/dentate. Here, we extended this by parametrically varying the change in input (similarity) while…

  18. Distinct Pattern Separation Related Transfer Functions in Human CA3/Dentate and CA1 Revealed Using High-Resolution fMRI and Variable Mnemonic Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Joyce W.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Shauna M.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Producing and maintaining distinct (orthogonal) neural representations for similar events is critical to avoiding interference in long-term memory. Recently, our laboratory provided the first evidence for separation-like signals in the human CA3/dentate. Here, we extended this by parametrically varying the change in input (similarity) while…

  19. The Relationship between the Field-Shifting Phenomenon and Representational Coherence of Place Cells in CA1 and CA3 in a Cue-Altered Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Inah; Knierim, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Subfields of the hippocampus display differential dynamics in processing a spatial environment, especially when changes are introduced to the environment. Specifically, when familiar cues in the environment are spatially rearranged, place cells in the CA3 subfield tend to rotate with a particular set of cues (e.g., proximal cues), maintaining a…

  20. The Relationship between the Field-Shifting Phenomenon and Representational Coherence of Place Cells in CA1 and CA3 in a Cue-Altered Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Inah; Knierim, James J.

    2007-01-01

    Subfields of the hippocampus display differential dynamics in processing a spatial environment, especially when changes are introduced to the environment. Specifically, when familiar cues in the environment are spatially rearranged, place cells in the CA3 subfield tend to rotate with a particular set of cues (e.g., proximal cues), maintaining a…

  1. Prox1 postmitotically defines dentate gyrus cells by specifying granule cell identity over CA3 pyramidal cell fate in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Tomohiko; Masuda, Aki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Hideki; Matsuzaki, Fumio

    2012-08-01

    The brain is composed of diverse types of neurons that fulfill distinct roles in neuronal circuits, as manifested by the hippocampus, where pyramidal neurons and granule cells constitute functionally distinct domains: cornu ammonis (CA) and dentate gyrus (DG), respectively. Little is known about how these two types of neuron differentiate during hippocampal development, although a set of transcription factors that is expressed in progenitor cells is known to be required for the survival of granule cells. Here, we demonstrate in mice that Prox1, a transcription factor constitutively expressed in the granule cell lineage, postmitotically functions to specify DG granule cell identity. Postmitotic elimination of Prox1 caused immature DG neurons to lose the granule cell identity and in turn terminally differentiate into the pyramidal cell type manifesting CA3 neuronal identity. By contrast, Prox1 overexpression caused opposing effects on presumptive hippocampal pyramidal cells. These results indicate that the immature DG cell has the potential to become a granule cell or a pyramidal cell, and Prox1 defines the granule cell identity. This bi-potency is lost in mature DG cells, although Prox1 is still required for correct gene expression in DG granule cells. Thus, our data indicate that Prox1 acts as a postmitotic cell fate determinant for DG granule cells over the CA3 pyramidal cell fate and is crucial for maintenance of the granule cell identity throughout the life.

  2. The GABAergic projection of the dentate gyrus to hippocampal area CA3 of the rat: pre- and postsynaptic actions after seizures

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    The glutamatergic granule cells of the dentate gyrus transiently express GABAergic markers after seizures. Here we show that when this occurs, their activation produces (i) GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic field responses in CA3, with the physiological and pharmacological characteristics of mossy fibre transmission, and (ii) GABAA receptor-mediated collateral inhibition. Control hippocampal slices present, on stimulation of the dentate gyrus, population responses in stratum lucidum, which are blocked by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. By contrast, in slices from rats subjected to seizures in vivo, dentate activation additionally produces GABAA receptor-mediated field synaptic responses in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists. One-dimensional current source density analysis confirmed the spatial coincidence of the glutamatergic and GABAergic dendritic currents. The GABAA receptor-mediated field responses show frequency-dependent facilitation and strong inhibition during activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In the presence of glutamate receptor blockers, a conditioning pulse delivered to one site of the dentate gyrus inhibits the population synaptic response and the afferent volley provoked by the activation of a second site, in a bicuculline-sensitive manner. In accordance with this, antidromic responses evoked by mossy fibre activation were enhanced by perfusion of bicuculline. Our results suggest that, for GABA receptor-dependent field potentials to be detected, a considerable number of boutons of a well-defined GABAergic pathway should simultaneously release GABA to act on a large number of receptors. Therefore, putative GABA release from the mossy fibres acts on pre- and postsynaptic sites to affect hippocampal activity at the network level after seizures. PMID:16002442

  3. Visuospatial learning and memory in the Cebus apella and microglial morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and CA1 lacunosum molecular layer.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, Carlos; de Lima, Camila M; Fôro, César A R; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Magalhães, Nara G M; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Diniz, Daniel G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2014-11-01

    We investigated whether the morphology of microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol) or in the lacunosum molecular layer of CA1 (CA1-LMol) was correlated with spatial learning and memory in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Learning and memory was tested in 4 monkeys with visuo-spatial, paired associated learning (PAL) tasks from the Cambridge battery of neuropsychological tests. After testing, monkeys were sacrificed, and hippocampi were sectioned. We specifically immunolabeled microglia with an antibody against the adapter binding, ionized calcium protein. Microglia were selected from the middle and outer thirds of the DG-Mol (n=268) and the CA1-LMol (n=185) for three-dimensional reconstructions created with Neurolucida and Neuroexplorer software. Cluster and discriminant analyses, based on microglial morphometric parameters, identified two major morphological microglia phenotypes (types I and II) found in both the CA1-LMol and DG-Mol of all individuals. Compared to type II, type I microglia were significantly smaller, thinner, more tortuous and ramified, and less complex (lower fractal dimensions). PAL performance was both linearly and non-linearly correlated with type I microglial morphological features from the rostral and caudal DG-Mol, but not with microglia from the CA1-LMol. These differences in microglial morphology and correlations with PAL performance were consistent with previous proposals of hippocampal regional contributions for spatial learning and memory. Our results suggested that at least two morphological microglial phenotypes provided distinct physiological roles to learning-associated activity in the rostral and caudal DG-Mol of the monkey brain.

  4. L-type Ca2+ currents at CA1 synapses, but not CA3 or dentate granule neuron synapses, are increased in 3xTgAD mice in an age-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal excitability and impaired synaptic plasticity might occur before the degeneration and death of neurons in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To elucidate potential biophysical alterations underlying aberrant neuronal network activity in AD, we performed whole-cell patch clamp analyses of L-type (nifedipine-sensitive) Ca2+ currents (L-VGCC), 4–aminopyridine-sensitive K+ currents, and AMPA (2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid) and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) currents in CA1, CA3, and dentate granule neurons in hippocampal slices from young, middle-age, and old 3xTgAD mice and age-matched wild type mice. 3xTgAD mice develop progressive widespread accumulation of amyloid b-peptide, and selective hyperphosphorylated tau pathology in hippocampal CA1 neurons, which are associated with cognitive deficits, but independent of overt neuronal degeneration. An age-related elevation of L-type Ca2+ channel current density occurred in CA1 neurons in 3xTgAD mice, but not in wild type mice, with the magnitude being significantly greater in older 3xTgAD mice. The NMDA current was also significantly elevated in CA1 neurons of old 3xTgAD mice compared with in old wild type mice. There were no differences in the amplitude of K+ or AMPA currents in CA1 neurons of 3xTgAD mice compared with wild type mice at any age. There were no significant differences in Ca2+, K+, AMPA, or NMDA currents in CA3 and dentate neurons from 3xTgAD mice compared with wild type mice at any age. Our results reveal an age-related increase of L-VGCC density in CA1 neurons, but not in CA3 or dentate granule neurons, of 3xTgAD mice. These findings suggest a potential contribution of altered L-VGCC to the selective vulnerability of CA1 neurons to tau pathology in the 3xTgAD mice and to their degeneration in AD patients. PMID:23932880

  5. Dentate gyrus supports slope recognition memory, shades of grey-context pattern separation and recognition memory, and CA3 supports pattern completion for object memory.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P; Kirk, Ryan A; Yu, Zhenghui; Polansky, Caitlin; Musso, Nick D

    2016-03-01

    In order to examine the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) in slope (vertical space) recognition and possible pattern separation, various slope (vertical space) degrees were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in slope (vertical space) recognition memory and slope memory pattern separation in Experiment 1. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a slope recognition memory function with a pattern separation process for slope memory that is dependent upon the magnitude of change in slope between study and test phases. In contrast, the dDG lesioned rats displayed an impairment in slope recognition memory, though because there was no significant interaction between the two groups and slope memory, a reliable pattern separation impairment for slope could not be firmly established in the DG lesioned rats. In Experiment 2, in order to determine whether, the dDG plays a role in shades of grey spatial context recognition and possible pattern separation, shades of grey were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in the shades of grey context environment. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a shades of grey-context pattern separation effect across levels of separation of context (shades of grey). In contrast, the DG lesioned rats displayed a significant interaction between the two groups and levels of shades of grey suggesting impairment in a pattern separation function for levels of shades of grey. In Experiment 3 in order to determine whether the dorsal CA3 (dCA3) plays a role in object pattern completion, a new task requiring less training and using a choice that was based on choosing the correct set of objects on a two-choice discrimination task was used. The results indicated that control rats displayed a pattern completion function based on the availability of one, two, three or four cues. In contrast, the dCA3 lesioned rats

  6. c-fos modulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in mouse hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus neurons.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mei; Wu, Yongfei; Fan, Yunxia; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Jianhua

    2006-05-29

    Excess neuronal excitation by glutamate induces neuron cell death, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous studies using a mouse with hippocampal c-fos gene deletion showed that c-fos regulates neuronal excitability and excitotoxicity. Moreover, a delayed induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein expression in response to kainic acid (KA) treatment was found in c-fos mutant mice compared to wildtype controls, suggesting that c-fos is important in the temporal control of BDNF induction. To further investigate mechanisms of in vivo regulation of c-fos on BDNF expression, we studied the expression of BDNF mRNA and its colocalization with c-Fos protein in the hippocampal formation in the presence and absence of KA. By in situ hybridization, we observed that the c-fos mutant and wildtype mice exhibited similar basal expression of BDNF in the absence of KA. In contrast, the KA-induced BDNF mRNA levels were significantly different in wildtype and c-fos mutant mice in CA3 and dentate gyrus regions. Our findings indicate that c-fos regulates expression of BDNF in distinct neuron populations of the hippocampal formation in vivo.

  7. Maternal separation impairs long term-potentiation in CA1-CA3 synapses and hippocampal-dependent memory in old rats.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vasco C; Vital, Joana; Costenla, Ana Rita; Batalha, Vânia L; Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to chronic stress during the neonatal period is known to induce permanent long-term changes in the central nervous system and hipothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity that are associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairments. In rodents, a validated model of early life stress is the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which has been shown to have long-term consequences for the pups that span to adulthood. We hypothesized that the early life stress-associated effects could be exacerbated with aging, because it is often accompanied by cognitive decline. Using a MS model in which rat pups were separated from their mothers for 3 hours daily, during postnatal days 2-14, we evaluated the long-term functional consequences to aged animals (70-week-old), by measuring synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. The baseline behavioral deficits of aged control rats were further exacerbated in MS animals, indicating that early-life stress induces sustained changes in anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal-dependent memory that are maintained much later in life. We then investigated whether these differences are linked to impaired function of hippocampal neurons by recording hippocampal long-term potentiation from Schaffer collaterals/CA1 synapses. The magnitude of the hippocampal long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation was significantly lower in aged MS animals than in age-matched controls. These results substantiate the hypothesis that the neuronal and endocrine alterations induced by early-life stress are long lasting, and are able to exacerbate the mild age-associated deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. LY404187, a potentiator of AMPARs, enhances both the amplitude and 1/CV2 of AMPA EPSCs but not NMDA EPSCs at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Beomjong; Lee, Sukwon; Choi, Sukwoo

    2012-12-07

    Cyclothiazide is a well-known AMPAR potentiator, but it has also been shown to enhance the probability of presynaptic release in some cases. Interestingly, cyclothiazide has been shown to reveal AMPA EPSCs at silent CA3-CA1 synapses (which exhibit NMDA EPSCs but not AMPA EPSCs) in the hippocampus of neonatal or developing rats, but this particular result has not been reproduced at other types of synapses. Although this discrepancy may be due to the different mechanisms underlying silent synapses in distinct brain subregions, it is also possible that cyclothiazide has pre- and postsynaptic molecular targets that are differentially expressed at the different types (or different developing stages) of synapses. In this study, we reexamined, using a new AMPAR potentiator, LY404187, whether AMPAR potentiation leads to the conversion of silent CA3-CA1 synapses into functional synapses (exhibiting both AMPA and NMDA EPSCs) in the hippocampus of neonatal rats. LY404187 did not appear to alter the probability of presynaptic release, as evidenced by the lack of significant changes in both the amplitude and the paired-pulse facilitation ratio (an index of release probability) of NMDA EPSCs. LY404187 enhanced both the amplitude and 1/CV(2) (CV: coefficient of variation) of AMPA EPSCs but not NMDA EPSCs. Because an increase in 1/CV(2) reflects an increased number of functional synapses and/or an enhanced release probability, the LY404187-induced increase in the 1/CV(2) value of AMPA EPSCs, but not NMDA EPSCs, likely indicates an increased number of synapses exhibiting AMPA EPSCs but not an increased number of synapses exhibiting NMDA EPSCs. Because AMPARs and NMDARs are co-localized at the same synapses, our findings are consistent with a scenario in which LY404187 enables silent synapses to acquire AMPA EPSCs.

  9. Control theory-based regulation of hippocampal CA1 nonlinear dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Min-Chi; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a biomimetic electronic neural prosthesis to replace regions of the hippocampal brain area that have been damaged by disease or insult. Our previous study has shown that the VLSI implementation of a CA3 nonlinear dynamic model can functionally replace the CA3 subregion of the hippocampal slice. As a result, the propagation of temporal patterns of activity from DG-->VLSI-->CA1 reproduces the activity observed experimentally in the biological DG-->CA3-->CA1 circuit. In this project, we incorporate an open-loop controller to optimize the output (CA1) response. Specifically, we seek to optimize the stimulation signal to CA1 using a predictive dentate gyrus (DG)-CA1 nonlinear model (i.e., DG-CA1 trajectory model) and a CA1 input-output model (i.e., CA1 plant model), such that the ultimate CA1 response (i.e., desired output) can be first predicted by the DG-CA1 trajectory model and then transformed to the desired stimulation through the inversed CA1 plant model. Lastly, the desired CA1 output is evoked by the estimated optimal stimulation. This study will be the first stage of formulating an integrated modeling-control strategy for the hippocampal neural prosthetic system.

  10. The neuroprotective effect of topiramate on the ultrastructure of pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 sectors in an experimental model of febrile seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria E; Lotowska, Joanna M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current ultrastructural study was to explore the potentiality of the neuroprotective effect of TPM against damage of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 sectors in an experimental model of febrile seizures (FS) in rats. The FS group exhibited variously pronounced submicroscopic lesions of the neuronal perikarya, including total cell disintegration. Advanced changes induced by hyperthermic stress were manifested by marked degenerative abnormalities, such as substantial swelling of the mitochondria, dilation, degranulation and disintegration of the granular endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolar changes in the Golgi complex. The most substantially damaged pyramidal neurons showed features of aponecrosis (so-called "dark neurons"), resulting in a marked neuronal loss in the explored areas of the hippocampal cortex. The neurodegenerative changes were accompanied by distinct damage to the blood-brain barrier components. The administration of topiramate at a dose of 80/kg b.m. prior to the induction of hyperthermic stress (as prevention against febrile seizures) caused a substantial neuroprotective action - the drug efficiently lightened the neuronal damage, basically reduced cell aponecrosis and enhanced cell viability. However, TPM applied directly after FS induction did not exert any distinct neuroprotective effect on the perikarya of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal cortex.

  11. Topiramate Confers Neuroprotection Against Methylphenidate-Induced Neurodegeneration in Dentate Gyrus and CA1 Regions of Hippocampus via CREB/BDNF Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Heidari, Mansour; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse can cause serious neurological damages. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported already, but its mechanism of action still remains unclear. The current study evaluates in vivo role of CREB/BDNF in TPM protection of the rat hippocampal cells from methylphenidate-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A total of 60 adult male rats were divided into six groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg) respectively for 14 days. Groups 3 and 4 were concurrently treated with MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 14 days. Groups 5 and 6 were treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg TPM only respectively. After drug administration, open field test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity. The hippocampus was then isolated and the apoptotic, antiapoptotic, oxidative, antioxidant, and inflammatory factors were measured. Expression of the total and phosphorylated CREB and BDNF in gene and protein levels, and gene expression of Ak1, CaMK4, MAPK3, PKA, and c-Fos levels were also measured. MPH significantly decreased motor activity in OFT. TPM (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased MPH-induced motor activity disturbance. Additionally, MPH significantly increased Bax protein level, CaMK4 gene expression, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, mitochondrial GSH, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels in isolated hippocampal cells. Also CREB, in total and phosphorylated forms, BDNF and Bcl-2 protein levels, Ak1, MAPK3, PKA and c-Fos gene expression, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities decreased significantly by MPH. TPM (50 and 100 mg/kg), both in the presence and absence of MPH, attenuated the effects of MPH. Immunohistochemistry data showed that TPM increased localization of the total and phosphorylated forms of CREB in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of the hippocampus. It seems that TPM can be used as a neuroprotective agent against

  12. Transgenic inhibition of synaptic transmission reveals role of CA3 output in hippocampal learning.

    PubMed

    Nakashiba, Toshiaki; Young, Jennie Z; McHugh, Thomas J; Buhl, Derek L; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2008-02-29

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain involved in learning and memory. It contains parallel excitatory pathways referred to as the trisynaptic pathway (which carries information as follows: entorhinal cortex --> dentate gyrus --> CA3 --> CA1 --> entorhinal cortex) and the monosynaptic pathway (entorhinal cortex --> CA1 --> entorhinal cortex). We developed a generally applicable tetanus toxin-based method for transgenic mice that permits inducible and reversible inhibition of synaptic transmission and applied it to the trisynaptic pathway while preserving transmission in the monosynaptic pathway. We found that synaptic output from CA3 in the trisynaptic pathway is dispensable and the short monosynaptic pathway is sufficient for incremental spatial learning. In contrast, the full trisynaptic pathway containing CA3 is required for rapid one-trial contextual learning, for pattern completion-based memory recall, and for spatial tuning of CA1 cells.

  13. N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor NR2 Subunit Selectivity of a Series of Novel Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylate Derivatives: Preferential Blockade of Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptors in the Rat Hippocampal CA3-CA1 Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bihua; Tsintsadze, Timur S.; Morley, Richard M.; Irvine, Mark W.; Tsintsadze, Vera; Lozovaya, Natasha A.; Jane, David E.; Monaghan, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    -mediated CA3-CA1 synaptic response in rat hippocampal slices. UBP125, UBP128, UBP141, and UBP145 may be useful tools for determining the function of NMDA receptor subtypes. PMID:19684252

  14. Disambiguating the similar: the dentate gyrus and pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Brandy; Marrone, Diano F; Markus, Etan J

    2012-01-01

    The human hippocampus supports the formation of episodic memory without confusing new memories with old ones. To accomplish this, the brain must disambiguate memories (i.e., accentuate the differences between experiences). There is convergent evidence linking pattern separation to the dentate gyrus. Damage to the dentate gyrus reduces an organism's ability to differentiate between similar objects. The dentate gyrus has tenfold more principle cells than its cortical input, allowing for a divergence in information flow. Dentate gyrus granule neurons also show a very different pattern of representing the environment than "classic" place cells in CA1 and CA3, or grid cells in the entorhinal cortex. More recently immediate early genes have been used to "timestamp" activity of individual cells throughout the dentate gyrus. These data indicate that the dentate gyrus robustly differentiates similar situations. The degree of differentiation is non-linear, with even small changes in input inducing a near maximal response in the dentate. Furthermore this differentiation occurs throughout the dentate gyrus longitudinal (dorsal-ventral) axis. Conversely, the data point to a divergence in information processing between the dentate gyrus suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades possibly related to differences in organization within these regions. The accumulated evidence from different approaches converges to support a role for the dentate gyrus in pattern separation. There are however inconsistencies that may require incorporation of neurogenesis and hippocampal microcircuits into the currents models. They also suggest different roles for the dentate gyrus suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades, and the responsiveness of CA3 to dentate input.

  15. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67-positive hippocampal interneurons undergo a permanent reduction in number following kainic acid-induced degeneration of ca3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Shetty, A K; Turner, D A

    2001-06-01

    Kainic acid (KA)-induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons leads to synaptic reorganization and hyperexcitability in both dentate gyrus and CA1 region of the hippocampus. We hypothesize that the substrate for hippocampal inhibitory circuitry incurs significant and permanent alterations following degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons. We quantified changes in interneuron density (N(v)) in all strata of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 subfields of adult rats at 1, 4, and 6 months following intracerebroventricular (icv) KA administration, using glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) immunocytochemistry. At 1 month postlesion, GAD-67-positive interneuron density was significantly reduced in all strata of every hippocampal region except stratum pyramidale of CA1. The reduction in GAD-67-positive interneuron density either persisted or exacerbated at 4 and 6 months postlesion in every stratum of all hippocampal regions. Further, the soma of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield showed significant hypertrophy. Thus, both permanent reductions in the density of GAD-67-positive interneurons in all hippocampal regions and somatic hypertrophy of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield occur following icv KA. In contrast, the density of interneurons visualized with Nissl in CA1 and CA3 regions was nearly equivalent to that in the intact hippocampus at all postlesion time points. Collectively, these results suggest that persistent reductions in GAD-67-positive interneuron density observed throughout the hippocampus following CA3 lesion are largely due to a permanent loss of GAD-67 expression in a significant fraction of interneurons, rather than widespread degeneration of interneurons. Nevertheless, a persistent decrease in interneuron activity, as evidenced by permanent down-regulation of GAD-67 in a major fraction of interneurons, would likely enhance the degree of hyperexcitability in the CA3

  16. A process analysis of the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Raymond P

    2013-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued recall primarily for spatial information. These are tasks that have been assumed to reflect the operations of episodic memory and require interactions between CA3a,b and the dentate gyrus (DG) via mossy fiber inputs into the CA3a,b. The CA3a,b is also important for encoding of spatial information requiring the acquisition of arbitrary and relational associations. All these tasks are assumed to operate within an autoassociative network function of the CA3 region. The CA3a,b also supports retrieval of short-term memory information based on a spatial pattern completion process. Based on afferent inputs into CA3a,b from the DG via mossy fibers and afferents from the entorhinal cortex into CA3a,b as well as reciprocal connections with the septum, CA3a,b can bias the process of encoding utilizing the operation of spatial pattern separation and the process of retrieval utilizing the operation of pattern completion. The CA3a,b also supports sequential processing of information in cooperation with CA1 based on the Schaffer collateral output from CA3a,b to CA1. The CA3c function is in part based on modulation of the DG in supporting pattern separation processes.

  17. Restoration of Calbindin After Fetal Hippocampal CA3 Cell Grafting Into the Injured Hippocampus in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ashok K.; Hattiangady, Bharathi

    2013-01-01

    Degeneration of the CA3 pyramidal and dentate hilar neurons in the adult rat hippocampus after an intracerebroventricular kainic acid (KA) administration, a model of temporal lobe epilepsy, leads to permanent loss of the calcium binding protein calbindin in major fractions of dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons. We hypothesize that the enduring loss of calbindin in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield after CA3-lesion is due to disruption of the hippocampal circuitry leading to hyperexcitability in these regions; therefore, specific cell grafts that are capable of both reconstructing the disrupted circuitry and suppressing hyper-excitability in the injured hippocampus can restore calbindin. We compared the effects of fetal CA3 or CA1 cell grafting into the injured CA3 region of adult rats at 45 days after KA-induced injury on the hippocampal calbindin. The calbindin immunoreactivity in the dentate granule cells and the CA1 pyramidal neurons of grafted animals was evaluated at 6 months after injury (i.e. at 4.5 months post-grafting). Compared with the intact hippocampus, the calbindin in “lesion-only” hippocampus was dramatically reduced at 6 months post-lesion. However, calbindin expression was restored in the lesioned hippocampus receiving CA3 cell grafts. In contrast, in the lesioned hippocampus receiving CA1 cell grafts, calbindin expression remained less than the intact hippocampus. Thus, specific cell grafting restores the injury-induced loss of calbindin in the adult hippocampus, likely via restitution of the disrupted circuitry. Since loss of calbindin after hippocampal injury is linked to hyperexcitability, re-expression of calbindin in both dentate gyrus and CA1 subfield following CA3 cell grafting may suggest that specific cell grafting is efficacious for ameliorating injury-induced hyperexcitability in the adult hippocampus. However, electrophysiological studies of KA-lesioned hippocampus receiving CA3 cell grafts are required in future

  18. Toward a self-wired active reconstruction of the hippocampal trisynaptic loop: DG-CA3

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Gregory J.; Boehler, Michael D.; Leondopulos, Stathis; Pan, Liangbin; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Wheeler, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus functions to encode and retrieve memories by transiently changing synaptic strengths, yet encoding in individual subregions for transmission between regions remains poorly understood. Toward the goal of better understanding the coding in the trisynaptic pathway from the dentate gyrus (DG) to the CA3 and CA1, we report a novel microfabricated device that divides a micro-electrode array into two compartments of separate hippocampal network subregions connected by axons that grow through 3 × 10 × 400 μm tunnels. Gene expression by qPCR demonstrated selective enrichment of separate DG, CA3, and CA1 subregions. Reconnection of DG to CA3 altered burst dynamics associated with marked enrichment of GAD67 in DG and GFAP in CA3. Surprisingly, DG axon spike propagation was preferentially unidirectional to the CA3 region at 0.5 m/s with little reverse transmission. Therefore, select hippocampal subregions intrinsically self-wire in anatomically appropriate patterns and maintain their distinct subregion phenotype without external inputs. PMID:24155693

  19. Toward a self-wired active reconstruction of the hippocampal trisynaptic loop: DG-CA3.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gregory J; Boehler, Michael D; Leondopulos, Stathis; Pan, Liangbin; Alagapan, Sankaraleengam; DeMarse, Thomas B; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus functions to encode and retrieve memories by transiently changing synaptic strengths, yet encoding in individual subregions for transmission between regions remains poorly understood. Toward the goal of better understanding the coding in the trisynaptic pathway from the dentate gyrus (DG) to the CA3 and CA1, we report a novel microfabricated device that divides a micro-electrode array into two compartments of separate hippocampal network subregions connected by axons that grow through 3 × 10 × 400 μm tunnels. Gene expression by qPCR demonstrated selective enrichment of separate DG, CA3, and CA1 subregions. Reconnection of DG to CA3 altered burst dynamics associated with marked enrichment of GAD67 in DG and GFAP in CA3. Surprisingly, DG axon spike propagation was preferentially unidirectional to the CA3 region at 0.5 m/s with little reverse transmission. Therefore, select hippocampal subregions intrinsically self-wire in anatomically appropriate patterns and maintain their distinct subregion phenotype without external inputs.

  20. Roles of afadin in the formation of the cellular architecture of the mouse hippocampus and dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Muneaki; Maruo, Tomohiko; Kaito, Aika; Wang, Shujie; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira; Mandai, Kenji; Takai, Yoshimi

    2017-03-01

    The hippocampal formation with tightly packed neurons, mainly at the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 regions, constitutes a one-way neural circuit, which is associated with learning and memory. We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecules nectins and its binding protein afadin play roles in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses which are formed between the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells. We showed here that in the afadin-deficient hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus granules cells and the CA3, CA2, and CA1 pyramidal cells were abnormally located; the mossy fiber trajectory was abnormally elongated; the CA3 pyramidal cells were abnormally differentiated; and the densities of the presynaptic boutons on the mossy fibers and the apical dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells were decreased. These results indicate that afadin plays roles not only in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses but also in the formation of the cellular architecture of the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The race to learn: spike timing and STDP can coordinate learning and recall in CA3.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Christopher R; Wyeth, Gordon; Milford, Michael; Wiles, Janet

    2011-06-01

    The CA3 region of the hippocampus has long been proposed as an autoassociative network performing pattern completion on known inputs. The dentate gyrus (DG) region is often proposed as a network performing the complementary function of pattern separation. Neural models of pattern completion and separation generally designate explicit learning phases to encode new information and assume an ideal fixed threshold at which to stop learning new patterns and begin recalling known patterns. Memory systems are significantly more complex in practice, with the degree of memory recall depending on context-specific goals. Here, we present our spike-timing separation and completion (STSC) model of the entorhinal cortex (EC), DG, and CA3 network, ascribing to each region a role similar to that in existing models but adding a temporal dimension by using a spiking neural network. Simulation results demonstrate that (a) spike-timing dependent plasticity in the EC-CA3 synapses provides a pattern completion ability without recurrent CA3 connections, (b) the race between activation of CA3 cells via EC-CA3 synapses and activation of the same cells via DG-CA3 synapses distinguishes novel from known inputs, and (c) modulation of the EC-CA3 synapses adjusts the learned versus test input similarity required to evoke a direct CA3 response prior to any DG activity, thereby adjusting the pattern completion threshold. These mechanisms suggest that spike timing can arbitrate between learning and recall based on the novelty of each individual input, ensuring control of the learn-recall decision resides in the same subsystem as the learned memories themselves. The proposed modulatory signal does not override this decision but biases the system toward either learning or recall. The model provides an explanation for empirical observations that a reduction in novelty produces a corresponding reduction in the latency of responses in CA3 and CA1.

  2. 17beta-Estradiol potentiates field excitatory postsynaptic potentials within each subfield of the hippocampus with greatest potentiation of the associational/commissural afferents of CA3.

    PubMed

    Kim, M T; Soussou, W; Gholmieh, G; Ahuja, A; Tanguay, A; Berger, T W; Brinton, R D

    2006-08-11

    We sought to determine the impact of 17beta-estradiol throughout the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway and to investigate the afferent fiber systems within CA1 and CA3 in detail. To achieve this objective, we utilized multielectrode arrays to simultaneously record the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1, dentate gyrus, and CA3 of rat hippocampal slices in the presence or absence of 100 pM 17beta-estradiol. We confirmed our earlier findings in CA1, where 17beta-estradiol significantly increased field excitatory postsynaptic potentials amplitude (20%+/-3%) and slope (22%+/-7%). 17beta-Estradiol significantly potentiated the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in dentate gyrus, amplitude (15%+/-4%) and slope (17%+/-5), and in CA3, amplitude (15%+/-4%) and slope (19%+/-5%). Using a high-density multielectrode array, we sought to determine the source of potentiation in CA1 and CA3 by determining the impact of 17beta-estradiol on the apical afferents and the basal afferents within CA1 and on the mossy fibers and the associational/commissural fibers within CA3. In CA1, 17beta-estradiol induced a modest increase in the amplitude (7%+/-2%) and slope (9%+/-3%) following apical stimulation with similar magnitude of increase following basal stimulation amplitude (10%+/-2%) and slope (12%+/-3%). In CA3, 17beta-estradiol augmented the mossy fiber amplitude (15%+/-3%) and slope (18%+/-6%) and the associational/commissural fiber amplitude (31%+/-13%) and slope (40%+/-15%). These results indicate that 17beta-estradiol potentiated synaptic transmission in each subfield of the hippocampal slice, with the greatest magnitude of potentiation at the associational/commissural fibers in CA3. 17beta-Estradiol regulation of CA3 responses provides a novel site of 17beta-estradiol action that corresponds to the density of estrogen receptors within the hippocampus. The implications of 17beta-estradiol potentiation of the field potential in each of the hippocampal subfields

  3. Status Epilepticus Induced Spontaneous Dentate Gyrus Spikes: In Vivo Current Source Density Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sean P.; Barrier, Sylvain; Scott, Rod C.; Lenck- Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is considered to function as an inhibitory gate limiting excitatory input to the hippocampus. Following status epilepticus (SE), this gating function is reduced and granule cells become hyper-excitable. Dentate spikes (DS) are large amplitude potentials observed in the dentate gyrus (DG) of normal animals. DS are associated with membrane depolarization of granule cells, increased activity of hilar interneurons and suppression of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cell firing. Therefore, DS could act as an anti-excitatory mechanism. Because of the altered gating function of the dentate gyrus following SE, we sought to investigate how DS are affected following pilocarpine-induced SE. Two weeks following lithium-pilocarpine SE induction, hippocampal EEG was recorded in male Sprague-Dawley rats with 16-channel silicon probes under urethane anesthesia. Probes were placed dorso-ventrally to encompass either CA1-CA3 or CA1-DG layers. Large amplitude spikes were detected from EEG recordings and subject to current source density analysis. Probe placement was verified histologically to evaluate the anatomical localization of current sinks and the origin of DS. In 9 of 11 pilocarpine-treated animals and two controls, DS were confirmed with large current sinks in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. DS frequency was significantly increased in pilocarpine-treated animals compared to controls. Additionally, in pilocarpine-treated animals, DS displayed current sinks in the outer, middle and/or inner molecular layers. However, there was no difference in the frequency of events when comparing between layers. This suggests that following SE, DS can be generated by input from medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, or within the dentate gyrus. DS were associated with an increase in multiunit activity in the granule cell layer, but no change in CA1. These results suggest that following SE there is an increase in DS activity, potentially arising from hyperexcitability along the

  4. Time Cells in Hippocampal Area CA3

    PubMed Central

    Salz, Daniel M.; Tiganj, Zoran; Khasnabish, Srijesa; Kohley, Annalyse; Sheehan, Daniel; Howard, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on time cells in the hippocampus have so far focused on area CA1 in animals performing memory tasks. Some studies have suggested that temporal processing within the hippocampus may be exclusive to CA1 and CA2, but not CA3, and may occur only under strong demands for memory. Here we examined the temporal and spatial coding properties of CA3 and CA1 neurons in rats performing a maze task that demanded working memory and a control task with no explicit working memory demand. In the memory demanding task, CA3 cells exhibited robust temporal modulation similar to the pattern of time cell activity in CA1, and the same populations of cells also exhibited typical place coding patterns in the same task. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial coding patterns of CA1 and CA3 were equivalently robust when animals performed a simplified version of the task that made no demands on working memory. However, time and place coding did differ in that the resolution of temporal coding decreased over time within the delay interval, whereas the resolution of place coding was not systematically affected by distance along the track. These findings support the view that CA1 and CA3 both participate in encoding the temporal and spatial organization of ongoing experience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Hippocampal “time cells” that fire at specific moments in a temporally structured memory task have so far been observed only in area CA1, and some studies have suggested that temporal coding within the hippocampus is exclusive to CA1. Here we describe time cells also in CA3, and time cells in both areas are observed even without working memory demands, similar to place cells in these areas. However, unlike equivalent spatial coding along a path, temporal coding is nonlinear, with greater temporal resolution earlier than later in temporally structured experiences. These observations reveal both similarities and differences in temporal and spatial coding within the hippocampus of importance to

  5. Ischemic preconditioning decreases intracellular zinc accumulation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Takahiro; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Kato, Kengo; Shimazaki, Kuniko

    2004-05-27

    In normal gerbils, intracellular zinc ions ([Zn2+]i) and calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) accumulate in hippocampal CA1 neurons after global ischemia. We examined whether ischemic preconditioning modifies these changes in gerbil hippocampal slices. In normal slices, large increases in [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i were observed in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 area after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In preconditioned slices, there were significantly decreased peak levels of [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i in CA1. However, there were no differences in the peak levels of these ions in CA3 and dentate gyrus. These results suggest that modified [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i accumulation after an ischemic insult might be important for the mechanisms of ischemic tolerance induced by preconditioning.

  6. Functional optical probing of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit in vitro: network dynamics, filter properties, and polysynaptic induction of CA1 LTP.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Eder, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Decades of brain research have identified various parallel loops linking the hippocampus with neocortical areas, enabling the acquisition of spatial and episodic memories. Especially the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit [entorhinal cortex layer II → dentate gyrus (DG) → cornu ammonis (CA)-3CA1] was studied in great detail because of its seemingly simple connectivity and characteristic structures that are experimentally well accessible. While numerous researchers focused on functional aspects, obtained from a limited number of cells in distinct hippocampal subregions, little is known about the neuronal network dynamics which drive information across multiple synapses for subsequent long-term storage. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in vitro allows real-time recording of activity patterns in large/meso-scale neuronal networks with high spatial resolution. In this way, we recently found that entorhinal theta-frequency input to the DG most effectively passes filter mechanisms of the trisynaptic circuit network, generating activity waves which propagate across the entire DG-CA axis. These "trisynaptic circuit waves" involve high-frequency firing of CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a rapid induction of classical NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses (CA1 LTP). CA1 LTP has been substantially evidenced to be essential for some forms of explicit learning in mammals. Here, we review data with particular reference to whole network-level approaches, illustrating how activity propagation can take place within the trisynaptic circuit to drive formation of CA1 LTP.

  7. A functionally active presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor in the rat hippocampal CA3 subregion.

    PubMed

    Malva, J O; Ambrósio, A F; Cunha, R A; Ribeiro, J A; Carvalho, A P; Carvalho, C M

    1995-02-09

    We studied the modulation of the intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) by kainate/AMPA receptor activation in synaptosomes isolated from whole rat hippocampus, or from its CA1, CA3 or dentate gyrus subregions. The receptor was activated either by 100 microM S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolopropionic acid (AMPA) (EC50 = 26.6 +/- 4.9 microM) or by 100 microM kainate (EC50 = 0.81 +/- 0.1 microM), but the effects of these agonists were not additive. The response to either AMPA or kainate was competitively inhibited by 10 microM 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dioxine. Higher [Ca2+]i responses to 100 microM AMPA or to 100 microM kainate were observed in the CA3 subregion (43.2 +/- 2.5 nM or 42.8 +/- 2.3 nM, respectively) than in the whole hippocampus (22.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 22.4 +/- 1.6, respectively), in the CA1 subregion (26.4 +/- 1.1 nM or 26.6 +/- 2.6 nM, respectively) or in dentate gyrus (24.6 +/- 1.4 nM or 21.5 +/- 1.0 nM, respectively). These results indicate that the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus is enriched in a presynaptic high-affinity kainate receptor which modulates the [Ca2+]i in nerve terminals.

  8. Enhanced susceptibility of CA3 hippocampus to prenatal nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Kalejaiye, O O; Gondré-Lewis, M C

    2017-04-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to adverse effects of drugs of abuse during early phases of life. Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE), a preventable cause of gestational and infant mortality, can alter neuron wiring and induce sustained deficits in attention and learning. Here, a rat model of PNE (embryonic days 7-21) was used to examine the maturing hippocampus, which encodes new memories and processes emotional memory. Components of synaptic signaling were evaluated at postnatal day 14 (P14), a period of prolific synaptogenesis in rats, to determine if glutamatergic transmission-associated molecules are regulated in subregions of hippocampus as early as P14. PNE resulted in reduced expression of GluN2B, GluA2 and CaMKIIα, but elevated SNAP25 proteins specifically in the CA3 but not CA1. Only CaMKIIα was regulated in dentate gyrus at this age. These results suggest that glutamatergic and synaptic dysregulation of learning and memory may occur in hippocampus in a temporally and subregionally specific manner.

  9. BDNF up-regulates TrkB protein and prevents the death of CA1 neurons following transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Ballabriga, J; Martí, E; Pérez, E; Alberch, J; Arenas, E

    1998-04-01

    The neurotrophin family of growth factors, which includes Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and Neurotrophin-4/5 (NT4/5) bind and activate specific tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptors to promote cell survival and growth of different cell populations. For these reasons, growing attention has been paid to the use of neurotrophins as therapeutic agents in neurodegeneration, and to the regulation of the expression of their specific receptors by the ligands. BDNF expression, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, is found in the pre-subiculum, CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Strong TrkB immunoreactivity is present in most CA3 neurons but only in scattered neurons of the CA1 area. Weak TrkB immunoreactivity is found in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Unilateral grafting of BDNF-transfected fibroblasts into the hippocampus resulted in a marked increase in the intensity of the immunoreaction and in the number of TrkB-immunoreactive neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, pre-subiculum and CA1 area in the vicinity of the graft. No similar effects were produced after the injection of control mock-transfected fibroblasts. Delayed cell death in the CA1 area was produced following 5 min of forebrain ischemia in the gerbil. The majority of living cells in the CA1 area at the fourth day were BDNF/TrkB immunoreactive. Unilateral grafting of control mock-transfected or BDNF fibroblasts two days before ischemia resulted in a moderate non-specific protection of TrkB-negative, but not TrkB-positive cells, in the CA1 area of the grafted side. This finding is in line with a vascular and glial reaction, as revealed, by immunohistochemistry using astroglial and microglial cell markers. This astroglial response was higher in the grafted side than in the contralateral side in ischemic gerbils, but no differences were seen between BDNF-producing and non-BDNF-producing grafts. However, grafting of

  10. Selective vulnerability of the CA1 region of hippocampus to the indirect excitotoxic effects of malonic acid.

    PubMed

    Davolio, C; Greenamyre, J T

    1995-06-02

    The CA1 region of hippocampus is selectively vulnerable to a variety of insults, including hypoxia-ischemia and Alzheimer's disease, but the basis of this regional susceptibility is poorly understood. We examined the regional hippocampal sensitivity to mitochondrial metabolic disruption induced by malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. The CA1 region was exquisitely sensitive to malonate and the dentate gyrus was extremely resistant; the CA3 region had intermediate sensitivity. This pattern of vulnerability is reminiscent of hypoxic-ischemic damage. Malonate damage was blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist, MK-801, but regional susceptibility to malonate did not correlate with the density of NMDA receptors. Instead, malonate toxicity was inversely correlated with activity of succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that regional metabolic capacity may help to determine sensitivity to metabolic/excitotoxic insults such as hypoxia-ischemia.

  11. Inhibitory Gating of Input Comparison in the CA1 Microcircuit.

    PubMed

    Milstein, Aaron D; Bloss, Erik B; Apostolides, Pierre F; Vaidya, Sachin P; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Zemelman, Boris V; Magee, Jeffrey C

    2015-09-23

    Spatial and temporal features of synaptic inputs engage integration mechanisms on multiple scales, including presynaptic release sites, postsynaptic dendrites, and networks of inhibitory interneurons. Here we investigate how these mechanisms cooperate to filter synaptic input in hippocampal area CA1. Dendritic recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons reveal that proximal inputs from CA3 as well as distal inputs from entorhinal cortex layer III (ECIII) sum sublinearly or linearly at low firing rates due to feedforward inhibition, but sum supralinearly at high firing rates due to synaptic facilitation, producing a high-pass filter. However, during ECIII and CA3 input comparison, supralinear dendritic integration is dynamically balanced by feedforward and feedback inhibition, resulting in suppression of dendritic complex spiking. We find that a particular subpopulation of CA1 interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) contributes prominently to this dynamic filter by integrating both ECIII and CA3 input pathways and potently inhibiting CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites.

  12. Operation and plasticity of hippocampal CA3 circuits: implications for memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rebola, Nelson; Carta, Mario; Mulle, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    The CA3 region of the hippocampus is important for rapid encoding of memory. Computational theories have proposed specific roles in hippocampal function and memory for the sparse inputs from the dentate gyrus to CA3 and for the extended local recurrent connectivity that gives rise to the CA3 autoassociative network. Recently, we have gained considerable new insight into the operation and plasticity of CA3 circuits, including the identification of novel forms of synaptic plasticity and their underlying mechanisms, and structural plasticity in the GABAergic control of CA3 circuits. In addition, experimental links between synaptic plasticity of CA3 circuits and memory are starting to emerge.

  13. Relative contributions of CA3 and medial entorhinal cortex to memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Kally C.; Alarcon, Juan M.; Ferbinteanu, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 field processes spatial information, but the relative importance of intra- vs. extra-hippocampal sources of input into CA1 for spatial behavior is unclear. To characterize the relative roles of these two sources of input, originating in the hippocampal field CA3 and in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), we studied effects of discrete neurotoxic lesions of CA3 or MEC on concurrent spatial and nonspatial navigation tasks, and on synaptic transmission in afferents to CA1. Lesions in CA3 or MEC regions that abolished CA3-CA1, or reduced MEC-CA1 synaptic transmission, respectively, impaired spatial navigation and unexpectedly interfered with cue response, suggesting that in certain conditions of training regimen, hippocampal activity may influence behavior otherwise supported by nonhippocampal neural networks. MEC lesions had milder and temporary behavioral effects, but also markedly amplified transmission in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Extensive behavioral training had a similar, but more modest effect on CA3-CA1 transmission. Thus, cortical input to the hippocampus modulates CA1 activity both directly and indirectly, through heterosynaptic interaction, to control information flow in the hippocampal loop. Following damage to hippocampal cortical input, the functional coupling of separate intra- and extra-hippocampal inputs to CA1 involved in normal learning may initiate processes that support recovery of behavioral function. Such a process may explain how CA3 lesions, which do not significantly modify the basic features of CA1 neural activity, nonetheless impair spatial recall, whereas lesions of EC input to CA1, which reduce the spatial selectivity of CA1 firing in foraging rats, have only mild effects on spatial navigation. PMID:25221487

  14. Hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells selectively innervate aspiny interneurons.

    PubMed

    Wittner, Lucia; Henze, Darrell A; Záborszky, László; Buzsáki, György

    2006-09-01

    The specific connectivity among principal cells and interneurons determines the flow of activity in neuronal networks. To elucidate the connections between hippocampal principal cells and various classes of interneurons, CA3 pyramidal cells were intracellularly labelled with biocytin in anaesthetized rats and the three-dimensional distribution of their axon collaterals was reconstructed. The sections were double-stained for substance P receptor (SPR)- or metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha (mGluR-1alpha)-immunoreactivity to investigate interneuron targets of the CA3 pyramidal cells. SPR-containing interneurons represent a large portion of the GABAergic population, including spiny and aspiny classes. Axon terminals of CA3 pyramidal cells contacted SPR-positive interneuron dendrites in the hilus and in all hippocampal strata in both CA3 and CA1 regions (7.16% of all boutons). The majority of axons formed single contacts (87.5%), but multiple contacts (up to six) on single target neurons were also found. CA3 pyramidal cell axon collaterals innervated several types of morphologically different aspiny SPR-positive interneurons. In contrast, spiny SPR-interneurons or mGluR-1alpha-positive interneurons in the hilus, CA3 and CA1 regions were rarely contacted by the filled pyramidal cells. These findings indicate a strong target selection of CA3 pyramidal cells favouring the activation of aspiny classes of interneurons.

  15. Functional optical probing of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit in vitro: network dynamics, filter properties, and polysynaptic induction of CA1 LTP

    PubMed Central

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Eder, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Decades of brain research have identified various parallel loops linking the hippocampus with neocortical areas, enabling the acquisition of spatial and episodic memories. Especially the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit [entorhinal cortex layer II → dentate gyrus (DG) → cornu ammonis (CA)-3CA1] was studied in great detail because of its seemingly simple connectivity and characteristic structures that are experimentally well accessible. While numerous researchers focused on functional aspects, obtained from a limited number of cells in distinct hippocampal subregions, little is known about the neuronal network dynamics which drive information across multiple synapses for subsequent long-term storage. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in vitro allows real-time recording of activity patterns in large/meso-scale neuronal networks with high spatial resolution. In this way, we recently found that entorhinal theta-frequency input to the DG most effectively passes filter mechanisms of the trisynaptic circuit network, generating activity waves which propagate across the entire DG-CA axis. These “trisynaptic circuit waves” involve high-frequency firing of CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a rapid induction of classical NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses (CA1 LTP). CA1 LTP has been substantially evidenced to be essential for some forms of explicit learning in mammals. Here, we review data with particular reference to whole network-level approaches, illustrating how activity propagation can take place within the trisynaptic circuit to drive formation of CA1 LTP. PMID:25999809

  16. Impaired expression of GABA transporters in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Fuhrer, Tessa E; Palpagama, Thulani H; Waldvogel, Henry J; Synek, Beth J L; Turner, Clinton; Faull, Richard L; Kwakowsky, Andrea

    2017-05-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus. In AD there was a significant decrease in GAT-1 expression in the entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We also found a significant decrease in GAT-3 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. These observations indicate that the expression of the GATs shows brain-region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, suggesting a complex activation pattern of different GATs during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pattern Separation, Pattern Completion, and New Neuronal Codes within a Continuous CA3 Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K.

    2007-01-01

    The hippocampal CA3 subregion is critical for rapidly encoding new memories, which suggests that neuronal computations are implemented in its circuitry that cannot be performed elsewhere in the hippocampus or in the neocortex. Recording studies show that CA3 cells are bound to a large degree to a spatial coordinate system, while CA1 cells can…

  18. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Giri P; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network. PMID:27093059

  19. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Paola; Krishnan, Giri P; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

  20. The hippocampal CA3 region can generate two distinct types of sharp wave-ripple complexes, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Katharina T; Kandrács, Ágnes; Ulbert, István; Pál, Ildikó; Szabó, Csilla; Héja, László; Wittner, Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SPW-Rs) occur during slow wave sleep and behavioral immobility and are thought to play an important role in memory formation. We investigated the cellular and network properties of SPW-Rs with simultaneous laminar multielectrode and intracellular recordings in a rat hippocampal slice model, using physiological bathing medium. Spontaneous SPW-Rs were generated in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1 regions. These events were characterized by a local field potential gradient (LFPg) transient, increased fast oscillatory activity and increased multiple unit activity (MUA). Two types of SPW-Rs were distinguished in the CA3 region based on their different LFPg and current source density (CSD) pattern. Type 1 (T1) displayed negative LFPg transient in the pyramidal cell layer, and the associated CSD sink was confined to the proximal dendrites. Type 2 (T2) SPW-Rs were characterized by positive LFPg transient in the cell layer, and showed CSD sinks involving both the apical and basal dendrites. In both types, consistent with the somatic CSD source, only a small subset of CA3 pyramidal cells fired, most pyramidal cells were hyperpolarized, while most interneurons increased firing rate before the LFPg peak. Different neuronal populations, with different proportions of pyramidal cells and distinct subsets of interneurons were activated during T1 and T2 SPW-Rs. Activation of specific inhibitory cell subsets-with the possible leading role of perisomatic interneurons-seems to be crucial to synchronize distinct ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells finally resulting in the expression of different SPW-R activities. This suggests that the hippocampus can generate dynamic changes in its activity stemming from the same excitatory and inhibitory circuits, and so, might provide the cellular and network basis for an input-specific and activity-dependent information transmission.

  1. Memory retrieval re-activates Erk1/2 signaling in the same set of CA1 neurons recruited during conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Cristina; Fernández, Jordi; Storm, Daniel R; Carné, Xavier; Sindreu, Carlos

    2017-03-31

    The hippocampus enables a range of behaviors through its intrinsic circuits and concerted actions with other brain regions. One such important function is the retrieval of episodic memories. How hippocampal cells support retrieval of contextual fear memory remains largely unclear. Here we monitored phospho-activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) across neuronal populations of the hippocampus to find that CA1 pyramidal neurons, but not cells in CA3 or dentate gyrus, specifically respond to retrieval of an aversive context. In contrast, retrieval of a neutral context that fails to elicit a threat response did not activate Erk1/2. Moreover, retrieval preferentially re-activated Erk1/2 in the same set of CA1 neurons previously activated during conditioning in a context-specific manner. By confining drug inhibition within dorsal CA1, we established the crucial role for Erk1/2 activity in retrieval of long-term memory, as well as in amygdala activation associated with fear expression. These data provide functional evidence that Erk1/2 signaling in CA1 encodes a specific neural representation of contextual memory with emotional value.

  2. Presynaptic size of associational/commissural CA3 synapses is controlled by fibroblast growth factor 22 in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pasaoglu, Taliha; Schikorski, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Associational/commissural CA3-CA3 synapses define the recurrent CA3 network that generates the input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. We quantified the fine structure of excitatory synapses in the stratum radiatum of the CA3d area in adult wild type (WT) and fibroblast growth factor 22 knock-out (FGF22KO) mice by using serial 3D electron microscopy. WT excitatory CA3 synapses are rather small yet range 10 fold in size. Spine size, however, was small and uniform and did not correlate with the size of the synaptic junction. To reveal mechanisms that regulate presynaptic structure, we investigated the role of FGF22, a target-derived signal specific for the distal part of area CA3 (CA3d). In adult FGF22KO mice, postsynaptic properties of associational CA3 synapses were unaltered. Presynaptically, the number of synaptic vesicles (SVs), the bouton volume, and the number of vesicles in axonal regions (the super pool) were reduced. This concurrent decrease suggests concerted control by FGF22 of presynaptic size. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that WT presynapses in the proximal part of area CA3 (CA3p) that do not receive FGF22 signaling in WT mice were smaller than presynapses in CA3d in WT but of comparable size in CA3d of FGF22KO mice. Docked SV density was decreased in CA1, CA3d, and CA3p in FGF22KO mice. Because CA1 and CA3p are not directly affected by the loss of FGF22, the smaller docked SV density may be an adaptation to activity changes in the CA3 network. Thus, docked SV density potentially is a long-term regulator for the synaptic release probability and/or the strength of short-term depression in vivo.

  3. Cell-type specific circuit connectivity of hippocampal CA1 revealed through Cre-dependent rabies tracing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanjun; Nguyen, Amanda; Nguyen, Joseph; Le, Luc; Saur, Dieter; Choi, Jiwon; Callaway, Edward M.; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Summary We applied a new Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to CA1 excitatory and inhibitory neuron types in mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, entorhinal cortex and the medial septum (MS), and unexpectedly also from the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons while inhibitory CA1 neurons receive a great majority of input from GABAergic MS neurons; both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons receive much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, entorhinal cortex and MS. Differential input from CA3 to specific CA1 cell types was also demonstrated functionally using laser scanning photostimulation and whole cell recordings. PMID:24656815

  4. SNAP-25 in hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Qiuling; Gao Xiang; Lu Qi; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming . E-mail: bmli@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-09-08

    SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal protein of 25 kDa, a key component of synaptic vesicle-docking/fusion machinery, and plays a critical role in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. We previously reported that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA1 region is involved in consolidation of contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory (Hou et al. European J Neuroscience, 20: 1593-1603, 2004). SNAP-25 is expressed not only in the CA1 region, but also in the CA3 region, and the SNAP-25 mRNA level in the CA3 region is higher than in the CA1 region. Here, we provide evidence that SNAP-25 in the CA3 region is also involved in learning/memory. Intra-CA3 infusion of SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide impaired both long-term contextual fear memory and water-maze spatial memory, with short-term memory intact. Furthermore, the SNAP-25 antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the long-term potentiation (LTP) of field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mossy-fiber pathway (DG-CA3 pathway), with no effect on paired-pulse facilitation of the fEPSP. These results are consistent with the notion that SNAP-25 in the hippocampal CA3 region is required for long-term memory formation.

  5. Physical Exercise and Antidepressants Enhance BDNF Targeting in Hippocampal CA3 Dendrites: Further Evidence of a Spatial Code for BDNF Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Baj, Gabriele; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Sartori, Cesar R; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tardito, Daniela; Langone, Francesco; Popoli, Maurizio; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple BDNF transcripts, whose function is unclear. We recently showed that a subset of BDNF transcripts can traffic into distal dendrites in response to electrical activity, while others are segregated into the somatoproximal domains. Physical exercise and antidepressant treatments exert their beneficial effects through upregulation of BDNF, which is required to support survival and differentiation of newborn dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. While these DG processes are required for the antidepressant effect, a role for CA1 in antidepressant action has been excluded, and the effect on CA3 neurons remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that physical exercise and antidepressants induce local increase of BDNF in CA3. Voluntary physical exercise for 28 consecutive days, or 2-week treatment with 10 mg/kg per day fluoxetine or reboxetine, produced a global increase of BDNF mRNA and protein in the neuronal somata of the whole hippocampus and a specific increase of BDNF in dendrites of CA3 neurons. This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant. In cultured hippocampal neurons, application of serotonin or norepinephrine (10–50 μM) induced increase in synaptic transmission and targeting of BDNF mRNA in dendrites. The increased expression of BDNF in CA3 dendrites following antidepressants or exercise further supports the neurotrophin hypothesis of antidepressants action and confirms that the differential subcellular localization of BDNF mRNA splice variants provides a spatial code for a selective expression of BDNF in specific subcellular districts. This selective expression may be exploited to design more specific antidepressants. PMID:22318196

  6. Physical exercise and antidepressants enhance BDNF targeting in hippocampal CA3 dendrites: further evidence of a spatial code for BDNF splice variants.

    PubMed

    Baj, Gabriele; D'Alessandro, Valentina; Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Sartori, Cesar R; Sciancalepore, Marina; Tardito, Daniela; Langone, Francesco; Popoli, Maurizio; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple BDNF transcripts, whose function is unclear. We recently showed that a subset of BDNF transcripts can traffic into distal dendrites in response to electrical activity, while others are segregated into the somatoproximal domains. Physical exercise and antidepressant treatments exert their beneficial effects through upregulation of BDNF, which is required to support survival and differentiation of newborn dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. While these DG processes are required for the antidepressant effect, a role for CA1 in antidepressant action has been excluded, and the effect on CA3 neurons remains unclear. Here, we show for the first time that physical exercise and antidepressants induce local increase of BDNF in CA3. Voluntary physical exercise for 28 consecutive days, or 2-week treatment with 10 mg/kg per day fluoxetine or reboxetine, produced a global increase of BDNF mRNA and protein in the neuronal somata of the whole hippocampus and a specific increase of BDNF in dendrites of CA3 neurons. This increase was accounted for by BDNF exon 6 variant. In cultured hippocampal neurons, application of serotonin or norepinephrine (10-50 μM) induced increase in synaptic transmission and targeting of BDNF mRNA in dendrites. The increased expression of BDNF in CA3 dendrites following antidepressants or exercise further supports the neurotrophin hypothesis of antidepressants action and confirms that the differential subcellular localization of BDNF mRNA splice variants provides a spatial code for a selective expression of BDNF in specific subcellular districts. This selective expression may be exploited to design more specific antidepressants.

  7. Sex differences in hippocampal area CA3 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; MacLusky, Neil J

    2017-01-02

    Numerous studies have demonstrated differences between males and females in hippocampal structure, function, and plasticity. There also are many studies about the different predisposition of a males and females for disorders where the hippocampus plays an important role. Many of these reports focus on area CA1, but other subfields are also very important, and unlikely to be the same as area CA1 based on what is known. Here we review basic studies of male and female structure, function, and plasticity of area CA3 pyramidal cells of adult rats. The data suggest that the CA3 pyramidal cells of males and females are distinct in structure, function, and plasticity. These sex differences cannot be simply explained by the effects of circulating gonadal hormones. This view agrees with previous studies showing that there are substantial sex differences in the brain that cannot be normalized by removing the gonads and depleting peripheral gonadal hormones. Implications of these comparisons for understanding sex differences in hippocampal function and dysfunction are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Coincidence detection of convergent perforant path and mossy fibre inputs by CA3 interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Calixto, Eduardo; Galván, Emilio J; Card, J Patrick; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-01-01

    We performed whole-cell recordings from CA3 s. radiatum (R) and s. lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons in hippocampal slices to examine the temporal aspects of summation of converging perforant path (PP) and mossy fibre (MF) inputs. PP EPSPs were evoked from the s. lacunosum-moleculare in area CA1. MF EPSPs were evoked from the medial extent of the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus. Summation was strongly supralinear when examining PP EPSP with MF EPSP in a heterosynaptic pair at the 10 ms ISI, and linear to sublinear at longer ISIs. This pattern of nonlinearities suggests that R and L-M interneurons act as coincidence detectors for input from PP and MF. Summation at all ISIs was linear in voltage clamp mode demonstrating that nonlinearities were generated by postsynaptic voltage-dependent conductances. Supralinearity was not detected when the first EPSP in the pair was replaced by a simulated EPSP injected into the soma, suggesting that the conductances underlying the EPSP boosting were located in distal dendrites. Supralinearity was selectively eliminated with either Ni2+ (30 μm), mibefradil (10 μm) or nimodipine (15 μm), but was unaffected by QX-314. This pharmacological profile indicates that supralinearity is due to recruitment of dendritic T-type Ca2+channels by the first subthreshold EPSP in the pair. Results with the hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) channel blocker ZD 7288 (50 μm) revealed that Ih restricted the time course of supralinearity for coincidently summed EPSPs, and promoted linear to sublinear summation for asynchronous EPSPs. We conclude that coincidence detection results from the counterbalanced activation of T-type Ca2+ channels and inactivation of Ih. PMID:18388134

  9. Coincidence detection of convergent perforant path and mossy fibre inputs by CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Eduardo; Galván, Emilio J; Card, J Patrick; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-06-01

    We performed whole-cell recordings from CA3 s. radiatum (R) and s. lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons in hippocampal slices to examine the temporal aspects of summation of converging perforant path (PP) and mossy fibre (MF) inputs. PP EPSPs were evoked from the s. lacunosum-moleculare in area CA1. MF EPSPs were evoked from the medial extent of the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus. Summation was strongly supralinear when examining PP EPSP with MF EPSP in a heterosynaptic pair at the 10 ms ISI, and linear to sublinear at longer ISIs. This pattern of nonlinearities suggests that R and L-M interneurons act as coincidence detectors for input from PP and MF. Summation at all ISIs was linear in voltage clamp mode demonstrating that nonlinearities were generated by postsynaptic voltage-dependent conductances. Supralinearity was not detected when the first EPSP in the pair was replaced by a simulated EPSP injected into the soma, suggesting that the conductances underlying the EPSP boosting were located in distal dendrites. Supralinearity was selectively eliminated with either Ni2+ (30 microm), mibefradil (10 microm) or nimodipine (15 microm), but was unaffected by QX-314. This pharmacological profile indicates that supralinearity is due to recruitment of dendritic T-type Ca2+channels by the first subthreshold EPSP in the pair. Results with the hyperpolarization-activated (Ih) channel blocker ZD 7288 (50 microm) revealed that Ih restricted the time course of supralinearity for coincidently summed EPSPs, and promoted linear to sublinear summation for asynchronous EPSPs. We conclude that coincidence detection results from the counterbalanced activation of T-type Ca2+ channels and inactivation of Ih.

  10. Long-term Potentiation at Temporoammonic Path-CA1 Synapses in Freely Moving Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jossina; Villarreal, Desiree M.; Morales, Isaiah S.; Derrick, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal area CA1 receives direct entorhinal layer III input via the temporoammonic path (TAP) and recent studies implicate TAP-CA1 synapses are important for some aspects of hippocampal memory function. Nonetheless, as few studies have examined TAP-CA1 synaptic plasticity in vivo, the induction and longevity of TAP-CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) has not been fully characterized. We analyzed CA1 responses following stimulation of the medial aspect of the angular bundle and investigated LTP at medial temporoammonic path (mTAP)-CA1 synapses in freely moving rats. We demonstrate monosynaptic mTAP-CA1 responses can be isolated in vivo as evidenced by observations of independent current sinks in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of both areas CA1 and CA3 following angular bundle stimulation. Contrasting prior indications that TAP input rarely elicits CA1 discharge, we observed mTAP-CA1 responses that appeared to contain putative population spikes in 40% of our behaving animals. Theta burst high frequency stimulation of mTAP afferents resulted in an input specific and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent LTP of mTAP-CA1 responses in behaving animals. LTP of mTAP-CA1 responses decayed as a function of two exponential decay curves with time constants (τ) of 2.7 and 148 days to decay 63.2% of maximal LTP. In contrast, mTAP-CA1 population spike potentiation longevity demonstrated a τ of 9.6 days. To our knowledge, these studies provide the first description of mTAP-CA1 LTP longevity in vivo. These data indicate TAP input to area CA1 is a physiologically relevant afferent system that displays robust synaptic plasticity. PMID:26903815

  11. Plasticity-dependent, full detonation at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses.

    PubMed

    Vyleta, Nicholas P; Borges-Merjane, Carolina; Jonas, Peter

    2016-10-25

    Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices. Unitary EPSPs failed to initiate a spike in CA3 neurons under control conditions, but reliably discharged them after induction of presynaptic short-term plasticity. Remarkably, PTP switched mossy fiber synapses into full detonators for tens of seconds. Plasticity-dependent detonation may be critical for efficient coding, storage, and recall of information in the granule cell-CA3 cell network.

  12. Delayed cell death in the contralateral hippocampus following kainate injection into the CA3 subfield.

    PubMed

    Maglóczky, Z; Freund, T F

    1995-06-01

    A model of epileptic cell death has been developed employing unilateral injections of kainic acid, a glutamate agonist, into the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus. The contralateral hippocampus, where neuronal damage is induced by hyperactivity in afferent pathways, served as the model structure. The pattern of cell death in this model was shown earlier to correspond to the vulnerable regions in human temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present time-course study we demonstrated that the different subpopulations of vulnerable cells in the contralateral hippocampus of the rat degenerate at different times following kainate injection. Spiny calretinin-containing cells in the hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum disappear at 12-24 h, other types of hilar neurons and CA3c pyramidal cells show shrinkage and argyrophilia at two days, whereas CA1 pyramidal cells degenerate at three days postinjection. The majority of cells destined to die showed a transient expression of the heatshock protein 72, approximately one day (for hilar-CA3c) or two days (for CA1) before degeneration. Parvalbumin-immunoreactivity transiently disappeared from the soma and dendrites of interneurons between the first and the fourth day. The results suggest that seizure-induced cell death is delayed, therefore acute oedema, even if it occurs, is insufficient to kill neurons. The only exception is the population of calretinin-containing interneurons degenerating at 12-24 h. The further one day delay between hilar-CA3c and CA1 cell death is likely to be due to differences in the relative density of glutamate receptor types (kainate versus NMDA) and the source of afferent input of these subfields. Thus, simple pharmacotherapy targeting only one of the excitotoxic mechanisms (i.e. acute oedema of calretinin cells versus delayed death of hilar-CA3c and CA1 cells at different time points) is likely to fail.

  13. Increased hippocampal CA1 cerebral blood volume in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Pratik; Rane, Swati; Kose, Samet; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano; Gore, John; Donahue, Manus J.; Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal hyperactivity has been proposed as a biomarker in schizophrenia. However, there is a debate whether the CA1 or the CA2/3 subfield is selectively affected. We studied 15 schizophrenia patients and 15 matched healthy control subjects with 3T steady state, gadolinium-enhanced, absolute cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps, perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus. The subfields of the hippocampal formation (subiculum, CA1, CA2/3, and hilus/dentate gyrus) were manually segmented to establish CBV values. Comparing anterior CA1 and CA2/3 CBV between patients and controls revealed a significant subfield-by-diagnosis interaction. This interaction was due to the combined effect of a trend of increased CA1 CBV (p = .06) and non-significantly decreased CA2/3 CBV (p = 0.14) in patients relative to healthy controls. These results support the emerging hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity as a biomarker of schizophrenia and highlight the importance of subfield-level investigations. PMID:25161901

  14. A distinct entorhinal cortex to hippocampal CA1 direct circuit for olfactory associative learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiding; Xu, Jiamin; Liu, Yafeng; Zhu, Jia; Liu, Nan; Zeng, Wenbo; Huang, Ning; Rasch, Malte J; Jiang, Haifei; Gu, Xiang; Li, Xiang; Luo, Minhua; Li, Chengyu; Teng, Junlin; Chen, Jianguo; Zeng, Shaoqun; Lin, Longnian; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2017-04-01

    Lateral and medial parts of entorhinal cortex (EC) convey nonspatial 'what' and spatial 'where' information, respectively, into hippocampal CA1, via both the indirect EC layer 2→ hippocampal dentate gyrus→CA3CA1 and the direct EC layer 3→CA1 paths. However, it remains elusive how the direct path transfers distinct information and contributes to hippocampal learning functions. Here we report that lateral EC projection neurons selectively form direct excitatory synapses onto a subpopulation of morphologically complex, calbindin-expressing pyramidal cells (PCs) in the dorsal CA1 (dCA1), while medial EC neurons uniformly innervate all dCA1 PCs. Optogenetically inactivating the distinct lateral EC-dCA1 connections or the postsynaptic dCA1 calbindin-expressing PC activity slows olfactory associative learning. Moreover, optetrode recordings reveal that dCA1 calbindin-expressing PCs develop more selective spiking responses to odor cues during learning. Thus, our results identify a direct lateral EC→dCA1 circuit that is required for olfactory associative learning.

  15. A quantitative theory of the functions of the hippocampal CA3 network in memory

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampal CA3 system as an autoassociation or attractor network used in episodic memory system is described. In this theory, the CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network to enable rapid, one-trial, associations between any spatial location (place in rodents, or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward, and to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, also important in episodic memory. The dentate gyrus (DG) performs pattern separation by competitive learning to produce sparse representations suitable for setting up new representations in CA3 during learning, producing for example neurons with place-like fields from entorhinal cortex grid cells. The dentate granule cells produce by the very small number of mossy fiber (MF) connections to CA3 a randomizing pattern separation effect important during learning but not recall that separates out the patterns represented by CA3 firing to be very different from each other, which is optimal for an unstructured episodic memory system in which each memory must be kept distinct from other memories. The direct perforant path (pp) input to CA3 is quantitatively appropriate to provide the cue for recall in CA3, but not for learning. Tests of the theory including hippocampal subregion analyses and hippocampal NMDA receptor knockouts are described, and support the theory. PMID:23805074

  16. Direct Medial Entorhinal Cortex Input to Hippocampal CA1 Is Crucial for Extended Quiet Awake Replay.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Jun; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2017-09-27

    Hippocampal replays have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in memory. Chains of ripples (ripple bursts) in CA1 have been reported to co-occur with long-range place cell sequence replays during the quiet awake state, but roles of neural inputs to CA1 in ripple bursts and replays are unknown. Here we show that ripple bursts in CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) are temporally associated. An inhibition of MECIII input to CA1 during quiet awake reduced ripple bursts in CA1 and restricted the spatial coverage of replays to a shorter distance corresponding to single ripple events. The reduction did not occur with MECIII input inhibition during slow-wave sleep. Inhibition of CA3 activity suppressed ripples and replays in CA1 regardless of behavioral state. Thus, MECIII input to CA1 is crucial for ripple bursts and long-range replays specifically in quiet awake, whereas CA3 input is essential for both, regardless of behavioral state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NMDA Signaling in CA1 Mediates Selectively the Spatial Component of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Ryan; Lykken, Christy; Beer, Zachery; Suh, Junghyup; McHugh, Thomas J.; Tonegawa, Susumu; Eichenbaum, Howard; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies focusing on the memory for temporal order have reported that CA1 plays a critical role in the memory for the sequences of events, in addition to its well-described role in spatial navigation. In contrast, CA3 was found to principally contribute to the memory for the association of items with spatial or contextual information in…

  18. NMDA Signaling in CA1 Mediates Selectively the Spatial Component of Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Place, Ryan; Lykken, Christy; Beer, Zachery; Suh, Junghyup; McHugh, Thomas J.; Tonegawa, Susumu; Eichenbaum, Howard; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies focusing on the memory for temporal order have reported that CA1 plays a critical role in the memory for the sequences of events, in addition to its well-described role in spatial navigation. In contrast, CA3 was found to principally contribute to the memory for the association of items with spatial or contextual information in…

  19. Entorhinal-CA3 Dual-Input Control of Spike Timing in the Hippocampus by Theta-Gamma Coupling.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Oliva, Azahara; Nagy, Gergő A; Maurer, Andrew P; Berényi, Antal; Buzsáki, György

    2017-03-08

    Theta-gamma phase coupling and spike timing within theta oscillations are prominent features of the hippocampus and are often related to navigation and memory. However, the mechanisms that give rise to these relationships are not well understood. Using high spatial resolution electrophysiology, we investigated the influence of CA3 and entorhinal inputs on the timing of CA1 neurons. The theta-phase preference and excitatory strength of the afferent CA3 and entorhinal inputs effectively timed the principal neuron activity, as well as regulated distinct CA1 interneuron populations in multiple tasks and behavioral states. Feedback potentiation of distal dendritic inhibition by CA1 place cells attenuated the excitatory entorhinal input at place field entry, coupled with feedback depression of proximal dendritic and perisomatic inhibition, allowing the CA3 input to gain control toward the exit. Thus, upstream inputs interact with local mechanisms to determine theta-phase timing of hippocampal neurons to support memory and spatial navigation.

  20. Cell-type-specific circuit connectivity of hippocampal CA1 revealed through Cre-dependent rabies tracing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanjun; Nguyen, Amanda Q; Nguyen, Joseph P; Le, Luc; Saur, Dieter; Choi, Jiwon; Callaway, Edward M; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-04-10

    We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC), the medial septum (MS), and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  1. Energy deprivation transiently enhances rhythmic inhibitory events in the CA3 hippocampal network in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gee, C E; Benquet, P; Demont-Guignard, S; Wendling, F; Gerber, U

    2010-07-14

    Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to rapid suppression of synaptic transmission. Here we describe an emergence of rhythmic activity at 8 to 20 Hz in the CA3 subfield of hippocampal slice cultures occurring for a few minutes prior to the OGD-induced cessation of evoked responses. These oscillations, dominated by inhibitory events, represent network activity, as they were abolished by tetrodotoxin. They were also completely blocked by the GABAergic antagonist picrotoxin, and strongly reduced by the glutamatergic antagonist NBQX. Applying CPP to block NMDA receptors had no effect and neither did UBP302, an antagonist of GluK1-containing kainate receptors. The gap junction blocker mefloquine disrupted rhythmicity. Simultaneous whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from neighboring or distant CA3 pyramidal cells revealed strong cross-correlation of the incoming rhythmic activity. Interneurons in the CA3 area received similar correlated activity. Interestingly, oscillations were much less frequently observed in the CA1 area. These data, together with the observation that the recorded activity consists primarily of inhibitory events, suggest that CA3 interneurons are important for generating these oscillations. This transient increase in inhibitory network activity during OGD may represent a mechanism contributing to the lower vulnerability to ischemic insults of the CA3 area as compared to the CA1 area.

  2. Chronic stress-induced hippocampal dendritic retraction requires CA3 NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Kimberly M.; Miracle, Angela D.; Wellman, Cara L.; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress induces dendritic retraction in the hippocampal CA3 subregion, but the mechanisms responsible for this retraction and its impact on neural circuitry are not well understood. To determine the role of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) receptor (NMDAR)-mediated signaling in this process, we compared the effects of chronic immobilization stress (CIS) on hippocampal dendritic morphology, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and anxiety-related and hippocampus-dependent behaviors, in transgenic male mice in which the NMDAR had been selectively deleted in CA3 pyramidal cells and in non-mutant littermates. We found that CIS exposure for 10 consecutive days in non-mutant mice effectively induces HPA axis activation and dendritic retraction of CA3 short-shaft pyramidal neurons, but not CA3 long-shaft pyramidal neurons, suggesting a differential cellular stress response in this region. Dendritic reorganization of short-shaft neurons occurred throughout the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus and, in particular, in the ventral pole of this structure. We also observed a robust retraction of dendrites in dorsal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the non-mutant C57BL/6 mouse strain. Strikingly, chronic stress-induced dendritic retraction was not evident in any of the neurons in either CA3 or CA1 in the mutant mice that had a functional lack of NMDARs restricted to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the prevention of dendritic retraction in the mutant mice had a minimal effect on HPA axis activation and behavioral alterations that were induced by chronic stress. These data support a role for NMDAR-dependent glutamatergic signaling in CA3 in the cell-type specific induction of dendritic retraction in two hippocampal subregions following chronic stress. PMID:21108993

  3. Disconnection Analysis of CA3 and DG in Mediating Encoding but Not Retrieval in a Spatial Maze Learning Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Taylor; Kesner, Raymond P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) subregion of the hippocampus has been shown to be involved in encoding but not retrieval in a spatial maze task (modified Hebb-Williams maze). The first experiment in this study examined whether a lesion to the CA3 would contribute to a similar encoding deficit. A DG group was included in order to replicate previous results.…

  4. Optogenetic Destabilization of the Memory Trace in CA1: Insights into Reconsolidation and Retrieval Processes.

    PubMed

    Lux, Vanessa; Masseck, Olivia A; Herlitze, Stefan; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2017-01-01

    Reactivation of memory can cause instability necessitating the reconsolidation of the trace. This process can be blocked by amnestic treatments administered after memory reactivation resulting in subsequent memory deficits. While the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is known to be crucial for reconsolidation, evidence for a contribution of the hippocampal CA1 region has only started to accumulate. Moreover, the effect of a reconsolidation blockade in CA1 has only been evaluated behaviorally, and it is unknown whether this manipulation has a long-term effect on neuronal activity. We combined optogenetic and high-resolution molecular imaging techniques to inhibit cell firing in CA1 following the reactivation of a fear memory in mice, evaluated memory performance and imaged neuronal activity the next day upon reexposure to the conditioning context. Blocking memory reconsolidation led to severe memory impairments that were associated with reduced neuronal activity not only in CA1 but also in CA3 and the BLA. Thus, our results indicate that CA1 is necessary for reconsolidation and suggest the involvement of a CA3-CA1-BLA network in the retrieval of contextual fear memory. Further investigations of this network might contribute to the validation of new brain targets for the treatment of pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorders.

  5. Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only proteins Puma and Bim mediate the vulnerability of CA1 hippocampal neurons to proteasome inhibition in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Takuro; Bonner, Helena P; Engel, Tobias; Woods, Ina; Matsushima, Satoshi; Ward, Manus W; Taki, Waro; Henshall, David C; Concannon, Caoimhín G; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2011-02-01

    Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins are pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members that play important roles in upstream cell death signalling during apoptosis. Proteasomal stress has been shown to contribute to the pathology of cerebral ischaemia and many neurodegenerative disorders. Here we explored the contribution of BH3-only proteins in mediating proteasome-inhibition-induced apoptosis in the murine brain in vivo. Stereotactic intrahippocampal microinjection of the selective proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin (2.5 nmol) induced a delayed apoptosis within only the CA1 hippocampal neurons and not neurons within the CA3 or dentate gyrus regions, a selective vulnerability similar to that seen during ischaemia. This injury developed over a time-course of 3 days and was characterized by positive terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling staining and nuclear condensation. Previous work from our laboratory has identified the BH3-only protein p53-upregulated mediator of apoptosis (Puma) as mediating proteasome-inhibition-induced apoptosis in cultured neural cells. Genetic deletion of puma reduced the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling-positive cells within the CA1 following epoxomicin microinjection but it did not provide a complete protection. Subsequent studies identified the BH3-only protein Bim as also being upregulated during proteasome inhibition in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and after epoxomicin treatment in vivo. Interestingly, the genetic deletion of bim also afforded significant neuroprotection, although this protection was less pronounced. In summary, we demonstrate that the BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim mediate the delayed apoptosis of CA1 hippocampal neurons induced by proteasome inhibition in vivo, and that either BH3-only protein can only partly compensate for the deficiency of the other. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience

  6. The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies).

    PubMed

    Amaral, David G; Scharfman, Helen E; Lavenex, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a simple cortical region that is an integral portion of the larger functional brain system called the hippocampal formation. In this review, the fundamental neuroanatomical organization of the dentate gyrus is described, including principal cell types and their connectivity, and a summary of the major extrinsic inputs of the dentate gyrus is provided. Together, this information provides essential information that can serve as an introduction to the dentate gyrus--a "dentate gyrus for dummies."

  7. Requirement for hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors in associative memory recall.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Kazu; Quirk, Michael C; Chitwood, Raymond A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yeckel, Mark F; Sun, Linus D; Kato, Akira; Carr, Candice A; Johnston, Daniel; Wilson, Matthew A; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2002-07-12

    Pattern completion, the ability to retrieve complete memories on the basis of incomplete sets of cues, is a crucial function of biological memory systems. The extensive recurrent connectivity of the CA3 area of hippocampus has led to suggestions that it might provide this function. We have tested this hypothesis by generating and analyzing a genetically engineered mouse strain in which the N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptor gene is ablated specifically in the CA3 pyramidal cells of adult mice. The mutant mice normally acquired and retrieved spatial reference memory in the Morris water maze, but they were impaired in retrieving this memory when presented with a fraction of the original cues. Similarly, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in mutant mice displayed normal place-related activity in a full-cue environment but showed a reduction in activity upon partial cue removal. These results provide direct evidence for CA3 NMDA receptor involvement in associative memory recall.

  8. A computational study on plasticity during theta cycles at Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Saudargiene, Ausra; Cobb, Stuart; Graham, Bruce P

    2015-02-01

    Cellular activity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus waxes and wanes at theta frequency (4-8 Hz) during exploratory behavior of rats. Perisomatic inhibition onto pyramidal cells tends to be strongest out of phase with pyramidal cell activity, whereas dendritic inhibition is strongest in phase with pyramidal cell activity. Synaptic plasticity also varies across the theta cycle, from strong long-term potentiation (LTP) to long-term depression (LTD), putatively corresponding to encoding and retrieval phases for information patterns encoded by pyramidal cell activity (Hasselmo et al. (2002a) Neural Comput 14:793-817). The mechanisms underpinning the phasic changes in plasticity are not clear, but it is likely that inhibition plays a role by affecting levels of electrical activity and calcium concentration at synapses. We explore the properties of synaptic plasticity during theta at Schaffer collateral synapses on CA1 pyramidal neurons and the influence of spatially and temporally targeted inhibition using a detailed multicompartmental model of the CA1 pyramidal neuron microcircuit and a phenomenological model of synaptic plasticity. The results suggest CA3-CA1 synapses are potentiated on one phase of theta due to high calcium levels provided by paired weak CA3 and layer III entorhinal cortex (EC) inputs even when somatic spiking is inhibited by perisomatic interneuron activity. Weak CA3 inputs alone induce lower calcium transients and result in depression of the CA3-CA1 synapses. These synapses are depressed if activated in phase with dendritic inhibition as strong CA3 inputs alone are not able to cause high calcium in this theta phase even though the CA1 pyramidal neuron shows somatic spiking. Dendritic inhibition acts as a switch that prevents LTP and promotes LTD during the retrieval phases of the theta rhythm in CA1 pyramidal cell. This may be important for not overly reinforcing recalled memories and in forgetting no longer relevant memories.

  9. In vitro measurements of extracellular L-glutamate level in region CA3 of mouse hippocampal slices under chemical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Hiromi; Deguchi, Yukari; Kanazawa, Ena; Kawai, Jun; Nozawa, Keiichiro; Shoji, Atsushi; Sugawara, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The concentration level of extracellular L-glutamate released from region CA3 of mouse hippocampal slices under tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride and KCl stimulation was measured with independent methods, i.e., a capillary-based enzyme sensor, a patch sensor, and an enzyme-based imaging method. The L-glutamate level was compared with those at regions CA1 and DG. It was found that the enhanced concentration level at CA3 by TEA stimulation is very similar to that at CA1, but it is much lower than that at DG. The order of the regional distribution of L-glutamate, i.e., DG > CA1CA3, was the same as that obtained by K(+) stimulation. However, in the presence of an uptake inhibitor, DL-TBOA, KCl stimulation showed the strongest L-glutamate flux at CA1, while TEA stimulation exhibited the strongest flux at CA3. The usefulness of the present approach for knowing the extracellular L-glutamate level in acute hippocampal slices is discussed.

  10. Ontogeny of calbindin immunoreactivity in the human hippocampal formation with a special emphasis on granule cells of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Abrahám, Hajnalka; Veszprémi, Béla; Kravják, András; Kovács, Krisztina; Gömöri, Eva; Seress, László

    2009-04-01

    Calbindin (CB) is a calcium-binding protein that is present in principal cells as well as in interneurons of the hippocampal formation of various species including humans. Studies with transgenic mice revealed that CB is essential for long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity which are the cellular basis of learning and memory. In a previous study we have shown that CB expression in granule cells of the dentate gyrus correlates with the functional maturation of the hippocampal formation in the rat. In the present study we examined the ontogeny of CB using immunohistochemistry in the human hippocampal formation paying special attention to the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. As early as the 14(th) week of gestation (GW), CB was being expressed by pyramidal cells of CA1-3 regions in the deepest cell rows of the pyramidal layer towards the ventricular zone. Later, CB sequentially appears in more superficial cell rows. After midgestation, CB disappears from CA3 pyramidal neurons. Expression of CB by granule cells starts at the 22(nd)-23(rd) GW, first by the most superficial neurons of the ectal end of the dorsal blade. At the 24(th) GW, CB is expressed by granule cells of the crest and medial portion of the ventral blade whereas later the entire ventral blade revealed CB immunoreactivity. At term, and in the first few postnatal months, CB-immunoreaction is detected in granule cells of both blades except for those neurons in the deepest cell rows at the hilar border. At around 2-3 years of age, all granule cells of the entire cell layer are CB-immunoreactive. Axons of granule cells, the mossy fibers, start to express CB around the 30(th) GW in stratum lucidum of CA3a. With further development, CB is expressed in CA3b and c, as well as in the hilus. An adult-like pattern of CB-immunoreactivity could be observed at 11 years of age. Our results indicate that (i) CB is expressed by hippocampal pyramidal cells a few weeks before midgestation; (ii) similarly to

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ALTERS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN DENTATE GYRUS AND AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to learning deficits and alterations in hippocampal structure. Neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus, however, have not been well characterized. The present study examined field potentials evoked in...

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ALTERS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN DENTATE GYRUS AND AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to learning deficits and alterations in hippocampal structure. Neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus, however, have not been well characterized. The present study examined field potentials evoked in...

  13. Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Katie C; Grienberger, Christine; Vaidya, Sachin P; Milstein, Aaron D; Macklin, John J; Suh, Junghyup; Tonegawa, Susumu; Magee, Jeffrey C

    2015-08-01

    Feature-selective firing allows networks to produce representations of the external and internal environments. Despite its importance, the mechanisms generating neuronal feature selectivity are incompletely understood. In many cortical microcircuits the integration of two functionally distinct inputs occurs nonlinearly through generation of active dendritic signals that drive burst firing and robust plasticity. To examine the role of this processing in feature selectivity, we recorded CA1 pyramidal neuron membrane potential and local field potential in mice running on a linear treadmill. We found that dendritic plateau potentials were produced by an interaction between properly timed input from entorhinal cortex and hippocampal CA3. These conjunctive signals positively modulated the firing of previously established place fields and rapidly induced new place field formation to produce feature selectivity in CA1 that is a function of both entorhinal cortex and CA3 input. Such selectivity could allow mixed network level representations that support context-dependent spatial maps.

  14. Conjunctive input processing drives feature selectivity in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Katie C.; Grienberger, Christine; Vaidya, Sachin P.; Milstein, Aaron D.; Macklin, John J.; Suh, Junghyup; Tonegawa, Susumu; Magee, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Feature selective firing allows networks to produce representations of the external and internal environments. Despite its importance, the mechanisms generating neuronal feature selectivity are incompletely understood. In many cortical microcircuits the integration of two functionally distinct inputs occurs nonlinearly via generation of active dendritic signals that drive burst firing and robust plasticity. To examine the role of this processing in feature selectivity we recorded CA1 pyramidal neuron membrane potential and local field potential in mice running on a linear treadmill. We found that dendritic plateau potentials are produced by an interaction between properly timed input from entorhinal cortex (EC3) and hippocampal CA3. These conjunctive signals positively modulate the firing of previously established place fields and rapidly induce novel place field formation to produce feature selectivity in CA1 that is a function of both EC3 and CA3 input. Such selectivity could allow mixed network level representations that support context-dependent spatial maps. PMID:26167906

  15. Hippocampal CA1 interneurons: an in vivo intracellular labeling study.

    PubMed

    Sik, A; Penttonen, M; Ylinen, A; Buzsáki, G

    1995-10-01

    Fast spiking interneurons in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus were recorded from and filled with biocytin in anesthetized rats. The full extent of their dendrites and axonal arborizations as well as their calcium binding protein content were examined. Based on the spatial extent of axon collaterals, local circuit cells (basket and O-LM neurons) and long-range cells (bistratified, trilaminar, and backprojection neurons) could be distinguished. Basket cells were immunoreactive for parvalbumin and their axon collaterals were confined to the pyramidal layer. A single basket cell contacted more than 1500 pyramidal neurons and 60 other parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Commissural stimulation directly discharged basket cells, followed by an early and late IPSPs, indicating interneuronal inhibition of basket cells. The dendrites of another local circuit neuron (O-LM) were confined to stratum oriens and it had a small but high-density axonal terminal field in stratum lacunosum-moleculare. The fastest firing cell of all interneurons was a calbindin-immunoreactive bistratified neuron with axonal targets in stratum oriens and radiatum. Two neurons with their cell bodies in the alveus innervated the CA3 region (backprojection cells), in addition to rich axon collaterals in the CA1 region. The trilaminar interneuron had axon collaterals in strata radiatum, oriens and pyramidale with its dendrites confined to stratum oriens. Commissural stimulation evoked an early EPSP-IPSP-late depolarizing potential sequence in this cell. All interneurons formed symmetric synapses with their targets at the electron microscopic level. These findings indicate that interneurons with distinct axonal targets have differential functions in shaping the physiological patterns of the CA1 network.

  16. The dentate gyrus: fundamental neuroanatomical organization (dentate gyrus for dummies)

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, David G.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is a simple cortical region that is an integral portion of the larger functional brain system called the hippocampal formation. In this review, the fundamental neuroanatomical organization of the dentate gyrus is described, including principal cell types and their connectivity, and a summary of the major extrinsic inputs of the dentate gyrus is provided. Together, this information provides essential information that can serve as an introduction to the dentate gyrus — a “dentate gyrus for dummies.” PMID:17765709

  17. Fetal hippocampal CA3 cell grafts enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust long-term survival and integration and suppress aberrant mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Muddanna S; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K

    2006-02-01

    Cell transplants that successfully replace the lost neurons and facilitate the reconstruction of the disrupted circuitry in the injured aging hippocampus are invaluable for treating acute head injury, stroke and status epilepticus in the elderly. This is because apt graft integration has the potential to prevent the progression of the acute injury into chronic epilepsy in the elderly. However, neural transplants into the injured middle-aged or aged hippocampus exhibit poor cell survival, suggesting that apt graft augmentation strategies are critical for robust integration of grafted cells into the injured aging hippocampus. We examined the efficacy of pre-treatment and grafting of donor fetal CA3 cells with a blend of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for lasting survival and integration of grafted cells in the injured middle-aged (12 months old) hippocampus of F344 rats. Grafts were placed at 4 days after the kainic-acid-induced hippocampal injury and were analyzed at 6 months post-grafting. We demonstrate that 80% of grafted cells exhibit prolonged survival and 71% of grafted cells differentiate into CA3 pyramidal neurons. Grafts also receive a robust afferent input from the host mossy fibers and project efferent axons into the denervated zones of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield. Consequently, the aberrant sprouting of the dentate mossy fibers, an epileptogenic change that typically ensues after the hippocampal injury, was suppressed. Thus, grafts of fetal CA3 cells enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust integration and dampen the abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus. Because the aberrantly sprouted mossy fibers contribute to the generation of seizures, the results suggest that the grafting intervention using FGF-2 and BDNF is efficacious for suppressing epileptogenesis in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

  18. Associative Retrieval Processes in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe: Hippocampal Retrieval Success and CA1 Mismatch Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Janice; Olsen, Rosanna K.; Preston, Alison R.; Glover, Gary H.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal subfields CA3 and CA1 are hypothesized to differentially support the generation of associative predictions and the detection of associative mismatches, respectively. Using high-resolution functional MRI, we examined hippocampal subfield activation during associative retrieval and during subsequent comparisons of memory to matching or…

  19. Associative Retrieval Processes in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe: Hippocampal Retrieval Success and CA1 Mismatch Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Janice; Olsen, Rosanna K.; Preston, Alison R.; Glover, Gary H.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal subfields CA3 and CA1 are hypothesized to differentially support the generation of associative predictions and the detection of associative mismatches, respectively. Using high-resolution functional MRI, we examined hippocampal subfield activation during associative retrieval and during subsequent comparisons of memory to matching or…

  20. Hippocampal CA3 Output is Crucial for Ripple-Associated Reactivation and Consolidation of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nakashiba, Toshiaki; Buhl, Derek L.; McHugh, Thomas J.; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A widely held memory consolidation theory posits that memory of events and space is initially stored in the hippocampus (HPC) in a time-limited manner and is consolidated in the neocortex for permanent storage. Although post-training HPC lesions result in temporally graded amnesia, the precise HPC circuits and mechanisms involved in remote memory storage remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the trisynaptic pathway in the consolidation process we employed the CA3-TeTX transgenic mouse, in which CA3 output can be specifically and inducibly controlled. We found that post-training blockade of CA3 output for up to four weeks impairs the consolidation of contextual fear memory. Moreover, in vivo hippocampal recordings revealed a reduced intrinsic frequency of CA1 ripples and a significant decrease in the experience-dependent, ripple-associated coordinated reactivation of CA1 cell pairs. Collectively, these results suggest that the post-training integrity of the trisynaptic pathway and the ripple-associated reactivation of hippocampal memory engram is crucial for memory consolidation. PMID:19555647

  1. Hippocampal CA3 output is crucial for ripple-associated reactivation and consolidation of memory.

    PubMed

    Nakashiba, Toshiaki; Buhl, Derek L; McHugh, Thomas J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2009-06-25

    A widely held memory consolidation theory posits that memory of events and space is initially stored in the hippocampus (HPC) in a time-limited manner and is consolidated in the neocortex for permanent storage. Although posttraining HPC lesions result in temporally graded amnesia, the precise HPC circuits and mechanisms involved in remote memory storage remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the trisynaptic pathway in the consolidation process we employed the CA3-TeTX transgenic mouse, in which CA3 output can be specifically and inducibly controlled. We found that posttraining blockade of CA3 output for up to 4 weeks impairs the consolidation of contextual fear memory. Moreover, in vivo hippocampal recordings revealed a reduced intrinsic frequency of CA1 ripples and a significant decrease in the experience-dependent, ripple-associated coordinated reactivation of CA1 cell pairs. Collectively, these results suggest that the posttraining integrity of the trisynaptic pathway and the ripple-associated reactivation of hippocampal memory engram are crucial for memory consolidation.

  2. Interneuron diversity series: containing the detonation--feedforward inhibition in the CA3 hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Josh; McBain, Chris J

    2003-11-01

    Feedforward inhibitory circuits are involved both in the suppression of excitability and timing of action potential generation in principal cells. In the CA3 hippocampus, a single mossy fiber from a dentate gyrus granule cell forms giant boutons with multiple release sites, which are capable of detonating CA3 principal cells. By contrast, mossy fiber terminals form a larger number of Lilliputian-sized synapses with few release sites onto local circuit interneurons, with distinct presynaptic and postsynaptic properties. This dichotomy between the two synapse types endows the circuit with exquisite control over pyramidal cell discharge. Under pathological conditions where feedforward inhibition is compromised, focal excitation is no longer contained, rendering the circuit susceptible to hyperexcitability.

  3. Plasticity-dependent, full detonation at hippocampal mossy fiber–CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses

    PubMed Central

    Vyleta, Nicholas P; Borges-Merjane, Carolina; Jonas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices. Unitary EPSPs failed to initiate a spike in CA3 neurons under control conditions, but reliably discharged them after induction of presynaptic short-term plasticity. Remarkably, PTP switched mossy fiber synapses into full detonators for tens of seconds. Plasticity-dependent detonation may be critical for efficient coding, storage, and recall of information in the granule cell–CA3 cell network. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17977.001 PMID:27780032

  4. Extrinsic and Local Glutamatergic Inputs of the Rat Hippocampal CA1 Area Differentially Innervate Pyramidal Cells and Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Virág T.; Klausberger, Thomas; Somogyi, Peter; Freund, Tamás F.; Gulyás, Attila I.

    2015-01-01

    The two main glutamatergic pathways to the CA1 area, the Schaffer collateral/commissural input and the entorhinal fibers, as well as the local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells innervate both pyramidal cells and interneurons. To determine whether these inputs differ in their weights of activating GABAergic circuits, we have studied the relative proportion of pyramidal cells and interneurons among their postsynaptic targets in serial electron microscopic sections. Local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells, intracellularly labeled in vitro or in vivo, innervated a relatively high proportion of interneuronal postsynaptic targets (65.9 and 53.8%, in vitro and in vivo, respectively) in stratum (str.) oriens and alveus. In contrast, axons of in vitro labeled CA3 pyramidal cells in str. oriens and str. radiatum of the CA1 area made synaptic junctions predominantly with pyramidal cell spines (92.9%). The postsynaptic targets of anterogradely labeled medial entorhinal cortical boutons in CA1 str. lacunosum-moleculare were primarily pyramidal neuron dendritic spines and shafts (90.8%). The alvear group of the entorhinal afferents, traversing str. oriens, str. pyramidale, and str. radiatum showed a higher preference for innervating GABAergic cells (21.3%), particularly in str. oriens/alveus. These data demonstrate that different glutamatergic pathways innervate CA1 GABAergic cells to different extents. The results suggest that the numerically smaller CA1 local axonal inputs together with the alvear part of the entorhinal input preferentially act on GABAergic interneurons in contrast to the CA3, or the entorhinal input in str. lacunosum-moleculare. The results highlight differences in the postsynaptic target selection of the feed-forward versus recurrent glutamatergic inputs to the CA1 and CA3 areas. PMID:21956752

  5. Extrinsic and local glutamatergic inputs of the rat hippocampal CA1 area differentially innervate pyramidal cells and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Takács, Virág T; Klausberger, Thomas; Somogyi, Peter; Freund, Tamás F; Gulyás, Attila I

    2012-06-01

    The two main glutamatergic pathways to the CA1 area, the Schaffer collateral/commissural input and the entorhinal fibers, as well as the local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells innervate both pyramidal cells and interneurons. To determine whether these inputs differ in their weights of activating GABAergic circuits, we have studied the relative proportion of pyramidal cells and interneurons among their postsynaptic targets in serial electron microscopic sections. Local axons of CA1 pyramidal cells, intracellularly labeled in vitro or in vivo, innervated a relatively high proportion of interneuronal postsynaptic targets (65.9 and 53.8%, in vitro and in vivo, respectively) in stratum (str.) oriens and alveus. In contrast, axons of in vitro labeled CA3 pyramidal cells in str. oriens and str. radiatum of the CA1 area made synaptic junctions predominantly with pyramidal cell spines (92.9%). The postsynaptic targets of anterogradely labeled medial entorhinal cortical boutons in CA1 str. lacunosum-moleculare were primarily pyramidal neuron dendritic spines and shafts (90.8%). The alvear group of the entorhinal afferents, traversing str. oriens, str. pyramidale, and str. radiatum showed a higher preference for innervating GABAergic cells (21.3%), particularly in str. oriens/alveus. These data demonstrate that different glutamatergic pathways innervate CA1 GABAergic cells to different extents. The results suggest that the numerically smaller CA1 local axonal inputs together with the alvear part of the entorhinal input preferentially act on GABAergic interneurons in contrast to the CA3, or the entorhinal input in str. lacunosum-moleculare. The results highlight differences in the postsynaptic target selection of the feed-forward versus recurrent glutamatergic inputs to the CA1 and CA3 areas.

  6. The coexpression of reelin and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in a subpopulation of dentate gyrus neurons is downregulated in heterozygous reeler mice.

    PubMed

    Romay-Tallón, Raquel; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Lussier, April L; Kalynchuk, Lisa E; Caruncho, Hector J

    2010-01-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in several interneuron subtypes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is also expressed by interneurons in these areas. We investigated whether reelin and nNOS are co-localized in the same population of hippocampal interneurons, and whether this colocalization is altered in the heterozygous reeler mouse. We found colocalization of nNOS in reelin-positive cells in the CA1 stratum radiatum and lacunosum moleculare, the CA3 stratum radiatum, and the dentate gyrus subgranular zone, molecular layer, and hilus. In heterozygous reeler mice, the colocalization of nNOS in reelin-positive cells was significantly decreased only in the subgranular zone and molecular layer. The coexpression of reelin and nNOS in several hippocampal regions suggests that reelin and nNOS may work synergistically to promote glutamatergic function, and the loss of this coexpression in heterozygous reeler mice may underlie some of the behavioral deficits observed in these animals.

  7. Anisomycin injection in area CA3 of the hippocampus impairs both short-term and long-term memories of contextual fear.

    PubMed

    Remaud, Jessica; Ceccom, Johnatan; Carponcy, Julien; Dugué, Laura; Menchon, Gregory; Pech, Stéphane; Halley, Helene; Francés, Bernard; Dahan, Lionel

    2014-05-15

    Protein synthesis is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. Previous electrophysiological data concerning LTP in CA3 suggest that protein synthesis in that region might also be necessary for short-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by locally injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin in hippocampal area CA1 or CA3 immediately after contextual fear conditioning. As previously shown, injections in CA1 impaired long-term memory but spared short-term memory. Conversely, injections in CA3 impaired both long-term and short-term memories. We conclude that early steps of experience-induced plasticity occurring in CA3 and underlying short-term memory require protein synthesis. © 2014 Remaud et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Hippocampal CA3 NMDA receptors are crucial for memory acquisition of one-time experience.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Kazu; Sun, Linus D; Quirk, Michael C; Rondi-Reig, Laure; Wilson, Matthew A; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2003-04-24

    Lesion and pharmacological intervention studies have suggested that in both human patients and animals the hippocampus plays a crucial role in the rapid acquisition and storage of information from a novel one-time experience. However, how the hippocampus plays this role is poorly known. Here, we show that mice with NMDA receptor (NR) deletion restricted to CA3 pyramidal cells in adulthood are impaired in rapidly acquiring the memory of novel hidden platform locations in a delayed matching-to-place version of the Morris water maze task but are normal when tested with previously experienced platform locations. CA1 place cells in the mutant animals had place field sizes that were significantly larger in novel environments, but normal in familiar environments relative to those of control mice. These results suggest that CA3 NRs play a crucial role in rapid hippocampal encoding of novel information for fast learning of one-time experience.

  9. α2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in hippocampal region CA3 control fast network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Heistek, Tim S; Ruiperez-Alonso, Marta; Timmerman, A Jaap; Brussaard, Arjen B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-02-15

    GABA(A) receptors are critically involved in hippocampal oscillations. GABA(A) receptor α1 and α2 subunits are differentially expressed throughout the hippocampal circuitry and thereby may have distinct contributions to oscillations. It is unknown which GABA(A) receptor α subunit controls hippocampal oscillations and where these receptors are expressed. To address these questions we used transgenic mice expressing GABA(A) receptor α1 and/or α2 subunits with point mutations (H101R) that render these receptors insensitive to allosteric modulation at the benzodiazepine binding site, and tested how increased or decreased function of α subunits affects hippocampal oscillations. Positive allosteric modulation by zolpidem prolonged decay kinetics of hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission and reduced the frequency of cholinergically induced oscillations. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors in CA3 altered oscillation frequency in CA1, while modulation of GABA receptors in CA1 did not affect oscillations. In mice having a point mutation (H101R) at the GABA(A) receptor α2 subunit, zolpidem effects on cholinergically induced oscillations were strongly reduced compared to wild-type animals, while zolpidem modulation was still present in mice with the H101R mutation at the α1 subunit. Furthermore, genetic knockout of α2 subunits strongly reduced oscillations, whereas knockout of α1 subunits had no effect. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors was strongly reduced in unitary connections between fast spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons in CA3 of α2H101R mice, but not of α1H101R mice, suggesting that fast spiking interneuron to pyramidal neuron synapses in CA3 contain α2 subunits. These findings suggest that α2-containing GABA(A) receptors expressed in the CA3 region provide the inhibition that controls hippocampal rhythm during cholinergically induced oscillations.

  10. Dopamine regulates intrinsic excitability thereby gating successful induction of spike timing-dependent plasticity in CA1 of the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Elke; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are generally assumed to be cellular correlates for learning and memory. Different types of LTP induction protocols differing in severity of stimulation can be distinguished in CA1 of the hippocampus. To better understand signaling mechanisms and involvement of neuromodulators such as dopamine (DA) in synaptic plasticity, less severe and more physiological low frequency induction protocols should be used. In the study which is reviewed here, critical determinants of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses were investigated. We found that DA via D1 receptor signaling, but not adrenergic signaling activated by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, is important for successful expression of STDP at CA3-CA1 synapses. The DA effect on STDP is paralleled by changes in spike firing properties, thereby changing intrinsic excitability of postsynaptic CA1 neurons, and gating STDP. Whereas β-adrenergic signaling also leads to a similar (but not identical) regulation of firing pattern, it does not enable STDP. In this focused review we will discuss the current literature on dopaminergic modulation of LTP in CA1, with a special focus on timing dependent (t-)LTP, and we will suggest possible reasons for the selective gating of STDP by DA [but not noradrenaline (NA)] in CA1. PMID:23508132

  11. Dopamine regulates intrinsic excitability thereby gating successful induction of spike timing-dependent plasticity in CA1 of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Elke; Lessmann, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are generally assumed to be cellular correlates for learning and memory. Different types of LTP induction protocols differing in severity of stimulation can be distinguished in CA1 of the hippocampus. To better understand signaling mechanisms and involvement of neuromodulators such as dopamine (DA) in synaptic plasticity, less severe and more physiological low frequency induction protocols should be used. In the study which is reviewed here, critical determinants of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses were investigated. We found that DA via D1 receptor signaling, but not adrenergic signaling activated by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, is important for successful expression of STDP at CA3-CA1 synapses. The DA effect on STDP is paralleled by changes in spike firing properties, thereby changing intrinsic excitability of postsynaptic CA1 neurons, and gating STDP. Whereas β-adrenergic signaling also leads to a similar (but not identical) regulation of firing pattern, it does not enable STDP. In this focused review we will discuss the current literature on dopaminergic modulation of LTP in CA1, with a special focus on timing dependent (t-)LTP, and we will suggest possible reasons for the selective gating of STDP by DA [but not noradrenaline (NA)] in CA1.

  12. Dentate gyrus–CA3 glutamate release/NMDA transmission mediates behavioral despair and antidepressant-like responses to leptin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Di; Lu, Xin-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence supports the important role of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of major depression and also as a target for rapid-acting antidepressants. However, the functional role of glutamate release/transmission in behavioral processes related to depression and antidepressant efficacy remains to be elucidated. In this study, glutamate release and behavioral responses to tail suspension, a procedure commonly used for inducing behavioral despair, were simultaneously monitored in real time. The onset of tail suspension stress evoked a rapid increase in glutamate release in hippocampal field CA3, which declined gradually after its offset. Blockade of NMDA receptors by intra-CA3 infusion of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reversed behavioral despair. The CA3 was innervated by granule neurons expressing the leptin receptor (LepRb) in the dentate gyrus (DG), representing a subpopulation of granule neurons that were devoid of stress-induced activation. Leptin treatment dampened tail suspension-evoked glutamate release in CA3. On the other hand, intra-CA3 infusion of NMDA blocked the antidepressant-like effect of leptin in reversing behavioral despair in both the tail suspension and forced swim tests, which involved activation of Akt signaling in DG. Together, these results suggest that the DG-CA3 glutamatergic pathway is critical for mediating behavioral despair and antidepressant-like responses to leptin. PMID:25092243

  13. Corruption of the dentate gyrus by "dominant" granule cells: Implications for dentate gyrus function in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; Myers, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus are highly organized lamellar structures which have been implicated in specific cognitive functions such as pattern separation and pattern completion. Here we describe how the anatomical organization and physiology of the DG and CA3 are consistent with structures that perform pattern separation and completion. We then raise a new idea related to the complex circuitry of the DG and CA3 where CA3 pyramidal cell 'backprojections' play a potentially important role in the sparse firing of granule cells (GCs), considered important in pattern separation. We also propose that GC axons, the mossy fibers, already known for their highly specialized structure, have a dynamic function that imparts variance--'mossy fiber variance'--which is important to pattern separation and completion. Computational modeling is used to show that when a subset of GCs become 'dominant,' one consequence is loss of variance in the activity of mossy fiber axons and a reduction in pattern separation and completion in the model. Empirical data are then provided using an example of 'dominant' GCs--subsets of GCs that develop abnormally and have increased excitability. Notably, these abnormal GCs have been identified in animal models of disease where DG-dependent behaviors are impaired. Together these data provide insight into pattern separation and completion, and suggest that behavioral impairment could arise from dominance of a subset of GCs in the DG-CA3 network.

  14. Corruption of the Dentate Gyrus by “Dominant” Granule cells: Implications for Dentate Gyrus Function in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA3 of the hippocampus are highly organized lamellar structures which have been implicated in specific cognitive functions such as pattern separation and pattern completion. Here we describe how the anatomical organization and physiology of the DG and CA3 are consistent with structures that perform pattern separation and completion. We then raise a new idea related to the complex circuitry of the DG and CA3 where CA3 pyramidal cell ‘backprojections’ play a potentially important role in the sparse firing of granule cells (GCs), considered important in pattern separation. We also propose that GC axons, the mossy fibers, already known for their highly specialized structure, have a dynamic function that imparts variance – ‘mossy fiber variance’ – which is important to pattern separation and completion. Computational modeling is used to show that when a subset of GCs become ‘dominant,’ one consequence is loss of variance in the activity of mossy fiber axons and a reduction in pattern separation and completion in the model. Empirical data are then provided using an example of ‘dominant’ GCs – subsets of GCs that develop abnormally and have increased excitability. Notably, these abnormal GCs have been identified in animal models of disease where DG-dependent behaviors are impaired. Together these data provide insight into pattern separation and completion, and suggest that behavioral impairment could arise from dominance of a subset of GCs in the DG-CA3 network. PMID:26391451

  15. Determination of standard free energies of formation of Ca3P2 and Ca2Sn at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, D. J.; Sano, N.

    1988-06-01

    The standard free energies of formation of calcium phosphide and calcium stannide were determined by a chemical equilibration technique, yielding the following results: 3Ca(1) + P2(g) = Ca3P2(s) Δ G° = -653,460(±7110) + 144.01(±4.98) T (J/mol)1000 °C to 1300 °C2Ca(1) + Sn(1) = Ca2Sn(s) Δ G° = -353,970(±1670) + 79.28(±1.26) T (J/mol)1000 °C to 1300 °C 1120 °C The experimental data to express the thermodynamics for removal of phosphorus and tin from molten iron by calcium based slags by other investigators were discussed in terms of the activity co-efficients of Ca3P2 and Ca2Sn in slag melts by using the present results described above.

  16. Patterned activity in stratum lacunosum moleculare inhibits CA1 pyramidal neuron firing.

    PubMed

    Dvorak-Carbone, H; Schuman, E M

    1999-12-01

    CA1 pyramidal cells are the primary output neurons of the hippocampus, carrying information about the result of hippocampal network processing to the subiculum and entorhinal cortex (EC) and thence out to the rest of the brain. The primary excitatory drive to the CA1 pyramidal cells comes via the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection from area CA3. There is also a direct projection from EC to stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) of CA1, an input well positioned to modulate information flow through the hippocampus. High-frequency stimulation in SLM evokes an inhibition sufficiently strong to prevent CA1 pyramidal cells from spiking in response to SC input, a phenomenon we refer to as spike-blocking. We characterized the spike-blocking efficacy of burst stimulation (10 stimuli at 100 Hz) in SLM and found that it is greatest at approximately 300-600 ms after the burst, consistent with the time course of the slow GABA(B) signaling pathway. Spike-blocking efficacy increases in potency with the number of SLM stimuli in a burst, but also decreases with repeated presentations of SLM bursts. Spike-blocking was eliminated in the presence of GABA(B) antagonists. We have identified a candidate population of interneurons in SLM and distal stratum radiatum (SR) that may mediate this spike-blocking effect. We conclude that the output of CA1 pyramidal cells, and hence the hippocampus, is modulated in an input pattern-dependent manner by activation of the direct pathway from EC.

  17. Impaired retention of spatial memory after transection of longitudinally oriented axons of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffenach, Hill-Aina; Sloviter, Robert S.; Moser, Edvard I.; Moser, May-Britt

    2002-03-01

    Longitudinally oriented axon collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells may be critical for integrating distributed information in the hippocampus. To investigate the possible role of this pathway in the retention of spatial memory, we made a single transversely oriented cut through the dorsal CA3 region of each hippocampus. Although the lesion involved <3% of the hippocampal volume, it nonetheless disrupted memory retention in a water maze in preoperatively trained rats. New learning in a different water maze was attenuated. No significant impairment occurred in rats with longitudinally oriented cuts, or in animals with ibotenic acid-induced lesions of similar magnitude. To characterize the effect of a focal lesion on the integrity of longitudinally projecting axons, we stained degenerating cells and fibers in rats with unilateral CA3 transections by using FluoroJade-B. Degenerating terminals were seen across a wide region posterior to the cut, and were present in the strata of areas CA3 and CA1 that are innervated by CA3 pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the integrity of longitudinally oriented, translamellar axons of CA3 pyramidal cells may be necessary for efficient acquisition and retention of spatial memory.

  18. Model of spatio-temporal propagation of action potentials in the Schaffer collateral pathway of the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C; Cannon, R C; Ben Ari, Y; Wheal, H V

    1997-01-01

    There is a sharp contrast between the profuse in vivo axonal arborization of CA3 pyramidal cells in the CA1 area and the low probability of finding pairs of connected CA3-CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. These anatomical differences contribute to a connectivity argument for discrepancies between electrophysiological data recorded in vitro and in vivo. In order to investigate this issue, we have developed a realistic computer model of the Schaffer collateral pathway of the hippocampus and analyzed the spatio-temporal distribution of action potentials along this pathway following three different types of electrical test stimulus. Direct activation of mossy fibers, CA3 pyramidal cells and focal stimulation of CA1 stratum radiatum were investigated. The parameters of the model were selected from available biological data. Spikes in Schaffer collaterals were followed from their onset in the CA3 pyramidal cell initial segment to the last order branches of their axonal tree in two types of configuration: the whole hippocampus and the slice configuration. The anatomical and electropysiological characteristics of the mossy fibre and Schaffer collateral pathways were found to impose strong constraints on the spatio-temporal distribution of action potentials in the CA1 area. Specific projection zones are determined by the spatial localization of the emitting CA3 pyramidal cells. Their position also defines precise time windows during which some CA1 projection zones receive a large number of correlated signals. Moreover, the variability of the delay at the mossy fibre/CA3 pyramidal cell synapse seems to provide the CA1 projection zones with a background level of excitation. Finally, we show how the patterns of activation obtained in the whole hippocampus are different from those obtained in the slice.

  19. Ischemic Preconditioning Mediates Neuroprotection against Ischemia in Mouse Hippocampal CA1 Neurons by Inducing Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunlin; Cai, Ying; Zhang, Xuebin; Huang, Huiling; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yajing; Tong, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jinhuan; Wu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 region is sensitive to hypoxic and ischemic injury but can be protected by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism through which IPC protects hippocampal CA1 neurons is still under investigation. Additionally, the role of autophagy in determining the fate of hippocampal neurons is unclear. Here, we examined whether IPC induced autophagy to alleviate hippocampal CA1 neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) models. Survival of hippocampal neurons increased from 51.5% ± 6.3% in the non-IPC group (55 min of OGD) to 77.3% ± 7.9% in the IPC group (15 min of OGD, followed by 55 min of OGD 24 h later). The number of hippocampal CA1 layer neurons increased from 182 ± 26 cells/mm2 in the non-IPC group (20 min of BCCAO) to 278 ± 55 cells/mm2 in the IPC group (1 min × 3 BCCAO, followed by 20 min of BCCAO 24 h later). Akt phosphorylation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I expression were increased in the preconditioning group. Moreover, the protective effects of IPC were abolished only by inhibiting the activity of autophagy, but not by blocking the activation of Akt in vitro. Using in vivo experiments, we found that LC3 expression was upregulated, accompanied by an increase in neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the preconditioning group. The neuroprotective effects of IPC on hippocampal CA1 neurons were completely inhibited by treatment with 3-MA. In contrast, hippocampal CA3 neurons did not show changes in autophagic activity or beneficial effects of IPC. These data suggested that IPC may attenuate ischemic injury in hippocampal CA1 neurons through induction of Akt-independent autophagy.

  20. Ischemic Preconditioning Mediates Neuroprotection against Ischemia in Mouse Hippocampal CA1 Neurons by Inducing Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuebin; Huang, Huiling; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yajing; Tong, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jinhuan; Wu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 region is sensitive to hypoxic and ischemic injury but can be protected by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism through which IPC protects hippocampal CA1 neurons is still under investigation. Additionally, the role of autophagy in determining the fate of hippocampal neurons is unclear. Here, we examined whether IPC induced autophagy to alleviate hippocampal CA1 neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) models. Survival of hippocampal neurons increased from 51.5% ± 6.3% in the non-IPC group (55 min of OGD) to 77.3% ± 7.9% in the IPC group (15 min of OGD, followed by 55 min of OGD 24 h later). The number of hippocampal CA1 layer neurons increased from 182 ± 26 cells/mm2 in the non-IPC group (20 min of BCCAO) to 278 ± 55 cells/mm2 in the IPC group (1 min × 3 BCCAO, followed by 20 min of BCCAO 24 h later). Akt phosphorylation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I expression were increased in the preconditioning group. Moreover, the protective effects of IPC were abolished only by inhibiting the activity of autophagy, but not by blocking the activation of Akt in vitro. Using in vivo experiments, we found that LC3 expression was upregulated, accompanied by an increase in neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the preconditioning group. The neuroprotective effects of IPC on hippocampal CA1 neurons were completely inhibited by treatment with 3-MA. In contrast, hippocampal CA3 neurons did not show changes in autophagic activity or beneficial effects of IPC. These data suggested that IPC may attenuate ischemic injury in hippocampal CA1 neurons through induction of Akt-independent autophagy. PMID:26325184

  1. Lack of kainic acid-induced gamma oscillations predicts subsequent CA1 excitotoxic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Jinde, Seiichiro; Belforte, Juan E.; Yamamoto, Jun; Wilson, Matthew A.; Tonegawa, Susumu; Nakazawa, Kazu

    2009-01-01

    Gamma oscillations are a prominent feature of hippocampal network activity, but their functional role remains debated, ranging from mere epiphenomenon to crucial for information processing. Similarly, persistent gamma oscillations sometimes appear prior to epileptic discharges in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. However, the significance of this activity in hippocampal excitotoxicity is unclear. We assessed the relationship between kainic acid (KA)-induced gamma oscillations and excitotoxicity in genetically-engineered mice in which N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor deletion was confined to CA3 pyramidal cells. Mutants showed reduced CA3 pyramidal cell firing and augmented sharp wave-ripple activity, resulting in higher susceptibility to KA-induced seizures, and leading to strikingly selective neurodegeneration in the CA1 subfield. Interestingly, the KA-induced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level increases and persistent 30-50 Hz gamma oscillations observed in control mice prior to the first seizure discharge was abolished in the mutants. Consequently, on subsequent days, mutants manifested prolonged epileptiform activity and massive neurodegeneration of CA1 cells, including local GABAergic neurons. Remarkably, pretreatment with the potassium channel blocker α-dendrotoxin (DTX) increased GABA levels, restored gamma oscillations, and prevented CA1 degeneration in the mutants. These results demonstrate that emergence of low frequency gamma oscillations predicts increased resistance to KA-induced excitotoxicity, raising the possibility that gamma oscillations may have potential prognostic value for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:19735292

  2. Thrombin modulates persistent sodium current in CA1 pyramidal neurons of young and adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lunko, O O; Isaev, D S; Krishtal, O O; Isaeva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Serine protease thrombin, a key factor of blood coagulation, participates in many neuronal processes important for normal brain functioning and during pathological conditions involving abnormal neuronal synchronization, neurodegeneration and inflammation. Our previous study on CA3 pyramidal neurons showed that application ofthrombin through the activation of specific protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) produces a significant hyperpolarizing shift of the activation of the TTX-sensitive persistent voltage-gated Na+ current (I(Nap)) thereby affecting membrane potential and seizure threshold at the network level. It was shown that PAR1 is also expressed in CA1 area of hippocampus and can be implicated in neuronal damage in this area after status epilepticus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of thrombin on I(NaP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons from adult and young rats. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique we demonstrate that thrombin application results in the hyperpolarization shift of I(NaP) activation as well as increase in the I(NaP) amplitude in both age groups. We have found that I(NaP) in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA 1 region is more vulnerable to the thrombin action than I(NaP) in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 region. We have also found that the immature hippocampus is more sensitive to thrombin action which emphasizes the contribution of thrombin-dependent pathway to the regulation of neuronal activity in immature brain.

  3. Functional Distribution of Nicotinic Receptors in CA3 Region of the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Grybko, Michael; Sharma, Geeta; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) modulation of a number of parameters of synaptic signaling in the brain has been demonstrated. It is likely that effects of nicotine are due to its ability to modulate network excitability as a whole. A pre-requisite to understanding the effects of nicotine on network properties is the elucidation of functional receptors. We have examined the distribution of functional nAChRs in the dentate gyrus granule cells and the CA3 region of the mammalian hippocampus using calcium imaging from acute slices. Our results demonstrate the presence of functional nAChRs containing the α7 subunit (α7-nAChRs) on mossy fiber boutons, CA3 pyramidal cells, and on astrocytes. In addition, both CA3 interneurons and granule cells show nicotinic signals. Our study suggests that functional nicotinic receptors are widespread in their distribution and that calcium imaging might be an effective technique to examine locations of these receptors in the mammalian brain. PMID:19693709

  4. Functional distribution of nicotinic receptors in CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Grybko, Michael; Sharma, Geeta; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) modulation of a number of parameters of synaptic signaling in the brain has been demonstrated. It is likely that effects of nicotine are due to its ability to modulate network excitability as a whole. A pre-requisite to understanding the effects of nicotine on network properties is the elucidation of functional receptors. We have examined the distribution of functional nAChRs in the dentate gyrus granule cells and the CA3 region of the mammalian hippocampus using calcium imaging from acute slices. Our results demonstrate the presence of functional nAChRs containing the alpha7 subunit (alpha7-nAChRs) on mossy fiber boutons, CA3 pyramidal cells, and on astrocytes. In addition, both CA3 interneurons and granule cells show nicotinic signals. Our study suggests that functional nicotinic receptors are widespread in their distribution and that calcium imaging might be an effective technique to examine locations of these receptors in the mammalian brain.

  5. The role of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus in memory retention and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Bevan, Adam; Kesner, Raymond P

    2007-01-01

    Subregional analyses of the hippocampus have suggested a selective role for the CA1 subregion in intermediate/long-term spatial memory and consolidation, but not short-term acquisition or encoding processes. It remains unclear how the direct cortical projection to CA1 via the perforant path (pp) contributes to these CA1-dependent processes. It has been suggested that dopamine selectively modulates the pp projection to CA1 while having little to no effect on the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection to CA1. This series of behavioral and electrophysiological experiments takes advantage of this pharmacological dissociation to demonstrate that the direct pp inputs to CA1 are critical in CA1-dependent intermediate-term retention and retrieval function. Here we demonstrate that local infusion of the nonselective dopamine agonist, apomorphine (10, 15 microg), into the CA1 subregion of awake animals produces impairments in between-day retention and retrieval, sparing within-day encoding of a modified Hebb-Williams maze and contextual conditioning of fear. In contrast, apomorphine produces no deficits when infused into the CA3 subregion. To complement the behavioral analyses, electrophysiological data was collected. In anesthetized animals, local infusion of the same doses of apomorphine significantly modifies evoked responses in the distal dendrites of CA1 following angular bundle stimulation, but produces no significant effects in the more proximal dendritic layer following stimulation of the SC. These results support a modulatory role for dopamine in the EC-CA1, but not CA3-CA1 circuitry, and suggest the possibility of a more fundamental role for EC-CA1 synaptic transmission in terms of intermediate-term, but not short-term spatial memory.

  6. Monosynaptic inputs to new neurons in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Carmen; Potter, Michelle C; Choi, Jiwon; Lee, Ji-Young; Stringer, Thomas P; Callaway, Edward M; Gage, Fred H; Suh, Hoonkyo; van Praag, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is considered important for cognition. The integration of newborn dentate gyrus granule cells into the existing network is regulated by afferent neuronal activity of unspecified origin. Here we combine rabies virus-mediated retrograde tracing with retroviral labelling of new granule cells (21, 30, 60, 90 days after injection) to selectively identify and quantify their monosynaptic inputs in vivo. Our results show that newborn granule cells receive afferents from intra-hippocampal cells (interneurons, mossy cells, area CA3 and transiently, mature granule cells) and septal cholinergic cells. Input from distal cortex (perirhinal (PRH) and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC)) is sparse 21 days after injection and increases over time. Patch-clamp recordings support innervation by the LEC rather than from the medial entorhinal cortex. Mice with excitotoxic PRH/LEC lesions exhibit deficits in pattern separation but not in water maze learning. Thus, PRH/LEC input is an important functional component of new dentate gyrus neuron circuitry.

  7. The projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Commins, S; Gigg, J; Anderson, M; O'Mara, S M

    1998-03-30

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a popular model of the synaptic plasticity which may be engaged by the biological processes underlying learning and memory. Most available studies of LTP have concentrated on the analysis of LTP occurring in 'early' components of the hippocampal circuit (for example, dentate gyrus and area CA1). We examine here, for the first time, LTP as it occurs in the massive, unidirectional projection from CA1 to the subiculum in vivo. We show that this projection sustains high-frequency stimulus-induced LTP (10 trains of 20 stimuli at 200 Hz; intertrain interval 2 s; LTP 181 +/- 9% at 30 min post-LTP induction). In addition, input-output (I/O) curves show a leftward shift for all stimulation values.

  8. Imaging a memory trace over half a life-time in the medial temporal lobe reveals a time-limited role of CA3 neurons in retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lux, Vanessa; Atucha, Erika; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2016-02-12

    Whether retrieval still depends on the hippocampus as memories age or relies then on cortical areas remains a major controversy. Despite evidence for a functional segregation between CA1, CA3 and parahippocampal areas, their specific role within this frame is unclear. Especially, the contribution of CA3 is questionable as very remote memories might be too degraded to be used for pattern completion. To identify the specific role of these areas, we imaged brain activity in mice during retrieval of recent, early remote and very remote fear memories by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc. Investigating correlates of the memory trace over an extended period allowed us to report that, in contrast to CA1, CA3 is no longer recruited in very remote retrieval. Conversely, we showed that parahippocampal areas are then maximally engaged. These results suggest a shift from a greater contribution of the trisynaptic loop to the temporoammonic pathway for retrieval.

  9. mGluRs modulate strength and timing of excitatory transmission in hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Galván, Emilio J; Barrionuevo, Germán; Meriney, Stephen D

    2011-08-01

    Excitatory transmission within hippocampal area CA3 stems from three major glutamatergic pathways: the perforant path formed by axons of layer II stellate cells in the entorhinal cortex, the mossy fiber axons originating from the dentate gyrus granule cells, and the recurrent axon collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells. The synaptic communication of each of these pathways is modulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors that fine-tune the signal by affecting both the timing and strength of the connection. Within area CA3 of the hippocampus, group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) are expressed postsynaptically, whereas group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3) and III mGluRs (mGluR4, mGluR7, and mGluR8) are expressed presynaptically. Receptors from each group have been demonstrated to be required for different forms of pre- and postsynaptic long-term plasticity and also have been implicated in regulating short-term plasticity. A recent observation has demonstrated that a presynaptically expressed mGluR can affect the timing of action potentials elicited in the postsynaptic target. Interestingly, mGluRs can be distributed in a target-specific manner, such that synaptic input from one presynaptic neuron can be modulated by different receptors at each of its postsynaptic targets. Consequently, mGluRs provide a mechanism for synaptic specialization of glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus. This review will highlight the variability in mGluR modulation of excitatory transmission within area CA3 with an emphasis on how these receptors contribute to the strength and timing of network activity within pyramidal cells and interneurons.

  10. Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit.

    PubMed

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Cobb, Stuart; Graham, Bruce P

    2010-03-01

    It has been proposed that the hippocampal theta rhythm (4-7 Hz) can contribute to memory formation by separating encoding (storage) and retrieval of memories into different functional half-cycles (Hasselmo et al. (2002) Neural Comput 14:793-817). We investigate, via computer simulations, the biophysical mechanisms by which storage and recall of spatio-temporal input patterns are achieved by the CA1 microcircuitry. A model of the CA1 microcircuit is presented that uses biophysical representations of the major cell types, including pyramidal (P) cells and four types of inhibitory interneurons: basket (B) cells, axo-axonic (AA) cells, bistratified (BS) cells and oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. Inputs to the network come from the entorhinal cortex (EC), the CA3 Schaffer collaterals and medial septum. The EC input provides the sensory information, whereas all other inputs provide context and timing information. Septal input provides timing information for phasing storage and recall. Storage is accomplished via a local STDP mediated hetero-association of the EC input pattern and the incoming CA3 input pattern on the CA1 pyramidal cell target synapses. The model simulates the timing of firing of different hippocampal cell types relative to the theta rhythm in anesthetized animals and proposes experimentally confirmed functional roles for the different classes of inhibitory interneurons in the storage and recall cycles (Klausberger et al., (2003, 2004) Nature 421:844-848, Nat Neurosci 7:41-47). Measures of recall performance of new and previously stored input patterns in the presence or absence of various inhibitory interneurons are employed to quantitatively test the performance of our model. Finally, the mean recall quality of the CA1 microcircuit is tested as the number of stored patterns is increased.

  11. Associative Encoding and Retrieval Are Predicted by Functional Connectivity in Distinct Hippocampal Area CA1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Katherine; Tompary, Alexa

    2014-01-01

    Determining how the hippocampus supports the unique demands of memory encoding and retrieval is fundamental for understanding the biological basis of episodic memory. One possibility proposed by theoretical models is that the distinct computational demands of encoding and retrieval are accommodated by shifts in the functional interaction between the hippocampal CA1 subregion and its input structures. However, empirical tests of this hypothesis are lacking. To test this in humans, we used high-resolution fMRI to measure functional connectivity between hippocampal area CA1 and regions of the medial temporal lobe and midbrain during extended blocks of associative encoding and retrieval tasks. We found evidence for a double dissociation between the pathways supporting successful encoding and retrieval. Specifically, during the associative encoding task, but not the retrieval task, functional connectivity only between area CA1 and the ventral tegmental area predicted associative long-term memory. In contrast, connectivity between area CA1 and DG/CA3 was greater, on average, during the retrieval task compared with the encoding task, and, importantly, the strength of this connectivity significantly correlated with retrieval success. Together, these findings serve as an important first step toward understanding how the demands of fundamental memory processes may be met by changes in the relative strength of connectivity within hippocampal pathways. PMID:25143600

  12. Long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of the anaesthetized rat is accompanied by an increase in extracellular glutamate: real-time measurements using a novel dialysis electrode.

    PubMed Central

    Errington, M L; Galley, P T; Bliss, T V P

    2003-01-01

    We have used a glutamate-specific dialysis electrode to obtain real-time measurements of changes in the concentration of glutamate in the extracellular space of the hippocampus during low-frequency stimulation and following the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). In the dentate gyrus, stimulation of the perforant path at 2 Hz for 2 min produced a transient increase in glutamate current relative to the basal value at control rates of stimulation (0.033 Hz). This activity-dependent glutamate current was significantly enhanced 35 and 90 min after the induction of LTP. The maximal 2 Hz signal was obtained during post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). There was also a more gradual increase in the basal level of extracellular glutamate following the induction of LTP. Both the basal and activity-dependent increases in glutamate current induced by tetanic stimulation were blocked by local infusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D-APV. In areas CA1 and CA3 we were unable to detect a 2 Hz glutamate signal either before or after the induction of LTP, possibly owing to a more avid uptake of glutamate in the pyramidal cell fields. These results demonstrate that LTP in the dentate gyrus is associated with a greater concentration of extracellular glutamate following activation of potentiated synapses, either because potentiated synapses release more transmitter per impulse, or because of reduced uptake by glutamate transporters. We present arguments favouring increased release rather than decreased uptake. PMID:12740113

  13. BK potassium channels control transmitter release at CA3-CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Pedarzani, Paola; Cherubini, Enrico

    2004-05-15

    Large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK channels) activate in response to calcium influx during action potentials and contribute to the spike repolarization and fast afterhyperpolarization. BK channels targeted to active zones in presynaptic nerve terminals have been shown to limit calcium entry and transmitter release by reducing the duration of the presynaptic spike at neurosecretory nerve terminals and at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, their functional role in central synapses is still uncertain. In the hippocampus, BK channels have been proposed to act as an 'emergency brake' that would control transmitter release only under conditions of excessive depolarization and accumulation of intracellular calcium. Here we demonstrate that in the CA3 region of hippocampal slice cultures, under basal experimental conditions, the selective BK channel blockers paxilline (10 microM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) increase the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneously occurring action potential-dependent EPSCs. These drugs did not affect miniature currents recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting that their action was dependent on action potential firing. Moreover, in double patch-clamp recordings from monosynaptically interconnected CA3 pyramidal neurones, blockade of BK channels enhanced the probability of transmitter release, as revealed by the increase in success rate, EPSC amplitude and the concomitant decrease in paired-pulse ratio in response to pairs of presynaptic action potentials delivered at a frequency of 0.05 Hz. BK channel blockers also enhanced the appearance of delayed responses, particularly following the second action potential in the paired-pulse protocol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BK channels are powerful modulators of transmitter release and synaptic efficacy in central neurones.

  14. Effect of behavioral testing on spine density of basal dendrites in the CA1 region of the hippocampus modulated by (56)Fe irradiation.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Allen, Antiño R; Weber, Sydney; Chakraborti, Ayanabha; Sharma, Sourabh; Fike, John R

    2016-04-01

    A unique feature of the space radiation environment is the presence of high-energy charged particles, including (56)Fe ions, which can present a significant hazard to space flight crews during and following a mission. (56)Fe irradiation-induced cognitive changes often involve alterations in hippocampal function. These alterations might involve changes in spine morphology and density. In addition to irradiation, performing a cognitive task can also affect spine morphology. Therefore, it is often hard to determine whether changes in spine morphology and density are due to an environmental challenge or group differences in performance on cognitive tests. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the ability of exploratory behavior to increase specific measures of hippocampal spine morphology and density is affected by (56)Fe irradiation. In sham-irradiated mice, exploratory behavior increased basal spine density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus. These effects were not seen in irradiated mice. In addition, following exploratory behavior, there was a trend toward a decrease in the percent stubby spines on apical dendrites in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in (56)Fe-irradiated, but not sham-irradiated, mice. Other hippocampal regions and spine measures affected by (56)Fe irradiation showed comparable radiation effects in behaviorally naïve and cognitively tested mice. Thus, the ability of exploratory behavior to alter spine density and morphology in specific hippocampal regions is affected by (56)Fe irradiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast gamma oscillations are generated intrinsically in CA1 without the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael T; McBain, Chris J

    2015-02-25

    Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the precise synchronization of ensembles of neurons, coordinated by the diverse family of inhibitory interneurons. Cortical interneurons can be usefully parsed by embryonic origin, with the vast majority arising from either the caudal or medial ganglionic eminences (CGE and MGE). Here, we examine the activity of hippocampal interneurons during gamma oscillations in mouse CA1, using an in vitro model where brief epochs of rhythmic activity were evoked by local application of kainate. We found that this CA1 KA-evoked gamma oscillation was faster than that in CA3 and, crucially, did not appear to require the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells. In contrast to CA3, we also found that optogenetic inhibition of pyramidal cells in CA1 did not significantly affect the power of the oscillation, suggesting that excitation may not be essential for gamma genesis in this region. We found that MGE-derived interneurons were generally more active than CGE interneurons during CA1 gamma, although a group of CGE-derived interneurons, putative trilaminar cells, were strongly phase-locked with gamma oscillations and, together with MGE-derived axo-axonic and bistratified cells, provide attractive candidates for being the driver of this locally generated, predominantly interneuron-driven model of gamma oscillations.

  16. Nimodipine prevents early loss of hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin immunoreactivity after focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Benyó, Z; De Jong, G I; Luiten, P G

    1995-01-01

    The effect of focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion on hippocampal interneurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) was studied in rats. Four hours after the onset of ischemia, a reduced number of PV-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons was observed in the lateral part of the CA1 region, while PV-ir was not altered in the CA2 and CA3 areas. Pretreatment with the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine prevented the ischemia-induced loss of PV-ir in the CA1, suggesting a role for L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels in the mechanism of early neuronal alterations in the hippocampus CA1 region after focal cerebral ischemia.

  17. Disruption of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus interferes with spatial working memory and novelty detection.

    PubMed

    Vago, David R; Kesner, Raymond P

    2008-06-03

    Subregional analyses of the hippocampus suggest CA1-dependent memory processes rely heavily upon interactions between the CA1 subregion and entorhinal cortex. There is evidence that the direct perforant path (pp) projection to CA1 is selectively modulated by dopamine while having little to no effect on the Schaffer collateral (SC) projection to CA1. The current study takes advantage of this pharmacological dissociation to demonstrate that local infusion of the non-selective dopamine agonist, apomorphine (10, 15 microg), into the CA1 subregion of awake animals produces impairments in working memory at intermediate (5 min), but not short-term (10 s) delays within a delayed non-match-to-place task on a radial arm maze. Sustained impairments were also found in a novel context with similar object-space relationships. Infusion of apomorphine into CA1 is also shown here to produce deficits in spatial, but not non-spatial novelty detection within an object exploration paradigm. In contrast, apomorphine produces no behavioral deficits when infused into the CA3 subregion or overlying cortex. These behavioral studies are supported by previous electrophysiological data that demonstrate local infusion of the same doses of apomorphine significantly modifies evoked responses in the distal dendrites of CA1 following angular bundle stimulation, but produces no significant effects in the proximal dendritic layer following stimulation of the SC. These results support a modulatory role for dopamine in EC-CA1, but not CA3-CA1 circuitry, and suggest the possibility of a fundamental role for EC-CA1 synaptic transmission in terms of detection of spatial novelty, and intermediate-term, but not short-term spatial working memory or object-novelty detection.

  18. Cholinergic modulation of excitatory synaptic input integration in hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, A Rory

    2010-10-01

    During theta rhythm, the timing of inputs to hippocampal CA1 from the perforant path (PP) of the entorhinal cortex and the Schaffer collaterals (SCs) from individual CA3 pyramidal neurons can vary within an individual theta period. Importantly, during theta rhythms these interactions occur during elevated acetylcholine concentrations. Thus, I examined the effect that PP inputs have on SC inputs in hippocampal CA1 during cholinergic receptor activation. To do this I measured the impact that a single electrical stimulus of the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM, which contains the PP) had on excitation evoked by stimulation of the stratum radiatum (SR, which contains the SC) using voltage-sensitive dye imaging, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and whole cell patch clamping in rat hippocampal brain slices. My data showed that SLM stimulation one half a theta cycle or less (25-75 ms) before SR stimulation resulted in the summation of excitatory events in SR and SP of hippocampal CA1. The summation was unaffected by cholinergic receptor activation by carbachol. SLM stimulation one theta cycle (150-225 ms) preceding SR stimulation significantly suppressed excitatory events measured in SR and SP. This SLM stimulus inhibition of SR-driven excitatory events was augmented by carbachol application. The carbachol effect was blocked by atropine and SLM-driven suppression of excitatory events was blocked by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 54626. SR field EPSP slopes were unaffected by SLM prepulses. Carbachol increased the probability of SR input to drive action potential firing in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was inhibited by SLM prepulses (150-225 ms). Together these data provide important information regarding the integration of inputs in hippocampal CA1 during theta rhythms. More specifically, SR inputs can be differentially gated by SLM feedforward inhibition at varying temporal intervals within a theta cycle.

  19. Nonspatial Sequence Coding in CA1 Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Salz, Daniel M.; McKenzie, Sam

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is critical to the memory for sequences of events, a defining feature of episodic memory. However, the fundamental neuronal mechanisms underlying this capacity remain elusive. While considerable research indicates hippocampal neurons can represent sequences of locations, direct evidence of coding for the memory of sequential relationships among nonspatial events remains lacking. To address this important issue, we recorded neural activity in CA1 as rats performed a hippocampus-dependent sequence-memory task. Briefly, the task involves the presentation of repeated sequences of odors at a single port and requires rats to identify each item as “in sequence” or “out of sequence”. We report that, while the animals' location and behavior remained constant, hippocampal activity differed depending on the temporal context of items—in this case, whether they were presented in or out of sequence. Some neurons showed this effect across items or sequence positions (general sequence cells), while others exhibited selectivity for specific conjunctions of item and sequence position information (conjunctive sequence cells) or for specific probe types (probe-specific sequence cells). We also found that the temporal context of individual trials could be accurately decoded from the activity of neuronal ensembles, that sequence coding at the single-cell and ensemble level was linked to sequence memory performance, and that slow-gamma oscillations (20–40 Hz) were more strongly modulated by temporal context and performance than theta oscillations (4–12 Hz). These findings provide compelling evidence that sequence coding extends beyond the domain of spatial trajectories and is thus a fundamental function of the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability to remember the order of life events depends on the hippocampus, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by recording neural activity in hippocampal

  20. Area CA3 interneurons receive two spatially segregated mossy fiber inputs

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kathleen E.; Galvan, Emilio J.; Meriney, Stephen D.; Barrionuevo, German

    2009-01-01

    Area CA3 receives two extrinsic excitatory inputs, the mossy fibers (MF) and the perforant path (PP). Interneurons with somata in str. lacunosum moleculare (L-M) of CA3 modulate the influence of the MF and PP on pyramidal cell activity by providing strong feed-forward inhibitory influence to pyramidal cells. Here we report that L-M interneurons receive two separate MF inputs, one to the dorsal dendrites from the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus (MFSDG), and a second to ventral dendrites from the str. lucidum (MFSL). Responses elicited from MFSDG and MFSL stimulation sites have strong paired-pulse facilitation, similar DCG-IV sensitivity, amplitude, and decay kinetics but target spatially segregated domains on the interneuron dendrites. These data demonstrate that certain interneuron subtypes are entrained by two convergent MF inputs to spatially separated regions of the dendritic tree. This anatomical arrangement could make these interneurons considerably more responsive to the excitatory drive from dentate granule cells. Furthermore, temporal summation is linear or slightly sublinear between PP and MFSL but supralinear between PP and MFSDG. This specific boosting of the excitatory drive to interneurons from the SDG location may indicate that L-M interneurons could be specifically involved in the processing of the associational component of the recognition memory. PMID:19830814

  1. Area CA3 interneurons receive two spatially segregated mossy fiber inputs.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Galván, Emilio J; Meriney, Stephen D; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2010-09-01

    Area CA3 receives two extrinsic excitatory inputs, the mossy fibers (MF), and the perforant path (PP). Interneurons with somata in str. lacunosum moleculare (L-M) of CA3 modulate the influence of the MF and PP on pyramidal cell activity by providing strong feed-forward inhibitory influence to pyramidal cells. Here we report that L-M interneurons receive two separate MF inputs, one to the dorsal dendrites from the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus (MF(SDG)), and a second to ventral dendrites from the str. lucidum (MF(SL)). Responses elicited from MF(SDG) and MF(SL) stimulation sites have strong paired-pulse facilitation, similar DCG-IV sensitivity, amplitude, and decay kinetics but target spatially segregated domains on the interneuron dendrites. These data demonstrate that certain interneuron subtypes are entrained by two convergent MF inputs to spatially separated regions of the dendritic tree. This anatomical arrangement could make these interneurons considerably more responsive to the excitatory drive from dentate granule cells. Furthermore, temporal summation is linear or slightly sublinear between PP and MF(SL) but supralinear between PP and MF(SDG). This specific boosting of the excitatory drive to interneurons from the SDG location may indicate that L-M interneurons could be specifically involved in the processing of the associational component of the recognition memory.

  2. Comparative NMR studies on Ca3LiRuO6 and Ca3NaRuO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, T.; Paulose, P. L.

    2016-06-01

    We report a comparative study of two ruthanate compounds, Ca3LiRuO6 and Ca3NaRuO6 by magnetic measurements, heat capacity and NMR. Ca3LiRuO6 is a weak ferromagnet with a magnetic ordering temperature of 115 K. The 7Li NMR linewidth of Ca3LiRuO6 displays a broad shoulder above the magnetic ordering temperature. Anomalous shoulder of this type is observed in the susceptibility data also. The origin of these phenomena is not clear but could possibly be attributed to low dimensional magnetism. A contrasting magnetic behavior is seen in Ca3NaRuO6, an antiferromagnet with a transition temperature at 87 K. The NMR study shows that the Knight shift is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility. Also, in Ca3NaRuO6, the Knight shift and the linewidth of the spectra change differently compared to Ca3LiRuO6. The heat capacity of both compounds show a λ-type anomaly at respective magnetic transition temperatures. However, in both the systems the entropy change (Δ S) is much less than that of an ordered S  =  3/2 system.

  3. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    PubMed Central

    Belvindrah, Richard; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Francis, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24624057

  4. Control of GABA Release at Mossy Fiber-CA3 Connections in the Developing Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Safiulina, Victoria F; Caiati, Maddalena D; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Bisson, Giacomo; Migliore, Michele; Cherubini, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In this review some of the recent work carried out in our laboratory concerning the functional role of GABAergic signalling at immature mossy fibres (MF)-CA3 principal cell synapses has been highlighted. While in adulthood MF, the axons of dentate gyrus granule cells release onto CA3 principal cells and interneurons glutamate, early in postnatal life they release GABA, which exerts into targeted cells a depolarizing and excitatory action. We found that GABA(A)-mediated postsynaptic currents (MF-GPSCs) exhibited a very low probability of release, were sensitive to L-AP4, a group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, and revealed short-term frequency-dependent facilitation. Moreover, MF-GPSCs were down regulated by presynaptic GABA(B) and kainate receptors, activated by spillover of GABA from MF terminals and by glutamate present in the extracellular medium, respectively. Activation of these receptors contributed to the low release probability and in some cases to synapses silencing. By pairing calcium transients, associated with network-driven giant depolarizing potentials or GDPs (a hallmark of developmental networks thought to represent a primordial form of synchrony between neurons), generated by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA with MF activation increased the probability of GABA release and caused the conversion of silent synapses into conductive ones suggesting that GDPs act as coincident detector signals for enhancing synaptic efficacy. Finally, to compare the relative strength of CA3 pyramidal cell output in relation to their MF glutamatergic or GABAergic inputs in adulthood or in postnatal development, respectively, a realistic model was constructed taking into account different biophysical properties of these synapses.

  5. Control of GABA Release at Mossy Fiber-CA3 Connections in the Developing Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Safiulina, Victoria F.; Caiati, Maddalena D.; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Bisson, Giacomo; Migliore, Michele; Cherubini, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    In this review some of the recent work carried out in our laboratory concerning the functional role of GABAergic signalling at immature mossy fibres (MF)-CA3 principal cell synapses has been highlighted. While in adulthood MF, the axons of dentate gyrus granule cells release onto CA3 principal cells and interneurons glutamate, early in postnatal life they release GABA, which exerts into targeted cells a depolarizing and excitatory action. We found that GABAA-mediated postsynaptic currents (MF-GPSCs) exhibited a very low probability of release, were sensitive to L-AP4, a group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, and revealed short-term frequency-dependent facilitation. Moreover, MF-GPSCs were down regulated by presynaptic GABAB and kainate receptors, activated by spillover of GABA from MF terminals and by glutamate present in the extracellular medium, respectively. Activation of these receptors contributed to the low release probability and in some cases to synapses silencing. By pairing calcium transients, associated with network-driven giant depolarizing potentials or GDPs (a hallmark of developmental networks thought to represent a primordial form of synchrony between neurons), generated by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA with MF activation increased the probability of GABA release and caused the conversion of silent synapses into conductive ones suggesting that GDPs act as coincident detector signals for enhancing synaptic efficacy. Finally, to compare the relative strength of CA3 pyramidal cell output in relation to their MF glutamatergic or GABAergic inputs in adulthood or in postnatal development, respectively, a realistic model was constructed taking into account different biophysical properties of these synapses. PMID:21423487

  6. Expansion of mossy fibers and CA3 apical dendritic length accompanies the fall in dendritic spine density after gonadectomy in male, but not female, rats

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Ari L.; Atwi, Sarah; Bailey, Craig D. C.; McCloskey, Dan; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Androgen loss is an important clinical concern because of its cognitive and behavioral effects. Changes in androgen levels are also suspected to contribute to neurological disease. However, the available data on the effects of androgen deprivation in areas of the brain that are central to cognition, like the hippocampus, are mixed. In this study, morphological analysis of pyramidal cells was used to investigate if structural changes could potentially contribute to the mixed cognitive effects that have been observed after androgen loss in males. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were orchidectomized or sham-operated. Two months later, their brains were Golgi-impregnated for morphological analysis. Morphological endpoints were studied in areas CA3 and CA1, with comparisons to females either intact or 2 months after ovariectomy. CA3 pyramidal neurons of orchidectomized rats exhibited marked increases in apical dendritic arborization. There were increases in mossy fiber afferent density in area CA3, as well as robust enhancements to dendritic structure in area CA3 of orchidectomized males, but not in CA1. Remarkably, apical dendritic length of CA3 pyramidal cells increased, while spine density declined. By contrast, in females overall dendritic structure was minimally affected by ovariectomy, while dendritic spine density was greatly reduced. Sex differences and subfield-specific effects of gonadal hormone deprivation on the hippocampal circuitry may help explain the different behavioral effects reported in males and females after gonadectomy, or other conditions associated with declining gonadal hormone secretion. PMID:27283589

  7. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. GABAA receptor-mediated feedforward and feedback inhibition differentially modulate the gain and the neural code transformation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Jae; Park, Kyerl; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Hyuncheol; Han, Kyu Hun; Kwag, Jeehyun

    2015-12-01

    Diverse variety of hippocampal interneurons exists in the CA1 area, which provides either feedforward (FF) or feedback (FB) inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cell (PC). However, how the two different inhibitory network architectures modulate the computational mode of CA1 PC is unknown. By investigating the CA3 PC rate-driven input-output function of CA1 PC using in vitro electrophysiology, in vitro-simulation of inhibitory network, and in silico computational modeling, we demonstrated for the first time that GABAA receptor-mediated FF and FB inhibition differentially modulate the gain, the spike precision, the neural code transformation and the information capacity of CA1 PC. Recruitment of FF inhibition buffered the CA1 PC spikes to theta-frequency regardless of the input frequency, abolishing the gain and making CA1 PC insensitive to its inputs. Instead, temporal variability of the CA1 PC spikes was increased, promoting the rate-to-temporal code transformation to enhance the information capacity of CA1 PC. In contrast, the recruitment of FB inhibition sub-linearly transformed the input rate to spike output rate with high gain and low spike temporal variability, promoting the rate-to-rate code transformation. These results suggest that GABAA receptor-mediated FF and FB inhibitory circuits could serve as network mechanisms for differentially modulating the gain of CA1 PC, allowing CA1 PC to switch between different computational modes using rate and temporal codes ad hoc. Such switch will allow CA1 PC to efficiently respond to spatio-temporally dynamic inputs and expand its computational capacity during different behavioral and neuromodulatory states in vivo.

  9. Models, structure, function: the transformation of cortical signals in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Acsády, László; Káli, Szabolcs

    2007-01-01

    Our central question is why the hippocampal CA3 region is the only cortical area capable of forming interference-free representations of complex environmental events (episodes), given that apparently all cortical regions have recurrent excitatory circuits with modifiable synapses, the basic substrate for autoassociative memory networks. We review evidence for the radical (but classic) view that a unique transformation of incoming cortical signals by the dentate gyrus and the subsequent faithful transfer of the resulting code by the mossy fibers are absolutely critical for the appropriate association of memory items by CA3 and, in general, for hippocampal function. In particular, at the gate of the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus possesses a set of unusual properties, which selectively evolved for the task of code transformation between cortical afferents and the hippocampus. These evolutionarily conserved anatomical features enable the dentate gyrus to translate the noisy signal of the upstream cortical areas into the sparse and specific code of hippocampal formation, which is indispensable for the efficient storage and recall of multiple, multidimensional memory items. To achieve this goal the mossy fiber pathway maximally utilizes the opportunity to differentially regulate its postsynaptic partners. Selective innervation of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons by distinct terminal types creates a favorable condition to differentially regulate the short-term and long-term plasticity and the motility of various mossy terminal types. The utility of this highly dynamic system appears to be the frequency-dependent fine-tuning the excitation and inhibition evoked by the large and the small mossy terminals respectively. This will determine exactly which CA3 cell population is active and induces permanent modification in the autoassociational network of the CA3 region.

  10. Desynchronization of glutamate release prolongs synchronous CA3 network activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jethro; Stubblefield, Elizabeth A; Benke, Timothy A; Staley, Kevin J

    2007-05-01

    Periodic bursts of activity in the disinhibited in vitro hippocampal CA3 network spread through the neural population by the glutamatergic recurrent collateral axons that link CA3 pyramidal cells. It was previously proposed that these bursts of activity are terminated by exhaustion of releasable glutamate at the recurrent collateral synapses so that the next periodic burst of network activity cannot occur until the supply of glutamate has been replenished. As a test of this hypothesis, the rate of glutamate release at CA3 axon terminals was reduced by substitution of extracellular Ca(2+) with Sr(2+). Reduction of the rate of glutamate release reduces the rate of depletion and should thereby prolong bursts. Here we demonstrate that Sr(2+) substitution prolongs spontaneous bursts in the disinhibited adult CA3 hippocampal slices to 37.2 +/- 7.6 (SE) times the duration in control conditions. Sr(2+) also decreased the probability of burst initiation and the rate of burst onset, consistent with reduced synchrony of glutamate release and a consequent reduced rate of spread of excitation through the slice. These findings support the supply of releasable glutamate as an important determinant of the probability and duration of synchronous CA3 network activity.

  11. Excitation-inhibition balance in the CA3 network--neuronal specificity and activity-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario; Vivar, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Activation of the axons of the granule cells, the mossy fibers, excites pyramidal cells and interneurons in the CA3 area, which, in turn, inhibit pyramidal cells. The integration of the various inputs that converge onto CA3 cells has been studied by pharmacological dissection of either the excitatory or inhibitory components. This strategy has the disadvantage of partially isolating the recorded cell from the network, ignoring the sources and the impact of concurrent inputs. To overcome this limitation, we dissociated excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances by mathematical extraction techniques, and analysed the dynamics of the integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs in pyramidal cells and stratum lucidum interneurons (Sl-Ints) of CA3. We have uncovered a shunting mechanism that decreases the responsiveness of CA3 output cells to mossy fiber input after a period of enhanced excitability. The activation of the dentate gyrus (DG) after applying a kindling-like protocol in vitro, or after producing one or several seizures in vivo, results in a graded and reversible increase of inhibitory conductances in pyramidal cells, while in Sl-Ints, an increase of excitatory conductances occurs. Thus, interneurons reach more depolarized membrane potentials on DG activation yielding a high excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling, while the contrary occurs in pyramidal cells. This effective activation of feedforward inhibition is synergized by the emergence of direct DG-mediated inhibition on pyramidal cells. These factors force the synaptic conductance to peak at a potential value close to resting membrane potential, thus producing shunt inhibition and decreasing the responsiveness of CA3 output cells to mossy fiber input.

  12. Morphometric Parameters of Pyramidal Cells in CA1-CA4 Fields in the Hippocampus of Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Łuszczewska-Sierakowska, Iwona; Wawrzyniak-Gacek, Agata; Guz, Tomasz; Tatara, Marcin R; Charuta, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was a quantitative examination of neurons of hippocampal subfields (CA1-CA4) in mature male Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus; syn. Alopex lagopus). The preparations were dyed using cresyl violet. Histological preparations were used to morphometricaly analyze the neurons of hippocampus. This analysis included the following parameters: average size of cells in μm, periphery of cells in μm, average cell area in μm2, percentage of cells in area and size of the largest and smallest cells in μm in CA1-CA4 fields. Morphometric observations show that the cells involved in hippocampal formation in polar fox in all layers CA1 -CA4 differ in size, shape, cell area and nucleus area. The size of the cell area in CA3 is the largest and fluctuates around 249.4 μm2, whereas in CA2 the cell area is 184.1 μm2. The cells of the CA2 field are densely arranged, pyramidal and contain a small amount of cytoplasm; their size fluctuates. Cells of CA2 and CA4 had the largest diameter of about 23.6 μm, whereas cells of the CA3 field had the smallest diameter of about 8.3 μm.

  13. Schaffer-specific local field potentials reflect discrete excitatory events at gamma frequency that may fire postsynaptic hippocampal CA1 units.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, Antonio; Makarov, Valeri A; Benito, Nuria; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-04-11

    Information processing and exchange between brain nuclei are made through spike series sent by individual neurons in highly irregular temporal patterns. Synchronization in cell assemblies, proposed as a network language for internal neural representations, still has little experimental support. We use a novel technique to extract pathway-specific local field potentials (LFPs) in the hippocampus to explore the ongoing temporal structure of a single presynaptic input, the CA3 Schaffer pathway, and its contribution to the spontaneous output of CA1 units in anesthetized rat. We found that Schaffer-specific LFPs are composed of a regular succession of pulse-like excitatory packages initiated by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells to which individual units contribute variably. A fraction of these packages readily induce firing of CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons, the so-called Schaffer-driven spikes, revealing the presynaptic origin in the output code of single CA1 units. The output of 70% of CA1 pyramidal neurons contains up to 10% of such spikes. Our results suggest a hierarchical internal operation of the CA3 region based on sequential oscillatory activation of pyramidal cell assemblies whose activity partly gets in the output code at the next station. We conclude that CA1 output may directly reflect the activity of specific ensembles of CA3 neurons. Thus, the fine temporal structure of pathway-specific LFPs, as an accurate readout of the activity of a presynaptic population, is useful in searching for hidden presynaptic code in irregular spikes series of individual neurons and assemblies.

  14. Oxygen/glucose deprivation induces a reduction in synaptic AMPA receptors on hippocampal CA3 neurons mediated by mGluR1 and adenosine A3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Siobhan H; Jaafari, Nadia; Cimarosti, Helena; Hanley, Jonathan G; Henley, Jeremy M; Mellor, Jack R

    2011-08-17

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are highly sensitive to ischemic damage, whereas neighboring CA3 pyramidal neurons are less susceptible. It is proposed that switching of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits on CA1 neurons during an in vitro model of ischemia, oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), leads to an enhanced permeability of AMPARs to Ca(2+), resulting in delayed cell death. However, it is unclear whether the same mechanisms exist in CA3 neurons and whether this underlies the differential sensitivity to ischemia. Here, we investigated the consequences of OGD for AMPAR function in CA3 neurons using electrophysiological recordings in rat hippocampal slices. Following a 15 min OGD protocol, a substantial depression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission was observed at CA3 associational/commissural and mossy fiber synapses but not CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. The depression of synaptic transmission following OGD was prevented by metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) or A(3) receptor antagonists, indicating a role for both glutamate and adenosine release. Inhibition of PLC, PKC, or chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) also prevented the depression of synaptic transmission. Inclusion of peptides to interrupt the interaction between GluA2 and PICK1 or dynamin and amphiphysin prevented the depression of transmission, suggesting a dynamin and PICK1-dependent internalization of AMPARs after OGD. We also show that a reduction in surface and total AMPAR protein levels after OGD was prevented by mGluR1 or A(3) receptor antagonists, indicating that AMPARs are degraded following internalization. Thus, we describe a novel mechanism for the removal of AMPARs in CA3 pyramidal neurons following OGD that has the potential to reduce excitotoxicity and promote neuroprotection.

  15. Oxygen/glucose Deprivation Induces a Reduction in Synaptic AMPA Receptors on Hippocampal CA3 Neurons Mediated by mGluR1 and A3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Siobhan H.; Jaafari, Nadia; Cimarosti, Helena; Hanley, Jonathan G.; Henley, Jeremy M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are highly sensitive to ischemic damage, whereas neighbouring CA3 pyramidal neurons are less susceptible. It is proposed that switching of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits on CA1 neurons during an in vitro model of ischemia, oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), leads to an enhanced permeability of AMPARs to Ca2+ resulting in delayed cell death. However, it is unclear if the same mechanisms exist in CA3 neurons and whether this underlies the differential sensitivity to ischemia. Here, we investigated the consequences of OGD for AMPAR function in CA3 neurons using electrophysiological recordings in rat hippocampal slices. Following a 15 minute OGD protocol a substantial depression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission was observed at CA3 associational/commissural and mossy fiber synapses but not CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. The depression of synaptic transmission following OGD was prevented by mGluR1 or A3 receptor antagonists, indicating a role for both glutamate and adenosine release. Inhibition of PLC, PKC or chelation of intracellular Ca2+ also prevented the depression of synaptic transmission. Inclusion of peptides to interrupt the interaction between GluA2 and PICK1 or dynamin and amphiphysin prevented the depression of transmission, suggesting a dynamin and PICK1-dependent internalisation of AMPARs after OGD. We also show a reduction in surface and total AMPAR protein levels after OGD was prevented by mGluR1 or A3 receptor antagonists indicating that AMPARs are degraded following internalisation. Thus, we describe a novel mechanism for the removal of AMPARs in CA3 pyramidal neurons following OGD that has the potential to reduce excitotoxicity and promote neuroprotection. PMID:21849555

  16. Aging-Related Hyperexcitability in CA3 Pyramidal Neurons Is Mediated by Enhanced A-Type K+ Channel Function and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Dina; Hattori, Shoai; Ybarra, Natividad; Musial, Timothy F.; Buss, Eric W.; Richter, Hannah; Oh, M. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related impairments in hippocampus-dependent cognition have been attributed to maladaptive changes in the functional properties of pyramidal neurons within the hippocampal subregions. Much evidence has come from work on CA1 pyramidal neurons, with CA3 pyramidal neurons receiving comparatively less attention despite its age-related hyperactivation being postulated to interfere with spatial processing in the hippocampal circuit. Here, we use whole-cell current-clamp to demonstrate that aged rat (29–32 months) CA3 pyramidal neurons fire significantly more action potentials (APs) during theta-burst frequency stimulation and that this is associated with faster AP repolarization (i.e., narrower AP half-widths and enlarged fast afterhyperpolarization). Using a combination of patch-clamp physiology, pharmacology, Western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry, and array tomography, we demonstrate that these faster AP kinetics are mediated by enhanced function and expression of Kv4.2/Kv4.3 A-type K+ channels, particularly within the perisomatic compartment, of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Thus, our study indicates that inhibition of these A-type K+ channels can restore the intrinsic excitability properties of aged CA3 pyramidal neurons to a young-like state. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Age-related learning deficits have been attributed, in part, to altered hippocampal pyramidal neuronal function with normal aging. Much evidence has come from work on CA1 neurons, with CA3 neurons receiving comparatively less attention despite its age-related hyperactivation being postulated to interfere with spatial processing. Hence, we conducted a series of experiments to identify the cellular mechanisms that underlie the hyperexcitability reported in the CA3 region. Contrary to CA1 neurons, we demonstrate that postburst afterhyperpolarization is not altered with aging and that aged CA3 pyramidal neurons are able to fire significantly more action potentials and that this is associated with

  17. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  18. Behavioral Functions of the CA3 Subregion of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.

    2007-01-01

    From a behavioral perspective, the CA3a,b subregion of the hippocampus plays an important role in the encoding of new spatial information within short-term memory with a duration of seconds and minutes. This can easily be observed in tasks that require rapid encoding, novelty detection, one-trial short-term or working memory, and one-trial cued…

  19. An LRRTM4-HSPG complex mediates excitatory synapse development on dentate gyrus granule cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Tabrez J; Tari, Parisa Karimi; Connor, Steven A; Zhang, Peng; Dobie, Frederick A; She, Kevin; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Wang, Yu Tian; Brose, Nils; Craig, Ann Marie

    2013-08-21

    Selective synapse development determines how complex neuronal networks in the brain are formed. Complexes of postsynaptic neuroligins and LRRTMs with presynaptic neurexins contribute widely to excitatory synapse development, and mutations in these gene families increase the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. We find that LRRTM4 has distinct presynaptic binding partners, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are required to mediate the synaptogenic activity of LRRTM4. LRRTM4 shows highly selective expression in the brain. Within the hippocampus, we detected LRRTM4 specifically at excitatory postsynaptic sites on dentate gyrus granule cells. LRRTM4(-/-) dentate gyrus granule cells, but not CA1 pyramidal cells, exhibit reductions in excitatory synapse density and function. Furthermore, LRRTM4(-/-) dentate gyrus granule cells show impaired activity-regulated AMPA receptor trafficking. These results identifying cell-type-specific functions and multiple presynaptic binding partners for different LRRTM family members reveal an unexpected complexity in the design and function of synapse-organizing proteins.

  20. Nanoscale heterogeneity in thermoelectrics: the occurrence of phase separation in Fe-doped Ca3Co4O9.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Butt, Sajid; Zhu, Yingcai; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Yong; Yu, Meijuan; Marcelli, Augusto; Lan, Jinle; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-06-07

    The misfit layered cobaltate thermoelectrics are good candidates for high temperature thermoelectric applications. Ca3Co4O9 is a typical compound of this family, which consists of rock salt Ca2CoO3 slabs alternating with hexagonal CoO2 slabs with a large lattice mismatch along the b axis. Each slab is 0.3-0.5 nm thick and shows an inherent structural heterogeneity at the nanoscale. The latter is a key parameter that affects the electrical transport and the heat flow in these misfit structured thermoelectrics. To clarify the physical origin of the thermoelectric performance of iron doped Ca3Co4O9 we combined X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) and quantum modeling using density functional theory. In contrast to single-site doping, the iron doping first occurs at the Co1 site of the rock salt slab at low doping while at higher doping it prefers the Ca1 site of the rock salt slab. Doping at the Ca1 site modifies the electronic structure tuning the nanoscale structural heterogeneity. This mechanism may open a new route to optimizing the thermoelectric performance of misfit layered thermoelectrics.

  1. Correlated network activity enhances synaptic efficacy via BDNF and the ERK pathway at immature CA3 CA1 connections in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Majid H; Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Zacchi, Paola; Aguilera, Pedro; Cherubini, Enrico

    2007-08-07

    At early developmental stages, correlated neuronal activity is thought to exert a critical control on functional and structural refinement of synaptic connections. In the hippocampus, between postnatal day 2 (P2) and P6, network-driven giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) are generated by the synergistic action of glutamate and GABA, which is depolarizing and excitatory. Here the rising phase of GDPs was used to trigger Schaffer collateral stimulation in such a way that synchronized network activity was coincident with presynaptic activation of afferent input. This procedure produced a persistent increase in spontaneous and evoked alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxadepropionic acid-mediated glutamatergic currents, an effect that required calcium influx through postsynaptic L-type calcium channels. No potentiation was observed when a delay of 3 sec was introduced between GDPs and afferent stimulation. Pairing-induced potentiation was prevented by scavengers of endogenous BDNF or tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) receptor antagonists. Blocking TrkB receptors in the postsynaptic cell did not prevent the effects of pairing, suggesting that BDNF, possibly secreted from the postsynaptic cell during GDPs, acts on TrkB receptors localized on presynaptic neurons. Application of exogenous BDNF mimicked the effects of pairing on synaptic transmission. In addition, pairing-induced synaptic potentiation was blocked by ERK inhibitors, suggesting that BDNF activates the MAPK/ERK cascade, which may lead to transcriptional regulation and new protein synthesis in the postsynaptic neuron. These results support the hypothesis that, during a critical period of postnatal development, GABAA-mediated GDPs are instrumental in tuning excitatory synaptic connections and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.

  2. Dynamic range of GSK3α not GSK3β is essential for bidirectional synaptic plasticity at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Lion; Plattner, Florian; Irvine, Elaine E; Cummings, Damian M; Edwards, Frances A

    2014-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), particularly the isoform GSK3β, has been implicated in a wide range of physiological systems and neurological disorders including Alzheimer's Disease. However, the functional importance of GSK3α has been largely untested. The multifunctionality of GSK3 limits its potential as a drug target because of inevitable side effects. Due to its greater expression in the CNS, GSK3β rather than GSK3α has also been assumed to be of primary importance in synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigate bidirectional long-term synaptic plasticity in knockin mice with a point mutation in GSK3α or GSK3β that prevents their inhibitory regulation. We report that only the mutation in GSK3α affects long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD). This stresses the importance of investigating isoform specificity for GSK3 in all systems and suggests that GSK3α should be investigated as a drug target in cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's Disease.

  3. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  4. Long-Term Potentiation at CA3CA1 Hippocampal Synapses with Special Emphasis on Aging, Disease, and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in the mammalian central nervous system has been the subject of intense investigation for the past four decades. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a major reflection of synaptic plasticity, is an activity-driven long-lasting increase in the efficacy of excitatory synaptic transmission following the delivery of a brief, high-frequency train of electrical stimulation. LTP is regarded as a principal candidate for the cellular mechanisms involved in learning and offers an attractive hypothesis of how memories are constructed. There are a number of exceptional full-length reviews published on LTP; the current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding hippocampal LTP with special emphasis on aging, diseases, and psychological insults. PMID:21647396

  5. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  6. The neuron-astrocyte-microglia triad in CA3 after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in the rat: Protective effect of dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    Lana, Daniele; Ugolini, Filippo; Melani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Pedata, Felicita; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the quantitative and morphofunctional alterations of neuron-astrocyte-microglia triads in CA3 hippocampus, in comparison to CA1, after 2 Vessel Occlusion (2VO) and the protective effect of dipyridamole. We evaluated 3 experimental groups: sham-operated rats (sham, n=15), 2VO-operated rats treated with vehicle (2VO-vehicle, n=15), and 2VO-operated rats treated with dipyridamole from day 0 to day 7 (2VO-dipyridamole, n=15), 90days after 2VO. We analyzed Stratum Pyramidalis (SP), Stratum Lucidum (SL) and Stratum Radiatum (SR) of CA3. 1) ectopic neurons increased in SL and SR of 2VO-vehicle, and 2VO-dipyridamole rats; 2) apoptotic neurons increased in SP of 2VO-vehicle rats and dipyridamole reverted this effect; 3) astrocytes increased in SP, SL and SR of 2VO-vehicle and 2VO-dipyridamole rats; 4) TNF-α expression increased in astrocytes, blocked by dipyridamole, and in dendrites in SR of 2VO-vehicle rats; 5) total microglia increased in SL and SR of 2VO-vehicle and 2VO-dipyridamole rats; 6) triads increased in SR of 2VO-vehicle rats and dipyridamole reverted this effect. Microglia cooperated with astrocytes to phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons and debris, and engulfed ectopic non-fragmented neurons in SL of 2VO-vehicle and 2VO-dipyridamole rats, through a new mechanism called phagoptosis. CA3 showed a better adaptive capacity than CA1 to the ischemic insult, possibly due to the different behaviour of astrocytes and microglial cells. Dipyridamole had neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A combinatorial model for dentate gyrus sparse coding

    SciTech Connect

    Severa, William; Parekh, Ojas; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.

    2016-12-29

    The dentate gyrus forms a critical link between the entorhinal cortex and CA3 by providing a sparse version of the signal. Concurrent with this increase in sparsity, a widely accepted theory suggests the dentate gyrus performs pattern separation—similar inputs yield decorrelated outputs. Although an active region of study and theory, few logically rigorous arguments detail the dentate gyrus’s (DG) coding. We suggest a theoretically tractable, combinatorial model for this action. The model provides formal methods for a highly redundant, arbitrarily sparse, and decorrelated output signal.To explore the value of this model framework, we assess how suitable it is for two notable aspects of DG coding: how it can handle the highly structured grid cell representation in the input entorhinal cortex region and the presence of adult neurogenesis, which has been proposed to produce a heterogeneous code in the DG. We find tailoring the model to grid cell input yields expansion parameters consistent with the literature. In addition, the heterogeneous coding reflects activity gradation observed experimentally. Lastly, we connect this approach with more conventional binary threshold neural circuit models via a formal embedding.

  8. A combinatorial model for dentate gyrus sparse coding

    DOE PAGES

    Severa, William; Parekh, Ojas; James, Conrad D.; ...

    2016-12-29

    The dentate gyrus forms a critical link between the entorhinal cortex and CA3 by providing a sparse version of the signal. Concurrent with this increase in sparsity, a widely accepted theory suggests the dentate gyrus performs pattern separation—similar inputs yield decorrelated outputs. Although an active region of study and theory, few logically rigorous arguments detail the dentate gyrus’s (DG) coding. We suggest a theoretically tractable, combinatorial model for this action. The model provides formal methods for a highly redundant, arbitrarily sparse, and decorrelated output signal.To explore the value of this model framework, we assess how suitable it is for twomore » notable aspects of DG coding: how it can handle the highly structured grid cell representation in the input entorhinal cortex region and the presence of adult neurogenesis, which has been proposed to produce a heterogeneous code in the DG. We find tailoring the model to grid cell input yields expansion parameters consistent with the literature. In addition, the heterogeneous coding reflects activity gradation observed experimentally. Lastly, we connect this approach with more conventional binary threshold neural circuit models via a formal embedding.« less

  9. Augmented neuronal death in CA3 hippocampus following hyperventilation early after controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Forbes, M L; Clark, R S; Dixon, C E; Graham, S H; Marion, D W; DeKosky, S T; Schiding, J K; Kochanek, P M

    1998-03-01

    Minimizing secondary injury after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the primary goal of cerebral resuscitation. For more than two decades, hyperventilation has been one of the most often used strategies in the management of TBI. Laboratory and clinical studies, however, have verified a post-TBI state of reduced cerebral perfusion that may increase the brain's vulnerability to secondary injury. In addition, it has been suggested in a clinical study that hyperventilation may worsen outcome after TBI. Using the controlled cortical impact model in rats, the authors tested the hypothesis that aggressive hyperventilation applied immediately after TBI would worsen functional outcome, expand the contusion, and promote neuronal death in selectively vulnerable hippocampal neurons. Twenty-six intubated, mechanically ventilated, isoflurane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact (4 m/second, 2.5-mm depth of deformation) and randomized after 10 minutes to either hyperventilation (PaCO2 = 20.3 +/- 0.7 mm Hg) or normal ventilation groups (PaCO2 = 34.9 +/- 0.3 mm Hg) containing 13 rats apiece and were treated for 5 hours. Beam balance and Morris water maze (MWM) performance latencies were measured in eight rats from each group on Days 1 to 5 and 7 to 11, respectively, after controlled cortical impact. The rats were killed at 14 days postinjury, and serial coronal sections of their brains were studied for contusion volume and hippocampal neuron counting (CA1, CA3) by an observer who was blinded to their treatment group. Mortality rates were similar in both groups (two of 13 in the normal ventilation compared with three of 13 in the hyperventilation group, not significant [NS]). There were no differences between the groups in mean arterial blood pressure, brain temperature, and serum glucose concentration. There were no differences between groups in performance latencies for both beam balance and MWM or contusion volume (27.8 +/- 5

  10. Electrochemical reduction of Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 superconductor single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenoff, Joseph B.; Rink, W. Jack; Seger, Lawrence

    1991-09-01

    Single crystals and polycrystalline pellets of the high-temperature cuprate superconductor Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 were doped at room temperature by electrochemical reduction at > 95% Coulombic efficiency using lithium dopant ions in propylene carbonate electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry and potential step measurements on single crystals suggest an unusual reduction mechanism, with a diffusion coefficient for Li + in the c-axis direction of bulk superconductor of ca. 3 × 10 -11 cm 2s -1. Sintered pellets of polycrystalline powder could be doped more rapidly, with an apparent diffusion coefficient of 7 × 10 -8 cm 2s -1. X-ray susceptibility analysis show extensive disordering occurs on heavy Li doping, with a first-order transition from a crystalline/superconducting to an amorphous/non-superconducting phase. Single, crystals of Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 exhibited a color change on reduction from metallic gray to golden bronze. The reduced material was highly air-sensitive, forming a hydroxide surface film on exposure to ambient atmosphere.

  11. Functional connectivity models for decoding of spatial representations from hippocampal CA1 recordings.

    PubMed

    Posani, Lorenzo; Cocco, Simona; Ježek, Karel; Monasson, Rémi

    2017-08-01

    Hippocampus stores spatial representations, or maps, which are recalled each time a subject is placed in the corresponding environment. Across different environments of similar geometry, these representations show strong orthogonality in CA3 of hippocampus, whereas in the CA1 subfield a considerable overlap between the maps can be seen. The lower orthogonality decreases reliability of various decoders developed in an attempt to identify which of the stored maps is active at the moment. Especially, the problem with decoding emerges with a need to analyze data at high temporal resolution. Here, we introduce a functional-connectivity-based decoder, which accounts for the pairwise correlations between the spiking activities of neurons in each map and does not require any positional information, i.e. any knowledge about place fields. We first show, on recordings of hippocampal activity in constant environmental conditions, that our decoder outperforms existing decoding methods in CA1. Our decoder is then applied to data from teleportation experiments, in which an instantaneous switch between the environment identity triggers a recall of the corresponding spatial representation . We test the sensitivity of our approach on the transition dynamics between the respective memory states (maps). We find that the rate of spontaneous state shifts (flickering) after a teleportation event is increased not only within the first few seconds as already reported, but this instability is sustained across much longer (> 1 min.) periods.

  12. Quantitative morphometry of electrophysiologically identified CA3b interneurons reveals robust local geometry and distinct cell classes.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Brown, Kerry M; Calixto, Eduardo; Card, J Patrick; Galván, E J; Perez-Rosello, T; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2009-08-20

    The morphological and electrophysiological diversity of inhibitory cells in hippocampal area CA3 may underlie specific computational roles and is not yet fully elucidated. In particular, interneurons with somata in strata radiatum (R) and lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) receive converging stimulation from the dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex as well as within CA3. Although these cells express different forms of synaptic plasticity, their axonal trees and connectivity are still largely unknown. We investigated the branching and spatial patterns, plus the membrane and synaptic properties, of rat CA3b R and L-M interneurons digitally reconstructed after intracellular labeling. We found considerable variability within but no difference between the two layers, and no correlation between morphological and biophysical properties. Nevertheless, two cell types were identified based on the number of dendritic bifurcations, with significantly different anatomical and electrophysiological features. Axons generally branched an order of magnitude more than dendrites. However, interneurons on both sides of the R/L-M boundary revealed surprisingly modular axodendritic arborizations with consistently uniform local branch geometry. Both axons and dendrites followed a lamellar organization, and axons displayed a spatial preference toward the fissure. Moreover, only a small fraction of the axonal arbor extended to the outer portion of the invaded volume, and tended to return toward the proximal region. In contrast, dendritic trees demonstrated more limited but isotropic volume occupancy. These results suggest a role of predominantly local feedforward and lateral inhibitory control for both R and L-M interneurons. Such a role may be essential to balance the extensive recurrent excitation of area CA3 underlying hippocampal autoassociative memory function.

  13. Interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 area is essential for episodic-like memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chao, Owen Y; Nikolaus, Susanne; Lira Brandão, Marcus; Huston, Joseph P; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2017-04-03

    The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when). Compared to controls, the disconnected mPFC-CA1 rats exhibited disrupted episodic-like memory with an impaired integration of the what-where-when elements. Both groups showed intact memories for what and when, while only the control group showed intact memory for where. These findings suggest that the functional interaction of the mPFC-CA1 circuit is crucial for the processing of episodic memory and, in particular, for the integration of the spatial memory component.

  14. Up-regulation of GLT-1 severely impairs LTD at mossy fibre–CA3 synapses

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Azar; Melone, Marcello; Bellesi, Michele; Safiulina, Victoria; Aida, Tomomi; Tanaka, Kohishi; Cherubini, Enrico; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. By this action, they maintain low levels of ambient glutamate, thus preventing excitotoxic damage, and contribute to shaping synaptic currents. We show that up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone severely impaired mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), induced at rat mossy fibre (MF)–CA3 synapses by repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres. This effect involved GLT-1, since LTD was rescued by the selective GLT-1 antagonist dihydrokainate (DHK). DHK per se produced a modest decrease in fEPSP amplitude that rapidly regained control levels after DHK wash out. Moreover, the degree of fEPSP inhibition induced by the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-DGG was similar during basal synaptic transmission but not during LTD, indicating that in ceftriaxone-treated rats LTD induction did not alter synaptic glutamate transient concentration. Furthermore, ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 up-regulation significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP at MF–CA3 synapses but not at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses. Postembedding immunogold studies in rats showed an increased density of gold particles coding for GLT-1a in astrocytic processes and in mossy fibre terminals; in the latter, gold particles were located near and within the active zones. In both CEF-treated and untreated GLT-1 KO mice used for verifying the specificity of immunostaining, the density of gold particles in MF terminals was comparable to background levels. The enhanced expression of GLT-1 at release sites may prevent activation of presynaptic receptors, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which GLT-1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:19651762

  15. Up-regulation of GLT-1 severely impairs LTD at mossy fibre--CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Azar; Melone, Marcello; Bellesi, Michele; Safiulina, Victoria; Aida, Tomomi; Tanaka, Kohishi; Cherubini, Enrico; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2009-10-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. By this action, they maintain low levels of ambient glutamate, thus preventing excitotoxic damage, and contribute to shaping synaptic currents. We show that up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone severely impaired mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), induced at rat mossy fibre (MF)-CA3 synapses by repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres. This effect involved GLT-1, since LTD was rescued by the selective GLT-1 antagonist dihydrokainate (DHK). DHK per se produced a modest decrease in fEPSP amplitude that rapidly regained control levels after DHK wash out. Moreover, the degree of fEPSP inhibition induced by the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist gamma-DGG was similar during basal synaptic transmission but not during LTD, indicating that in ceftriaxone-treated rats LTD induction did not alter synaptic glutamate transient concentration. Furthermore, ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 up-regulation significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses but not at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Postembedding immunogold studies in rats showed an increased density of gold particles coding for GLT-1a in astrocytic processes and in mossy fibre terminals; in the latter, gold particles were located near and within the active zones. In both CEF-treated and untreated GLT-1 KO mice used for verifying the specificity of immunostaining, the density of gold particles in MF terminals was comparable to background levels. The enhanced expression of GLT-1 at release sites may prevent activation of presynaptic receptors, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which GLT-1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  16. CA1 inactivation impairs episodic-like memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Drieskens, Davi Carvalho; Neves, Lívia Rodrigues; Pugliane, Karen Cristina; de Souza, Ingrid Brasilino Montenegro Bento; Lima, Álvaro da Costa; Salvadori, Mirian Graciela da Silva Stiebbe; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Silva, Regina Helena; Barbosa, Flávio Freitas

    2017-08-24

    Episodic memory was initially believed to be unique to humans. However, studies demonstrate that nonhuman species discriminate items based on the triad what, where and when. Here we addressed the role of the dorsal hippocampal subfield CA1 in an integrative what-where-when task in Wistar rats. We performed bilateral inactivation of dorsal CA1 with the GABAA agonist muscimol previously to the task. As expected, sham-operated animals recollected an integrative memory for objects (what), their places (where) and temporal order (when). However, the inactivation of CA1 impaired the performance of the three components of episodic-like memory. In addition, total time of objects exploration and distance traveled were not different between groups, indicating that rats had similar levels of motivation, thus, alterations in exploration does not account for impaired locomotor performance. Altogether, our data provides evidence that CA1 plays an important role in episodic-like memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ongoing epileptiform activity in the post-ischemic hippocampus is associated with a permanent shift of the excitatory-inhibitory synaptic balance in CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Epsztein, Jérôme; Milh, Mathieu; Bihi, Rachid Id; Jorquera, Isabel; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Represa, Alfonso; Crépel, Valérie

    2006-06-28

    Ischemic strokes are often associated with late-onset epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the hippocampus, which is one of the regions most sensitive to ischemic challenge, global ischemia induces a complete loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas the resistant CA3 pyramidal neurons display a long-term hyperexcitability several months after the insult. The mechanisms of this long-term hyperexcitability remain unknown despite its clinical implication. Using chronic in vivo EEG recordings and in vitro field recordings in slices, we now report spontaneous interictal epileptiform discharges in the CA3 area of the hippocampus from post-ischemic rats several months after the insult. Whole-cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons, revealed a permanent reduction in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic IPSCs and a parallel increase in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature glutamatergic postsynaptic currents. Global ischemia also induced a dramatic loss of GABAergic interneurons and terminals together with an increase in glutamatergic terminals in the CA3 area of the hippocampus. Altogether, our results show a morpho-functional reorganization in the CA3 network several months after global ischemia, resulting in a net shift in the excitatory-inhibitory balance toward excitation that may constitute a substrate for the generation of epileptiform discharges in the post-ischemic hippocampus.

  18. Measurement of CA1P and CA in leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.d.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Carboxyarabinitol-1-phosphate (CA1P) and carboxyarabinitol (CA) were assayed in leaves by isotope dilution. {sup 14}C-labeled standards were synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C) CABP using acid (CA1P) or alkaline (CA) phosphatase. Either was added to boiling 80% EtOH along with liquid N{sub 2}-killed leaves. Each was largely purified by anion exchange chromatography. CA1P samples were subjected to 2D-TLE/TLC. The specific activity of the {sup 14}C-containing spot was measured using alkaline phosphatase. CA samples were run on an HPLC and the specific activity was determined using a UV monitor and a flow-through radioisotope detector. In 3 of the tested species, light/dark amount of CA1P (nmol/mg Chl) were kidney bean, 0.7/67; sugar beet, 0.8/33; and Alocasia, 0/3.4. Light/dark CA levels (nmol/mg Chl) in these respective species were 897/653, 3.2/3.5, and 5.7/4.6. These results support the hypothesis that CA is a product of CA1P metabolism in vivo under high light, but also indicate that CA is not the only intermediate involved in CA1P synthesis under low light/dark conditions.

  19. Region-specific roles of the prelimbic cortex, the dorsal CA1, the ventral DG and ventral CA1 of the hippocampus in the fear return evoked by a sub-conditioning procedure in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Juan; Xing, Xiaoli; Han, Mengfi; Xu, Na; Piao, Chengji; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Xigeng

    2016-02-01

    The return of learned fear is an important issue in anxiety disorder research since an analogous process may contribute to long-term fear maintenance or clinical relapse. A number of studies demonstrate that mPFC and hippocampus are important in the modulation of post-extinction re-expression of fear memory. However, the region-specific role of these structures in the fear return evoked by a sub-threshold conditioning (SC) is not known. In the present experiments, we first examined specific roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL), the dorsal hippocampus (DH, the dorsal CA1 area in particular), the ventral hippocampus (the ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) and the ventral CA1 area in particular) in this fear return process. Then we examined the role of connections between PL and vCA1 with this behavioral approach. Rats were subjected to five tone-shock pairings (1.0-mA shock) to induce conditioned fear (freezing), followed by three fear extinction sessions (25 tone-alone trials each session). After a post-test for extinction memory, some rats were retrained with the SC procedure to reinstate tone-evoked freezing. Rat groups were injected with low doses of the GABAA agonist muscimol to selectively inactivate PL, DH, vDG, or vCA1 120 min before the fear return test. A disconnection paradigm with ipsilateral or contralateral muscimol injection of the PL and the vCA1 was used to examine the role of this pathway in the fear return. We found that transient inactivation of these areas significantly impaired fear return (freezing): inactivation of the prelimbic cortex blocked SC-evoked fear return in particular but did not influence fear expression in general; inactivation of the DH area impaired fear return, but had no effect on the extinction retrieval process; both ventral DG and ventral CA1 are required for the return of extinguished fear whereas only ventral DG is required for the extinction retrieval. These findings suggest that PL, DH, vDG, and vCA1 all contribute to the fear

  20. Distinctive features of Egr transcription factor regulation and DNA binding activity in CA1 of the hippocampus in synaptic plasticity and consolidation and reconsolidation of fear memory.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Hélène; Chagneau, Carine; Levasseur, Grégoire; Veyrac, Alexandra; Faucon-Biguet, Nicole; Laroche, Serge; Davis, Sabrina

    2012-03-01

    Activity-dependent regulation of Egr1/Zif268, a transcription factor (TF) of the Egr family, is essential for stabilization of dentate gyrus synaptic plasticity and consolidation and reconsolidation of several forms of memory. The gene can be rapidly induced in selective brain circuits after certain types of learning or after recall. Here, we focused on area CA1 and examined regulation of Egr1, Egr2, and Egr3 mRNA and protein, and their DNA binding activity to the Egr response element (ERE) at different times after LTP in vivo and after learning and recall of a fear memory. We found LTP in CA1 leads to rapid induction of the three Egrs, however only Egr1 protein was overexpressed without a co-ordinated change in binding activity, indicating a fundamental difference between CA1 and dentate gyrus LTP. Our investigations in fear memory reveal that both learning and retrieval lead to an increase in binding of constitutively expressed Egr1 and Egr3 to the ERE, but not Egr2. Memory recall was also associated with increased Egr1 protein translation. The nature and temporal dynamics of these changes and tests for interactions between TFs suggest that in addition to ERE-mediated transcription, Egr1 in CA1 may interact with the TF c-Fos to regulate genes via other DNA response elements.

  1. Dentate gyrus volume and memory performance in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Travis, Scott; Coupland, Nicholas J; Silversone, Peter H; Huang, Yushan; Fujiwara, Esther; Carter, Rawle; Seres, Peter; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown lower hippocampal volume in major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with MDD have consistently demonstrated worse performance than healthy controls a number of memory tests. Memory functions within the hippocampus in healthy younger subjects appear to be linked to cornu ammonis (CA1-3) and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to investigate whether memory deficits in MDD patients are related to reduction in hippocampal subfields volumes, particularly DG and CA 1-3. 15 MDD patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD with moderate or severe episodes were recruited, together with 15 healthy controls. We used T2-weighted 2D Fast Spin Echo (FSE) and T1-weighted 3D MPRAGE sequences at 4.7 T to compare hippocampal subfield volumes at 0.09 μl voxel volume. Participants were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale. MDD patients underperformed in several episodic visual memory tasks, as well as in visual working memory, compared to healthy controls. Global hippocampal volumes were similar between groups; however, MDD patients showed significantly reduced DG volumes within the hippocampal body. Duration of depression correlated with MDD patients׳ total volumes in the hippocampal body and CA1-3 and DG subfields within it. Our study sample was relatively small and the majority of patients were on antidepressant treatment. Our findings suggest that DG volumes in particular may be worthy of further study to further elucidate their precise role in MDD, both by itself as well as in relation to memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. OLM interneurons are transiently recruited into field gamma oscillations evoked by brief kainate pressure ejections onto area CA1 in mice hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Kipiani, E

    2009-02-01

    Oscillations (30-100 Hz) are correlated with the cognitive functions of the brain. In the hippocampus interactions between perisomatic and trilaminar interneurons with pyramidal cells are thought to underlie generation of field gamma oscillations. In area CA3 OLM interneurons receive synaptic input in gamma range but generate action potential (AP) output in theta band and are involved in theta oscillations synchronized along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. In slice preparations of CA3 area the spike timing of OLM cells could be modulated by carbachole induced gamma oscillations, although their firing rates are limited to theta frequency. Normally, OLM interneurons are somatostatin positive cells. In this study we tested whether parvalbumin (PV) containing OLM interneurons in area CA1 limit AP output during kainate pressure ejection also to theta frequency. We used focal short applications of kainate in area CA1 to induce filed gamma oscillations with an average frequency of about 44.7+/-4.4 Hz. The duration of field gamma was on average 8.9+/-3.5 s. During such oscillations CA1 PV positive OLM interneurons of mice hippocampus received excitatory synaptic input at gamma frequency. Moreover, their AP output was in gamma range as well. Thus, we show that beside the somatostatin containing OLM interneurons, which generate theta rhythm there are PV containing OLM cells, which could synchronize the distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells to the field gamma oscillations.

  3. Sex steroids and the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hajszan, Tibor; Milner, Teresa A; Leranth, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1980s, the finding that the dentate gyrus contains more granule cells in the male than in the female of certain mouse strains provided the first indication that the dentate gyrus is a significant target for the effects of sex steroids during development. Gonadal hormones also play a crucial role in shaping the function and morphology of the adult brain. Besides reproduction-related processes, sex steroids participate in higher brain operations such as cognition and mood, in which the hippocampus is a critical mediator. Being part of the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus is naturally involved in these mechanisms and as such, this structure is also a critical target for the activational effects of sex steroids. These activational effects are the results of three major types of steroid-mediated actions. Sex steroids modulate the function of dentate neurons under normal conditions. In addition, recent research suggests that hormone-induced cellular plasticity may play a larger role than previously thought, particularly in the dentate gyrus. Specifically, the regulation of dentate gyrus neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling by sex steroids received increasing attention lately. Finally, the dentate gyrus is influenced by gonadal hormones in the context of cellular injury, and the work in this area demonstrates that gonadal hormones have neuroprotective potential. The expression of estrogen, progestin, and androgen receptors in the dentate gyrus suggests that sex steroids, which could be of gonadal origin and/or synthesized locally in the dentate gyrus, may act directly on dentate cells. In addition, gonadal hormones could also influence the dentate gyrus indirectly, by subcortical hormone-sensitive structures such as the cholinergic septohippocampal system. Importantly, these three sex steroid-related themes, functional effects in the normal dentate gyrus, mechanisms involving neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling, as well as neuroprotection, have

  4. Phosphorylation of CRMP2 is involved in proper bifurcation of the apical dendrite of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Niisato, Emi; Nagai, Jun; Yamashita, Naoya; Nakamura, Fumio; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohshima, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    The neural circuit in the hippocampus is important for higher brain functions. Dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons mainly receive input from the axons of CA3 pyramidal neurons in this neural circuit. A CA1 pyramidal neuron has a single apical dendrite and multiple basal dendrites. In wild-type mice, most of CA1 pyramidal neurons extend a single trunk, or alternatively, the apical dendrite bifurcates into two daughter trunks at the stratum radiatum layer. We previously reported the proximal bifurcation phenotype in Sema3A-/-, p35-/-, and CRMP4-/- mice. Cdk5/p35 phosphorylates CRMP2 at Ser522, and inhibition of this phosphorylation suppressed Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In this study, we analyzed the bifurcation points of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in CRMP2KI/KI mice in which the Cdk5/p35-phosphorylation site Ser522 was mutated into an Ala residue. The proximal bifurcation phenotype was not observed in CRMP2KI/KI mice; however, severe proximal bifurcation of apical dendrites was found in CRMP2KI/KI;CRMP4-/- mice. Cultured hippocampal neurons from CRMP2KI/KI and CRMP2KI/KI;CRMP4-/- embryos showed an increased number of dendritic branching points compared to those from wild-type embryos. Sema3A increased the number of branching points and the total length of dendrites in wild-type hippocampal neurons, but these effects of Sema3A for dendrites were not observed in CRMP2KI/KI and CRMP2KI/KI;CRMP4-/-hippocampal neurons. Binding of CRMP2 to tubulin increased in both CRMP2KI/KI and CRMP2KI/KI:CRMP4-/- brain lysates. These results suggest that CRMP2 and CRMP4 synergistically regulate dendritic development, and CRMP2 phosphorylation is critical for proper bifurcation of apical dendrite of CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  5. CA1 subfield contributions to memory integration and inference.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    The ability to combine information acquired at different times to make novel inferences is a powerful function of episodic memory. One perspective suggests that by retrieving related knowledge during new experiences, existing memories can be linked to the new, overlapping information as it is encoded. The resulting memory traces would thus incorporate content across event boundaries, representing important relationships among items encountered during separate experiences. While prior work suggests that the hippocampus is involved in linking memories experienced at different times, the involvement of specific subfields in this process remains unknown. Using both univariate and multivariate analyses of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we localized this specialized encoding mechanism to human CA1 . Specifically, right CA1 responses during encoding of events that overlapped with prior experience predicted subsequent success on a test requiring inferences about the relationships among events. Furthermore, we employed neural pattern similarity analysis to show that patterns of activation evoked during overlapping event encoding were later reinstated in CA1 during successful inference. The reinstatement of CA1 patterns during inference was specific to those trials that were performed quickly and accurately, consistent with the notion that linking memories during learning facilitates novel judgments. These analyses provide converging evidence that CA1 plays a unique role in encoding overlapping events and highlight the dynamic interactions between hippocampal-mediated encoding and retrieval processes. More broadly, our data reflect the adaptive nature of episodic memories, in which representations are derived across events in anticipation of future judgments.

  6. Imaging a memory trace over half a life-time in the medial temporal lobe reveals a time-limited role of CA3 neurons in retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Vanessa; Atucha, Erika; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2016-01-01

    Whether retrieval still depends on the hippocampus as memories age or relies then on cortical areas remains a major controversy. Despite evidence for a functional segregation between CA1, CA3 and parahippocampal areas, their specific role within this frame is unclear. Especially, the contribution of CA3 is questionable as very remote memories might be too degraded to be used for pattern completion. To identify the specific role of these areas, we imaged brain activity in mice during retrieval of recent, early remote and very remote fear memories by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc. Investigating correlates of the memory trace over an extended period allowed us to report that, in contrast to CA1, CA3 is no longer recruited in very remote retrieval. Conversely, we showed that parahippocampal areas are then maximally engaged. These results suggest a shift from a greater contribution of the trisynaptic loop to the temporoammonic pathway for retrieval. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11862.001 PMID:26880561

  7. Down-regulation of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel, K(Ca)1.1 in the prostatic stromal cells of benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Satomi; Ohya, Susumu; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Shoichi; Yamamura, Hisao; Sakuragi, Motomu; Kohri, Kenjiro; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channel encoded by K(Ca)1.1 plays an important role in the control of smooth muscle tone by modulating membrane potential and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. BK(Ca) channel is functionally expressed in prostatic smooth muscle cells, and is activated by α(1)-adrenoceptor agonists. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological significance of changes in prostatic K(Ca)1.1 expressions in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Our previous study has shown that K(Ca)3.1 encoding intermediate-conductance K(Ca) (IK(Ca)) channel is up-regulated in stromal cells of implanted urogenital sinuses (UGSs) of stromal hyperplasia BPH model rats and in those of prostatic tissues from BPH patients. In the present study, the results from real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses showed significant down-regulation of K(Ca)1.1 transcripts and proteins and negative correlation between K(Ca)1.1 and K(Ca)3.1 transcript expressions in prostatic stromal cells of both BPH model rats and BPH patients. Corresponding to down-regulation of K(Ca)1.1 expression in stromal cells of implanted UGSs, membrane depolarization by application of the BK(Ca) channel blocker was disappeared. Down-regulation of K(Ca)1.1 may be involved in the phenotype switch from contractile profile to proliferative one in prostatic stromal cells of BPH patients.

  8. Action potential initiation and propagation in CA3 pyramidal axons.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Mennerick, Steven

    2007-05-01

    Thin, unmyelinated axons densely populate the mammalian hippocampus and cortex. However, the location and dynamics of spike initiation in thin axons remain unclear. We investigated basic properties of spike initiation and propagation in CA3 neurons of juvenile rat hippocampus. Sodium channel alpha subunit distribution and local applications of tetrodotoxin demonstrate that the site of first threshold crossing in CA3 neurons is approximately 35 microm distal to the soma, somewhat more proximal than our previous estimates. This discrepancy can be explained by the finding, obtained with simultaneous whole cell somatic and extracellular axonal recordings, that a zone of axon stretching to approximately 100 microm distal to the soma reaches a maximum rate of depolarization nearly synchronously by the influx of sodium from the high-density channels. Models of the proximal axon incorporating observed distributions of sodium channel staining recapitulated salient features of somatic and axonal spike waveforms, including the predicted initiation zone, characteristic spike latencies, and conduction velocity. The preferred initiation zone was unaltered by stimulus strength or repetitive spiking, but repetitive spiking increased threshold and significantly slowed initial segment recruitment time and conduction velocity. Our work defines the dynamics of initiation and propagation in hippocampal principal cell axons and may help reconcile recent controversies over initiation site in other axons.

  9. Magnetocapacitance in Ca3CoMnO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S. D.; Rayaprol, S.; Saha, J.; Mohapatra, N.; Siruguri, V.; Babu, P. D.; Patnaik, S.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetocapacitance (MC) measurements—that is, measuring capacitance as a function of temperature at constant magnetic field—has been carried out on a quasi-1D compound, Ca3CoMnO6. MC reveals the presence of a magnetodielectric effect (MDE), which in turn signals the presence of magnetoelectric coupling below the magnetic ordering temperature, TN ( = 15 K). We also observed the sign reversal of the MDE as the temperature increased from 3 to 20 K. The MDE is positive at 3 K and negative between 3 and 15 K, and it saturates to a near zero value above 15 K. The sign change of the MDE is explained in terms the spin-pair correlation of neighboring spins of Co/Mn at a given applied magnetic field H. A negative MDE signifies antiferromagnetic ordering, and a positive MDE signifies ferromagnetic/paramagnetic ordering. Neutron diffraction study reveals changes in the magnetic structure in the temperature range of 2 to 10 K. The present work brings out the possible correlation between the magnetic structure and the dielectric properties of Ca3CoMnO6.

  10. Chemical modulation of ephaptic activation of CA3 hippocampal pyramids.

    PubMed

    Dalkara, T; Krnjević, K; Ropert, N; Yim, C Y

    1986-02-01

    In rats under urethane anaesthesia, antidromic population spikes were evoked in CA3 pyramidal layer by fimbrial/commissural stimulation at a very low frequency (approximately 0.5 Hz). Submaximal population spikes--between 20 and 90% of maximum--were enhanced by 8-38% by applications of acetylcholine and bicuculline, or by medial septal stimulation. Noradrenaline had a less pronounced and regular facilitatory action, whereas gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate only depressed population spikes. Maximal enhancement by acetylcholine or bicuculline was observed when the antidromic population spike was initially at 38-53% of maximum amplitude. A simple explanation of these results is that acetylcholine and bicuculline, by raising their excitability, facilitate the excitation of non-invaded pyramidal cells by antidromic field potentials. They are fully in keeping with previous intracellular observations on ephaptic interactions between CA3 neurons, and provide a further illustration, in situ, of the importance of increased excitability and disinhibition--whether caused by drugs or synaptic action--in promoting synchronized excitation by ephaptic currents.

  11. The engram formation and the global oscillations of CA3

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The investigation on the conditions which cause global population oscillatory activities in neural fields, originated some years ago with reference to a kinetic theory of neural systems, as been further deepened in this paper. In particular, the genesis of sharp waves and of some rhythmic activities, such as theta and gamma rhythms, of the hippocampal CA3 field, behaviorally important for their links to learning and memory, has been analyzed with more details. To this aim, the modeling-computational framework previously devised for the study of activities in large neural fields, has been enhanced in such a way that a greater number of biological features, extended dendritic trees—in particular, could be taken into account. By using that methodology, a two-dimensional model of the entire CA3 field has been described and its activity, as it results from the several external inputs impinging on it, has been simulated. As a consequence of these investigations, some hypotheses have been elaborated about the possible function of global oscillatory activities of neural populations of Hippocampus in the engram formation. PMID:19003462

  12. The engram formation and the global oscillations of CA3.

    PubMed

    Ventriglia, Francesco

    2008-12-01

    The investigation on the conditions which cause global population oscillatory activities in neural fields, originated some years ago with reference to a kinetic theory of neural systems, as been further deepened in this paper. In particular, the genesis of sharp waves and of some rhythmic activities, such as theta and gamma rhythms, of the hippocampal CA3 field, behaviorally important for their links to learning and memory, has been analyzed with more details. To this aim, the modeling-computational framework previously devised for the study of activities in large neural fields, has been enhanced in such a way that a greater number of biological features, extended dendritic trees-in particular, could be taken into account. By using that methodology, a two-dimensional model of the entire CA3 field has been described and its activity, as it results from the several external inputs impinging on it, has been simulated. As a consequence of these investigations, some hypotheses have been elaborated about the possible function of global oscillatory activities of neural populations of Hippocampus in the engram formation.

  13. Activity-dependent induction of multitransmitter signaling onto pyramidal cells and interneurons of hippocampal area CA3.

    PubMed

    Romo-Parra, Héctor; Vivar, Carmen; Maqueda, Jasmín; Morales, Miguel A; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) are considered to be glutamatergic, but they contain glutamic acid decarboxylase, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and the vesicular GABA transporter mRNA. Their expression is regulated in an activity-dependent manner and coincides with the appearance of GABAergic transmission from the mossy fibers (MF) to pyramidal cells in area CA3. These data support the hypothesis that MF are able to release glutamate and GABA. Following the principle that a given neuron releases the same neurotransmitter(s) onto all its targets, we here demonstrate the emergence, after a generalized convulsive seizure, of MF GABAergic signaling sensitive to activation mGluR-III onto pyramidal cells and interneurons of CA3. Despite this, excitation overrides inhibition in interneurons, preventing disinhibition. Furthermore, on blockade of GABA and glutamate ionotropic receptors, an M1-cholinergic depolarizing signal is also revealed in both targets, which postsynaptically modulates the glutamatergic and GABAergic fast neurotransmission. The emergence of these nonglutamatergic signals depends on protein synthesis. In contrast to cholinergic responses evoked by associational/commissural fibers activation, cholinergic transmission evoked by DG stimulation is only observed after seizures and is strongly depressed by the activation of mGluR-II, whereas both are depressed by M2-AChR activation. With immunohistological experiments, we show that this cholinergic pathway runs parallel to the MF. Thus seizures compromise a delicate balance of excitation and inhibition, on which a complex interaction of different neurotransmitters emerges to counteract excitation at pre- and postsynaptic sites. Particularly, MF GABAergic inhibition emerges to exert an overall inhibitory action on CA3.

  14. Enhanced perisomatic inhibition and impaired long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of juvenile CHL1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nikonenko, Alexander G; Sun, Mu; Lepsveridze, Eka; Apostolova, Ivayla; Petrova, Iveta; Irintchev, Andrey; Dityatev, Alexander; Schachner, Melitta

    2006-04-01

    The cell adhesion molecule, CHL1, like its close homologue L1, is important for normal brain development and function. In this study, we analysed the functional role of CHL1 in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus using juvenile CHL1-deficient (CHL1-/-) and wild-type (CHL1+/+) mice. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked in pyramidal cells by minimal stimulation of perisomatically projecting interneurons were increased in CHL1-/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. Also, long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses was reduced under physiological conditions in CHL1-/- mice. This abnormality was abolished by application of a GABAA receptor antagonist, suggesting that enhanced inhibition is the cause of LTP impairment. Quantitative ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses revealed aberrations possibly related to the abnormally high inhibition observed in CHL1-/- mice. The length and linear density of active zones in symmetric synapses on pyramidal cell bodies, as well as number of perisomatic puncta containing inhibitory axonal markers were increased. Density and total number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons was also abnormally high. These observations and the finding that CA1 interneurons express CHL1 protein indicate that CHL1 is important for regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission and interneuron populations in the postnatal brain. The observed enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CHL1-/- mice is in contrast to the previous finding of reduced inhibition in L1 deficient mice and indicates different functions of these two closely related molecules.

  15. Effects of diazepam on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Bie, Xiaohua; Huo, Su; Du, Jubao; Liu, Lin; Song, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the Schaffer collaterals of hippocampal CA3 neurons and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown to increase after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam can inhibit the hyperexcitability of rat hippocampal neurons after injury, but the mechanism by which it affects excitatory synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Our results showed that diazepam treatment significantly increased the slope of input-output curves in rat neurons after fluid percussion injury. Diazepam significantly decreased the numbers of spikes evoked by super stimuli in the presence of 15 μmol/L bicuculline, indicating the existence of inhibitory pathways in the injured rat hippocampus. Diazepam effectively increased the paired-pulse facilitation ratio in the hippocampal CA1 region following fluid percussion injury, reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials, decreased action-potential-dependent glutamine release, and reversed spontaneous glutamine release. These data suggest that diazepam could decrease the fluid percussion injury-induced enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal CA1 area. PMID:25558239

  16. Developmental changes in short-term facilitation are opposite at temporoammonic synapses compared to Schaffer collateral synapses onto CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Speed, Haley E; Dobrunz, Lynn E

    2009-02-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive two distinct excitatory inputs that are each capable of influencing hippocampal output and learning and memory. The Schaffer collateral (SC) input from CA3 axons onto the more proximal dendrites of CA1 is part of the trisynaptic circuit, which originates in Layer II of the entorhinal cortex (EC). The temporoammonic (TA) pathway to CA1 provides input directly from Layer III of the EC onto the most distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells, and is involved in spatial memory and memory consolidation. We have previously described a developmental decrease in short-term facilitation from juvenile (P13-18) to young adult (P28-42) rats at SC synapses that is due to feedback inhibition via synaptically activated mGluR1 on CA1 interneurons. It is not known how short-term changes in synaptic strength are regulated at TA synapses, nor is it known how short-term plasticity is balanced at SC and TA inputs during development. Here we describe a novel developmental increase in short-term facilitation at TA synapses, which is the opposite of the decrease in facilitation occurring at SC synapses. Although short-term facilitation is much lower at TA synapses when compared with SC synapses in juveniles, short-term plasticity at SC and TA synapses converges at similar levels of paired-pulse facilitation in the young adult rat. However, in young adults CA3-CA1 synapses still exhibit more facilitation than TA-CA1 synapses during physiologically-relevant activity, suggesting that the two pathways are each poised to uniquely modulate CA1 output in an activity-dependent manner. Finally, we show that there is a developmental decrease in the initial release probability at TA synapses that underlies their developmental decrease in facilitation, but no developmental change in release probability at SC synapses. This represents a fundamental difference in the presynaptic function of the two major inputs to CA1, which could alter the flow of information in hippocampus

  17. Local and Long-Range Circuit Connections to Hilar Mossy Cells in the Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanjun; Grieco, Steven F; Holmes, Todd C; Xu, Xiangmin

    2017-01-01

    Hilar mossy cells are the prominent glutamatergic cell type in the dentate hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG); they have been proposed to have critical roles in the DG network. To better understand how mossy cells contribute to DG function, we have applied new viral genetic and functional circuit mapping approaches to quantitatively map and compare local and long-range circuit connections of mossy cells and dentate granule cells in the mouse. The great majority of inputs to mossy cells consist of two parallel inputs from within the DG: an excitatory input pathway from dentate granule cells and an inhibitory input pathway from local DG inhibitory neurons. Mossy cells also receive a moderate degree of excitatory and inhibitory CA3 input from proximal CA3 subfields. Long range inputs to mossy cells are numerically sparse, and they are only identified readily from the medial septum and the septofimbrial nucleus. In comparison, dentate granule cells receive most of their inputs from the entorhinal cortex. The granule cells receive significant synaptic inputs from the hilus and the medial septum, and they also receive direct inputs from both distal and proximal CA3 subfields, which has been underdescribed in the existing literature. Our slice-based physiological mapping studies further supported the identified circuit connections of mossy cells and granule cells. Together, our data suggest that hilar mossy cells are major local circuit integrators and they exert modulation of the activity of dentate granule cells as well as the CA3 region through "back-projection" pathways.

  18. Passive electrotonic properties of rat hippocampal CA3 interneurones.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, R A; Hubbard, A; Jaffe, D B

    1999-03-15

    1. The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 +/- 16 MOmega and the slowest membrane time constant (tau0) was 73 +/- 3 ms. 2. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rm was 61.9 +/- 34.2 Omega cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 +/- 0.3 microF cm-2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. 3. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. 4. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. 5. The 'iso-efficiency' of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs.

  19. Passive electrotonic properties of rat hippocampal CA3 interneurones

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Raymond A; Hubbard, Aida; Jaffe, David B

    1999-01-01

    The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 ± 16 MΩ and the slowest membrane time constant (τ0) was 73 ± 3 ms. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rmwas 61.9 ± 34.2 Ω cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 ± 0.3 μF cm−2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. The ‘iso-efficiency’ of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs. PMID:10066901

  20. Long-term social isolation in the adulthood results in CA1 shrinkage and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Popović, Natalija; Otalora, Beatriz Baño; Popović, Miroljub; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Venero, César

    2013-11-01

    Social isolation in adulthood is a psychosocial stressor that can result in endocrinological and behavioral alterations in different species. In rodents, controversial results have been obtained in fear conditioning after social isolation at adulthood, while neural substrates underlying these differences are largely unknown. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) are prominent modulators of synaptic plasticity underlying memory processes in many tasks, including fear conditioning. In this study, we used adult female Octodon degus to investigate the effects of long-term social isolation on contextual and cued fear conditioning, and the possible modulation of the synaptic levels of NCAM and PSA-NCAM in the hippocampus. After 6½ months of social isolation, adult female degus showed a normal auditory-cued fear memory, but a deficit in contextual fear memory, a hippocampal dependent task. Subsequently, we observed reduced hippocampal synaptic levels of PSA-NCAM in isolated compared to grouped-housed female degus. No significant differences were found between experimental groups in hippocampal levels of the three main isoforms of NCAM (NCAM180, NCAM140 and NCAM120). Interestingly, social isolation reduced the volume of the hippocampal CA1 subfield, without affecting the volume of the CA3 subregion or the total hippocampus. Moreover, attenuated body weight gain and reduced number of granulocytes were detected in isolated animals. Our findings indicate for the first time, that long-term social isolation of adult female animals induces a specific shrinkage of CA1 and a decrease in synaptic levels of PSA-NCAM in the hippocampus. These effects may be related to the deficit in contextual fear memory observed in isolated female degus.

  1. Synapse-specific compartmentalization of signaling cascades for LTP induction in CA3 interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Emilio J; Pérez-Rosello, Tamara; Gómez-Lira, Gisela; Lara, Erika; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosun-moleculare (SR/L-M) of hippocampal area CA3 receive excitatory input from pyramidal cells via the recurrent collaterals (RC), and the dentate gyrus granule cells via the mossy fibers (MFs). Here we demonstrate that Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at RC synapses on SR/L-M interneurons requires the concomitant activation of calcium-impermeable AMPARs (CI- AMPARs) and NMDARs. RC LTP was prevented by voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell during high-frequency stimulation (HFS; 3 trains of 100 pulses delivered at 100 Hz every 10 s), with intracellular injections of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (20 mM), and with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist D-AP5. In separate experiments, RC and MF inputs converging onto the same interneuron were sequentially activated. We found that RC LTP induction was blocked by inhibitors of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; KN-62, 10 μM or KN-93, 10 μM) but MF LTP was CaMKII independent. Conversely, the application of the protein kinase A (PKA) activators forskolin/IBMX(50 μM/25 μM) potentiated MF EPSPs but not RC EPSPs. Together these data indicate that the aspiny dendrites of SR/L-M interneurons compartmentalize synaptic-specific Ca2+ signaling required for LTP induction at RC and MF synapses. We also show that the two signal transduction cascades converge to activate a common effector, protein kinase C (PKC). Specifically, LTP at RC and MF synapses on the same SR/LM interneuron was blocked by postsynaptic injections of chelerythrine (10 μM). These data indicate that both forms of LTP share a common mechanism involving PKC-dependent signaling modulation. PMID:25637803

  2. Synapse-specific compartmentalization of signaling cascades for LTP induction in CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Galván, E J; Pérez-Rosello, T; Gómez-Lira, G; Lara, E; Gutiérrez, R; Barrionuevo, G

    2015-04-02

    Inhibitory interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosum-molecular (SR/L-M) of hippocampal area CA3 receive excitatory input from pyramidal cells via the recurrent collaterals (RCs), and the dentate gyrus granule cells via the mossy fibers (MFs). Here we demonstrate that Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at RC synapses on SR/L-M interneurons requires the concomitant activation of calcium-impermeable AMPARs (CI-AMPARs) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). RC LTP was prevented by voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell during high-frequency stimulation (HFS; 3 trains of 100 pulses delivered at 100 Hz every 10s), with intracellular injections of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (20mM), and with the NMDAR antagonist D-AP5. In separate experiments, RC and MF inputs converging onto the same interneuron were sequentially activated. We found that RC LTP induction was blocked by inhibitors of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; KN-62, 10 μM or KN-93, 10 μM) but MF LTP was CaMKII independent. Conversely, the application of the protein kinase A (PKA) activators forskolin/IBMX (50 μM/25 μM) potentiated MF EPSPs but not RC EPSPs. Together these data indicate that the aspiny dendrites of SR/L-M interneurons compartmentalize synapse-specific Ca(2+) signaling required for LTP induction at RC and MF synapses. We also show that the two signal transduction cascades converge to activate a common effector, protein kinase C (PKC). Specifically, LTP at RC and MF synapses on the same SR/LM interneuron was blocked by postsynaptic injections of chelerythrine (10 μM). These data indicate that both forms of LTP share a common mechanism involving PKC-dependent signaling modulation.

  3. Activity-dependent downregulation of D-type K+ channel subunit Kv1.2 in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jung Ho; Eom, Kisang; Lee, Kyu-Hee; Ho, Won-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic excitability of neurons plays a critical role in the encoding of memory at Hebbian synapses and in the coupling of synaptic inputs to spike generation. It has not been studied whether somatic firing at a physiologically relevant frequency can induce intrinsic plasticity in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells (CA3-PCs). Here, we show that a conditioning train of 20 action potentials (APs) at 10 Hz causes a persistent reduction in the input conductance and an acceleration of the AP onset time in CA3-PCs, but not in CA1-PCs. Induction of such long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) was accompanied by a reduction in the D-type K+ current, and was abolished by the inhibition of endocytosis or protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). Consistently, the CA3-PCs from Kv1.2 knock-out mice displayed no LTP-IE with the same conditioning. Furthermore, the induction of LTP-IE depended on the back-propagating APs (bAPs) and intact distal apical dendrites. These results indicate that LTP-IE is mediated by the internalization of Kv1.2 channels from the distal regions of apical dendrites, which is triggered by bAP-induced dendritic Ca2+ signalling and the consequent activation of PTK. PMID:23981714

  4. Effect of tolbutamide on tetraethylammonium-induced postsynaptic zinc signals at hippocampal mossy fiber-CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Fatima C; Corceiro, Vanessa N; Lopes, Sandra A; de Almeida, José G; Matias, Carlos M; Dionisio, Jose C; Mendes, Paulo J; Sampaio Dos Aidos, Fernando D S; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Quinta-Ferreira, M Emilia

    2017-09-01

    The application of tetraethylammonium (TEA), a blocker of voltage-dependent potassium channels, can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in the synaptic systems CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. In the mossy fibers, the depolarization evoked by extracellular TEA induces a large amount of glutamate and also of zinc release. It is considered that zinc has a neuromodulatory role at the mossy fiber synapses, which can, at least in part, be due to the activation of presynaptic ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channels. The aim of this work was to study properties of TEA-induced zinc signals, detected at the mossy fiber region, using the permeant form of the zinc indicator Newport Green. The application of TEA caused a depression of those signals that was partially blocked by the KATP channel inhibitor tolbutamide. After the removal of TEA, the signals usually increased to a level above baseline. These results are in agreement with the idea that intense zinc release during strong synaptic events triggers a negative feedback action. The zinc depression, caused by the LTP-evoking chemical stimulation, turns into potentiation after TEA washout, suggesting the existence of a correspondence between the observed zinc potentiation and TEA-evoked mossy fiber LTP.

  5. Crystal structure analysis of β-tricalcium phosphate Ca 3(PO 4) 2 by neutron powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masatomo; Sakai, Atsushi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Hoshikawa, Akinori

    2003-11-01

    The crystal structure of sintered β-tricalcium phosphate, Ca 3(PO 4) 2, was refined using a high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data and the Rietveld method. This material was confirmed to have a rhombohedral structure (space group R3 c, Z=21). Unit-cell parameters with higher precision ( a= b=10.4352(2) Å, c=37.4029(5) Å, α= β=90°, and γ=120° in the hexagonal setting) and positional parameters for oxygen with equal precision were obtained by the neutron powder diffraction technique, compared with the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by Dickens et al. (J. Solid State Chem. 10 (1974) 232). The site Ca(4) with atomic coordinates [0.0, 0.0, -0.0851(6)] was confirmed to be very different from the other four Ca sites: The position Ca(4) is three-fold coordinated with oxygen atoms, and has lower occupancy factor of 0.43(4), and a higher isotropic thermal parameter. On the contrary, each of the Ca(1), Ca(2), Ca(3), and Ca(5) is fully occupied by one Ca atom and these positions are coordinated with seven, eight, eight, and six oxygen atoms, respectively. The bond valence sums of Ca(4) and Ca(5) are lower (0.7) and higher (2.7), respectively, than the others (1.8-2.1).

  6. CA1 subfield contributions to memory integration and inference

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to combine information acquired at different times to make novel inferences is a powerful function of episodic memory. One perspective suggests that by retrieving related knowledge during new experiences, existing memories can be linked to the new, overlapping information as it is encoded. The resulting memory traces would thus incorporate content across event boundaries, representing important relationships among items encountered during separate experiences. While prior work suggests that the hippocampus is involved in linking memories experienced at different times, the involvement of specific subfields in this process remains unknown. Using both univariate and multivariate analyses of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we localized this specialized encoding mechanism to human CA1. Specifically, right CA1 responses during encoding of events that overlapped with prior experience predicted subsequent success on a test requiring inferences about the relationships among events. Furthermore, we employed neural pattern similarity analysis to show that patterns of activation evoked during overlapping event encoding were later reinstated in CA1 during successful inference. The reinstatement of CA1 patterns during inference was specific to those trials that were performed quickly and accurately, consistent with the notion that linking memories during learning facilitates novel judgments. These analyses provide converging evidence that CA1 plays a unique role in encoding overlapping events and highlight the dynamic interactions between hippocampal-mediated encoding and retrieval processes. More broadly, our data reflect the adaptive nature of episodic memories, in which representations are derived across events in anticipation of future judgments. PMID:24888442

  7. The dentate gyrus in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    As part of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is considered to play a crucial role in associative memory. The reviewed data suggest that the dentate gyrus withstands the formation of plaques, tangles and neuronal death until late stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, changes related to a disconnecting process, and more subtle intrinsic alterations, may contribute to disturbances in memory and learning observed in early stages of AD.

  8. Critical involvement of postsynaptic protein kinase activation in LTP at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Emilio J.; Cosgrove, Kathleen E.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Card, J. Patrick; Thiels, Edda; Meriney, Stephen D.; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses on area CA3 lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons are capable of undergoing a Hebbian form of NMDAR-independent LTP induced by the same type of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) that induces LTP at MF synapses on pyramidal cells. LTP of MF input to L-M interneurons occurs only at synapses containing mostly calcium impermeable (CI)-AMPARs. Here, we demonstrate that HFS-induced LTP at these MF-interneuron synapses requires postsynaptic activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Brief extracellular stimulation of PKA with forskolin (FSK) alone or in combination with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) induced a long-lasting synaptic enhancement at MF synapses predominantly containing CI-AMPARs. However, the FSK/IBMX-induced potentiation in cells loaded with the specific PKA inhibitor peptide PKI6–22 failed to be maintained. Consistent with these data, delivery of HFS to MFs synapsing onto L-M interneurons loaded with PKI6–22 induced posttetanic potentation (PTP) but not LTP. Hippocampal sections stained for the catalytic subunit of PKA revealed abundant immunoreactivity in interneurons located in strata radiatum and L-M of area CA3. We also found that extracellular activation of PKC with phorbol 12,13-diacetate induced a pharmacological potentiation of the isolated CI-AMPAR component of the MF EPSP. However, HFS delivered to MF synapses on cells loaded with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine exhibited PTP followed by a significant depression. Together, our data indicate that MF LTP in L-M interneurons at synapses containing primarily CI-AMPARs requires some of the same signaling cascades as does LTP of glutamatergic input to CA3 or CA1 pyramidal cells. PMID:20181582

  9. Memory Retrieval Time and Memory Capacity of the CA3 Network: Role of Gamma Frequency Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, Licurgo; Idiart, Marco; Lisman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of recurrent synaptic connections in CA3 led to the hypothesis that CA3 is an autoassociative network similar to the Hopfield networks studied by theorists. CA3 undergoes gamma frequency periodic inhibition that prevents a persistent attractor state. This argues against the analogy to Hopfield nets, in which an attractor state can be…

  10. BK potassium channels control transmitter release at CA3CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Pedarzani, Paola; Cherubini, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    Large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK channels) activate in response to calcium influx during action potentials and contribute to the spike repolarization and fast afterhyperpolarization. BK channels targeted to active zones in presynaptic nerve terminals have been shown to limit calcium entry and transmitter release by reducing the duration of the presynaptic spike at neurosecretory nerve terminals and at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, their functional role in central synapses is still uncertain. In the hippocampus, BK channels have been proposed to act as an ‘emergency brake’ that would control transmitter release only under conditions of excessive depolarization and accumulation of intracellular calcium. Here we demonstrate that in the CA3 region of hippocampal slice cultures, under basal experimental conditions, the selective BK channel blockers paxilline (10 μm) and iberiotoxin (100 nm) increase the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneously occurring action potential-dependent EPSCs. These drugs did not affect miniature currents recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting that their action was dependent on action potential firing. Moreover, in double patch-clamp recordings from monosynaptically interconnected CA3 pyramidal neurones, blockade of BK channels enhanced the probability of transmitter release, as revealed by the increase in success rate, EPSC amplitude and the concomitant decrease in paired-pulse ratio in response to pairs of presynaptic action potentials delivered at a frequency of 0.05 Hz. BK channel blockers also enhanced the appearance of delayed responses, particularly following the second action potential in the paired-pulse protocol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BK channels are powerful modulators of transmitter release and synaptic efficacy in central neurones. PMID:15034127

  11. Impaired long-term potentiation induction in dentate gyrus of calretinin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Schurmans, Stéphane; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Gurden, Hirac; Lemaire, Martine; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Schwam, Valérie; Pochet, Roland; Imperato, Assunta; Böhme, Georg Andrees; Parmentier, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Calretinin (Cr) is a Ca2+ binding protein present in various populations of neurons distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We have generated Cr-deficient (Cr−/−) mice by gene targeting and have investigated the associated phenotype. Cr−/− mice were viable, and a large number of morphological, biochemical, and behavioral parameters were found unaffected. In the normal mouse hippocampus, Cr is expressed in a widely distributed subset of GABAergic interneurons and in hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus. Because both types of cells are part of local pathways innervating dentate granule cells and/or pyramidal neurons, we have explored in Cr−/− mice the synaptic transmission between the perforant pathway and granule cells and at the Schaffer commissural input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cr−/− mice showed no alteration in basal synaptic transmission, but long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the dentate gyrus. Normal LTP could be restored in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, suggesting that in Cr−/− dentate gyrus an excess of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release interferes with LTP induction. Synaptic transmission and LTP were normal in CA1 area, which contains only few Cr-positive GABAergic interneurons. Cr−/− mice performed normally in spatial memory task. These results suggest that expression of Cr contributes to the control of synaptic plasticity in mouse dentate gyrus by indirectly regulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons, and that Cr−/− mice represent a useful tool to understand the role of dentate LTP in learning and memory. PMID:9294225

  12. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA.

  13. Combined Administration of Levetiracetam and Valproic Acid Attenuates Age Related Hyperactivity of CA3 Place Cells, Reduces Place Field Area, and Increases Spatial Information Content in Aged Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Robitsek, RJ; Ratner, MH; Stewart, TM; Eichenbaum, H; Farb, DH

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121

  14. 17β estradiol recruits GluN2B-containing NMDARs and ERK during induction of long-term potentiation at temporoammonic-CA1 synapses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline C; Smith, Lindsey A; Bredemann, Teruko M; McMahon, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    When circulating 17β estradiol (E2) is elevated to proestrous levels, hippocampus-dependent learning and memory is enhanced in female rodents, nonhuman primates, and women due to heightened synaptic function at hippocampal synapses. We previously reported that proestrous-like levels of E2 administered to young adult ovariectomized (OVX) female rats increases the magnitude of LTP at CA3 Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses only when dendritic spine density, the NMDAR/AMPAR ratio, and current mediated by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are simultaneously increased. We also reported that this increase in GluN2B-mediated NMDAR current in area CA1 is causally related to the E2-induced increase in novel object recognition, tying together heightened synaptic function with improved learning and memory. In addition to SC inputs, innervation from the entorhinal cortex in the temporoammonic (TA) pathway onto CA1 distal dendrites in stratum lacunosum-moleculare is critical for spatial memory formation and retrieval. It is not known whether E2 modulates TA-CA1 synapses similarly to SC-CA1 synapses. Here, we report that 24 hours post-E2 injection, dendritic spine density on CA1 pyramidal cell distal dendrites and current mediated by GluN2B-containing NMDARs at TA-CA1 synapses is increased, similarly to our previous findings at SC-CA1 synapses. However, in contrast to SC-CA1 synapses, AMPAR transmission at TA-CA1 synapses is significantly increased, and there is no effect on the LTP magnitude. Pharmacological blockade of GluN2B-containing NMDARs or ERK activation, which occurs downstream of synaptic but not extrasynaptic GluN2B-containing NMDARs, attenuates the LTP magnitude only in slices from E2-treated rats. These data show that E2 recruits a causal role for GluN2B-containing NMDARs and ERK signaling in the induction of LTP, cellular mechanisms not required for LTP induction at TA-CA1 synapses in vehicle-treated OVX female rats.

  15. Optogenetic identification of an intrinsic cholinergically driven inhibitory oscillator sensitive to cannabinoids and opioids in hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Nagode, Daniel A; Tang, Ai-Hui; Yang, Kun; Alger, Bradley E

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal electrical oscillations in the theta (4-14 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) ranges are necessary for the performance of certain animal behaviours and cognitive processes. Perisomatic GABAergic inhibition is prominently involved in cortical oscillations driven by ACh release from septal cholinergic afferents. In neocortex and hippocampal CA3 regions, parvalbumin (PV)-expressing basket cells, activated by ACh and glutamatergic agonists, largely mediate oscillations. However, in CA1 hippocampus in vitro, cholinergic agonists or the optogenetic release of endogenous ACh from septal afferents induces rhythmic, theta-frequency inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in pyramidal cells, even with glutamatergic transmission blocked. The IPSCs are regulated by exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids, suggesting that they arise from type 1 cannabinoid receptor-expressing (CB1R+) interneurons - mainly cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing cells. Nevertheless, an occult contribution of PV-expressing interneurons to these rhythms remained conceivable. Here, we directly test this hypothesis by selectively silencing CA1 PV-expressing cells optogenetically with halorhodopsin or archaerhodopsin. However, this had no effect on theta-frequency IPSC rhythms induced by carbachol (CCh). In contrast, the silencing of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2-positive interneurons, which include the CCK-expressing basket cells, strongly suppressed inhibitory oscillations; PV-expressing interneurons appear to play no role. The low-frequency IPSC oscillations induced by CCh or optogenetically stimulated ACh release were also inhibited by a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist, which was unexpected because MORs in CA1 are not usually associated with CCK-expressing cells. Our results reveal novel properties of an inhibitory oscillator circuit within CA1 that is activated by muscarinic agonists. The oscillations could contribute to behaviourally relevant, atropine-sensitive, theta rhythms and link cannabinoid and

  16. The intra-arterial injection of microglia protects hippocampal CA1 neurons against global ischemia-induced functional deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Tomimatsu, Y; Suzuki, H; Yamada, J; Wu, Z; Yao, H; Kagamiishi, Y; Tateishi, N; Sawada, M; Nakanishi, H

    2006-09-29

    In the present study, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of the intra-arterial injection of microglia on the global ischemia-induced functional and morphological deficits of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When PKH26-labeled immortalized microglial cells, GMIR1, were injected into the subclavian artery, these exogenous microglia were found to accumulate in the hippocampus at 24 h after ischemia. In hippocampal slices prepared from medium-injected rats subjected to ischemia 48 h earlier, synaptic dysfunctions including a significant reduction of synaptic responses and a marked reduction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of the CA3-CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses were observed. At this stage, however, neither significant neuronal degeneration nor gliosis was observed in the hippocampus. At 96 h after ischemia, there was a total loss of the synaptic activity and a marked neuronal death in the CA1 subfield. In contrast, the basal synaptic transmission and LTP of the CA3-CA1 synapses were well preserved after ischemia in the slices prepared from the microglia-injected animals. We also found the microglial-conditioned medium (MCM) to significantly increase the frequency of the spontaneous postsynaptic currents of CA1 neurons without affecting the amplitude, thus indicating that MCM increased the provability of the neurotransmitter release. The protective effect of the intra-arterial injected microglia against the ischemia-induced neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus was substantiated by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, the arterial-injected microglia prevented the ischemia-induced decline of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in CA1 neurons. These observations strongly suggest that the arterial-injection of microglia protected CA1 neurons against the ischemia-induced neuronal degeneration. The restoration of the ischemia-induced synaptic deficits and the resultant reduction of the BDNF levels in CA1 neurons, possibly by the

  17. Identification of mRNA for endocannabinoid biosynthetic enzymes within hippocampal pyramidal cells and CA1 stratum radiatum interneuron subtypes using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Merrill, C B; McNeil, M; Williamson, R C; Poole, B R; Nelson, B; Sudweeks, S; Edwards, J G

    2012-08-30

    The hippocampus is required for short-term memory and contains both excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons. These cells exhibit various forms of synaptic plasticity, the mechanism underlying learning and memory. More recently, endocannabinoids were identified to be involved in synaptic plasticity. Our goal was to describe the distribution of endocannabinoid biosynthetic enzymes within CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons and CA3/CA1 pyramidal cells. We extracted mRNA from single interneurons and pyramidal cells and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of 12-lipoxygenase, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, diacylglycerol lipase α, and type I metabotropic glutamate receptors, all known to be involved in endocannabinoid production and plasticity. We observed that the expression of endocannabinoid biosynthetic enzyme mRNA does occur within interneurons and that it is coexpressed with type I metabotropic glutamate receptors, suggesting interneurons have the potential to produce endocannabinoids. We also identified that CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells express endocannabinoid biosynthetic enzyme mRNA. Our data provide the first molecular biological evidence for putative endocannabinoid production in interneurons, suggesting their potential ability to regulate endocannabinoid-mediated processes, such as synaptic plasticity.

  18. Presynaptic mechanisms involved in the expression of STP and LTP at CA1 synapses in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lauri, Sari E; Palmer, Mary; Segerstrale, Mikael; Vesikansa, Aino; Taira, Tomi; Collingridge, Graham L

    2007-01-01

    The study of long-term potentiation (LTP) has for many years been the centre of a raging debate as to whether the process is expressed by presynaptic or postsynaptic mechanisms. Here we present evidence that two forms of synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus are expressed by presynaptic changes. One form is short-term potentiation (STP) and the other a neonatal form of early-LTP (E-LTP). We review recent experimental data that suggests that this latter form of LTP involves an increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release (Pr). We describe how this is caused by the rapid down-regulation of a high affinity kainate receptor, which otherwise responds to ambient levels of l-glutamate by depressing Pr.

  19. Depletion of Polysialic Acid from Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) Increases CA3 Dendritic Arborization and Increases Vulnerability to Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Trudy; Weil, Zachary M.; Nacher, Juan; Bloss, Erik B.; El Marouf, Abderrahman; Rutishauser, Urs; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) shortens apical dendritic trees of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the male rat, and dendritic length may be a determinant of vulnerability to stress. Expression of the polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) in the hippocampal formation is increased by stress, while PSA removal by Endoneuraminidase-N (endo-N) is known to cause the mossy fibers to defasciculate and synapse ectopically in their CA3 target area. We show here that enzymatic removal of PSA produced a remarkable expansion of dendritic arbors of CA3 pyramidal neurons, with a lesser effect in CA1. This expansion eclipsed the CIS-induced shortening of CA3 dendrites, with the expanded dendrites of both no-stress-endo-N and CIS-endo-N rats being longer than those in no-stress-control rats and much longer than those in CIS-control rats. As predicted by the hypothesis that ENDO-N-induced dendritic expansion might increase vulnerability to excitotoxic challenge, systemic injection with kainic acid, showed markedly increased neuronal degeneration, as assessed by fluorojade B histochemistry, in rats that had been treated with ENDO-N compared to vehicle treated rats throughout the entire hippocampal formation. PSA removal also exacerbated the CIS-induced reduction in body weight and abolished effects of CIS on NPY and NR2B mRNA levels. These findings support the hypothesis that CA3 arbor plasticity plays a protective role during prolonged stress and clarify the role of PSA-NCAM in stress-induced dendritic plasticity. PMID:23219884

  20. Decreased afferent excitability contributes to synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation in hippocampal area CA1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunyoung; Owen, Benjamin; Holmes, William R; Grover, Lawrence M

    2012-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is often induced experimentally by continuous high-frequency afferent stimulation (HFS), typically at 100 Hz for 1 s. Induction of LTP requires postsynaptic depolarization and voltage-dependent calcium influx. Induction is more effective if the same number of stimuli are given as a series of short bursts rather than as continuous HFS, in part because excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) become strongly depressed during HFS, reducing postsynaptic depolarization. In this study, we examined mechanisms of EPSP depression during HFS in area CA1 of rat hippocampal brain slices. We tested for presynaptic terminal vesicle depletion by examining minimal stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) during 100-Hz HFS. While transmission failures increased, consistent with vesicle depletion, EPSC latencies also increased during HFS, suggesting a decrease in afferent excitability. Extracellular recordings of Schaffer collateral fiber volleys confirmed a decrease in afferent excitability, with decreased fiber volley amplitudes and increased latencies during HFS. To determine the mechanism responsible for fiber volley changes, we recorded antidromic action potentials in single CA3 pyramidal neurons evoked by stimulating Schaffer collateral axons. During HFS, individual action potentials decreased in amplitude and increased in latency, and these changes were accompanied by a large increase in the probability of action potential failure. Time derivative and phase-plane analyses indicated decreases in both axon initial segment and somato-dendritic components of CA3 neuron action potentials. Our results indicate that decreased presynaptic axon excitability contributes to depression of excitatory synaptic transmission during HFS at synapses between Schaffer collaterals and CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  1. Angular gyrus syndrome mimicking depressive pseudodementia.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, Nages; Phan, Tai Anh; Barnett, Claire; Ibrahim, Neamat

    2002-09-01

    A 67-year-old left-handed woman with a diagnosis of pseudodementia was being treated for depression with little benefit. Neuropsychological evaluations revealed features of angular gyrus syndrome, namely, agraphia, alexia, Gerstmann's syndrome and behavioural manifestations such as depression, poor memory, frustration and irritability. A computed tomographic scan showed a right occipito-temporal infarction, which had occurred 18 months earlier. The patient demonstrated aspects of language dysfunction associated with the syndrome and showed reversed lateralization of cerebral functions. Recognizing and distinguishing between angular gyrus syndrome and depression is important because the appropriate therapies differ. The use of the term pseudodementia can be misleading.

  2. Chronological alterations of neurofilament 150 immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus and dentate gyrus after transient forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Do, Seon-Gil; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Duk Soo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kwon, Young-Guen; Lee, Jae-Yong; Oh, Yang-Seok; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Won, Moo Ho

    2004-07-30

    In this study, we observed the chronological alterations of neurofilament 150 (NF-150) immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus and dentate gyrus after 5 min transient forebrain ischemia. NF-150 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in mossy fibers and in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. NF-150 immunoreactivity and protein contents of NF-150 and RT 97 (polyphosphorylation epitopes of neurofilament) were significantly decreased at 15 min after ischemic insult. Between 30 min and 12 h after ischemic insult, NF-150 immunoreactivity and protein content were significantly increased as compared with the sham-operated group. Thereafter, NF-150 immunoreactivity and protein content started to decrease. At 12 h after ischemic insult, unlike dentate gyrus, NF-150 immunoreactivity increased in pyramidal cells of the CA1 region. Thereafter, NF-150 immunoreactivity in the CA1 region started to decrease, and 4 days after ischemic insult, NF-150 immunoreactivity nearly was similar to that of the sham-operated group. These biphasic patterns of NF-150 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus are reverse correlated with that of the intracellular calcium influx. For calcium detection in the CA1 region, we also conducted alizarin red staining. Alizarin red positive neurons were detected in some neurons at 15-30 min after ischemic insult. At 12 h after ischemia, alizarin red positive neurons were decreased. Thereafter, alizarin red positive neurons started to decrease, but alizarin positive neurons were significantly increased in dying neurons 4 days after ischemia. These results suggest that ischemia-related changes of NF-150 expression may be caused by the calcium following transient forebrain ischemia.

  3. Kindling-associated SV2A expression in hilar GABAergic interneurons of the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukihiro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Ishihara, Shizuka; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi

    2012-02-29

    Immunohistochemical studies were performed to analyze the expressional changes in hippocampal synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) following pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling. Repeated treatments of mice with sub-convulsive PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days progressively enhanced seizure susceptibility and induced clonic convulsions in most animals examined. Topographical analysis of hippocampal SV2A-immunoreactivity revealed that SV2A was densely expressed in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus, stratum lucidum of the CA3 field and around the periphery of CA3 pyramidal neurons. PTZ kindling region-specifically increased SV2A expression in the dentate hilus without affecting that in the stratum lucidum or the pyramidal cell layer of the CA3 field. Confocal laser microscopic analysis using PTZ-kindled mice illustrated that most SV2A was co-expressed with glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in the cell bodies and dendrites of hilar interneurons. However, SV2A-immunoreactivity was negligibly observed in the hilar glutamatergic nerve terminals (mossy fibers) probed with the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 antibody. The present study suggests that SV2A specifically regulates hilar GABAergic neurotransmission in the kindled hippocampus probably as a compensatory or prophylactic mechanism against kindling epileptogenesis.

  4. Genetic regulation of dentate gyrus morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangnan; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2007-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the small number of forebrain areas that have continued adult neurogenesis. During development the dentate gyrus acquires the capacity for neurogenesis by generating a new neurogenic stem cell niche at the border between the hilus and dentate granule cell layer. This is in distinction to the other prominent zone of continued neurogenesis in the subventricular zone where neurons are born in a structure directly descended from the mid-gestation subventricular zone. The ability to generate this newly formed dentate neurogenic niche is controlled by the action of a number of genes during prenatal and early postnatal development that regulate the fate, survival, migration, expansion, and differentiation of the cellular components of the dentate neurogenic niche. In this review, we provide an updated framework discussing the molecular steps and genes involved in these early stages of dentate gyrus formation. We previously described a molecular framework for dentate gyrus morphogenesis that can be associated with specific gene defects (Li, G., Pleasure, S.J. (2005). Dev. Neurosci., 27, 93-99), and here we add additional recently described molecular players and discuss this framework.

  5. Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray

    2013-01-01

    Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:23333416

  6. NR2A at CA1 Synapses Is Obligatory for the Susceptibility of Hippocampal Plasticity to Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Longordo, Fabio; Kopp, Caroline; Mishina, Masayoshi; Luján, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    A loss in the necessary amount of sleep alters expression of genes and proteins implicated in brain plasticity, but key proteins that render neuronal circuits sensitive to sleep disturbance are unknown. We show that mild (4–6 h) sleep deprivation (SD) selectively augmented the number of NR2A subunits of NMDA receptors on postsynaptic densities of adult mouse CA1 synapses. The greater synaptic NR2A content facilitated induction of CA3-CA1 long-term depression in the theta frequency stimulation range and augmented the synaptic modification threshold. NR2A-knock-out mice maintained behavioral response to SD, including compensatory increase in post-deprivation resting time, but hippocampal synaptic plasticity was insensitive to sleep loss. After SD, the balance between synaptically activated and slowly recruited NMDA receptor pools during temporal summation was disrupted. Together, these results indicate that NR2A is obligatory for the consequences of sleep loss on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These findings could advance pharmacological strategies aiming to sustain hippocampal function during sleep restriction. PMID:19605640

  7. Molecular analysis of ivy cells of the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum using spectral identification of immunofluorophores.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Jozsef; Szabo, Andras; Somogyi, Peter; Lamsa, Karri

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-expressing (nNOS+) GABAergic interneurons are common in hippocampal stratum (str.) radiatum. However, these cells are less well characterized than nNOS+ ivy cells in str. pyramidale or neurogliaform cells (NGC) in str. lacunosum-moleculare. Here we have studied the laminar distribution of the axons and dendrites, and the immunoreactivity of these neurons recorded in rat hippocampal slices. We have used spectral analysis of antibody- or streptavidin-conjugated fluorophores to improve recognition of genuine signals in reactions for molecules such as nNOS and neuropeptide-Y (NPY). We found that most nNOS+ cells with soma in the CA1 area str. radiatum exhibit characteristic properties of ivy cells, and were positive for NPY and negative for reelin. However, laminar distributions of their neurites differ from original characterization of ivy cells with the soma in or close to str. pyramidale. Both their dendrites and axon are mainly in str. radiatum and to a lesser extent in str. oriens, and in addition often extend to str. lacunosum-moleculare. We conclude that ivy cells in str. radiatum may predominantly be feedforward inhibitory interneurons in the CA1 area, and their axonal output delivering GABA, NPY, and NO can influence both the entorhinal cortex innervated and the CA3 innervated zones pre- and post-synaptically. Spectral analysis of fluorophores provides an objective algorithm to analyze signals in immunoreactions for neurochemical markers.

  8. Memory retrieval time and memory capacity of the CA3 network: Role of gamma frequency oscillations

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Licurgo; Idiart, Marco; Lisman, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of recurrent synaptic connections in CA3 led to the hypothesis that CA3 is an autoassociative network similar to the Hopfield networks studied by theorists. CA3 undergoes gamma frequency periodic inhibition that prevents a persistent attractor state. This argues against the analogy to Hopfield nets, in which an attractor state can be used for working memory. However, we show that such periodic inhibition allows one cycle of recurrent excitatory activity and that this is sufficient for memory retrieval (within milliseconds). Thus, gamma oscillations are compatible with a long-term autoassociative memory function for CA3. A second goal of our work was to evaluate previous methods for estimating the memory capacity (P) of CA3. We confirm the equation, P = c/a2, where c is the probability that any two cells are recurrently connected and a is the fraction of cells representing a memory item. In applying this to CA3, we focus on CA3a, the subregion where recurrent connections are most numerous (c = 0.2) and approximate randomness. We estimate that a memory item is represented by ∼225 of the 70,000 neurons in CA3a (a = 0.003) and that ∼20,000 memory items can be stored. Our general conclusion is that the physiological and anatomical findings of CA3a are consistent with an autoassociative function. The nature of the information that is associated in CA3a is discussed. We also discuss how the autoassociative properties of CA3 and the heteroassociative properties of dentate synapses (linking sequential memories) form an integrated system for the storage and recall of item sequences. The recall process generates the phase precession in dentate, CA3, and entorhinal cortex. PMID:18007022

  9. NO regulates the strength of synaptic inputs onto hippocampal CA1 neurons via NO-GC1/cGMP signalling.

    PubMed

    Neitz, A; Mergia, E; Neubacher, U; Koesling, D; Mittmann, T

    2015-06-01

    GABAergic interneurons are the predominant source of inhibition in the brain that coordinate the level of excitation and synchronization in neuronal circuitries. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here we report nitric oxide (NO)/NO-GC1 signalling as an important regulatory mechanism of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 region. Deletion of the NO receptor NO-GC1 induced functional alterations, indicated by a strong reduction of spontaneous and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), which could be compensated by application of the missing second messenger cGMP. Moreover, we found a general impairment in the strength of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs onto CA1 pyramidal neurons deriving from NO-GC1KO mice. Finally, we disclosed one subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, fast-spiking interneurons, that receive less excitatory synaptic input and consequently respond with less spike output after blockage of the NO/cGMP signalling pathway. On the basis of these and previous findings, we propose NO-GC1 as the major NO receptor which transduces the NO signal into cGMP at presynaptic terminals of different neuronal subtypes in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, we suggest NO-GC1-mediated cGMP signalling as a mechanism which regulates the strength of synaptic transmission, hence being important in gating information processing between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 region.

  10. Symmetric spike timing-dependent plasticity at CA3CA3 synapses optimizes storage and recall in autoassociative networks

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rajiv K.; Kim, Sooyun; Guzman, Segundo J.; Jonas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CA3CA3 recurrent excitatory synapses are thought to play a key role in memory storage and pattern completion. Whether the plasticity properties of these synapses are consistent with their proposed network functions remains unclear. Here, we examine the properties of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at CA3CA3 synapses. Low-frequency pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and action potentials (APs) induces long-term potentiation (LTP), independent of temporal order. The STDP curve is symmetric and broad (half-width ∼150 ms). Consistent with these STDP induction properties, AP–EPSP sequences lead to supralinear summation of spine [Ca2+] transients. Furthermore, afterdepolarizations (ADPs) following APs efficiently propagate into dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and EPSPs summate with dendritic ADPs. In autoassociative network models, storage and recall are more robust with symmetric than with asymmetric STDP rules. Thus, a specialized STDP induction rule allows reliable storage and recall of information in the hippocampal CA3 network. PMID:27174042

  11. Photolysis of postsynaptic caged Ca2+ can potentiate and depress mossy fiber synaptic responses in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yeckel, Mark F; Johnston, Daniel; Zucker, Robert S

    2004-04-01

    The induction of mossy fiber-CA3 long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) has been variously described as being dependent on either pre- or postsynaptic factors. Some of the postsynaptic factors for LTP induction include ephrin-B receptor tyrosine kinases and a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+ is also believed to be involved in the induction of the various forms of LTD at this synapse. We used photolysis of caged Ca2+ compounds to test whether a postsynaptic rise in [Ca2+]i is sufficient to induce changes in synaptic transmission at mossy fiber synapses onto rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. We were able to elevate postsynaptic [Ca2+]i to approximately 1 microm for a few seconds in pyramidal cell somata and dendrites. We estimate that CA3 pyramidal neurons have approximately fivefold greater endogenous Ca2+ buffer capacity than CA1 neurons, limiting the rise in [Ca2+]i achievable by photolysis. This [Ca2+]i rise induced either a potentiation or a depression at mossy fiber synapses in different preparations. Neither the potentiation nor the depression was accompanied by consistent changes in paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting that these forms of plasticity may be distinct from synaptically induced LTP and LTD at this synapse. Our results are consistent with a postsynaptic locus for the induction of at least some forms of synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber synapses.

  12. Different patterns of synaptic transmission revealed between hippocampal CA3 stratum oriens and stratum lucidum interneurons and their pyramidal cell targets.

    PubMed

    Aaron, G B; Wilcox, K S; Dichter, M A

    2003-01-01

    Stratum lucidum (SL) interneurons likely mediate feedforward inhibition between the dentate gyrus mossy fibers and CA3 pyramidal cells, while stratum oriens (SO) interneurons likely provide both feedforward and feedback inhibition within the CA3 commissural/associational network. Using dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings between interneurons and CA3 pyramidal cells, we have examined SL and SO interneurons and their synapses within organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Biocytin staining revealed different morphologies between these interneuron groups, both being very similar to those found previously in acute slices. The kinetics of IPSCs were similar between the two groups, but the reliability of synaptic transmission of SL interneuron (SL-INT) IPSCs was significantly lower than the virtually 100% reliability (non-existent failure rates) of SO-INT IPSCs. The SL-INT IPSCs also had a lower quantal content than the SO-INT IPSCs. In addition, SL-INTs were less likely than SO-INTs to innervate or to be innervated by nearby CA3 pyramidal cells. Paired-pulse stimulation at 100 ms interstimulus intervals produced similar paired-pulse depression in both interneuron synapses, despite the significantly higher failure rate of IPSCs produced by the SL-INTs compared with SO-INTs. CV analysis supported the hypothesis that paired-pulse depression was presynaptic. During repetitive, high frequency stimulation (>10 Hz for 500 ms) the two different synapses exhibited distinctly different forms of short-term plasticity: all SL interneurons displayed significant short-term facilitation (mean 113% facilitation, n=4), while, by contrast, SO interneuron synapses displayed either short-term depression (mean 42% depression, n=5 of 8) or no net facilitation or depression (n=3 of 8). These results indicate that the synaptic properties of interneurons can be quite different for interneurons in different hippocampal circuits.

  13. Hippocampal CA1 lacunosum-moleculare interneurons: modulation of monosynaptic GABAergic IPSCs by presynaptic GABAB receptors.

    PubMed

    Khazipov, R; Congar, P; Ben-Ari, Y

    1995-11-01

    1. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were employed to characterize monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in morphologically and electrophysiologically identified interneurons located in the stratum lacunosum moleculare, or near the border of the stratum radiatum (LM interneurons), in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices taken from 3- to 4-wk-old rats. Monosynaptic IPSCs, evoked in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 20 microM) and D-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoate (APV; 50 microM) were biphasic. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor antagonist, bicuculline (20 microM), blocked the fast IPSC, and the slow IPSC was blocked by the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (500 microM). 2. Monosynaptic IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation in several distant regions including the stratum radiatum, the stratum oriens, the stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, suggesting an extensive network of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus. In paired recordings of CA1 interneurons and pyramidal cells, IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of most of these distal regions with the exception of the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which evoked an IPSC only in LM interneurons. 3. Frequent (> 0.1 Hz) stimulation depressed the evoked IPSCs. With a paired-pulse protocol, the second IPSC was depressed and the maximal depression (40-50%) was observed with an interstimulus interval of 100-200 ms. 4. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (1 microM) reduced the amplitude of evoked IPSCs and the paired-pulse depression of the second IPSC. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (0.5-1 mM) had no significant effect on the amplitude of isolated IPSCs. However, CGP35348 reduced but did not fully block paired-pulse depression, suggesting that this depression is partly due to the activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors. 5. The paired-pulse depression depended on the level of

  14. Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Y; Cherubini, E; Corradetti, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1989-09-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat CA3 hippocampal neurones in vitro during the first eighteen days of postnatal life. The cells had resting membrane potentials more negative than -51 mV, action potentials greater than 55 mV and membrane input resistances of 117 +/- 12 M omega. An unusual characteristic of these cells was the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) which were observed during the first eight postnatal (P) days in over 85% of neurones. They were less frequent between P9 and P12 (48%) and disappeared after P12. 2. The GDPs were synchronously generated by a population of neurones; they reversed polarity at -27 mV when recorded with KCl-containing electrodes and at -51 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes. 3. The GDPs were blocked by bath application of bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM). Exogenously applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.2-1 mM) induced at resting membrane potential a bicuculline-sensitive membrane depolarization which reversed polarity at -25 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes respectively. 4. The GDPs were reduced in frequency or blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP-7; 50 microM), D(-)2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5, 10-50 microM) and (+-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10-50 microM) or NMDA channel blockers phencyclidine (2 microM) and ketamine (20 microM). 5. Stimulation of the hilus during the first week of life evoked a GDP followed by a hyperpolarization. The GDPs were generated by a population of synchronized neurones and reversed polarity at -27 mV with KCl-filled electrodes and at -52 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-containing electrodes. 6. Bath application of bicuculline (1-10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM) reversibly blocked the evoked GDPs in the majority of cells

  15. Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Y; Cherubini, E; Corradetti, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1989-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat CA3 hippocampal neurones in vitro during the first eighteen days of postnatal life. The cells had resting membrane potentials more negative than -51 mV, action potentials greater than 55 mV and membrane input resistances of 117 +/- 12 M omega. An unusual characteristic of these cells was the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) which were observed during the first eight postnatal (P) days in over 85% of neurones. They were less frequent between P9 and P12 (48%) and disappeared after P12. 2. The GDPs were synchronously generated by a population of neurones; they reversed polarity at -27 mV when recorded with KCl-containing electrodes and at -51 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes. 3. The GDPs were blocked by bath application of bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM). Exogenously applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.2-1 mM) induced at resting membrane potential a bicuculline-sensitive membrane depolarization which reversed polarity at -25 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes respectively. 4. The GDPs were reduced in frequency or blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP-7; 50 microM), D(-)2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5, 10-50 microM) and (+-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10-50 microM) or NMDA channel blockers phencyclidine (2 microM) and ketamine (20 microM). 5. Stimulation of the hilus during the first week of life evoked a GDP followed by a hyperpolarization. The GDPs were generated by a population of synchronized neurones and reversed polarity at -27 mV with KCl-filled electrodes and at -52 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-containing electrodes. 6. Bath application of bicuculline (1-10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM) reversibly blocked the evoked GDPs in the majority of cells

  16. Seizure-like activity in the disinhibited CA1 minislice of adult guinea-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Karnup, Sergei; Stelzer, Armin

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous activity was monitored during pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptor function in the CA1 minislice (CA3 was cut off). Synaptic inhibition was blocked by competitive GABAA antagonists bicuculline-methiodide (Bic) or GABAZINE (GBZ) and the chloride channel blocker picrotoxin (PTX). Extra- and intracellular recordings using sharp electrodes were carried out in stratum radiatum and pyramidale. At low antagonist concentrations (Bic, GBZ: 1-10 μm; PTX: < 100 μm), synchronized bursts (< 500 ms in duration, interictal activity) were seen as described previously. However, in the presence of high concentrations (Bic, GBZ: 50-100 μm; PTX: 100-200 μm), seizure-like, ictal events (duration 4-17 s) were observed in 67 of 88 slices. No other experimental measures to increase excitability were applied: cation concentrations ([Ca2+]o= 2 mm, [Mg2+]o= 1.7 mm, [K+]o= 3 mm) and recording temperature (30-32 °C) were standard and GABAB-mediated inhibition was intact. In whole-slice recordings prominent interictal activity, but fewer ictal events were observed. A reduced ictal activity was also observed when interictal-like responses were evoked by afferent stimulation. Ictal activity was reversibly blocked by antagonists of excitatory transmission, CNQX (40 μm) or d-AP5 (50 μm). Disinhibition-induced ictal development did not rely on group I mGluR activation as it was not prevented in the presence of group I mGluR antagonists (AIDA or 4CPG). (RS)-3,5-DHPG prevented the induction and reversed the tertiary component of the ictal event through a group I mGluR-independent mechanism. PMID:11313441

  17. Temporal organization of GABAergic interneurons in the intermediate CA1 hippocampus during network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Forro, Thomas; Valenti, Ornella; Lasztoczi, Balint; Klausberger, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Travelling theta oscillations and sharp wave-associated ripples (SWRs) provide temporal structures to neural activity in the CA1 hippocampus. The contribution of rhythm-generating GABAergic interneurons to network timing across the septotemporal CA1 axis remains unknown. We recorded the spike-timing of identified parvalbumin (PV)-expressing basket, axo-axonic, oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons, and pyramidal cells in the intermediate CA1 (iCA1) of anesthetized rats in relation to simultaneously detected network oscillations in iCA1 and dorsal CA1 (dCA1). Distinct interneuron types were coupled differentially to SWR, and the majority of iCA1 SWR events occurred simultaneously with dCA1 SWR events. In contrast, iCA1 theta oscillations were shifted in time relative to dCA1 theta oscillations. During theta cycles, the highest firing of iCA1 axo-axonic cells was followed by PV-expressing basket cells and subsequently by O-LM together with pyramidal cells, similar to the firing sequence of dCA1 cell types reported previously. However, we observed that this temporal organization of cell types is shifted in time between dCA1 and iCA1, together with the respective shift in theta oscillations. We show that GABAergic activity can be synchronized during SWR but is shifted in time from dCA1 to iCA1 during theta oscillations, highlighting the flexible inhibitory control of excitatory activity across a brain structure.

  18. Reduced potassium currents in old rat CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Alshuaib, W B; Hasan, S M; Cherian, S P; Mathew, M V; Hasan, M Y; Fahim, M A

    2001-01-15

    Potassium currents are an important factor in repolarizing the membrane potential and determining the level of neuronal excitability. We compared potassium currents in CA1 hippocampal neurons dissociated from young (2-3 months old) and old (26-30 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to measure the delayed rectifier (sustained) and the A-type (transient) potassium currents. The delayed rectifier current was smaller in old (548 +/- 57 pA) than in young (1193 +/- 171 pA) neurons. In the absence of extracellular calcium, the delayed rectifier current was also smaller in old (427 +/- 41 pA) than in young (946 +/- 144 pA) neurons. The cell membrane capacitance was unchanged in old (13.3 +/- 1.2 pF) compared to young (13.6 +/- 1.2 pF). Therefore, the reduction in the delayed rectifier current was not due to a change in membrane surface area. Moreover, activation and inactivation of the delayed rectifier current were unchanged in old compared to young neurons. The slope of the current-voltage relation, however, was smaller in old (B = 5.03) than in young (B = 9.62) neurons. Similarly, the A-current was smaller in old (100 +/- 16 pA) than in young (210 +/- 44 pA) neurons in the presence of extracellular calcium. This reduction of potassium currents could account for the prolongation of action potentials reported previously for old rat CA1 hippocampal neurons. The age-related reduction in potassium current indicates plasticity in neuronal function that can impact communication in the hippocampal neural network during aging.

  19. Rapid integration of young newborn dentate gyrus granule cells in the adult hippocampal circuitry.

    PubMed

    Ide, Yoko; Fujiyama, Fumino; Okamoto-Furuta, Keiko; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Kaneko, Takeshi; Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro

    2008-12-01

    Newborn dentate gyrus granule cells (DGCs) are integrated into the hippocampal circuitry and contribute to the cognitive functions of learning and memory. The dendritic maturation of newborn DGCs in adult mice occurs by the first 3-4 weeks, but DGCs seem to receive a variety of neural inputs at both their dendrites and soma even shortly after their birth. However, few studies on the axonal maturation of newborn DGCs have focused on synaptic structure. Here, we investigated the potentiality of output and input in newborn DGCs, especially in the early period after terminal mitosis. We labeled nestin-positive progenitor cells by injecting GFP Cre-reporter adenovirus into Nestin-Cre mice, enabling us to trace the development of progenitor cells by their GFP expression. In addition to GABAergic input from interneurons, we observed that the young DGCs received axosomatic input from the medial septum as early as postinfection day 7 (PID 7). To evaluate the axonal maturation of the newborn DGCs compared with mature DCGs, we performed confocal and electron microscopic analyses. We observed that newborn DGCs projected their mossy fibers to the CA3 region, forming small terminals on hilar or CA3 interneurons and large boutons on CA3 pyramidal cells. These terminals expressed vesicular glutamate transporter 1, indicating they were glutamatergic terminals. Intriguingly, the terminals at PID 7 had already formed asymmetric synapses, similar to those of mature DGCs. Together, our findings suggest that newborn DGCs may form excitatory synapses on both interneurons and CA3 pyramidal cells within 7 days of their terminal mitosis.

  20. Local and Long-Range Circuit Connections to Hilar Mossy Cells in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanjun; Grieco, Steven F.; Holmes, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hilar mossy cells are the prominent glutamatergic cell type in the dentate hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG); they have been proposed to have critical roles in the DG network. To better understand how mossy cells contribute to DG function, we have applied new viral genetic and functional circuit mapping approaches to quantitatively map and compare local and long-range circuit connections of mossy cells and dentate granule cells in the mouse. The great majority of inputs to mossy cells consist of two parallel inputs from within the DG: an excitatory input pathway from dentate granule cells and an inhibitory input pathway from local DG inhibitory neurons. Mossy cells also receive a moderate degree of excitatory and inhibitory CA3 input from proximal CA3 subfields. Long range inputs to mossy cells are numerically sparse, and they are only identified readily from the medial septum and the septofimbrial nucleus. In comparison, dentate granule cells receive most of their inputs from the entorhinal cortex. The granule cells receive significant synaptic inputs from the hilus and the medial septum, and they also receive direct inputs from both distal and proximal CA3 subfields, which has been underdescribed in the existing literature. Our slice-based physiological mapping studies further supported the identified circuit connections of mossy cells and granule cells. Together, our data suggest that hilar mossy cells are major local circuit integrators and they exert modulation of the activity of dentate granule cells as well as the CA3 region through “back-projection” pathways. PMID:28451637

  1. The CA3 Network as a Memory Store for Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Gergely; Witter, Menno P.; Treves, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Comparative neuroanatomy suggests that the CA3 region of the mammalian hippocampus is directly homologous with the medio-dorsal pallium in birds and reptiles, with which it largely shares the basic organization of primitive cortex. Autoassociative memory models, which are generically applicable to cortical networks, then help assess how well CA3

  2. The CA3 Network as a Memory Store for Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Gergely; Witter, Menno P.; Treves, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Comparative neuroanatomy suggests that the CA3 region of the mammalian hippocampus is directly homologous with the medio-dorsal pallium in birds and reptiles, with which it largely shares the basic organization of primitive cortex. Autoassociative memory models, which are generically applicable to cortical networks, then help assess how well CA3

  3. Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Ikrar, Taruna; Guo, Nannan; He, Kaiwen; Besnard, Antoine; Levinson, Sally; Hill, Alexis; Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Hen, Rene; Xu, Xiangmin; Sahay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Adult-born dentate granule neurons contribute to memory encoding functions of the dentate gyrus (DG) such as pattern separation. However, local circuit-mechanisms by which adult-born neurons partake in this process are poorly understood. Computational, neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that sparseness of activation in the granule cell layer (GCL) is conducive for pattern separation. A sparse coding scheme is thought to facilitate the distribution of similar entorhinal inputs across the GCL to decorrelate overlapping representations and minimize interference. Here we used fast voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging combined with laser photostimulation and electrical stimulation to examine how selectively increasing adult DG neurogenesis influences local circuit activity and excitability. We show that DG of mice with more adult-born neurons exhibits decreased strength of neuronal activation and more restricted excitation spread in GCL while maintaining effective output to CA3c. Conversely, blockade of adult hippocampal neurogenesis changed excitability of the DG in the opposite direction. Analysis of GABAergic inhibition onto mature dentate granule neurons in the DG of mice with more adult-born neurons shows a modest readjustment of perisomatic inhibitory synaptic gain without changes in overall inhibitory tone, presynaptic properties or GABAergic innervation pattern. Retroviral labeling of connectivity in mice with more adult-born neurons showed increased number of excitatory synaptic contacts of adult-born neurons onto hilar interneurons. Together, these studies demonstrate that adult hippocampal neurogenesis modifies excitability of mature dentate granule neurons and that this non-cell autonomous effect may be mediated by local circuit mechanisms such as excitatory drive onto hilar interneurons. Modulation of DG excitability by adult-born dentate granule neurons may enhance sparse coding in the GCL to influence pattern separation. PMID:24421758

  4. Structure Determination of Ca 3HfSi 2O 9 and Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 from Powder Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaister, J. R.; Jansen, J.; de Graaff, R. A. G.; IJdo, D. J. W.

    1995-03-01

    The crystal structure of Ca 3HfSi 2O 9 has been determined from X-ray powder diffraction data using a recently developed software package in order to find individual intensities from overlapping reflections. The Hf atoms were found from the Patterson map, while Ca atoms were found in a subsequent heavy atom Fourier map. The other atoms were determined by trial and error using the Rietveld method. The atomic parameters for Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 were determined from neutron powder diffraction data with the structure of Ca 3HfSi 2O 9 use as the trial model. Ca 3HfSi 2O 9, a = 7.3517(4)Å, b = 10.1489(11) Å, c = 10.4319(12)Å, β = 91.(184(7)°, P2 1/ c, and Z = 4; Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9, a = 7.3603(1)Å, b = 10.1766(3) Å, c = 10.4514(3) Å, β = 90.875(2)°, P2 1/ c, and Z = 4. The structure contains ribbons of edge-sharing octahedra parallel to [100]. The structure of these compounds is nearly the same as that of BeY 2O 4, substituting Si 2O groups for 2 Be and doubling the a-axis. The mineral cuspidine (Ca 4Si 2O 7(F,OH) 2) has a very similar structure as well.

  5. Proteomic profiling of the epileptic dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aiqing; Choi, Yun-Sik; Dziema, Heather; Cao, Ruifeng; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Jung, Yeon Joo; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The development of epilepsy is often associated with marked changes in central nervous system cell structure and function. Along these lines, reactive gliosis and granule cell axonal sprouting within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are commonly observed in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy. Here we used the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice to screen the proteome and phosphoproteome of the dentate gyrus to identify molecular events that are altered as part of the pathogenic process. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based approach, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, 24 differentially expressed proteins, including 9 phosphoproteins, were identified. Functionally, these proteins were organized into several classes, including synaptic physiology, cell structure, cell stress, metabolism and energetics. The altered expression of three proteins involved in synaptic physiology, actin, profilin 1 and α-synuclein, was validated by secondary methods. Interestingly, marked changes in protein expression were detected in the supragranular cell region, an area where robust mossy fibers sprouting occurs. Together, these data provide new molecular insights into the altered protein profile of the epileptogenic dentate gyrus and point to potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis. PMID:20608933

  6. Reduced tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus contributes to chronic stress-induced impairments in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vallent; MacKenzie, Georgina; Hooper, Andrew; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that stress impacts the underlying processes of learning and memory. The effects of stress on memory are thought to involve, at least in part, effects on the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable to stress. Chronic stress induces hippocampal alterations, including but not limited to dendritic atrophy and decreased neurogenesis, which are thought to contribute to chronic stress-induced hippocampal dysfunction and deficits in learning and memory. Changes in synaptic transmission, including changes in GABAergic inhibition, have been documented following chronic stress. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated shifts in EGABA in CA1 pyramidal neurons following chronic stress, compromising GABAergic transmission and increasing excitability of these neurons. Interestingly, here we demonstrate that these alterations are unique to CA1 pyramidal neurons, since we do not observe shifts in EGABA following chronic stress in dentate gyrus granule cells. Following chronic stress, there is a decrease in the expression of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) δ subunit and tonic GABAergic inhibition in dentate gyrus granule cells, whereas there is an increase in the phasic component of GABAergic inhibition, evident by an increase in the peak amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). Given the numerous changes observed in the hippocampus following stress, it is difficult to pinpoint the pertinent contributing pathophysiological factors. Here we directly assess the impact of a reduction in tonic GABAergic inhibition of dentate gyrus granule cells on learning and memory using a mouse model with a decrease in GABAA R δ subunit expression specifically in dentate gyrus granule cells (Gabrd/Pomc mice). Reduced GABAA R δ subunit expression and function in dentate gyrus granule cells is sufficient to induce deficits in learning and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that the reduction in GABAA R δ subunit-mediated tonic inhibition

  7. Strong enhancement of s -wave superconductivity near a quantum critical point of Ca3Ir4Sn13

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, P. K.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; ...

    2015-11-11

    We repormore » t microscopic studies by muon spin rotation/relaxation as a function of pressure of the Ca3Ir4Sn13 and Sr3Ir4Sn13 system displaying superconductivity and a structural phase transition associated with the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). Our findings show a strong enhancement of the superfluid density and a dramatic increase of the pairing strength above a pressure of ≈ 1.6 GPa giving direct evidence of the presence of a quantum critical point separating a superconducting phase coexisting with CDW from a pure superconducting phase. The superconducting order parameter in both phases has the same s-wave symmetry. In spite of the conventional phonon-mediated BCS character of the weakly correlated (Ca1-xSrx)3Ir4Sn13 system the dependence of the effective superfluid density on the critical temperature puts this compound in the “Uemura” plot close to unconventional superconductors. This system exemplifies that conventional BCS superconductors in the presence of competing orders or multi-band structure can also display characteristics of unconventional superconductors.« less

  8. A novel form of synaptic plasticity in field CA3 of hippocampus requires GPER1 activation and BDNF release.

    PubMed

    Briz, Victor; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Guoqi; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2015-09-28

    Estrogen is an important modulator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through its rapid action on membrane-associated receptors. Here, we found that both estradiol and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) specific agonist G1 rapidly induce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release, leading to transient stimulation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein translation and GluA1-containing AMPA receptor internalization in field CA3 of hippocampus. We also show that type-I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation does not induce Arc translation nor long-term depression (LTD) at the mossy fiber pathway, as opposed to its effects in CA1, and it only triggers LTD after GPER1 stimulation. Furthermore, this form of mGluR-dependent LTD is associated with ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of GluA1, and is prevented by proteasome inhibition. Overall, our study identifies a novel mechanism by which estrogen and BDNF regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the adult brain.

  9. Noradrenergic mechanism involved in the nociceptive modulation of hippocampal CA3 region of normal rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hua; Teng, Yueqiu; Zhang, Xuexin; Yang, Chunxiao; Xu, Manying; Yang, Lizhuang

    2014-06-27

    Norepinephrine (NE) is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, and regulates antinociception. However, the mechanism of action of NE on pain-related neurons in the hippocampal CA3 region is not clear. This study examines the effects of NE, phentolamine on the electrical activities of pain-excited neurons (PENs) and pain-inhibited neurons (PINs) in the hippocampal CA3 region of rats. Trains of electric impulses applied to the right sciatic nerve were used as noxious stimulation. The electrical activities of PENs or PINs in the hippocampal CA3 region were recorded by using a glass microelectrode. Our results revealed that, in the hippocampal CA3 region, the intra-CA3 region microinjection of NE decreased the pain-evoked discharged frequency and prolonged the discharged latency of PEN, and increased the pain-evoked discharged frequency and shortened discharged inhibitory duration (ID) of PIN, exhibiting the specific analgesic effect of NE. While intra-CA3 region microinjection of phentolamine produced the opposite response. It implies that phentolamine can block the effect of endogenous NE to cause the enhanced response of PEN and PIN to noxious stimulation. On the basis of above findings we can deduce that NE, phentolamine and alpha-adrenoceptor are involved in the modulation of nociceptive information transmission in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  10. Bidirectional NMDA receptor plasticity controls CA3 output and heterosynaptic metaplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, David L.; Puente, Nagore; Grandes, Pedro; Castillo, Pablo E.

    2013-01-01

    N–methyl–d–aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are classically known as coincidence detectors for the induction of long–term synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in hippocampal CA3–dependent spatial memory functions that likely rely on dynamic cellular ensemble encoding of space. The unique functional properties of both NMDARs and mossy fiber (MF) projections to CA3 pyramidal cells place MF–NMDARs in a prime position to influence CA3 ensemble dynamics. By mimicking pre and postsynaptic activity patterns observed in–vivo, we report a burst timing–dependent paradigm for bidirectional long–term NMDAR plasticity at MF–CA3 synapses in rat hippocampal slices. This form of plasticity imparts bimodal control of MF–driven CA3 burst–firing and spike temporal fidelity. Moreover, we show that MF–NMDARs mediate heterosynaptic metaplasticity between MF and associational/commissural synapses. Thus, bidirectional NMDAR plasticity at MF–CA3 synapses could significantly contribute to the formation, storage, and recall of CA3 cell assembly patterns. PMID:23852115

  11. Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Megill, Andrea; Wong, Philip C; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a major neuronal β-secretase critical for the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, is considered one of the key therapeutic targets that can prevent the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a complete ablation of BACE1 gene prevents Aβ formation, we previously reported that BACE1 knockouts (KOs) display presynaptic deficits, especially at the mossy fiber (MF) to CA3 synapses. Whether the defect is specific to certain inputs or postsynaptic targets in CA3 is unknown. To determine this, we performed whole-cell recording from pyramidal cells (PYR) and the stratum lucidum (SL) interneurons in the CA3, both of which receive excitatory MF terminals with high levels of BACE1 expression. BACE1 KOs displayed an enhancement of paired-pulse facilitation at the MF inputs to CA3 PYRs without changes at the MF inputs to SL interneurons, which suggests postsynaptic target specific regulation. The synaptic dysfunction in CA3 PYRs was not restricted to excitatory synapses, as seen by an increase in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents from SL to CA3 PYRs. In addition to the changes in evoked synaptic transmission, BACE1 KOs displayed a reduction in the frequency of miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs) in CA3 PYRs without alteration in mEPSCs recorded from SL interneurons. This suggests that the impairment may be more global across diverse inputs to CA3 PYRs. Our results indicate that the synaptic dysfunctions seen in BACE1 KOs are specific to the postsynaptic target, the CA3 PYRs, independent of the input type.

  12. Separation or binding? Role of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal mnemonic processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Jung, Min Whan

    2017-02-04

    As a major component of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit, the dentate gyrus (DG) relays inputs from the entorhinal cortex to the CA3 subregion. Although the anatomy of the DG is well characterized, its contribution to hippocampal mnemonic processing is still unclear. A currently popular theory proposes that the primary function of the DG is to orthogonalize incoming input patterns into non-overlapping patterns (pattern separation). We critically review the available data and conclude that the theoretical support and empirical evidence for this theory are not strong. We then review an alternative theory that posits a role for the DG in binding together different types of incoming sensory information. We conclude that 'binding' better captures the contribution of the DG to memory encoding than 'pattern separation'.

  13. Enhanced Hippocampal CA1 LTP but Normal Spatial Learning in Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase(A)-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Kisun; Choi, Gildon; Yang, Sung-Gu; Choi, Kwan Yong; Kim, Hyun; Chan, Guy C.K.; Storm, Daniel R.; Albert, Claudia; Mayr, Georg W.; Lee, Chang-Joong; Shin, Hee-Sup

    1998-01-01

    To define the physiological role of IP33-kinase(A) in vivo, we have generated a mouse strain with a null mutation of the IP33-kinase(A) locus by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant mice were fully viable, fertile, apparently normal, and did not show any morphological anomaly in brain sections. In the mutant brain, the IP4 level was significantly decreased whereas the IP3 level did not change, demonstrating a major role of IP33-kinase(A) in the generation of IP4. Nevertheless, no significant difference was detected in the hippocampal neuronal cells of the wild-type and the mutant mice in the kinetics of Ca2+ regulation after glutamate stimulation. Electrophysiological analyses carried out in hippocampal slices showed that the mutation significantly enhanced the LTP in the hippocampal CA1 region, but had no effect on the LTP in dentate gyrus (DG). No difference was noted, however, between the mutant and the wild-type mice in the Morris water maze task. Our results indicate that IP33-kinase(A) may play an important role in the regulation of LTP in hippocampal CA1 region through the generation of IP4, but the enhanced LTP in the hippocampal CA1 does not affect spatial learning and memory. PMID:10454357

  14. Loss of protohaem IX farnesyltransferase in mature dentate granule cells impairs short‐term facilitation at mossy fibre to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Sam A.; Campbell, Graham R.; Mysiak, Karolina S.; Brophy, Peter J.; Kind, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Neurodegenerative disorders can exhibit dysfunctional mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity.Conditional deletion of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of mitochondria, from hippocampal dentate granule cells in mice does not affect low‐frequency dentate to CA3 glutamatergic synaptic transmission.High‐frequency dentate to CA3 glutamatergic synaptic transmission and feedforward inhibition are significantly attenuated in cytochrome c oxidase‐deficient mice.Intact presynaptic mitochondrial function is critical for the short‐term dynamics of mossy fibre to CA3 synaptic function. Abstract Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by peripheral and central symptoms including cognitive impairments which have been associated with reduced mitochondrial function, in particular mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV or cytochrome c oxidase activity. In the present study we conditionally removed a key component of complex IV, protohaem IX farnesyltransferase encoded by the COX10 gene, in granule cells of the adult dentate gyrus. Utilizing whole‐cell patch‐clamp recordings from morphologically identified CA3 pyramidal cells from control and complex IV‐deficient mice, we found that reduced mitochondrial function did not result in overt deficits in basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission at the mossy‐fibre synapse because the amplitude, input–output relationship and 50 ms paired‐pulse facilitation were unchanged following COX10 removal from dentate granule cells. However, trains of stimuli given at high frequency (> 20 Hz) resulted in dramatic reductions in short‐term facilitation and, at the highest frequencies (> 50 Hz), also reduced paired‐pulse facilitation, suggesting a requirement for adequate mitochondrial function to maintain glutamate release during physiologically relevant activity patterns. Interestingly, local inhibition was reduced, suggesting the effect

  15. Target-cell-dependent plasticity within the mossy fibre-CA3 circuit reveals compartmentalized regulation of presynaptic function at divergent release sites.

    PubMed

    Pelkey, Kenneth A; McBain, Chris J

    2008-03-15

    Individual axons of central neurons innervate a large number of distinct postsynaptic targets belonging to divergent functional categories such as glutamatergic principal cells and inhibitory interneurons. While each bouton along a common axon should experience the same activity pattern in response to action potential firing within the parent presynaptic neuron, accumulating evidence suggests that neighbouring boutons contacting functionally distinct postsynaptic targets regulate their release properties independently, despite being separated by only a few microns. This target-cell-specific autonomy of presynaptic function can greatly expand the computational prowess of central axons to allow for precise coordination of large neuronal ensembles within a given circuit. An excellent example of target-cell-specific presynaptic mechanisms occurs in the CA3 hippocampus where mossy fibre (MF) axons of dentate gyrus granule cells target both principal cells and local circuit inhibitory interneurons via both anatomically and functionally specialized terminals. Of particular interest, mechanisms of both short- and long-term plasticity remain autonomous at these divergent release sites due to an anatomical and biochemical segregation of discrete molecular signalling cascades. Here we review roughly a decades worth of research on the MF-CA3 pathway to showcase the target-cell dependence of presynaptically expressed NMDA receptor-independent synaptic plasticity.

  16. An ID-like current that is downregulated by Ca2+ modulates information coding at CA3-CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Cherubini, Enrico

    2003-10-15

    Voltage-gated K+ channels localised on presynaptic nerve terminals control information coding by modulating presynaptic firing and synaptic efficacy in target neurones. We found that at CA3-CA3 connections in hippocampal slice cultures, a fast-activating, slowly inactivating K+ conductance similar to the so-called delay current (ID) is responsible for the delayed appearance of the first spike upon membrane depolarisation, for action potential repolarisation and for modulation of transmitter release. The ID-like current was downregulated by intracellular Ca2+, as indicated by the increased delay in the appearance of the first action potential following either the block of Ca2+ flux through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels with Cd2+ or replacement of the bathing solution with one devoid of Ca2+. In both cases, this effect was reversed by blocking this conductance with a low concentration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 10-50 muM). Application of 4-AP shortened the delay to the first spike generation, prevented the effect of Cd2+ and increased the spike duration. The earlier appearance of the first action potential was also observed in the presence of dendrotoxin-1 (100 nM). In voltage-clamp experiments larger currents were recorded in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, thus confirming the downregulation of the ID-like current by Ca2+ due to the positive shift of its inactivation. Spike broadening was associated with an enhancement of synaptic efficacy in target neurones, as assessed by the increase in EPSC amplitude and in the percentage of successes. Moreover, in the presence of 4-AP, EPSCs appeared with a longer latency and were more scattered. This conductance is therefore crucial for setting the timing and strength of synaptic transmission at CA3-CA3 connections. It is conceivable that switching off ID by increasing intracellular Ca2+ following activity-dependent processes may facilitate network synchronisation and crosstalk between CA3 pyramidal cells, leading to

  17. Metaplastic Effects of Subanesthetic Ketamine on CA1 Hippocampal Function

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist of interest in neuropsychiatry. In the present studies, we examined the effects of subanesthetic, low micromolar ketamine on excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), population spikes (PSs) and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Ketamine acutely inhibited NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses with half-maximal effects near 10 µM. When administered for 15–30 min at 1–10 µM, ketamine had no effect on baseline dendritic AMPA receptor-mediated EPSPs, but persistently enhanced somatic EPSPs in the pyramidal cell body layer and augmented PS firing. Acute low micromolar ketamine also had no effect on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) but blocked long-term depression (LTD). Following 30 min administration of 1–10 µM ketamine, however, a slowly developing and persistent form of LTP inhibition was observed that took two hours following ketamine washout to become manifest. This LTP inhibition did not result from prolonged or enhanced NMDAR inhibition during drug washout. Effects of low ketamine on somatic EPSPs and LTP were not mimicked by a high ketamine concentration that completely inhibited NMDARs, and both of these effects were blocked by co-administration of low ketamine with a low concentration of the competitive NMDAR antagonist, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. These results indicate that concentrations of ketamine relevant to psychotropic and psychotomimetic effects have complex metaplastic effects on hippocampal function that involve activation of unblocked NMDARs during ketamine exposure. PMID:25128848

  18. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lily M. Y.; Wintzer, Marie E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures. PMID:27022627

  19. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lily M Y; Polygalov, Denis; Wintzer, Marie E; Chiang, Ming-Ching; McHugh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures.

  20. Active dendrites support efficient initiation of dendritic spikes in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyun; Guzman, Segundo J; Hu, Hua; Jonas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    CA3 pyramidal neurons are important for memory formation and pattern completion in the hippocampal network. It is generally thought that proximal synapses from the mossy fibers activate these neurons most efficiently, whereas distal inputs from the perforant path have a weaker modulatory influence. We used confocally targeted patch-clamp recording from dendrites and axons to map the activation of rat CA3 pyramidal neurons at the subcellular level. Our results reveal two distinct dendritic domains. In the proximal domain, action potentials initiated in the axon backpropagate actively with large amplitude and fast time course. In the distal domain, Na+ channel–mediated dendritic spikes are efficiently initiated by waveforms mimicking synaptic events. CA3 pyramidal neuron dendrites showed a high Na+-to-K+ conductance density ratio, providing ideal conditions for active backpropagation and dendritic spike initiation. Dendritic spikes may enhance the computational power of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal network. PMID:22388958

  1. Near infrared emission of Eu2+ ions in Ca3Sc2Si3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovskaya, I. V.; Dotsenko, V. P.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Smola, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    The luminescent properties of Eu2+ ions in Ca3Sc2Si3O12 have been studied for the first time. The Eu2+-doped Ca3Sc2Si3O12 exhibit a broadband emission in the 720-1100 nm region with a maximum at about 840 nm, which is due to the 4f65d → 4f7 transition of Eu2+ ions. This interpretation is supported by the appearance of the fine structure in the emission spectrum of Eu2+-doped Ca3Sc2Si3O12 at 77 K. Probably, the near infrared emission of Eu2+ ions in Ca3Sc2Si3O12 is the most long-wavelength 4f65d → 4f7 emission of these ions within more than three hundreds of Eu2+-doped inorganic compounds studied to date.

  2. Single granule cells reliably discharge targets in the hippocampal CA3 network in vivo.

    PubMed

    Henze, Darrell A; Wittner, Lucia; Buzsáki, György

    2002-08-01

    Processing of neuronal information depends on interactions between the anatomical connectivity and cellular properties of single cells. We examined how these computational building blocks work together in the intact rat hippocampus. Single spikes in dentate granule cells, controlled intracellularly, generally failed to discharge either interneurons or CA3 pyramidal cells. In contrast, trains of spikes effectively discharged both CA3 cell types. Increasing the discharge rate of the granule cell increased the discharge probability of its target neuron and decreased the delay between the onset of a granule cell train and evoked firing in postsynaptic targets. Thus, we conclude that the granule cell to CA3 synapses are 'conditional detonators,' dependent on granule cell firing pattern. In addition, we suggest that information in single granule cells is converted into a temporal delay code in target CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons. These data demonstrate how a neural circuit of the CNS may process information.

  3. GABA actions in hippocampal area CA3 during postnatal development: differential shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in somatic and dendritic compartments.

    PubMed

    Romo-Parra, Héctor; Treviño, Mario; Heinemann, Uwe; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) activation leads to depolarization of pyramidal cells during the first postnatal week and produces hyperpolarization from the second week. However, immunohistochemical evidence has suggested that during the second and third postnatal weeks the NKCC1 cotransporter relocates from the soma to the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells. We hypothesized that this leads to depolarizing responses in apical dendrites. Here we show that the activation of GABA(A)-R in the distal dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells at P15 by restricted application of muscimol or synaptic activation by stimulation of interneurons in stratum radiatum (SR) causes depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), which are blocked by NKCC1 cotransporter antagonists. By contrast, activation of proximal GABA(A)-R by muscimol application or by stimulation of interneurons in s. oriens (SO) leads to hyperpolarizing PSPs. Activation of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the presence of glutamatergic blockers evokes hyperpolarizing responses during the second postnatal week; however, the reversal potential of the DG-evoked inhibitory (I)PSPs is more depolarized than that of IPSPs evoked by activation of SO interneurons. Despite the shift of GABA action from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing, DG-evoked field potentials (f-PSPs) recorded in s. lucidum/radiatum (SL/R) do not change in polarity until the third week. Current source density analysis yielded results consistent with depolarizing actions of GABA in the dendritic compartment. Our data suggest that GABAergic input to apical dendrites of pyramidal cells of CA3 evokes depolarizing PSPs long after synaptic inhibition has become hyperpolarizing in the somata, in the axon initial segments and in basal dendrites.

  4. At immature mossy-fiber-CA3 synapses, correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity persistently enhances GABA release and network excitability via BDNF and cAMP-dependent PKA.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, Sudhir; Mohajerani, Majid H; Cherubini, Enrico

    2009-02-25

    In the adult rat hippocampus, the axons of granule cells in the dentate gyrus, the mossy fibers (MF), form excitatory glutamatergic synapses with CA3 principal cells. In neonates, MF release into their targets mainly GABA, which at this developmental stage is depolarizing. Here we tested the hypothesis that, at immature MF-CA3 synapses, correlated presynaptic [single fiber-evoked GABA(A)-mediated postsynaptic potentials (GPSPs)] and postsynaptic activity (back propagating action potentials) may exert a critical control on synaptic efficacy. This form of plasticity, called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), is a Hebbian type form of learning extensively studied at the level of glutamatergic synapses. Depending on the relative timing, pairing postsynaptic spiking and single MF-GPSPs induced bidirectional changes in synaptic efficacy. In case of positive pairing, spike-timing-dependent-long-term potentiation (STD-LTP) was associated with a persistent increase in GPSP slope and in the probability of cell firing. The transduction pathway involved a rise of calcium in the postsynaptic cell and the combined activity of cAMP-dependent PKA (protein kinase A) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Retrograde signaling via BDNF and presynaptic TrkB receptors led to a persistent increase in GABA release. In "presynaptically" silent neurons, the enhanced probability of GABA release induced by the pairing protocol, unsilenced these synapses. Shifting E(GABA) from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction with bumetanide failed to modify synaptic strength. Thus, STD-LTP of GPSPs provides a reliable way to convey information from granule cells to the CA3 associative network at a time when glutamatergic synapses are still poorly developed.

  5. Combustion Synthesis of Ca3(PO4)2 Net-Shape Surgical Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Reed A.; Castillo, Martin; Gottoli, Guglielmo; Moore, John J.; Simske, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    Self-propagating high-temperature combustion synthesis (SHS) is the basis of a method of making components of porous tricalcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2] and related compounds in net sizes and shapes for use as surgical implants that are compatible with bone. The SHS method offers advantages over prior methods of manufacturing Ca3(PO4)2-based surgical implants.

  6. Molecular determinants for the strictly compartmentalized expression of kainate receptors in CA3 pyramidal cells

    PubMed Central

    Fièvre, Sabine; Carta, Mario; Chamma, Ingrid; Labrousse, Virginie; Thoumine, Olivier; Mulle, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Distinct subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors can segregate to specific synaptic inputs in a given neuron. Using functional mapping by focal glutamate uncaging in CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), we observe that kainate receptors (KARs) are strictly confined to the postsynaptic elements of mossy fibre (mf) synapses and excluded from other glutamatergic inputs and from extrasynaptic compartments. By molecular replacement in organotypic slices from GluK2 knockout mice, we show that the faithful rescue of KAR segregation at mf-CA3 synapses critically depends on the amount of GluK2a cDNA transfected and on a sequence in the GluK2a C-terminal domain responsible for interaction with N-cadherin. Targeted deletion of N-cadherin in CA3 PCs greatly reduces KAR content in thorny excrescences and KAR-EPSCs at mf-CA3 synapses. Hence, multiple mechanisms combine to confine KARs at mf-CA3 synapses, including a stringent control of the amount of GluK2 subunit in CA3 PCs and the recruitment/stabilization of KARs by N-cadherins. PMID:27669960

  7. Recurrent synapses and circuits in the CA3 region of the hippocampus: an associative network.

    PubMed

    Le Duigou, Caroline; Simonnet, Jean; Teleñczuk, Maria T; Fricker, Desdemona; Miles, Richard

    2014-01-08

    In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, pyramidal cells excite other pyramidal cells and interneurons. The axons of CA3 pyramidal cells spread throughout most of the region to form an associative network. These connections were first drawn by Cajal and Lorente de No. Their physiological properties were explored to understand epileptiform discharges generated in the region. Synapses between pairs of pyramidal cells involve one or few release sites and are weaker than connections made by mossy fibers on CA3 pyramidal cells. Synapses with interneurons are rather effective, as needed to control unchecked excitation. We examine contributions of recurrent synapses to epileptiform synchrony, to the genesis of sharp waves in the CA3 region and to population oscillations at theta and gamma frequencies. Recurrent connections in CA3, as other associative cortices, have a lower connectivity spread over a larger area than in primary sensory cortices. This sparse, but wide-ranging connectivity serves the functions of an associative network, including acquisition of neuronal representations as activity in groups of CA3 cells and completion involving the recall from partial cues of these ensemble firing patterns.

  8. Precentral gyrus functional connectivity signatures of autism

    PubMed Central

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Barber, Anita D.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2014-01-01

    Motor impairments are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are perhaps the earliest symptoms to develop. In addition, motor skills relate to the communicative/social deficits at the core of ASD diagnosis, and these behavioral deficits may reflect abnormal connectivity within brain networks underlying motor control and learning. Despite the fact that motor abnormalities in ASD are well-characterized, there remains a fundamental disconnect between the complexity of the clinical presentation of ASD and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this study, we examined connectivity within and between functional subregions of a key component of the motor control network, the precentral gyrus, using resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging data collected from a large, heterogeneous sample of individuals with ASD as well as neurotypical controls. We found that the strength of connectivity within and between distinct functional subregions of the precentral gyrus was related to ASD diagnosis and to the severity of ASD traits. In particular, connectivity involving the dorsomedial (lower limb/trunk) subregion was abnormal in ASD individuals as predicted by models using a dichotomous variable coding for the presence of ASD, as well as models using symptom severity ratings. These findings provide further support for a link between motor and social/communicative abilities in ASD. PMID:24860442

  9. Structural and Functional Asymmetry in the Normal and Epileptic Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Sollas, Anne L.; Smith, Karen L.; Jackson, Meyer B.; Goodman, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    The rat dentate gyrus is usually described as relatively homogeneous. Here, we present anatomic and physiological data which demonstrate that there are striking differences between the supra- and infrapyramidal blades after status epilepticus and recurrent seizures. These differences appear to be an accentuation of a subtle asymmetry present in normal rats. In both pilocarpine and kainic acid models, there was greater mossy fiber sprouting in the infrapyramidal blade. This occurred primarily in the middle third of the hippocampus. Asymmetric sprouting was evident both with Timm stain as well as antisera to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neuropeptide Y (NPY). In addition, surviving NPY-immunoreactive hilar neurons were distributed preferentially in the suprapyramidal region of the hilus. Extracellular recordings from infrapyramidal sites in hippocampal slices of pilocarpine-treated rats showed larger population spikes and weaker paired-pulse inhibition in response to perforant path stimulation relative to suprapyramidal recordings. A single stimulus could evoke burst discharges in infrapyramidal granule cells but not suprapyramidal blade neurons. BDNF exposure led to spontaneous epileptiform discharges that were larger in amplitude and longer lasting in the infrapyramidal blade. Stimulation of the infrapyramidal molecular layer evoked larger responses in area CA3 than suprapyramidal stimulation. In slices from the temporal pole, in which anatomic evidence of asymmetry waned, there was little evidence of physiological asymmetry either. Of interest, some normal rats also showed signs of greater evoked responses in the infrapyramidal blade, and this could be detected with both microelectrode recording and optical imaging techniques. Although there were no signs of hyperexcitability in normal rats, the data suggest that there is some asymmetry in the normal dentate gyrus and this asymmetry is enhanced by seizures. Taken together, the results suggest that

  10. Structural and functional asymmetry in the normal and epileptic rat dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Scharfman, Helen E; Sollas, Anne L; Smith, Karen L; Jackson, Meyer B; Goodman, Jeffrey H

    2002-12-23

    The rat dentate gyrus is usually described as relatively homogeneous. Here, we present anatomic and physiological data which demonstrate that there are striking differences between the supra- and infrapyramidal blades after status epilepticus and recurrent seizures. These differences appear to be an accentuation of a subtle asymmetry present in normal rats. In both pilocarpine and kainic acid models, there was greater mossy fiber sprouting in the infrapyramidal blade. This occurred primarily in the middle third of the hippocampus. Asymmetric sprouting was evident both with Timm stain as well as antisera to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neuropeptide Y (NPY). In addition, surviving NPY-immunoreactive hilar neurons were distributed preferentially in the suprapyramidal region of the hilus. Extracellular recordings from infrapyramidal sites in hippocampal slices of pilocarpine-treated rats showed larger population spikes and weaker paired-pulse inhibition in response to perforant path stimulation relative to suprapyramidal recordings. A single stimulus could evoke burst discharges in infrapyramidal granule cells but not suprapyramidal blade neurons. BDNF exposure led to spontaneous epileptiform discharges that were larger in amplitude and longer lasting in the infrapyramidal blade. Stimulation of the infrapyramidal molecular layer evoked larger responses in area CA3 than suprapyramidal stimulation. In slices from the temporal pole, in which anatomic evidence of asymmetry waned, there was little evidence of physiological asymmetry either. Of interest, some normal rats also showed signs of greater evoked responses in the infrapyramidal blade, and this could be detected with both microelectrode recording and optical imaging techniques. Although there were no signs of hyperexcitability in normal rats, the data suggest that there is some asymmetry in the normal dentate gyrus and this asymmetry is enhanced by seizures. Taken together, the results suggest that

  11. Herniated gyrus rectus causing idiopathic compression of the optic chiasm.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacob; Jack, Megan M; Peterson, Jeremy C; Chamoun, Roukoz B

    2017-02-01

    Anomalies in the frontal lobe can interfere with visual function by compression of the optic chiasm and nerve. The gyrus rectus is located at the anterior cranial fossa floor superior to the intracranial optic nerves and chiasm. Compression of these structures by the gyrus rectus is often caused by neoplastic or dysplastic growth in the area. We report a rare case of a herniated gyrus rectus impinged on the optic chiasm and nerve without a clear pathological cause for the herniation.

  12. Potential roles for Homer1 and Spinophilin in the preventive effect of electroconvulsive seizures on stress-induced CA3c dendritic retraction in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kaastrup Müller, Heidi; Orlowski, Dariusz; Reidies Bjarkam, Carsten; Wegener, Gregers; Elfving, Betina

    2015-08-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the treatment of choice for patients with severe or drug-resistant depressive disorders, yet the mechanism behind its efficacy remains poorly characterized. In the present study, we used electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, to identify proteins possibly involved in the preventive effect of ECS on stress-induced neuronal atrophy in the hippocampus. Rats were stressed daily using the 21-day 6h daily restraint stress paradigm and subjected to sham seizures, a single ECS on the last day of the restraint period or daily repeated seizures for 10 consecutive days during the end of the restraint period. Consistent with previous findings, dendritic atrophy was observed in the CA3c hippocampal region of chronically stressed rats. In addition, we confirmed our recent findings of increased spine density in the CA1 region following chronic restraint stress. The morphological alterations in the CA3c area were prevented by treatment with ECS. On the molecular level, we showed that the synaptic proteins Homer1 and Spinophilin are targeted by ECS. Repeated ECS blocked stress-induced up-regulation of Spinophilin protein levels and further increased the stress-induced up-regulation of Homer1. Given the roles of Spinophilin in the regulation of AMPA receptors and Homer1 in the regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), our data imply the existence of a mechanism where ECS regulate cell excitability by modulating AMPA receptor function and mGluR related calcium homeostasis. These molecular changes could potentially contribute to the mechanism induced by ECS which prevents the stress-induced morphological changes in the CA3c region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Critical involvement of postsynaptic protein kinase activation in long-term potentiation at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Galván, Emilio J; Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Mauna, Jocelyn C; Card, J Patrick; Thiels, Edda; Meriney, Stephen D; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2010-02-24

    Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses on area CA3 lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons are capable of undergoing a Hebbian form of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-independent long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by the same type of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) that induces LTP at MF synapses on pyramidal cells. LTP of MF input to L-M interneurons occurs only at synapses containing mostly calcium-impermeable (CI)-AMPA receptors (AMPARs). Here, we demonstrate that HFS-induced LTP at these MF-interneuron synapses requires postsynaptic activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). Brief extracellular stimulation of PKA with forskolin (FSK) alone or in combination with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (IBMX) induced a long-lasting synaptic enhancement at MF synapses predominantly containing CI-AMPARs. However, the FSK/IBMX-induced potentiation in cells loaded with the specific PKA inhibitor peptide PKI(6-22) failed to be maintained. Consistent with these data, delivery of HFS to MFs synapsing onto L-M interneurons loaded with PKI(6-22) induced posttetanic potentiation (PTP) but not LTP. Hippocampal sections stained for the catalytic subunit of PKA revealed abundant immunoreactivity in interneurons located in strata radiatum and L-M of area CA3. We also found that extracellular activation of PKC with phorbol 12,13-diacetate induced a pharmacological potentiation of the isolated CI-AMPAR component of the MF EPSP. However, HFS delivered to MF synapses on cells loaded with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine exhibited PTP followed by a significant depression. Together, our data indicate that MF LTP in L-M interneurons at synapses containing primarily CI-AMPARs requires some of the same signaling cascades as does LTP of glutamatergic input to CA3 or CA1 pyramidal cells.

  14. mGlu5 acts as a switch for opposing forms of synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber-CA3 and commissural associational-CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Hagena, Hardy; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-03-25

    Within the hippocampus, different kinds of spatial experience determine the direction of change of synaptic weights. Synaptic plasticity resulting from such experience may enable memory encoding. The CA3 region is very striking in this regard: due to the distinct molecular properties of the mossy fiber (MF) and associational-commissural (AC) synapses, it is believed that they enable working memory and pattern completion. The question arises, however, as to how information reaching these synapses results in differentiated encoding. Given its crucial role in enabling persistent synaptic plasticity in other hippocampal subfields, we speculated that the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5 may regulate information encoding at MF and AC synapses. Here, we show that antagonism of mGlu5 inhibits LTP, but not LTD at MF synapses of freely behaving adult rats. Conversely, mGlu5 antagonism prevents LTD but not LTP at AC-CA3 synapses. This suggests that, under conditions in which mGlu5 is activated, LTP may be preferentially induced at MF synapses, whereas LTD is favored at AC synapses. To assess this possibility, we applied 50 Hz stimulation that should generate postsynaptic activity that corresponds to θm, the activation threshold that lies between LTP and LTD. MGlu5 activation had no effect on AC responses but potentiated MF synapses. These data suggest that mGlu5 serves as a switch that alters signal-to-noise ratios during information encoding in the CA3 region. This mechanism supports highly tuned and differentiated information storage in CA3 synapses.

  15. Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Dierks, T; Linden, D E; Jandl, M; Formisano, E; Goebel, R; Lanfermann, H; Singer, W

    1999-03-01

    Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.

  16. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-03-04

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D||], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], p<0.001, linear mixed-effects model [LMEM]) and the CA3bc (FA, D||, CS, and angle, p<0.001, LMEM; CL and planar anisotropy [CP], p<0.01, LMEM) post SE. The Fourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method

  17. An Id-like current that is downregulated by Ca2+ modulates information coding at CA3CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Cherubini, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels localised on presynaptic nerve terminals control information coding by modulating presynaptic firing and synaptic efficacy in target neurones. We found that at CA3CA3 connections in hippocampal slice cultures, a fast-activating, slowly inactivating K+ conductance similar to the so-called delay current (ID) is responsible for the delayed appearance of the first spike upon membrane depolarisation, for action potential repolarisation and for modulation of transmitter release. The Id-like current was downregulated by intracellular Ca2+, as indicated by the increased delay in the appearance of the first action potential following either the block of Ca2+ flux through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels with Cd2+ or replacement of the bathing solution with one devoid of Ca2+. In both cases, this effect was reversed by blocking this conductance with a low concentration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 10-50 μM). Application of 4-AP shortened the delay to the first spike generation, prevented the effect of Cd2+ and increased the spike duration. The earlier appearance of the first action potential was also observed in the presence of dendrotoxin-1 (100 nM). In voltage-clamp experiments larger currents were recorded in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, thus confirming the downregulation of the Id-like current by Ca2+ due to the positive shift of its inactivation. Spike broadening was associated with an enhancement of synaptic efficacy in target neurones, as assessed by the increase in EPSC amplitude and in the percentage of successes. Moreover, in the presence of 4-AP, EPSCs appeared with a longer latency and were more scattered. This conductance is therefore crucial for setting the timing and strength of synaptic transmission at CA3CA3 connections. It is conceivable that switching off ID by increasing intracellular Ca2+ following activity-dependent processes may facilitate network synchronisation and crosstalk between CA3 pyramidal cells, leading to

  18. Gap junctions between CA3 pyramidal cells contribute to network synchronization in neonatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Molchanova, Svetlana M; Huupponen, Johanna; Lauri, Sari E; Taira, Tomi

    2016-08-01

    Direct electrical coupling between neurons through gap junctions is prominent during development, when synaptic connectivity is scarce, providing the additional intercellular connectivity. However, functional studies of gap junctions are hampered by the unspecificity of pharmacological tools available. Here we have investigated gap-junctional coupling between CA3 pyramidal cells in neonatal hippocampus and its contribution to early network activity. Four different gap junction inhibitors, including the general blocker carbenoxolone, decreased the frequency of network activity bursts in CA3 area of hippocampus of P3-6 rats, suggesting the involvement of electrical connections in the generation of spontaneous network activity. In CA3 pyramidal cells, spikelets evoked by local stimulation of stratum oriens, were inhibited by carbenoxolone, but not by inhibitors of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission, signifying the presence of electrical connectivity through axo-axonic gap junctions. Carbenoxolone also decreased the success rate of firing antidromic action potentials in response to stimulation, and changed the pattern of spontaneous action potential firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. Altogether, these data suggest that electrical coupling of CA3 pyramidal cells contribute to the generation of the early network events in neonatal hippocampus by modulating their firing pattern and synchronization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Network bursting using experimentally constrained single compartment CA3 hippocampal neuron models with adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dur-e-Ahmad, Muhammad; Nicola, Wilten; Campbell, Sue Ann; Skinner, Frances K

    2012-08-01

    The hippocampus is a brain structure critical for memory functioning. Its network dynamics include several patterns such as sharp waves that are generated in the CA3 region. To understand how population outputs are generated, models need to consider aspects of network size, cellular and synaptic characteristics and context, which are necessarily 'balanced' in appropriate ways to produce particular outputs. Thick slice hippocampal preparations spontaneously produce sharp waves that are initiated in CA3 regions and depend on the right balance of glutamatergic activities. As a step toward developing network models that can explain important balances in the generation of hippocampal output, we develop models of CA3 pyramidal cells. Our models are single compartment in nature, use an Izhikevich-type structure and involve parameter values that are specifically designed to encompass CA3 intrinsic properties. Importantly, they incorporate spike frequency adaptation characteristics that are directly comparable to those measured experimentally. Excitatory networks using these model cells are able to produce bursting suggesting that the amount of spike frequency adaptation expressed in the biological cells is an essential contributor to network bursting, and as such, may be important for sharp wave generation. The network bursting mechanism is numerically dissected showing the critical balance between adaptation and excitatory drive. The compact nature of our models allows large network simulations to be efficiently computed. This, together with the linkage of our models to cellular characteristics, will allow us to develop an understanding of population output of CA3 hippocampus with direct biological comparisons.

  20. Corticosterone time-dependently modulates β-adrenergic effects on long-term potentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Zhenwei; Krugers, Harm J.; Joëls, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Previous experiments in the hippocampal CA1 area have shown that corticosterone can facilitate long-term potentiation (LTP) in a rapid non-genomic fashion, while the same hormone suppresses LTP that is induced several hours after hormone application. Here, we elaborated on this finding by examining whether corticosterone exerts opposite effects on LTP depending on the timing of hormone application in the dentate gyrus as well. Moreover, we tested rapid and delayed actions by corticosterone on β-adrenergic-dependent changes in LTP. Unlike the CA1 region, our in vitro field potential recordings show that rapid effects of corticosterone do not influence LTP induced by mild tetanization in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, unless GABAA receptors are blocked. In contrast, the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol does initiate a slow-onset, limited amount of potentiation. When corticosterone was applied concurrently with isoproterenol, a further enhancement of synaptic strength was identified, especially during the early stage of potentiation. Yet, treatment with corticosterone several hours in advance of isoproterenol fully prevented any effect of isoproterenol on LTP. This emphasizes that corticosterone can regulate β-adrenergic modulation of synaptic plasticity in opposite directions, depending on the timing of hormone application. PMID:17522027

  1. Memory effect and magnetic relaxation in Ca3Co2O6 and the doped compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X. M.; Ouyang, Z. W.; Ruan, M. Y.; Guo, Y. M.; Cheng, J. J.; Xia, Z. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report memory effect and magnetic relaxation in spin-chain compounds Ca3Co2O6, Ca3Co2-xTxO6 (T=Mn, Fe, Al, and Mg) with x=0.02 and 0.04, and Ca3-xAxCo2O6 (A=Sr and Na) with x=0.06 and 0.12. The memory effect serves as an evidence of spin-glass-like freezing at low temperatures. The time-dependent magnetization exhibits a nearly exponential variation with time for initial relaxation and is not much influenced by chemical doping. With time goes on, the magnetization follows the stretched exponential function and doping effect gradually appears with uncertainty. In comparison, the influence from Fe-doping is dramatic and possible reason is proposed within the geometrical frustration scenario.

  2. Network mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hájos, Norbert; Paulsen, Ole

    2009-10-01

    Neural networks of the brain display multiple patterns of oscillatory activity. Some of these rhythms are generated intrinsically within the local network, and can therefore be studied in isolated preparations. Here we discuss local-circuit mechanisms involved in hippocampal CA3 gamma oscillations, one of the best understood locally generated network patterns in the mammalian brain. Perisomatic inhibitory cells are crucial players in gamma oscillogenesis. They provide prominent rhythmic inhibition to CA3 pyramidal cells and are themselves synchronized primarily by excitatory synaptic inputs derived from the local collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells. The recruitment of this recurrent excitatory-inhibitory feedback loop during hippocampal gamma oscillations suggests that local gamma oscillations not only control when, but also how many and which pyramidal cells will fire during each gamma cycle.

  3. Endogenous opioid peptides contribute to associative LTP in the hippocampal CA3 region.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlo O; Do, Viet H; Derrick, Brian E

    2011-09-01

    The medial and lateral perforant path projections to the hippocampal CA3 region display distinct mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) induction, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and opioid receptor dependent, respectively. However, medial and lateral perforant path projections to the CA3 region display associative LTP with coactivation, suggesting that while they differ in receptors involved in LTP induction they may share common downstream mechanisms of LTP induction. Here we address this interaction of LTP induction mechanisms by evaluating the contribution of opioid receptors to the induction of associative LTP among the medial and lateral perforant path projections to the CA3 region in vivo. Local application of the opioid receptor antagonists naloxone or Cys2-Tyr3-Orn5-Pen7-amide (CTOP) normally block induction of lateral perforant path-CA3 LTP. However, these opioid receptor antagonists failed to block associative LTP in lateral perforant path-CA3 synapses when it was induced by strong coactivation of the medial perforant pathway which displays NMDAR-dependent LTP. Thus strong activation of non-opioidergic afferents can substitute for the opioid receptor activation required for lateral perforant path LTP induction. Conversely, medial perforant path-CA3 associative LTP was blocked by opioid receptor antagonists when induced by strong coactivation of the opioidergic lateral perforant path. These data indicate endogenous opioid peptides contribute to associative LTP at coactive synapses when induced by strong coactivation of an opioidergic afferent system. These data further suggest that associative LTP induction is regulated by the receptor mechanisms of the strongly stimulated pathway. Thus, while medial and lateral perforant path synapses differ in their mechanisms of LTP induction, associative LTP at these synapses share common downstream mechanisms of induction.

  4. GacS-Dependent Regulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthesis in Pseudomonas putida CA-3

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, William J.; O'Mahony, Mark; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2013-01-01

    To date, limited reports are available on the regulatory systems exerting control over bacterial synthesis of the biodegradable polyester group known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In this study, we performed random mini-Tn5 mutagenesis of the Pseudomonas putida CA-3 genome and screened transconjugants on nitrogen-limited medium for reduced PHA accumulation phenotypes. Disruption of a GacS sensor kinase in one such mutant was found to eliminate medium-chain-length PHA production in Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Recombinant expression of wild-type gacS from a pBBRgacS vector fully restored PHA accumulation capacity in the mutant strain. PCR-based screening of the P. putida CA-3 genome identified gene homologues of the GacS/GacA-rsm small RNA (sRNA) regulatory cascade with 96% similarity to published P. putida genomes. However, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analyses revealed active transcription of the rsmY and rsmZ sRNAs in gacS-disrupted P. putida CA-3, which is atypical of the commonly reported Gac/Rsm regulatory cascade. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analyses of the phaC1 synthase responsible for polymer formation in P. putida CA-3 indicated no statistically significant difference in transcript levels between the wild-type and gacS-disrupted strains. Subsequently, SDS-PAGE protein analyses of these strains identified posttranscriptional control of phaC1 synthase as a key aspect in the regulation of PHA synthesis by P. putida CA-3. PMID:23291549

  5. Hypertension downregulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ischemia-vulnerable hippocampal CA1 and cortical areas after carotid artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsong-Hai; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Kato, Hiroyuki; Wu, June Hsieh

    2006-10-20

    We studied the effect of hypertension on brain damage and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex after permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Two groups of rats were used, including normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat and spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR). Each group contained sham operation, 1 week and 4 weeks after bilateral CCA occlusion (n=5-10 in each time point). The blood pressure showed a significant elevation in WKY rats from 1 h after operation to 4 weeks before sacrifice (P<0.05), but was not changed in SHR (P>0.05). However, rectal temperature showed no significant change after operation in WKY rat and SHR (P>0.05) and showed no significant difference at any time point between WKY rat and SHR (P>0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed SHR had a significantly larger necrotic volume than WKY rats (n=10 in each group, 6044+/-6895 microm(3) vs. 144+/-174 microm(3), P<0.05) at 4 weeks after ischemia. In SHR, BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA decreased significantly from 1 week to 4 weeks in both the hippocampal CA1 and cortical areas (P<0.01) but decreased transiently in dentate gyrus. However, in WKY rats, BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA decreased transiently at 1 week (P<0.05) and recovered at 4 weeks after cerebral ischemia. Our study demonstrates that after bilateral CCA occlusion, preexisting hypertension may aggravate the brain injury and downregulate the expression of BDNF immunoreactivity and mRNA in the ischemia-vulnerable hippocampal CA1 and cortical areas but not in ischemia-resistant dentate gyrus.

  6. Failure of neuronal maturation in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Tanimukai, Hitoshi; Chen, She; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2008-01-01

    The dentate gyrus, an important anatomic structure of the hippocampal formation, is one of the major areas in which neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is thought to play an important role in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Neurogenesis has been reported to be increased in the dentate gyrus of patients with Alzheimer disease, but it is not known whether the newly generated neurons differentiate into mature neurons. In this study, the expression of the mature neuronal marker high molecular weight microtubule-associated protein (MAP) isoforms MAP2a and b was found to be dramatically decreased in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus, as determined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The total MAP2, including expression of the immature neuronal marker, the MAP2c isoform, was less affected. These findings suggest that newly generated neurons in Alzheimer disease dentate gyrus do not become mature neurons, although neuroproliferation is increased.

  7. Directional solidification, thermo-mechanical and optical properties of (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) glasses doped with Nd(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Sola, D; Conejos, D; Martínez de Mendivil, J; Ortega-San-Martín, L; Lifante, G; Peña, J I

    2015-10-05

    In this work glass rods of (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) (x = 0, 0.5 and 1) doped with 1 wt% Nd(2)O(3) were produced by the laser floating zone technique. Thermo-mechanical and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated. The three glass samples present good thermo-mechanical properties, with similar hardness, toughness and glass transition temperatures. The spectroscopic characterization shows spectral shifts in absorption and emission spectra. These spectral shifts together with Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and ionic packing ratio have been used to investigate the local structure surrounding the Nd(3+) ions and the covalency of the Nd-O bond. All obtained results agree and confirm the higher covalency of the Nd-O bond in the Ca(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) glass.

  8. Quantal transmission at mossy fibre targets in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J Josh; Grinspan, Zachary M; McBain, Chris J

    2004-01-01

    Recent anatomical evidence that inhibitory interneurones receive approximately 10 times more synapses from mossy fibres than do principal neurones (Acsády et al. 1998) has led to the re-examination of the extent to which interneurones are involved in CA3 network excitability. Although many of the anatomical and physiological properties of mossy fibre–CA3 interneurone synapses have been previously described (Acsády et al. 1998; Tóth et al. 2000), an investigation into the quantal nature of transmission at this synapse has not yet been conducted. Here, we employed variance–mean (VM) analysis to compare the release probability, quantal size (q) and number of release sites (n) at mossy fibre target neurones in CA3. At six of seven interneurone synapses in which a high concentration of Ca2+ was experimentally imposed, the variance–mean relationship could be approximated by a parabola. Estimates of n were 1–2, and the weighted release probability in normal Ca2+ conditions ranged from 0.34 to 0.51. At pyramidal cell synapses, the variance–mean relationship approximated a linear relationship, suggesting that release probability was significantly lower. The weighted quantal amplitude was similar at interneurone synapses and pyramidal cell synapses, although the variability in quantal amplitude was larger at interneurone synapses. Mossy fibre transmission at CA3 interneurone synapses can be explained by a lower number of release sites, a broader range of release probabilities, and larger range of quantal amplitudes than at CA3 pyramidal synapses. Finally, quantal events on to interneurones elicited spike transmission, owing in part to the more depolarized membrane potential than pyramidal cells. These results suggest that although mossy fibre synapses on to pyramidal cells are associated with a larger number of release sites per synapse, the higher connectivity, higher initial release probability, and larger relative impact per quantum on to CA3 interneurones

  9. Quantal transmission at mossy fibre targets in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Josh; Grinspan, Zachary M; McBain, Chris J

    2004-01-01

    Recent anatomical evidence that inhibitory interneurones receive approximately 10 times more synapses from mossy fibres than do principal neurones (Acsády et al. 1998) has led to the re-examination of the extent to which interneurones are involved in CA3 network excitability. Although many of the anatomical and physiological properties of mossy fibre-CA3 interneurone synapses have been previously described (Acsády et al. 1998; Tóth et al. 2000), an investigation into the quantal nature of transmission at this synapse has not yet been conducted. Here, we employed variance-mean (VM) analysis to compare the release probability, quantal size (q) and number of release sites (n) at mossy fibre target neurones in CA3. At six of seven interneurone synapses in which a high concentration of Ca2+ was experimentally imposed, the variance-mean relationship could be approximated by a parabola. Estimates of n were 1-2, and the weighted release probability in normal Ca2+ conditions ranged from 0.34 to 0.51. At pyramidal cell synapses, the variance-mean relationship approximated a linear relationship, suggesting that release probability was significantly lower. The weighted quantal amplitude was similar at interneurone synapses and pyramidal cell synapses, although the variability in quantal amplitude was larger at interneurone synapses. Mossy fibre transmission at CA3 interneurone synapses can be explained by a lower number of release sites, a broader range of release probabilities, and larger range of quantal amplitudes than at CA3 pyramidal synapses. Finally, quantal events on to interneurones elicited spike transmission, owing in part to the more depolarized membrane potential than pyramidal cells. These results suggest that although mossy fibre synapses on to pyramidal cells are associated with a larger number of release sites per synapse, the higher connectivity, higher initial release probability, and larger relative impact per quantum on to CA3 interneurones generate

  10. Synchronization of GABAergic interneuronal network in CA3 subfield of neonatal rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Khazipov, R; Leinekugel, X; Khalilov, I; Gaiarsa, J L; Ben-Ari, Y

    1997-02-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the generation of GDPs in CA3 pyramidal cells, the interneurons fire bursts of spikes, on average 4.5 +/- 1.4 spikes per burst (cell-attached mode). There bursts were induced by periodical large inward currents (interneuronal GDPs) recorded in whole-cell mode. 3. Interneuronal GDPs revealed typical features of polysynaptic neuronal network-driven events: they were blocked by TTX and by high divalent cation medium and they could be evoked in an all-or-none manner by electrical stimulation in different regions of the hippocampus. The network elements required for the generation of GDPs are present in local CA3 circuits since spontaneous GDPs were present in the isolated CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slice. 4. Interneuronal GDPs were mediated by GABAA and glutamate receptors, since: (i) their reversal potential strongly depended on [Cl-]i; (ii) at the reversal potential of GABAA postsynaptic currents an inward component of GDPs was composed of events with the same kinetics as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated EPSCs; and (iii) once GABAA receptors were blocked intracellularly by dialysis with F(-)-MgATP-free solution, the remaining component of interneuronal GDPs reversed near 0 mV and rectified at membrane potentials more negative than -20 mV, suggesting an important contribution of NMDA receptors in addition to AMPA receptors. 5. In cell-attached recordings from interneurons, electrical stimulation in the stratum radiatum evoked a burst of spikes that corresponded to evoked GDPs. Pharmacological study of this response revealed that excitation of SR-CA3 interneurons during

  11. Synchronization of GABAergic interneuronal network in CA3 subfield of neonatal rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Khazipov, R; Leinekugel, X; Khalilov, I; Gaiarsa, J L; Ben-Ari, Y

    1997-01-01

    1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the generation of GDPs in CA3 pyramidal cells, the interneurons fire bursts of spikes, on average 4.5 +/- 1.4 spikes per burst (cell-attached mode). There bursts were induced by periodical large inward currents (interneuronal GDPs) recorded in whole-cell mode. 3. Interneuronal GDPs revealed typical features of polysynaptic neuronal network-driven events: they were blocked by TTX and by high divalent cation medium and they could be evoked in an all-or-none manner by electrical stimulation in different regions of the hippocampus. The network elements required for the generation of GDPs are present in local CA3 circuits since spontaneous GDPs were present in the isolated CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slice. 4. Interneuronal GDPs were mediated by GABAA and glutamate receptors, since: (i) their reversal potential strongly depended on [Cl-]i; (ii) at the reversal potential of GABAA postsynaptic currents an inward component of GDPs was composed of events with the same kinetics as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated EPSCs; and (iii) once GABAA receptors were blocked intracellularly by dialysis with F(-)-MgATP-free solution, the remaining component of interneuronal GDPs reversed near 0 mV and rectified at membrane potentials more negative than -20 mV, suggesting an important contribution of NMDA receptors in addition to AMPA receptors. 5. In cell-attached recordings from interneurons, electrical stimulation in the stratum radiatum evoked a burst of spikes that corresponded to evoked GDPs. Pharmacological study of this response revealed that excitation of SR-CA3 interneurons during

  12. Inhibition of GABA release by presynaptic ionotropic GABA receptors in hippocampal CA3.

    PubMed

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Draguhn, Andreas

    2004-02-09

    Vesicular transmitter release can be regulated by transmitter-gated ion channels at presynaptic axon terminals. The central inhibitory transmitter GABA acts on such presynaptic ionotropic receptors in various cells, including inhibitory interneurons. Here we report that GABA-mediated postsynaptic inhibitory currents in CA3 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampal slices are suppressed by agonists of GABAA receptors. The effect is present for both stimulus-induced and miniature IPSCs, indicating a reduction in the probability of vesicular release by presynaptic, action-potential-independent mechanisms. We conclude that the release of GABA from hippocampal CA3 interneurons is regulated by a negative feedback via presynaptic ionotropic GABA autoreceptors.

  13. Leptin Regulation of Synaptic Function at Hippocampal TA-CA1 and SC-CA1 Synapses: Implications for Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Gemma; Harvey, Jenni

    2017-08-18

    Growing evidence indicates that the endocrine hormone leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function in addition to its established role as a hypothalamic satiety signal. Indeed, numerous studies show that leptin facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking, indicating that leptin may be a potential cognitive enhancer. Although there has been extensive investigation into the modulatory role of leptin at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses, recent evidence indicates that leptin also potently regulates excitatory synaptic transmission at the anatomically distinct temporoammonic (TA) input to hippocampal CA1 neurons. The cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at TA-CA1 synapses differ from those at SC-CA1 synapses and the TA input is implicated in spatial and episodic memory formation. Furthermore, the TA input is an early target for neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aberrant leptin function is linked to AD. Here, we review the evidence that leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function at both SC- and TA-CA1 synapses and discuss the consequences for neurodegenerative disorders like AD.

  14. Synaptic disinhibition during maintenance of long-term potentiation in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, A; Simon, G; Kovacs, G; Rai, R

    1994-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is widely believed to occur through a strengthening of efficacy of excitatory synapses between afferent fibers and pyramidal cells. An alternative mechanism of LTP, reduction of efficacy of synaptic inhibition, was examined in the present report. The present study demonstrates that the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of guinea pigs is accompanied by impairment of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function, particularly at apical dendritic sites of CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced excitability of GABAergic interneurons during LTP represents a strengthening of inhibitory efficacy. The net effect of opposite modifications of synaptic inhibition during LTP of CA1 pyramidal cells is an overall impairment of the strength of GABAergic inhibition, and disinhibition could contribute importantly to CA1 pyramidal cell LTP. Images PMID:8159706

  15. Synaptic Disinhibition During Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in the CA1 Hippocampal Subfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Armin; Simon, Gabor; Kovacs, Gabor; Rai, Rabindra

    1994-04-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is widely believed to occur through a strengthening of efficacy of excitatory synapses between afferent fibers and pyramidal cells. An alternative mechanism of LTP, reduction of efficacy of synaptic inhibition, was examined in the present report. The present study demonstrates that the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of guinea pigs is accompanied by impairment of type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function, particularly at apical dendritic sites of CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced excitability of GABAergic interneurons during LTP represents a strengthening of inhibitory efficacy. The net effect of opposite modifications of synaptic inhibition during LTP of CA1 pyramidal cells is an overall impairment of the strength of GABAergic inhibition, and disinhibition could contribute importantly to CA1 pyramidal cell LTP.

  16. Environmental novelty elicits a later theta phase of firing in CA1 but not subiculum

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Colin; Burton, Stephen; Jeewajee, Ali; Wills, Thomas J.; Cacucci, Francesca; Burgess, Neil; O’Keefe, John

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism supporting the role of the hippocampal formation in novelty detection remains controversial. A comparator function has been variously ascribed to CA1 or subiculum, while the theta rhythm has been suggested to separate neural firing into encoding and retrieval phases. We investigated theta phase of firing in principal cells in subiculum and CA1 as rats foraged in familiar and novel environments. We found that the preferred theta phase of firing in CA1, but not subiculum, was shifted to a later phase of the theta cycle during environmental novelty. Furthermore, the amount of phase shift elicited by environmental change correlated with the extent of place cell remapping in CA1. Our results support a relationship between theta phase and novelty-induced plasticity in CA1. PMID:19623610

  17. Rapamycin inhibits mTOR/p70S6K activation in CA3 region of the hippocampus of the rat and impairs long term memory.

    PubMed

    Lana, D; Di Russo, J; Mello, T; Wenk, G L; Giovannini, M G

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed at establishing whether the mTOR pathway and its downstream effector p70S6K in CA3 pyramidal neurons are under the modulation of the cholinergic input to trigger the formation of long term memories, similar to what we demonstrated in CA1 hippocampus. We performed in vivo behavioral experiments using the step down inhibitory avoidance test in adult Wistar rats to evaluate memory formation under different conditions. We examined the effects of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 formation, scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist or mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist, on short and long term memory formation and on the functionality of the mTOR pathway. Acquisition was conducted 30min after i.c.v. injection of rapamycin. Recall testing was performed 1h, 4h or 24h after acquisition. We found that (1) mTOR and p70S6K activation in CA3 pyramidal neurons were involved in long term memory formation; (2) rapamycin significantly inhibited mTOR and of p70S6K activation at 4h, and long term memory impairment 24h after acquisition; (3) scopolamine impaired short but not long term memory, with an early increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1h followed by stabilization at longer times; (4) mecamylamine and scopolamine co-administration impaired short term memory at 1h and 4h and reduced the scopolamine-induced increase of mTOR/p70S6K activation at 1h and 4h; (5) mecamylamine and scopolamine treatment did not impair long term memory formation; (6) unexpectedly, rapamycin increased mTORC2 activation in microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that in CA3 pyramidal neurons the mTOR/p70S6K pathway is under the modulation of the cholinergic system and is involved in long-term memory encoding, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the CA3 region of the hippocampus is involved in memory mechanisms based on rapid, one-trial object-place learning and recall. Furthermore, our results are in accordance with previous reports that selective

  18. Effects of reversible deactivation of mossy fibers in the dentate-CA3 system on geometric center detection task in mice: Functional separation of spatial learning and its generalization to new environment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naomi; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2014-05-28

    Using diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), a zinc chelator, we deactivated the mossy fibers that project from the dentate gyrus (DG) to the CA3 during acquisition and testing of a center detection task in mice. The mice were trained to find a food pellet at the center of four objects in a circular area. DEDTC injection just before the training sessions impaired this learning, whereas DEDTC injection before the probe test did not impair recall of the memory. DEDTC injection before a pattern completion test in which only one of the four objects was presented did not cause deficits in this test. DEDTC injection did, however, cause severe deficits in an array shift test in which all four objects were moved to new positions. These results demonstrated that 1) the DG-CA3 system plays a crucial role in the learning of geometric center detection task but not in its recall or pattern completion, and 2) the DG-CA3 system is involved in generalization to a new environment but is not crucial for pattern completion.

  19. Evolution of the mammalian dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hevner, Robert F

    2016-02-15

    The dentate gyrus (DG), a part of the hippocampal formation, has important functions in learning, memory, and adult neurogenesis. Compared with homologous areas in sauropsids (birds and reptiles), the mammalian DG is larger and exhibits qualitatively different phenotypes: 1) folded (C- or V-shaped) granule neuron layer, concave toward the hilus and delimited by a hippocampal fissure; 2) nonperiventricular adult neurogenesis; and 3) prolonged ontogeny, involving extensive abventricular (basal) migration and proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). Although gaps remain, available data indicate that these DG traits are present in all orders of mammals, including monotremes and marsupials. The exception is Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), in which DG size, convolution, and adult neurogenesis have undergone evolutionary regression. Parsimony suggests that increased growth and convolution of the DG arose in stem mammals concurrently with nonperiventricular adult hippocampal neurogenesis and basal migration of NSPCs during development. These traits could all result from an evolutionary change that enhanced radial migration of NSPCs out of the periventricular zones, possibly by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, to colonize and maintain nonperiventricular proliferative niches. In turn, increased NSPC migration and clonal expansion might be a consequence of growth in the cortical hem (medial patterning center), which produces morphogens such as Wnt3a, generates Cajal-Retzius neurons, and is regulated by Lhx2. Finally, correlations between DG convolution and neocortical gyrification (or capacity for gyrification) suggest that enhanced abventricular migration and proliferation of NSPCs played a transformative role in growth and folding of neocortex as well as archicortex.

  20. Unitary inhibitory field potentials in the CA3 region of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bazelot, Michaël; Dinocourt, Céline; Cohen, Ivan; Miles, Richard

    2010-06-15

    Glickfeld and colleagues (2009) suggested that single hippocampal interneurones generate field potentials at monosynaptic latencies. We pursued this observation in simultaneous intracellular and multiple extracellular records from the CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices. We confirmed that interneurones evoked field potentials at monosynaptic latencies. Pyramidal cells initiated disynaptic inhibitory field potentials, but did not initiate detectable monosynaptic excitatory fields. We confirmed that inhibitory fields were GABAergic in nature and showed they were suppressed at low external Cl(-), suggesting they originate at postsynaptic sites. Field potentials generated by a single interneuron were detected at multiple sites over distances of more than 800 mum along the stratum pyramidale of the CA3 region. We used arrays of extracellular electrodes to examine amplitude distributions of spontaneous inhibitory fields recorded at sites orthogonal to or along the CA3 stratum pyramidale. Cluster analysis of spatially distributed inhibitory field events let us separate events generated by interneurones terminating on distinct zones of somato-dendritic axis. Events generated at dendritic sites had similar amplitudes but occurred less frequently and had somewhat slower kinetics than perisomatic events generated near the stratum pyramidale. In records from multiple sites in the CA3 stratum pyramidale, we distinguished inhibitory fields that seemed to be initiated by interneurones with spatially distinct axonal arborisations.

  1. Long-term changes in the CA3 associative network of fear-conditioned mice.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Gürsel; Albrecht, Anne; Hollnagel, Jan O; Rösler, Anton; Richter-Levin, Gal; Heinemann, Uwe; Stork, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The CA3 associative network plays a critical role in the generation of network activity patterns related to emotional state and fear memory. We investigated long-term changes in the corticosterone (CORT)-sensitive function of this network following fear conditioning and fear memory reactivation. In acute slice preparations from mice trained in either condition, the ratio of orthodromic population spike (PS) to antidromic PS was reduced compared to unconditioned animals, indicating a decrease in efficacy of neuronal coupling within the associative CA3 network. However, spontaneous sharp wave-ripples (SW-R), which are thought to arise from this network, remained unaltered. Following CORT application, we observed an increase in orthodromic PS and a normalization to control levels of their ratio to antidromic PS, while SW-R increased in slices of fear conditioned and fear reactivated mice, but not in slices of unconditioned controls. Together with our previous observations of altered hippocampal gamma activity under these learning paradigms, these data suggest that fear conditioning and fear reactivation lastingly alters the CORT-sensitive configuration of different network activity patterns generated by the CA3 associational network. Observed changes in the mRNA expression of receptors for glutamate, GABA and cannabinoids in the stratum pyramidale of area CA3 may provide a molecular mechanism for these adaptive changes.

  2. p53 controls neuronal death in the CA3 region of the newborn mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Murase, Sachiko; Poser, Steve W; Joseph, Joby; McKay, Ronald D

    2011-08-01

    It is important to determine the mechanisms controlling the number of neurons in the nervous system. Previously, we reported that neuronal activity plays a central role in controlling neuron number in the neonatal hippocampus of rodents. Neuronal survival requires sustained activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt, which is initiated by neurotrophins and continued for several hours by neuronal activity and integrin signaling. Here, we focus on the CA3 region to show that neuronal apoptosis requires p53. As in wild-type animals, neuronal death occurs in the first postnatal week and ends by postnatal day (P)10 in p53(-/-) mice. During this period, the CA3 region of p53(-/-) mice contains significantly lower numbers of apoptotic cells, and at the end of the death period, it contains more neurons than the wild type. At P10, the p53(-/-) CA3 region contains a novel subpopulation of neurons with small soma size. These neurons show normal levels of tropomyosin receptor kinase receptor activation, but lower levels of activated Akt than the neurons with somata of normal size. These results suggest that p53 is the key downstream regulator of the novel survival-signaling pathway that regulates the number of CA3 neurons in the first 10 days of postnatal life.

  3. Symmetry analysis for the Ruddlesden-Popper systems Ca3Mn2O7 and Ca3Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. B.

    2011-08-01

    We perform a symmetry analysis of the zero-temperature instabilities of the tetragonal phase of Ca3Mn2O7 and Ca3Ti2O7 which is stable at high temperature. We introduce order parameters to characterize each of the possible lattice distortions to construct a Landau free energy which elucidates the proposed group-subgroup relations for structural transitions in these systems. We include the coupling between the unstable distortion modes and the macroscopic strain tensor. We also analyze the symmetry of the dominantly antiferromagnetic ordering which allows weak ferromagnetism. We show that in this phase the weak ferromagnetic moment and the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization are coupled, so that by rotating one of these orderings by applying an external electric or magnetic field one can rotate the other ordering. We discuss the number of different domains (including phase domains) which exist in each of the phases and indicate how these may be observed. First-principles calculations of Yildirim corroborate our assertion that domain walls in the nonferroelectric phase are narrow.

  4. Penicillin-induced epileptogenesis in immature rat CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Swann, J W; Brady, R J

    1984-02-01

    Penicillin's ability to produce epileptiform discharges in the CA3 region of hippocampus was examined both extracellularly and intracellularly in slices taken from immature rats 3-25 days of age. Comparisons were made to similar recordings from slices taken from mature rats. Between postnatal days 9 and 19 penicillin treatment resulted in spontaneous extracellular epileptiform bursts and coincident intracellular depolarization shifts. These events were more prolonged and less frequent than in slices from mature rats, and the bursts were followed by prolonged afterdischarges, often 20-30 s in duration. Intracellularly these afterdischarges consisted of large, rhythmic slow depolarizing potentials, which resulted in one or more action potentials in individual CA3 pyramidal cells. Extracellular field recordings showed these events to be simultaneous with synchronous discharges of a large population of CA3 pyramidal cells. In pups 1-2 weeks of age the ability of hippocampus to produce prolonged afterdischarges was associated with a slow depolarizing afterpotential, which followed the downstroke of the depolarization shift. Coincident with this afterpotential was a prolonged negative field in the CA3 pyramidal cell body layer. By postnatal days 24 and 25 the tendency to generate afterdischarges was greatly reduced. In addition, afterdischarges were observed infrequently in slices taken during the first postnatal week. Spike trains produced by prolonged intracellular current injection in slices taken on postnatal days 9-19 were followed by large afterhyperpolarizations and were unable to produce afterdischarges in individual CA3 pyramidal cells. Intracellular recordings from presumed glial cells suggest that extracellular K+ accumulation may play a role in the pronounced capacity of hippocampus from 1- and 2-week-old rat pups to generate prolonged afterdischarges.

  5. Human ClCa1 modulates anionic conduction of calcium-dependent chloride currents

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Martine; Gibson, Adele; Davies, Noel; Jowett, Amanda; Walhin, Jean Philippe; Partington, Leanne; Affleck, Karen; Trezise, Derek; Main, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Proteins of the CLCA gene family including the human ClCa1 (hClCa1) have been suggested to constitute a new family of chloride channels mediating Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents. The present study examines the relationship between the hClCa1 protein and Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents using heterologous expression of hClCa1 in HEK293 and NCIH522 cell lines and whole cell recordings. By contrast to previous reports claiming the absence of Cl− currents in HEK293 cells, we find that HEK293 and NCIH522 cell lines express constitutive Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents and show that hClCa1 increases the amplitude of Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents in those cells. We further show that hClCa1 does not modify the permeability sequence but increases the Cl− conductance while decreasing the GSCN−/GCl− conductance ratio from ∼2–3 to ∼1. We use an Eyring rate theory (two barriers, one site channel) model and show that the effect of hClCa1 on the anionic channel can be simulated by its action on lowering the first and the second energy barriers. We conclude that hClCa1 does not form Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels per se or enhance the trafficking/insertion of constitutive channels in the HEK293 and NCIH522 expression systems. Rather, hClCa1 elevates the single channel conductance of endogenous Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels by lowering the energy barriers for ion translocation through the pore. PMID:19307298

  6. Survival of Dentate Hilar Mossy Cells after Pilocarpine-Induced Seizures and their Synchronized Burst Discharges with Area CA3 Pyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, H. E.; Smith, K.; Goodman, J. H.; Sollas, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and basic literature suggest that hilar cells of the dentate gyrus are damaged after seizures, particularly prolonged and repetitive seizures. Of the cell types within the hilus, it appears that the mossy cell is one of the most vulnerable. Nevertheless, hilar neurons which resemble mossy cells appear in some published reports of animal models of epilepsy, and in some cases of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Therefore, mossy cells may not always be killed after severe, repeated seizures. However, mossy cell survival in these studies was not completely clear because the methods did allow discrimination between mossy cells and other hilar cell types. Furthermore, whether surviving mossy cells might have altered physiology after seizures was not examined. Therefore, intracellular recording and intracellular dye injection were used to characterize hilar cells in hippocampal slices from pilocarpine-treated rats that had status epilepticus and recurrent seizures (‘epileptic’ rats). For comparison, mossy cells were also recorded from age-matched, saline-injected controls, and pilocarpine-treated rats that failed to develop status epilepticus. Numerous hilar cells with the morphology, axon projection, and membrane properties of mossy cells were recorded in all three experimental groups. Thus, mossy cells can survive severe seizures, and those that survive retain many of their normal characteristics. However, mossy cells from epileptic tissue were distinct from mossy cells of control rats in that they generated spontaneous and evoked epileptiform burst discharges. Area CA3 pyramidal cells also exhibited spontaneous and evoked bursts. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from mossy cells and pyramidal cells demonstrated that their burst discharges were synchronized, with pyramidal cell discharges typically beginning first. From these data we suggest that hilar mossy cells can survive status epilepticus and chronic seizures. The fact that mossy cells have

  7. Hemifield dependence of responses to colour in human fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Relova, José Luis; Prieto, Angel; Peleteiro, Manuel; Romero, Maria C

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the hemifield dependence of visually evoked responses to colour in the human fusiform gyrus we recorded evoked potentials from subdural electrodes in a patient suffering from occipital epilepsy. The responses in the fusiform gyrus show a strong hemifield dependence and discriminate the onset from the offset of the stimulus. Additionally, we found responses to squares made of random dots, whereas no responses were found to squares with a homogeneous bright surface. Our findings further support the idea that the fusiform gyrus is related to colour and pattern perception. However, the hemifield dependence we found may indicate that further processing is required in order to combine information from both visual hemifields.

  8. Methylphenidate amplifies long-term potentiation in rat hippocampus CA1 area involving the insertion of AMPA receptors by activation of β-adrenergic and D1/D5 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rozas, C; Carvallo, C; Contreras, D; Carreño, M; Ugarte, G; Delgado, R; Zeise, M L; Morales, B

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin©) is widely used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and recently as a drug of abuse. Although the effect of MPH has been studied in brain regions such as striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus has received relatively little attention. It is known that MPH increases the TBS-dependent Long Term Potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are still unknown. Using field potential recordings and western blot analysis in rat hippocampal slices of young rats, we found that acute application of MPH enhances LTP in CA3-CA1 synapses in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 73.44±6.32 nM. Using specific antagonists and paired-pulse facilitation protocols, we observed that the MPH-dependent increase of LTP involves not only β-adrenergic receptors activation but also post-synaptic D1/D5 dopamine receptors. The inhibition of PKA with PKI, suppressed the facilitation of LTP induced by MPH consistent with an involvement of the adenyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA dependent cascade downstream of the activation of D1/D5 receptors. In addition, samples of CA1 areas taken from slices potentiated with MPH presented an increase in the phosphorylation of the Ser845 residue of the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors compared to control slices. This effect was reverted by SCH23390, antagonist of D1/D5 receptors, and PKI. Moreover, we found an increase of surface-associated functional AMPA receptors. We propose that MPH increases TBS-dependent LTP in CA3-CA1 synapses through a polysynaptic mechanism involving activation of β-adrenergic and D1/D5 dopaminergic receptors and promoting the trafficking and insertion of functional AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The reduction of EPSC amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons by the peroxynitrite donor SIN-1 requires Ca2+ influx via postsynaptic non-L-type voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhaowei, Liu; Yongling, Xie; Jiajia, Yang; Zhuo, Yang

    2014-02-01

    The peroxynitrite free radical (ONOO(-)) modulation of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) was investigated in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. SIN-1(3-morpholino-sydnonimine), which can lead the simultaneous generation of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, and then form the highly reactive species ONOO(-), induced dose-dependent inhibition in amplitudes of both mEPSCs and sEPSCs. The SIN-1 action on mEPSC amplitude was completely blocked by U0126, a selective MEK inhibitor, suggesting that MEK contributed to the action of ONOO(-) on mEPSCs. The effect of SIN-1 was completely occluded either in the presence of the calcium chelator EGTA or the non-selective calcium channel antagonist Cd(2+). Furthermore, the application of nifedipine (20 μM), the L-type calcium channel blocker, had no effect on the ONOO(-)-induced decrease in mEPSC amplitude, excluding a role for L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in this process. SIN-1 inhibited the frequency of sEPSCs but had no effect on mEPSC frequency, which suggested a presynaptic action potential-dependent the action of ONOO(-) at CA1 pyramidal neuron synapses. The best-known glutamatergic input to CA1 pyramidal neurons is via Schaffer collaterals from CA3 area. However, no changes were observed in slices treated with SIN-1 on the spontaneous firing rates of CA3 pyramidal neurons. These findings suggested that SIN-1 inhibited glutamatergic synaptic transmission of CA1 pyramidal neurons by a postsynaptic non-L-type voltage gated calcium channel-dependent mechanism.

  10. Different NMDA receptor subtypes mediate induction of long-term potentiation and two forms of short-term potentiation at CA1 synapses in rat hippocampus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Volianskis, Arturas; Bannister, Neil; Collett, Valerie J; Irvine, Mark W; Monaghan, Daniel T; Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Jensen, Morten S; Jane, David E; Collingridge, Graham L

    2013-01-01

    Potentiation at synapses between CA3 and the CA1 pyramidal neurons comprises both transient and sustained phases, commonly referred to as short-term potentiation (STP or transient LTP) and long-term potentiation (LTP), respectively. Here, we utilized four subtype-selective N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists to investigate whether the induction of STP and LTP is dependent on the activation of different NMDAR subtypes. We find that the induction of LTP involves the activation of NMDARs containing both the GluN2A and the GluN2B subunits. Surprisingly, however, we find that STP can be separated into two components, the major form of which involves activation of NMDARs containing both GluN2B and GluN2D subunits. These data demonstrate that synaptic potentiation at CA1 synapses is more complex than is commonly thought, an observation that has major implications for understanding the role of NMDARs in cognition. PMID:23230236

  11. Loss of calbindin-immunoreactivity in CA1 hippocampal stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons in the aged rat.

    PubMed

    Potier, B; Krzywkowski, P; Lamour, Y; Dutar, P

    1994-10-24

    Alterations in hippocampal circuitry may underly age-related learning and memory impairment. We showed in a previous study that the GABAB-mediated slow inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) induced in CA1 pyramidal neurons by electrical stimulation of stratum radiatum, is depressed in the hippocampus of the aged rat. This could be due to alterations in GABAergic interneuron functions. We report in this study that the number of hippocampal calbindin-immunoreactive (CaBP-IR) GABAergic interneurons is decreased in the aged rat. The mean number of CaBP-IR interneurons per slice decreases by 50% in the aged rat. The most severe loss was observed in the stratum radiatum of CA1 (78%), with a less consistent loss of immunoreactivity in CA3 (35%). In contrast, the mean number of interneurons containing parvalbumin (PV), was not significantly decreased in the aged rat. Our results show a loss of CaBP immunoreactivity in a population of GABAergic interneurons, which might be related to an altered function of these interneurons and consequently of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the aged rat. In contrast, PV immunoreactivity in interneurons located close to the pyramidal layer does not decrease in the hippocampus of the aged rat.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor controls activity-dependent maturation of CA1 synapses by downregulating tonic activation of presynaptic kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Sallert, Marko; Rantamäki, Tomi; Vesikansa, Aino; Anthoni, Heidi; Harju, Kirsi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Taira, Tomi; Castren, Eero; Lauri, Sari E

    2009-09-09

    Immature hippocampal synapses express presynaptic kainate receptors (KARs), which tonically inhibit glutamate release. Presynaptic maturation involves activity-dependent downregulation of the tonic KAR activity and consequent increase in release probability; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this developmental process are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secreted protein implicated in developmental plasticity in several areas of the brain, controls presynaptic maturation by regulating KARs. Application of BDNF in neonate hippocampal slices resulted in increase in synaptic transmission that fully occluded the immature-type KAR activity in area CA1. Conversely, genetic ablation of BDNF was associated with delayed synaptic maturation and persistent presynaptic KAR activity, suggesting a role for endogenous BDNF in the developmental regulation of KAR function. In addition, our data suggests a critical role for BDNF TrkB signaling in fast activity-dependent regulation of KARs. Selective acute inhibition of TrkB receptors using a chemical-genetic approach prevented rapid change in synapse dynamics and loss of tonic KAR activity that is typically seen in response to induction of LTP at immature synapses. Together, these data show that BDNF-TrkB-dependent maturation of glutamatergic synapses is tightly associated with a loss of endogenous KAR activity. The coordinated action of these two receptor mechanisms has immediate physiological relevance in controlling presynaptic efficacy and transmission dynamics at CA3-CA1 synapses at a stage of development when functional contact already exists but transmission is weak.

  13. Afferent-specific properties of interneuron synapses underlie selective long-term regulation of feedback inhibitory circuits in CA1 hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Croce, Ariane; Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Tartas, Maylis; Lacaille, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-15

    Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) develops at specific synapses onto hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus interneurons (OA-INs), suggesting selective regulation of distinct input pathways. Afferent-specific properties at interneuron synapses have been characterized extensively in CA3 stratum lucidum cells, but given interneuron diversity these rules of transmission and plasticity may not hold in other interneuron types. Here, we used paired recordings and demonstrate that CA2/3 pyramidal cell (PC) feedforward and CA1 PC feedback synapses onto OA-INs show distinct AMPA receptor rectification and Ca(2+) permeability, short-term plasticity and mGluR2/3-mediated inhibition. Only feedback synapses undergo Hebbian LTP. OA-IN firing during repeated synaptic stimulation displays onset-transient or late-persistent responses consistent with activation of feedforward and feedback inputs, respectively. Input-output functions are preserved after theta-burst stimulation, but late-persistent responses selectively show mGluR1-dependent long-term increases. Thus, cell type- and afferent-specific rules of transmission and plasticity underlie distinct OA-IN input-output functions, providing selective long-term regulation in feedback inhibitory networks.

  14. PARP-1 activation causes neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region by increasing the expression of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gerace, E; Masi, A; Resta, F; Felici, R; Landucci, E; Mello, T; Pellegrini-Giampietro, D E; Mannaioni, G; Moroni, F

    2014-10-01

    An excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) may trigger a form of neuronal death similar to that occurring in neurodegenerative disorders. To investigate this process, we exposed organotypic hippocampal slices to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 100μM for 5min), an alkylating agent widely used to activate PARP-1. MNNG induced a pattern of degeneration of the CA1 pyramidal cells morphologically similar to that observed after a brief period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). MNNG exposure was also associated with a dramatic increase in PARP-activity and a robust decrease in NAD(+) and ATP content. These effects were prevented by PARP-1 but not PARP-2 inhibitors. In our experimental conditions, cell death was not mediated by AIF translocation (parthanatos) or caspase-dependent apoptotic processes. Furthermore, we found that PARP activation was followed by a significant deterioration of neuronal membrane properties. Using electrophysiological recordings we firstly investigated the suggested ability of ADP-ribose to open TRPM2 channels in MNNG-induced cells death, but the results we obtained showed that TRPM2 channels are not involved. We then studied the involvement of glutamate receptor-ion channel complex and we found that NBQX, a selective AMPA receptor antagonist, was able to effectively prevent CA1 neuronal loss while MK801, a NMDA antagonist, was not active. Moreover, we observed that MNNG treatment increased the ratio of GluA1/GluA2 AMPAR subunit expression, which was associated with an inward rectification of the IV relationship of AMPA sEPSCs in the CA1 but not in the CA3 subfield. Accordingly, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of Ca(2+)-permeable GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors, reduced MNNG-induced CA1 pyramidal cell death. In conclusion, our results show that activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP-1 may change the expression of membrane proteins and Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA channels, thus affecting

  15. Superior temporal gyrus, language function, and autism.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Erin D; Mortensen, Sherstin; Neeley, E Shannon; Ozonoff, Sally; Krasny, Lori; Johnson, Michael; Lu, Jeffrey; Provencal, Sherri L; McMahon, William; Lainhart, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in language are a core feature of autism. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) is involved in auditory processing, including language, but also has been implicated as a critical structure in social cognition. It was hypothesized that subjects with autism would display different size-function relationships between the STG and intellectual-language-based abilities when compared to controls. Intellectual ability was assessed by either the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), where three intellectual quotients (IQ) were computed: verbal (VIQ), performance (PIQ), and full-scale (FSIQ). Language ability was assessed by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Third Edition (CELF-3), also divided into three index scores: receptive, expressive, and total. Seven to 19-year-old rigorously diagnosed subjects with autism (n = 30) were compared to controls (n = 39; 13 of whom had a deficit in reading) of similar age who were matched on education, PIQ, and head circumference. STG volumes were computed based on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). IQ and CELF-3 performance were highly interrelated regardless of whether subjects had autism or were controls. Both IQ and CELF-3 ability were positively correlated with STG in controls, but a different pattern was observed in subjects with autism. In controls, left STG gray matter was significantly (r = .42, p < or = .05) related to receptive language on the CELF-3; in contrast, a zero order correlation was found with autism. When plotted by age, potential differences in growth trajectories related to language development associated with STG were observed between controls and those subjects with autism. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible failure in left hemisphere lateralization of language function involving the STG in autism.

  16. Intracellular activities related to in vitro hippocampal sharp waves are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Chameh, H; Peng, J; Wu, C; Zhang, L

    2014-09-26

    Pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area interconnect intensively via recurrent axonal collaterals, and such CA3-to-CA3 recurrent circuitry plays important roles in the generation of hippocampal network activities. In particular, the CA3 circuitry is able to generate spontaneous sharp waves (SPWs) when examined in vitro. These in vitro SPWs are thought to result from the network activity of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons as SPW-correlating intracellular activities are featured with strong IPSPs in pyramidal neurons and EPSPs or spikes in GABAergic interneurons. In view of accumulating evidence indicating a decrease in subgroups of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in aged animals, we test the hypothesis that the intracellular activities related to in vitro SPWs are altered in CA3 pyramidal neurons of aged mice. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult and aged C57 black mice (ages 3-6 and 24-28months respectively). Population and single-cell activities were examined via extracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. CA3 SPW frequencies were not significantly different between the slices of adult and aged mice but SPW-correlating intracellular activities featured weaker IPSC components in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons compared to adult neurons. It was unlikely that this latter phenomenon was due to general impairments of GABAergic synapses in the aged CA3 circuitry as evoked IPSC responses and pharmacologically isolated IPSCs were observed in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. In addition, aged CA3 pyramidal neurons displayed more positive resting potentials and had a higher propensity of burst firing than adult neurons. We postulate that alterations of GABAergic network activity may explain the reduced IPCS contributions to in vitro SPWs in aged CA3 pyramidal neurons. Overall, our present observations are supportive of the notion that excitability of hippocampal CA3 circuitry is increased in aged mice.

  17. Electronic and Optical Properties of Ca3MN (M = Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb and Bi) Antiperovskite Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Samad; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Mahmood, Asif; Yar, Abdullah; Muzammil, M.; Khan, Matiullah

    2016-08-01

    The electronic and optical properties of cubic antiperovskites Ca3MN (M = Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb and Bi) were investigated by applying the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) scheme based on density functional theory. Different exchange correlation potentials were adopted for the calculations. The results of band structure and density of states show that, by changing the central anion of Ca3MN, the nature of the materials change from metallic (Ca3GeN, Ca3SnN, Ca3PbN) to semiconducting with small band gaps (Ca3SbN and Ca3BiN) to insulating (Ca3PN and Ca3AsN). The optical properties such as dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, reflectivity and refractive indices have also been calculated. The results reveal that all the studied compounds are optically active in the visible and ultraviolet energy regions, and therefore can be effectively utilized for optoelectronic devices.

  18. Neuropathology of the posteroinferior occipitotemporal gyrus in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While most neuropathologic studies focus on regions involved in behavioral abnormalities in autism, it is also important to identify whether areas that appear functionally normal are devoid of pathologic alterations. In this study we analyzed the posteroinferior occipitotemporal gyrus, an extrastriate area not considered to be affected in autism. This area borders the fusiform gyrus, which is known to exhibit functional and cellular abnormalities in autism. Findings No studies have implicated posteroinferior occipitotemporal gyrus dysfunction in autism, leading us to hypothesize that neuropathology would not occur in this area. We indeed observed no significant differences in pyramidal neuron number or size in layers III, V, and VI in seven pairs of autism and controls. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neuropathology is unique to areas involved in stereotypies and social and emotional behaviors, and support the specificity of the localization of pathology in the fusiform gyrus. PMID:24564936

  19. Place cells are more strongly tied to landmarks in deep than in superficial CA1

    PubMed Central

    Geiller, Tristan; Fattahi, Mohammad; Choi, June-Seek; Royer, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Environmental cues affect place cells responses, but whether this information is integrated versus segregated in distinct hippocampal cell populations is unclear. Here, we show that, in mice running on a treadmill enriched with visual-tactile landmarks, place cells are more strongly controlled by landmark-associated sensory inputs in deeper regions of CA1 pyramidal layer (CA1d). Many cells in CA1d display several firing fields correlated with landmarks, mapping positions slightly before or within the landmarks. Supporting direct involvement of sensory inputs, their firing fields show instantaneous responses to landmark manipulations, persist through change of context, and encode landmark identity and saliency. In contrast, cells located superficially in the pyramidal layer have single firing fields, are context specific and respond with slow dynamics to landmark manipulations. These findings suggest parallel and anatomically segregated circuits within CA1 pyramidal layer, with variable ties to landmarks, allowing flexible representation of spatial and non-spatial information. PMID:28218283

  20. Reduced excitatory drive onto interneurons in the dentate gyrus after status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Doherty, J; Dingledine, R

    2001-03-15

    Impaired GABAergic inhibition may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability in epilepsy. We used the pilocarpine model of epilepsy to demonstrate that regulation of excitatory synaptic drive onto GABAergic interneurons is impaired during epileptogenesis. Synaptic input from granule cells (GCs), perforant path, and CA3 inputs onto hilar border interneurons of the dentate gyrus were examined in rat hippocampal slices during the latent period (1-8 d) after induction of status epilepticus (SE). Short-term depression (STD) of GC inputs to interneurons induced by brief (500-800 msec), repetitive (5-20 Hz) stimulation, as well as paired-pulse depression at both GC and CA3 inputs to interneurons, were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in SE-experienced rats. In contrast, we found no significant differences between SE-experienced and age-matched control rats in the properties of minimal EPSCs evoked at low frequency (0.3 Hz). Consistent with reduced GABAergic inhibition onto granule cells, paired-pulse depression of perforant path-evoked granule cell population spikes was lost in SE-experienced rats. Enhanced STD was partially mediated by group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, because the selective antagonist, 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid, attenuated STD in SE-experienced rats but had no effect on STD of GC inputs in the normal adult rat. The group II mGluR agonist, (2S',1R',2R',3R')-2-(2,3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl) glycine (1 micrometer), produced a greater depression of GC input to hilar border interneurons in SE-experienced rats than in controls. These results indicate that, in the SE-experienced rat, excitatory drive to hilar border inhibitory interneurons is weakened through a use-dependent mechanism involving group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  1. Endocannabinoid Release Modulates Electrical Coupling between CCK Cells Connected via Chemical and Electrical Synapses in CA1

    PubMed Central

    Iball, Jonathan; Ali, Afia B.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical coupling between some subclasses of interneurons is thought to promote coordinated firing that generates rhythmic synchronous activity in cortical regions. Synaptic activity of cholecystokinin (CCK) interneurons which co-express cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors are powerful modulators of network activity via the actions of endocannabinoids. We investigated the modulatory actions of endocannabinoids between chemically and electrically connected synapses of CCK cells using paired whole-cell recordings combined with biocytin and double immunofluorescence labeling in acute slices of rat hippocampus at P18–20 days. CA1 stratum radiatum CCK Schaffer collateral-associated cells were coupled electrically with each other as well as CCK basket cells and CCK cells with axonal projections expanding to dentate gyrus. Approximately 50% of electrically coupled cells received facilitating, asynchronously released inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSPs) that curtailed the steady-state coupling coefficient by 57%. Tonic CB1 receptor activity which reduces inhibition enhanced electrical coupling between cells that were connected via chemical and electrical synapses. Blocking CB1 receptors with antagonist, AM-251 (5 μM) resulted in the synchronized release of larger IPSPs and this enhanced inhibition further reduced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 85%. Depolarization induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), maintained the asynchronicity of IPSP latency, but reduced IPSP amplitudes by 95% and enhanced the steady-state coupling coefficient by 104% and IPSP duration by 200%. However, DSI did not did not enhance electrical coupling at purely electrical synapses. These data suggest that different morphological subclasses of CCK interneurons are interconnected via gap junctions. The synergy between the chemical and electrical coupling between CCK cells probably plays a role in activity-dependent endocannabinoid modulation of rhythmic synchronization. PMID

  2. Enhancement of Synaptic Potentials in Rabbit CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Following Classical Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loturco, Joseph J.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1988-03-01

    A synaptic potential elicited by high-frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals was enhanced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from rabbits that were classically conditioned relative to cells from control rabbits. In addition, confirming previous reports, the after-hyperpolarization was reduced in cells from conditioned animals. We suggest that reduced after-hyperpolarization and enhanced synaptic responsiveness in cells from conditioned animals work in concert to contribute to the functioning of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells during classical conditioning.

  3. Parallel memory processing by the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Martín; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Rossato, Janine I; Lima, Ramón H; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván

    2008-07-29

    There is abundant literature on the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus in memory formation of inhibitory avoidance (IA) and other behaviorally arousing tasks. Here, we investigate molecular correlates of IA consolidation in the two structures and their relation to NMDA receptors (NMDArs) and beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ADrs). The separate posttraining administration of antagonists of NMDAr and beta-ADr to BLA and CA1 is amnesic. IA training is followed by an increase of the phosphorylation of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and ERK2 in CA1 but only an increase of the phosphorylation of ERK2 in BLA. The changes are blocked by NMDAr antagonists but not beta-ADr antagonists in CA1, and they are blocked by beta-ADr but not NMDAr antagonists in BLA. In addition, the changes are accompanied by increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BLA but not in CA1, suggesting that beta-AD modulation results from local catecholamine synthesis in the former but not in the latter structure. NMDAr blockers in CA1 do not alter the learning-induced neurochemical changes in BLA, and beta-ADr blockade in BLA does not hinder those in CA1. When put together with other data from the literature, the present findings suggest that CA1 and BLA play a role in consolidation, but they operate to an extent in parallel, suggesting that each is probably involved with different aspects of the task studied.

  4. Impacts of CD33 Genetic Variations on the Atrophy Rates of Hippocampus and Parahippocampal Gyrus in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Ying; Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Lin; Sun, Fu-Rong; Tan, Meng-Shan; Tan, Chen-Chen; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-03-01

    The cluster of differentiation 33 (CD33) has been proved as a susceptibility locus associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) based on recent genetic studies. Numerous studies have shown that multiple neuroimaging measures are potent predictors of AD risk and progression, and these measures are also affected by genetic variations in AD. Figuring out the association between CD33 genetic variations and AD-related brain atrophy may shed light on the underlying mechanisms of CD33-related AD pathogenesis. Thus, we investigated the influence of CD33 genotypes on AD-related brain atrophy to clarify the possible means by which CD33 impacts AD. A total of 48 individuals with probable AD, 483 mild cognitive impairment, and 281 cognitively normal controls were recruited from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. We investigated the influence of CD33 SNPs on hippocampal volume, parahippocampal gyrus volume, posterior cingulate volume, middle temporal volume, hippocampus CA1 subregion volume, and entorhinal cortex thickness. We found that brain regions significantly affected by CD33 genetic variations were restricted to hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus in hybrid population, which were further validated in subpopulation (MCI and NC) analysis. These findings reaffirm the importance of the hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus in AD pathogenesis, and present evidences for the CD33 variations influence on the atrophy of specific AD-related brain structures. Our findings raise the possibility that CD33 polymorphisms contribute to the AD risk by altering the neuronal degeneration of hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus.

  5. Selective Degeneration of Entorhinal-CA1 Synapses in Alzheimer's Disease via Activation of DAPK1

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shu; Zhu, Houze; Tang, Na; Chen, Wenting; Li, Xinyan; Li, Hao; Pei, Lei; Liu, Dan; Mu, Yangling; Tian, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Excitatory pyramidal neurons in the entorhinal cortical layer II region (ECIIPN) form functional excitatory synapses with CA1 parvalbumin inhibitory neurons (CA1PV) and undergo selective degeneration in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we show that death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is selectively activated in ECIIPN of AD mice. Inhibition of DAPK1 by deleting a catalytic domain or a death domain of DAPK1 rescues the ECIIPN-CA1PV synaptic loss and improves spatial learning and memory in AD mice. This study demonstrates that activation of DAPK1 in ECIIPN contributes to a memory loss in AD and hence warrants a promising target for the treatment of AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our recent study reported that excitatory pyramidal neurons in the entorhinal cortical layer II region (ECIIPN) target to CA1 parvalbumin-type inhibitory neurons (CA1PV) at a direct pathway and are one of the most vulnerable brain cells that are selectively degenerated in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our present study shows that death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is selectively activated in ECIIPN of AD mice. Inhibition of DAPK1 by deleting a catalytic domain or a death domain of DAPK1 rescues the ECIIPN-CA1PV synaptic loss and improves spatial learning and memory in the early stage of AD. These data not only demonstrate a crucial molecular event for synaptic degeneration but also provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of AD. PMID:27798139

  6. Destructive power dynamics of alpha-theta oscillations via spike and wave in CA3.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guoya; Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Wenwen; Cheng, Zhishuang; Ge, Manling

    2010-01-01

    The power dynamics of alpha-theta oscillations via inter-ictal spikes and waves (SWs) in CA3 is investigated by means of Hilbert transform and the statistical method based on CA3 channel of LFP(Local Field Potention) data sampled on total 6 rats in resting with sniffing and of iEEG data on total 10 patients in quiet wakefulness. The comparison of alpha-theta power is done between the inter-ictal groups and control groups. It is concluded that the inter-ictal SWs can disrupt the power of alpha-theta oscillations, leading to the decreased power after SW. Because the alpha-theta oscillations are related with the cognition, it is estimated that the inter-ictal SWs can negatively affecte the cognitive function during the inter-ictal dynamics, although the alpha-theta power will be recoverable in some days after injections, even exceed over the power level before injections.

  7. Domains and ferroelectric switching pathways in Ca3Ti2O7 from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowadnick, Elizabeth A.; Fennie, Craig J.

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid improper ferroelectricity, where an electrical polarization can be induced via a trilinear coupling to two nonpolar structural distortions of different symmetries, recently was demonstrated experimentally in the n =2 Ruddlesden-Popper compound Ca3Ti2O7 . In this paper we use group theoretic methods and first-principles calculations to identify possible ferroelectric switching pathways in Ca3Ti2O7 . We identify low-energy paths that reverse the polarization direction by switching via an orthorhombic twin domain or via an antipolar structure. We also introduce a chemically intuitive set of local order parameters to give insight into how these paths are relevant to ferroelectric switching nucleated at domain walls. Our findings suggest that switching may proceed via more than one mechanism in this material.

  8. Biophysical Properties of ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels in CA3 Hippocampal Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obregón-Herrera, Armando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Onetti, Carlos G.

    2004-09-01

    Single-channel activity of glucose-sensitive channels from CA3 neurons of the rat hippocampus, was studied in cell-attached membrane patches. Single-channel activity was totally abolished at 20 mM external glucose. Glucose-sensitive channels were selective to K+ ions; the unitary conductance was 170 pS in 140 mM K+, and the K+ permeability was 3.86×10-13 cmṡs-1. The open-state probability (PO) increased with membrane depolarization as a result of mean open time enhancement and shortening of the closure periods. The activation midpoint was -79 mV. Glucose-sensitive K+ channel of CA3 neurons could be considered as an ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

  9. Terminal field and firing selectivity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons in the hippocampal CA3 area.

    PubMed

    Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas

    2011-12-07

    Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons.

  10. Ca3P2 and other topological semimetals with line nodes and drumhead surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y.-H.; Chiu, Ching-Kai; Chou, M. Y.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    As opposed to ordinary metals, whose Fermi surfaces are two dimensional, topological (semi)metals can exhibit protected one-dimensional Fermi lines or zero-dimensional Fermi points, which arise due to an intricate interplay between symmetry and topology of the electronic wave functions. Here, we study how reflection symmetry, time-reversal symmetry, SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry, and inversion symmetry lead to the topological protection of line nodes in three-dimensional semimetals. We obtain the crystalline invariants that guarantee the stability of the line nodes in the bulk and show that a quantized Berry phase leads to the appearance of protected surfaces states, which take the shape of a drumhead. By deriving a relation between the crystalline invariants and the Berry phase, we establish a direct connection between the stability of the line nodes and the drumhead surface states. Furthermore, we show that the dispersion minimum of the drumhead state leads to a Van Hove singularity in the surface density of states, which can serve as an experimental fingerprint of the topological surface state. As a representative example of a topological semimetal, we consider Ca3P2 , which has a line of Dirac nodes near the Fermi energy. The topological properties of Ca3P2 are discussed in terms of a low-energy effective theory and a tight-binding model, derived from ab initio DFT calculations. Our microscopic model for Ca3P2 shows that the drumhead surface states have a rather weak dispersion, which implies that correlation effects are enhanced at the surface of Ca3P2 .

  11. Bidirectional Hebbian plasticity at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Galván, Emilio J; Calixto, Eduardo; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2008-12-24

    Hippocampal area CA3 is critically involved in the formation of nonoverlapping neuronal subpopulations ("pattern separation") to store memory representations as distinct events. Efficient pattern separation relies on the strong and sparse excitatory input from the mossy fibers (MFs) to pyramidal cells and feedforward inhibitory interneurons. However, MF synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which, if unopposed, will degrade pattern separation because MF activation will now recruit additional CA3 pyramidal cells. Here, we demonstrate MF LTP in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons induced by the same stimulation protocol that induces MF LTP in pyramidal cells. This LTP was NMDA receptor (NMDAR) independent and occurred at MF Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptor synapses. LTP was prevented by with voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell soma during high-frequency stimulation (HFS), intracellular injections of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (20 mm), or bath applications of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine (10 microm). We propose that MF LTP in L-M interneurons preserves the sparsity of pyramidal cell activation, thus allowing CA3 to maintain its role in pattern separation. In the presence of the mGluR1alpha antagonist LY367385 [(S)-(+)-a-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid] (100 microm), the same HFS that induces MF LTP in naive slices triggered NMDAR-independent MF LTD. This LTD, like LTP, required activation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel and also was induced after blockade of IP(3) receptors with heparin (4 mg/ml) or the selective depletion of receptor-gated Ca(2+) stores with ryanodine (10 or 100 microm). We conclude that L-M interneurons are endowed with Ca(2+) signaling cascades suitable for controlling the polarity of MF long-term plasticity induced by joint presynaptic and postsynaptic activities.

  12. Bidirectional Hebbian Plasticity at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses on CA3 Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Emilio J; Calixto, Eduardo; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2009-01-01

    Hippocampal area CA3 is critically involved in the formation of non-overlapping neuronal subpopulations (“pattern separation”) to store memory representations as distinct events. Efficient pattern separation relies on the strong and sparse excitatory input from the mossy fibers (MF) to pyramidal cells and feed-forward inhibitory interneurons. However, MF synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells undergo LTP, which, if unopposed, will degrade pattern separation as MF activation will now recruit additional CA