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Sample records for h-ficolin serum concentration

  1. Studies of the Pattern Recognition Molecule H-ficolin

    PubMed Central

    Zacho, Rikke M.; Jensen, Lisbeth; Terp, Randi; Jensenius, Jens C.; Thiel, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Ficolins are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. H-ficolin is found in plasma associated with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When H-ficolin binds to microorganisms the MASPs are activated, which in turn activate the complement system. H-ficolin is the most abundant ficolin in humans, yet its ligand binding characteristics and biological role remain obscure. We examined the binding of H-ficolin to Aerococcus viridans as well as to a more defined artificial target, i.e. acetylated bovine serum albumin. A strict dependence for calcium ions and inhibition at high NaCl concentration was found. The binding to acetylated bovine serum albumin was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid and sodium acetate as well as by N-acetylated glucosamine and galactosamine (GlcNAc and GalNAc) and glycine (GlyNAc). The binding to A. viridans was sensitive to the same compounds, but, importantly, higher concentrations were needed for inhibition. N-Acetylated cysteine was also inhibitory, but this inhibition was parallel with reduction in the oligomerization of H-ficolin and thus represents structural changes of the molecule. Based on our findings, we developed a procedure for the purification of H-ficolin from serum, involving PEG precipitation, affinity chromatography on Sepharose derivatized with acetylated serum albumin, ion exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The purified H-ficolin was observed to elute at 700 kDa, similar to what we find for H-ficolin in whole serum. MASP-2 was co-purified with H-ficolin, and the purified H-ficolin·MASP-2 complex could activate complement as measured by cleavage of complement factor C4. This study extends our knowledge of the specificity of this pattern recognition molecule, and the purified product will enable further studies. PMID:22238349

  2. Studies of the pattern recognition molecule H-ficolin: specificity and purification.

    PubMed

    Zacho, Rikke M; Jensen, Lisbeth; Terp, Randi; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen

    2012-03-09

    Ficolins are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. H-ficolin is found in plasma associated with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When H-ficolin binds to microorganisms the MASPs are activated, which in turn activate the complement system. H-ficolin is the most abundant ficolin in humans, yet its ligand binding characteristics and biological role remain obscure. We examined the binding of H-ficolin to Aerococcus viridans as well as to a more defined artificial target, i.e. acetylated bovine serum albumin. A strict dependence for calcium ions and inhibition at high NaCl concentration was found. The binding to acetylated bovine serum albumin was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid and sodium acetate as well as by N-acetylated glucosamine and galactosamine (GlcNAc and GalNAc) and glycine (GlyNAc). The binding to A. viridans was sensitive to the same compounds, but, importantly, higher concentrations were needed for inhibition. N-Acetylated cysteine was also inhibitory, but this inhibition was parallel with reduction in the oligomerization of H-ficolin and thus represents structural changes of the molecule. Based on our findings, we developed a procedure for the purification of H-ficolin from serum, involving PEG precipitation, affinity chromatography on Sepharose derivatized with acetylated serum albumin, ion exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The purified H-ficolin was observed to elute at 700 kDa, similar to what we find for H-ficolin in whole serum. MASP-2 was co-purified with H-ficolin, and the purified H-ficolin·MASP-2 complex could activate complement as measured by cleavage of complement factor C4. This study extends our knowledge of the specificity of this pattern recognition molecule, and the purified product will enable further studies.

  3. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Işlak Mutcal, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Mete, Bilgül; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Materials and Methods: Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have “microbiologically confirmed infection”, “clinically documented infection”, or “fever of unknown origin” were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Results: Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had “microbiologically confirmed infection”, 17 (37%) had “clinically documented infection”, and 18 (39.1%) had “fever of unknown origin”. Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Conclusion: Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and

  4. Structural insights into the innate immune recognition specificities of L- and H-ficolins

    PubMed Central

    Garlatti, Virginie; Belloy, Nicolas; Martin, Lydie; Lacroix, Monique; Matsushita, Misao; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thielens, Nicole M; Gaboriaud, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Innate immunity relies critically upon the ability of a few pattern recognition molecules to sense molecular markers on pathogens, but little is known about these interactions at the atomic level. Human L- and H-ficolins are soluble oligomeric defence proteins with lectin-like activity, assembled from collagen fibers prolonged by fibrinogen-like recognition domains. The X-ray structures of their trimeric recognition domains, alone and in complex with various ligands, have been solved to resolutions up to 1.95 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Both domains have three-lobed structures with clefts separating the distal parts of the protomers. Ca2+ ions are found at sites homologous to those described for tachylectin 5A (TL5A), an invertebrate lectin. Outer binding sites (S1) homologous to the GlcNAc-binding pocket of TL5A are present in the ficolins but show different structures and specificities. In L-ficolin, three additional binding sites (S2–S4) surround the cleft. Together, they define an unpredicted continuous recognition surface able to sense various acetylated and neutral carbohydrate markers in the context of extended polysaccharides such as 1,3-β-D-glucan, as found on microbial or apoptotic surfaces. PMID:17215869

  5. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  6. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-04-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.

  7. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (≥200 nmol/L vs. <200 nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (≥200 nmol/L compared with <200 nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs ≥200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates >45 beats per min (compared with ≤45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs.

  8. Serum copper and zinc concentrations in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Cesur, Salih; Kocaturk, Pelin Aribal; Kavas, Guzin Ozelci; Aksaray, Sebahat; Tezeren, Deniz; Ciftci, Ugur

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the alterations in serum trace element concentrations, including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in patients with brucellosis and to compare them with the results of healthy individuals. Seventy-five subjects, 60 patients with brucellosis and 15 healthy individuals were included in this study. The serum Zn and Cu concentrations were measured by using atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer in sera of patients with brucellosis and statistically compared with those of healthy individuals. Serum Cu concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with brucellosis than that of healthy individual (130.5+/-24.7, 96+/-8.65 microg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.01). Serum Zn concentration was lower in patients with brucellosis than those of healthy subjects (79.5 +/-13.5 and 83+/-5.59 microg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.01). Serum trace element concentrations showed significant alterations in patients with brucellosis compared with healthy subjects.

  9. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995

  10. Serum copper concentration as an index of clinical lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Molteni, A.; Ward, W.F.; Kim, Y.T.; Shetty, R.; Brizio-Molteni, L.; Giura, R.; Ribner, H.; Lomont, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this ongoing study is to determine whether thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer produces an early increase in serum copper (Cu) concentration, an increase which might predict clinical outcome. Copper and iron concentrations were measured in serum obtained from nonsmall cell lung cancer patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the start of radiotherapy. Control groups included patients irradiated for breast cancer (low dose of radiation to the lung), for endometrial, cervical or prostatic cancer, and patients with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cutaneous burns with or without smoke inhalation. Serum Cu concentration increased at least 10 micrograms/dl from the pretreatment level in approximately 75% of the adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer patients, but in only 1 of 4 undifferentiated lung cancer cases. In virtually all of these responders, serum Cu increased to a maximum at 2 weeks after the start of therapy, then plateaued or decreased slightly despite continuing irradiation. Within the subset of squamous cell lung cancers, there was a direct correlation between the degree of histologic differentiation and both baseline serum Cu concentration and the probability of an early increase therein. In contrast, only 33% of breast cancer patients and 15% of endometrial, cervical and prostate cancer patients exhibited an increase in serum Cu concentration at 2 weeks after the start of radiotherapy. Serum Cu concentration was within normal limits in virtually all patients with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and COPD. Burn patients exhibited a significant reduction in serum Cu, although concomitant smoke inhalation increased serum Cu back to low-normal levels. Serum iron concentration did not change significantly in any category of patients.

  11. Serum ferritin concentration in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lynn, K L; Mitchell, T R; Shepperd, J

    1980-09-01

    Studies in 144 patients on maintenace hemodialysis have shown that serum ferritin concentration is influenced by the period the patient has been on dialysis, the presence of liver disease and to some extent the underlying diagnosis. It was observed that parenteral iron therapy could still produce an increase in hemoglobin concentration when the serum ferritin was as high as 60--55 micrograms/l. This suggests that the target serum ferritin, whatever the route of iron replacement, should be at least 55 micrograms/l. The higher levels of ferritin at which an increase in hemoglobin concentration can occur, together with the variable increment in serum ferritin after parenteral iron, indicates that the simple relationship between serum ferritin and marrow iron stores may be distrubed in some patients.

  12. Serum copper concentration as an index of experimental lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Ischiropoulos, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury in two rat models of pneumotoxicity: hemithoracic irradiation and monocrotaline ingestion. In both models there was a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration. This hypercupremia paralleled the development of pulmonary endothelial dysfunction (decreased lung plasminogen activator activity and increased prostacyclin production) and pulmonary fibrosis (hydroxyproline accumulation). In the radiation model, lung injury and hypercupremia persisted for at least 6 months, and were spared similarly when the total dose was delivered in multiple daily fractions as compared to single doses. In irradiated rats, the elevated serum Cu concentration was accompanied by increases in plasma ceruloplasmin, lung Cu concentration, and lung Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In monocrotaline-treated rats, lung damage and hypercupremia also were accompanied by a reduction in liver Cu concentration, and by a direct correlation between the concentrations of Cu and SGOT in the serum. In both models, some but not all modifiers of lung damage (penicillamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, pentoxifylline) also partially prevented the insult-induced hypercupremia. In contrast, serum iron concentration was largely independent of treatment in all experiments. These data suggest that elevated serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in irradiated and monocrotaline-treated rats.

  13. Effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Itoga, Yoshie; Yasuhara, Masato

    2006-12-03

    To clarify the mechanism of fluoroquinolone-induced abnormalities in blood glucose, the effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration was investigated in rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of levofloxacin and their arterial blood was sampled periodically. The serum glucose concentration decreased after an injection of 100 mg/kg of levofloxacin, while it increased at levofloxacin 300 mg/kg. The serum immunoreactive insulin concentration increased as the dose of levofloxacin increased. The serum epinephrine concentration was rapidly elevated by levofloxacin at 300 mg/kg. The serum histamine concentration increased after injections of levofloxacin, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Diphenhydramine (1 mg/kg) antagonized the hyperglycemia induced by 300 mg/kg of levofloxacin. In an in vitro study, the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla in the presence of levofloxacin was determined. Levofloxacin (300 microg/ml) did not affect epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla. Levofloxacin can induce hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in rats. Levofloxacin can promote histamine release, leading to an increased serum epinephrine concentration and hyperglycemia.

  14. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  15. Serum albumin concentrations and oedema in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1986-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration was measured in 195 infants of 25 to 42 weeks' gestation during the neonatal period. Concentrations were significantly lower in preterm infants, rising from a mean of 19 g/l at 26 weeks to 31 g/l at term. There was a 15% increase in albumin concentrations in the first three weeks of life. Oedema in the early and late neonatal period was common in preterm infants but correlated poorly with hypoalbuminaemia. Measurement of serum albumin concentrations in preterm infants either routinely or because of oedema is not clinically useful. PMID:3740904

  16. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-10-01

    High serum copper concentration--a well-known effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use--has been linked to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The influence of OCs containing newer progestins has not been investigated, however. This concern was addressed in a 1987-88 cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 610 nonpregnant, nonlactating West German women 18-44 years of age. 195 women (32.1%) were current OC users, but only 152 of these women were able to cite the name of the formulation they were taking. In 70% of cases, the OC contained less than 45 mcg of ethylestradiol (median dose, 32.4 mcg). The most common progestin components were desogestrel (41%) and levonorgestrel (30%). Mean serum copper concentration was higher among users of all types of OCs than among non-users, but this concentration varied more strongly according to the OC's progestin compound than its estrogen content. The greatest increase in serum copper (55% compared with non-users) was recorded in users of OCs containing anti-androgen progestins, followed by desogestrel (46%), norethisterone/lynestrenol (42%), and levonorgestrel (34%). The increase in serum copper was more pronounced in women taking OCs containing 45 mcg or less of ethylestradiol than in users of OCs with a high estrogen dose. In the regression models, the different progestin compounds alone explained 28% of the total variance in serum copper concentration. Further investigation of OC-induced increases in serum copper concentration and their impact on cardiovascular risk are warranted.

  17. Vitamin A concentrations in serum and liver from Florida panthers.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; Cunningham, M W; Linda, S B

    1999-04-01

    Many of the anomalies and clinical signs afflicting the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) are suggestive of vitamin A deficiency. Our objectives in this study were to determine if a vitamin A deficiency exists in the free-ranging panther population and to determine if there are differences in vitamin A levels among various subgroups of free-ranging panthers. Retinol concentrations were used as an index to Vitamin A concentrations and were determined in serum and liver from free-ranging (serum, n = 45; liver, n = 22) and captive (serum, n = 9; liver, n = 2) juvenile and adult Florida panthers from southern peninsular Florida (USA), and in liver from free-ranging cougars (F. concolor subspp.) from Washington (USA) and Texas (USA) between November 1984 and March 1994. Combined juvenile (6- to 24-mo-old) and adult (> 24-mo-old) free-ranging Florida panthers had mean +/- SD serum retinol concentrations of 772.5 +/- 229 pmol/ml. Adult free-ranging Florida panthers had mean liver retinol concentrations of 4794.5 +/- 3747 nmol/g. Free-ranging nursing Florida panther kittens (age < 1 mo) had mean serum retinol concentrations of 397.9 +/- 69 pmol/ml. Among subgroups of free-ranging Florida panthers, females had higher corrected mean serum retinol concentrations than males and adult free-ranging Florida panthers had higher mean liver retinol concentrations than juveniles. Retinol concentrations in free-ranging Florida panthers did not differ significantly from those in captive panthers (liver and serum) or other free-ranging cougars (liver). Based on limited published values and our controls, a vitamin A deficiency could not be demonstrated in the Florida panther population nor were any subgroups or individuals considered deficient.

  18. [Does coffee drinking influence serum uric acid concentration?].

    PubMed

    Olak-Białoń, Bogusława; Marcisz, Czesław; Jonderko, Gerard; Olak, Zygfryd; Szymszal, Jan; Orzeł, Arkadiusz

    2004-01-01

    The drinking of coffee, a commonly used beverage, was a subject of many studies, mainly regarded to coffee influence on cardiovascular system. However, only one study indicates that coffee drinking in male adults may lead to decrease in serum uric acid level. Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor of many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of coffee drinking on serum uric acid concentration. 1955 working persons aged from 18 to 65 years were included into research. There were 571 women among them. We determined energy expenditure during professional work, blood pressure, body mass index, and measured serum levels of uric acid, glucose and creatinine. The amount of coffee and ethanol consumption was evaluated on the ground of an interview. It was showed that persons drinking coffee have lower serum uric acid concentration than non-drinkers, especially among women, who drank more coffee then men. Uricaemia was correlated negatively with number of cups of coffee consumed and positively with body mass index, ethanol consumption and diastolic blood pressure. The author conclude that: 1) among women drinking on an average 10 cups of coffee per week appeared a decrease in serum uric acid concentration and a lower risk of development of hyperuricaemia, 2) elevated serum uric acid concentration is accompanied by elevated blood pressure and increased body mass index.

  19. The association between serum TSH concentration and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Boelaert, Kristien

    2009-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that the serum concentration of TSH is an independent predictor for the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in patients with nodular thyroid disease. Furthermore, preoperative serum TSH concentrations are higher in patients with more aggressive tumours, suggesting a potential role for TSH in the progression of differentiated thyroid cancer. Based on these observations, patients with higher serum TSH concentrations and borderline cytological results may require more aggressive investigation and treatment when compared with those with lower baseline TSH levels. The mechanisms underlying the finding of higher serum TSH in patients with thyroid cancer remain unexplained. In this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer, Fiore et al. have analysed the relationship between serum TSH and diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer in 10 178 patients with nodular thyroid disease who were investigated by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. They found significantly higher TSH concentrations in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid cancer compared with those with benign disease. In addition, they found that the development of autonomous thyroid function (TSH<0.4 muU/ml) was associated with a reduction in the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this commentary, the evidence regarding the association between serum TSH and thyroid cancer is discussed placing these new findings into context.

  20. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    PubMed

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.

  1. Serum nickel concentrations in hemodialysis patients with environmental exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, S.M.; Fay, W.P.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum specimens from 22 healthy hospital workers and 30 patients with end-stage renal disease treated by extracorporeal hemodialysis, who resided in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, a city with extensive nickel mines and smelters. Samples of tap water from Sudbury contained 109 +/- 46 micrograms Ni per L (P less than 0.01 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding water samples from Hartford, Connecticut). Serum nickel concentrations averaged 0.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms Ni per L in Sudbury hospital workers (P less than 0.05 vs 0.2 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding serums from 43 healthy hospital workers in Hartford). In serums collected post-treatment from Sudbury hemodialysis patients, nickel concentrations averaged 8.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms Ni per L, (i.e., 14-times the corresponding mean in Sudbury hospital workers, P less than 0.01), but were not significantly higher than the nickel concentrations in serums from 42 Hartford hemodialysis patients (7.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms Ni per L). This study confirms the presence of hypernickelemia in hemodialysis patients, but does not suggest that hemodialysis patients have significantly increased risk of nickel toxicity in Sudbury, compared to Hartford, despite the high nickel concentrations in Sudbury tap water. This favorable outcome attests to the efficient deionization of water used to prepare hemodialysis solutions in Sudbury.

  2. Serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with serum iron level and outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.

  3. Increases in Serum Growth Hormone Concentrations Associated with GHB Administration.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Bartlett, Christiaan; Kicman, Andrew T; Cowan, David A

    2017-01-01

    The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration. The serum concentrations of GHB were measured by GC-MS and GH by immunometric assay. Following GHB administration, volunteers exhibited effects consistent with mild sedation, i.e., relaxed with normal responses to verbal stimuli. Despite none being asleep, an increase in serum GH concentration occurred in 11 out of the 12 volunteers (5 women and 6 men). In these volunteers, peak GH concentrations occurred 45-60 min post-administration compared with a mean serum tmax for GHB of 23 min (SD = 5.4 min). The absolute increase in GH was similar for men and women, averaging 3.4 and 3.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean intra-individual increase in GH was much greater in males (29 times) compared with females (2 times), as males had (as expected) smaller basal GH concentrations (mean = 0.26 ng/mL) compared with females (mean = 5.4 ng/mL). After maximizing, the GH concentration decreased rapidly (in agreement with GHB concentrations), returning to basal concentrations at ~90-120 min post-administration. GHB administration at a small therapeutic dose results in increases in serum GH concentrations in healthy male and female volunteers in the absence of sleep onset.

  4. Serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Karakiewicz, Beata; Kozielec, Tadeusz; Brodowski, Jacek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Noceń, Iwona; Starczewski, Andrzej; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2007-03-01

    Drug addiction is a complex problem which leads to many somatic, psychic and social diseases. It is accompanied by the disturbed metabolism of various macro and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients and analyze whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and methadone treatment affect the level of serum magnesium in these patients. The examination was conducted in a group of 83 people - patients of Szczecin-Zdroje Psychiatric Hospital (Poland). They were 21 to 49 years old, and the mean age was 32 +/- 7 years. The control group consisted of 81 healthy individuals. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the magnesium concentration. The total serum magnesium concentration was calculated for the whole patient group, subgroups of women and men, a subgroup of people infected with HIV, and a subgroup receiving methadone substitution treatment. How magnesium behaves depending on age and addiction period, was checked. The mean concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the patients examined was 0.57 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than in the control group. In the subgroup of men it was 0.57 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of women - 0.55 mmol/L; the differences were not statistically significant. In the patient group nobody had the appropriate magnesium concentration in blood serum. No significant correlation was found between the magnesium concentration, age of the patients and addiction period. In the subgroup of seropositive people the mean concentration of magnesium was 0.55 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of non-infected patients - 0.58 mmol/L; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean concentration of magnesium in the subgroup treated with methadone was 0.59 mmol/L, and in the subgroup not involved in this type of therapy - 0.55 mmol/L; it was not a statistically significant difference.

  5. Predictors of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Anniston residents.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Wattigney, W A; Dutton, N D; Sjödin, A; Shelton, C; Turner, W E; Bartell, S M; Bartell, S; Carpenter, D O; Cash, J; Foushee, R; Percy, A; Frumkin, H; Lavender, M; Moysich, K; Olson, J; Pavuk, M; Rosenbaum, P; Silverstone, A; Weinstock, R; Shelton, C

    2014-10-15

    The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005-2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11-170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility.

  6. Predictors of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Anniston residents

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Wattigney, W.A.; Dutton, N.D.; Sjödin, A.; Shelton, C.; Turner, W.E.; Bartell, S.M.; Bartell, S.; Carpenter, D.O.; Cash, J.; Foushee, R.; Percy, A.; Frumkin, H.; Lavender, M.; Moysich, K.; Olson, J.; Pavuk, M.; Rosenbaum, P.; Silverstone, A.; Weinstock, R.; Shelton, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005–2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11–170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility. PMID:25115605

  7. Reduced serum myostatin concentrations associated with genetic muscle disease progression.

    PubMed

    Burch, Peter M; Pogoryelova, Oksana; Palandra, Joe; Goldstein, Richard; Bennett, Donald; Fitz, Lori; Guglieri, Michela; Bettolo, Chiara Marini; Straub, Volker; Evangelista, Teresinha; Neubert, Hendrik; Lochmüller, Hanns; Morris, Carl

    2017-01-10

    Myostatin is a highly conserved protein secreted primarily from skeletal muscle that can potently suppress muscle growth. This ability to regulate skeletal muscle mass has sparked intense interest in the development of anti-myostatin therapies for a wide array of muscle disorders including sarcopenia, cachexia and genetic neuromuscular diseases. While a number of studies have examined the circulating myostatin concentrations in healthy and sarcopenic populations, very little data are available from inherited muscle disease patients. Here, we have measured the myostatin concentration in serum from seven genetic neuromuscular disorder patient populations using immunoaffinity LC-MS/MS. Average serum concentrations of myostatin in all seven muscle disease patient groups were significantly less than those measured in healthy controls. Furthermore, circulating myostatin concentrations correlated with clinical measures of disease progression for five of the muscle disease patient populations. These findings greatly expand the understanding of myostatin in neuromuscular disease and suggest its potential utility as a biomarker of disease progression.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  9. Detection of surface bound complement at increasing serum anticoagulant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, S; Askendal, A; Lindahl, T L; Tengvall, P

    2008-04-01

    Surface mediated immune complement activation can be detected by a variety of antibody utilizing methods such as ELISA, fluorescence- or radiolabelling techniques, QCM, and ellipsometry. In the present work we investigated how the common anticoagulants heparin, dalteparin, fondaparinux and sodium citrate affected the binding of anti-complement factor 3c (anti-C3c) on a model complement activator surface, immobilised IgG, after incubation in human blood serum. The results show, as expected, that different anticoagulants affect the antibody binding differently. Increasing amounts of heparin, dalteparin and sodium citrate in normal serum resulted in a decreasing anti-C3c binding. The antibody deposition was not sensitive for the fondaparinux concentration. Surprisingly high concentrations of anti-coagulantia were needed to completely eradicate the antibody binding. Experiments in EGTA-serum showed that anticoagulants interfered directly with both the classical and alternative pathways. Control C3a-des arg ELISA measurements show that the lowered antibody surface binding was not a result of complement depletion in serum. Kallikrein generation by hydrophilic glass surfaces was not affected by high anticoagulant concentrations.

  10. Sodium cromoglycate in asthma: correlation between response and serum concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Yahav, Y; Dany, S; Katznelson, D; Farfel, Z

    1988-01-01

    The clinical response to sodium cromoglycate treatment was compared with its concentration in serum. Twenty five children with asthma entered a 10 week trial of two baseline weeks followed by eight weeks of treatment by the inhalation of 20 mg of sodium cromoglycate spincaps four times a day. Individual clinical response was determined by the differences between baseline and treatment periods of: (a) percentage of symptomless days (delta score 0); (b) diary derived daily score for four symptoms (delta DS); and (c) peak expiratory flow rate (delta PEFR). At the end of the treatment period, patients inhaled a 20 mg spincap of sodium cromoglycate and the technique of inhalation was graded. Concentrations of sodium cromoglycate in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples withdrawn 5 to 120 minutes after inhalation. Delta Score 0, delta DS, and delta PEFR correlated significantly with the area under the concentration time curve. Both the area under the sodium cromoglycate concentration time curve and clinical response correlated significantly with inhalation technique score. We suggest that response of children with asthma to inhalation treatment with sodium cromoglycate is correlated to its serum concentrations. PMID:3133990

  11. Effect of altitude training on serum creatine kinase activity and serum cortisol concentration in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  13. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates during continuous intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    van Boekholt, A; Fleuren, H; Mouton, J; Kramers, C; Sprong, T; Gerrits, P; Semmekrot, B

    2016-06-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal bacterial infection with intermittent dosing (ID) regimens. However, increasing bacterial resistance, in addition to a lack of new antimicrobial agents, urges the optimization of current therapeutic options. Clinical studies in adults suggest continuous infusion (CI) regimens of beta-lactam antibiotics to be superior to ID. There are as yet no guidelines concerning the CI dosing of amoxicillin. The present study was developed to describe the CI pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of amoxicillin during the first 3 days of life in search of the optimal dosing regimen. Neonates with a gestational age above 34 weeks, at risk of neonatal infection and requiring amoxicillin therapy, were included. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin were measured during CI on days 1 and 3 in the steady state. Twenty-two serum samples of 11 patients were collected. All patients reached and retained serum concentrations of amoxicillin within the therapeutic range without exceeding the toxic concentration (serum concentrations on day 1 mean 55.4 mg/l, range 30.9-69.5, SD 10.5, and on day 3 48.8 mg/l, range 25.5-92.4, SD 18.4). There was no significant decrease in concentration from day 1 to day 3 (p = 0.38). This study showed therapeutic, nontoxic concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates on CI of amoxicillin in the first 3 days of life. Randomized controlled trials should reveal whether the clinical benefits of the CI of amoxicillin exceed those of ID regimens.

  14. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  15. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  16. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably.

  17. Serum concentrations of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Faroese whale meat consumers.

    PubMed

    Weihe, Pal; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Nielsen, Flemming; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Needham, Larry L; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    To learn the extent of human exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in a remote fishing population, we measured, in Faroese children and pregnant women, the serum concentrations of nine PFCs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The serum samples analyzed had been collected between 1993 and 2005 from 103 children 7 years of age, 79 of these children at 14 years of age, and from 12 pregnant women and their children 5 years later. PFOS was detected in all samples analyzed, and both PFOA and PFNA were detected in all but one of the samples. The concentrations found are comparable tothose reported elsewhere. Correlations between paired concentrations were poor. However, PFOS and PFNA concentrations correlated well with the frequency of pilotwhale dinners and with concentrations of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. One whale meal every two weeks increased the PFOS concentration in 14-year-olds by about 25% and PFNA by 50%. The high frequency of detection of most PFCs suggests widespread exposure in the Faroe Islands already by the early 1990s, with whale meat being an important source.

  18. Multiple sclerosis influences on the augmentation of serum Klotho concentration.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mona; Emami Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Yarani, Reza; Tavakoli, Farhad; Siroos, Bahaadin

    2016-03-15

    We have already shown that the concentration of secreted form of Klotho decreases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The current study aimed at assessing possible changes in the serum Klotho concentration of MS patients. Participants involved 15 new cases of RRMS patients in the relapse phase, 15 RRMS patients who had been suffering from the disease for more than three years and were under regular treatments (interferon beta-1a) and, finally, 15 non-MS patients who constituted the control group. Beside thorough neurological examinations, demographic and clinical data (e.g. gender, age, duration of disease and expanded disability status scale) were obtained. Serum Klotho concentration was measured using ELISA method. The results showed no statistically meaningful difference between new cases of RRMS (585.56pg/ml±153.99) and control group (556.81pg/ml±120.36; P=0.859). The serum Klotho level, however, was significantly higher in patients with prolonged disease duration (696.94pg/ml±170.52; P=0.037) in comparison with the subjects in the control group. In conclusion, this study showed that serum Klotho concentration tends to be higher in MS patients when compared to control group. This finding might be attributed to treatment of MS patients with immunomodulatory drugs or a compensatory response to enhance CNS regeneration and/or vitamin D biosynthesis. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of Klotho in MS pathophysiology.

  19. Decrease in serum potassium concentration during epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R G

    1987-11-01

    A mean decrease in the arterial serum potassium concentration (S-K) of 0.40 mmol/l (range 0-1.0) was found in 45 elderly men who were studied before and after induction of epidural anaesthesia (using mepivacaine 2% with adrenaline). The decrease was similar in patients who received acetated Ringer solution or dextran 40 in normal saline as intravenous fluid supplementation. No difference in S-K change was found between patients with a normal (less than 115 mumol/l) or elevated serum creatinine concentration. The decrease in S-K prevailed at the end of surgery except in patients with an elevated serum creatinine. Corrections of S-K for changes in arterial blood pH and rectal temperature during induction of anaesthesia did not explain the decrease in S-K. Correlations of clinical parameters such as the extension of anaesthesia, amount of intravenous fluid given and blood pressure changes gave conflicting results. A smaller decrease or no change in S-K was usually seen in arterial (n = 7) and venous (n = 7) samples when no intravenous fluid was given, as well as in venous samples when acetated Ringer solution was given (n = 6).

  20. Decreased serum ceruloplasmin concentration in aluminum welders exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Pierre, F; Baruthio, F; Diebold, F; Wild, P; Goutet, M

    1988-01-01

    During an epidemiological survey on arc welders, serum copper and ceruloplasmin were determined in two groups of workers. One group consisted of aluminum welders who were divided into two groups: 13 welders working inside aluminum tanks (confined atmosphere) and 8 welders engaged in the production of vans for dump trucks (nonconfined atmosphere). The reference group consisted of 26 workers of the same plant who were not exposed to welding fumes. Ozone, the major pollutant in aluminum arc welding, was thought to be the principal factor in the significant decrease (P less than 0.01) of mean ceruloplasmin in confined welders. This decrease in the level of ceruloplasmin was still within the reference values and was not linked to age or to tobacco consumption. We found a linear relationship between ceruloplasmin concentration and the cumulated worktime along the week. This effect could be a sign in the serum of a lung reaction against oxidant activity in this type occupational exposure.

  1. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; <30 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and <60 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na(+) intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na(+) concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and serum osmolality (297 ± 6 vs 299 ± 5, 301 ± 6 mOsm/kg; P < 0.05) than low-salt and typical sweaters. Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms.

  2. Association Between Prediagnostic Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Glioma.

    PubMed

    Zigmont, Victoria; Garrett, Amy; Peng, Jin; Seweryn, Michal; Rempala, Grzegorz A; Harris, Randall; Holloman, Christopher; Gundersen, Thomas E; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Schwartzbaum, Judith

    2015-01-01

    There are no previous studies of the association between prediagnostic serum vitamin D concentration and glioma. Vitamin D has immunosuppressive properties; as does glioma. It was, therefore, our hypothesis that elevated vitamin D concentration would increase glioma risk. We conducted a nested case-control study using specimens from the Janus Serum Bank cohort in Norway. Blood donors who were subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 592), between 1974 and 2007, were matched to donors without glioma (n = 1112) on date and age at blood collection and sex. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an indicator of vitamin D availability, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Seasonally adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for each control quintile of 25(OH)D using conditional logistic regression. Among men diagnosed with high grade glioma >56, we found a negative trend (P = .04). Men diagnosed ≤ 56 showed a borderline positive trend (P = .08). High levels (>66 nmol/L) of 25(OH)D in men >56 were inversely related to high grade glioma from ≥2 yr before diagnosis (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.38, 0.91) to ≥15 yr before diagnosis (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.38,0.96). Our findings are consistent long before glioma diagnosis and are therefore unlikely to reflect preclinical disease.

  3. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    PubMed Central

    Papazoglu, Cristian; Ang, Jonathan R.; Mandel, Michael; Basak, Prasanta; Jesmajian, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy. PMID:26653695

  4. Association between Prediagnostic Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Zigmont, Victoria; Garrett, Amy; Peng, Jin; Seweryn, Michal; Rempala, Grzegorz A.; Harris, Randall; Holloman, Christopher; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Schwartzbaum, Judith

    2016-01-01

    There are no previous studies of the association between prediagnostic serum vitamin D concentration and glioma. Vitamin D has immunosuppressive properties; as does glioma. It was, therefore, our hypothesis that elevated vitamin D concentration would increase glioma risk. We conducted a nested case–control study using specimens from the Janus Serum Bank cohort in Norway. Blood donors who were subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 592), between 1974 and 2007, were matched to donors without glioma (n = 1112) on date and age at blood collection and sex. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), an indicator of vitamin D availability, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Seasonally adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were estimated for each control quintile of 25(OH)D using conditional logistic regression. Among men diagnosed with high grade glioma >56, we found a negative trend (P=.04). Men diagnosed ≤ 56 showed a borderline positive trend (P=.08). High levels (>66 nmol/L) of 25(OH)D in men > 56 were inversely related to high grade glioma from ≥ 2 years before diagnosis (OR=0.59; 95%CI=0.38,0.91) to ≥ 15 years before diagnosis (OR=0.61; 95%CI=0.38,0.96). Our findings are consistent long before glioma diagnosis and are therefore unlikely to reflect preclinical disease. PMID:26317248

  5. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2016-11-09

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol.

  6. Equine endurance exercise alters serum branched-chain amino acid and alanine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Trottier, N L; Nielsen, B D; Lang, K J; Ku, P K; Schott, H C

    2002-09-01

    Six 2-year-old Arabian horses were used to determine whether 60 km prolonged endurance exercise (approximately 4 h) alters amino acid concentrations in serum and muscle, and the time required for serum amino acid concentrations to return to basal resting values. Blood and muscle samples were collected throughout exercise and during a 3 day recovery period. Isoleucine concentration in muscle tended to increase and leucine and valine did not change due to exercise. Serum alanine concentrations did not increase immediately after exercise, but increased at 24, 48 and 72 h postexercise. Serum isoleucine, leucine, and valine concentrations decreased after exercise and time required to reach pre-exercising concentrations was 48 h. In conclusion, endurance exercise in the horse decreases serum isoleucine, leucine, and valine concentrations, and increases serum alanine concentration. The decrease in serum branched-chain amino acid concentrations did not correspond to a measurable increase in total muscle branched-chain amino acid concentrations.

  7. Annual changes in serum leptin concentration in the adult female Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Toshio; Sato, Miho; Okano, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Sachiko; Asano, Makoto; Komatsu, Takeshi; Shibata, Haruki; Saito, Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, assay of the serum leptin concentration of the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) was attempted using a canine-leptin-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The dose-response curve of the bear serum was linear and parallel to the canine leptin standard curve. In mated and unmated bears, the serum leptin concentration was stable at low levels from May to August or September, gradually increased from September or October, and then remarkably increased in late November. We conclude that this method may be useful for measuring bear serum leptin concentration and that the serum leptin concentration changes annually with a peak in late November.

  8. Serum infliximab concentrations in psoriatic patients treated with infliximab: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dannepond, Carole; Maruani, Annabel; Machet, Laurent; Ternant, David; Paintaud, Gilles; Samimi, Mahtab

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of infliximab is influenced by individual variability in its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Serum infliximab concentrations could therefore be related to the efficacy and tolerance of infliximab, and assist adjustment of treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the value of measuring serum infliximab concentrations in psoriatic patients. A bibliographic search was performed on MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS for original studies on serum infliximab concentrations in psoriatic patients treated with infliximab. Ten articles were included, representing evaluation of serum infliximab concentrations in 733 patients. Predictive value of higher serum infliximab concentrations on long-term response maintenance was suggested in 3 studies. There was no information regarding the value of such measurements for adjustment of infliximab dosage. Trough serum infliximab concentrations that are at least detectable (>0.1 mg/L) at steady state (week 22) seem to be associated with maintaining a clinical response in the long term.

  9. Association of Serum Irisin Concentrations with Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine, is closely correlated with obesity and body mass index. Obesity is one risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if serum irisin concentrations are correlated with the presence and severity of CAD. Material/Methods Serum irisin concentrations were determined in 350 patients with CAD and in 214 healthy subjects. The severity of CAD was assessed by coronary atherosclerosis index (CAI). Results Serum irisin concentrations were significantly lower in CAD patients compared with healthy controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that serum irisin concentrations were an independent determinant of the presence of CAD. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum irisin concentrations were negatively correlated with CAI in CAD patients. Conclusions Decreased serum irisin concentrations may be associated with the presence and severity of CAD. PMID:27815563

  10. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-07-21

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  11. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-05-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes.

  12. Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations in normal and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Day, M J; Penhale, W J

    1988-11-01

    The normal level of serum IgA in Western Australian dogs was defined by single radial immunodiffusion using sera from 100 healthy randomly selected adult crossbred animals. Serum IgA values of 185 animals from six breeds were also determined. The mean and variance of serum IgA of these groups were similar to the crossbred dogs with the exception of German shepherd dogs where these values were statistically greater. In addition, 210 dogs with a range of chronic diseases (autoimmune, hypersensitivity, pyoderma, neoplasia, demodecosis, disseminated aspergillosis) were assayed and low values recorded in five cases. In all disease groups the mean serum IgA value was significantly greater than in the crossbred group and the variance significantly greater in most of these groups. The German shepherd group were the only normal dogs with a mean and variance similar to those of the clinical series suggesting that this breed may have a primary defect in IgA metabolism.

  13. The Relationship Between Serum Bilirubin Concentration and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Demir, Canan; Uyan, Umut; Melek, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin inhibits the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; also there is a relationship between serum bilirubin and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between bilirubin and atrial fibrillation (AF) is still unknown. In our study, we compared serum bilirubin, between nonvalvular AF patients and controls. Materials and Method One hundred and two patients with nonvalvular chronic AF without any other cardiovascular disease (mean age 62.51 ± 5.88) were included in our study. One hundred age-matched healthy people with sinus rhythm were accepted as control groups (mean age 61.35 ± 5.44). Routine biochemical parameters and serum bilirubin levels were performed. Results No statistically significant difference was found between two groups in terms of basic characteristics. Total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels were significantly lower among persons with AF compared to controls (0.82 ± 0.8 vs. 0.48 ± 0.5, 0.30 ± 0.2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.1 and 0.52 ± 0.5 vs. 0.29 ± 0.3 mg/dL; all P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between serum bilirubin and nonvalvular AF.

  14. Serum potassium concentration in hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus with long-term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, A H; Avasthi, P S

    1987-05-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium level >6 mmol per liter [mEq per liter]), often with electrocardiographic disturbances, was noted at presentation in 30% of 73 hyperglycemic episodes (serum glucose concentration >25 mmol per liter [455 mg per dl]) observed in 15 in-hospital patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Serum glucose concentration and total carbon dioxide content correlated significantly with the presenting serum potassium concentration. Treatment with parenteral insulin alone resulted in a decrease of the serum glucose value from 41 +/- 14 (standard deviation) to 11 +/- 5 mmol per liter (P <.001) and of serum potassium level from 5.2 +/- 1.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.6 mmol per liter (P <.001). The changes in serum glucose concentration and in carbon dioxide content and the serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia were found to be independent correlates of the decrease in potassium concentration during treatment. Insulin alone resulted in correction of hyperkalemia in all instances. Posttreatment hypokalemia was noted in only two instances, each associated with both ketoacidosis and low-normal serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia. Giving insulin is the only treatment usually needed for the hyperkalemia of hyperglycemia in patients on ongoing dialysis.

  15. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    D’Adamo, Christopher R.; D’Urso, Antonietta; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Semba, Richard D.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10−9). Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841) in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations. PMID:26861389

  16. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; D'Urso, Antonietta; Ryan, Kathleen A; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Semba, Richard D; Steinle, Nanette I; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Patrick F

    2016-02-06

    Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10(-9)). Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841) in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations.

  17. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  18. The serum uric acid concentration is not causally linked to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Aila J; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Dahlström, Emma; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-02-21

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between uric acid concentration and progression of renal disease. Here we studied causality between the serum uric acid concentration and progression of diabetic nephropathy in 3895 individuals with type 1 diabetes in the FinnDiane Study. The renal status was assessed with the urinary albumin excretion rate and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and at the end of the follow-up. Based on previous genomewide association studies on serum uric acid concentration, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with good imputation quality were selected for the SNP score. This score was used to assess the causality between serum uric acid and renal complications using a Mendelian randomization approach. At baseline, the serum uric acid concentration was higher with worsening renal status. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, baseline serum uric acid concentration was not independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy over a mean follow-up of 7 years. However, over the same period, baseline serum uric acid was independently associated with the decline in eGFR. In the cross-sectional logistic regression analyses, the SNP score was associated with the serum uric acid concentration. Nevertheless, the Mendelian randomization showed no causality between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy, eGFR categories, or eGFR as a continuous variable. Thus, our results suggest that the serum uric acid concentration is not causally related to diabetic nephropathy but is a downstream marker of kidney damage.

  19. Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Cranford, Shannon M; Norby, Bo; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-11-01

    Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (<251 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (<150 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Border Collies, and German Shepherd Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations.

  20. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

  1. Serum copper concentration as an index of lung injury in rats exposed to hemithorax irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Fitzsimons, E.J.; Hinz, J.

    1988-06-01

    Serum copper concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury (monitored by lung prostacyclin production) with respect to the effects of time, dose, dose fractionation, and penicillamine dose modification in rats irradiated to the right hemithorax. Both lung PGI2 production and serum Cu concentration increased with increasing /sup 60/Co gamma-ray dose in animals sacrificed 2 or 6 months postirradiation, and the highest values for both responses were observed at the latter autopsy time. At 2 months postirradiation, the elevations in lung PGI2 production and serum Cu concentration also were spared similarly when total radiation doses were delivered in five equal daily fractions as compared to single doses. Finally, the ability of D-penicillamine to ameliorate the radiation-induced hyperproduction of PGI2 by rat lung was accompanied by an attenuation of the dose-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration at 2 months postirradiation in the drug-treated rats. In contrast, serum iron concentration was independent of time, dose, and penicillamine. At 2 months after irradiation, there also was a dose-dependent increase in lung hydroxyproline (collagen) content, the magnitude of which correlated closely with serum copper concentration in individual animals. Thus serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in rats irradiated to the hemithorax and can predict lung hydroxyproline (collagen) content in individual irradiated rats.

  2. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after /sup 131/I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before /sup 131/I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

  3. Serum-Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Atherosclerotic Diseases in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Geissen, Markus; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Winkler, Martin S.; Geffken, Maria; Peine, Sven; Schoen, Gerhard; Debus, E. Sebastian; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Daum, Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Atherosclerotic changes of arteries are the leading cause for deaths in cardiovascular disease and greatly impair patient’s quality of life. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid that regulates potentially pro-as well as anti-atherogenic processes. Here, we investigate whether serum-S1P concentrations are associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and carotid stenosis (CS). Methods and Results Serum was sampled from blood donors (controls, N = 174) and from atherosclerotic patients (N = 132) who presented to the hospital with either clinically relevant PAD (N = 102) or CS (N = 30). From all subjects, serum-S1P was measured by mass spectrometry and blood parameters were determined by routine laboratory assays. When compared to controls, atherosclerotic patients before invasive treatment to restore blood flow showed significantly lower serum-S1P levels. This difference cannot be explained by risk factors for atherosclerosis (old age, male gender, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, obesity, diabetes or smoking) or comorbidities (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney insufficiency or arrhythmia). Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that S1P has more power to indicate atherosclerosis (PAD and CS) than high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In 35 patients, serum-S1P was measured again between one and six months after treatment. In this group, serum-S1P concentrations rose after treatment independent of whether patients had PAD or CS, or whether they underwent open or endovascular surgery. Post-treatment S1P levels were highly associated to platelet numbers measured pre-treatment. Conclusions Our study shows that PAD and CS in humans is associated with decreased serum-S1P concentrations and that S1P may possess higher accuracy to indicate these diseases than HDL-C. PMID:27973607

  4. Current halogenated flame retardant concentrations in serum from residents of Shandong Province, China, and temporal changes in the concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yulong; Li, Peng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qinghua

    2017-02-16

    The residents of Shandong Province, China, are exposed to high concentrations of halogenated flame retardants because large amounts of halogenated flame retardants are produced in the province. We determined the concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs), seven novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and the two dechlorane plus isomers (DPs) in serum from residents of Shandong Province. The aim was to identify temporal trends in the concentrations of these pollutants. The mean total concentrations of PBDEs, NBFRs and DPs were 41, 2.2 and 2.1ng/g lipid in pooled serum samples collected in 2014, and were 32, 3.5 and 3.1ng/g lipid in pooled serum samples collected in 2015, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether was the dominant PBDE congener in all of the samples. The novel brominated flame retardant and dechlorane plus concentrations were between one and two orders of magnitude lower than the PBDE concentrations. The PBDE concentrations in serum decreased significantly between 2007 and 2015, but the pentabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, and dechlorane plus concentrations were relatively stable.

  5. Pretreatment serum xanthophyll concentrations as predictors of head and neck cancer recurrence and survival

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Anna E.; Bellile, Emily L.; Rozek, Laura S.; Peterson, Karen E.; Ren, Jianwei; Harris, Ethan; Mueller, Christie; Jolly, Shruti; Peterson, Lisa A.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations of pretreatment serum carotenoids, tocopherols, and quercetin with prognosis in 154 newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods Pretreatment blood and health surveys were collected. Serum micronutrients were measured by HPLC. Data on recurrence and death were collected annually. Cox proportional hazards models measured associations of serum nutrient concentrations with recurrence and overall survival. Results During a median follow-up time of 37 months, there were 32 recurrences and 27 deaths. After controlling for covariates, subjects with high versus low serum xanthophyll and total carotenoid concentrations had significantly longer recurrence-free time (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Overall survival time was significantly longer in subjects with high versus low serum xanthophyll concentrations (P = 0.02). Conclusions Future research should evaluate the possible benefits of interventions to increase intakes of rich food sources of xanthophylls in this patient population. PMID:26614223

  6. Rapid falls in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Bredow, M T; Goldie, D J

    1985-01-01

    The pronounced falls in AFP concentration sometimes seen in samples taken for screening in early pregnancy are consistent with the range of AFP half lives measured in 14 postpartum women of 59-133 h. PMID:2580865

  7. Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations in 15 dogs with perineal hernia.

    PubMed

    Mann, F A; Boothe, H W; Amoss, M S; Tangner, C H; Puglisi, T A; Hobson, H P

    1989-06-01

    Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations, and serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio were evaluated in 15 dogs (greater than or equal to 5 years old) with perineal hernia (9 sexually intact males and 6 castrated males) and in 9 clinically normal sexually intact male dogs greater than or equal to 5 years old. There was no significant difference in serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio between sexually intact male dogs with perineal hernia and clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. In castrated dogs with perineal hernia, serum testosterone concentration and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower, compared with those values in sexually intact dogs with perineal hernia and in clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. There was no significant difference in serum estradiol 17-beta concentration among sexually intact male dogs with perineal hernia, castrated dogs with perineal hernia, and clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations in dogs with perineal hernia did not differ from those values in clinically normal male dogs of the same age. Castration cannot be recommended for the treatment of perineal hernia unless a castration-responsive contributing factor such as prostatomegaly is identified, unless the pelvic diaphragm of dogs with perineal hernia has high sensitivity to normal or low serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations, or unless there is documentation that other androgens and/or estrogens are involved.

  8. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Reifenrath, T A; Uhl, N L; Parsons, K A; Sharp, R L; King, D S

    2000-09-01

    The effects of androgen precursors, combined with herbal extracts designed to enhance testosterone formation and reduce conversion of androgens to estrogens was studied in young men. Subjects performed 3 days of resistance training per week for 8 weeks. Each day during Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, subjects consumed either placebo (PL; n = 10) or a supplement (ANDRO-6; n = 10), which contained daily doses of 300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg DHEA, 750 mg Tribulus terrestris, 625 mg Chrysin, 300 mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540 mg Saw palmetto. Serum androstenedione concentrations were higher in ANDRO-6 after 2, 5, and 8 weeks (p <.05), while serum concentrations of free and total testosterone were unchanged in both groups. Serum estradiol was elevated at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 in ANDRO-6 (p <.05), and serum estrone was elevated at Weeks 5 and 8 (p <.05). Muscle strength increased (p <.05) similarly from Weeks 0 to 4, and again from Weeks 4 to 8 in both treatment groups. The acute effect of one third of the daily dose of ANDRO-6 and PL was studied in 10 men (23 +/- 4 years). Serum androstenedione concentrations were elevated (p <.05) in ANDRO-6 from 150 to 360 min after ingestion, while serum free or total testosterone concentrations were unchanged. These data provide evidence that the addition of these herbal extracts to androstenedione does not result in increased serum testosterone concentrations, reduce the estrogenic effect of androstenedione, and does not augment the adaptations to resistance training.

  9. Vitamin Status as a Determinant of Serum Homocysteine Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Athanasios; Apergis, George; Dimitriadis, George; Vergados, Ioannis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of serum homocysteine levels and vitamin status with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. This study included 65 patients with and 75 patients without diabetic retinopathy. Patients with diabetic retinopathy had significantly higher serum homocysteine levels (P < 0.001), higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (P < 0.001), lower serum folic acid (P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 (P = 0.014) levels than those without diabetic retinopathy. Regression analysis revealed that homocysteine was an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and there was a threshold in its serum level (13.7 μmol/L), above which the risk of diabetic retinopathy greatly increases (OR = 1.66, P = 0.001). Folic acid was associated with decreased odds for diabetic retinopathy (OR = 0.73, P < 0.001). There was a threshold in serum vitamin B12 level (248.4 pg/mL), below which serum homocysteine concentration significantly increases with decreasing serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.003). Our findings suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Decreased serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12, through raising serum homocysteine concentrations, may also affect the diabetic retinopathy risk. PMID:25006590

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  11. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  13. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  14. The effect of dietary fiber on postprandial serum digoxin concentration in man.

    PubMed

    Kasper, H; Zilly, W; Fassl, H; Fehle, F

    1979-12-01

    The postprandial digoxin concentrations in serum were measured for 4 hr by radioimmunological assay in six healthy volunteers who had received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin by the oral route. Digoxin was given together with a formula diet containing as admixture, respectively, wheat bran, microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, carrageenan, and carob seed flour. The various additions did not reduce the mean digoxin concentrations in serum. After carob seed flour, the concentrations were significantly (P less than 5%) higher, as compared to the control. After microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and wheat bran the mean peak concentrations were reached later than in the control state.

  15. Low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis associated with increased serum IL-6 concentration and azotaemia.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Bąska, Piotr; Długosz, Ewa

    2015-06-30

    Low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome, also named euthyroid sick syndrome or non-thyroidal illness syndrome, has been recognized in canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, where it manifested by lowering of the serum thyrotropin (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4) and free thyroxin (FT4) concentrations. This syndrome has also been observed in critical diseases in humans and animals, and the severity of the disease is considered an important factor in lowering of thyroid hormone concentrations. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a role in the development of low T3 syndrome by causing a decrease in deiodinases 1 and 2 activity and increased activity of deiodinase 3, enzymes involved in the conversion of thyroxin (T4) to T3. The purpose of this study was to compare the concentrations of serum thyroid hormones and TSH between healthy dogs and dogs with babesiosis, and to determine correlations between serum IL-6 concentration and serum total T3 (TT3), TT4, FT4, and TSH concentrations, and the level of azotaemia in dogs with babesiosis. The concentrations of IL-6, TT3, TT4, FT4, TSH, urea and creatinine were determined in 13 dogs with canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis and in 10 healthy dogs. The results of this study showed decreases in TT3, TT4, FT4, and TSH and increases in IL-6, urea and creatinine concentrations in affected dogs in comparison to healthy dogs. The concentration of IL-6 was negatively correlated with TT3 and TSH concentrations and the TT3 concentration was negatively correlated with serum urea and creatinine concentrations. This study showed low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis, which was confirmed by the determination of the T3 concentration, and demonstrates that in canine babesiosis the T3 concentration is associated with IL-6 concentration.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF SERUM 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO COLLECTIONS OF CAPTIVE GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA).

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Susan L; Chen, Tai C; Murphy, Hayley; Holick, Michael F; Tlusty, Michael; Baitchman, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were assessed in subadult to adult captive lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (n = 26) at two institutions with different husbandry and management practices. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations for gorillas managed predominantly indoors was low (14.2 ± 5.9 ng/ml), despite consuming commercial biscuits fortified with vitamin D3. Concentrations of 25(OH)D in gorillas with near daily outdoor access were significantly higher than gorillas managed indoors, although many individuals still had serum values below concentrations recommended for adult humans. Consideration should be given to assessing 25(OH)D concentrations in all captive gorillas and providing specific supplementation, particularly to juveniles without access to direct sunlight.

  17. Digoxin intoxication: the relationship of clinical presentation to serum digoxin concentration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas W.; Haber, Edgar

    1970-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum digoxin concentration has been used to study the interrelationships of circulating levels of the drug and various factors in the clinical setting in 48 hospitalized patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to digoxin intoxication. 131 patients on maintenance doses of digoxin without toxicity and 48 patients with equivocal evidence of digoxin excess were also studied and compared with the toxic group. Patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to digoxin intoxication tended to be older and to have diminished renal function compared with the nontoxic group; body weight, serum potassium concentration, underlying cardiac rhythm, and nature of cardiac disease were not significantly different for the groups as a whole. Despite comparable mean daily digoxin dosages, digoxin intoxicated patients had a mean serum digoxin concentration of 3.7 ±1.0 (SD) ng/ml, while nontoxic patients had a mean level of 1.4 ±0.7 ng/ml (P < 0.001), 90% of patients without evidence of toxicity had serum digoxin concentrations of 2.0 ng/ml or less, while 87% of the toxic group had levels above 2.0; the range of overlap between the two groups extended from 1.6 to 3.0 ng/ml. Patients with atrioventricular block as their principal toxic manifestation had a significantly lower mean serum digoxin concentration than those in whom ectopic impulse formation was the chief rhythm disturbance. Patients with equivocal evidence of digoxin excess had received comparable daily maintenance doses of digoxin but had a mean serum concentration of 1.9 ±0.8 ng/ml, intermediate between those of the nontoxic (P < 0.005) and toxic (P < 0.001) groups. Renal function as judged by mean blood urea nitrogen concentration was also intermediate. The data indicate that knowledge of the serum digoxin concentration, weighed in the clinical context, is useful in the management of patients receiving this drug. PMID:5480861

  18. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin concentration in killer whales and sea otters by radial immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bernadette C; Brotheridge, Rory M; Jessup, David A; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2002-10-28

    Killer whales and sea otters maintained in captivity are the subjects of routine health monitoring programs, and interest in immunologic studies in sea otters has been rising recently in response to potential impacts from infectious disease and environmental pollution on the threatened southern sea otter population. Development of species-specific reagents for immunologic studies in these two marine mammals is currently in its infancy. In this study, killer whale and sea otter immunoglobulin-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated, and used to develop tests for serum Ig concentration in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) and the southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) and northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris lutris). Killer whale serum IgG was purified using caprylic acid/ammonium sulfate precipitation. Sea otter plasma IgG was purified using protein-A-agarose. Polyclonal anti-Ig antisera were produced in rabbits, and specificity confirmed by immunoelectrophoresis. Radial immunodiffusion was used to measure Ig concentration in serum or plasma samples derived from 21 captive killer whales, 18 wild and 4 captive southern sea otters and 15 wild and 4 captive northern sea otters grouped by age. Mean killer whale serum Ig concentration (+/-95% confidence interval) ranged from 15.04 +/- 3.97 g/l for animals aged 0-5 years to 26.65 +/- 9.8 g/l for animals aged >10 years. Mean sea otter serum Ig concentration (+/-95% confidence interval) ranged from 28.39 +/- 11.00 g/l for southern sub-adults to 32.76 +/- 11.58 g/l for southern adults. No significant difference in serum Ig concentration was found between southern and northern sea otters. Serum Ig concentrations in two northern sea otter pups were low compared to those of adult sea otters. The two serum Ig quantitation assays produced were highly specific and reproducible and will be useful additions to the limited number of tests available for immune function in these marine mammal species.

  19. Impact of Whole-Blood Processing Conditions on Plasma and Serum Concentrations of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Wan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, So-Youn

    2016-02-01

    Pre-analytical variations in plasma and serum samples can occur because of variability in whole-blood processing procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delayed separation of whole blood on the plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines. The concentrations of 16 cytokines were measured in plasma and serum samples when the centrifugation of whole blood at room temperature was delayed for 4, 6, 24, or 48 h, and the values were compared with those observed after separation within 2 h of whole-blood collection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed for cytokines to determine whether cytokine levels in plasma and serum samples can be used to assess delayed separation of whole blood. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β increased significantly (>2-fold) when separation was delayed at room temperature for 24 h. The concentrations of 6 of these cytokines (all except serum IL-1β and IL-6) demonstrated high diagnostic performance (area under the ROC curve >0.8) for delayed separation of whole blood. Furthermore, these cytokine concentrations typically exhibited high sensitivity and specificity at each optimal cutoff point. Conversely, IL-17A was stable in both plasma and serum samples, even when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 h. This study shows that certain cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF, sCD40L, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) could be used for assessing the quality of plasma or serum samples.

  20. The concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in blood serum of women in labour.

    PubMed

    Wasiluk, A; Dabrowska, M; Jaworski, S; Prokopowicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-ACT) in blood serum of parturient women was determined. The investigation was conducted in 33 women bearing eutrophic newborns and 36 women bearing hypotrophic newborns. The control group consisted of 30 healthy non-pregnant women in reproductive age. Concentrations of A-1-ACT were determined using the radial immunodiffusion method according to Mancini et al. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group I was three times higher than minimal concentration. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group II was two times higher than minimal concentration. In the control group, the difference between minimal and maximal concentrations of A-1-ACT was inconsiderable. The lack of statistically significant differences between these three groups suggests that labour stress does not influence serum concentrations of this inhibitor. The importance of A-1-ACT in the placental tissue may be connected with immunological mechanisms that assure development and maintenance of pregnancy.

  1. Copper and zinc concentrations in the uterine fluid and blood serum during the bovine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations variation during the bovine estrus cycle , 232 blood and genital tract samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by the examination of the ovaries and the uterine tonicity. Of the 46 samples selected for use in the study, 13 were pro-estrus, 10 estrus, 8 metestrus, and 15 diestrus. The uterus was incised and uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The total mean (± SEM) Cu concentrations in serum and uterine fluid samples, determined by spectrophotometry, were 66.1± 6.5 and 171.3 ± 33.2µg dL(-1) respectively, which were significantly different, while total mean serum and uterine fluid Zn concentrations were 91.9 ± 5.4 and 291.6 ± 23.4 µg dL(-1), which also showed a significant difference. The mean serum Cu values in different phases of the estrous cycle were not significantly different, while uterine fluid Cu content in pro-estrus and diestrus were significantly higher than those in estrus and metestrus, and were also significantly higher than those of the serum samples. The mean Zn value of serum samples at different stages of the cycle was not significantly different. The mean Zn value of the uterine fluid samples was also not significantly different in different stages, but in pro-estrus, metestrus, and in diestrus they were highly significantly different from those of the serum. These results showed that Cu concentrations in the uterine fluid vary at different stages of the cycle and are higher than those in the blood serum, but, the uterine Zn content does not vary during the estrous cycle and is much higher than those in the serum, that seems to be due to the secretory action of the uterine mucosa.

  2. Serum cholecystokinin concentrations in dogs with naturally acquired pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sungjun; Kim, Hye-Sun; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Chang, Dongwoo; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6). Serum CCK concentrations were then measured before and 1, 2, and 4 hours after consumption of a high-fat meal. Concentrations in dogs with PDH were also measured before and after trilostane treatment. Results were compared among groups and assessment points. RESULTS Preprandial serum CCK concentrations in group C were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, and D, but no significant differences in postprandial CCK concentrations were identified among the groups 1, 2, or 4 hours after the meal. With respect to trilostane treatment of dogs with PDH, no significant differences were identified between pre- and post-trilostane serum CCK concentrations in group C or D. Median CCK concentration after trilostane treatment was higher in group D than in group C, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcomes in this study did not support the hypothesis that a low circulating CCK concentration affects the development of GBM in dogs with PDH.

  3. Effect of prepartum dietary calcium on intake and serum and urinary mineral concentrations of cows.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2006-02-01

    Nine multiparous and 12 primiparous cows were fed diets containing an anionic salt supplement and moderate Ca (0.99%) or high Ca (1.50%) concentrations for 21 d prepartum to determine the effects of dietary Ca concentration on serum and urine electrolytes and on postpartum intake and milk yield. Blood samples were collected during 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) for prepartum diets was approximately -6 mEq/100 g of dry matter (Na + K - Cl - S). Immediately postpartum, cows were fed diets with positive DCAD with greater than 1.00% Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentrations 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum were 9.62, 8.41, and 9.38 mg/dL. There were no treatment effects on serum Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentration was higher for primiparous than multiparous cows (9.34 vs. 8.93 mg/dL) for the trial and at calving (8.77 vs. 8.13 mg/dL). Mean serum HCO(3)(-) and urinary pH, respectively, were 20.32 mEq/L and 5.67 prepartum, 25.82 mEq/L and 7.62 at calving, and 26.08 mEq/L and 8.25 postpartum. No differences due to treatment were observed for serum and urinary concentrations of HCO(3)(-), pH, Mg, Na, K, and Cl. Milk yield was similar for 0.99 and 1.50% Ca treatments (22.8 and 20.7 kg/d). Diets containing 0.99 or 1.5% Ca maintained serum Ca at adequate levels around parturition and resulted in similar dry matter intake and postpartum milk yield.

  4. Concentration-dependent reversible self-oligomerization of serum albumins through intermolecular β-sheet formation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpan; Prajapati, Roopali; Chatterjee, Surajit; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2014-12-16

    Proteins inside a cell remain in highly crowded environments, and this often affects their structure and activity. However, most of the earlier studies involving serum albumins were performed under dilute conditions, which lack biological relevance. The effect of protein-protein interactions on the structure and properties of serum albumins at physiological conditions have not yet been explored. Here, we report for the first time the effect of protein-protein and protein-crowder interactions on the structure and stability of two homologous serum albumins, namely, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), at physiological conditions by using spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Concentration-dependent self-oligomerization and subsequent structural alteration of serum albumins have been explored by means of fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy at pH 7.4. The excitation wavelength (λex) dependence of the intrinsic fluorescence and the corresponding excitation spectra at each emission wavelength indicate the presence of various ground state oligomers of serum albumins in the concentration range 10-150 μM. Circular dichroism and thioflavin T binding assay revealed formation of intermolecular β-sheet rich interfaces at high protein concentration. Excellent correlations have been observed between β-sheet content of both the albumins and fluorescence enhancement of ThT with protein concentrations. SEM images at a concentration of 150 μM revealed large dispersed self-oligomeric states with sizes vary from 330 to 924 nm and 260 to 520 nm for BSA and HSA, respectively. The self-oligomerization of serum albumins is found to be a reversible process; upon dilution, these oligomers dissociate into a native monomeric state. It has also been observed that synthetic macromolecular crowder polyethylene glycol (PEG 200) stabilizes the self-associated state of both the albumins which is contrary to expectations that the

  5. Total serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mohtasham, Sima; Ansari, Mahsa; Hedayat, Kosar; Nassiri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves the skin, nails and joints. With regard to the role of the immune system in psoriasis, the current study compared serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis with control group. Current case-control study was conducted in Dermatology clinic of Razi hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Fifty-eight patients with psoriasis e referred to the clinic were assigned as patient group and 58 healthy subjects with matched age and sex as a control group. Patient's history, family history and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, duration and severity of disease using PASI, were collected and entered into a form. Consent form was obtained from participants. Serum IgE concentrations of both study groups were measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in the laboratory A total number of 58 patients with psoriasis, mean age of 44.15 (19-76 years) and 58 controls with matched age and sex were studied. Mean average of serum IgE concentration in the control group was 115.13 versus 200/06 concentration in patients group (P=0.16). Serum IgE concentration in 22.4% of patients versus 17.2% in controls was greater than normal concentration (P=0.48). No significant correlation was between serum IgE concentration and disease severity using PASI (P=0.11, r=0.21), neither a significant correlation with disease duration, age and gender. According to the present study, serum IgE concentrations are not greater in patients with psoriasis. IgE concentration is also not associated with the severity of psoriasis based on the PASI score, therefore, the role of IgE in psoriasis can be considered insignificant as some previous studies indicate.

  6. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels.

  7. Increased serum IgD concentrations in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Corte, G; Ferrarini, M; Tonda, P; Bargellesi, A

    1977-05-01

    Serum IgD concentrations have been determined in twenty-one patients with Hodgkin's disease, in eight patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and in twenty-eight normal (control) individuals by both a solidphase radio-immuno-assay and radial-immunodiffusion. Fourteen of the Hodgkin's patients displayed three to forty-five-fold increased serum IgD levels as compared to control individuals, while in the remaining seven patients IgD concentrations were practically normal. Patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas had decreased IgD concentrations.

  8. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

  9. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05) and lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.001), and with tHcy for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05), lycopene (P < 0.05), and total carotenoids (P < 0.05). Dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). Most of these associations were null after additional adjustment for corresponding serum carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction < 0.05), and quartile 4 of dietary β-carotene was associated with lower CRP concentrations only among participants with serum β-carotene > 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study

  10. Relationship between the serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids and aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cakiroğlu, D; Meral, Y; Sancak, A A; Cifti, G

    2007-07-14

    The serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids--triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein--were determined in 18 normal dogs and 23 dogs diagnosed as aggressive on the basis of interviews with their owners and an assessment of their behaviour with reference to a canine overt aggression chart. The serum serotonin levels in the aggressive dogs were significantly lower than in the normal dogs (P<0.01), but the differences in serum lipids between the two groups were not statistically significant.

  11. Relationship between serum IL-7 concentrations and lymphopenia upon different levels of HIV immune control.

    PubMed

    Fluur, Caroline; Rethi, Bence; Thang, Pham Hong; Vivar, Nancy; Mowafi, Frida; Lopalco, Lucia; Foppa, Caterina Uberti; Karlsson, Anders; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Chiodi, Francesca

    2007-05-11

    Serum IL-7 levels correlate with T-cell depletion in HIV-infected individuals. In some patients, we observed that serum IL-7 decreases upon progression to AIDS, suggesting a role for IL-7 in T-cell maintenance in sporadic cases. Interestingly, IL-7 levels were significantly lower in stable long-term non-progressors (LTNP) than in patients who lost the LTNP status in a 3-year follow-up (P < 0.001), indicating that the serum IL-7 concentration might be a valuable marker for maintenance of the LTNP state.

  12. [Rapid determination of serum iron concentration using bathophenanthroline sulfonate in a formate buffered system].

    PubMed

    Pré, J; Benlatrèche, C

    1977-03-01

    A simple accurate and very reproducible procedure for measuring serum iron concentration without precipitating serum proteins is described. In the same time, iron is released from serum transferrin, reduced and determined at 535 mn by incubation in a water bath at 55 degrees for five minutes within a formate buffered system (pH 2,6; i = 0,05) including bathophenanthroline sulfonate. This method yields values very similar to those obtained by that of the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH).

  13. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  14. Hyperresponse to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Accompanying Small Decreases in Serum Thyroid Hormone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Vagenakis, Apostolos G.; Rapoport, Basil; Azizi, Fereidoun; Portnay, Gary I.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Ingbar, Sidney H.

    1974-01-01

    To determine whether pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is enhanced by small decreases in serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), 12 euthyroid volunteers were given 190 mg iodide po daily for 10 days to inhibit T4 and T3 release from the thyroid. Basal serum T4, T3, and TSH concentrations and the serum T4 and TSH responses to 400 μg TRH i.v. were assessed before and at the end of iodide administration. Iodide induced small but highly significant decreases in basal serum T4 (8.0±1.6 vs. 6.6±1.7 μg/100 ml; mean ± SD) and T3 (128±15 vs. 110±22 ng/100 ml) and increases in basal serum TSH (1.3±0.9 vs. 2.1±1.0 μU/ml). During iodide administration, the TSH response to TRH was significantly increased at each of seven time points up to 120 min. The maximum increment in serum TSH after TRH increased from a control mean of 8.8±4.1 to a mean of 13.0±2.8 μU/ml during iodide administration. As evidence of the inhibitory effect of iodide on hormonal release, the increment in serum T3 at 120 min after TRH was significantly lessened during iodide administration (61±42 vs. 33±24 ng/100 ml). These findings demonstrate that small acute decreases in serum T4 and T3 concentrations, resulting in values well within the normal range, are associated both with slight increases in basal TSH concentrations and pronounced increases in the TSH response to TRH. These results demonstrate that a marked sensitivity of TSH secretion and responsiveness to TRH is applicable to decreasing, as well as increasing, concentrations of thyroid hormones. PMID:4214837

  15. Individual difference in serum oxytocin concentrations of calves and the correlation with those in dams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Oyakawa, Chisako; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined individual differences in serum oxytocin concentrations (OT) of calves, and assessed whether these differences were correlated with their dams' milk and serum OT. Eight Holstein (H), nine Japanese Shorthorn (JS), and six Japanese Black (JB) calves were examined. Blood was collected three times during the first month in H calves, while their dams' blood was collected three times prior to parturition. Milk was collected twice after parturition from H cows. Blood from JS and JB calves were collected at 1 and 4 months old, while of their dams only once before parturition. Serum OT in H calves at 7 days old was significantly correlated with that at 30 days. Serum OT of JS calves at 1 month old was significantly correlated to that at 4 months, while of JB calves was also positively correlated (r = 0.70). Serum OT of calves showed significant individual differences in each breed. Serum OT of calves was not correlated with the milk OT of dams, except for 3-day-old calves that fed on their dams' milk. We concluded that although serum OT differed among individuals, this difference was stable within each individual and not affected by the serum OT of the dams.

  16. Serum and urine selenium concentrations as indicators of body status in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alarcón, M; López-G de la Serrana, H; Pérez-Valero, V; López-Martínez, C

    1999-03-22

    Serum and urine selenium levels were determined in patients with diabetes by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean serum selenium concentrations measured in patients with diabetes mellitus (64.9 +/- 22.8 micrograms/l) were significantly lower than those determined in the control group (74.9 +/- 27.3 micrograms/l) (P < 0.05). Mean serum selenium concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups of diabetic patients considered (P > 0.05). Mean urine selenium concentration in diabetic patients (18.8 +/- 10.7 micrograms/l) were not significantly different from those measured in the control group (20.2 +/- 10.1 micrograms/l) (P < 0.05). No significant differences in serum and urine selenium levels were found if related to sex of patients (P > 0.05). Application of linear regression analysis to serum and urine selenium levels and patients' age showed a non-statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05). Given the marked overlap between the two ranges of the populations, the predictive values of serum selenium in diabetic patients are low.

  17. Evaluation of serum myeloperoxidase concentration in dogs with heart failure due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Suh, Sang-Il; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme involved in the process of heart failure and is found to have good diagnostic and prognostic values in humans with chronic heart failure. This study evaluated the relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of heart failure (HF) due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI) in dogs. Eighty-two client-owned dogs consisting of 69 dogs with different stages of HF due to CMVI and 13 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum MPO concentrations in the healthy and CMVI groups were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a canine-specific monoclonal anti-MPO antibody. Serum MPO concentrations were 273.3 ± 179.6 ng/L in the controls, 140.8 ± 114.1 ng/L in the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) I group, 109.0 ± 85.2 ng/L in the ISACHC II group, and 106.0 ± 42.3 ng/L in the ISACHC III group. Close negative correlation to serum MPO concentration was found in the severity of heart failure (ISACHC stage). Although this study found a modest relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of HF due to CMVI in dogs, it also suggested that serum MPO levels decreased as the severity of HF increased.

  18. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, W. Y.; Palomaki, G. E.; Haddow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the association between cigarette smoking in adults and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations the results of 54 published studies were analysed. Overall, smokers had significantly higher serum concentrations of cholesterol (3.0%), triglycerides (9.1%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (10.4%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.7%) and lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (-5.7%) and apolipoprotein AI (-4.2%) compared with nonsmokers. Among non-smokers and light, moderate, and heavy smokers a significant dose response effect was present for cholesterol (0, 1.8, 4.3, and 4.5% respectively), triglycerides (0, 10.7, 11.5, and 18.0%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, 7.2, 44.4, and 39.0%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -1.1, 1.4, and 11.0%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -4.6, -6.3, and -8.9%), and apolipoprotein AI (0, -3.7 and -5.7% in non-smokers and light and heavy smokers). These dose response effects may provide new evidence for a causal relation between exposure to cigarette smoke and changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations whether as a direct result of physiological changes or of dietary changes induced by smoking. Adequate prospective data to estimate the excess risk of coronary artery disease existed only for cholesterol concentration. When that information was combined with data from the present study, and given that smokers as a group face an average overall excess risk of coronary artery disease of 70%, it was estimated that the observed increased serum cholesterol concentration in smokers may account for at least 9% of that excess risk. Furthermore, the dose response effect of smoking on serum cholesterol concentration suggests a gradient of increased absolute risk of coronary artery disease between light and heavy smokers. PMID:2496857

  19. Clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in serum and plasma samples from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Jesús; Paz, Eduardo; Tutor, J Carlos

    2008-02-01

    At present, the determination of steady-state trough serum/plasma concentrations of clozapine is considered a useful tool for the clinical management of schizophrenic patients treated with this drug. In a previously published study, it was indicated that only plasma should be used to avoid a significant underestimation of clozapine and norclozapine concentrations; however, a formal evaluation of this topic has still not been made, and a consensus on the use of plasma or serum for therapeutic clozapine monitoring may be desirable. Paired samples of serum and plasma (K3EDTA solution contained in Vacutainer tubes) were obtained from 40 schizophrenic patients, and clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. For the parent drug and its metabolite, serum concentrations were higher than in plasma (approximately 7%), although the correction of plasma concentrations in function of hematocrit values reduced this difference to 3%. High correlation coefficients were found between the serum and uncorrected or corrected plasma clozapine concentrations (r = 0.996, P < 0.001), with clinically acceptable differences between the means and standard error of the estimate and consequently with transferability of the results. The clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in five lithium heparin-containing plasma samples (371.9 +/- 226.7 ng/mL and 217.9 +/- 113.1 ng/mL) were analogous to the corresponding hematocrit-corrected EDTA-containing plasma values (374.4 +/- 225.4 ng/mL and 223.5 +/- 115.2 ng/mL), with correlation coefficients of r > or = 0.998 (P < 0.001). Serum or plasma samples may be used for the therapeutic monitoring of clozapine, and no practical advantages have been found with regard to the stability of the drug or imprecision obtained by using either type of biological matrix.

  20. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Knekt, Paul; Suvisaari, Jaana; Männistö, Satu; Partonen, Timo; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Kaartinen, Niina E; Kanerva, Noora; Lindfors, Olavi

    2015-05-14

    Vitamin D has been suggested to protect against depression, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study investigated the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders. The study population consisted of a representative sample of Finnish men and women aged 30-79 years from the Health 2000 Survey. The sample included 5371 individuals, of which 354 were diagnosed with depressive disorder and 222 with anxiety disorder. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was determined from frozen samples. In a cross-sectional study, a total of four indicators of depression and one indicator of anxiety were used as dependent variables. Serum 25(OH)D was the risk factor of interest, and logistic models used further included sociodemographic and lifestyle variables as well as indicators of metabolic health as confounding and/or effect-modifying factors. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Individuals with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed a reduced risk of depression. The relative odds between the highest and lowest quartiles was 0.65 (95% CI 0.46, 0.93; P for trend = 0.006) after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of depressive disorder especially among men, younger, divorced and those who had an unhealthy lifestyle or suffered from the metabolic syndrome. The PAF was estimated to be 19% for depression when serum 25(OH)D concentration was at least 50 nmol/l. These results support the hypothesis that higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations protect against depression even after adjustment for a large number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  1. Placental cortisol and cord serum IGFBP-2 concentrations are important determinants of postnatal weight gain.

    PubMed

    Street, M E; Smerieri, A; Petraroli, A; Cesari, S; Viani, I; Garrubba, M; Rossi, M; Bernasconi, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to identify simple biochemical markers at birth that may predict subjects at risk of growth failure and metabolic complications in later life. Limited research to date has been performed on relationships of specific biochemical determinants at birth with postnatal weight gain and growth. We proposed to establish whether placental cortisol and IL-6 concentrations and cord serum IGF-II and IGFBP-2 concentrations influenced postnatal growth. We followed up from pregnancy 23 IUGR and 37 AGA subjects, and determined placental cortisol and IL-6 concentrations, and cord serum IGF-II, and IGFBP-2 concentrations at birth. We obtained height and weight measurements at 3, 6, 12, 24 months and 5 years of age in 20 IUGR and 15 AGA subjects of comparable gestational age. A multiple linear regression model was designed to establish the effect of the placental and cord serum peptides on postnatal linear growth and weight gain. All IUGR subjects had catch-up growth before 2 years of age. Placental cortisol concentration correlated positively with weight gain during the first 5 years of postnatal growth (P<0.05). Subjects with the highest placental cortisol concentrations were those who showed a greater increase in weight. Cord serum IGFBP-2 concentrations correlated positively with weight gain throughout the 5 year observation period (P:0.003). The subjects with the highest concentrations showed a greater weight gain. Placental cortisol and cord serum IGFBP-2 concentrations were related to postnatal weight gain, suggesting that the fetal environment has long-term effects on growth.

  2. Direct monitoring changes of salbutamol concentration in serum by chemiluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Canli; Zhang, Ruichao; Na, Na; Delanghe, Joris R; Ouyang, Jin

    2011-07-15

    We report in this manuscript, the use of direct ammonium persulfate-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) imaging, to monitor changes to measure serum salbutamol concentration in subjects of different haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes at different dosing time. It was noted that CL generated from Hp was decreased due to salbutamol's reducibility, which was used for monitoring salbutamol concentration in serum. The serum from the subjects treated by oral administration of salbutamol, was collected at different dosing time and was separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) prior to the CL detection. According to CL images, samples were separated into three groups based on the Hp phenotypes. The curves of CL signal intensity versus time were obtained for each group, and we demonstrated that there were more significant variables on binding ability between groups. The maximum salbutamol concentration in the serum appeared after 4h, which was in agreement with the literature. In addition, the binding constants of salbutamol to Hp were determined by a fluorescence-based method, whose results were in agreement with the phenomenon of the greater salbutamol metabolism rate for Group Hp 1-1 than Group Hp 2-2. The presented method can monitor changes of salbutamol concentration in serum directly, making the procedures much simple, convenient, rapid and has the property of lower cost. It provided us with excellent reference information for the individual dosage regimen of different Hp groups, which hopefully could become a potential method for further pharmaceutical research.

  3. Strategic administration of enrofloxacin in poultry to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Gutierrez, O L; Zamora, Q M

    2003-03-01

    To achieve a higher maximal serum concentration (Cs(max)) of enrofloxacin after oral administration of 10mg/kg/day of three commercial preparations of enrofloxacin to chickens, two concentrations of the drug were tested (0.1 and 0.2%), under controlled laboratory conditions. A single oral bolus dose was delivered directly into the proventriculus of each of 240 chickens, which were equally divided into six groups: three received the customary concentration (0.1%), and three received the higher concentration. A quantitative/qualitative microbiological analytical method to determine serum concentrations of enrofloxacin and a software program to obtain pharmacokinetic variables, revealed that time vs. concentration relationships best fitted double peak shape curves, Cs(max1) and Cs(max2). Statistically significant (P>0.01) increments were obtained when 0.2% enrofloxacin oral solutions from the three different commercial preparations were administered. The increments ranged from 175% to 338% for Cs(max1) and 69% to 342% for Cs(max2). Optimal bactericidal concentrations of enrofloxacin are usually twice the value of their minimal inhibitory concentration. Although clinical trials are now required, it would appear that increments in the serum concentration of enrofloxacin may reduce to the rate at which bacterial resistance occurs and so increase clinical efficacy without affecting the cost per treatment.

  4. Effects of pentolinium on blood sugar and serum potassium concentrations during anaesthesia and surgery.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, N R; Battit, G E

    1975-12-01

    Blood surgar and serum potassium (K+) concentrations were measured before, during and 60 min after surgery in two groups of 10 non-diabetic patients during nitrous oxide/halothane/tubocurarine anaesthesia. In the control group the arterial pressure was maintained within the patients' normal ranges, while in the study group pentolinium was administered i.v. (average 22 mg per patient) to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure of 50 mm Hg (+/-10 SEM). In the normotensive group the blood sugar concentration increased markedly and significantly during surgery and in the early postoperative period while the serum K+ concentration was essentially unchanged. In the hypotensive group pentolinium produced a striking modification of the surgery-induced hyperglycaemic response (but not to hypoglycaemic values) as well as a small but significant decrease in serum K+ concentration. The observed increase in the blood sugar concentration may be part of the autonomic response to surgical stress. Two mechanisms can explain the reduction in serum K+ concentration: (1) decreased hepatic glycogenolysis and (2) attenuation of the suppressive effect of adrenaline on insulin release, both effects being secondary to the ganglion-blocking property of pentolinium. These results are in contrast to the widely held belief that ganglion-blocking drugs cause hypoglycaemia.

  5. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  6. Associations between serum hepcidin, ferritin and Hb concentrations and type 2 diabetes risks in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Zhou, Daizhan; An, Peng; Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Mu, Mingdao; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Hui; He, Lin; Liu, Yun; Wang, Fudi

    2013-12-01

    Systemic Fe overload can contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, few studies have systematically evaluated the associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks for the development of T2D. In this regard, whether hepcidin concentrations are associated with T2D remains controversial. We measured serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations in a case-control study of 1259 Han Chinese participants to evaluate the possible associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks of T2D. Individuals with diabetes (n 555) and control participants (n 704) were recruited and serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations were quantified. Additionally, selected biochemical and anthropometric variables were determined. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations with T2D. A linear regression analysis was used to test for associations between serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations and a number of clinical, demographic and diabetes-associated variables. We found that serum hepcidin concentrations correlated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations. No differences in hepcidin concentrations were found between the group with diabetes and the control group. Hepcidin concentrations were not significantly correlated with T2D risk factors. We also found that serum ferritin concentrations were elevated in individuals with diabetes and were positively correlated with both Hb concentrations and T2D risk factors. The present findings suggest that serum ferritin concentrations correlate with T2D risk factors, while serum hepcidin concentrations are positively associated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations, but do not correlate with T2D.

  7. Lower Serum Bilirubin and Uric Acid Concentrations in Patients with Parkinson's Disease in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Sun, Li; Hao, Meng-Wei; Hu, Zhao-Ting

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between bilirubin and uric acid (UA) concentrations and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population. A total of 425 PD patients and 460 controls were included in the current study. Patients were diagnosed by a neurologist and assessed using the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale. Venous blood samples were collected, and bilirubin and UA concentrations were analyzed. Compared to controls, indirect bilirubin (IBIL) and UA concentrations were lower in PD patients (P IBIL = 0.015, P UA = 0.000). Serum IBIL in different age subgroups and H&Y stage subgroups were also lower compared to the control group (P IBIL = 0.000, P UA = 0.000) but were not significantly different among these subgroups. Females in the control group had significantly lower serum IBIL and UA concentrations than males (P IBIL = 0.000, P UA = 0.000) and the PD group (P IBIL = 0.027, P UA = 0.000). In early PD (patients with <2-year medical history and no treatment), serum IBIL and UA concentrations were also lower than the controls (P IBIL = 0.013, P UA = 0.000). Although IBIL concentration was positively correlated with UA concentration in controls (R IBIL = 0.229, P IBIL = 0.004), this positive association was not observed in the PD group (R IBIL = -0.032, P IBIL = 0.724). Decreased levels of serum IBIL and UA were observed in PD patients. It is possible that individuals with decreased serum bilirubin and UA concentrations lack the endogenous defense system to prevent peroxynitrite and other free radicals from damaging and destroying dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Our results provide a basis for further investigation into the role of bilirubin in PD.

  8. Estimation of free copper ion concentrations in blood serum using T1 relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blicharska, Barbara; Witek, Magdalena; Fornal, Maria; MacKay, Alex L.

    2008-09-01

    The water proton relaxation rate constant R1 = 1/ T1 (at 60 MHz) of blood serum is substantially increased by the presence of free Cu 2+ ions at concentrations above normal physiological levels. Addition of chelating agents to serum containing paramagnetic Cu 2+ nulls this effect. This was demonstrated by looking at the effect of adding a chelating agent—D-penicillamine (D-PEN) to CuSO 4 and CuCl 2 aqueous solutions as well as to rabbit blood serum. We propose that the measurement of water proton spin-lattice relaxation rate constants before and after chelation may be used as an alternative approach for monitoring the presence of free copper ions in blood serum. This method may be used in the diagnosis of some diseases (leukaemia, liver diseases and particularly Wilson's disease) because, in contrast to conventional methods like spectrophotometry which records the total number of both bound and free ions, the proton relaxation technique is sensitive solely to free paramagnetic ions dissolved in blood serum. The change in R1 upon chelation was found to be less than 0.06 s -1 for serum from healthy subjects but greater than 0.06 s -1 for serum from untreated Wilson's patients.

  9. Serum concentrations of macro and trace elements in heroin addicts of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, José F; Sañudo, Ricardo I; Rodríguez, Elena M; Romero, Carlos Díaz

    2004-01-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se concentrations were determined in the serum of 106 heroin addicts and were compared with the concentrations obtained in a control group formed of 186 apparently healthy individuals. Heroin addicts displayed K and Se mean concentrations lower (p < 0.05), and Na, Mg, P mean concentrations and a Cu/Zn ratio higher (p < 0.05) than those mean values observed in the control group. The Mg and P concentrations in the serum of heroin addicts tended to normalize when age increased. The heroin addicts included in the methadone maintenance treatment program had higher serum mean concentrations of K and Mg than the heroin addicts in the detoxification process. The Na, K and Mg concentrations displayed highly significant correlations, with a different behavior for the heroin addicts group and the control group. When applying factor analysis and representing the scores of the first and second factors, the heroin addicts tended to differentiation from the control group. However, methadone substitution treatment was not able to normalize these concentrations.

  10. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  11. Predictors of Serum Dioxin, Furan and PCB Concentrations among Women from Chapaevsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. METHODS Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23–52 years were collected between 2003–2005 as part of the Russian Children’s Study. Serum dioxin, furan and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The median total PCB concentrations and total TEQs were 260 ng/g lipid and 25 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In multivariate analyses, both total PCB concentrations and total TEQs increased significantly with age, residential proximity to a local chemical plant, duration of local farming, and consumption of local beef. Both decreased with longer breastfeeding, recent increases in body mass index, and later blood draw date. These demographic and lifestyle predictors showed generally similar associations with the various measures of serum dioxins, furans, and PCBs. PMID:20578718

  12. Effect of caffeine-containing versus decaffeinated coffee on serum clozapine concentrations in hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Raaska, Kari; Raitasuo, Virpi; Laitila, Jouko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-01-01

    Clozapine and caffeine are metabolised mainly by the cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. Studies suggest that caffeine in coffee inhibits clozapine metabolism and increases serum clozapine concentrations. Our objective was to study whether coffee in the amounts usually consumed has an effect on steady-state serum clozapine concentrations. A randomised placebo-controlled cross-over design with two phases was used. Twelve hospitalised clozapine-using patients volunteered in the study where, after one-week run-in period, either caffeine-containing or decaffeinated instant coffee was available ad libitum for seven days. Serum concentrations of clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, clozapine-N-oxide, caffeine, paraxanthine and C-reactive protein were measured after run-in period and on days 4 and 8 of the following study phases. Two patients were excluded from the statistical analysis because of non-compliance based on serum caffeine and paraxanthine determinations. In six fully compliant patients caffeine-containing coffee increased the mean serum trough concentration of clozapine by 26% (non-significant (NS), 95% CI -3% to +54%, P=0.07), N-desmethylclozapine by 6% (95% CI 1% to 12%, P=0.03), and clozapine-N-oxide by 7% (NS, 95% CI -6% to +20%, P=0.22). The ratio of N-desmethylclozapine/clozapine decreased by 13% (NS, 95% CI -1% to +27%, P=0.06) and that of clozapine-N-oxide/clozapine by 7% (NS, 95% CI -5% to +17%, P=0.19). In the analysis of combined data (including day 4 data of the four patients compliant up to that point) serum trough concentration of clozapine was 20% (95% CI 3% to 37% to P=0.03) higher, and that of N-desmethylclozapine 7% (95% CI 2% to 13%, P=0.02) higher during the caffeine phase than during the decaffeinated phase. We conclude that the effect of instant coffee drinking on serum clozapine concentrations is of minor clinical relevance in most of the patients, but some individuals may be more sensitive to this interaction due e.g. to genetic factors

  13. CA15.3 Serum Concentrations in Older Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Padín-Iruegas, María Elena; Arias, José Ignacio; Herranz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3 ± 4.2; range: 71–88; median 76). A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8 ± 4.0; range: 55–70; median 63) was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL), and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041) tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age. PMID:25365176

  14. CA15.3 serum concentrations in older women with infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Padín-Iruegas, María Elena; Arias, José Ignacio; Herranz, Michel

    2014-10-31

    Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3±4.2; range: 71-88; median 76). A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8±4.0; range: 55-70; median 63) was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL), and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041) tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age.

  15. Therapeutic window of serum haloperidol concentration in acute schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, S; Neuhof, S; Braun, V; Meyer, F P

    1998-09-01

    Although several studies have been performed on the serum level-therapeutic effect relationship of neuroleptic drugs, the application of therapeutic drug-monitoring of neuroleptics is still a matter of controversy. Until now, haloperidol provided the most promising results. For this reason, an investigation of the dependence of clinical improvement on haloperidol serum levels was conducted in an acute psychiatric ward (Landeskrankenhaus Bernburg). In an open clinical trial haloperidol serum levels were measured in 57 acute schizophrenic patients for at least three weeks and correlated with clinical outcome (percent change of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, BPRS). A bisigmoidal model was used for data analysis. After three weeks of treatment, the major result proved to be a significant relationship between haloperidol serum level and therapeutic effect with pseudo-r2=0.316 and p=0.0031. Clinical improvement is enhanced by increasing haloperidol concentration up to about 10 ng/ml. It attains a maximum at about 10 ng/ml and decreases at haloperidol serum levels in a range of 10 ng/ml to 50 ng/ml. A simulation of this dependence of clinical improvement on serum levels, mediated by the variable dose design, can be excluded because of the results of a retrospective analysis of dosing behavior. Further evidence is thus provided for the dependence of therapeutic effect on the serum haloperidol concentration in acute schizophrenia. For practical application the position of a therapeutic window can be defined by a lower threshold level of about 5 ng/ml and an upper threshold of about 17 ng/ml. However, a maximal therapeutic effect is assured at 10 ng/ml. This should be the target value in serum level-guided dose adjustments.

  16. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  17. Increased serum IgD concentrations in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Saulsbury, F T

    1998-05-01

    Serum IgD concentrations were measured in 39 children with Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) and 40 control children by means of radial immunodiffusion. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM concentrations in the HSP patients were measured by nephelometry. The geometric mean IgD concentration in children with HSP (16.7 microg/ml) was significantly higher than in control children (9.1 microg/ml; P=0.03). Serial testing in 10 HSP patients revealed no significant change in IgD concentrations over periods ranging from 1 to 12 months. There was no relationship between IgD and IgA concentrations in the HSP patients. Nineteen of the 39 HSP patients (49%) had nephritis. The mean IgD concentration in patients with nephritis (10.7 microg/ml) did not differ from control values, but was significantly lower than the mean IgD level in the remaining 20 patients who did not have nephritis (25.4 microg/ml; P=0.02). These results indicate that serum IgD levels are increased in children with HSP who did not have nephritis. IgD concentrations in patients with nephritis were similar to levels in control children.

  18. Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Concentrations Among Drug Abusers on Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Yousefi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, modulates a number of metabolic processes. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) changes the level of hormones produced by adipose tissue in addicts. However, current data remains contradictory. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MMT on serum adiponectin levels in drug addicts. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five drug abusers with a mean age of 37.4 ± 8.7 years were referred to the Baharan Hospital, Zahedan, and 22 healthy age-matched control subjects with a mean age of 35 ± 9.5 years were enrolled in the study. Addicts were treated with methadone at (40 to 120 mg/d) for six months. Measurement of anthropometric parameters, serum adiponectin, and biochemical parameter levels, were assessed in the addicts, before and after six months of MMT, but only once in the healthy controls. Results: The mean basal serum adiponectin level was not significantly lower in the drug abuser group compared to the healthy subjects (P > 0.05). After six months of MMT, the mean serum adiponectin level of the drug addicts was not significantly different from their mean baseline level or that of the healthy subjects (P > 0.05). However, the mean baseline serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in overweight/obese addicts when compared to underweight patients and healthy individuals (P < 0.001). After six months of MMT, the mean level of serum adiponectin increased significantly in the underweight subjects compared to the normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.0001) and the control group (P < 0.001). Adiponectin concentration was correlated inversely with body mass index and positively correlated with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusions: This study showed that MMT did not markedly alter the concentration of serum adiponectin in drug abusers. However, in regard to the variations in the serum lipid profiles and anthropometric parameters, the findings

  19. Effect of diabetes on serum potassium concentrations in acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Foo, K; Sekhri, N; Deaner, A; Knight, C; Suliman, A; Ranjadayalan, K; Timmis, A D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare serum potassium concentrations in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in the early phase of acute coronary syndromes. Background: Acute phase hypokalaemia occurs in response to adrenergic activation, which stimulates membrane bound sodium-potassium-ATPase and drives potassium into the cells. It is not known whether the hypokalaemia is attenuated in patients with diabetes because of the high prevalence of sympathetic nerve dysfunction. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 2428 patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Patients were stratified by duration of chest pain, diabetic status, and pretreatment with β blockers. Results: The mean (SD) serum potassium concentration was significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients (4.3 (0.5) v 4.1 (0.5) mmol/l, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified diabetes as an independent predictor of a serum potassium concentration in the upper half of the distribution (odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.00). In patients presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset, there was a progressive increase in plasma potassium concentrations from 4.08 (0.46) mmol/l in patients presenting within 2 hours, to 4.20 (0.47) mmol/l in patients presenting between 2–4 hours, to 4.24 (0.52) mmol/l in patients presenting between 4–6 hours (p = 0.0007). This pattern of increasing serum potassium concentration with duration of chest pain was attenuated in patients with diabetes, particularly those with unstable angina. Similar attenuation occurred in patients pretreated with β blockers. Conclusion: In acute coronary syndromes, patients with diabetes have significantly higher serum potassium concentrations and do not exhibit the early dip seen in non-diabetics. This may reflect sympathetic nerve dysfunction that commonly complicates diabetes. PMID:12482786

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Serum Pepsinogen I Concentration in Peptic Ulcer Patients: Effect of Bacterial Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sill Moo; Park, Joongwon; Chang, Sae Kyung; Yoo, Byung Chul; Kim, Ho Jung

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: In order to test the hypothesis that H. pylori infections in the gastric antrum increase pepsinogen I release, fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations were compared in peptic ulcer patients with and without H. pylori infection. A randomized prospective study was performed to determine whether the increased serum pepsinogen I concentrations associated with H. pylori infection respond to treatment that eradicates H. pylori. Methods: Fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations were measured by RIA in 736 patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed benign peptic ulcer with and without H. pylori infection. Out of 511 patients with H. pylori infection, 110 patients (group 1) were randomly selected and were treated with metronidazole and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate combined with ranitidine and antacid, and 97 patients (group 2) were treated only with ranitidine and antacid. The third group, 54 patients free of H. pylori infection, was designed to evaluate the influence of H2-receptor antagonist and antacid on the change of pepsinogen I. Fasting pepsinogen I concentration and H. pylori status were compared before and after the treatment. Results: Patients infected by H. pylori (gastric ulcer 208, duodenal ulcer 303; total 511) had significantly higher fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations than H. pylori negative patients (gastric ulcer 110, duodenal ulcer 115: total 225). Mean pepsinogen I level of the former was 124.3±46.9 and that of the latter was 77.9±25.8 ng/ml. (p<0.0001) The difference in serum pepsinogen I concentrations according to the location of ulcer crater was significant only in non-infected subjects e.g., mean pepsinogen I level H. pylori-negative gastric ulcer was significantly lower than that of H. pylori-negative duodenal ulcer patients. H. pylori was eradicated in all the patients who had received antibacterial therapy for 4 weeks and serum pepsinogen I concentrations were significantly decreased from 129.8+43.0 to

  1. Association between increased serum thyrotropin concentration and the oldest old: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Glaucia Cruzes; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Araújo, Lara Miguel Quirino; Almada, Clineu de Mello

    2015-01-01

    To assess studies that evaluate the relation between serum thyrotropin concentration, very old subjects, and their events. We searched the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases for articles published between 2004 and 2012. Our search was restricted to studies involving humans aged 65 years or older, and written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Studies that evaluated the association between elevated serum thyrotropin concentration among elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism were chosen since at least in part they included a subpopulation of individuals aged 80 years and above. Thirteen studies were selected. No significant increase in risk of cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, or total mortality was observed. Elevated thyrotropin concentration was associated with longevity. More randomized controlled trials are required to better define the potential benefits of elevated thyrotropin concentration in this oldest old population, hormone replacement, and longevity. PMID:25807244

  2. Variability of serum indomethacin concentrations after oral and intravenous administration to preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Mrongovius, R; Imbeck, H; Wille, L; Müller, H; Seyberth, H W

    1982-03-01

    Fifteen preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus and respiratory distress syndrome were given indomethacin (0.2 mg/kg) at 12 h intervals up to three times, either orally or intravenously, in an uncontrolled, non-randomized study. Serum indomethacin concentrations were determined in blood samples taken 12 h after dosing. There was considerable variability in the serum indomethacin concentrations, especially after oral administration, although the mean concentrations after each of the three doses were similar after both oral and intravenous administration. The frequency of closures and transient closures of the ductus arteriosus was also similar for both routes of administration. There was, however, no relation between concentration and effect in individual patients. The sustained exposure to indomethacin which appears to be necessary for ductal closure can sometimes be attained by oral administration.

  3. Soluble TRAIL Concentration in Serum Is Elevated in People with Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qunye; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a multi-functional cytokine, which is involved in the pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that TRAIL stimulated lipid uptake and foam cell formation in macrophages in vitro. Several clinical studies have suggested that the serum concentration of TRAIL may be increased in humans with elevated blood cholesterol; however, the current data appear to be inconclusive in this regard. In the present study, we examined the relationships between the serum TRAIL concentration and cholesterol levels in 352 generally healthy subjects undergoing the routine annual health check. We showed that there were significant correlations between TRAIL concentration and levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols. The level of TRAIL was significantly elevated in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, although this relationship might be also associated with changes of other metabolic factors. Moreover, we showed that the level of blood cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects in the upper quartile of serum TRAIL. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the serum TRAIL concentration is elevated in people with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26633016

  4. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  5. Fluctuation of serum zuclopenthixol concentrations in patients treated with zuclopenthixol decanoate in viscoleo.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, J H; Olesen, O V; Larsen, N E

    1994-04-01

    Zuclopenthixol serum concentrations were measured in 58 psychiatric patients referred for routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Patients were treated for prolonged time with zuclopenthixol decanoate in viscoleo in doses of 50-500 mg, administered intramuscularly at 14-day intervals. The serum concentration was determined at days 7 (C7) and 14 (C14) following injection. The mean ratio C7/C14 was 2.0 and was independent of the dosage given. In 14 patients, additional blood samples were drawn at day 3 (C3) following injection. The mean ratio C3/C14 of this group was 3.2. An almost log-linear decline of the serum concentration from day 3 to 14 appeared, which corresponds to an apparent half-life of zuclopenthixol in this dosage form of 7.4 days. The marked fluctuations of serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol from peak to trough levels in patients given fortnightly injections of the depot preparation indicate that shorter intervals between injections should be considered in many cases in order to diminish side effects.

  6. Serum concentrations of vitamin D and organ dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Fernanda Sampaio; Freitas, Flavio Geraldo Resende; Bafi, Antonio Tonete; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the serum concentrations of vitamin D and their variations in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and in control subjects upon admission and after 7 days of hospitalization in the intensive care unit and to correlate these concentrations with the severity of organ dysfunction. Methods This case-control, prospective, observational study involved patients aged > 18 years with severe sepsis or septic shock paired with a control group. Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured at inclusion (D0) and on the seventh day after inclusion (D7). Severe deficiency was defined as vitamin D levels < 10ng/ml, deficiency as levels between 10 and 20ng/ml, insufficiency as levels between 20 and 30ng/ml, and sufficiency as levels ≥ 30ng/mL. We considered a change to a higher ranking, together with a 50% increase in the absolute concentration, to represent an improvement. Results We included 51 patients (26 with septic shock and 25 controls). The prevalence of vitamin D concentration ≤ 30ng/ml was 98%. There was no correlation between the serum concentration of vitamin D at D0 and the SOFA score at D0 or D7 either in the general population or in the group with septic shock. Patients with improvement in vitamin D deficiency had an improved SOFA score at D7 (p = 0.013). Conclusion In the population studied, patients with septic shock showed improvement in the serum concentrations of vitamin D on the seventh day compared with the controls. We also found a correlation between higher vitamin D concentrations and a greater decrease in the severity of organ dysfunction. PMID:26761476

  7. The effects of fasting and refeeding on serum parathormone and calcitonin concentrations in young and old male rats.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, Z; Myśliwski, A; Wyrzykowska, M; Hoppe, A

    2001-05-01

    Although fasting and refeeding reveal the existence of age-related changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, the effects of aging on mineral metabolism in refed animals are unknown. We therefore investigated hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in young (4 months) and old (26 months) male rats fasted for 48 hours and then refed for 4 or 24 hours. Serum concentrations of total and ionized calcium and parathormone were similar in control young and old rats. Serum calcitonin level was higher, and the concentrations of albumin and inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase activity were lower in fed old rats. In young fasted rats, the serum ionized and total calcium was decreased, and phosphate concentration was increased. In old rats, fasting resulted in the increase of serum parathormone level. Fasting reduced serum alkaline phosphatase activity to a similar extent in both age groups. In young rats, refeeding for 24h normalized serum calcium and phosphate levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, and decreased serum concentrations of PTH and calcitonin. In old refed rats, serum calcitonin concentration was raised by 77% compared to fed or fasted animals, whereas parathormone levels were normalized. Our results indicate that old fasted or refed rats maintain normal serum calcium concentration in a different way than young animals, possibly through the increase in serum levels of parathormone and/or calcitonin. Thus, dietary manipulations such as fasting and refeeding constitute an interesting model for the investigation of the effects of aging on the hormonal regulation of serum calcium level.

  8. Interrelationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and lipid profiles in premenopausal Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal A.; Patel, Prerna P.; Mughal, Zulf; Padidela, Raja; Patel, Ashish D.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, and observational studies have associated it with an atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: To determine the interrelationship between Vitamin D and lipid profile in apparently healthy premenopausal Indian women, considering confounding factors such as lifestyle that independently influence lipids. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy premenopausal women (20–45 year) were recruited from Gujarat, India. Data were collected on anthropometry, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and diet. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, and lipid profile. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive correlation between serum 25[OH]D concentrations and serum lipids. Results: Ninety-three percent women showed Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed significant inverse correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r = −0.202, P = 0.027), triglycerides (TG) (r = −0.284, P = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.184, P = 0.044) and positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.250, P = 0.006). On dichotomizing the population according to median 25(OH)D concentration (11.1 ng/dl), no significant differences were observed between the groups for anthropometry, sunlight exposure, and lifestyle. Serum lipid profiles were significantly different, above median serum 25(OH)D concentration group showed favorable serum lipids (TC: 179.3 ± 30 vs. 191.8 ± 31.7 mg/dl; TG: 140 ± 39.1 vs. 165.5 ± 53.4 mg/dl; LDL-C: 100 ± 30.2 vs. 112 ± 32 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 14 vs. 47.6 ± 9.3 mg/dl)(P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that association of 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile even after considering lifestyle factors which independently influence lipids

  9. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  10. Predictors of Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Concentrations among Children Aged 1-5 Years.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Jacobson, Melanie H; Preston, Emma V; Lee, Grace E; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Marder, M Elizabeth; Marcus, Michele; Barr, Dana B

    2017-01-03

    Serum concentrations of PBDEs were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 80 children aged 15-71 months. Demographic and behavioral data were collected on parental questionnaires; a research nurse recorded anthropometric measures and insurance status. For a subset of children (n = 17), PBDEs were measured in house dust and child handwipes sampled during a home visit. In linear and Tobit regression, log-transformed PBDE congeners were modeled as a function of child characteristics, including neighborhood-level socioeconomic indicators. BDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were highly correlated and summed for analysis; BDE-153 was examined individually. PBDE serum concentrations were associated with socioeconomic factors; for example, a $20,000 increase in median household income in a child's ZIP code was associated with a 34% decrease (95%CI = 14-49%) in BDE-153 and a 26% decrease (95%CI = 6-42%) in ∑BDE-47,-99,-100. Lower body-mass index (BMI) z-score and household smoking were strong predictors of higher BDE-153 levels. Among children who participated in a home visit, serum PBDE was positively correlated with handwipe PBDE (Spearman r ∑BDE-47, -99, -100 = 0.48, p = 0.09), but not dust PBDE. Results indicate socioeconomic factors and BMI are strong predictors of serum PBDE levels among young children. PBDEs measured on handwipes are more predictive of serum PBDE levels than vacuum-collected dust.

  11. Serum Macroelement and Microelement Concentrations in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Muyan; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunlei; Huang, Qiaoying; Lei, Danqing; Hu, Yanling

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases. However, its pathogenesis is unclear. We aim to explore the potential relationships between serum macroelements/microelements and PCOS. A total of 1137 women were involved in the current study. PCOS was defined according to ESHRE/ASRM, and complete blood samples were collected. Serum macroelements (calcium and magnesium) and microelements (copper, zinc, and iron) were assayed through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PCOS patients had significantly higher copper concentrations than patients without PCOS (P < 0.001). By contrast, PCOS patients had lower serum calcium levels than patients without PCOS (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the levels of serum zinc, magnesium, and iron between PCOS and non-PCOS patients. PCOS patients with acne had higher magnesium levels than those without acne (P = 0.020), and PCOS patients with hirsutism had lower magnesium levels than those without hirsutism (P = 0.037). High serum copper and low calcium levels may be correlated with PCOS. Magnesium concentrations are correlated with acne and hirsutism in PCOS patients. These results provide clues to explore the mechanism of PCOS and guidance for element treatments in PCOS patients.

  12. [Correlations between HBCD and thyroid hormone concentrations in human serum from production source area].

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Cong-Qiao; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Liu, Wei-Zhi; Ding, Wen-Wei

    2014-10-01

    The levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in human serum from the HBCD production source region were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The concentrations (lipid weight) of ∑ HBCD in 80 serum samples ranged from not detectable to 2702.5 ng · g(-1). The mean and median values were 104.9 ng · g(-1) and 5.9 ng · g(-1), respectively. The most abundant HBCD isomer in 42 samples was γ-HBCD, while α-HBCD was the most abundant isomer in the other 26 serum samples. There was no significant difference in ∑ HBCD concentration among different age and gender. In this study, the thyroid hormone abnormality rate in the 80 residents was up to 33%. The thyroid hormone abnormality rate of the residents whose serum HBCD was detected was significantly higher than those without HBCD in serum. Since the local residents were highly exposed to HBCD, the probability of thyroid abnormality might be significantly increased.

  13. Serum concentrations of vitamins A and E in impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Tavridou, A; Unwin, N C; Laker, M F; White, M; Alberti, K G

    1997-10-31

    Serum concentrations of vitamins A and E were measured in 32 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 148 subjects with normal glucose tolerance using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Fasting glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations were also measured. Serum vitamin A concentrations were higher in subjects with IGT 2.5 (1.1-3.4) vs. 2.1 (1.4-3.2) mumol/l [median (2.5-97.5 percentiles)] (P = 0.002), the difference remaining significant after adjustment for triglycerides (P = 0.028). There was a univariate association between vitamin A levels and insulin resistance (r = 0.164; P = 0.02) and in multivariate logistic regression analysis the relative risk of subjects with high vitamin A concentrations having IGT was 3.8 (P = 0.002). There were no differences in serum vitamin E concentrations between the groups. These data suggest that higher vitamin A concentrations found in non-insulin-dependent diabetes pre-date the onset of diabetes. Further studies are required to confirm this finding and to investigate the possibility of a role for vitamin A in the aetiology of diabetes and IGT.

  14. Osteocalcin as a negative regulator of serum leptin concentration in humans: insight from triathlon competitions.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Ara, Ignacio; Dorado, Cecilia; Vicente-Rodríguez, German; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Cabrero, Javier Chavarren; Serrano-Sanchez, José A; Santana, Alfredo; Calbet, Jose A L

    2010-10-01

    Osteocalcin is a hormone produced by osteoblasts which acts as a negative regulator of fat mass, protecting against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. To determine if an acute increase in osteocalcin concentration is associated with opposed changes in circulating leptin levels and insulin resistance we studied 15 middle and long distance male triathletes, (age 32.1 ± 6.9 years), before and 48 h after an Olympic (OT) or an Ironman (IT) triathlon competition. Muscle power, anaerobic capacity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and serum concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, osteocalcin, leptin, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA) were determined pre- and post-race. Pre- and 48 h post-race total and regional lean body mass was not altered, but fat mass was similarly increased (~250 g) 48 h after the competitions. This elicited an increase in plasma leptin of 33% after the IT while it remained unchanged after the OT, likely due to a 25% increase in plasma osteocalcin which occurred only after the OT (all p < 0.05). Post-race HOMA remained unchanged in OT and IT. Performance was normalized 48 h after the competitions, with the exception of a slightly lower jumping capacity after the IT. Serum testosterone concentration tended to decrease by 10% after the IT whilst dihydrotestosterone was reduced by 24% after the IT. In conclusion, an acute increase in serum osteocalcin concentration blunts the expected increase of serum leptin concentration that should occur with fat mass gain. This study provides evidence for osteocalcin as a negative regulator of serum leptin in humans.

  15. Evaluation of a Brix refractometer to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Deelen, S M; Ollivett, T L; Haines, D M; Leslie, K E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a digital Brix refractometer for the assessment of success of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin compared with the measurement of serum total protein (STP) by refractometry. Blood samples (n = 400) were collected from calves at 3 to 6d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and STP and percentage Brix (%Brix) were determined using a digital refractometer. The mean IgG concentration was 24.1g/L [standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0] with a range from 2.1 to 59.1g/L. The mean STP concentration was 6.0 g/dL (SD ± 0.8) with a range from 4.4 to 8.8 g/dL. The mean %Brix concentration was 9.2% (SD ± 0.9) with a range of 7.3 to 12.4%. Brix percentage was highly correlated with IgG (r = 0.93). Test characteristics were calculated to assess failure of passive transfer (FPT; serum IgG <10 g/L). The sensitivity and specificity of STP at 5.5 g/dL were 76.3 and 94.4%, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to plot the true positive rate against the false positive rate for consecutive %Brix values. The optimal combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.9%) was at 8.4% Brix. Serum total protein was also positively correlated with %Brix (r = 1.00) and IgG (r = 0.93). Dairy producers can successfully monitor their colostrum management and the overall success of passive transfer using a digital Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum.

  16. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G.; Avila, Jaqueline C.; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study’s aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Methods: Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27–2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40–2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12–2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Conclusion: Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults. PMID:28146127

  17. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-07

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  18. Association between pruritus and serum concentrations of parathormone, calcium and phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Ramin; Joshaghani, Hamid Reza; Bayzayi, Faranak; Haddad, Mahboobeh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-07-01

    Chronic renal disorders have a progressive course in most cases, and finally result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the mainstays in the treatment of these patients. Disturbance in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism and alteration of serum levels of parathormone (PTH) are observed in these patients. One of the most common cutaneous manifestations in patients on HD is pruritus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pruritus and serum concentrations of Ca, P and PTH in patients with chronic renal disease. This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients on HD at the Fifth-Azar Hospital in Gorgan, Iran, in 2010. Information related to the patients, including age, gender, pruritus, time of pruritus and duration on dialysis, was extracted from questionnaires. Serum concentrations of intact PTH, Ca and P were measured. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test and SPSS-16 software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the 120 study patients, 50% were male and the mean age (±SD) was 49 ± 12.3 years. Sixty percent of the patients had pruritus, of whom 33.3% had PTH levels above the normal range. Among the 40% of the patients who did not have pruritus, 39.6% had PTH levels higher than the normal levels. The mean serum Ca and P levels were 8.44 ± 1.65 mg/dL and 5.48 ± 1.81 mg/dL, respectively. The mean (±SD) Ca-P product was 55.46 ± 47.16 and the mean PTH concentration was 274.34 ± 286.53 pg/mL. No significant association was found between pruritus and age, sex, serum PTH and P levels as well as Ca-P product. However, the association between serum Ca levels and pruritus was significant (P = 0.03). Our study showed that most patients with pruritus had serum Ca levels in the abnormal range (lower or higher), and there was no significant correlation between serum iPTH level and pruritis. Thus, good control of serum Ca levels is important to

  19. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  20. Serum concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor and depth of trophoblastic invasion in ampullary ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cabar, Fábio Roberto; Kamio Teshima, Décio Roberto; Pereira, Pedro Paulo; Antonangelo, Leila; Schultz, Regina; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the depth of trophoblastic infiltration and serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration in patients with an ampullary pregnancy. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectionalstudy involved 34 patients with an ampullary ectopic pregnancy who underwent salpingectomy between 2012 and 2013. Maternal serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Trophoblastic invasion was classified histologically as follows: stage I, limited to the tubal mucosa; stage II, reaching the muscle layer; and stage III,involving the full thickness. The qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate differences in serum vascular endothelial growth factor among the degrees of trophoblastic invasion. ROC curves were constructed to determine vascular endothelial growth factor cut-off values that predict the degree of tubal invasion based on the best sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Eight patients had stage I trophoblastic invasion, seven had stage II, and 19 had stage III. The median serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration was 69.88 pg/mL for stage I, 14.53 pg/mL for stage II and 9.08 pg/mL for stage III, with a significant difference between stages I and III. Based on the ROC curve, a serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of 25.9 pg/mL best differentiated stage I from stages II and III with asensitivity of 75.0%, specificity of 76.9%, and area under the curve of 0.798. CONCLUSIONS: The depth of trophoblastic penetration into the tubal wall isassociated with serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in ampullary pregnancies. PMID:28076513

  1. The Majority of MicroRNAs Detectable in Serum and Saliva Is Concentrated in Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Alessia; Tandon, Mayank; Alevizos, Ilias; Illei, Gabor G.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using microRNAs (miRNA) as biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. They are easily accessible in many body fluids but it is controversial if they are circulating freely or are encapsulated in microvesicles, particularly exosomes. We investigated if the majority of miRNas in serum and saliva are free-circulating or concentrated in exosomes. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from fresh and frozen human serum and saliva. The amount of selected miRNAs extracted from the exosomal pellet and the exosome-depleted serum and saliva was compared by quantitative RT-PCR. Some miRNAs tested are ubiquitously expressed, others were previously reported as biomarkers. We included miRNAs previously reported to be free circulating and some thought to be exosome specific. The purity of exosome fraction was confirmed by electronmicroscopy and western blot. The concentration of miRNAs was consistently higher in the exosome pellet compared to the exosome-depleted supernatant. We obtained the same results using an equal volume or equal amount of total RNA as input of the RT-qPCR. The concentration of miRNA in whole, unfractionated serum, was between the exosomal pellet and the exosome-depleted supernatant. Selected miRNAs, which were detectable in exosomes, were undetectable in whole serum and the exosome-depleted supernantant. Exosome isolation improves the sensitivity of miRNA amplification from human biologic fluids. Exosomal miRNA should be the starting point for early biomarker studies to reduce the probability of false negative results involving low abundance miRNAs that may be missed by using unfractionated serum or saliva. PMID:22427800

  2. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; Houweling, M; Schonewille, J T; Tielens, A G M; Jorritsma, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period. Thirty-four cows kept under similar conditions at a university dairy farm (no experimental treatments) were monitored from 4 wk before until 8 wk after calving. Mobilization of muscle protein was investigated by analysis of plasma 3-methylhistidine concentrations (3-MH, analyzed by a recently developed HPLC tandem mass spectrometry method) and ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle thickness. Mobilization of fat tissue was monitored by serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness. Large variation was observed between cows in onset and duration of periparturient protein and fat mobilization. Plasma 3-MH concentrations and muscle thickness profiles indicated that protein mobilization started, on average, before parturition and continued until approximately wk 4 of lactation. Serum NEFA concentrations and backfat thickness profiles showed that fat mobilization occurred from parturition until the end of the study. Thus, muscle protein mobilization occurred in advance of fat mobilization in most cows from this study. We hypothesized that this might be due to a prepartum amino acid deficiency in the absence of negative energy balance. The incidence of hyperketonemia in this study was 16/34 = 47%. With the exception of 3 cows defined as having severe hyperketonemia, cows with lower 3-MH concentrations had higher serum BHBA concentrations. A possible explanation for this observation might be that higher mobilization of protein around calving might restrict ketone body production due to the higher availability of glucogenic precursors in the period of most severe negative energy balance and highest fat mobilization. The

  3. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P < 0.0001) levels of hepcidin, CRP and IL-6 than NC. Hepcidin in dialysis patients is significantly related to age (r = 0.373, P = 0.012), serum triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P < 0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, hepcidin correlated independently with triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P < 0.0001). Elevated levels of hepcidin in patients with CKD on dialysis may be related to the occurrence of high triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated.

  4. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <10 mg/mL at 24 h old). The nDn were 1.34414, 1.34448, and 1.34480 to predict 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL of serum, respectively. The BRn cut points were 7.6, 7.8, and 8.0, respectively. The nDn cut points of 1.34448 and

  5. Effects of placentophagy on serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations in rats after parturition or superovulation.

    PubMed

    Blank, M S; Friesen, H G

    1980-11-01

    In rats that were allowed to eat the placentae after parturition concentrations of serum prolactin were elevated on Day 1 but concentrations of serum progesterone were depressed on Days 6 and 8 post partum when compared to those of rats prevented from eating the placentae. In rats treated with PMSG to induce superovulation serum prolactin and progesterone values were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated on Days 3 and 5 respectively, after being fed 2 g rat placenta/day for 2 days. However, feeding each rat 4 g placenta/day significantly (P < 0.02) lowered serum progesterone on Day 5. Oestrogen injections or bovine or human placenta in the diet had no effect. The organic phase of a petroleum ether extract of rat placenta (2 g-equivalents/day) lowered peripheral concentrations of progesterone on Day 5, but other extracts were ineffective. We conclude that the rat placenta contains orally-active substance(s) which modify blood levels of pituitary and ovarian hormones.

  6. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

  7. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation.

  8. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  9. Direct detection of antibody concentration and affinity in human serum using microscale thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lippok, Svenja; Seidel, Susanne A I; Duhr, Stefan; Uhland, Kerstin; Holthoff, Hans-Peter; Jenne, Dieter; Braun, Dieter

    2012-04-17

    The direct quantification of both the binding affinity and absolute concentration of disease-related biomarkers in biological fluids is particularly beneficial for differential diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we extend microscale thermophoresis to target immunological questions. Optically generated thermal gradients were used to deplete fluorescently marked antigens in 2- and 10-fold-diluted human serum. We devised and validated an autocompetitive strategy to independently fit the concentration and dissociation constant of autoimmune antibodies against the cardiac β1-adrenergic receptor related to dilated cardiomyopathy. As an artificial antigen, the peptide COR1 was designed to mimic the second extracellular receptor loop. Thermophoresis resolved antibody concentrations from 2 to 200 nM and measured the dissociation constant as 75 nM. The approach quantifies antibody binding in its native serum environment within microliter volumes and without any surface attachments. The simplicity of the mix and probe protocol minimizes systematic errors, making thermophoresis a promising detection method for personalized medicine.

  10. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  11. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations in HIV-infected children with fat redistribution syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verkauskiene, Rasa; Dollfus, Catherine; Levine, Martine; Faye, Albert; Deghmoun, Samia; Houang, Muriel; Chevenne, Didier; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Blanche, Stéphane; Lévy-Marchal, Claire

    2006-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipodystrophy is characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected children are related to alterations in endocrine function of adipose tissue. A multicenter study was conducted in 130 HIV-infected children. Lipodystrophy definition was based on the central to peripheral skinfold ratio. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin concentrations, glycemia, and lipid profile were measured in all children. Fat redistribution syndrome was apparent in 32 children: 14 with atrophic (LPDA) and 18 with hypertrophic lipodystrophy (LPDH). Mean serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in LPDA and LPDH groups compared with the group with no lipodystrophy (LPD-). Fasting insulin concentration was significantly higher in LPDA and LPDH groups versus LPD-. Mean serum leptin concentration was significantly increased only in LPDH compared with LPDA and LPD- groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration decreased in the LPDA versus LPD- group. Controlling for puberty stage, gender, percentage of total fat mass, serum lipids, HIV treatment, and disease severity, adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with central obesity and insulin/glucose ratio. Fat redistribution had no significant effect on leptin concentration, which was directly related to the percentage of body fat, female gender, and insulin/glucose ratio. In conclusion, HIV-infected children with symptoms of fat redistribution have decreased levels of adiponectin, associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

  12. Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Mother's Serum and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Sons

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. Methods We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons’ age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother–son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons’ pubertal onset—defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL—was assessed annually by the same physician. Results In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1– 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons’ pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more. Conclusions Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons’ births—which may reflect sons’ prenatal and early-life exposures—were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset. PMID:21968773

  13. Dynamic changes of immunoglobulin concentrations in pig colostrum and serum around parturition.

    PubMed

    Markowska-Daniel, I; Pomorska-Mól, M; Pejsak, Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations in porcine serum and colostrum, in order to evaluate their variations in the perinatal period, as well as to clarify whether there is a correlation between colostrum intake, initial level of immunoglobulins (Ig) in piglet serum and development of their own immunity. The mean IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations in sow serum 10 days before parturition were 1.58, 6.12 and 39.56 mg/ml, respectively. Seven days later only the IgG level was insignificantly lower (34.94 mg/ml, p = 0.55), while concentrations of IgA and IgM increased to 2.25 and 7.25 mg/ml, respectively (p = 0.23 and 0.62, respectively). The mean initial IgG concentration in colostrum at farrowing was 118.5 mg/ml and differed between sows. The average value of IgA in colostrum at birth was 23.8 mg/ml and decreased to 7.85 mg/ml at 6 hours (h) and to 4.59 mg/ml at 24 h after the onset of farrowing. IgM concentration at birth was 12.1 mg/ml and decreased to 4.23 mg/ml at 24 h postpartum. Positive relationships were found between concentrations of IgM and IgA in serum of piglets at 14 and 56 days of life (r = 0.41 and 0.80, respectively, p < or = 0.05) as well as for IgG concentration in the piglets serum at 7 days and 56 days of age (r = 0.48, p < or = 0.05). The above observations suggest that there is a correlation between the level of Ig in piglet serum in the first days of life and improvement of their own immunity.

  14. Endothelial Function and Serum Concentration of Toxic Metals in Frequent Consumers of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Silvio; Vasto, Sonya; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Grosso, Giuseppe; Bergante, Sonia; Galvano, Fabio; Massenti, Fatima Maria; Amodio, Emanuele; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Verga, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Consumption of fish is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but there is paucity of data concerning its effect on endothelial function. Furthermore, investigation of the effects of fish consumption on health must take into account the ingestion of contaminants, including transition metals and some metalloids, which may have unfavorable effects on health, including those on the cardiovascular system. We investigated the association between fish consumption, endothelial function (flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery), and serum concentration of some toxic metals in apparently healthy people. Methods Twenty-nine high fish consumers (at least 3 portions a week) were compared with 25 low fish consumers (less than 1 portion a week). All participants were free of diabetes, cardiovascular or other systemic diseases. Serum metal (antimonium, arsenic, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, strontium) concentrations were measured in subgroups of 24 high fish consumers and 19 low fish consumers. Results Both groups exhibited similar habitual dietary patterns, age and anthropometric characteristics. The high fish consumers had higher flow mediated dilation (9.7±1.8 vs. 7.3±1.9%; P<0.001), but also higher serum concentrations of mercury (5.87±2.69 vs. 1.65±1.10 mcg/L; P<0.001) and arsenic (6.04±3.25 vs. 2.30±1.58 mcg/L; P<0.001). The fasting plasma glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with both mercury (r = 0.39; P = 0.01) and arsenic concentrations (r = 0.55; P<0.001). Conclusions Habitual consumption of high amounts of fish is associated with better endothelial function despite higher serum concentrations of mercury and arsenic. PMID:25401695

  15. Monitoring of heparin concentration in serum by Raman spectroscopy within hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetani, Altaf; Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Harb, Alaa; Anis, Hanan

    2011-08-01

    The feasibility of using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy has been explored for real time monitoring of heparin concentration in serum. Heparin is an important blood anti-coagulant whose precise monitoring and controlling in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and dialysis is of utmost importance. Our method of heparin monitoring offers a novel alternative to existing clinical procedures in terms of accuracy, response time and sample volume. The optical design configuration simply involves a 785-nm laser diode whose light is coupled into HC-PCF filled with heparin-serum mixtures. By non-selectively filling HC-PCF, a strong modal field overlap is obtained. Consequently, an enhanced Raman signal (>90 times) is obtained from various heparin-serum mixtures filled HC-PCFs compared to its bulk counterpart (cuvette). The present scheme has the potential to serve as a `generic biosensing tool' for diagnosing a wide range of biological samples.

  16. Physiological concentrations of serum cortisol are related to vascular risk markers in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Rodríguez, Pilar; Osiniri, Inés; Grau-Cabrera, Pilar; Riera-Pérez, Elena; Prats-Puig, Anna; Carbonell-Alferez, Míriam; Schneider, Stephan; Mora-Maruny, Carme; De Zegher, Francis; Ibánez, Lourdes; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that cortisol contributes to cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether physiological concentrations of serum cortisol are related to vascular risk markers in children. The cross-sectional associations between morning serum cortisol and cardiovascular risk markers: blood pressure (BP) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), were examined in a sample of healthy prepubertal children (age, 6.8 ± 0.1 y) attending primary care clinics. Serum cortisol was associated with increased systolic BP (SBP; n = 223; p < 0.001) and carotid IMT (n = 91; p < 0.0001). These associations were independent from age, BMI, body fat, waist, insulin resistance, serum lipids, and heart rate (HR). No gender interactions were apparent in these associations. In summary, a higher morning serum cortisol within the physiological range is in prepubertal children associated with vascular risk markers. Because childhood risk factors predict adult risk for cardiovascular disease, these observations may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular disease early in life.

  17. Resting and dobutamine stress test induced serum concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide in German Shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Kosić, Ljubica; Trailović, Dragiša R; Matunović, Radomir

    2012-12-01

    Studies of clinical uses of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) represent one of the most important advances in cardiology since the introduction of echocardiography as a clinical diagnostic procedure. Defining the clinical potential of BNP in canine cardiology has not been completed yet. The aim of this study is to measure BNP concentrations in healthy German Shepherd dogs of different ages as a baseline in resting and when conventional protocol of the dobutamine stress test (DST) is applied to dogs. Concentrations of BNP were measured in blood serum by the radioimmunoassay method. The values of BNP concentrations were compared to cardiac parameters obtained by standard cardiac diagnostic procedures (radiology, electrocardiography and echocardiography). No significant differences in serum BNP concentrations existed in dogs of different ages. A statistically significant increase in BNP concentrations was registered after DST. These changes in BNP concentrations were related to ST/T electrocardiographic changes, and correlated to changes in the left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVESD). These data suggest that BNP is not increased in aged dogs with normal cardiac systolic function and renal function, and that myocardial ischemia leads to a significant increase in BNP concentrations even in dogs with normal left ventricular function.

  18. Temporal Variability of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations over One Year

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  19. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  20. Oral lixivaptan effectively increases serum sodium concentrations in outpatients with euvolemic hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Decaux, Guy; Josiassen, Richard C; Yagil, Yoram; Kopyt, Nelson; Thacker, Hemant P; Mannelli, Massimo; Bichet, Daniel G; Orlandi, Cesare

    2012-12-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in clinical practice. Its incidence increases with age and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, the vaptans, antagonists of the arginine vasopressin pathway, have shown promise for safe treatment of hyponatremia. Here we evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oral lixivaptan, a selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, for treatment of nonhospitalized individuals with euvolemic hyponatremia (sodium less than 135 mmol/l) in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study. About half of the 206 patients were elderly in a chronic care setting. Of these patients, 52 were given a placebo and 154 were given 25-100 mg per day lixivaptan, titrated based on the daily serum sodium measurements. Compared with placebo (0.8 mmol/l), the serum sodium concentration significantly increased by 3.2 mmol/l from baseline to day 7 (primary efficacy endpoint) with lixivaptan treatment. A significantly greater proportion of patients that received lixivaptan achieved normal serum sodium (39.4%) by day 7 relative to placebo (12.2%). Overall, lixivaptan was considered safe and well-tolerated. Thus, oral lixivaptan can be safely initiated in the outpatient setting and effectively increases serum sodium concentrations in outpatients with euvolemic hyponatremia.

  1. Nativity and serum concentrations of antioxidants in Mexican American children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Persky, Victoria; Chavez, Noel

    2014-04-16

    There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4-16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  2. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    PubMed Central

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  3. Tryptophan concentrations in rat brain. Failure to correlate with free serum tryptophan or its ratio to the sum of other serum neutral amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, J D; Hirsch, M J; Faller, D V

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats were deprived of food overnight and then given free access to diets designed to raise (carbohydrate) or lower (carbohydrate and large neutral amino acids) brain tryptophan concentrations. Similar diets were supplemented with 40% fat and fed to other groups. All animals were killed 2h after food presentation. Sera from animals fed carbohydrate plus fat contained 2.5 times as much free tryptophan concentrations did not differ. Similarly, sera from rats fed on carbohydrate, large neutral amino acids, and 40% fat contained 5 times as much free tryptophan as those from rats given this meal without fat, but brain tryptophan concentrations increased by only 26%. Correlations were made between brain tryptophan and (1) free serum tryptophan, (2) the ratio of free serum tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids in serum that compete with it for uptake into the brain, (3) total serum tryptophan or (4) the ratio of total serum tryptophan to the sum of its circulating competitors. The r values for correlations (3) and (4) (i.e. those involving total serum tryptophan) were appreciably higher than those for correlations (1) and (2). Brain tyrosine concentrations also were found to correlate well with the ratio of serum tyrosine to the sum of its competitors. Competition for uptake into the brain among large neutral amino acids (represented here by serum ratios) thus appears to determine the changes in the brain concentrations of these amino acids under physiological conditions(i.e. after food consumption). Total, not free, serum tryptophan is the relevant index for predicting brain tryptophan concentrations. PMID:1016241

  4. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies

  5. Comparative study of serum zinc concentrations in benign and malignant prostate disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Qingjiang; Hu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Xingyou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Long, Zhou; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostatic disease, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to June 2015 for studies that involved the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Fourteen studies were identified from the databases. Our results illustrated that the serum zinc concentrations in prostate cancer patients were significantly lower than those in Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and normal controls (SMD (95% CI), −0.94 [−1.57, −0.32]; −1.18 [−1.90, −0.45]). However, the serum zinc concentrations in BPH patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (SMD (95% CI) 1.77 [0.15, 3.39]). The present study showed that different levels of serum zinc concentrations are correlated with different prostatic disease. Serum zinc concentration may be used as a tool for the diagnosis and screening of prostate disease. But, further studies with well-designed larger sample studies are needed in this field to further clarify the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. PMID:27170414

  6. [Serum concentration of calcium and calcitonin in hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Fereira-Valbuena, H; Fernández de Argüello, E; Campos, G; Ryder, E; Avellaneda, A

    1991-01-01

    Serum calcium and calcitonin were determined in 13 patients (12 women and 1 man), ages ranging from 30 to 40 years, with clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' Disease, confirmed by serum determinations of T3 and T4, with the purpose of establishing the relationship that these two substances may have in this pathology. The results obtained showed a decrease in seric calcium concentration in relation to a control group (10.02 +/-) 0.48 vs 11.49 +/- 0.28 mg/dl; p less than 0.005) and an increase in calcitonin concentration (193.6 +/- 8.62 vs 116.7 +/- 7.61 pg/ml; p less than 0.0001). We also found a significative negative association (r = -0.69; p less than 0.01) between these two compounds in the group of patients with hyperthyroidism, not being found in the control group.

  7. A concentration-dependent mechanism by which serum albumin inactivates replacement lung surfactants.

    PubMed Central

    Warriner, H E; Ding, J; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2002-01-01

    Endogenous lung surfactant, and lung surfactant replacements used to treat respiratory distress syndrome, can be inactivated during lung edema, most likely by serum proteins. Serum albumin shows a concentration-dependent surface pressure that can exceed the respreading pressure of collapsed monolayers in vitro. Under these conditions, the collapsed surfactant monolayer can not respread to cover the interface, leading to higher minimum surface tensions and alterations in isotherms and morphology. This is an unusual example of a blocked phase transition (collapsed to monolayer form) inhibiting bioactivity. The concentration-dependent surface activity of other common surfactant inhibitors including fibrinogen and lysolipids correlates well with their effectiveness as inhibitors. These results show that respreading pressure may be as important as the minimum surface tension in the design of replacement surfactants for respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11806925

  8. Another smoking hazard: raised serum IgE concentration and increased risk of occupational allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström, O; Osterman, K; Machado, L; Johansson, S G

    1981-01-01

    Individual smoking histories of a general population sample and of two groups of workers exposed to occupational allergens were related to serum IgE concentrations and results of radioallergosorbent and prick tests in the workers. The geometric mean IgE concentration was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The distribution of serum IgE values in the two groups showed an apparent difference, with a bimodal appearance in the smokers. Evidence of sensitisation against occupational allergens was more common in workers who smoked. The adjuvant effect of smoking on IgE antibody production might be due to damage to airways mucosa and supports the mucosal theory of atopy. PMID:6797514

  9. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  10. Temporal association of serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kiwata, M; Kuwano, R; Sato, N; Tanaka, T; Nagata, M; Taira, H; Kusunoki, H

    2012-03-15

    Concentrations of serum estradiol-17β and progesterone were monitored in six female walruses using an enzyme immunoassay. Progesterone concentrations increased from March to May in females aged 6 y or older, and subsequently declined (October). No significant elevation of estradiol-17β concentration was detected before an elevation of progesterone concentration. Vaginal smears from four females were examined with Papanicolaou staining. In all females, most epithelial cells were basophilic intermediate-superficial cells; no color change from basophilic to eosinophilic of the cells was detected. Meanwhile, the percentage of anucleate cells in vaginal smears reached its highest value before the elevation of progesterone concentration, followed by an increase in the percentage of leukocytes. We inferred that the change in populations of anucleate cells and leukocytes in vaginal smears reflected ovarian status and CL formation in female walruses.

  11. [Study of cholesterol concentration based on serum UV-visible absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Guo, Xin; Chen, Hui

    2009-04-01

    In the present paper, UV-visible absorption spectrum and neural network theory were used for the analysis of cholesterol concentration. Experimental investigation shows that the absorption spectrum has the following characteristics in the wave band of 350-600 nm: (1) There is a stronger absorption peak at 416 nm for the test sample with different cholesterol concentration; (2) There is a shoulder peak between 450 and 500 nm, whose central wavelength is 460 nm; (3) There is a weaker peak at 578 nm; (4) Absorption spectrums shape of different cholesterol concentration is different obviously. The absorption spectrum of serum is the synthesis result of cholesterol and other components (such as sugar), and the information is contained at each wavelength. There is no significant correlation between absorbance and cholesterol content at 416 nm, showing a random relation, so whether cholesterol content is abnormal is not determined by the absorbance peak at 416 nm. Based on the evident correlation between serum absorption spectrum and cholesterol concentration in the wave band of 455-475 nm, a neural network model was built to predict the cholesterol concentration. The correlation coefficient between predicted cholesterol content output A and objectives T reaches 0.968, which can be regarded as better prediction, and it provides a spectra test method of cholesterol concentration.

  12. Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    concentrations were decreased in individuals baseline tracing obtained before the subjects reached with CAD, whereas some of the liver-function enzyme age...Angiographic Data lis, IN). After July 1987, dextran sulfate, Mr 50 000 Summary statistics for the two groups are given in (Ciba Corning, Oberlin, OH), was...low serum bilirubin con- activity or increases in iron stores (9). centrations have been associated with good health, and It remains to be seen

  13. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.

  14. Tumour gastrin expression and serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with gastric carcinoma are poor diagnostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Seim-Wikse, T; Kolbjørnsen, O; Jörundsson, E; Benestad, S L; Bjornvad, C R; Grotmol, T; Kristensen, A T; Skancke, E

    2014-01-01

    Hypergastrinaemia is observed commonly in human patients with gastric carcinoma and is associated with atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, both of which predispose to development of gastric tumours. Increased expression of gastrin is also described as a prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma in man. Gastric carcinoma is rare in dogs and generally carries a grave prognosis. In this study, the expression of gastrin was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric biopsy samples from 64 dogs with gastric carcinoma. Serum gastrin concentrations were measured in 15 of these dogs and compared with those of seven healthy control dogs. Tumour tissue expressed gastrin in 8% (5/64) of the dogs with gastric carcinoma. There was no significant difference in serum gastrin concentrations between dogs with gastric carcinoma and healthy controls (P = 0.08). Expression of gastrin in gastric carcinomas is less common in dogs than in man and may therefore not be relied on as a prognostic marker in this species. Serum gastrin concentration alone is also not a useful biomarker for gastric carcinoma in dogs.

  15. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI), the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05). Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p < 0.05). A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  16. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O’Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D’Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Study, LifeLines Cohort; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Leach, Irene Mateo; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Consortium, CARDIoGRAM; Consortium, DIAGRAM; Consortium, ICBP; Consortium, MAGIC; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout. PMID:23263486

  17. Dietary intake and serum and hair concentrations of minerals and their relationship with serum lipids and glucose levels in hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-02-01

    Inadequate minerals intake, as well as disruption of some metabolic processes in which microelements are cofactors, are suggested to lead to the development of hypertension. The role of minerals in the pathogenesis of hypertension still remains to be explained. In the present study, we sought to determine associations between serum and hair mineral concentrations and serum lipids and glucose levels. Forty obese hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Blood pressure, BMI, and insulin resistance were recorded in all subjects. Levels of lipids, glucose, sodium and potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in serum. Iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in hair. Dietary intake of the analyzed minerals was estimated. We found distinctly higher concentrations of serum iron and serum and hair calcium as well as markedly lower levels of hair zinc in the hypertensive subjects. The study group manifested also significantly lower daily intake of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We observed a relationship between the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in serum and hair and high and low range of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose serum levels in the studied patients. Moreover, this study demonstrated significant correlation between serum and hair concentrations of selected minerals and their dietary intake and levels of serum lipids and glucose and blood pressure in the study and the control groups. The obtained results seem to indicate the association between lipid and glucose metabolism and iron, copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in blood and hair of hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

  18. Baseline Serum Concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Prolactin in Critically Ill Children*

    PubMed Central

    Heidemann, Sabrina M.; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. Design An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. Setting PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (< 0.1 μg/mL) to 2.87 μg/mL (mean 0.46 μg/mL and median 0.44 μg/mL) and were below the normal reference range for 235 (83.9%) children. Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (< 1 ng/mL) to 88 ng/mL (mean 12.2 ng/mL and median 10 ng/mL). Hypoprolactinemia was present in 68 (23.9%) children. Lymphopenia was more likely in children with zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Conclusions Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by

  19. Autoadjusting-CPAP effect on serum Leptin concentrations in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea patients

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Marta; Winck, João C; Guimarães, João T; Santos, Ana C; Almeida, João; Marques, José A

    2008-01-01

    Background Leptin is an hormone that regulates body weight. Studies have shown increasing leptin concentrations according to body mass index (BMI) and intermittent hypoxia. Our aim is to evaluate the basal leptin levels in OSA patients and its possible relation to OSA severity, independently of confounders and investigate the Autoadjusting-CPAP effect on leptin values. Methods In ninety eight male patients with moderate to severe OSA leptin serum levels were evaluated before therapy, 9 days and 6 months after therapy. Results In this group mean age was 55.3 years, mean BMI was 33.2 Kg/m2 and mean Apnoea- Hypopnea Index (AHI) was 51.7/h. Mean basal serum leptin value was 12.1 ug/L. Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between serum leptin values and BMI (R = 0.68; p < 0.001), waist-hip ratio (R = 0.283; p = 0.004) and AHI (R = 0.198; p = 0.048); in stepwise multiple regression analysis only BMI (p < 0.001) was a predictor of serum leptin values. One week after therapy, mean leptin serum level decreased to 11.0 ug/L and 6 months after it was 11.4 ug/L. (p = 0.56 and p = 0.387, respectively) Conclusion Baseline leptin serum levels positively correlate with BMI, fat distributioand OSA severity. BMI is the only predictor of basal leptin levels. Treatment with Autoadjusting-CPAP has a small effect on leptin levels. PMID:18828917

  20. Association of serum calcium concentrations with fibrinogen and homocysteine in nondiabetic Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Sung Won; Shin, Juyoung; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence shows that increased serum calcium levels are associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. This study investigated whether serum calcium, within a normal range, is significantly associated with serum fibrinogen and homocysteine, markers of increased cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic Korean subjects.A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1096 subjects (mean age, 55.1 ± 11.1 years; 36.1% women) undergoing a general health checkup. Serum biochemistry was analyzed including serum albumin-corrected calcium (Cac), insulin resistance (IR, using homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]), fibrinogen, and homocysteine.Compared with patients within the lowest Cac quartile, those with higher Cac levels had increased fibrinogen and homocysteine levels as well as an increased proportion of smoking, dyslipidemia, and HOMA-IR. Correlation analyses revealed linear relationships for Cac with fibrinogen and homocysteine in both genders. After adjustment for confounding factors, serum Cac was significantly associated with high fibrinogen (odds ratio [OR] for the highest vs the lowest quartile = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.83, P = 0.02) and homocysteine (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07-3.11, P = 0.027). Multivariate regression models showed that Cac was linearly associated with fibrinogen (standardized β = 0.14, P < 0.001) and homocysteine (standardized β = 0.07, P = 0.009).High normal calcium concentrations were independently associated with increased levels of fibrinogen and homocysteine. Further investigation is needed to validate whether slightly increased calcium levels within the normal range indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Intravenous iron for the treatment of fatigue in nonanemic, premenopausal women with low serum ferritin concentration.

    PubMed

    Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre; Battegay, Edouard; Breymann, Christian; Furrer, Joerg; Schulthess, Georg

    2011-09-22

    This is the first study to investigate the efficacy of intravenous iron in treating fatigue in nonanemic patients with low serum ferritin concentration. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 90 premenopausal women presenting with fatigue, serum ferritin ≤ 50 ng/mL, and hemoglobin ≥ 120 g/L were randomized to receive either 800 mg of intravenous iron (III)-hydroxide sucrose or intravenous placebo. Fatigue and serum iron status were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Median fatigue at baseline was 4.5 (on a 0-10 scale). Fatigue decreased during the initial 6 weeks by 1.1 in the iron group compared with 0.7 in the placebo group (P = .07). Efficacy of iron was bound to depleted iron stores: In patients with baseline serum ferritin ≤ 15 ng/mL, fatigue decreased by 1.8 in the iron group compared with 0.4 in the placebo group (P = .005), and 82% of iron-treated compared with 47% of placebo-treated patients reported improved fatigue (P = .03). Drug-associated adverse events were observed in 21% of iron-treated patients and in 7% of placebo-treated patients (P = .05); none of these events was serious. Intravenous administration of iron improved fatigue in iron-deficient, nonanemic women with a good safety and tolerability profile. The efficacy of intravenous iron was bound to a serum ferritin concentration ≤ 15 ng/mL. This study was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register (www.isrctn.org) as ISRCTN78430425.

  2. Therapeutic serum phenobarbital concentrations obtained using chronic transdermal administration of phenobarbital in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Delamaide Gasper, Joy A; Barnes Heller, Heidi L; Robertson, Michelle; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-04-01

    Seizures are a common cause of neurologic disease, and phenobarbital (PB) is the most commonly used antiepileptic drug. Chronic oral dosing can be challenging for cat owners, leading to poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to determine if the transdermal administration of PB could achieve serum PB concentrations of between 15 and 45 μg/ml in healthy cats. Nineteen healthy cats were enrolled in three groups. Transdermal PB in pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) was applied to the pinnae for 14 days at a dosage of 3 mg/kg q12h in group 1 (n = 6 cats) and 9 mg/kg q12h in group 2 (n = 7 cats). Transdermal PB in Lipoderm Activemax was similarly applied at 9 mg/kg q12h for 14 days in group 3 (n = 6 cats). Steady-state serum PB concentrations were measured at trough, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after the morning dose on day 15. In group 1, median concentrations ranged from 6.0-7.5 μg/ml throughout the day (observed range 0-11 μg/ml). Group 2 median concentrations were 26.0 μg/ml (observed range 18.0-37.0 μg/ml). For group 3, median concentrations ranged from 15.0-17.0 μg/ml throughout the day (range 5-29 μg/ml). Side effects were mild. One cat was withdrawn from group 2 owing to ataxia and sedation. These results show therapeutic serum PB concentrations can be achieved in cats following chronic transdermal administration of PB in PLO at a dosage of 9 mg/kg q12h. More individual variation was noted using Lipoderm Activemax. Transdermal administration may be an alternative for cats that are difficult to medicate orally.

  3. Serum beta-lipoprotein and other specific protein concentrations in patients with immunocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, G; Lynch, S R; Bezwoda, W R; Gilich, G C

    1976-01-01

    Serum beta-lipoprotein and other specific protein concentrations were measured in 56 patients suffering from multiple myelomatosis, "benign" paraproteinaemia or Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia and in 56 control subjects. The mean level of B-lipoprotein in untreated patients with multiple myelomatosis and macroglobulinaemia was significantly lower than that of the controls. Patients who responded to chemotherapy showed a rapid return to normal of the beta-lipoprotein concentration, while the level remained unchanged in most of those who did not. PMID:180062

  4. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and α-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:18648655

  5. Azuki bean juice lowers serum triglyceride concentrations in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-07-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in the azuki juice group (p<0.05) and tended to be decreased in the CA juice group (p = 0.055). Triglyceride concentrations in the azuki and CA juice groups decreased by 0.170 mmol/liter (15.4%) and 0.159 mmol/liter (17.9%), respectively (p<0.05). The azuki and CA juice used in this study inhibited pancreatic lipase activity 29.2% and 56.9%, respectively, in vitro. Lipid peroxide changes, based on ANCOVA with the initial level and alpha-tocopherol changes as covariates, did not differ among the three groups. Serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol concentrations did not change. Thus, azuki bean juice intake, as a traditional Kampo prescription, might be beneficial for preventing hypertriglyceridemia.

  6. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid concentrations throughout the ovine estrous cycle: Assessment relative to prolactin serum and pituitary amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Landefeld, T.; Roulia, V.; Bagnell, T.; Ballard, T.; Levitan, I. )

    1991-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) mRNA concentrations were assessed by nucleic acid hybridization assays in pituitaries of ewes representing the defined stages of the ovine estrous cycle. Concomitantly, pituitary and serum PRL concentrations were measured in these ewes using radioimmunoassays. It was observed that PRL serum, pituitary and mRNA concentrations tended to increase near the time of the gonadotropin preovulatory surge, particularly between 24 hrs before behavioral estrus to 5 hours after estrus. However, the changes in PRL mRNA, serum and pituitary concentrations were shown not to be statistically significant. These data suggest that PRL production during the sheep estrous cycle is maintained without dramatic changes in synthesis or secretion.

  7. Concentration and pattern changes of porcine serum apolipoprotein A-I in four different infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Bassols, Anna; Miller, Ingrid

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is a major protein in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and decreased serum levels have been observed in many species in response to inflammatory and infectious challenges. Little is known about the porcine homologue, therefore in this work we have characterized it through biochemical and proteomic techniques. In 2DE, porcine serum Apo A-I is found as three spots, the two more acidic ones corresponding to the mature protein, the more basic spot to the protein precursor. Despite high sequence coverage in LC-MS/MS, we did not find a sequence or PTM difference between the two mature protein species. Besides this biochemical characterization, we measured overall levels and relative species abundance of serum Apo A-I in four different viral and bacterial porcine infectious diseases. Lower overall amounts of Apo A-I were observed in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli infections. In the 2DE protein pattern, an increase of the protein precursor together with a lower level of mature protein species were detected in the porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease and S. typhimurium infection. These results reveal that both the porcine serum Apo A-I concentration and the species pattern are influenced by the nature of the infectious disease.

  8. [Elevated serum lithium concentration due to switch from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidekazu; Tomita, Takashi; Doki, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Rie; Kojima, Chikako; Yoneshima, Mihoko; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with elevated serum lithium concentration caused by switching from parenteral nutrition alone to parenteral with enteral nutrition. A 73-year-old female inpatient was treated with lithium carbonate 600 mg/d for manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Her serum lithium level was maintained at 0.57-0.79 mEq/L. She was administered total parenteral nutrition owing to difficulty in oral intake. Her diet contained 4.8-5.8 g/d of sodium chloride. After this, parenteral with enteral nutrition was initiated. The total sodium chloride intake decreased from 6.3 to 3.0-4.0 g/d following this change. On day 15 after initiation of parenteral with enteral nutrition, her serum lithium level increased to 1.17 mEq/L, which is closer to the upper therapeutic range limit. Therefore enteral nutrition was stopped immediately, and an electrolyte solution was administered instead of enteral nutrition. An antibiotic agent was also simultaneously administered because of infection. The total amount of sodium chloride administered was increased to 7.0 g/d during this treatment. Four days after treatment, the serum lithium level returned to 0.57 mEq/L. This case suggests that administration of appropriate sodium chloride nutrition is important during treatment with lithium carbonate, because disposition of lithium ion is paralleled to that of sodium.

  9. Nerve growth factor serum concentrations rise after successful cognitive-behavioural therapy of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Jockers-Scherübl, Maria C; Zubraegel, Doris; Baer, Thomas; Linden, Michael; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Schulte-Herbrüggen, Olaf; Neu, Peter; Hellweg, Rainer

    2007-01-30

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic stress disease with permanent physical tension and cognitive strain. Raised nerve growth factor (NGF) serum levels were reported as an acute stress reaction in soldiers before their first parachute jump even before the rise in cortisol. Taking GAD as a clinical model of chronic stress, we measured NGF in the serum of 22 patients with GAD before and after cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and compared them to those of healthy normal controls. Treatment response was tested by the values of the State and Trait of Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) as treatment outcome variables. The NGF values of patients and controls were similar at baseline (p=0.8941); however, with successful treatment, corresponding to a mean reduction in the HAM-A by more than 50% and a reduction in the clinical global impression scale (CGI) median from 4 to 1, the patients' NGF serum concentrations rose significantly (p=0.0006) which might correspond to an altered stress reaction, possibly contributing to good therapeutic response with CBT. There were 3 patients with a HAM-A decrease of less than 15%. In those patients NGF rose only marginally. Hence, the increase in serum NGF seems to indicate good treatment response.

  10. Effects of freshwater housing and fluid types on aquatic bird serum electrolyte concentrations.

    PubMed

    Frankfurter, Greg; Ziccardi, Michael H; Massey, J Gregory

    2012-12-01

    Recent seabird mass morbidity events have highlighted the need to elucidate the effects of freshwater and hypertonic saline use for fluid therapy and housing in captive aquatic birds. Serum electrolyte concentrations of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; n = 9), western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis; n = 6), and common murres (Uria aalge; n = 25) housed on freshwater while undergoing rehabilitation at the San Francisco Bay Oiled Wildlife Care and Education Center in Fairfield, California, were compared to reference intervals from free-ranging populations. Additionally, northern fulmars were given intermittent oral boluses of hypertonic saline. In birds housed on freshwater, there were significant decreases in serum sodium and chloride, with 44% of northern fulmars and 72% of common murres falling below the established reference interval. All of the western grebes were able to maintain serum sodium and chloride within the reference intervals. The significance of these findings reflect the behavior and natural history of the species studied. The physiologic regulation of salt by the salt glands, gastrointestinal tract, and renal systems of seabirds, along with their behavior and natural history, should be considered when working with these birds in a rehabilitation or captive setting. Salt supplementation is necessary for some species of seabirds. Monitoring of serum electrolytes should be used for individual animals or salt supplementation should be considered in holopelagic species.

  11. Discrepancy between Measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide Content and Bicarbonate Concentration Calculated from Arterial Blood Gases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngho; Massie, Larry; Murata, Glen H

    2015-01-01

    Large differences between the concentrations of serum total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and blood gas bicarbonate (HCO3-) were observed in two consecutive simultaneously drawn sets of samples of serum and arterial blood gases in a patient who presented with severe carbon dioxide retention and profound acidemia. These differences could not be explained by the effect of the high partial pressure of carbon dioxide on TCO2, by variations in the dissociation constant of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system or by faults caused by the algorithms of the blood gas apparatus that calculate HCO3-. A recalculation using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation revealed arterial blood gas HCO3- values close to the corresponding serum TCO2 values and clarified the diagnosis of the acid-base disorder, which had been placed in doubt by the large differences between the reported TCO2 and HCO3- values. Human error in the calculation of HCO3- was identified as the source of these differences. Recalculation of blood gas HCO3- should be the first step in identifying the source of large differences between serum TCO2 and blood gas HCO3-. PMID:26824002

  12. Effects of radioiodine administration on serum concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, adiponectin and thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to assess safety of radioactive iodine administration in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, we measured concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), its main inhibitor – TIMP-2 (tissue inhibitor of MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), its main inhibitor – TIMP-1, adiponectin, as well as pro-inflammatory and procancerogenic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Design and patients The study involved 23 patients treated with radioiodine for thyrotoxicosis. Serum concentrations of TSH, free T4, free T3, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, total adiponectin and TSP-1 were measured by immunoassays just before radioiodine administration (visit 1), and subsequently, after 7 days (visit 2), 3 months (visit 3), 6 to 8 months (visit 4) and 15–18 months after radioiodine administration (visit 5). Results There were no acute changes in serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, adiponectin and TSP-1 (visit 1 vs. 2). Subsequently, there was an increase in MMP-2 (from 393±106 ng/ml to 774±424 ng/ml), TIMP-1 (from 177±76 ng/ml to 296±118 ng/ml), and adiponectin (from 16442±9490 ng/ml to 23518±9840 ng/ml), visit 1 to 5, respectively (p < 0.01). Further analysis revealed no significant change in MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, but there was a significant decrease in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (p < 0.05), suggestive of possible decrease in free MMP-9 concentrations. Conclusions Our data reveal a significant and sustained increase in serum adiponectin, as well as possible decrease of free MMP-9 concentration after radioiodine administration. In contrast, there was no significant change of TSP-1. This might indicate overall safety of radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis in terms of the risks of subsequent cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. PMID:23919647

  13. Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R; McCarthy, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptin is known to play a role in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns and demographic, lifestyle, and health factors in the US population. Methods Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994 were used to study the association between fasting serum leptin and dietary patterns, sex, race-ethnicity, smoking, age, energy and alcohol intakes, body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and serum insulin in 4009 individuals. Factor analysis was used to derive three principle factors and these were labeled as Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat, Western, and Mixed dietary patterns. Results Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat (8.5 fg/L) and Mixed patterns (8.0 fg/L) compared to Western pattern (6.29 fg/L) (P < 0.0001). When analysis was adjusted for confounding variables, no significant association was observed between serum leptin and dietary patterns (P = 0.22). Multivariate adjusted serum leptin concentrations were significantly associated with sex (higher in women than in men; β = -1.052; P < 0.0001), age (direct relation, β = 0.006, P < 0.0001), BMI, (direct relation, β = 0.082, P < 0.0001), fasting plasma glucose (inverse relation, β = -0.024, P = 0.0146), serum triacylglycerol (direct relation, β = 0.034, P = 0.0022), and serum insulin (direct relation, β = 0.003, P < 0.0001) but not with race-ethnicity (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.20), energy intake (P = 0.42), and alcohol intake (P = 0.73). Conclusion In this study, serum leptin was not independently associated with dietary patterns. Sex, age, BMI, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin are independent predictors of serum leptin concentrations. PMID:19144201

  14. Elevated house dust and serum concentrations of PBDEs in California: unintended consequences of furniture flammability standards?

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Rudel, Ruthann A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A; Brody, Julia Green

    2008-11-01

    Studies show higher house dust and body burden levels of PBDE flame retardants in North America than Europe; but little is known about exposure variation within North America, where California's furniture flammability standard affects PBDE use. We compared dust samples from 49 homes in two California communities with 120 Massachusetts homes and with other published studies. Dust concentrations [median (range) ng/g] in California homes of BDE-47, -99, and -100 were 2700 (112-107,000), 3800 (102-170,000), and 684 (concentrations were the highest ever reported in indoor dust. We then investigated whether human serum PBDE levels were also higher in California compared to other North American regions by analyzing the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the only data set available with serum from a representative sample of the U.S. population (n=2040). California residence was significantly associated with nearly 2-fold higher sigma PBDE serum levels [least square geometric mean (LSGM) ng/g lipid, 73.0 vs 38.5 (p = 0.002)]. Elevated PBDE exposures in California may result from the state's furniture flammability standards; our results suggest the need for further research in a larger representative sample.

  15. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  16. Serum concentrations of antibiotics during severe invasive surgery such as esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Okumura, Hiroshi; Uchikado, Yasuto; Sasaki, Ken; Matsumoto, Masataka; Omoto, Itaru; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Kita, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Toshihide; Matsushita, Daisuke; Ishigami, Sumiya; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to confirm the antibiotic regimen during a severe invasive surgery, such as esophagectomy, with a long procedure and a large amount of normal volumes of infusion. Ten patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study, and cefmetazole sodium concentrations in serum were measured during esophagectomy. The ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of isolates of cefmetazole sodium for microorganisms in our institutions for 8 years were investigated. The maximum concentration was 83.9 μg/mL just after the completion of infusion, and its half-life was 1.5 hours. Serum concentration of cefmetazole sodium was kept above 16 μg/mL for 4 hours during esophagectomy. It was kept above 32 μg/mL for 2.5 hours after injection. There are almost no differences in the pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole sodium between common use and during esophagectomy. In addition, additive infusion of antibiotics 4 hours after the first infusion was recommended during esophagectomy.

  17. Milk and serum concentration of ceftiofur following intramammary infusion in goats.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E F; Dirikolu, L; Grover, G S

    2015-12-01

    Five dairy goats were used to determine the milk and serum concentrations along with elimination characteristics of ceftiofur following intramammary administration. One udder half of each goat was infused twice with 125 mg ceftiofur with a 24-h interval between infusions. Milk samples were collected at 1, 2, 8, and 12 h after the last infusion and then every 12 h for a total of 7 days. Blood was collected from each animal at 3, 8, 12, and 24 h after infusion and then every 24 h for 6 days. Following a washout period of 1 week, the experiment was repeated using the opposite udder half. The elimination half-life of ceftiofur from the mammary gland was 4.7 h. The concentration of ceftiofur was greater than published MIC90 values for Staphylococcus spp. bacteria for 24 h. Ceftiofur was absorbed into systemic circulation from the mammary gland. The maximum concentration was 552 ng/mL at 3 h after infusion, and the serum elimination half-life was 10 h. Intramammary infusion of 125 mg ceftiofur every 24 h can be expected to maintain drug concentration in milk above published MIC90 for Staphylococcus spp.

  18. Serum Concentrations of Antibiotics During Severe Invasive Surgery Such as Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Okumura, Hiroshi; Uchikado, Yasuto; Sasaki, Ken; Matsumoto, Masataka; Omoto, Itaru; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Kita, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Toshihide; Matsushita, Daisuke; Ishigami, Sumiya; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to confirm the antibiotic regimen during a severe invasive surgery, such as esophagectomy, with a long procedure and a large amount of normal volumes of infusion. Ten patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study, and cefmetazole sodium concentrations in serum were measured during esophagectomy. The ranges of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 90% of isolates of cefmetazole sodium for microorganisms in our institutions for 8 years were investigated. The maximum concentration was 83.9 μg/mL just after the completion of infusion, and its half-life was 1.5 hours. Serum concentration of cefmetazole sodium was kept above 16 μg/mL for 4 hours during esophagectomy. It was kept above 32 μg/mL for 2.5 hours after injection. There are almost no differences in the pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole sodium between common use and during esophagectomy. In addition, additive infusion of antibiotics 4 hours after the first infusion was recommended during esophagectomy. PMID:23438269

  19. Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in maternal serum and amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Gratzl, R; Sodeck, G; Platzer, P; Jäger, W; Graf, J; Pollak, A; Thalhammer, T

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy is widely treated with oral spiramycin to reduce the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in the infant. Failures of therapy have been observed, however. In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to measure concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin, one of the major metabolites of spiramycin, in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. Samples were obtained from 18 women who underwent amniocentesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of fetal infection 5-109 days following the prescription of spiramycin therapy (3 g/day). Concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in both serum and amniotic fluid were highly variable, ranging from nondetectable values to 1 microg/ml. None of the concentrations measured were within the range reported to inhibit growth of the parasite in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, part of the observed variability in maternal and fetal drug concentrations could be explained by individual differences in several pharmacokinetic parameters: intestinal absorption, tissue distribution, cellular uptake, metabolism, transfer across the placenta, drug accumulation in fetal tissue, and maternal and fetal drug elimination. The heterogeneity of the data could also be related to differences in patient compliance with the medication prescribed. By addressing factors that could impair adequate treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the data presented call for a larger-scale controlled study to determine individual and diurnal variations in maternal drug levels, patient compliance, and outcomes of the offspring. The activity of neospiramycin against Toxoplasma gondii should be assessed.

  20. Concentration of field and skim latex by microfiltration - membrane fouling and biochemical methane potential of serum.

    PubMed

    Thongmak, Narumol; Sridang, Porntip; Puetpaiboon, Udomphon; Grasmick, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration was used to concentrate field and skim latex suspensions and recover the smallest compounds (proteins, sugars, etc.) in permeate (serum solutions). The experiments were performed in a lab-scale microfiltration unit equipped with ceramic membranes. In continuous mode, the operations were performed at constant trans-membrane pressure (0.5 bars), constant cross-flow velocity (3 m/s) and constant temperature (28 ± 2°C). In retentate, the volumetric concentration factor was only close to 2 (about 54% of total solid content, TSC) when concentrating the field latex suspensions, and it reached 10 (close to 40% TSC) when concentrating skim latex suspensions. The quality of retentate suspensions let envisage a significant potential of industrial valorization. The membrane fouling rates appeared as an increasing function of dry rubber content suspension, and the main fouling origin (94%) was linked to a reversible accumulation of suspended compounds on the membrane surface. Permeate appeared as a clear yellow solution containing the smallest soluble organic fractions that show a high degree of biodegradability when using biochemical methane potential tests. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was then higher than 92% and the methane production yield was close to 0.29 NLCH4/gCODremoved. The association of a membrane separation step and anaerobic digestion appeared, then, as a relevant solution to recover rubber content from skim latex suspensions and energy from the anaerobic digestion of serum.

  1. Factors influencing serum concentrations of IgD in the adult population: an observational study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Iago; Rabuñal, Noelia; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gude, Francisco; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2017-01-27

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunologic factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (<6.7 mg/L) to 878 mg/L. Serum IgD concentrations were undetectable in 78 cases (18.9%) and greater than 100 mg/L in 39 cases (9.4%). Median IgD was 21.9 mg/L. Serum IgD concentrations were negatively associated with age and positively associated with smoking, after adjustment for potential confounders. Overweight individuals and showed lower concentrations of IgD than did normal-weight individuals. Atopy (positivity of skin tests to aeroallergens) was not significantly associated with IgD concentrations, though non-symptomatic atopics showed higher IgD concentrations. No consistent association was observed between serum IgD concentrations and gender, metabolic syndrome, or alcohol consumption. No significant association was found between baseline IgD concentrations and development of either allergic or immune disease after a median 11.4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, serum IgD concentrations in adults show a wide variation in the population and may be influenced by common factors, particularly age and smoking habit. These factors should be taken into account when defining reference ranges for serum IgD concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Circadian serum concentrations of tylosin in broilers after feed or water medication.

    PubMed

    Lilia, G; Aguilera, R; Cortés-Cuevas, A; Rosario, C; Sumano, H

    2008-09-01

    1. Because tylosin is a time-dependent antibacterial agent, and because feeding and drinking of broilers decreases in late afternoon and ceases in the dark, it was hypothesised that serum concentrations of this drug are greatly reduced during the dark period. 2. The trial was carried out in a commercial poultry house, under standard broiler husbandry conditions, with food and water withdrawn from 22:00 until 07:00 h next morning and exposed to a natural light cycle of 13L:11D. 3. Broilers were given tylosin tartrate, in either feed or water, for 5 d as follows: 100, 200 and 300 ppm in feed, equivalent to 12.6, 25.2 and 37.8 mg/kg/d, respectively; and 200 and 400 mg/l in drinking water, equivalent to 51 to 102 mg/kg/d, respectively. 4. At 07:00 h on d 4, and for the next 40 h, hourly serum samples were obtained and analysed for tylosin by means of a microbiological assay. 5. Day vs night concentrations of tylosin expressed as area under the curve (AUC) in all groups revealed greater values during the day. The highest AUC and AUC(24)/minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio were obtained in the group medicated with 400 mg/l and the corresponding lowest values were found in the group medicated with 100 ppm in feed. 6. In conclusion, tylosin did not reach therapeutic serum concentrations during the dark period, at all dose rates tested when administered in feed or water. A sustained release form of this drug is needed to solve this inadequacy of tylosin medication in broilers.

  3. Differences in serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds by occupational social class in pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, Miquel Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa

    2008-11-15

    Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers.

  4. An imbalance in serum concentrations of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Mohebati, Mohsen; Feiz Disfani, Mahboobeh; Saberi Karimian, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Avan, Amir; Eslami, Saied; Pasdar, Alireza; Rooki, Hassan; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and there is increasing evidence that inflammation and abnormal immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, the data on the association between specific cytokine concentrations and hypertension are inconsistent. We have evaluated the association between 12 cytokines/growth factors and the presence of different degrees of hypertension, comparing these concentrations to values in a healthy group of subjects. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were measured in 155 hypertensive patients and 148 healthy subjects, using EV-3513 cytokine biochip arrays, a competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the association of specific cytokines and growth factors with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Hypertensive subjects had higher serum concentrations of IL-1α, -2, -8, vascular endothelial growth factor, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, and epidermal growth factor; and lower concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 (P < .05), compared with the healthy individuals. The serum concentrations of IL-4, -6, and -1β did not differ between the hypertensive subjects and control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that IL-1α and IFN-γ were independent predictors of a high SBP, while IFN-γ, IL-1α, TNF-α, and MCP-1 remained statistically significant for DBP after correction for age, gender, Body mass index, smoking, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. There was a significant association between the concentrations of several cytokines and hypertension. These associations may either be related to common underlying factors that cause hypertension and may also be proinflammatory or

  5. Effects of androstenedione-herbal supplementation on serum sex hormone concentrations in 30- to 59-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Martini, E R; Kohut, M L; Franke, W D; Jackson, D A; King, D S

    2001-09-01

    The effectiveness of a nutritional supplement designed to enhance serum testosterone concentrations and prevent the formation of dihydrotestosterone and estrogens from the ingested androgens was investigated in healthy 30- to 59-year old men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume DION (300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg dehydroepiandrosterone, 540 mg saw palmetto, 300 mg indole-3-carbinol, 625 mg chrysin, and 750 mg Tribulus terrestris per day; n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 28 days. Serum free testosterone, total testosterone, androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and lipid concentrations were measured before and throughout the 4-week supplementation period. Serum concentrations of total testosterone and PSA were unchanged by supplementation. DION increased (p < 0.05) serum androstenedione (342%), free testosterone (38%), dihydrotestosterone (71%), and estradiol (103%) concentrations. Serum HDL-C concentrations were reduced by 5.0 mg/dL in DION (p < 0.05). Increases in serum free testosterone (r2 = 0.01), androstenedione (r2 = 0.01), dihydrotestosterone (r2 = 0.03), or estradiol (r2 = 0.07) concentrations in DION were not related to age. While the ingestion of androstenedione combined with herbal products increased serum free testosterone concentrations in older men, these herbal products did not prevent the conversion of ingested androstenedione to estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

  6. Factors Associated with Loss of Penicillin G Concentrations in Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G Injection: A Meta-analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Naval Health Research Center Factors Associated With Loss of Penicillin G Concentrations in Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G... Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G Injection: A Meta-analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Concentrations in  Serum  After Intramuscular Benzathine  Penicillin  G Injection:  A Meta-analysis Michael P. Broderick, PhD,* Christian J. Hansen, BS,* and Dennis

  7. Behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations in two premature infants after parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, K N; Henkin, R I

    1978-11-01

    Two premature infants were observed to develop behavioral and dermatologic changes and low serum zinc and copper concentrations following cessation of prolonged parenteral alimentation, while being fed exclusively with human milk. Following treatment with exogenous oral zinc supplementation, prompt relief of symptoms and increases of serum zinc and copper concentrations were observed in both infants. These patients comprise about 5% of our premature infants who are treated with parenteral alimentation for more than two weeks. We recommend that premature infants on prolonged parenteral alimentation should be monitored for changes in serum zinc and copper concentrations and, if a marked fall is observed, supplementation should be considered.

  8. Thoroughbred blood serum inorganic phosphate concentrations in relation to feeding regime and racing performance.

    PubMed

    Denny, J E

    1987-06-01

    Horses receiving a pelleted or cubed dietary supplementation with roughage, have serum inorganic phosphate (SIP) concentrations consistently below an accepted mean of 1,032 mmol l-1 or 3, 1 mg dl-1. Further, it has been reported that the best eight, two-year-old Irish Thoroughbred track performers of 51 horses tested over a 10 month period, had significantly lower SIP concentrations than the worst eight track performers. In an endeavour to assess any nutritive effect on SIP concentrations and also to assess any effect of SIP concentrations on track performance, metabolic blood profiles from 303 horses in training at the Summerveld Training centre in Natal, were evaluated for various blood parameters over a two year period. Of these 303 profiles, 264 were analysed for SIP concentrations. These horses were on three known feeding regimes viz. Feed 1--cube feeding plus hay; Feed 2--oats, wheaten bran and greens plus hay; Feed 3--Mixed feeding regime of feeds 1 and 2; Feed 4--unknown regime. Dry matter intake varied between 2 and 2.5% of estimated bodymass and in the Feed 1 regime, the proportion of cubed supplement in the diet was increased from 30 to 70% as the training programme progressed. Statistical analysis of SIP concentrations showed that horses on the Feed 1 regime had significantly lower SIP concentrations than horses on the other feed regimes. Of the 303 profiles, 224 could be identified with actual races.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 concentration and angiotensin-(1-7) concentration in patients with acute heart failure patients requiring emergency hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Hisatake, Shinji; Kiuchi, Shunsuke; Kabuki, Takayuki; Oka, Takashi; Dobashi, Shintaro; Ikeda, Takanori

    2017-03-01

    The existence of a new cascade, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, has been recently established in the renin-angiotensin system. However, the dynamics of this cascade under various pathological conditions in clinical settings is still unclear. Forty-nine patients who underwent emergency hospitalization because of acute heart failure (AHF) consented to participate in this study. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers served as controls. Serum ACE activity, ACE2, Ang-(1-7) concentration, plasma Ang II, aldosterone concentration, and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured at the acute stage. We conducted a comparative study between patients with AHF and healthy volunteers. Patients with AHF showed lower serum ACE activity and plasma aldosterone concentration than healthy volunteers (12.3 vs. 15.1 IU/L, respectively; P = 0.01, 75.6 vs. 125.3 pg/mL, respectively; P = 0.000); there were no differences between the two groups in PRA and plasma Ang II concentration. Patients with AHF had a higher serum ACE2 concentration than healthy volunteers (7.9 vs. 4.8 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.002), but their serum Ang-(1-7) concentration was significantly lower (2.4 vs 3.1 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.005). Patients with AHF had a higher serum ACE2 concentration, lower serum Ang-(1-7) concentration, and lower serum ACE activity and plasma aldosterone concentrations than healthy volunteers, whereas PRA and plasma Ang II concentration were the same.

  10. Selenium concentrations in serum of individuals with liver diseases (cirrhosis or hepatitis): relationship with some nutritional and biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alarcón, M; López-Ga de la Serrana, H; Pérez-Valero, V; López-Martínez, M C

    2002-05-27

    Serum concentrations were measured in individuals (n = 50) with liver diseases (cirrhosis and hepatitis) by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in a cross-sectional study. Mean serum selenium levels determined in patients with cirrhosis (n = 12) or with hepatitis (n = 38) were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those measured in control groups mainly due to a decreased liver function. Mean serum selenium concentrations were significantly lower in cirrhotic individuals when compared with patients with hepatitis (P<0.05). Therefore, the severity of the live injury is a factor conditioning the impairment in the selenium body status observed in individuals with hepatopathies. In hepatic patients serum total cholesterol levels showed a significant correlation with serum selenium concentrations (r=0.912, P<0.05) demonstrating the important role of selenium as an antioxidant agent; similarly, gamma-glutamic-transferase levels were significantly correlated with the serum selenium levels (r=-0.803, P<0.05) indicating that when the intensity of the hepatic injury increases (enhancement in serum GGT levels) concomitantly the serum selenium levels decrease significantly. No significant relationships between serum selenium levels and sex or age of patients were observed.

  11. Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Baboons (Papio spp.) during Pregnancy and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Mahaney, Michael M; Hubbard, Gene B; Dick, Edward J; Kocak, Mehmet; Gupta, Sonali; Carrillo, Maira; Schenone, Mauro; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Slominski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, which can lead to serious problems during pregnancy. However, the mechanisms of the deficiency and guidelines for vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy are not established yet, and variations in environmental exposures combined with the difficulties of performing research in pregnant women are obstacles in the evaluation of vitamin D metabolism. Baboons (Papio spp.) are an excellent, well-established model for reproductive research and represent a unique opportunity to study vitamin D metabolism in a controlled environment. This study used secondary data and specimen analysis as well as a novel experimental design to evaluate pregnant and nonpregnant baboons that were or were not exposed to sunlight while they were obese and after weight reduction. Daily D3 intake was 71% higher in nonpregnant obese baboons than in their nonobese counterparts, but serum vitamin D concentrations did not differ between these populations. In addition, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated negatively with the obesity index. This report is the first to show the effect of obesity and pregnancy on vitamin D concentrations in a NHP population. These data underline the importance of adequate vitamin D supplementation in obese animals.

  12. A comparison of serum antivenom concentrations after intravenous and intramuscular administration of redback (widow) spider antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; O'Leary, Margaret; Miller, Mark; Brown, Simon G A; Ramasamy, Sharmaine; James, Rosemary; Schneider, Jennifer S

    2008-01-01

    AIMS There are no studies measuring antivenom concentrations following intramuscular administration. This study aimed to compare antivenom concentrations following intravenous and intramuscular administration of redback spider antivenom (RBSAV). METHODS Twenty patients recruited to a controlled trial comparing intramuscular and intravenous administration of antivenom had serial blood samples collected at 30 min intervals for 2 h after the administration of one or two doses of antivenom. Antivenom concentration was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS Ten patients received intramuscular antivenom but antivenom could not be detected in serum after either one or two vials, at any time point. The median time of the final sample after commencement of antivenom treatment in these patients was 3.2 h (1.8–5 h). Ten patients received intravenous antivenom (three one vial and seven two or more vials) and antivenom was detected in all patients. CONCLUSIONS RBS AV given by the intramuscular route is unlikely to be effective in the treatment of redback (widow) spider bite. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Widow spider antivenoms, including redback spider antivenom, are often given by the intramuscular route. No studies have measured widow spider antivenom following intramuscular or intravenous antivenom. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Intramuscular redback spider antivenom is not detectable in serum for at least 3–5 h after treatment. Intravenous antivenom is detectable 30 min after intravenous infusion. Intramuscular antivenom may not be an effective administration route. PMID:18171334

  13. Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Baboons (Papio spp.) during Pregnancy and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Mahaney, Michael M; Hubbard, Gene B; Dick, Edward J; Kocak, Mehmet; Gupta, Sonali; Carrillo, Maira; Schenone, Mauro; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Slominski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, which can lead to serious problems during pregnancy. However, the mechanisms of the deficiency and guidelines for vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy are not established yet, and variations in environmental exposures combined with the difficulties of performing research in pregnant women are obstacles in the evaluation of vitamin D metabolism. Baboons (Papio spp.) are an excellent, well-established model for reproductive research and represent a unique opportunity to study vitamin D metabolism in a controlled environment. This study used secondary data and specimen analysis as well as a novel experimental design to evaluate pregnant and nonpregnant baboons that were or were not exposed to sunlight while they were obese and after weight reduction. Daily D3 intake was 71% higher in nonpregnant obese baboons than in their nonobese counterparts, but serum vitamin D concentrations did not differ between these populations. In addition, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated negatively with the obesity index. This report is the first to show the effect of obesity and pregnancy on vitamin D concentrations in a NHP population. These data underline the importance of adequate vitamin D supplementation in obese animals. PMID:27053568

  14. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  15. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  16. Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissue.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung Soo; Choi, Jong Bo; Kim, Hae Jin; Park, Sat Byul

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with late-onset hypogonadism. Micronutrients including copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) influence testosterone synthesis. The association between micronutrient concentrations in hair tissue and serum testosterone was studied in Korean men. The subjects were 88 men 40-60 years of age who visited the health promotion center and an outpatient clinic of family medicine at a university hospital from March 2006 to February 2008. Population sociological features of the subjects were acquired by self-administered surveys and interview, height and weight were measured, serum total testosterone was determined in the morning, and Cu and Zn were quantified from hair tissue collected in the morning. Subjects with normal testosterone group had a significantly higher Zn level compared to low testosterone group (P = 0.003). Significant negative correlations were evident between total testosterone and Cu level (r = -0.252, P = 0.022), and the Cu/Zn ratio (r = -0.288, P = 0.008). Normal testosterone is associated with a higher Zn level. Decreased serum testosterone is significantly associated with a high level of Cu and elevated Cu/Zn ratio in hair tissue.

  17. Concentrations of morphine and codeine in serum and urine after ingestion of poppy seeds.

    PubMed

    Hayes, L W; Krasselt, W G; Mueggler, P A

    1987-06-01

    We measured morphine and codeine in commercially available poppy seeds and in serum and urine samples from healthy adults who had ingested these poppy seeds. Four brands of black poppy seeds, examined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) with deuterated internal standards, contained from 17 to 294 micrograms of morphine and 3 to 14 micrograms of codeine per gram of seeds. Morphine was detected by GC-MS in hydrolysates of serum as late as 24 h after ingestion, with a maximum mean concentration of 100 ng/mL (range 82-131) measured 2 h after the subjects ingested 25 g of seeds. Opiates were detectable (greater than 300 micrograms/L) in urine by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay (EMIT; Syva Co.) and by radioimmunoassay screening procedures for as long as 48 h after ingestion. The identity and quantities of morphine and codeine in poppy seed extracts and in hydrolysates of serum and urine were confirmed by GC-MS. Therefore a positive finding of morphine or codeine in blood and urine may sometimes be due to ingestion of poppy seeds.

  18. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    PubMed

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I V; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H J; Deng, M H

    1994-03-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  19. Racial Differences in the Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration With Coronary Heart Disease Events

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Ix, Joachim H.; Sachs, Michael C.; Tracy, Russell P.; Siscovick, David S.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; de Boer, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Low circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been consistently associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in white populations. This association has not been rigorously evaluated in other races or ethnicities, in which the distributions of 25(OH)D concentration and possibly other aspects of 25(OH)D metabolism differ. OBJECTIVE To examine the association of serum 25(OH)D concentration with risk of CHD in a multiethnic population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We studied 6436 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), recruited from July 2000 through September 2002, who were free of known cardiovascular disease at baseline. We measured baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations using a mass spectrometry assay calibrated to established standards. We tested associations of 25(OH)D with adjudicated CHD events assessed through May 2012. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Primary outcome measure was time to first adjudicated CHD event, defined as myocardial infarction, angina, cardiac arrest, or CHD death. RESULTS During a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 361 participants had an incident CHD event (7.38 events per 1000 person-years). Associations of 25(OH)D with CHD differed by race/ethnicity (P for interaction < .05). After adjustment, lower 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a greater risk of incident CHD among participants who were white (n = 167 events; hazard ratio [HR], 1.26 [95%CI, 1.06–1.49] for each 10-ng/mL decrement in 25(OH)D) or Chinese (HR, 1.67 [95%CI, 1.07–2.61]; n = 27). In contrast, 25(OH)D was not associated with risk of CHD in participants who were black (HR, 0.93 [95%CI, 0.73–1.20]; n = 94) or Hispanic (HR, 1.01 [95%CI, 0.77–1.33]; n = 73). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Lower serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with an increased risk of incident CHD events among participants who were white or Chinese but not black or Hispanic. Results evaluating 25(OH)D in

  20. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomin; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Oshima, Satomi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OH)D, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OH)D concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05). Higher 25(OH)D concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01) but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OH)D concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). Higher 25(OH)D and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OH)D concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF. PMID:25551248

  1. Effect of serum monoclonal protein concentration on haemostasis in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Heyu; Li, Huijun; Li, Dengju

    2015-07-01

    Abnormalities in haemostasis are often detected in patients with multiple myeloma and the fundamental factors that lead to these abnormities are worthy of exploration. The objective of this study was to investigate bleeding diathesis and coagulopathy in different multiple myeloma types or stages and assess how paraprotein concentration contributes to differences in these conditions. Haemostasis screening tests and serum monoclonal protein (M protein) concentration were retrospectively analysed in 101 patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma from January 2012 to April 2014. No significant differences were found between bleeding diathesis and types or International Staging System (ISS) stages of multiple myeloma; however, prolonged thrombin time (TT) was found in most of patients (77.7%) and was positively related to light-chain concentration (P ≤ 0.01). Prolonged prothrombin time (PT) was more obvious in IgA and IgG-type multiple myeloma than in the light-chain type (P ≤ 0.01). With increased clinical staging, PT remarkably increased (P ≤ 0.01). M protein concentration was significantly higher in patients with prolonged PT than in those with normal PT (P ≤ 0.01). The D-dimer mean was significantly higher than normal (>0.5 μg/ml) (P ≤ 0.01). Fibrinogen was negatively related to M protein levels (P ≤ 0.01); however, there was no correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and multiple myeloma stages or types, M protein levels and serum light-chain concentration (P ≥ 0.05). Patients with light-chain type multiple myeloma were more likely to have prolonged TT than patients with other types. M protein levels had an obvious effect on PT. Prolonged PT was more common in IgA and IgG-type multiple myeloma. Abnormal haemostasis test results are not always accompanied by clinically apparent haemostatic complications.

  2. Serum selenium concentrations and diabetes in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that high selenium levels are associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of serum selenium concentrations with fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and diabetes in the most rec...

  3. Higher Serum Heavy Metal May Be Related with Higher Serum gamma-Glutamyltransferase Concentration in Koreans: Analysis of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-1, 2, 2010, 2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Han, Sung-Woo; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) may be an early and sensitive marker for oxidative stress. This study was performed to evaluate the association between serum heavy metals and γ-GT concentration. Methods This study is a cross-sectional analysis based on data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (V-1, 2, 2010, 2011) regarding serum heavy metal concentrations (lead, mercury, and cadmium) as well as serum γ-GT. Serum heavy metals were categorized into tertiles, and serum γ-GT concentration was compared using an analysis of covariance test after relevant variable adjustments. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR) of having the highest tertile of serum γ-GT in each heavy metal tertile using logistic regression. Results The mean serum lead, mercury, and cadmium concentrations were 2.67, 5.08, and 1.02 µg/dL in men and 1.95, 3.60, and 1.21 µg/dL in women, respectively. Partial correlation showed a significant positive relation between each heavy metal and serum γ-GT concentration. Comparing serum γ-GT concentration by the tertile of each heavy metal, serum γ-GT concentration showed a significant increase as the tertiles of serum mercury and cadmium in men and that of serum mercury in women increased, but not with lead. The OR of having the highest tertile of serum γ-GT was significant for cadmium in men (OR, 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.54 to 6.35) and mercury in women (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.10) in the top tertile of each heavy metal. Conclusion Higher serum heavy metal concentration may be related with higher serum γ-GT concentration. In particular, serum cadmium in men and mercury in women showed significant correlation with serum γ-GT concentration. PMID:24724002

  4. Day/night changes in serum S100B protein concentrations in acute paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Cejas-Mendez, Maria Del Rosario

    2017-04-03

    There are day/night and seasonal changes in biological markers such as melatonin and cortisol. Controversial changes in serum S100B protein levels have been described in schizophrenia. We aim studying whether serum S100B levels present day/night variations in schizophrenia patients and whether S100B levels are related to psychopathology. Sixty-five paranoid schizophrenic inpatients participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at admission and discharge. Blood was drawn at 12:00 (midday) and 00:00 (midnight) hours at admission and discharge. Sixty-five healthy subjects matched by age, gender and season acted as control group. At admission and discharge patients had significantly higher serum S100B concentrations at midday and midnight than healthy subjects. At admission, patients showed a day/night variation of S100B levels, with higher S100B levels at 12:00 than at 00:00h (143.7±26.3pg/ml vs. 96.9±16.6pg/ml). This day/night difference was not present in the control group. Midday and midnight S100B at admission decreased when compared to S100B at discharge (midday, 143.7±26.3 vs. 83.0±12, midnight 96.9±16.6 vs. 68.6±14.5). There was a positive correlation between the PANSS positive subscale and S100B concentrations at admission. This correlation was not present at discharge.

  5. Determinants of the serum concentrations of low molecular weight proteins in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kabanda, A; Jadoul, M; Pochet, J M; Lauwerys, R; van Ypersele de Strihou, C; Bernard, A

    1994-06-01

    Factors influencing the serum concentrations of low molecular weight proteins (LMWP) during long-term hemodialysis were studied in 112 patients undergoing dialysis for an average of 61.1 months (range 1 to 243). These patients were treated with AN69, cellulose acetate, cuprophan or polysulfone membranes. The following proteins were measured in serum before and after a four hour dialysis session: cystatin C (CYST C), beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 m), Clara cell protein (CC16) and retinol-binding protein (RBP). Predialysis levels of the four proteins were markedly elevated. In simple regression analysis, pre-dialysis serum concentrations of beta 2 m and CC16 weakly correlated with the duration of dialysis treatment, but these relations completely disappeared when a stepwise regression analysis was performed using as predictors age, sex, residual diuresis, body weight loss (BWL), duration of hemodialysis and the type or ultrafiltration coefficient (UFC) of the membranes. The only significant determinants which emerged from this analysis were the residual diuresis and age which negatively correlated with CYST C, beta 2m and CC16 (residual diuresis only), and sex which influenced CYST C. During the dialysis session, the microproteins underwent changes that were related to their molecular radius, the membrane UFC and the BWL. After adjustment for the latter, high flux membranes (UFC > or = 15 ml/h.m2.mm Hg) allowed up to 50% of CYST C and 25% of beta 2m to be removed. No significant elimination of CC16 and RBP was evident. On the basis of these results, we estimated the effective pore radius of high flux membranes between 1.5 and 1.7 nm and that of low flux membranes as below 1.5 nm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplementation on periparturient serum mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf J; Thilsing, Trine

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether supplementing dry cow rations with phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) would interfere with the beneficial effect of zeolite supplementation on the periparturient blood calcium (Ca) concentration in dairy cattle. Three groups (A-C) of 10 Danish Jersey cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop in blood Ca was seen in group A as well as group C. In group A, one cow was hypocalcaemic at calving, and developed milk fever. In group C, 12 blood samples, representing six cows, were hypocalcaemic, and three of these cows were treated for milk fever. All groups remained normomagnesaemic and there were no significant differences in blood Mg across groups. In conclusion, the combined P and Mg supplementation in addition to zeolite supplementation did not increase the serum Mg level (forage Mg 16.9g/day; 0.21% of DM). Combined P and Mg supplementation reduced the zeolite-induced hypophosphataemia but also reduced the stabilising effect of zeolite on parturient serum Ca.

  7. Evaluation of serum concentrations of the selected cytokines in patients with localized scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Budzyńska-Włodarczyk, Jolanta; Michalska-Jakubus, Małgorzata M.; Kowal, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Localized scleroderma is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting the skin. The cause of disease remains unexplained although environmental factors are implicated, which are likely to be responsible for activation of the endothelium and subsequent inflammation leading to excessive synthesis of collagen and extracellular matrix components. Aim To determine concentrations of interleukin (IL)-27, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-6, and sIL-6R in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls and to assess the relations between their levels and laboratory markers. Material and methods The study encompassed 17 females with localized scleroderma (aged 25–67). The control group consisted of 30 age-matched healthy women. The blood was sampled from the basilic vein. Serum levels of cytokines were determined using ELISA. Results The TGF-β2 levels were found to be significantly lower in patients with localized scleroderma compared to controls. Concentrations of TGF-β1 were decreased in scleroderma patients when compared to controls but without statistical significance. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6, sIL-6R and IL-27 levels between patients and the control group; however, we found a significant positive correlation between the level of sIL-6 and ESR among subjects with localized scleroderma. Conclusions The findings of decreased serum levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in patients with localized scleroderma demonstrate a possible association of these cytokines with pathogenesis of the disease. The results suggest also that sIL-6R is likely to be involved in inflammation in patients with localized scleroderma. PMID:26985179

  8. Drug concentrations in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients treated with norvancomycin after craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Kang, J; Wang, Q

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial infection by gram-positive cocci is commonly found after craniotomy. Norvancomycin was independently developed in China, and had demonstrated therapeutic capability against gram-positive infection. This study investigated the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations in patients that received intravenous injection of norvancomycin after craniotomy. Patients with an indwelling catheter in the operational area/ventricle after craniotomy were administered norvancomycin by two approaches: (1) The conventional group consisted of 14 cases that were infused with 0.8 g norvancomycin for 1 h, every 12 h; (2) The continuous administration group consisted of 14 cases that were infused with 0.8 g norvancomycin for 1 h, and then another 0.4 g for 11 h with extended infusion, followed by continuous infusion of 0.4 g norvancomycin for 12 h. Samples of serum and CSF were collected at different time-points to measure norvancomycin levels after administration. In the conventional and continuous administration groups, the peak serum concentrations of norvancomycin were 55.52 ± 26.04 and 59.22 ± 41.88 mg/L, respectively, while those at 24 h were 8.21 ± 6.04 and 8.01 ± 4.17 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, peak CSF concentrations were 16.31 ± 11.15 and 8.82 ± 8.91 mg/L, respectively, while those at 24 h were 6.12 ± 2.34 and 6.24 ± 4.38 mg/L, respectively. This preliminary study showed that for the early administration of standard doses of norvancomycin post-neurosurgery, the CSF concentration in both the conventional and continuous administration groups reached or exceeded the 90 % minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90, 2 mg/L) of target bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

  9. Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation.

  10. Association of Serum Albumin Concentration With Mortality, Morbidity, CD4 T-cell Reconstitution Among Tanzanians Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Isanaka, Sheila; Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Wang, Molin; Chalamilla, Guerino E.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prospective studies of serum albumin concentration measurement as a low-cost predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression are needed for individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. Methods. Serum albumin concentration was measured at ART initiation for 2145 adults in Tanzania who were enrolled in a trial examining the effect of multivitamins on HIV disease progression. Participants were prospectively followed for mortality, morbidity, and anthropometric outcomes at monthly visits (median follow-up duration, 21.2 months). Proportional hazard models were used to analyze mortality, morbidity, and nutritional outcomes, while generalized estimating equations were used to analyze CD4+ T-cell counts. Results. Individuals with hypoalbuminemia (defined as a serum albumin concentration of <35 g/L) at ART initiation had a hazard of death that was 4.52 times (95% confidence interval, 3.37–6.07; P < .001) that of individuals with serum albumin concentrations of ≥35 g/L, after multivariate adjustment. Hypoalbuminemia was also independently associated with the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (P < .001), severe anemia (P < .001), wasting (P = .002), and >10% weight loss (P = .012). Secondary analyses suggested that serum albumin concentrations of <38 g/L were associated with increased mortality and incident pulmonary tuberculosis. There was no association between serum albumin concentration and changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (P = .121). Conclusions. Serum albumin concentrations can identify adults initiating ART who are at high risk for mortality and selected morbidities. Future research is needed to identify and manage conditions that reduce the serum albumin concentration. PMID:23319741

  11. Effect of photoperiod on serum hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle in geese.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Z; Gao, G L; Wang, H W; Li, Q; Zhang, K S; Zhong, H; Wang, Q G

    2017-03-22

    The poor egg-laying rate of geese hinders the development of the goose industry; therefore, the reproductive performance of geese is an important area of investigation. To evaluate the relationship between photoperiod, reproductive hormones, and reproductive activity during the egg-laying cycle in geese under natural conditions, we collected blood samples from Sichuan white geese and Xupu geese to quantify changes in prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). We also calculated the rate of egg laying for the two populations during the egg-laying cycle. We show that the egg-laying rate and the serum concentration of some hormones (PRL, E2, VIP, FSH, GnIH, and LH) differed significantly between the two populations during the pre-laying, laying, and ceased-laying periods. Serum LH concentrations may be associated with maturation of the ovary and oviducts, whereas FSH, PRL, and GnIH play important roles in egg laying. These results provide a useful resource for future studies examining the laying rate in geese.

  12. [Research on detecting concentration of serum protein based on resonance Rayleigh scattering].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gao; Feng, Qiao-Ling; Xue, Zhong-Jin; Li, Yang-Jun; Zhou, Han-Chang

    2013-03-01

    The resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral detection system was designed based on the 2, 9, 16, 23-tetracarboxylate-phthalocyanine zinc and protein system. In the system, excitation light source is 405 nm wide band gap semiconductor lasers, and monochromator is 475 nm narrow-band band-pass filter, and the detector is low-noise and high-gain photoelectric amplifier based on blue-ray enhanced photodiode. Experiment shows that, the solution's strong absorption wavelength is near 420 nm. Under the action of incentive light, resonance Rayleigh scattering is generated at the resonant wavelength, and the scattering intensity is proportional to the protein content. The system uses 2, 9, 16, 23-tetracarboxylate as the spectrum probe to determine the concentration of serum proteins by resonance Rayleigh scattering method. Its linear detection range is 10 - 50 mg.mL-1, and its detection limit is 0. 001 mg.mL-1. The newly developed device for detecting concentration of the serum protein has the advantages of small size, low cost, low power consumption, and being easy to use.

  13. Relationship between Urinary Triclosan and Paraben Concentrations and Serum Thyroid Measures in NHANES 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Koeppe, Erika S.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Colacino, Justin A.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Triclosan and parabens are broad spectrum antimicrobials used in a range of consumer products. In vitro and animal studies have suggested the potential for these compounds to disrupt thyroid function, though studies in humans have been limited. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of triclosan and parabens with serum thyroid measures in a large, representative sample of the US population. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of data on urinary biomarkers of triclosan and paraben exposure and serum thyroid measures obtained from 1,831 subjects (ages ≥12 years) as part of the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We found evidence of some inverse associations between parabens and circulating thyroid hormone levels in adults, with the strongest and most consistent associations among females. We also observed a positive association between triclosan and total triiodothyonine (T3) concentrations in adolescents. These results, in accordance with the in vitro and animal literature, suggest that paraben, and potentially triclosan, exposures may be associated with altered thyroid hormone levels in humans. Further research is needed for confirmation and to determine the potential clinical significance of these findings. PMID:23340023

  14. Relationship between urinary triclosan and paraben concentrations and serum thyroid measures in NHANES 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Koeppe, Erika S; Ferguson, Kelly K; Colacino, Justin A; Meeker, John D

    2013-02-15

    Triclosan and parabens are broad spectrum antimicrobials used in a range of consumer products. In vitro and animal studies have suggested the potential for these compounds to disrupt thyroid function, though studies in humans have been limited. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of urinary concentrations of triclosan and parabens with serum thyroid measures in a large, representative sample of the US population. We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional analysis of data on urinary biomarkers of triclosan and paraben exposure and serum thyroid measures obtained from 1831 subjects (ages≥12 years) as part of the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We found evidence of some inverse associations between parabens and circulating thyroid hormone levels in adults, with the strongest and most consistent associations among females. We also observed a positive association between triclosan and total triiodothyonine (T3) concentrations in adolescents. These results, in accordance with the in vitro and animal literature, suggest that paraben, and potentially triclosan, exposures may be associated with altered thyroid hormone levels in humans. Further research is needed for confirmation and to determine the potential clinical and public health significance of these findings.

  15. Serum verapamil concentrations before and after Intralipid® therapy during treatment of an overdose.

    PubMed

    French, Deborah; Armenian, Patil; Ruan, Weiming; Wong, Alicia; Drasner, Kenneth; Olson, Kent R; Wu, Alan H B

    2011-04-01

    CONTEXT. Intralipid® infusion is useful in reversing cardiac and central nervous system toxicity of local anesthetic drugs, and recent reports suggest utility in other drug overdoses. CASE DETAILS. A 47-year-old man presented to the emergency department with hypotension and complete heart block 3 h after a sustained-release verapamil overdose. He was given supportive care including calcium and hyperinsulinemia/euglycemia therapy. Nineteen and 29 h post-ingestion, Intralipid® was administered as a bolus, followed by an infusion. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to determine the serum verapamil concentrations before and after Intralipid® administration and to ascertain its clinical effects. DISCUSSION. It was found that administration of Intralipid® was followed by a decrease in verapamil concentration once the lipid had been removed from the sample, demonstrating that Intralipid® was effective in sequestering verapamil, effectively removing it from the serum, and supporting its use in the treatment of verapamil overdose. Intralipid® administration was associated with an increase in the patient's blood pressure, but because other vasoactive drugs were given at the same time, it was difficult to determine its relative contribution to clinical improvement.

  16. Nickel concentrations in serum of patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.N. Jr.; Linden, J.V.; Hopfer, S.M.; Crisostomo, M.C.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was measured, by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry, in sera from (a) 30 healthy adults, (b) 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction, (c) 33 patients with unstable angina pectoris without infarction, and (d) five patients with coronary atherosclerosis who developed cardiac ischemia during treadmill exercise. Mean (and SD) concentrations in Group a were 0.3 (0.3) ..mu..g/L (range <0.05-1.1 ..mu..g/L). Within 72 h after hospital admission, hypernickelemia (Ni greater than or equal to 1.2 ..mu..g/L) was found in 41 patients of group b (76%) and in 16 patients of group c (48%). Hypernickelemia was found before and after exercise in one patient of Group d (20%). Peak values averaged 3.0 ..mu..g/L (range 0.4-21 ..mu..g/L) in Group b, 1.5 ..mu..g/L (range <0.05-3.3 ..mu..g/L) in Group c. In Group b, the mean time interval between the peak values for creatine kinase activity and for nickel was 18 h. Serum nickel concentrations were unrelated to age, sex, time of day, cigarette smoking, medications, clinical complications, or outcome. Mechanisms and sources of release of nickel into the serum of patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris are conjectural, but hypernickelemia may be related to the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial injury. 25 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Influence of manufacturer lot number on pharmacokinetic manipulation of gentamicin serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gill, M A; Kern, J W; Chenella, F C; Berne, T V; Heseltine, P N; Yellin, A E

    1983-01-01

    A prospective, randomized trial was performed to study the impact of lot variation on pharmacokinetic manipulation of serum gentamicin concentrations. Twenty patients receiving gentamicin were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group I patients had blood samples obtained before and after two doses during their hospital regimen using gentamicin from the same lot number. Group II patients had the samples obtained around two doses using different lot numbers of gentamicin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated assuming a one-compartment model and were compared between the initial and subsequent set of serum concentrations. For Group I, the gentamicin distribution volume (Vd) did not differ (mean change, -0.007 L/kg, or mean absolute percentage change, 20.8%). Group II also did not have a significant mean change in Vd (0.023 L/kg, or mean absolute percentage change, 18.7%). The gentamicin Vd did not appear to change over time whether gentamicin was administered using identical or differing lot numbers.

  18. Effect of Suckling Systems on Serum Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations and Behavior to a Novel Object in Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Ogura, Shin-ichiro; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated differences between effects of natural- and bucket-suckling methods on basal serum oxytocin (OT) and cortisol concentrations, and the effect of OT concentration on affiliative and investigative behavior of calves to a novel object. Ten Japanese Black calves, balanced with birth order, were allocated evenly to natural-suckling (NS) and bucket suckling (BS) groups. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1 and 2 months (1 week after weaning) calves, and serum OT and cortisol concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymeimmunoassay tests, respectively. Each calf at the age of 2 months (2 weeks after weaning) was released into an open-field with a calf decoy, and its investigative and affiliative behaviors were recorded for 20 minutes. In 1-month-old calves, the basal serum OT concentration (25.5±4.9 [mean±standard deviation, pg/mL]) of NS was significantly higher than that of BS (16.9±6.7) (p<0.05), whereas the basal cortisol concentration (5.8±2.5 [mean±standard deviation, ng/mL]) of NS was significantly lower than that in BS (10.0±2.8) (p<0.05). Additionally, a negative correlation was noted between serum OT and cortisol concentrations in 1-month-old calves (p = 0.06). Further, the higher serum OT concentration the calves had at 1 month old, the more investigative the calves were at 2 months old but not affiliative in the open-field with a calf decoy. Thus, we concluded that the natural suckling method from a dam elevates the basal serum OT concentration in calves, and high serum OT concentrations induce investigative behavior and attenuate cortisol concentrations. PMID:26580289

  19. Excessive Pro-Inflammatory Serum Cytokine Concentrations in Virulent Canine Babesiosis

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Amelia; Leisewitz, Andrew L.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kristensen, Annemarie T.; Schoeman, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Babesia rossi infection causes a severe inflammatory response in the dog, which is the result of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine concentrations were present in dogs with babesiosis and whether it was associated with disease outcome. Ninety-seven dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and fifteen healthy dogs were included as controls. Diagnosis of babesiosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at admission, prior to any treatment. Cytokine concentrations were assessed using a canine-specific multiplex assay on an automated analyser. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Twelve of the Babesia-infected dogs died (12%) and 85 survived (88%). Babesia-infected dogs were also divided into those that presented within 48 hours from displaying clinical signs, and those that presented more than 48 hours after displaying clinical signs. Cytokine concentrations were compared between the different groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. IL-10 and MCP-1 concentrations were significantly elevated for the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the healthy controls. In contrast, the IL-8 concentration was significantly decreased in the Babesia-infected dogs compared to the controls. Concentrations of IL-6 and MCP-1 were significantly increased in the non-survivors compared to the survivors. Concentrations for IL-2, IL-6, IL-18 and GM-CSF were significantly higher in those cases that presented during the more acute stage of the disease. These findings suggest that a mixed cytokine response is present in dogs with babesiosis caused by B. rossi, and that an excessive pro-inflammatory response may result in a poor outcome. PMID:26953797

  20. In contrast to matrix metalloproteinases, serum adiponectin concentrations increase after radioiodine treatment of thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer and in chronic inflammation. We have endeavoured to assess whether concentrations of MMPs, TIMPs, and anti-inflammatory adiponectin are altered by pharmacological treatment of acute thyrotoxicosis or by radioiodine therapy (RIT). Material and methods We measured serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and adiponectin, TSH, free T4 (FT4) and free T3 (FT3) in 15 patients (4 males), age (years) 51.8±15.3 (mean±SD) with hyperthyroidism treated with thiamazole (Group 1) and in 20 subjects (2 males), treated for thyrotoxicosis with radioiodine, age 52.3±12.4 (Group 2), where blood samples were taken before RIT, visit 1 (V1), seven days post RIT, visit 2 (V2), and two to three months post RIT, visit 3 (V3). Results In Group 1 there was no significant change in concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 or adiponectin, despite a fall in FT4 and FT3 (8.74±4.79 pg/ml vs 3.54±2.40 pg/ml, for FT3, and 4.48 ±2.21 ng/ml vs 1.02±1.07 ng/ml, for FT4, p<0.001). In Group 2 RIT did not cause any acute change in serum MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 or adiponectin (V1 vs V2). However, there was a significant increase in serum adiponectin [from 15201±8860 ng/ml (V1) to 19373±8657 ng/ml (at V3), p<0.05], and TIMP-2 at V3 [from 129±45 ng/ml (V1) to 149±38 ng/ml (V3), p<0.01]. There was no significant change MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 between V1 and V3. There was a decrease in FT4 and FT3 from 24.4±15.4 pmol/l (V1) to 14.7±10.6 pmol/l (V3), and from 10.0±5.65 (V1) to 6.1±4.8 pmol/l (V2), p<0.01, for FT4 and FT3, respectively. Conclusions Radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis does not alter serum MMP-2, MMP-9 or TIMP-1 concentrations either acutely or after about three months of observation. An increase in serum adiponectin

  1. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless

  2. Serum Concentrations of Selenium and Copper in Patients Diagnosed with Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lener, Marcin R.; Scott, Rodney J.; Wiechowska-Kozłowska, Anna; Serrano-Fernández, Pablo; Baszuk, Piotr; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Marciniak, Wojciech; Muszyńska, Magdalena; Kładny, Józef; Gromowski, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubiński, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is still insufficient. This study evaluated the associations between concentrations of selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) in the serum of PaCa patients. Materials and Methods The study included 100 PaCa patients and 100 control subjects from the same geographical region in Poland. To determine the average concentration of Se, Cu, and ratio Cu:Se in the Polish population, assay for Se and Cu was performed in 480 healthy individuals. Serum levels of Se and Cu were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results In the control group, the average Se level was 76 µg/L and Cu 1,098 µg/L. The average Se level among PaCa patients was 60 µg/L and the mean Cu level was 1,432 µg/L. The threshold point at which any decrease in Se concentration was associated with PaCa was 67.45 µg/L. The threshold point of Cu level above which there was an increase in the prevalence of PaCa was 1,214.58 µg/L. In addition, a positive relationship was observed between increasing survival time and Se plasma level. Conclusion This retrospective study suggests that low levels of Se and high levels of Cu might influence development of PaCa and that higher levels of Se are associated with longer survival in patients with PaCa. The results suggest that determining the level of Se and Cu could be incorporated into a risk stratification scheme for the selection and surveillance control examination to complement existing screening and diagnostic procedures. PMID:26727715

  3. The role of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kin Tekce, Buket; Tekce, Hikmet; Aktas, Gulali; Uyeturk, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of measurement is the numeric expression of the errors associated with all measurements taken in clinical laboratories. Serum creatinine concentration is the most common diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine according to the Nordtest Guide. Retrospectively, we identified 289 patients who were evaluated for acute kidney injury. Of the total patient pool, 233 were diagnosed with acute kidney injury using the AKIN classification scheme and then were compared using statistical analysis. We determined nine probabilities of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury when uncertainty of measurement was taken into consideration (first probability compared to the fifth p = 0.023 and first probability compared to the ninth p = 0.012). We found that the uncertainty of measurement for serum creatinine concentrations was an important factor for correctly diagnosing acute kidney injury. In addition, based on the AKIN classification scheme, minimizing the total allowable error levels for serum creatinine concentrations is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of acute kidney injury by clinicians.

  4. Serum thyroid hormone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and protein concentrations in normal horses: association with topical dexamethasone usage.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Getu; Allersmeier, Maren; Schusser, Gerald F; Ungemach, Fritz R

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if topical application of dexamethasone affected the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine T(3) and thyroxine T(4)), glucose, triglycerides, total protein and insulin in normal horses. Ten horses were treated twice daily for 10 days with 50 g dexamethasone using an ointment formulation. Thyroid hormones and insulin were assayed using standard radioimmunoassay methods, while glucose, triglycerides and total protein were determined using a standard enzymatic method and the Biuret reaction, respectively. An increase in serum glucose and triglyceride concentrations was accompanied by 2-6-fold increases in serum insulin concentrations, but there was no change in serum total protein concentration. Insulin secretion increased with concomitant hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. A non-significant decline in T(4) secretion was noted. Serum T(3) and T(4) concentrations declined continuously below baseline values from 48 h. Glucose and insulin levels returned to baseline values 3 days after treatment withdrawal, whereas triglycerides reverted to baseline by 7 days. In contrast, baseline values of serum T(3) and T(4) were not reached by 20 days following drug withdrawal. The results indicated that topical administration of dexamethasone affected thyroid function and physiological metabolic functions, which may have implications for potential doping cases in racing horses.

  5. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r(2) = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r(2) = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r(2) = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.

  6. Relationship between Irisin Concentration and Serum Cytokines in Mother and Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Trejo, Maria; Garcia-Rivas, Gerardo; Torres-Quintanilla, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    concentrations (p = 0.046). Conclusion No evidence was found that serum irisin concentrations in mothers at pregnancy termination or those of their newborns correlated with maternal body mass index, the presence of diabetes mellitus, or free fatty acid levels. However, the results of this study indicated that cytokines might predict irisin concentration in mothers and their offspring, although interactions between irisin levels during pregnancy and the newborn have not yet been fully elucidated. PMID:27828992

  7. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    PubMed

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in their serum concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL - C as they dropped from 4.89 mmol / L to 2.55 mmol /L and from 3.33 mmol / L to 0.70 mmol / L respectively. Serum concentrations of HDL-C were also significantly elevated in the same group. Although, atherogenic rats supplemented with 2% arginine showed significant increase in serum concentration of HDL-C, no significant changes were observed in their serum concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-C. Our results showed that treatment of atherogenic rats with pumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  8. Cow-level association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antibody seropositivity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Molitor, T; Linn, J; Gallaher, D; Wells, S W

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with various human diseases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the cow-level association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) seropositivity of dairy cows, adjusting for diet, breed, hair coat color, stage of lactation, reproductive status, and cow age. The sera of 80 MAP antibody ELISA-positive and 80 test-negative herd mates from 5 Minnesota dairy herds were analyzed for 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. The cows' age, production records, and hair coat color were recorded. Additionally, feed samples were obtained and analyzed for vitamin D(2) and vitamin D(3) content. A linear mixed model was used to identify potential predictors for serum 25(OH)D concentration, accounting for herd of origin. The majority of rations analyzed had over 22,000 IU of vitamin D/day (maximum: 52,000 I U/d) and the study cows' average serum 25(OH)D concentration was 62.5 ± 13.8 ng/mL. Serum ELISA-positive cows had, on average, 5.3 ng/mL lower 25(OH)D serum levels than test-negative herd mates. The reproductive status of cows was also associated with the 25(OH)D levels, with fresh cows having the lowest serum concentration. In this cross-sectional study, a temporal or causal association between MAP antibody ELISA status and serum 25(OH)D concentration could not be evaluated. In addition, the high levels of vitamin D in the rations of participating farms and the average 25(OH)D serum concentration suggest that additional supplementation with vitamin D in the ration is likely to be ineffective.

  9. Serum immunoglobulin G subclass concentrations in periodontally healthy and diseased individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, H; Wang, M; Gunsolley, J C; Schenkein, H A; Tew, J G

    1994-01-01

    Patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) often have high titers of antibody reactive with the serotype-specific immunodominant carbohydrate antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype b. The vast majority of this A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b-specific antibody is immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2). The present study was undertaken to determine whether the overall total levels of IgG2 in the sera of LJP patients are elevated. LJP patients and nonperiodontitis (NP) controls matched for age, race (black and white), and gender were studied. Additional controls included patients with adult periodontitis (AP) and patients similar in age to LJP patients but with the more-severe, generalized form of early-onset periodontitis (SP). Sera from over 700 periodontally characterized subjects were examined by using radial immunodiffusion to quantitate IgG2 as well as IgG1, -3, and -4, which were included for comparison. Serum IgG2 levels increased with age, and this was most dramatic around puberty. Black subjects in all periodontal groups had nearly 1 mg more IgG2 per ml than their white counterparts. Serum IgG2 levels were elevated (about 30 to 40%) in LJP patients of both races compared with their age- and race-matched NP controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, SP patients and AP patients had IgG2 levels comparable to their age- and race-matched NP controls. No other IgG subclass concentration correlated with periodontal diagnosis except for IgG3, which was elevated in white LJP patients. We reason that the high levels of serum IgG2 in LJP may be helpful in localizing periodontal destruction. PMID:8168929

  10. Reliability of Serum Metabolite Concentrations over a 4-Month Period Using a Targeted Metabolomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, Anna; Drogan, Dagmar; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Prehn, Cornelia; Illig, Thomas; Adamski, Jerzy; Joost, Hans-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics is a promising tool for discovery of novel biomarkers of chronic disease risk in prospective epidemiologic studies. We investigated the between- and within-person variation of the concentrations of 163 serum metabolites over a period of 4 months to evaluate the metabolite reliability expressed by the intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC: the ratio of between-person variance and total variance). The analyses were performed with the BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQ™ targeted metabolomics technology, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and hexose in 100 healthy individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study who had provided two fasting blood samples 4 months apart. Overall, serum reliability of metabolites over a 4-month period was good. The median ICC of the 163 metabolites was 0.57. The highest ICC was observed for hydroxysphingomyelin C14:1 (ICC = 0.85) and the lowest was found for acylcarnitine C3:1 (ICC = 0). Reliability was high for hexose (ICC = 0.76), sphingolipids (median ICC = 0.66; range: 0.24–0.85), amino acids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.41–0.72) and glycerophospholipids (median ICC = 0.58; range: 0.03–0.81). Among acylcarnitines, reliability of short and medium chain saturated compounds was good to excellent (ICC range: 0.50–0.81). Serum reliability was lower for most hydroxyacylcarnitines and monounsaturated acylcarnitines (ICC range: 0.11–0.45 and 0.00–0.63, respectively). For most of the metabolites a single measurement may be sufficient for risk assessment in epidemiologic studies with healthy subjects. PMID:21698256

  11. Effects of Curcumin on Serum Vitamin E Concentrations in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Akram; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Saberi-Karimian, Maryam; Safarian, Hamideh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-02-15

    Vitamin E is an important lipid-soluble antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on serum vitamin E levels in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 120 subjects aged 18-65 years old with MetS were recruited in this study according to the International Diabetic Federation Criteria. Included subjects were randomized into three groups: subjects receiving lecithinized curcumin (1 g/day equivalent to 200-mg pure curcumin per day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40), patients receiving unformulated curcumin (1 g/day) for a period of 6 weeks )n = 40) and a control group receiving placebo for the same period (n = 40). Vitamin E was determined in all patients before and after the intervention using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results showed that curcumin has no improving effect on serum levels of vitamin E (p > 0.05). There were significant differences between pre-trial and post-trial levels of vitamin E/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05), vitamin E/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (p < 0.05), vitamin E/total cholesterol ratio (p < 0.01) and vitamin E/triglyceride ratio (p < 0.05) between the three groups of the study. Results of the present study did not suggest any improving effect of curcumin supplementation on serum vitamin E concentrations in subjects with MetS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Dietary Mannoheptulose Increases Fasting Serum Glucagon Like Peptide-1 and Post-Prandial Serum Ghrelin Concentrations in Adult Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Eyre, Ryan; Gooding, Margaret A; Davenport, Gary M; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-06-16

    There is a growing interest in the use of nutraceuticals for weight management in companion animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar in avocados that inhibits glycolysis, on energy metabolism in adult Beagle dogs. The study was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial where dogs were allocated to a control (CON, n = 10, 10.1 ± 0.4 kg) or MH containing diet (168 mg/kg, n = 10, 10.3 ± 0.4 kg). Blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h post-feeding (week 12) to determine serum satiety related hormones and biochemistry. Resting and post-prandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were determined by indirect calorimetry (weeks 4 and 8). Physical activity was measured using an accelerometer (weeks 3, 7, 11). Body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry (week 12). MH significantly (p < 0.05) increased fasting serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-prandial serum ghrelin. MH tended (p < 0.1) to increase fasting serum gastric inhibitory peptide and decrease physical activity. Together, these findings suggest that dietary MH has the ability to promote satiation and lowers daily energy expenditure.

  13. Serum erythropoietin concentrations in symptomatic infants during the anaemia of prematurity.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J; Sive, A; Jacobs, P

    1992-01-01

    A comparison was carried out between a series of neonates who weighed less than 1500 g at birth and received red cell transfusions for symptomatic anaemia of prematurity (group 1, n = 14) and controls of similar gestational age and weight, who remained well and were not transfused during their nursery stay (group 2, n = 10). Mean (SD) haemoglobin concentrations at birth were 163 (12) g/l and 183 (17) g/l (p = 0.004), respectively. Transfusion resulted in significantly better weight gain in six infants who had been growing poorly:mean (SE) 8.8 (2.8) g/day improved to 23.3 (2.1) g/day (p less than 0.002). Geometric mean (SD) serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (SiEp) concentrations (17.7 (1.3) U/l) for the whole group of infants were similar to those of normal adults (17.4 (4.7) U/l) despite considerably reduced haemoglobin values. There was a significant inverse correlation between haemoglobin and log SiEp concentrations in the infants requiring transfusion (r = -0.43; p less than 0.01), but this was not apparent in the untransfused babies. Moreover, at haemoglobin concentrations below 120 g/l the mean (SE) SiEp concentration of 20 (1.08) U/l in group 1 was significantly higher than in group 2 (14 (1.06) U/l; p = 0.002). These data suggest that an increased concentration of SiEp early in the course of the anaemia of prematurity helps to identify those infants who would benefit from red cell transfusions, but that clinical criteria, although ill defined, do so equally well. PMID:1519982

  14. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, W C M; Lambertz, D; Borges, E S; Neto, A M O; Lambertz, K M F T; Amaral, A

    2016-12-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation.

  15. Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Shen, Min; Smith, Martyn T; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Ji, Zhiying; Reiss, Boris; Hosgood, H Dean; Liu, Songwang; Bagni, Rachel; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark; Hu, Wei; Yue, Fei; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the immunotoxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE), we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of workers exposed to TCE. We measured serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, which play a critical role in regulating various components of the immune system, in 71 exposed workers and 78 unexposed control workers. Repeated personal exposure measurements were taken in workers before blood collection using 3 M organic vapor monitoring badges. Compared to unexposed workers, the serum concentration of IL-10 in workers exposed to TCE was decreased by 70% (P = 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. Further, the magnitude of decline in IL-10 was >60% and statistically significant in workers exposed to <12 ppm as well as in workers with exposures ≥ 12 ppm of TCE, compared to unexposed workers. No significant differences in levels of IL-6 or TNF-α were observed among workers exposed to TCE compared to unexposed controls. Given that IL-10 plays an important role in immunologic processes, including mediating the Th1/Th2 balance, our findings provide additional evidence that TCE is immunotoxic in humans.

  16. Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Serum Concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha

    PubMed Central

    Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Shen, Min; Smith, Martyn T.; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Ji, Zhiying; Reiss, Boris; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Songwang; Bagni, Rachel; Guo, Weihong; Purdue, Mark; Hu, Wei; Yue, Fei; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the immunotoxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE), we conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in China of workers exposed to TCE. We measured serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, which play a critical role in regulating various components of the immune system, in 71 exposed workers and 78 unexposed control workers. Repeated personal exposure measurements were taken in workers before blood collection using 3 M organic vapor monitoring badges. Compared to unexposed workers, the serum concentration of IL-10 in workers exposed to TCE was decreased by 70% (P = 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. Further, the magnitude of decline in IL-10 was >60% and statistically significant in workers exposed to <12 ppm as well as in workers with exposures ≥ 12 ppm of TCE, compared to unexposed workers. No significant differences in levels of IL-6 or TNF-α were observed among workers exposed to TCE compared to unexposed controls. Given that IL-10 plays an important role in immunologic processes, including mediating the Th1/Th2 balance, our findings provide additional evidence that TCE is immunotoxic in humans. PMID:23798002

  17. [Serum and bronchial concentrations of amoxicillin administered with a bronchial fluidizer].

    PubMed

    Concia, E; Dos Santos, C; Marone, P; Sardi, C; Cremaschi, P

    1982-03-01

    The authors compared the serum and bronchial concentration of amoxycillin administered alone and in association with carboxymethylcysteine. The determinations were carried out in 10 patients affected with exacerbated acute and chronic bronchopneumopathies, treated first with amoxycillin alone (15 g/day in 3 administrations) and then with amoxycillin at the same dosage and carboxymethylcysteine (450 mg/day in 3 administrations). The bronchial secretions were collected during bronchoscopy performed 2 hours after the last administration of antibiotic. The bronchial secretion values of amoxycillin administered alone varied from 0.92 mcg/ml to 1.88 mcg/ml with a mean value of 1.44 mcg/ml. The percentage ratio between levels in bronchial secretion and levels in the serum varied from 12.7 to 36.1 with a mean value of 23.2. The administration of the amoxycillin-fluidizing agent association determined a statistically significant increase of the antibiotic levels in the bronchial secretions, varying from 1.26 mcg/ml to 6.39 mcg/ml, with a percentage ratio from 19.6 to 103.0.

  18. Clinical response to cyclosporin in chronic severe asthma is associated with reduction in serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alexander, A G; Barnes, N C; Kay, A B; Corrigan, C J

    1995-04-01

    Activated T-lymphocytes play an important role in asthma pathogenesis and release soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), which can be detected in the serum. In a recent randomized, cross-over trial we showed that cyclosporin, an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte activation, improved lung function in patients with chronic severe asthma. To investigate whether changes in serum sIL-2R concentration could be related to clinical response we prospectively compared serum sIL-2R concentrations in patients during cyclosporin and placebo treatment. Peripheral venous blood was obtained from 22 patients during the last 4 weeks of both the cyclosporin and placebo treatment periods and serum stored at -80 degrees C pending measurement of sIL-2R concentration by enzyme immunoassay. Soluble IL-2R was detected in all samples at a concentration range of 191-2,297 U.ml-1. Mean serum concentrations of sIL-2R were significantly lower on cyclosporin therapy (560 U.ml-1) as compared with placebo (676 U.ml-1). The decreases in serum sIL-2R concentrations associated with cyclosporin therapy in these patients correlated with the percentage increases in their morning peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements on cyclosporin as compared with placebo. These data demonstrate that in patients with chronic severe asthma, cyclosporin therapy which results in clinical improvement is associated with a decrease in serum concentrations of sIL-2R. This is compatible with the hypothesis that cyclosporin ameliorates asthma, at least partly, by inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation.

  19. Changes in Serum Concentrations of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Soluble Klotho in Hemodialysis Patients after Total Parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shang-Chih; Chou, Fong-Fu; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background. We examined the changes in circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho concentrations in hemodialysis patients after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Methods. We enrolled a cohort of hemodialysis patients who received PTX. Postoperatively, patients received calcium supplements and/or vitamin D analogue (calcitriol) to maintain serum calcium within 7.0–8.0 mg/dL. Information on clinical parameters including bone-mineral metabolic variables was collected pre-PTX and on days 5 and 90 after PTX. Concomitantly, serum full-length FGF23 and α-Klotho levels were measured. The relationship between FGF23 and clinical parameters was analyzed by single linear regression. Results. Forty-six participants (33 women; 13 men) were enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 56.49 years. Serum FGF23 and α-Klotho concentrations were elevated on days 5 and 90 after PTX compared to baseline (p > 0.05). Serum FGF23 concentrations negatively correlated with serum calcium concentrations pre-PTX (Beta −0.31; R2 0.0949; p = 0.040), day 5 post-PTX (Beta −0.31; R2 0.0982; p = 0.036), and day 90 post-PTX (Beta −0.39; R2 0.1528; p = 0.008). Conclusions. There was no change in circulating FGF23 and Klotho concentrations after PTX in hemodialysis patients given postoperative calcium supplements and/or vitamin D analogue. Serum FGF23 concentrations pre-PTX and at days 5 and 90 after PTX were inversely related to serum calcium concentrations. PMID:27999806

  20. Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in men may influence embryo quality indicators during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Kim, Dongsul; Taylor, Julia A.; Lamb, Julie D.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.

    2011-01-01

    Here we assess bisphenol A (BPA) in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and indicators of embryo quality; embryo cell number (ECN) and embryo fragmentation score (EFS). Twenty-seven couples provided serum on the day of oocyte retrieval. Unconjugated BPA was measured by HPLC with Coularray detection. Odds ratios (OR) were generated using ordinal logistic regression including female and male BPA concentrations, age and race, and day of embryo transfer for ECN. Inverse associations are suggested for male BPA with ECN (OR=0.70, P=0.069), and EFS (OR=0.54, P=0.009), but not for women. Male BPA exposure may affect embryo quality during IVF. PMID:21843814

  1. Specific concentration of antilymphocyte antibodies in the serum cryoprecipitates of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, J B; Winchester, R J; Wernet, P; Kunkel, H G

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies to surface determinants of human lymphocytes, recognized both by cytotoxicity of fluorescent antibody analysis, were shown to be specifically enriched over the serum levels in cryoprecipitates from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The antilymphocyte antibody was shown to be cold reactive and was exclusively IgM. It was distinct from IgM anti-IgG, which was also variably concentrated in the cryoprecipitates. The question whether the antilymphocyte antibodies appear in the cryoprecipitates as complexes because of interaction with surface membrane antigens, or simply because of cold reactive properties, remains to be determined. The possible clinical relevance of the cryoprecipitation of these antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus is discussed. PMID:1081927

  2. Common genetic variants are associated with lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations across the year among children at northern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Larsen, Lesli H; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-04-06

    In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which approximated measurements in three seasons (autumn, winter, spring). Dietary and supplement intake, physical activity, BMI and parathyroid hormone were likewise measured at each time point. In all, eleven SNP in four vitamin D-related genes: Cytochrome P450 subfamily IIR1 (CYP2R1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped. We found minor alleles of CYP2R1 rs10500804, and of GC rs4588 and rs7041 to be associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across the three seasons (all P<0·01), with estimated 25(OH)D differences of -5·8 to -10·6 nmol/l from major to minor alleles homozygosity. In contrast, minor alleles homozygosity of rs10741657 and rs1562902 in CYP2R1 was associated with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with major alleles homozygosity (all P<0·001). Interestingly, the association between season and serum 25(OH)D concentrations was modified by GC rs7041 (P interaction=0·044), observed as absence of increase in serum 25(OH)D from winter to spring among children with minor alleles homozygous genotypes compared with the two other genotypes of rs7041 (P<0·001). Our results suggest that common genetic variants are associated with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations across a school year. Potentially due to modified serum 25(OH)D response to UVB sunlight exposure. Further confirmation and paediatric studies investigating vitamin D-related health outcomes of these genotypic differences are needed.

  3. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in captive and free-ranging, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Nonnecke, Brian J; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Yabsley, Michael J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Cosgrove, Melinda K; Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Olsen, Steven C; Horst, Ronald L; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2009-05-01

    Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive reindeer and elk. Seasonal variations in 25(OH)D concentrations were detected for both captive and free-ranging WTD with greatest concentrations detected in August/September (approximately 25 ng/mL) and lowest concentrations in February (approximately 5 - 10 ng/mL). Free-ranging WTD < 1 year of age had lower 25(OH)D concentrations (approximately 6 ng/mL) than did free-ranging WTD > 1 year of age (approximately12 ng/mL). For captive WTD fawns, 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 1 to 9 days of age (exceeding 100 ng/mL) and then steadily declined to approximately 10 ng/mL by 3 months of age. In general, differences in 25(OH)D concentrations based on gender were not detected. 25(OH)D concentrations in captive WTD did not differ from that of captive reindeer; yet, 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in WTD than in captive elk. Additional research is necessary to determine if low serum 25(OH)D concentrations during the winter or pre-weaning period are associated with increased rates of infectious and metabolic disease.

  5. Serum IGFBP4 concentration decreased in dairy heifers towards day 18 of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, Marie M; Mense, Kirsten; Lietzau, Michael; Kassens, Ana; Linden, Matthias; Knaack, Hendrike; Wirthgen, Elisa; Hoeflich, Andreas; Raliou, Mariam; Richard, Christophe; Sandra, Olivier; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Hoedemaker, Martina; Schmicke, Marion

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if the main components of the somatotropic axis change during the early phase of pregnancy in the maternal blood system and whether differences exist on day 18 after pregnancy recognition by the maternal organism. Blood samples of pregnant heifers (Holstein Friesian; n = 10 after embryo transfer) were obtained on the day of ovulation (day 0), as well as on days 7, 14, 16 and 18 and during pregnant, non-pregnant and negative control cycles. The concentrations of progesterone (P4), oestrogen, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 and -2 (IGF1, -2) and IGF-binding protein-2, -3 and -4 (IGFBP2, -3, -4) were measured. The mRNA expressions of growth hormone receptor 1A, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 were detected using RT-qPCR in liver biopsy specimens (day 18). In all groups, total serum IGF1 decreased from day 0 to 16. Notably, IGFBP4 maternal blood concentrations were lower during pregnancy than during non-pregnant cycles and synchronized control cycles. It can be speculated that the lower IGFBP4 in maternal blood may result in an increase of free IGF1 for local action. Further studies regarding IGFBP4 concentration and healthy early pregnancy are warranted.

  6. [Serum/tissue interleukin-6 concentrations and constitutional abnormalities in 4 patients with cardiac myxoma].

    PubMed

    Saji, T; Matsuo, N; Shiono, N; Yokomuro, H; Watanabe, Y; Takanashi, Y; Komatsu, H

    1993-09-01

    Immunological features and the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 4 patients with cardiac myxoma were studied. The patients' age ranged from 11 years old to 57 years old; all 4 patients were female. Case 1, an 11-year-old female patient with myxoma located in the right ventricle, was considered to be a familial case. Her mother had myxomas in the right and left atrium, and had undergone removal of both tumors 3 years before. Peripheral blood examination revealed various inflammatory parameters in all of these patients. White blood cell (WBC) count was over 8,000/cmm in 3 of the 4 patients, positive CRP was found in 2 patients, IgG was higher than 1,500 mg/dl in 3 patients, positive anti-nuclear antibody was seen in 1 patient, and positive rheumatoid factor was identified in 1 patient. The OKT 4/8 ratio of lymphocyte subpopulation was 4.65 in one patient. The lymphocyte mitogenic response to PHA was increased in 2 patients. Serum IL-6 increased in 3 of 4 patients, and returned to normal within 3 to 4 weeks after operation. The IL-6 concentration in the homogenized sample remarkably increased in all 4 patients. Tumors larger than 4 cm contained higher tissue IL-6 concentrations than those smaller than 2 cm. The cultured myxoma cells produced abundant IL-6 in the culture medium supernatant. We conclude that inflammatory signs and immunological abnormalities are common in patients with large cardiac myxoma, and, in addition, serum IL-6 levels may increase in such patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Serum Magnesium Concentrations in the Canadian Population and Associations with Diabetes, Glycemic Regulation, and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bertinato, Jesse; Wang, Kuan Chiao; Hayward, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Total serum magnesium (Mg) concentration (SMC) is commonly used to assess Mg status. This study reports current SMCs of Canadians and their associations with demographic factors, diabetes, and measures of glycemic control and insulin resistance using results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 3 (2012–2013). Associations were examined in adults aged 20–79 years using linear mixed models. Mean SMCs and percentile distributions for 11 sex-age groups between 3 and 79 years (n = 5561) are reported. SMCs were normally distributed and differences (p < 0.05) among sex and age groups were small. Between 9.5% and 16.6% of adult sex-age groups had a SMC below the lower cut-off of a population-based reference interval (0.75–0.955 mmol·L−1) established in the United States population as part of the NHANES I conducted in 1971–1974. Having diabetes was associated with 0.04 to 0.07 mmol·L−1 lower SMC compared to not having diabetes in the various models. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose and insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were negatively associated with SMC. This is the first study to report SMCs in a nationally representative sample of the Canadian population. A substantial proportion of Canadians are hypomagnesaemic in relation to a population-based reference interval, and SMC was negatively associated with diabetes and indices of glycemic control and insulin resistance. PMID:28304338

  8. Early and small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; Lombardi, Raúl; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Ferguson, Niall D; Hurtado, Javier; Apezteguia, Carlos; Brochard, Laurent; Schortgen, Fréderique; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; González, Marco; Nightingale, Peter; Abroug, Fekri; Pelosi, Paolo; Arabi, Yaseen; Moreno, Rui; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that minor changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with increased hospital mortality rates. However, whether serum creatinine concentration (SCr) on admission and its change are associated with an increased mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients is not known. We have conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study enrolling adult intensive care unit patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Recursive partitioning was used to determine the values of SCr at the start of MV (SCr0) and the change in SCr ([DeltaSCr] defined as the maximal difference between the value at start of MV [day 0] and the value on MV day 2 at 8:00 am) that best discriminate mortality. In-hospital mortality, adjusted by a proportional hazards model, was the primary outcome variable. A total of 2,807 patients were included; median age was 59 years and median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 44. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 44%. The variable that best discriminated outcome was a SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL (mortality, 57% vs. 36% for patients with SCr0

  9. Changes in Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Lutein Concentration in Japanese Subjects Taking Two Different Lutein Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum concentration changes of lutein in Japanese subjects participating in a clinical trial in which two formulations of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements with different physiochemical properties are used. Methods Thirty-six healthy volunteers were recruited into this prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked comparative study at a single institute. Two products were used, FloraGLO® (Kemin Japan) and XanMax® (Katra Phytochem). The lutein particle size and zeaxanthin concentrations differed between the formulations. The subjects consumed one of the two supplements for a duration of up to 6 months. MPOD levels were measured by resonance Raman spectrometry at baseline and once a month until the end of the study. Serum lutein concentration was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The subjects were also tested for contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, visual acuity, and in addition had a focal electroretinogram measured. Results The mean serum lutein concentrations increased significantly after the first three months, but the mean MPOD levels in either supplement group did not show any statistically significant increase. A detailed analysis, however, revealed three response patterns in both groups for the increase of MPOD levels and serum lutein concentration, i.e. “retinal responders”, who had an increase of both MPOD levels and serum lutein concentrations (n = 13), “retinal non-responders”, who had only increased serum concentrations and no change in MPOD levels (n = 20), and “retinal and serum non-responders”, who had neither MPOD level nor plasma concentration increases (n = 3). The subjects with low MPOD levels at baseline appeared to show increased MPOD levels at the 6 month time point upon lutein supplementation (r = -0.4090, p = 0.0133). Glare sensitivity improved in retinal responders in both supplement groups, while there were no remarkable changes in

  10. Clinical significance of serum concentration of interleukin 8 in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, H; Kurihara, N; Otsuka, T; Fujii, T; Tanaka, S; Kudoh, S; Hirata, K; Takeda, T

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) belongs to the family of chemotactic cytokines and has been shown to activate neutrophils in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured IL-8 concentration in the serum of patients with pulmonary emphysema or bronchial asthma. IL-8 concentration in serum of emphysema patients was significantly higher than in asthmatics; in emphysema patients it was significantly correlated with the smoking index and the annual decrease of FEV1.0. In asthmatics IL-8 concentration was below the level of detection, but was markedly increased during exacerbation of asthma. Our findings suggest that IL-8 may be one of the causal factors in these diseases.

  11. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables), highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80) were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years), indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8%) cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02) only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more likely to

  12. A study of the association between serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus concentration or dietary phosphorus intake.

    PubMed

    Haraikawa, Mayu; Tanabe, Rieko; Sogabe, Natsuko; Sugimoto, Aoi; Kawamura, Yuka; Michigami, Toshimi; Hosoi, Takayuki; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) hydrolyzes a variety of monophosphate esters into phosphoric acid and alcohol at a high optimum pH (pH 8-10). Human ALPs are classified into four types: tissue-non specific (TNSALP, liver/bone/kidney), intestinal, placental, and germ cell types. Based on studies of hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is a systemic bone disease caused by the presence of either one or two pathologic mutations in ALPL that encodes TNSALP, TNSALP was suggested to be indispensable for skeletal mineralization. In this study, we explored the possibility that dietary nutrients contribute to regulate serum bone-specific ALP (BAP) activity. Serum biochemical parameters, such as serum ALP, BAP, osteocalcin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), were measured in healthy young subjects (n=193). Dietary nutrient intakes were measured based on 3-d food records before the day of blood examinations. The presence of a carrier of the deletion of T at nucleotide 1559 (c.1559delT), which has been reported to be the most frequent in Japanese HPP, was not detected in any subject. By the analysis of BAP activity and other biochemical parameters or dietary nutrient intakes, we obtained significant correlations between BAP activity and serum phosphorus (r=-0.165, p=0.022), calcium intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.186, p=0.010), or phosphorus intake (mg/1,000 kcal/d) (r=-0.226, p=0.002). Further study on the regulation of BAP activity and calcium and/or phosphorus homeostasis will provide useful data for improving skeletal health.

  13. A study of the relationship between neurological function and serum vitamin E concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Willison, H J; Muller, D P; Matthews, S; Jones, S; Kriss, A; Stead, R J; Hodson, M E; Harding, A E

    1985-01-01

    A patient with cystic fibrosis and undetectable serum vitamin E concentrations is described who developed a progressive spinocerebellar syndrome and pigmentary retinopathy with abnormal somatosensory and visual evoked potentials (SSEPs and VEPs). In order to assess the relationship between neurological function and serum vitamin E concentrations in cystic fibrosis, 29 unselected patients who had no neurological symptoms were examined neurologically. Ten were randomly selected for neurophysiological assessment by recording SSEPs and VEPs. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were also performed in five cases. The findings were correlated with serum vitamin E concentrations which were unknown to the neurological investigators prior to completion of the study. Only one patient had definite reflex and sensory abnormalities, and the remaining 28 were clinically normal. The ERG was abnormal in two cases, one of whom had abnormal VEPs. SSEPs were normal in all 10 cases. Twenty six patients had serum vitamin E concentrations below the normal range. In two of the three patients who had definite neurological or electrophysiological abnormalities serum vitamin E concentrations were below the median value for the whole group. PMID:4078574

  14. VEGF serum concentrations in patients with long bone fractures: a comparison between impaired and normal fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Thomas, Anita; Braunsteiner, Tomas; Wolf, Harald; Vécsei, Vilmos; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

    2009-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the bone repair process as a potent mediator of angiogenesis and it influences directly osteoblast differentiation. Inhibiting VEGF suppresses angiogenesis and callus mineralization in animals. However, no data exist so far on systemic expression of VEGF with regard to delayed or failed fracture healing in humans. One hundred fourteen patients with long bone fractures were included in the study. Serum samples were collected over a period of 6 months following a standardized time schedule. VEGF serum concentrations were measured. Patients were assigned to one of two groups according to their course of fracture healing. The first group contained 103 patients with physiological fracture healing. Eleven patients with delayed or nonunions formed the second group of the study. In addition, 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. An increase of VEGF serum concentration within the first 2 weeks after fracture in both groups with a following decrease within 6 months after trauma was observed. Serum VEGF concentrations in patients with impaired fracture healing were higher compared to the patients with physiological healing during the entire observation period. However, statistically significant differences were not observed at any time point between both groups. VEGF concentrations in both groups were significantly higher than those in controls. The present results show significantly elevated serum concentrations of VEGF in patients after fracture of long bones especially at the initial healing phase, indicating the importance of VEGF in the process of fracture healing in humans.

  15. Serum amino acid concentrations in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition with an amino acid plus dextrose mixture.

    PubMed

    Philcox, J C; Hartley, T F; Worthley, L I; Thomas, D W

    1984-01-01

    The results of monitoring the serum amino acid concentrations during three infusion regimens using a 5:4 mixture of 70% glucose and the synthetic L-amino acid solution, Synthamin 17 (Travasol) are reported. Twelve stabilized patients received continuous total parenteral nutrition (TPN), eight of whom were subsequently placed on a second regimen of cyclical feeding. A separate group of five patients was infused with amino acids, both with and without simultaneous glucose. The serum amino acid concentrations indicated that the supply of valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine, and the synthesis of taurine from the infused methionine was suboptimal, particularly if the period of TPN was prolonged. The synthesis of tyrosine from phenylalanine appeared to be inversely proportional to the infusion rate of the TPN mixture, in particular the glucose component, resulting in depressed tyrosine and increased phenylalanine concentrations in serum during continuous iv nutrition. Cyclical infusions, on the other hand, permitted the tyrosine and phenylalanine concentrations to return to normal during the noninfusion stage of the cycle. Amino acid measurements enabled us to design an amino acids additive mixture which normalized the serum concentrations in three long-term home parenteral nutrition patients. As a result of these investigations serum amino acid measurements are used routinely to monitor the efficacy of TPN and accommodate any specific amino acid requirements of individual patients.

  16. Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Peracchi, O.A.B.; Terreri, M.T.R.A.; Munekata, R.V.; Len, C.A.; Sarni, R.O.S.; Lazaretti-Castro, M.; Hilário, M.O.E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in children and adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and associated them with disease duration and activity, use of medication (chloroquine and glucocorticoids), vitamin D intake, calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels, and bone mineral density. Thirty patients with JSLE were evaluated and compared to 30 healthy individuals, who were age and gender matched. Assessment was performed of clinical status, disease activity, anthropometry, laboratory markers, and bone mineral density. The 30 patients included 25 (83.3%) females and 16 (53.3%) Caucasians, with a mean age of 13.7 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.5 years and mean disease duration was 3.4 years. Mean levels of calcium, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in patients with JSLE compared with controls (P<0.001, P=0.006, and P<0.001, respectively). Twenty-nine patients (97%) and 23 controls (77%) had 25(OH)D concentrations lower than 32 ng/mL, with significant differences between them (P<0.001). Fifteen patients (50%) had vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL and 14 had vitamin D levels between 20 and 32 ng/mL. However, these values were not associated with greater disease activity, higher levels of parathormone, medication intake, or bone mineral density. Vitamin D concentrations were similar with regard to ethnic group, body mass index, height for age, and pubertal stage. Significantly more frequently than in controls, we observed insufficient serum concentrations of 25(OH)D in patients with JSLE; however, we did not observe any association with disease activity, higher levels of parathormone, lower levels of alkaline phosphatase, use of medications, or bone mineral density alterations. PMID:25055165

  17. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species. PMID:27538863

  18. The effect of intravenous magnesium hypophosphite in calcium borogluconate solution on the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus in healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Jehle, W

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of intravenous (IV) administration of phosphite on the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus in cows. Twelve clinically healthy cows were divided into four groups of three. All cows received 600 mL of a 40% calcium borogluconate solution; three cows each received this as a rapid (20 min) IV infusion with and without 6% magnesium hypophosphite, and three other cows each received this as a slow IV infusion (8 h) with and without 6% magnesium hypophosphite. Samples of blood were collected for the determination of serum concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium before and 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after the start of treatment. The concentration of calcium increased after treatment in all cows but the increase was most rapid in cows that received the rapid infusion. In cows that received the rapid IV infusion containing magnesium hypophosphite, the mean concentration of inorganic phosphorus decreased significantly 3-4 h after treatment compared with initial serum levels. The serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus did not change significantly in cows that received the rapid IV solution without magnesium hypophosphite or the slow IV infusion with or without magnesium hypophosphite. The serum concentration of magnesium increased after treatment in all cows receiving magnesium hypophosphite but remained unchanged in the others. The rapid infusion of calcium borogluconate without magnesium hypophosphite made all three cows anorexic and hypercalcaemic and the slow infusion made 1/3 anorexic. It is concluded that the IV administration of a calcium solution containing magnesium hypophosphite does not increase the serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus.

  19. Evaluation of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins concentrations in cord blood serum of newborns from rural and urban environments.

    PubMed

    Pac-Kozuchowska, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to check the influence of rural and urban environments on some of the parameters of lipids metabolism in the cord blood serum in healthy newborns, as well as the evaluation of the concentration of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the cord blood serum with relation to risk factors of atherosclerosis in the family of the studied newborns. The study included 75 newborns (37 from rural areas and 38 from urban areas). Newborns weight and length were recorded at birth. On the basis of the family history taken from the mothers, the atherosclerosis risk factors were established in the families of the studied newborns. In all of the studied newborns, concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol as well as of apolipoproteins (apo-Al, apo-B) in the cord blood serum sampled soon after birth were performed. No statistically significant differences between the mean levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol of fractions: LDL, VLDL, HDL and apolipoproteins (apo-AI, apo-B) in the cord blood serum in the newborns from rural and urban areas were found. However, when analysing the concentration of parameters of lipid metabolism in cord blood serum in newborns with regard to gender, higher concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo-AI in female newborns from rural areas, and higher HDL cholesterol and apo-AI in female newborns from urban regions were confirmed. When analysing the concentration of lipids and lipoproteins in cord blood serum in newborns from families with risk factors confirmed as compared to the families without that risk, both in the rural and urban regions no significant differences were confirmed. The studies have not proved any significant differences between the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the cord blood serum in newborns from rural and urban areas.

  20. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca(++) and Mg(++) variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL(-1), and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca(++) was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL(-1), and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg(++) was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL(-1), respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca(++) was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg(++) content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg(++) content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg(++) was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca(++) is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca(++) variations but Mg(++) is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  1. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  2. Selenium and Zinc Status in Chronic Myofascial Pain: Serum and Erythrocyte Concentrations and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Barros-Neto, João Araújo; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Kraychete, Durval Campos; de Jesus, Rosangela Passos; Cortes, Matheus Lopes; Lima, Michele dos Santos; Freitas, Mariana Carvalho; Santos, Tascya Morganna de Morais; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional disorders have been reported to be important causal factors that can intensify or cause a painful response in individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Aim To assess the habitual intake of and the serum and erythrocyte levels of selenium and zinc in patients with chronic myofascial pain. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 31 patients with chronic myofascial pain (group I) and 31 subjects without pain (group II). Dietary record in five days for assessing food intake were used. The serum and erythrocyte concentrations of selenium and zinc were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. Results The group of patients with chronic myofascial pain, compared with the control group, showed a lower erythrocyte concentration of selenium (79.46 ± 19.79 μg/L vs. 90.80 ± 23.12 μg/L; p = 0.041) and zinc (30.56 ± 7.74 μgZn/gHb vs. 38.48 ± 14.86 μgZn/gHb, respectively; p = 0.004). In this study, a compromised food intake of zinc was observed in the majority of the subjects in both groups. The selenium intake was considered to be safe in 80% of the subjects in both groups; however, the likelihood of inadequate intake of this mineral was twice as high in group I (49.5% vs. 24.4%, respectively). In the logistic regression analysis, the erythrocyte concentration of zinc was associated with the presence of pain. In each additional 1 mg of Zn2+ per gram of hemoglobin, a reduction of 12.5% was observed in the risk of the individual having chronic myofascial pain (B = -0.133; adjusted OR = 0.875, 95% CI = 0.803 to 0.954, Wald = 9.187, standard error = 0.044, p = 0.002). Physical inactivity and obesity were noted more commonly in group I compared with the control group. Conclusion In this study, patients with chronic myofascial pain showed lower intracellular stores of zinc and selenium and inadequate food intake of these nutrients. PMID:27755562

  3. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P < 0.05) between species and families. This finding may mean that FSA levels are species and family dependent, something that could be investigated in future studies. As fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  4. Reference intervals for mineral concentrations in whole blood and serum of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in California.

    PubMed

    Poppenga, Robert H; Ramsey, Jennifer; Gonzales, Ben J; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-05-01

    Whole blood and serum mineral concentrations were measured in diverse bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) metapopulations in California, and 90% reference intervals were determined. While there were some statistical differences between median concentrations among the different metapopulations, detected values were generally in good agreement with concentrations reported for other bighorn sheep populations and with reference ranges widely accepted for domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Although median whole blood selenium and serum copper concentrations were within adequate ranges reported for domestic sheep, some metapopulations had substantial numbers of individuals whose concentrations would be considered suboptimal for domestic sheep. There are a number of factors that can influence mineral concentrations in wildlife species such as bighorn sheep and that make the establishment of reference ranges challenging. However, the establishment of mineral reference ranges is important for such species, as their health and productivity are increasingly scrutinized and actively managed.

  5. Association of serum organochlorine pesticides concentrations with reproductive hormone levels and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhizhun; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Lijun; Wang, Chonggang; Chen, Meng; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a total of 178 women were studied. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in serum were determined using Gas Chromatography Mass-Mass Spectrometer. No differences with statistical significance in the mean HCH, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE concentrations were observed between the patients with PCOS and the control group. Serum p,p'-DDT (P = 0.016) and o,p'-DDT (P = 0.000) levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the control group. The results of the association between OCPs levels and hormone levels indicated that o,p'-DDT may play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS by affecting hormones levels. Further trials should be investigated with the findings in this study to obtain new pathogenesis of PCOS.

  6. Dietary iron intake and serum ferritin concentration in 213 patients homozygous for the HFEC282Y hemochromatosis mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Lovato, Laura; Barton, James C; Vitolins, Mara; McLaren, Gordon; Acton, Ronald T; McLaren, Christine; Harris, Emily L; Speechley, Mark; Eckfeldt, John H; Diaz, Sharmin; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Adams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HFEC282Y homozygotes have an increased risk for developing increased iron stores and related disorders. It is controversial whether dietary iron restrictions should be recommended to such individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary iron content influences iron stores in HFEC282Y homozygotes as assessed by serum ferritin concentration. DESIGN: Serum ferritin concentration was measured and a dietary iron questionnaire was completed as part of the evaluation of 213 HFEC282Y homozygotes who were identified through screening of >100,000 primary care patients at five HEmochromatosis and IRon Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study Field Centers in the United States and Canada. RESULTS: No significant relationships between serum ferritin concentration and dietary heme iron content, dietary nonheme iron content or reports of supplemental iron use were found. CONCLUSION: These results do not support recommending dietary heme or nonheme iron restrictions for HFEC282Y homozygotes diagnosed through screening in North America. PMID:22720276

  7. Serum thyroxine concentrations following fixed-dose radioactive iodine treatment in hyperthyroid cats: 62 cases (1986-1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Rubin, S.I. )

    1990-09-01

    The medical records of 62 hyperthyroid cats treated with a fixed dose of 4 mCi of radioactive iodine (131I) were reviewed. In 60 cats, serum thyroxine concentrations were determined after treatment, allowing evaluation of treatment success. Eighty-four percent of the cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations after treatment. Five of the 60 cats (8%) remained hyperthyroxinemic after treatment. Five cats (8%) were hypothyroxinemic when evaluated within 60 days of treatment. Three of these cats had normal serum thyroxine concentrations 6 months after treatment, and none had clinical signs of hypothyroidism. The administration of a fixed dose of 4 mCi of 131I was determined to be an effective treatment for feline hyperthyroidism.

  8. Mild increases in serum hepcidin and interleukin-6 concentrations impair iron incorporation in haemoglobin during an experimental human malaria infection.

    PubMed

    de Mast, Quirijn; van Dongen-Lases, Edmee C; Swinkels, Dorine W; Nieman, An-Emmie; Roestenberg, Meta; Druilhe, Pierre; Arens, Theo A; Luty, Adrian J; Hermsen, Cornelis C; Sauerwein, Robert W; van der Ven, Andre J

    2009-06-01

    The correct selection of individuals who will benefit from iron supplements in malaria-endemic regions requires improved insight in the effects of malaria on host iron homeostasis and innovative biomarkers. We assessed sequential changes in serum hepcidin and in traditional biochemical iron status indicators during an experimental Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection with five adult volunteers. The haemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-H(e)) and of mature red blood cells (RBC-H(e)) represented iron incorporation into haemoglobin. Low-density parasitaemia and its treatment induced a mild increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and serum hepcidin concentrations. Despite this only mild increase, a marked hypoferraemia with a strong increase in serum ferritin concentrations developed, which was associated with a sharp fall in Ret-H(e), while RBC-H(e) remained unchanged. The ratio of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) to log ferritin concentrations decreased to an average nadir of 63% of the baseline value. We concluded that even mild increases in serum hepcidin and IL-6 concentrations result in a disturbed host iron homeostasis. Serum hepcidin, Ret-H(e) and Delta-H(e) (Ret-H(e) minus RBC-H(e)) are promising biomarkers to select those individuals who will benefit from iron supplements in malaria endemic regions, while the sTfR/log ferritin ratio should be used with caution to assess iron status during malaria.

  9. Concentration of free growth hormone-binding protein in the serum of mice is not regulated by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A I; Dominici, F P; Bartke, A; Turyn, D

    1997-05-01

    Ames dwarf mice that do not express growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) genes were used to study the effects of GH deficiency on the presence and the characteristics of GH-binding protein (GHBP) in serum. Chromatographic techniques were used to allow characterization of biological rather than immunological activity of GHBP. Two GH-binding fractions were found in dwarf mice serum, one with low affinity and high capacity (GHBPI) and one with high affinity, low capacity and lower molecular mass (GHBPII). Serum concentration of the high-affinity GHBP was 0.73 +/- 0.03 nM with a Kd of 6.3 +/- 1.7 nM. Since Ames dwarf mice have no GH in the circulation, all the GHBP is free. Interestingly, the concentration of GHBP in dwarf mice was similar to the levels of free GHBP measured in normal mice from the same line. Moreover, this value (0.7 nM) closely resembles the concentration of free GHBP in the serum of transgenic mice overexpressing GH, in which peripheral GH levels are grossly elevated. These observations can be interpreted as evidence that the levels of free GHBP in mouse serum are independent of GH concentration, and that GH influences only the levels of bound GHBP in peripheral circulation.

  10. Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Vaira, D; Holton, J; Di Febo, G; Brillanti, S; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L; Samloff, I M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori. PMID:8227432

  11. Changes in maternal serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations across critical windows of human reproduction and development.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Buck-Louis, Germaine M; Schisterman, Enrique F; Kostyniak, Paul J; Vena, John E

    2009-01-01

    Investigators often employ a single cross-sectional measure of in utero exposure when evaluating associations between organochlorine (OCs) pesticides/metabolites and adverse reproductive outcomes. Few data are available on the stability of exposures to OCs over critical windows of human reproduction and development inclusive of the periconception window. Our objective was to measures changes in OC concentrations prior to conception and throughout pregnancy or after 12 unsuccessful months attempting pregnancy. Seventy-nine women planning pregnancy were prospectively enrolled and followed for up to 12 menstrual cycles. Blood specimens were obtained for toxicologic analysis of seven OCs from participating women at baseline (preconception, n=79), at the first prenatal visit following a positive pregnancy test leading to a live birth (n=54) or after pregnancy loss (n=10), at approximately 6 weeks post-partum (n=53), and after 12 unsuccessful cycles (n=9). Overall and daily rate of change in OCs concentration (ng/gserum) were estimated adjusting for serum lipids and baseline concentration. Significant (P<0.05) decreases in the overall and daily rate of change in OCs concentrations (ng/mLserum) were observed from baseline to pregnancy for HCB (-0.032, -0.001, respectively) and trans-nonachlor (-0.050, -0.002, respectively) while oxychlordane demonstrated an increase during this critical window (0.029, 0.001, respectively). Significant decreases in aldrin (-0.002, -1.47x10(-4), respectively), HCB (-0.069, -0.003, respectively), and trans-nonachlor (-0.045, -0.002, respectively), and an overall increase for oxychlordane (0.015) were seen for women with pregnancy losses. Significant decreases also were observed among infertile women for aldrin (-0.003, -3.52x10(-6), respectively), DDE (-0.210, -4.29x10(-4), respectively), and HCB (-0.096, -2.03x10(-4), respectively), along with an increase for trans-nonachlor (0.034, 7.59x10(-5), respectively). These data, though limited by

  12. Serum inhibin A concentration in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and the correlation to ethnicity, androgens and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Segal, Shimon; Elmadjian, Malvina; Takeshige, Takeko; Karp, Steven; Mercado, Ray; Rivnay, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    A prospective case-series in an academic hospital clinic was performed to determine whether there is a relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and ethnicity. Also, serum inhibin A concentrations were compared between PCOS and normal-ovulatory women. The possibility of a correlation between inhibin A, androgens and insulin resistance in PCOS women was evaluated. Serum inhibin A concentrations were measured in anovulatory PCOS patients (n=32) and in control women of reproductive age (n=16). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Serum concentrations of inhibin A, follicle-stimulating hormone, LH, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, fasting glucose, insulin, testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) were measured. Inhibin A concentrations were significantly lower (4.5+/-4.8 pg/ml) when compared with the control group (13.2+/-14.4 pg/ml; P=0.003) and were not significantly different between Hispanic and Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS. There was no correlation between inhibin A concentrations and insulin, testosterone, free testosterone, 17-OHP, or DHEAS concentrations. In PCOS women, inhibin A concentrations are similar between Hispanic and Caucasian women; however, women with PCOS, regardless of ethnicity, have a lower inhibin A concentration compared with normal-ovulatory women. No correlation was observed between inhibin A androgens and insulin resistance in women diagnosed with PCOS.

  13. Influence of bone and soft-tissue operations on serum concentrations of growth hormone, somatomedin C and alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Casser, H R; Zilkens, K W; Forst, R; Brüggemann, A

    1990-01-01

    After animal experiments suggested there was an interaction between growth hormone and bone healing, our aim in this paper was to ascertain whether there were any changes or possible interaction between the serum level of growth hormone, somatomedin C and alkaline phosphatase while a fractured bone was healing. To this end, the serum concentrations of growth hormone, somatomedin C, alkaline phosphatase and calcium were ascertained both pre- and post-operatively in two groups of patients--one with bone operations, the other with soft-tissue operations--and the results were compared. Comparing the groups, we found that after bone operations there was no increase in the serum level of growth hormone, nor of somatomedin C. An increase would have implied that these two hormones are directly involved in bone regeneration. There was no change in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase or calcium after either bone or soft-tissue operations.

  14. A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory Concentrations by Two Weeks after Benzathine Penicillin G Injection in the Majority of Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Naval Health Research Center A Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory...Concentrations by Two Weeks After Benzathine Penicillin G Injection in the Majority of Young Adults Michael Neely Edward L. Kaplan Jeffrey L...Modeling Approach Shows that Serum Penicillin G Concentrations Are Below Inhibitory Concentrations by Two Weeks after Benzathine Penicillin G Injection in

  15. Evaluation of serum cystatin-C and symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with heart failure from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bom-Sul; Moon, Hyeong-Sun; Seo, Sang-Hyuk; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-20

    Reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common complication in advanced stages of heart failure (HF). The convenient and precise assessment for GFR would be useful for early detection of renal impairment in HF dogs. Our hypothesis of this study was the GFR would be reduced in advanced stages of HF from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI), as indicated by renal markers including serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations. Forty-three client-owned dogs consisting of 33 dogs with different stages of HF from CMVI and 10 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations along with other renal (i.e., urea nitrogen and creatinine) and echocardiographic markers were evaluated in healthy and CMVI dogs. Serum Cys-C concentrations were 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/l in control, 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/l in ISACHC I, 2.9 ± 0.8 mg/l in ISACHC II and 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/l in ISACHC III dogs, whereas serum SDMA concentrations were 8 ± 2 µg/dl in control, 14 ± 3 µg/dl in ISACHC I, 18 ± 6 µg/dl in ISACHC II and 22 ± 7 µg/dl in ISACHC III dogs. There was close correlation of serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations to serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and the severity of HF. Our study demonstrated that the GFR was decreased in dogs with CMVI having earlier stages of HF.

  16. Evaluation of serum cystatin-C and symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with heart failure from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Bom-Sul; MOON, Hyeong-Sun; SEO, Sang-Hyuk; HYUN, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common complication in advanced stages of heart failure (HF). The convenient and precise assessment for GFR would be useful for early detection of renal impairment in HF dogs. Our hypothesis of this study was the GFR would be reduced in advanced stages of HF from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI), as indicated by renal markers including serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations. Forty-three client-owned dogs consisting of 33 dogs with different stages of HF from CMVI and 10 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations along with other renal (i.e., urea nitrogen and creatinine) and echocardiographic markers were evaluated in healthy and CMVI dogs. Serum Cys-C concentrations were 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/l in control, 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/l in ISACHC I, 2.9 ± 0.8 mg/l in ISACHC II and 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/l in ISACHC III dogs, whereas serum SDMA concentrations were 8 ± 2 µg/dl in control, 14 ± 3 µg/dl in ISACHC I, 18 ± 6 µg/dl in ISACHC II and 22 ± 7 µg/dl in ISACHC III dogs. There was close correlation of serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations to serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and the severity of HF. Our study demonstrated that the GFR was decreased in dogs with CMVI having earlier stages of HF. PMID:27725349

  17. Concentration homeostasis and elements in hair and dried serum observed by X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Chikawa, Jun-ichi; Mouri, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroki; Yamada, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair and dried serum have been evaluated by X-ray fluorescence analysis using relative concentration independent of specimen thickness. Dried serum samples from 5 male and 5 female subjects given two-week Ca supplementation showed the same concentration for Ca, and for each of the other elements Cl, K, S and P under renal control by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hair concentrations of these elements have been evaluated for 50 randomly-selected females aged between 30 and 80. It was found that each element has two distinct levels in hair. The content of an element in growing hair must be equal to the inflow of that element into the hair-making cells from serum. Using this principle, the two levels can be attributed to the gating and closing of the ion channels in cell membranes and given as functions of the dried serum standard concentrations. Especially, the difference between [Ca] and [Sr] in hair shows whether Ca channels are gating or closing. The lower level of hair [Ca]_H is normal and is equal to 1/2 of the dried serum [Ca]; only the Ca on serum protein is to be incorporated into the hair in steady-state growth. Store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to maintain the normal [Ca]_H. The higher level is seen in cases of calcium deficiency, and implicated in other disease states. Prolonged Ca deficiency causes a higher hair [Ca]_H with Ca channel closing. PTH-operated Ca channel gating induces the Ca^{2+} inflow into the cells to form the hair [Ca]_H upper level and to deteriorate cell functions such as excretion of excess metals by hepatocytes. Hair analysis provides a new diagnostic tool based on cell ion channels.

  18. Serum Retinol Concentrations in Mothers and Newborns at Delivery in a Public Maternity Hospital in Recife, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreto, Luciana Marques; Vieira, Carmina Silva dos Santos; de Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Serum retinol concentrations were compared in a consecutive series of 65 mother-newborn pairs at delivery in a public maternity hospital in Recife, Brazil, from January to August 2008 and examined their association with biological, socioeconomic, environmental and obstetrical characteristics. Serum retinol concentrations of the newborns (umbilical cord) and mothers (brachial venipuncture) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prevalence of low (<0.70 µmol/L) and inadequate (<1.05 µmol/L) serum retinol concentrations were observed in 23.1% (95% CI 13.9-35.5) and 23.0% (95% CI 13.5-35.8) among newborns and mothers respectively. The serum retinol distribution was lower in male than female infants (-0.4 µmol/L, p=0.01) and, across both sexes, concentrations in paired newborn and mother were correlated (r=0.27, p=0.04). Further, maternal status explains only 7% of the variance in retinol concentrations in newborn's cord plasma. Among mothers delivering in public facilities in Recife, hypovitaminosis may exist. PMID:24847590

  19. Associations of Peripubertal Serum Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations with Pubertal Timing among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane S.; Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Lam, Thuy; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like, have been linked to alterations in puberty. Objectives: We examined the association of peripubertal serum levels of these compounds [and their toxic equivalents (TEQs)] with pubertal onset and maturity among Russian boys enrolled at ages 8–9 years and followed prospectively through ages 17–18 years. Methods: At enrollment, 473 boys had serum dioxin-like compounds and PCBs measured. At the baseline visit and annually until age 17–18 years, a physician performed pubertal staging [genitalia (G), pubarche (P), and testicular volume (TV)]. Three hundred fifteen subjects completed the follow-up visit at 17–18 years of age. Pubertal onset was defined as TV > 3 mL, G2, or P2. Sexual maturity was defined as TV ≥ 20 mL, G5, or P5. Multivariable interval-censored models were used to evaluate associations of lipid-standardized concentrations with pubertal timing. Results: Medians (interquartile ranges) of the sum of dioxin-like compounds, TEQs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were 362 pg/g lipid (279–495), 21.1 pg TEQ/g lipid (14.4–33.2), and 250 ng/g lipid (164–395), respectively. In adjusted models, the highest compared to lowest TEQ quartile was associated with later pubertal onset [TV = 11.6 months (95% CI: 3.8, 19.4); G2 = 10.1 months (95% CI: 1.4, 18.8)] and sexual maturity [TV = 11.6 months (95% CI: 5.7, 17.6); G5 = 9.7 months (95% CI: 3.1, 16.2)]. However, the highest compared to the lowest quartile of non-dioxin-like PCBs, when co-adjusted by TEQs, was associated with earlier pubertal onset [TV = –8.3 months (95% CI:–16.2, –0.3)] and sexual maturity [TV = –6.3 months (95% CI:–12.2, –0.3); G5 = –7.2 months (95% CI:–13.8, –0.6)]; the non-dioxin-like PCB associations were only significant when adjusted for TEQs. TEQs and PCBs were not significantly associated with pubic hair development. Conclusions: Our results suggest that TEQs may delay, while

  20. Serum and tissue thiocyanate concentrations in growing pigs fed cassava peel or corn based diets containing graded protein levels.

    PubMed

    Tewe, O O

    1984-11-01

    Thiocyanate concentrations of serum, liver, kidney, spleen and longissimus dorsi were determined in 64 growing Large White x Landrace pigs offered 8 experimental isocaloric diets containing different levels of cassava peel and crude protein. Cassava peel increased serum thiocyanate on day 60 (P less than 0.01) and day 90 (P less than 0.01) of the trial, while the crude protein level increased it (P less than 0.05) on days 30 and 90, respectively. Interaction of the two factors was significant on day 30 (P less than 0.05) and day 90 (P less than 0.05). There was a correlation between cyanide intake and serum thiocyanate level. Coefficient of determination revealed that cyanide alone accounted for 28.5; 60.6 and 48.8% variation in serum thiocyanate on days 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Liver, spleen and longissimus dorsi thiocyanate were affected by dietary protein intake (P less than 0.05). Thiocyanate concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) on cassava peel diet. Generally, crude protein at 5% reduced organ and muscle thiocyanate concentrations. A diet containing 112.2-117.3 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) affected serum but not organ and muscle thiocyanate in protein-sufficient diets.

  1. Serum ficolin-2 concentrations are significantly changed in patients with hepatitis B virus infection and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tielong; Hu, Yilan; Ding, Quanquan; Yu, Jing; Wang, Fubing; Luo, Fengling; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2015-08-01

    Human ficolin-2 is an important lectin complement pathway activator that is secreted from liver cells and has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule. However, the role of ficolin-2 protein and its dynamic changes over the course of and in the prognosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed ficolin-2 protein expression in a cohort of individuals with CHB infection, HCC and cirrhosis. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to measure serum ficolin-2 concentrations. Ficolin-2 expression in liver tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Serum ficolin-2 concentrations in CHB patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls and HBV carriers. After 48 weeks of routine amelioration liver function treatment, serum ficolin-2 concentrations decreased and were positively correlated with favorable alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBV DNA and HBeAg-seroconversion outcomes. Interestingly, we observed much lower expression of serum and intrahepatic ficolin-2 in HCC and cirrhosis compared with healthy controls. Our findings suggest that serum and intrahepatic ficolin-2 levels may be considered one of the indicators for the response of chronic HBV infection, HCC and cirrhosis.

  2. Effect of fat free mass on serum and plasma BDNF concentrations during exercise and recovery in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Gilder, M; Ramsbottom, R; Currie, J; Sheridan, B; Nevill, A M

    2014-02-07

    Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations were measured in healthy young men at rest, during steady-rate and after exercise to determine the maximum aerobic power. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in blood during exercise and recovery, with one between-subject factor (a median split on: age, height, body mass, fat free mass, body mass index and aerobic fitness), and one within-subject factor (time). Serum brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations increased in response to exercise and declined rapidly in recovery. Plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor had a greater proportional increase relative to exhaustive exercise compared with serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and was slower to return to near baseline values. There was a significant group-by-time interaction indicating a greater release and faster recovery for serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in high- compared with low-fat free mass individuals.

  3. Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Heidari, Gholamreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Amirinejad, Roya; Assadi, Majid; Bargahi, Afshar; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb <12 g/dL), iron deficiency (serum ferritin <15 μg/L), and iron deficiency anemia was 8.7%, 25.4%, and 4.6%, respectively. Vitamin A (<0.7 μmol/L) and vitamin E (<11.6 μmol/L) deficiencies were found in 1.2% and 5.9% of the studied population, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis.

  4. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; MacLeay, Jennifer; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Yerramilli, Murthy; Schiefelbein, Heidi; Paetau-Robinson, Inke; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric dogs to evaluate the short-term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil), antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), L-carnitine, botanicals (fruits and vegetables), controlled sodium concentration, and high quality protein sources (high bioavailability and an ideal amino acid composition). Dogs (n = 210) were fed either test food or owner’s-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort). Dogs were included based on age and body weight: small (6.8 to 11.4 kg) and medium dogs (11.5 to 22.7 kg) were ≥ 9 years, whereas dogs >22.7 kg were ≥ 7 years at baseline. At baseline, all dogs had to have serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval and be free of chronic disease. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline, and after consuming test food or owner’s-choice foods for 3 and 6 months, were evaluated. Only dogs consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations (both P ≤ 0.05) across time. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 18 dogs (8.6%) had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr, consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 9 dogs fed test food and 9 dogs fed owner’s-choice foods. Compared with baseline, after feeding 9 dogs test food for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 8 dogs and increased in 1 dog. After feeding 9 dogs owner’s-choice foods for 6 months, serum SDMA decreased in 4 dogs and increased in 4 dogs (remained stable in 1 dog). The decreases in serum SDMA and Cr concentrations were significant (both P = 0.03) only for dogs fed test food. These results suggest that nonazotemic dogs with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency) when fed a test food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate improved renal function compared with dogs fed owner

  5. Personal indium exposure concentration in respirable dusts and serum indium level

    PubMed Central

    IWASAWA, Satoko; NAKANO, Makiko; MIYAUCHI, Hiroyuki; TANAKA, Shigeru; KAWASUMI, Yaeko; HIGASHIKUBO, Ichiro; TANAKA, Akiyo; HIRATA, Miyuki; OMAE, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between indium exposure concentration in the respirable dust fraction (In-E) and indium in serum (In-S) in workers. Methods: A total of 39 workers were studied. The study subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely, smelting workers (n=7), ITO workers (n=6) in an ITO grinding plant, and other workers (n=26). In-E and In-S ranged from 0.004–24.0 μg/m3 and 0.1–8.50 μg/L, respectively. The simple regression equation was log(In-S)=0.322×log(In-E)−0.443. The simple correlation coefficients for the smelting workers, ITO workers and other workers were 0.489, 0.812 and 0.163, respectively. The differences in the relationships among the three groups suggest that In-S may vary with the chemical form to which the workers were exposed. In-E and In-S seem to be positively correlated. The correlation coefficient was higher for both smelting and ITO workers than for other workers. PMID:27644848

  6. Comparison of composition and sensory properties of 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2010-05-01

    Milk serum protein concentrates (SPC) are proteins found in cheese whey that are removed directly from milk. Because SPC are not exposed to the cheese-making process, enzymatic or chemical reactions that can lead to off-flavors are reduced. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of 80% protein SPC and whey protein concentrates (WPC). Each pair of 80% SPC and WPC was manufactured from the same lot of milk and this was replicated 3 times. At each replication, spray-dried product from each protein source was collected. Commercial 80% WPC were also collected from several manufacturers for sensory and volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of the rehydrated powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing of acidified 6% protein beverages made with 80% SPC and WPC produced in the pilot plant and with WPC from commercial sources was conducted. The SPC was lower in fat and had a higher pH than the WPC produced in the pilot plant or commercial WPC. Few sensory differences were found between the rehydrated SPC and WPC manufactured in this study, but their flavor profiles were distinct from the flavor of rehydrated commercial WPC. The pilot-plant WPC had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products compared with SPC, which may be related to the higher fat content of WPC. There was a large difference in appearance between 80% SPC and WPC: solutions of SPC were clear and those of WPC were opaque. Concentrations of lipid oxidation products in commercial WPC were generally higher than those in pilot-plant SPC or WPC. Sensory profiles of the peach-flavored protein beverage included cereal, free fatty acid, and soapy flavors and bitter taste in beverages made from pilot

  7. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  8. Polyfluorinated compounds in dust from homes, offices, and vehicles as predictors of concentrations in office workers’ serum

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Alicia J; Webster, Thomas F; Watkins, Deborah J; Strynar, Mark J; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Vieira, Verónica M; McClean, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to characterize levels of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust from offices, homes, and vehicles; to investigate factors that may affect PFC levels in dust; and to examine the associations between PFCs in dust and office workers’ serum. Dust samples were collected in 2009 from offices, homes, and vehicles of 31 individuals in Boston, MA and analyzed for nineteen PFCs, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Serum was collected from each participant and analyzed for eight PFCs including PFOA and PFOS. Perfluorononanoate, PFOA, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorohexanoate, PFOS and 8:2 FTOH had detection frequencies >50% in dust from all three microenvironments. The highest geometric mean concentration in office dust was for 8:2 FTOH (309 ng/g), while PFOS was highest in homes (26.9 ng/g) and vehicles (15.8 ng/g). Overall, offices had the highest PFC concentrations, particularly for longer-chain carboxylic acids and FTOHs. Perfluorobutyrate was prevalent in homes and vehicles, but not offices. PFOA serum concentrations were not associated with PFC dust levels after adjusting for PFC concentrations in office air. Dust concentrations of most PFCs are higher in offices than in homes and vehicles. However, indoor dust may not be a significant source of exposure to PFCs for office workers. This finding suggests that our previously published observation of an association between FTOH concentrations in office air and PFOA concentrations in office workers was not due to confounding by PFCs in dust. PMID:24041736

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations and Semen Parameters in Young Men: The Russian Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Smigulina, Luidmila; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters. Objective: We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men. Methods: From 2003 through 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8–9 years and followed for up to 10 years. Serum OCs were measured in the enrollment samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry. At 18–19 years, 133 young men provided 1 or 2 semen samples (256 samples) collected approximately 1 week apart, which were analyzed for volume, sperm concentration, and motility. Unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of quartiles of lipid-standardized concentrations of dioxins [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)], furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and corresponding toxic equivalents (TEQs) with semen parameters. Results: The median (range) for TCDD was 2.9 (0.4–12.1) pg/g lipid and PCDD TEQ was 8.7 (1.0–36.0) pg TEQ/g lipid. Higher quartiles of TCDD and PCDD TEQs were associated with lower sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count (p-trends ≤ 0.05). The highest quartile of peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations was associated with a decrease (95% CI) of 40% (18, 66%), 29% (3, 64%), and 30% (2, 70%) in sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile. Similar associations were observed for serum PCDD TEQs with semen parameters. Serum PCBs, furans, and total TEQs were not associated with semen parameters. Conclusion: Higher peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations and PCDD TEQs were associated with poorer semen parameters. Citation: Mínguez-Alarcón L, Sergeyev O, Burns JS

  10. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, S; Schmidt, M K; Schultink, W; West, C E; Hautvast, J A; Gross, R; Muhilal

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly supplementation with iron alone. One group of pregnant women (n = 122)was supplemented weekly with iron (120 mg Fe as FeSO4) and folic acid (500 microg); another group (n = 121) received the same amount of iron and folic acid plus vitamin A [4800 retinol equivalents (RE)]. A third ("daily") group (n = 123), participating in the national iron plus folic acid supplementation program, was also recruited. Data on subjects with complete biochemical data are reported (n = 190). At near term, hemoglobin concentrations increased, whereas serum ferritin concentrations decreased significantly in the weekly vitamin A and iron group, suggesting that vitamin A improved utilization of iron for hematopoiesis. Iron status in the weekly iron group was not different from that of the "daily" group. However, iron status decreased with daily supplementation if <50 iron tablets were ingested. Serum transferrin receptor concentrations increased in all groups (P < 0.01). Serum retinol concentrations were maintained in the weekly vitamin A and iron group, but decreased in the other two groups (P < 0.01). Thus, delivery of iron supplements on a weekly basis can be as effective as ona daily basis if compliance can be ensured. Addition of vitamin A to the supplement improved hemoglobin concentration.

  11. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends

  12. Association of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 Polymorphisms with Serum Concentration of Antiepileptic Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhongliang; Jiao, Yukun; Shi, Lianting

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to analyze the relationship of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 polymorphisms with metabolism of valproic acid (VPA) and lamotrigine (LTG) in epileptic children. Material/Methods We administered VPA (102) and LTG (102) to 204 children with epilepsy. Blood samples were collected before the morning dose. Serum concentration of LTG was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum VPA concentration was tested by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. UGT2B7 A268G, C802T, and G211T polymorphisms, as well as UGT1A4 L48V polymorphism, were assayed by direct automated DNA sequencing after PCR. Evaluation of efficacy was conducted using the Engel method. Results The adjusted serum concentration of VPA was 4.26 μg/mL per mg/kg and LTG was 1.56 μg/mL per mg/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VPA or LTG adjusted concentration showed a good linear relation with sex and age. UGT2B7 A268G and C802T polymorphisms were demonstrated to affect the serum concentration of VPA (F=3.147, P=0.047; F=22.754, P=0.000). UGT1A4 L48V polymorphism was not related with the serum concentration of LTG (F=5.328, P=0.006). In the efficacy analysis, we found that C802T polymorphism exerted strong effects on efficacy of VPA (χ2=9.265, P=0.010). L48V polymorphism also showed effects on efficacy of LTG (χ2=17.397, P=0.001). Conclusions UGT2B7, UGT1A4 polymorphisms play crucial roles in metabolism of VPA and LTG. PMID:27795544

  13. [Serum folate and homocysteine concentrations in women smoking during pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood of newborns].

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Lewandowski, Leszek; Gajewska, Joanna; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    In metabolism of homocysteine several enzymes and vitamin cofactors are involves. Genetic abnormalities in these enzymes or nutritional deficiency vitamins, especially of folate may lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, a known risk factor for some pregnancy complications. High maternal homocysteine and low folate levels correlate with low birth weight. Maternal smoking affected significantly total homocysteine concentration in infants. Studies in this area are still scarce and report on limited number of patients. The aim of our study was to assess serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in smoking pregnant women and in their newborn infants as compared with nonsmoking. The study consisted of 57 pregnant women, who qualified into two groups: smoking (n=28) and nonsmoking (n=29). The serum concentrations of folate were determined by electrochemiluninescent method and tHcy by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. We shown, that serum homocysteine concentrations were significantly higher in smoking as compared with nonsmoking pregnant women (p<0.05) as well as in umbilical cord blood of their newborns (p<0.001). The folate levels were comparable in serum both groups of mothers, but in infants born to smoking women were lower by 20%. In addition, the maternal serum levels of homocysteine and folate showed a significant positive correlation's with these parameters in newborns. Average birth weight infants born to smoking mother was significantly lower than nonsmoking cigarettes (p<0.05). It seems that tobacco smoking during pregnancy affected folate and homocysteine levels in serum of mothers and their infants. Smoking exposure is also associate with reduced birth weight.

  14. Pain-mediated altered absorption and metabolism of ibuprofen: an explanation for decreased serum enantiomer concentration after dental surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Fakhreddin; Kunz-Dober, Cornelia M

    1999-01-01

    Aims Rapid onset of analgesia is essential in the treatment of acute pain. There is evidence that conditions of stress cause delayed and decreased pain relief from oral analgesic products through impaired absorption. The aim was to determine the effect of surgery for removal of wisdom teeth on the plasma concentration-time profile of ibuprofen enantiomers. Methods Racemic ibuprofen, 200 mg in one group (n=7) and 600 mg in another group (n=7) was administered 1 week before (control) and again after (test) surgical removal of wisdom teeth. Serum concentrations of ibuprofen enantiomers were measured for 6 h. Results During the control phase, S- and R-ibuprofen concentrations were within the suggested therapeutic range. Surgery resulted in a 2 h delay in the mean time to peak concentration, significant decreases in serum ibuprofen concentration following both doses, and a fall to sub-optimal serum concentrations following the 200 mg dose. During the first 2 h after the 200 mg dose, dental extraction resulted in a significant reduction of the area under serum drug concentration (AUC (0, 2 h) mg l−1 h) from 5.6±2.9 to 1.6±1.8 (P<0.01) and from 5.5±3.0 to 2.1±2.0 (P<0.05) for S and R-ibuprofen, respectively. Similar observations were made following the 600 mg dose for AUC (0, 2 h) of S-ibuprofen (from 14.2±6.1 to 7.2±5.5 mg l−1 h, P<0.05) with no significant difference for R-ibuprofen (from 14.4±9.5 to 5.8±7.1). AUC (0, 6 h) was also significantly reduced by surgery. The pattern of stereoselectivity in serum ibuprofen concentration was reversed by surgery such that the S enantiomer was predominant in the control phase but not in the post-surgery phase, which is suggestive of reduced metabolic chiral inversion. Conclusions Surgery for wisdom tooth removal resulted in substantial decreases in the serum concentration of ibuprofen enantiomers and a prolongation in the time to peak concentration. Reduced absorption and altered metabolism are the likely cause of

  15. Multivitamin Use and Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Older-Adult Metformin Users in REGARDS, 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Garn, Joshua V.; Zakai, Neil A.; Williamson, Rebecca S.; Cashion, Winn T.; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Judd, Suzanne E.; Oakley, Godfrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug, is a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with subsequent reductions in vitamin B12 concentrations. The objective of our study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older adults, and whether concurrent use of multivitamins modifies this association. We examined 2,510 participants aged 50 years and over, participating in the national population-based Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between multivitamin use and serum vitamin B12 concentrations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s. Results were stratified by three metformin/diabetes sub-groups: 1) participants with diabetes who were metformin users; 2) participants with diabetes who were not metformin users; and 3) participants without diabetes. We found that diabetic metformin users had significantly lower geometric mean serum B12 concentrations (409 pmol/L) than the group with diabetes not taking metformin (485 pmol/L; P<0.01), and the group without diabetes (445 pmol/L; P = 0.02). The geometric mean serum B12 concentrations were greater for multivitamin users (509 pmol/L) compared to those who did not use multivitamins (376 pmol/L; p<0.01). Among the participants with diabetes who were on metformin therapy, multivitamin use was associated with geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations that were 50% (or 161 pmol/L) higher, compared to those not using multivitamins. Among metformin users, multivitamin use was associated with lower prevalence of combined low and borderline vitamin B12 concentrations (aOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54) compared to those not using multivitamins. In conclusion, metformin use was associated with lower geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations among diabetic older

  16. Multivitamin Use and Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Older-Adult Metformin Users in REGARDS, 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Garn, Joshua V; Zakai, Neil A; Williamson, Rebecca S; Cashion, Winn T; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Judd, Suzanne E; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug, is a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with subsequent reductions in vitamin B12 concentrations. The objective of our study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older adults, and whether concurrent use of multivitamins modifies this association. We examined 2,510 participants aged 50 years and over, participating in the national population-based Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between multivitamin use and serum vitamin B12 concentrations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s. Results were stratified by three metformin/diabetes sub-groups: 1) participants with diabetes who were metformin users; 2) participants with diabetes who were not metformin users; and 3) participants without diabetes. We found that diabetic metformin users had significantly lower geometric mean serum B12 concentrations (409 pmol/L) than the group with diabetes not taking metformin (485 pmol/L; P<0.01), and the group without diabetes (445 pmol/L; P = 0.02). The geometric mean serum B12 concentrations were greater for multivitamin users (509 pmol/L) compared to those who did not use multivitamins (376 pmol/L; p<0.01). Among the participants with diabetes who were on metformin therapy, multivitamin use was associated with geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations that were 50% (or 161 pmol/L) higher, compared to those not using multivitamins. Among metformin users, multivitamin use was associated with lower prevalence of combined low and borderline vitamin B12 concentrations (aOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54) compared to those not using multivitamins. In conclusion, metformin use was associated with lower geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations among diabetic older

  17. Short-term dietary concentrate supplementation during estrus synchronization treatment in beef cows increased IGF-I serum concentration but did not affect the reproductive response.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Torres, A M; López-Cedillo, Z B; Hernández-Coronado, C G; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate if short-term dietary concentrate supplementation increased IGF-I serum concentration and resulted in a reproductive response during estrus synchronization treatment in non-lactating beef cows. Thirty non-lactating beef cows (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) were allocated to the same pastureland and fed native tropical grasses as a basal diet. Cows were synchronized using a 7-day CO-Synch plus controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and received fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). Cows were divided into two groups; the control group (n = 16) received 0.5 kg of concentrate/cow/day, whereas the supplemented group (n = 14) received 4.0 kg of concentrate/cow/day. The period of supplementation was 10 days from the day of CIDR insert to FTAI. The concentration of IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) in the supplemented group, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. Moreover, at the time of insemination, IGF-I serum concentrations were higher in supplemented cows compared with control cows (P < 0.05). Notably, metabolite and insulin concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatment groups or sampling day. The response to estrus induction, measured as estrus presentation, ovulation rate, and pregnancy rate, was similar between experimental groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that supplementation with dietary concentrate for 10 days in non-lactating beef cows changed the endocrine milieu, specifically increasing IGF-I serum concentration. However, these endocrine changes did not affect response to estrous induction treatment.

  18. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  19. Serum tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyrotrophin concentrations in newborns during the first 2 days of life.

    PubMed Central

    Similä, S; Koivisto, M; Ranta, T; Leppäluoto, J; Reinilä, M; Haapalahti, J

    1975-01-01

    The serum concentrations of tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyrotrophin (TSH) were measured in 10 term newborn infants between birth and the age of 2 days by radioimmunoassay. The mean concentration of T3 in maternal serum was 1.62 mug/l, and it increased from the low cord blood level of 0-63 mug/l to the peak value of 1-76 mug/l within the first 2 hours of life. Mean serum T4 concentrations increased from the cord blood level of 145 mug/l to the peak value of 205 mug/l within the first 24 hours of life. The postnatal increase of the mean serum TSH concentrations from the cord blood level of 5-7 mU/l to the peak value of 20-6 mU/l within 2 hours was similar to the increase of T3. These data confirm earlier reports which show that T3 secretion is low at birth and TSH secretion is stimulated strongly but transiently after birth, and that the low T3 secretion is rapidly normalized in 2 hours along with the TSH release. Because of these strong and rapid changes, we recommend screening of the function of the pituitary-thyroid axis in neonates after the age of 24 hours. PMID:1167070

  20. Serum cortisol concentrations during induced hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia are associated with neurological outcome in human infants.

    PubMed

    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Giampietri, Matteo; Fiorentini, Erika; Bartalena, Laura; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ciampi, Mariella; Boldrini, Antonio; Ghirri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a cause of neonatal death or adverse neurological sequelae. Biomarkers can be useful to clinicians in order to optimize intensive care management and communication of prognosis to parents. During perinatal adverse events, increased cortisol secretion is due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We aimed to investigate if cortisol variations during therapeutic hypothermia are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared 18 cases (neonates with birth asphyxia) with 18 controls (healthy term newborns) and confirmed increased serum cortisol concentrations following the peri-partum adverse event. Among cases, we stratified patients according to neurological outcome at 18 months (group A - good; group B - adverse) and found that after 24 h of therapeutic hypothermia serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower in group A vs group B (28.7 ng/mL vs 344 ng/mL, *p = 0.01). In group B serum, cortisol concentration decreased more gradually during therapeutic hypothermia. We conclude that monitoring serum cortisol concentration during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia can add information to clinical evaluation of neonates with birth asphyxia; cortisol values after the first 24 h of hypothermia can be a biomarker associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age.

  1. Effect of cigarette smoke on human serum trypsin inhibitory capacity and antitrypsin concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Bone, R.C.; Louria, D.B.; Rayford, P.L.

    1982-07-01

    Investigation of the effect of cigarette smoke on the serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) and antitrypsin content in 89 smokers compared with 37 nonsmokers revealed that cigarette smoking is associated with a significantly lower level of TIC. No alteration in serum antitrypsin content was found because of cigarette smoking. Further analysis of the data indicated a correlation between the magnitude of smoking and the reduction in serum TIC. The reduction of TIC in cigarette smokers is consistent with the recent findings of decreased alpha 1-antitrypsin activity in rat lung and the reduced elastase inhibitory capacity per mg of alpha 1-antitrypsin found in the serum of smokers. The decrease in TIC in the serum of smokers, in addition to the reported decrease in elastolytic activity, may be useful in explaining the pathogenesis of emphysema frequently found in smokers.

  2. Community Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate: Relationships Between Serum Concentrations and Exposure Sources

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward Anthony; Shofer, Frances Susan; Zhang, Hong; Freeman, David; Desai, Chintan; Shaw, Leslie Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine serum [PFOA] in residents near a fluoropolymer production facility: the contributions from air, water and occupational exposures, personal and dietary habits, and relationships to age and gender. Methods Questionnaire and serum PFOA measurements in a stratified random sample and volunteers residing in locations with the same residential water supply but with higher and lower potential air PFOA exposure. Results Serum [PFOA] greatly exceeded general population medians. Occupational exposure from production processes using PFOA and residential water had additive effects, no other occupations contributed. Serum [PFOA] depended on the source of residential drinking water, and not potential air exposure. For public water users the best-fit model included age, tap water drinks per day, servings of home-grown fruit and vegetables, and carbon filter use. Conclusions Residential water source was the primary determinant of serum [PFOA]. PMID:16902368

  3. Comparative kinetics of serum and vitreous humor digoxin concentrations in a guinea pig model. Part I: Intravenous administration of digoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, B.; Balkon, J.; Bidanset, J.H.; Belmonte, A.; Barletta, M.; Manning, T. )

    1991-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous dose of digoxin in the guinea pig was investigated with emphasis on the penetration of digoxin into the vitreous humor. A controlled study was undertaken and data was collected which indicated that digoxin follows an open, two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with a terminal half-life of 318 minutes. The data indicated that the ratio of vitreous concentrations to serum concentrations were determined to be equal following an initial tissue distribution phase.

  4. Low serum albumin concentrations are associated with disease severity in patients with myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yi-Yun; Yang, De-Hao; Qian, Mei-Zi; Wei, Mao-Mao; Yin, Fang; Li, Jia; Li, Xiang; Chen, Ying; Ding, Zhang-Na; He, Yi-Bo; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum albumin (S-Alb) is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status and disease severity in patients with autoimmune diseases. We investigated the correlation between S-Alb and the severity of myasthenia gravis (MG). A total number of 166 subjects were recruited in the study. Subjects were divided into 3 groups (T1 to T3) by S-Alb levels: T1: 21.1 to 38.4 g/L, T2: 38.5 to 41.5 g/L, T3: 41.6 to 48.9 g/L. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of initial albumin concentrations and the severity of disease of MG. Lower levels of S-Alb were observed in subjects with increased disease severity than those with slight disease severity, meanwhile, incidence of myasthenia crisis increased in the lower albumin tertiles (P < 0.001). The disease severity assessment was performed according to the criteria established by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and duration of disease, it showed that higher S-Alb concentrations were associated with lower disease severity. Odds ratios (ORs) of T2 to T3 were 0.241 (95% CI: 0.103–0.566, P < 0.001), 0.140 (95% CI: 0.054–0.367, P < 0.001) when compared with subjects in the T1, respectively. When subjects were stratified into hypoalbuminemia and normal albumin groups, we found that the association between S-Alb and MG remained significant in the hypoalbuminemia group only (OR: 0.693, 95% CI: 0.550–0.874, P = 0.002) after further adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and duration of disease. This is the first study to demonstrate that S-Alb was independently associated with MG severity. In patients with low S-Alb, S-Alb concentration could be a potential biomarker for MG disability. PMID:27684858

  5. Muscle enzyme and fiber type-specific sarcomere protein increases in serum after inertial concentric-eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G; Guerrero, M; Cussó, R; Padullés, J M; Moras, G; Lloret, M; Bedini, J L; Cadefau, J A

    2015-12-01

    Muscle damage induced by inertial exercise performed on a flywheel device was assessed through the serum evolution of muscle enzymes, interleukin 6, and fiber type-specific sarcomere proteins such as fast myosin (FM) and slow myosin (SM). We hypothesized that a model of muscle damage could be constructed by measuring the evolution of serum concentration of muscle proteins following inertial exercise, according to their molecular weight and the fiber compartment in which they are located. Moreover, by measuring FM and SM, the type of fibers that are affected could be assessed. Serum profiles were registered before and 24, 48, and 144 h after exercise in 10 healthy and recreationally active young men. Creatine kinase (CK) and CK-myocardial band isoenzyme increased in serum early (24 h) and returned to baseline values after 48 h. FM increased in serum late (48 h) and remained elevated 144 h post-exercise. The increase in serum muscle enzymes suggests increased membrane permeability of both fast and slow fibers, and the increase in FM reveals sarcomere disruption as well as increased membrane permeability of fast fibers. Consequently, FM could be adopted as a fiber type-specific biomarker of muscle damage.

  6. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Raeissi, Alireza; Torki, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Mousavipoor, Seyed Mehdi; Pirani, Masoud Doosti

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women) decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were not consistent. Conclusion We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women. PMID:25918589

  7. Serum concentration and increased temperature alter Mayaro virus RNA and protein synthesis in Aedes albopictus (mosquito)-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Motta, M C; Fournier, M V; Carvalho, M G

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown the inhibition of Mayaro virus multiplication in Aedes albopictus-infected cells maintained at a supraoptimal temperature for growth (37 degrees C) and a stimulation of virus production in response to high serum concentrations in the incubation medium. In the present study, we addressed the question of how the effect of continuous heat stress and high serum concentration soon after infection interfere with virus macromolecule synthesis. Cells maintained at 28 degrees C in the presence of 2% serum synthesized a viral genomic RNA of 12 kb and a subgenomic RNA of 5.2 kb 6 h postinfection. Analysis of the protein profile showed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein of 34 kDa (P34). However, if infected cells were maintained at 37 degrees C, a smear starting immediately below the 5.2-kb RNA was noticed and the viral P34 was not detected by SDS-PAGE. Addition of 10% serum to the growth medium of infected cells maintained at 37 degrees C results in a viral RNA profile and protein synthesis similar to those observed in cultures kept at 28 degrees C, i.e., the smear was not observed and the P34 protein was detected. The results suggest that the inhibition of virus multiplication by temperature may be related to the inhibition of viral nonstructural protein synthesis early during infection. The presence of high serum levels in the incubation medium protects macromolecule synthesis against heat stress.

  8. Association of Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D Concentration and Arterial Stiffness among Korean Adults in Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hae

    2017-01-01

    Background There are growing concerns about the role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) and arterial stiffness among Korean adults. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 302 people (115 women and 187 men) who visited a tertiary hospital from January 2015 to December 2016. Serum 25(OH)D was measured using the radioimmunoassay technique, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured using an automatic wave analyzer. We obtained the doctor's report on the medical history of the participants, their alcohol consumption and smoking habits, and their exercise status. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results of basic blood tests and physical assessment were also collected. Results In the Pearson correlation analysis, serum 25(OH)D and baPWV showed a statistically significant inverse relationship (r=-0.279, P<0.001). Using multiple regression analysis, and after adjusting for possible confounders, serum 25(OH)D concentration was found to be significantly associated with baPWV (β=-0.121, P=0.011). Conclusions We observed an association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and arterial stiffness. Further studies involving larger sample sizes will be needed to confirm this associations. PMID:28326301

  9. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established.

  10. Is Admission Serum Sodium Concentration a Clinical Predictor for the Outcome of Therapy in Critically Ill Poisoned Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Hosseini, Hossein; Soltaninejad, Forough; Massoumi, Gholamreza; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Yaraghi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disorders of serum sodium concentration are some of the most electrolyte abnormalities in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. These disorders adversely affect the function of vital organs and are associated with increased hospital mortality. Purpose: In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effects of serum sodium concentration abnormalities at the time of hospital admission on the clinical outcome of therapy in a cohort of critically ill poisoned patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 184 critically ill poisoned patients aged >18 years and in the first 8 hours of their poisoning, hospitalized in the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital (Isfahan, Iran) between 2010-2012, were evaluated at the admission time and 24 hours later for serum sodium concentration abnormalities and its relationship with age, gender, consciousness status, ingested drugs and clinical outcome of therapy. The clinical outcome was considered as recovery and mortality. Logistic Regression analysis was performed for predictive variables including serum sodium concentration abnormalities in patients’ clinical outcome. Findings: On admission, 152 patients (82.6%) were eunatremic, 21 patients (11.4%) were hyponatremic and 11 patients (6%) were hypernatremic. In the second day eunatremia, hyponatremia and hypernatremia was observed in 84.4%, 13% and 2.2% respectively. Age (OR=1.92; CI=1.18-3.12) and severity of toxicity (OR=1.32; CI=1.12-2.41) were predicting factors of mortality in ICU poisoning patients. Conclusions: Serum sodium concentration abnormalities are prevalent in critically ill poisoned patient but do not seem to have a predictive value for the clinical outcome of therapy. PMID:26543310

  11. Do Human Milk Concentrations of Persistent Organic Chemicals Really Decline During Lactation? Chemical Concentrations During Lactation and Milk/Serum Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    LaKind, Judy S.; Berlin, Cheston M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Paul, Ian M.; Stokes, Jennifer L.; Naiman, Daniel Q.; Patterson, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Conventional wisdom regarding exposures to persistent organic chemicals via breast-feeding assumes that concentrations decline over the course of lactation and that the mother’s body burden reflects her cumulative lifetime exposure. Two important implications stemming from these lines of thought are, first, that assessments of early childhood exposures should incorporate decreasing breast milk concentrations over lactation; and, second, that there is little a breast-feeding mother can do to reduce her infant’s exposures via breast-feeding because of the cumulative nature of these chemicals. Objectives We examined rates of elimination and milk/serum partition coefficients for several groups of persistent organic chemicals. Methods We collected simultaneous milk and blood samples of 10 women at two times postpartum and additional milk samples without matching blood samples. Results Contrary to earlier research, we found that lipid-adjusted concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, and organochlorine pesticides in serum and milk do not consistently decrease during lactation and can increase for some women. Published research has also suggested an approximate 1:1 milk/serum relationship (lipid adjusted) on a population basis for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; however, our results suggest a more complex relationship for persistent, lipophilic chemicals with the milk/serum relationship dependent on chemical class. Conclusions Decreases in concentration of lipophilic chemicals on a lipid-adjusted basis during lactation should no longer be assumed. Thus, the concept of pumping and discarding early milk as means of reducing infant exposure is not supported. The hypothesis that persistent lipophilic chemicals, on a lipid-adjusted basis, have consistent concentrations across matrices is likely too simplistic. PMID:20019916

  12. Vitamin D in a Northern Canadian First Nation Population: Dietary Intake, Serum Concentrations and Functional Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Larcombe, Linda; Mookherjee, Neeloffer; Slater, Joyce; Slivinski, Caroline; Singer, Matthew; Whaley, Chris; Denechezhe, Lizette; Matyas, Sara; Turner-Brannen, Emily; Nickerson, Peter; Orr, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The wide spectrum of vitamin D activity has focused attention on its potential role in the elevated burden of disease in a northern Canadian First Nations (Dené) cohort. Vitamin D insufficiency, and gene polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) have been implicated in susceptibility to infectious and chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to determine the contribution of vitamin D from food, and measure the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3) and VDBP in Dené participants. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the dysregulation of the innate immune response were typed and counted. Potential correlations between the SNPs and serum concentrations of 25-OHD3 and VDBP were evaluated. Venous blood was collected in summer and winter over a one-year period and analyzed for 25-OHD3 and VDBP concentrations (N = 46). A questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of dietary vitamin D consumed. Sixty-one percent and 30% of the participants had 25-OHD3 serum concentrations <75 nmol/L in the winter and summer respectively. Mean vitamin D binding protein concentrations were within the normal range in the winter but below normal in the summer. VDBP and VDR gene polymorphisms affect the bioavailability and regulation of 25-OHD3. The Dené had a high frequency of the VDBP D432E-G allele (71%) and the Gc1 genotype (90%), associated with high concentrations of VDBP and a high binding affinity to 25-OHD3. The Dené had a high frequency of VDR Fok1-f allele (82%), which has been associated with a down-regulated Th1 immune response. VDBP and VDR polymorphisms, and low winter 25-OHD3 serum concentrations may be risk factors for infectious diseases and chronic conditions related to the dysregulation of the vitamin D pathway. PMID:23185470

  13. Physiologically relevant plasma d,l-homocysteine concentrations mobilize Cd from human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sagmeister, Peter; Gibson, Matthew A; McDade, Kyle H; Gailer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although low-level chronic exposure of humans to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in a variety of adverse health effects, little is known about the role that its interactions with plasma proteins and small molecular weight (SMW) ligands in the bloodstream may play in delivering this metal to its target organs. To gain insight, a Cd-human serum albumin (HSA) 1:1 (molar ratio) complex was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Using a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer mobile phase, the stability of the Cd-HSA complex was investigated in the presence of 2.0mM of SMW ligands, including taurine, acetaminophen, l-methionine, l-cysteine (Cys), d,l-homocysteine (hCys) or l-cysteine methyl-ester (Cys-Me). While taurine, acetaminophen and l-methionine did not affect its integrity, Cys, hCys and Cys-Me completely abstracted Cd from HSA. Subsequent investigations into the effect of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5mM Cys and hCys on the integrity of the Cd-HSA complex revealed clear differences with regard to the nature of the eluting SMW-Cd species between these structurally related endogenous thiols. Interestingly, the Cd-specific chromatograms that were obtained for 0.5mM hCys revealed the elution of an apparent mixture of the parent Cd-HSA complex with a significant contribution of a structurally uncharacterized CdxhCysy species. Since this hCys concentration is encountered in blood plasma of hyperhomocysteinemia patients and since previous studies by others have revealed that a SH-containing carrier mediates the uptake of Cd into hepatocytes, our results suggest that plasma hCys may play a role in the toxicologically relevant translocation of Cd from the bloodstream to mammalian target organs.

  14. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  15. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk.

  16. Increased serum IgE concentrations during infection and graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S A; Rogers, T R; Perry, D; Hobbs, J R; Riches, P G

    1984-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations estimated in 25 bone marrow transplant recipients during episodes of infection or graft versus host disease, or both, were raised not only in some patients with acute graft versus host disease but also in many patients with infection. Raised values were not seen in chronic graft versus host disease. The routine estimation of serum IgE in bone marrow transplant recipients had minimal value because of the lack of specificity of the IgE response. PMID:6368605

  17. Effect of trimetazidine on serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein concentrations in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Szkodzinski, J; Danikiewicz, A; Hudzik, B; Szewczyk, M; Gąsior, M; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B

    2015-01-01

    Trimetazidine is widely used in the treatment of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and its cytoprotective effect has been confirmed in animal studies and in many clinical trials. Given the inflammatory milieu of CAD and trimetazidine effect on the inflow of neutrophilis to the ischemic area, it is interesting to consider whether trimetazidine actions could be also explained through the inhibition of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. The aim of this study was to (i) examine the influence of treadmill exercise test (TET) on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and (ii) the influence of three-month trimetazidine therapy on serum CRP and IL-6 concentrations. One hundred and fifty-six patients with stable CAD were included. TET was performed (according to the standard Bruce protocol) twice for all subjects – at baseline and after the three-month trimetazidine treatment. Serum IL-6 and CRP concentrations were determined prior to and after performing each TET. Exercise led to the increase of CRP (2.35 vs 2.81 mg/L, p < 0.05) and IL-6 concentrations (1.64 vs 1.92 pg/ml, p=0.0318) in patients without trimetazidine. Three-month treatment resulted in the increase in the TET duration (378.0s vs 410.9s, p < 0.05) and decrease in serum CRP concentration, both before (2.35 vs 1.51 mg/L, p < 0.05) and after TET (2.81 vs 1.69 mg/L, p < 0.05). There was no significant increase of CRP after the second TET (1.51 vs 1.69 mg/l, p=NS). Three-month trimetazidine treatment increased IL-6 concentrations (1.64 vs 2.23 pg/mL, p < 0.05). TET was not associated with further changes in IL-6 concentrations (2.23 vs 2.18 pg/mL, p=NS). Serum IL-6 and CRP concentrations increase during exercise in patients without trimetazidine. Three-month trimetazidine prolonged the duration of TET. Moreover, it resulted in the reduction of CRP concentration The increase of IL-6 concentration after three-month trimetazidine treatment and the lack of changes of its concentration

  18. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in stallions: developmental changes, seasonal variation, and differences between intact stallions, cryptorchid stallions, and geldings.

    PubMed

    Claes, Anthony; Ball, Barry A; Almeida, Juliana; Corbin, Cynthia J; Conley, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a homodimeric glycoprotein, is secreted early in fetal life when it exerts a crucial function in sexual differentiation. The secretion of AMH in male humans persists after birth and is characterized by high prepubertal concentrations followed by a significant decrease at the onset of puberty. The expression of AMH in the normal and cryptorchid equine testis is well characterized but data regarding circulating AMH concentrations are lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine serum AMH concentrations in neonatal colts and fillies, prepubertal colts, and postpubertal stallions, and to evaluate variations in serum AMH related to season and gonadal status of stallions. In addition, we examined the presence and determined concentrations of AMH in seminal plasma of mature stallions. Serum AMH concentrations were significantly higher in neonatal colts than in neonatal fillies. Moreover, concentrations of AMH are high in prepubertal colts whereas significantly lower concentrations were detected after puberty. In intact mature stallions, season influenced AMH concentrations with significantly higher concentrations during spring and summer. Serum AMH concentrations were significantly higher in cryptorchid stallions compared with intact stallions or geldings. Finally, AMH was identified in seminal plasma of intact mature stallions, but there was no significant correlation between serum and seminal plasma AMH concentrations. In conclusion, serum AMH concentration varies with sex in the neonatal period, postnatal sexual development and season, and serum AMH concentration can be used as a biomarker for the presence of testicular tissue.

  19. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Błażewicz, Anna; Kiciński, Paweł; Sak, Jarosław J; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2016-06-13

    According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb) in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.

  20. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    PubMed

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  1. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Prystupa, Andrzej; Błażewicz, Anna; Kiciński, Paweł; Sak, Jarosław J.; Niedziałek, Jarosław; Załuska, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb) in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:27304961

  2. Cinacalcet Reduces Serum Calcium Concentrations in Patients with Intractable Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Marcocci, Claudio; Chanson, Philippe; Shoback, Dolores; Bilezikian, John; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Henzen, Christoph; Cheng, Sunfa; Sterling, Lulu Ren; Lu, John; Peacock, Munro

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) after parathyroidectomy or with contraindications to parathyroidectomy often require chronic treatment for hypercalcemia. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the ability of the calcimimetic, cinacalcet, to reduce serum calcium in patients with intractable PHPT. Design: This was an open-label, single-arm study comprising a titration phase of variable duration (2–16 wk) and a maintenance phase of up to 136 wk. Setting: The study was conducted at 23 centers in Europe, the United States, and Canada. Patients: The study included 17 patients with intractable PHPT and serum calcium greater than 12.5 mg/dl (3.1 mmol/liter). Intervention: During the titration phase, cinacalcet dosages were titrated every 2 wk (30 mg twice daily to 90 mg four times daily) for 16 wk until serum calcium was 10 mg/dl or less (2.5 mmol/liter). If serum calcium increased during the maintenance phase, additional increases in the cinacalcet dose were permitted. Main Outcome Measure: The primary end point was the proportion of patients experiencing a reduction in serum calcium of 1 mg/dl or greater (0.25 mmol/liter) at the end of the titration phase. Results: Mean ± sd baseline serum calcium was 12.7 ± 0.8 mg/dl (3.2 ± 0.2 mmol/liter). At the end of titration, a 1 mg/dl or greater reduction in serum calcium was achieved in 15 patients (88%). Fifteen patients (88%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, none of which were serious. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and paresthesias. Conclusions: In patients with intractable PHPT, cinacalcet reduces serum calcium, is generally well tolerated, and has the potential to fulfill an unmet medical need. PMID:19470620

  3. Serum ferritin concentrations and body iron stores in a multicenter, multiethnic primary-care population

    PubMed Central

    Gordeuk, Victor R.; Reboussin, David M.; McLaren, Christine E.; Barton, James C.; Acton, Ronald T.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Harris, Emily L.; Reiss, Jacob A.; Adams, Paul C.; Speechley, Mark; Phatak, Pradyumna D.; Sholinsky, Phyliss; Eckfeldt, John H.; Chen, Wen-Pin; Passmore, Leah; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.

    2013-01-01

    How often elevated serum ferritin in primary-care patients reflects increased iron stores (normally 0.8 g in men, 0.4 g in women) is not known. The Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study screened 101,168 primary-care participants (44% Caucasians, 27% African-Americans, 14% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 13% Hispanics, 2% others). Follow-up clinical evaluation was performed in 302 of 333 HFE C282Y homozygotes regardless of iron measures and 1,375 of 1,920 nonhomozygotes with serum ferritin >300 μg/L (men), >200 μg/L (women) and transferrin saturation >50% (men), >45% (women). Quantitative phlebotomy was conducted in 122 of 175 C282Y homozygotes and 122 of 1,102 nonhomozygotes with non-transfusional serum ferritin elevation at evaluation. The estimated prevalence in the Caucasian population of C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 μg/L at evaluation was 20 per 10,000 men and 4 per 10,000 women; this constellation was predictive of iron stores >4 g in men and >2 g in women. The estimated prevalence per 10,000 of non-C282Y homozygotes with serum ferritin >900 μg/L at evaluation was 7 among Caucasians, 13 among Hispanics, 20 among African Americans, and 38 among Asians and Pacific Islanders, and this constellation was predictive of iron stores >2 g but <4 g. In conclusion, serum ferritin >900 μg/L after initial elevations of both serum ferritin and transferrin saturation is predictive of mildly increased iron stores in multiple ethnic populations regardless of HFE genotype. Serum ferritin >900 μg/L in male C282Y homozygotes is predictive of moderately increased iron stores. PMID:18429050

  4. Serum concentrations of selected endogenous estrogen and estrogen metabolites in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, W; Zeng, C; Cai, D; Liu, B; Li, Y; Wen, X; Chen, Y

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether serum levels of selected endogenous estrogens and their metabolites are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in pre- and post-menopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty-four patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, 48 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the knee, and 48 healthy women were included in this study. Serum concentrations of estradiol and estrogen metabolites, such as 2- hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and 16α-hydroxyestrone, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results show that the serum concentrations of free estradiol and total 2-hydroxyestrone were significantly lower in pre-menopausal women with OA compared to the levels detected in the control groups (RA and healthy women). While serum concentrations of free and total estradiol in post-menopausal women with OA was significantly decreased compared to those of the control groups, the level of total 2-hydroxyestradiol significantly increased in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, the total 2-hydroxyestrone concentration positively correlated with the total estradiol level in pre-menopausal women with OA. In addition, the total 2- hydroxyestradiol level positively correlated with free and total estradiol levels in post-menopausal women with OA. In conclusion, estradiol and estrogen metabolites, including 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestradiol, were found in the sera of pre- and post-menopausal women with OA. Except for free and total estradiol deficiency, a decreased serum level of total 2- hydroxyestrone in pre-menopausal women and an increased total 2-hydroxyestradiol level in post-menopausal women with OA may also correlate with the pathogenesis of female OA.

  5. Changes in macular pigment optical density and serum concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in response to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark L; Beatty, Stephen; Stack, Jim; Harrison, Michael; Greene, Isabelle; McBrinn, Sean; Carroll, Paula; Nolan, John M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether weight loss is associated with changes in serum concentrations of lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z), and/or macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We recruited 104 overweight subjects into this randomised controlled weight loss study. For the intervention group (I group), weight was assessed weekly and body composition, including BMI (kg/m2) and body fat (kg and percentage), was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Weight loss was encouraged using dietary and exercise programmes. MPOD was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry and serum concentrations of L and Z by HPLC (at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months). The control (C) group was assessed at baseline and 12 months. Repeated-measures ANOVA (RMA) demonstrated significant weight loss in the I group over the study period (P = 0·000). There was no significant weight change in the C group (P = 0·993). RMA of dietary L and Z, serum L and Z, and MPOD demonstrated no significant time or time × group interaction effect in any of these parameters (P>0·05 for all), with the exception of a significant decrease in the dietary intake of Z seen in both groups, over the study period (P < 0·05). There was a positive and significant relationship between body fat loss (kg) and increase in serum concentrations of L in the I group (r 0·521; P = 0·006). Our finding that a reduction in body composition (e.g. fat mass) is related to increases in serum concentrations of L is consistent with the hypothesis that body fat acts as a reservoir for this carotenoid, and that weight loss can positively influence circulating carotenoid levels.

  6. Fetal macrosomia related to maternal poorly controlled type 1 diabetes strongly impairs serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition

    PubMed Central

    Merzouk, H; Bouchenak, M; Loukidi, B; Madani, S; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To determine the effects of fetal macrosomia related to maternal type 1 diabetes on the lipid transport system. Methods—Serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were investigated in macrosomic newborns (mean birth weight, 4650 g; SEM, 90) and their mothers with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, in appropriate for gestational age newborns (mean birth weight, 3616 g; SEM, 68) and their mothers with well controlled type 1 diabetes, and macrosomic (mean birth weight, 4555 g; SEM, 86) or appropriate for gestational age (mean birth weight, 3290 g; SEM, 45) newborns and their healthy mothers. Results—In mothers with well controlled type 1 diabetes, serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins were comparable with those of healthy mothers. Similarly, in their infants, these parameters did not differ from those of appropriate for gestational age newborns. Serum triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) triglyceride concentrations were higher, whereas serum apo A-I and HDL3 concentrations were lower in mothers with diabetes and poor glycaemic control than in healthy mothers. Their macrosomic newborns had higher concentrations in all serum lipids and lipoproteins, with high apo A-I and apo B100 values compared with appropriate for gestational age newborns. In macrosomic infants of healthy mothers, there were no significant differences in lipoprotein profiles compared with those of appropriate for gestational age infants. LCAT activity was similar in both groups of mothers and newborns. Conclusion—Poorly controlled maternal type 1 diabetes and fetal macrosomia were associated with lipoprotein abnormalities. Macrosomic lipoprotein profiles related to poor metabolic control of type 1 diabetes appear to have implications for later metabolic diseases. Key Words: apolipoproteins • lipids • lipoproteins • lecithin

  7. Exposure to Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) via Dust Ingestion, but Not Diet, Correlates with Concentrations in Human Serum: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Roosens, Laurence; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high-production-volume chemical used as flame retardant in polystyrene insulation and textiles. Because it is not chemically bound to the polymer, HBCD can migrate into the environment, contaminating indoor dust and foodstuff. Objectives We examined for the first time the relationship between combined exposure to three HBCD isomers (∑HBCDs) via ingestion of food (duplicate diets) and indoor dust and HBCD concentrations in serum for 16 Belgian adults (20–25 years of age). We also determined the chiral signatures of HBCDs to advance understanding of source-to-human enantioselective degradation and/or metabolism. Methods Concentrations and chiral signatures of α-, β-, and γ-HBCD in duplicate diets, dust, and serum were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results Dietary intakes of ∑HBCDs were 1.2–20 ng/day (average, 7.2 ng/day), whereas those estimated under average (20 mg dust/day) and high (50 mg dust/day) dust ingestion scenarios were 1.1–15 ng/day (average intake, 3.2 ng/day) and 2.8–38 ng/day (average intake, 8.0 ng/day), respectively. Concentrations of ∑HBCDs measured in blood serum were < 0.5 to 11 ng/g lipid weight (lw) (average, 2.9 ng/g lw). γ-HBCD dominated in food, whereas α-HBCD dominated in dust and was the sole isomer in serum. Although exposure via dust ingestion correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with concentrations in serum, no such correlation was evident with dietary exposure (p > 0.1). Although no enantioselective enrichment was detected in either dust or diet, substantial enrichment of (−)α-HBCD was observed in serum. Conclusions Serum concentrations of HBCDs were correlated with the exposure via dust, but not via dietary ingestion. The enrichment of the (−)α-HBCD enantiomer in humans appears to be due to in vivo enantioselective metabolism/excretion rather than ingestion of dust or diet. PMID:20049121

  8. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  9. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  10. Serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen after diagnostic procedures and transurethral microwave thermotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Daehlin, L; Frugård, J; Farstad, M

    1996-05-01

    The objective was to study the effects of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration. Urethrocystoscopy in combination with digital rectal examination was followed by a moderate increase of serum PSA for 7-10 days. At 1 day after transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), an acute and pronounced effect on PSA was observed, which returned to baseline level after 4 weeks. The initial rise in serum PSA corresponded to a PSA density of 1.11, compared to 0.07 at baseline. The present data should be taken into consideration in conjunction with endoscopic evaluation of the lower urinary tract. Additionally, the acute effect on PSA after TUMT strongly suggests the ability of thermotherapy to induce cellular injury and death. One-year follow-up, however, was associated with increased PSA levels, indicating that only a minor part of the PSA-producing compartment was lost in the acute phase.

  11. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.

  12. Serum Concentration of Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Manganese, and Cu/Zn Ratio in Children and Adolescents with Myopia.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Monika; Socha, Katarzyna; Urban, Beata; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Matyskiela, Monika; Borawska, Maria H; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the assessment of the serum concentration of antioxidant microelements-zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and Cu/Zn ratio in children and adolescents with myopia. Eighty-three children were examined (mean age 14.36 ± 2.49 years) with myopia. The control group was 38 persons (mean age 12.89 ± 3.84 years). Each patient had complete eye examination. The serum concentration of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cu/Zn ratio, which is the indicator of the oxidative stress, was also calculated. The average serum concentration of zinc in myopic patients was significantly lower (0.865 ± 0.221 mg L(-1)) in comparison to the control group (1.054 ± 0.174 mg L(-1)). There was significantly higher Cu/Zn ratio in myopic patients (1.196 ± 0.452) in comparison to that in the control group (0.992 ± 0.203). The average serum concentration of selenium in the study group was significantly lower (40.23 ± 12.07 μg L(-1)) compared with that in the control group (46.00 ± 12.25 μg L(-1)). There were no essential differences between serum concentration of copper and manganese in the study group and the control group. Low serum concentration of zinc and selenium in myopic children may imply an association between insufficiency of these antioxidant microelements and the development of the myopia and could be the indication for zinc and selenium supplementation in the prevention of myopia. Significantly, higher Cu/Zn ratio in the study group can suggest the relationship between myopia and oxidative stress.

  13. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: zinc concentration of serum and hair from low-income women of Mexican descent.

    PubMed

    Hunt, I F; Murphy, N J; Cleaver, A E; Faraji, B; Swendseid, M E; Coulson, A H; Clark, V A; Laine, N; Davis, C A; Smith, J C

    1983-04-01

    The effect of zinc supplementation on concentrations of zinc in hair and serum of 213 pregnant Hispanic women attending a clinic in Los Angeles was assessed using a random, double-blind experiment. Both the treatment (T) and control (C) groups received similar vitamin and mineral supplements except that 20 mg zinc was added to the supplements for the treatment group. Nutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recalls. The initial mean dietary zinc intake of both groups was about 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (9 +/- 5 mg). Initially there were no significant differences between the two groups in mean zinc levels in serum (66 +/- 11 micrograms/dl, C, and 65 +/- 12 micrograms/dl, T) or in hair (184 +/- 41 micrograms/g, C, and 175 +/- 38 micrograms/g, T). Zinc supplementation did not alter mean zinc levels in serum or hair but significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced the number of low serum zinc values (less than or equal to 53.3 micrograms/dl) toward the end of pregnancy. Although serum zinc levels do decline in pregnancy, our results suggest that severely depressed levels (less than or equal to 50 to 55 micrograms/dl) indicate inadequate zinc status.

  14. Hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and increased serum potassium concentration as distinctive features of early hypomagnesemia in magnesium-deprived mice.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Bernardo; MacWilliams, Jacob R; Dey, Jason M; Courtright, Valerie B

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium-deficient patients show dysfunctional calcium (Ca(2+)) metabolism due to defective parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In mice and rats, long-term magnesium (Mg(2+)) deprivation causes hyperphosphaturia and increases fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion, despite normal serum phosphate (Pi) and Ca(2+). Electrolyte disturbances during early hypomagnesemia may explain the response of mice to long-term Mg(2+) deprivation, but our knowledge of electrolyte homeostasis during this stage is limited. This study compares the effect of both short- and long-term Mg(2+) restriction on the electrolyte balance in mice. Mice were fed control or Mg(2+)-deficient diets for one to three days, one week, or three weeks. Prior to killing the mice, urine was collected over 24 h using metabolic cages. Within 24 h of Mg(2+) deprivation, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia developed, and after three days of Mg(2+) deprivation, serum potassium (K(+)) was increased. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in urinary volume, hyperphosphaturia, hypocalciuria and decreased Mg(2+), sodium (Na(+)) and K(+) excretion. Surprisingly, after one week of Mg(2+) deprivation, serum K(+), Pi and Ca(2+) had normalized, showing that mineral homeostasis is most affected during early hypomagnesemia. Serum Pi and K(+) are known to stimulate secretion of FGF23 and aldosterone, which are usually elevated during Mg(2+) deficiency. Thus, the hyperphosphatemia and increased serum K(+) concentration observed during short-term Mg(2+) deprivation may help our understanding of adaptation to chronic Mg(2+) deficiency.

  15. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area < 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm². In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area < 100 cm². These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Abnormalities of serum potassium concentration in dialysis-associated hyperglycemia and their correction with insulin: review of published reports.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S; Elisaf, Moses S; Raj, Dominic S C; Siamopoulos, Kostas C; Rohrscheib, Mark; Murata, Glen H

    2011-06-01

    The main difference between dialysis-associated hyperglycemia (DH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) occurring in patients with preserved renal function is the absence of osmotic diuresis in DH, which eliminates the need for large fluid and solute (including potassium) replacement. We analyzed published reports of serum potassium (K(+)) abnormalities and their treatment in DH. Hyperkalemia was often present at presentation of DH with higher frequency and severity than in hyperglycemic syndromes in patients with preserved renal function. The frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were higher in DH episodes with DKA than those with NKH in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For DKA, the frequency and severity of hyperkalemia were similar in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. For NKH, hyperkalemia was more severe and frequent in hemodialysis than in peritoneal dialysis. Insulin infusion corrected the hyperkalemia of DH in most cases. Additional measures for the management of hyperkalemia or modest potassium infusions for hypokalemia were needed in a few DH episodes. The predictors of the decrease in serum K(+) during treatment of DH with insulin included the starting serum K(+) level, the decreases in serum values of glucose concentration and tonicity, and the increase in serum total carbon dioxide level. DH represents a risk factor for hyperkalemia. Insulin infusion is the only treatment for hyperkalemia usually required.

  17. Blood metal concentrations of manganese, lead, and cadmium in relation to serum ferritin levels in Ohio residents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yangho; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wright, Chris W; Gocheva, Vihra V; Hudgens, Edward; Bowler, Rosemarie M

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess ferritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents. Recruited participants included residents from Marietta, East Liverpool, and Mt. Vernon, OH, USA, who were aged 30-75 years and lived at least 10 years in their respective town. The levels of the neurotoxic metals such as manganese, cadmium, and lead were assayed in whole blood. Serum was analyzed for ferritin level [as a biomarker of iron (Fe) status]. An association between blood metal concentrations and independent variables (age, serum ferritin, manganese exposure status, and sex) by multiple regression analysis was assessed, controlling for various covariates such as BMI, educational level, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. Overall, the geometric means of blood manganese, cadmium, and lead levels of all participants (n = 276) were 9.307 μg/L, 0.393 μg/L, and 1.276 μg/dL, respectively. Log serum ferritin concentrations were inversely associated with log blood manganese concentration (β = -0.061 log ferritin and β = 0.146 categorical ferritin) and log blood cadmium concentrations (β = -0.090 log ferritin and β = 0.256 categorical ferritin). Log serum ferritin concentrations were not associated with log blood lead concentrations. Variables of age, sex, and exposure status were not associated with log manganese concentrations; however, log blood cadmium concentrations were higher in older population, women, and smokers. Log blood lead concentrations were higher in older population, men, and postmenopausal women. Our study showed that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood manganese and cadmium, but not blood lead, in Ohio residents. These metals showed different toxicokinetics in relation to age, sex, and menopausal status despite

  18. Concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants across pregnancy trimesters in maternal and in cord serum in Trujillo, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Horton, Kevin; Sjodin, Andreas; Jones, Richard; Hall, Daniel B.; Aguillar-Villalobos, Manuel; Cassidy, Brandon E.; Vena, John E.; Needham, Larry L.; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Although the production and use of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned or highly restricted, human exposure remains a subject of investigation due to their environmental persistence. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the disposition of POPs in the mother’s body, and thus fetal exposure. Changes in serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) across pregnancy trimesters, and trans-placental transfer to the fetus were investigated. Seventy-nine pregnant women in Trujillo, Peru were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy, and provided blood samples for the analysis of 35 PCB congeners, 9 OCPs, and 11 polybrominated biphenyl diethers (PBDEs). Subsequently, maternal blood samples were collected in the second (n = 64) and third trimesters (n = 59), and cord blood samples (n = 50) were collected at delivery. There were statistically significant changes across trimesters (p <0.05) for both fresh weight (increase) and lipid adjusted concentrations (decrease) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p′-DDE), PCB-74, 118, 138–158, 153, 170, 180 and 194. Fresh weight concentrations of these POPs increased from first to third trimester by 10–28%. On the other hand lipid adjusted concentrations decreased from first to third trimester by 16–28%. Serum lipids increased from first to third trimester by 53% indicating the dilution of the POPs in the lipids. Concentrations of 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p′-DDT), its metabolite p,p′-DDE, PCB-118, 138-158, 153, 170 and 180 above their limits of detection were measured in >60% of cord serum samples. Intra-individual correlations in maternal serum concentrations were high for most of the POPs (ρ = 0.62–0.99; p <0.05) while correlations between maternal and cord serum concentrations were also high (ρ = 0.68–0.99; p < 0.05). Results indicate that the disposition in the body

  19. Effect of feed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Rawlings, N C; Wilde, R E; Crews, D H; Boisclair, Y R; Ehrhardt, R A; Kastelic, J P

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects offeed restriction during calfhood on serum concentrations of metabolic hormones, gonadotropins, and testosterone, and on sexual development in bulls. Eight beef bull calves received a control diet from 10 to 70 weeks of age. An additional 16 calves had restricted feed (75% of control) from 10 to 26 weeks of age (calfhood), followed by either control or high nutrition (n=8/group) during the peripubertal period until 70 weeks of age. Restricted feed during calfhood inhibited the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator, reduced the pituitary response to GnRH, impaired testicular steroidogenesis, delayed puberty, and reduced testicular weight at 70 weeks of age, regardless of the nutrition during the peripubertal period. Restricted feed reduced serum IGF-I concentrations, but concentrations of leptin, insulin, and GH were not affected. In conclusion, restricted feed during calfhood impaired sexual development in bulls due to adverse effects on every level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis and these effects were not overcome by supplemental feeding during the peripubertal period. Furthermore, based on temporal associations, the effects of restricted feed on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis might be mediated by serum IGF-I concentrations. These results supported the hypotheses that the pattern of LH secretion during the early gonadotropin rise during calfhood is the main determinant of age of puberty in bulls and that gonadotropin-independent mechanisms involved in testicular growth during the peripubertal period are affected by previous LH exposure.

  20. Serum and tissue concentrations of doxycycline in broilers after the sub-cutaneous injection of a long-acting formulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas-Estrada, D; Rosario, C; Sumano, H

    2012-01-01

    1. The antibacterial agent doxycycline hyclate (Dox) is usually administered to broilers in drinking water or as a feed supplement. Parenteral injection is not the usual route for administration, so a long-acting formulation (Dox-LA) was tested to evaluate if serum concentrations can achieve the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios regarded as adequate for the drug. 2. A poloxamer-based matrix was used to provide Dox-LA. Serum and tissue concentrations of Dox vs time were determined in two day-old broilers after subcutaneous (SC) injection of Dox-LA or oral administration of a single bolus of aqueous Dox (Dox-PO), at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Weight gain, feed conversion rate, haematological variables, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, blood urea and creatinine were determined and compared for Dox-LA with Dox-PO and non-medicated controls. 3. Dox-LA had a high relative bioavailability (1200%). Maximum serum concentrations were not statistically different (5·1 ± 1·1 µg/ml for Dox-LA and 6·1 ± 1.4 µg/ml for Dox-PO), but half-life of Dox-LA was much greater than the value obtained for Dox-PO (73·0 ± 0·9 h and 2·0 ± 0·02 h, respectively). Tissue concentrations were higher, and stayed higher for longer periods in the Dox-LA group. 4. In conclusion, considering the minimum effective serum concentration against Mycoplasma spp is 0·5 µg/ml, a dose-interval of 180 h can be achieved with Dox-LA, but only for 24 h after Dox-PO. Better PK/PD ratios for Dox-LA should result in improved clinical outcomes compared with Dox-PO.

  1. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and smoking in Koreans: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ho Jung; Lim, Jung-eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on the associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and smoking according to gender and smoking amount (cigarettes/day) are limited, and the results regarding the relationship between POPs and smoking are not completely consistent across studies. Objectives The smoking rate in Korea is one of the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. We investigated the association between serum concentrations of POPs and cigarette smoking in Koreans by smoking status (never-smoker/ever-smoker) and smoking amount (cigarettes/day) according to gender. Methods Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in 401 participants (232 men and 169 women) who received health examinations during the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II. We compared POP levels in ever-smokers and never-smokers and conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify associations between POPs and smoking. Results Among women, the concentrations of PCB 156, PCB 167, and PCB 180 were significantly higher in ever-smokers than in never-smokers. After adjustments for age, body mass index, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alcohol intake, serum PCB 157 concentration was positively associated with male ever-smokers (OR 2.26; 95% CI, 1.01–5.04). In addition, trans-nonachlordane in OCPs as well as PCBs was significantly positively related with female ever-smokers (OR 3.21; 95% CI, 1.04–9.86). We found that subjects who smoked fewer than 15 cigarettes/day had a higher risk of having high POP concentrations than never-smokers. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking may be associated with human serum POPs levels. PMID:28142013

  2. The Effect of Different Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries on Blood Concentration of Serum Amyloid A in Thoroughbred Racehorses

    PubMed Central

    Turło, Agnieszka; Cywińska, Anna; Czopowicz, Michał; Witkowski, Lucjan; Niedźwiedź, Artur; Słowikowska, Malwina; Borowicz, Hieronim; Jaśkiewicz, Anna; Winnicka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Training-induced muscle, skeletal and joint trauma may result in acute phase response reflected by the changes in the blood concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA) in racehorses. It remains yet unclear if such systemic reaction could be triggered by sport injuries and what is the impact of different types of musculoskeletal trauma on SAA concentrations in racehorses. This study aimed to determine changes in the SAA blood concentration in racehorses with different types of injuries of musculoskeletal system. Materials and Methods The study involved 28 racehorses diagnosed after the race with bone fractures (n = 7), dorsal metacarpal disease (n = 11), joint trauma (n = 4) or tendon and muscle trauma (n = 6) and 28 healthy control racehorses. Serum samples were collected twice, between 1 and 4 days of the injury or succesful completion of the race. SAA concentration was measured using the commercial ELISA kit. Differences between mean SAA concentration in respective groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results Mean SAA concentration within the first 4 days of the injury of muscle and tendon was significantly higher than in bone fractures, dorsal metacarpal disease, joint trauma or in the healthy horses (p<0,001). There were no significant differences between the other groups. Conclusions Strain injuries of muscle and tendons can cause a moderate increase in SAA blood concentration in racehorses, reflecting the occurrence of the acute phase response. Similar reaction is not observed in the stress-related bone injuries. PMID:26466121

  3. Prediagnostic Serum Organochlorine Concentrations and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case–Control Study in the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Langseth, Hilde; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lützen; Wacholder, Sholom; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Blair, Aaron; Hayes, Richard B.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Engel, Lawrence S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organochlorine (OC) insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic, or antiandrogenic properties; as a result, the impact of exposure to these compounds and risk of hormonal cancers, such as prostate cancer, is a concern. Objectives We conducted a nested case–control study, using prospectively collected serum, to estimate associations between OC exposures and metastatic prostate cancer in a population-based cohort from Norway. Methods Sera from 150 cases and 314 controls matched on date of blood draw, age at blood draw, and region was used to determine concentrations of 11 OC pesticide metabolites and 34 PCB congeners. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for quartiles of lipid-corrected metabolite levels were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results Metastatic prostate cancer was two times as likely among men with serum concentrations of oxychlordane in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.03; p-trend 0.05). Elevated but nonsignificant ORs were estimated for the highest versus lowest quartile of heptachlor epoxide, HCB, and mirex, although these exposures were correlated with oxychlordane. Findings for specific PCB congeners showed a significant inverse association between natural log–transformed lipid-adjusted PCB 44 and metastatic prostate cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97; p-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of estimating associations with specific OC chemicals and suggests a possible role of OC insecticides and PCBs in the etiology of metastatic prostate cancer. Citation Koutros S, Langseth H, Grimsrud TK, Barr DB, Vermeulen R, Portengen L, Wacholder S, Beane Freeman LE, Blair A, Hayes RB, Rothman N, Engel LS. 2015. Prediagnostic serum organochlorine concentrations and metastatic prostate cancer: a nested case–control study in the Norwegian Janus Serum Bank cohort

  4. Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.

    PubMed

    Hongu, N; Sachan, D S

    2000-02-01

    The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. In a 2x2 factorial design, one-half of each dietary group was exercised, and the other half was sedentary. Body weight and food intake of all rats were measured every day for 28 d. Rats were killed and blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. Food intake of the groups was not different, but the body weight was significantly reduced by exercise in both dietary groups. Fat pad weights and total lipids of epididymal, inguinal and perirenal regions were significantly reduced by the supplements as well as by exercise. Regardless of exercise, supplements significantly lowered triglycerides in serum but increased levels in skeletal muscle. Serum leptin concentrations were equally lowered by supplements and exercise. Serum leptin was correlated with body weight (r = 0.55, P< or =0.01), fat pad weight (r = 0.82, P< or =0.001) and serum glucose (r = 0.51, P< or =0.05). We conclude that the indices of body fat loss due to dietary supplements were similar to those due to mild exercise, and there were no interactive effects of the two variables.

  5. [Serum concentration of pregnancy-associated alpha 2-glycoprotein (alpha 2-PAG, protein of pregnancy zone, PZ) in patients with dermatological diseases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mattheus, A; Hofmann, R; Straube, W

    1981-01-01

    Radial immunodiffusion, according to Mancini, was applied to 15 hospitalised patients, both during and after hospitalisation. They were of both sexes and all afflicted with dermatological diseases (psoriasis, eczema, mycosis). Determination of serum concentration of pregnancy-associated alpha 2-glycoprotein (alpha 2-PAG, PZ) was the purpose of the tests. While in the acute phase of the disease the PZ serum levels of the three groups of patients were higher than those recorded from a control group, conventional therapy failed to have any impact upon PZ serum concentration. Continuous decline in PZ serum concentration was recordable from psoriasis patients in response to photochemotherapy (PUVA).

  6. Serum haptoglobin concentration in growing swine after intranasal challenge with Bordetella bronchiseptica and toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type D.

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C J; Shryock, T R; Bane, D P; Unverzagt, L

    1996-01-01

    The acute phase reaction, in association with progressive atrophic rhinitis (AR), was monitored for 3 wk using serum haptoglobin (HPT) quantification in thirty-six, 15 kg swine after intranasal challenge with varying doses of Pasteurella multocida type D (toxigenic strain) and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The challenge doses were administered alone or in combination with pigs divided into 9 isolated treatment groups. Increasing doses of B. bronchiseptica were associated with lower serum HPT (P < 0.05), whereas increasing doses of P. multocida tended to increase serum HPT (0.05 < P < 0.10). Significant and positive correlation of mean HPT and AR score was found in these pigs; increased AR scores were associated with elevated mean HPT concentration (r = 0.41, P < 0.01). A significant interaction between P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica dose indicated that increasing the dose of B. bronchiseptica, for a fixed P. multocida dose, was associated with less AR (P < 0.05). The AR scores were greater in pigs given P. multocida, than B. bronchiseptica alone. These results indicate that a complex interaction between Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica causes progressive atrophic rhinitis and alters serum HPT concentration in swine. Images Figure I. Figure II. Figure III. Figure IV. PMID:8809387

  7. Non-enzymatic glucosylation induced neo-epitopes on human serum albumin: A concentration based study

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin. Immunogenicity of Amadori-albumin was analysed by direct binding and competitive ELISA. Amadori-albumin was found to be highly immunogenic (expect albumin modified with 5mM) and induced high titre antibodies depending upon the extent of modification. Very high titre antibodies were obtained with albumin modified with 75mM glucose as compared to native albumin. Anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG from rabbit sera exhibited increased recognition of Amadori-albumin than native albumin in competitive immunoassay. Alteration induced in albumin after glucosylation has made it highly immunogenic. Induced antibodies were quite specific for respective immunogens but showed cross-reaction with other Amadori/native proteins. It suggests that glucosylation has generated highly immunogenic epitopes on albumin. Formation of high molecular weight immune complex with retarded mobility further supports specificity of anti-Amadori-albumin-IgG towards Amadori-albumin. It may be concluded that due to early glycation, an array of modification occurred in HSA structure. Such gross structural changes might favour polymerization of most of the native epitopes into potent immunogenic neo-epitopes, but some original epitopes were still active and has contributed in the immunogenicity. It could be concluded that induction of anti-Amadori-albumin antibodies may be due to protection of glucose modified albumin from protiolytic breakdown. We assumed that this type of

  8. Serum Leptin Concentration is Associated with Incident Frailty in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Alberto; Valdés-Bécares, Ana; Buño, Antonio; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with higher risk of frailty in older adults, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. No previous study has examined the association between leptin, an adipokine, and the risk of frailty in older adults, and whether this association could be explained by insulin resistance or chronic inflammation. Data were taken from 1,573 individuals without diabetes mellitus, aged ≥60 years, from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008-2010, leptin, the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Study participants were followed-up through 2012 to assess incident frailty, defined as at least two of the following Fried criteria: exhaustion, weakness, low physical activity, and slow walking speed. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Over a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 280 cases of incident frailty were identified. Compared to individuals in the lowest tertile of serum leptin, those in the highest tertile showed an increased risk of frailty (odds ratio [OR]: 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47-3.06; p-trend <0.001). Further adjustment for the percentage of body fat led to an OR of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.11-2.61; p-trend=0.01). After additional adjustment for HOMA-IR and CRP, the OR for frailty was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01-2.52; p-trend=0.04). Results did not vary according to sex, abdominal obesity or the percentage of body fat. Being in the highest versus lowest tertile of leptin was associated with increased risk of exhaustion (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.32-3.55; p-trend=0.001) and muscle weakness (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.25-2.51; p-trend=0.001), in the analyses adjusted for potential confounders and body fat. Higher leptin concentration was associated with greater risk of frailty in older adults. This association was only modestly explained by insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, as measured by CRP.

  9. Serum Zinc Concentration and C-Reactive Protein in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: the Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Krishna C; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-05-01

    Low zinc levels and chronic inflammation are common in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Zinc deficiency may promote systemic inflammation, but research on the role of zinc in inflammation among HIV-positive individuals taking account of anti-retroviral therapy is lacking. We assessed the association between serum zinc and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 311 HIV-positive individuals (177 men and 134 women) aged 18-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal. High-sensitive or regular serum CRP concentrations were measured by the latex agglutination nephelometry or turbidimetric method, and zinc concentrations were measured by the atomic absorption method. Relationships were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. The geometric means of zinc in men and women were 73.83 and 71.93 ug/dL, respectively, and of CRP were 1.64 and 0.96 mg/L, respectively. Mean serum CRP concentration was significantly decreased with increasing serum zinc concentration across zinc tertiles (P for trend = 0.010), with mean serum CRP concentration in the highest tertile of serum zinc concentration was 44.2 % lower than that in the lowest tertile. The mean serum CRP concentrations in men and women in the highest tertile of serum zinc concentrations were 30 and 35.9 % lower, respectively, than that in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.263 and 0.162, respectively). We found a significant inverse relation between log zinc and log CRP concentrations (beta for 1 unit change in log zinc; β = -1.79, p = 0.0003). Serum zinc concentration may be inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in HIV-positive individuals.

  10. Circulating adiponectin concentrations are increased by dietary resistant starch and correlate with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and kidney function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; Derscheid, Rachel; Fuller, Kelly N Z; Valentine, Rudy J; Leow, Shu En; Reed, Leah; Wisecup, Emily; Schalinske, Kevin L; Rowling, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that dietary resistant starch (RS) type 2 prevented proteinuria and promoted vitamin D balance in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Here, our primary objective was to identify potential mechanisms that could explain our earlier observations. We hypothesized that RS could promote adiponectin secretion and regulate the renin-angiotensin system activity in the kidney. Lean Zucker rats (n = 5) were fed control diet; Zucker diabetic fatty rats (n = 5/group) were fed either an AIN-93G control diet (DC) or AIN-93G diet containing either 10% RS or 20% RS (HRS) for 6 weeks. Resistant starch had no impact on blood glucose concentrations and hemoglobin A1c percentage, yet circulating adiponectin was 77% higher in HRS-fed rats, compared to DC rats. Adiponectin concentrations strongly correlated with serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (r = 0.815; P < .001) and urinary creatinine concentrations (r = 0.818; P < .001) and inversely correlated with proteinuria (r = -0.583; P = .02). Serum angiotensin II concentrations were 44% lower, and expression of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1, was attenuated in RS-fed rats. Moreover, we observed a 14-fold increase in messenger RNA expression of nephrin, which is required for functioning of the renal filtration barrier, in HRS rats. The HRS, but not 10% RS diet, increased circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations and attenuated urinary loss of vitamin D metabolites in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Taken together, we provide evidence that vitamin D balance in the presence of hyperglycemia is strongly associated with serum adiponectin levels and reduced renal renin-angiotensin system signaling.

  11. Serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Anna-Martha V; Andreazza, Tahiana; Costa, Ângelo B; Salvador, Jaqueline; Koff, Walter J; Aguiar, Bianca; Ferrari, Pamela; Massuda, Raffael; Pedrini, Mariana; Silveira, Esalba; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S; Gama, Clarissa S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Lobato, Maria Ines R

    2013-10-01

    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is characterized by a strong and persistent cross-gender identification that affects different aspects of behavior. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity. Altered BDNF-signaling is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disordersand is related to traumatic life events. To examine serum BDNF levels, we compared one group of DSM-IV GID patients (n = 45) and one healthy control group (n = 66). Serum BDNF levels were significantly decreased in GID patients (p = 0.013). This data support the hypothesis that the reduction found in serum BDNF levels in GID patients may be related to the psychological abuse that transsexuals are exposed during their life.

  12. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  13. Serum Zinc, Iron, and Copper Concentrations during Typhoid Fever in Man: Effect of Chloramphenicol Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-12

    Received Nov. 12I~aepe Dec. 16,1974. Study 1. Nineteen healthy men, inmates of the MS CLINICAL CHEMISTRY , Vol. 21.14o. 4, 1975 - Best Available Copy Maryland...thenap and mserum rm concentrfations. nificant depressions of serum iron and zinc conoen- aM CLINICAL CHEMISTRY , Vol. 21.4o. 4. 10754 *IE EWZX 1~001...evidenc, was in the absence between 30-40% of the zinc bound in serum (16), we CLINICAL CHEMISTRY . Vol. 21. No. 4,1975 531 saw no significant changes in

  14. Mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations govern implantation rates for cryopreserved embryo transfers conducted under hormone replacement.

    PubMed

    Yovich, John L; Conceicao, Jason L; Stanger, James D; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2015-08-01

    This study explores the relevance of mid-luteal serum hormonal concentrations in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles conducted under hormone replacement therapy (HRT) control and which involved single-embryo transfer (SET) of 529 vitrified blastocysts. Widely ranging mid-luteal oestradiol and progesterone concentrations ensued from the unique HRT regimen. Oestradiol had no influence on clinical pregnancy or live birth rates, but an optimal progesterone range between 70 and 99 nmol/l (P < 0.005) was identified in this study. Concentrations of progesterone below 50 nmol/l and above 99 nmol/l were associated with decreased implantation rates. There was no clear interaction between oestradiol and progesterone concentrations but embryo quality grading did show a significant influence on outcomes (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 for clinical pregnancy and live birth rates, respectively). Multiple comparison analysis showed that the progesterone effect was influential regardless of embryo grading, body mass index or the woman's age, either at vitrification or at cryopreserved embryo transfer. The results support the argument that careful monitoring of serum progesterone concentrations in HRT-cryopreserved embryo transfer is warranted and that further studies should explore pessary adjustments to optimize concentrations for individual women to enhance implantation rates.

  15. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). Methods 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Results Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). Conclusions The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter. PMID:24886427

  16. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Lee, MinJae; Bressler, Jan; Tomechko, Sara E.; Moreno, Emily K.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Geiger, Matthew J.; O’Keefe, Michael E.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-01-01

    To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21), 7.16 (1.71), 7.30 (1.74) and 28.15 (6.03) ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD) for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78) and 61.60 (70.76) ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns. PMID:27775677

  17. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Dickerson, Aisha S; Lee, MinJae; Bressler, Jan; Tomechko, Sara E; Moreno, Emily K; Loveland, Katherine A; Desai, Charlene Coore; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Geiger, Matthew J; O'Keefe, Michael E; Grove, Megan L; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2016-10-21

    To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21), 7.16 (1.71), 7.30 (1.74) and 28.15 (6.03) ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD) for the 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78) and 61.60 (70.76) ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  18. Increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and serum organochlorine concentrations among neighbors of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Viel, Jean-François; Floret, Nathalie; Deconinck, Eric; Focant, Jean-François; De Pauw, Edwin; Cahn, Jean-Yves

    2011-02-01

    Organochlorine chemicals may contribute to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) within non-occupationally exposed populations. Among these chemicals, dioxins and furans were mainly released by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) until a recent past in France, a source of exposure that is of public concern. We investigated organochlorines and the risk of NHL among neighbors of a French MSWI with high levels of dioxin emissions (Besançon, France), using serum concentrations to assess exposure. The study area consisted of three electoral wards, containing or surrounding the MSWI. Pesticides, dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the serum of 34 newly diagnosed NHL cases (2003-2005) and 34 controls. Risks of NHL associated with each lipid-corrected serum concentration were estimated using exact logistic regression. The pesticides β-hexachlorocyclohexane (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-1.12, per 10 ng/g lipid) and p,p' dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.45, per 10 ng/g lipid) were associated with NHL risk. Evidence indicated an increased NHL risk associated with cumulative WHO(1998)-toxic equivalency factor (TEQ) concentrations (dioxins, OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.03-1.26; furans, OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03-1.35; dioxin-like PCBs, OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.00-1.07; and total TEQ, OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.05), as well as with non dioxin-like PCBs (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.05, per 10 ng/g lipid). Most congener-specific associations were statistically significant. This study provides strong and consistent support for an association between serum cumulative WHO(1998)-TEQ concentrations, at levels experienced by people residing in the vicinity of a polluting MSWI, and risk of NHL.

  19. Serum PCB concentrations in residents of Calcasieu and Lafayette Parishes, Louisiana with comparison to the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee-Yang; Uddin, Mohammed S; Turner, Wayman; Ragin, Angela D; Dearwent, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, a cross-sectional study designed to compare the serum dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) of a population-based sample of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana residents, to Lafayette Parish was conducted. The mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in order to calculate the TEQ. We compared the sum of lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 27 PCB congeners (total PCBs) in residents of these two parishes and also by their demographic characteristics. The geometric means (GM) [standard errors (SE)] of the concentrations (ngg(-1) lipids) of total PCBs in participants from Calcasieu Parish and Lafayette Parish were 154 (11.8) and 168.6 (20.8) (T-test p=0.54), respectively. Various percentiles of the distribution of serum total PCB concentrations were similar in the two parishes. After adjusting by age and race in the ANCOVA regression model, the adjusted GM for the lipid adjusted total PCBs was statistically higher in the residents in Lafayette than in Calcasieu Parish regardless of age or race (P=0.007). The adjusted GM of lipid adjusted total PCBs for African Americans was significantly higher than for Whites (p<0.001). Serum total PCB levels in residents of both parishes increased linearly with age (P<0.001). The congener profiles were similar in residents of both parishes. We also compared the GMs of a sum of 8 PCBs in Calcasieu and Lafayette Parish residents to those from a representative sample of the U.S. general population in 2001-2002 and they were not significantly different between parishes or between the parish data and the U.S. general population.

  20. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, X F; Yin, Y L; He, Q H; Yin, F G; Liu, H J; Li, T J; Huang, R L; Geng, M M; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Wu, G

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or 2 g/kg of the powder, or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to corn- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). Blood samples from five piglets per group were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 to determine serum AA concentrations. In Experiment 2, 12 barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.64 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, followed by surgical placement of a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. All of the diets contained 0.1% titanium oxide as a digestibility marker. The samples of terminal ileal digesta were collected on day 7 for determining AID of AA. Results show that dietary supplementation with the herbal powder increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations and AID of most AA by 10-50% and 10-16%, respectively. As an indicator of improved intestinal function, AID values of calcium were also enhanced in piglets supplemented with the herbal powder. Dietary supplementation of colistin increased serum concentrations and AID values of some AA by 8-44% and 10-15%, respectively, in comparison with the non-supplemented group. These novel findings demonstrate that the herbal powder can enhance the digestibility of dietary protein and the intestinal absorption of AA into the systemic circulation in post-weaning pigs, therefore providing a new mechanism for its growth- and immunity-promoting efficacy.

  1. Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W

    2014-02-01

    We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q < 0.05). However, WPH increased lysine (false discovery rate using a q-value <0.05) and tended to increase isoleucine and valine 15 min post-feeding (q < 0.10) as well as aspartylleucine 30 min post-feeding compared with WPC (q < 0.05). While both protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q < 0.05), WPH also uniquely resulted in a 30 min post-feeding elevation in free fatty acids compared with WPC (q < 0.05), an effect which may be due to the robust 30 min postprandial increase in epinephrine in the WPH cohort. These data provide a unique postprandial time-course perspective on how WPH versus WPC feedings affect circulating biochemicals and will guide future research comparing these 2 protein sources.

  2. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn’s disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI), the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05). Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p < 0.05). A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status. PMID:27916926

  3. Clinical evaluation and serum concentration of zuclopenthixol acetate in psychotic Asian patients: a single-dose preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tan, C H; Low, B L; Ng, L L; Khoo, Y M; Lee, H S

    1993-04-01

    Nineteen acutely disturbed psychotic Asian patients were treated with a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg of zuclopenthixol acetate in Viscoleo. Patients were assessed clinically before and after treatment using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Serum zuclopenthixol and the inactive geometric isomer trans(E)-clopenthixol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after intramuscular injection. All patients improved, with the BPRS being significantly reduced (p < 0.001) at 72 h after injection. Adverse effects were generally few. The mean +/- SEM serum zuclopenthixol concentrations at 24, 48, and 72 h were 19.9 +/- 2.8, 31.5 +/- 4.5, and 17.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms/L, respectively. trans(E)-Clopenthixol concentrations ranged from negligible to 39.5 micrograms/L. This study confirms that a single intramuscular injection of 50 mg is adequate for managing severely disturbed psychotic patients for the first 3 days. The serum zuclopenthixol concentrations attained in the Asian patients were higher than those reported in Caucasian psychiatric patients. In some patients, a considerable amount of zuclopenthixol had been transformed to trans(E)-clopenthixol.

  4. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause significant losses to the cattle industry. Previous research has suggested that Holstein cattle clear toxic Delphinium alkaloids from their serum at a greater rate than beef cattle. The toxicokinetics of lupine alkaloids in Holsteins are not known...

  5. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  6. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC se...

  7. Serum and urine concentrations of flunitrazepam and metabolites, after a single oral dose, by immunoassay and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Snyder, H; Schwenzer, K S; Pearlman, R; McNally, A J; Tsilimidos, M; Salamone, S J; Brenneisen, R; ElSohly, M A; Feng, S

    2001-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of commercially available immunoassays to detect flunitrazepam (FNP) in plasma and urine samples and to compare the results with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The clinical study consisted of four individuals (two male and two female) who had taken a single 2-mg dose of FNP. Serum was collected over a 48-h period and urine was collected over a 72-h period. The serum and urine samples were analyzed by the COBAS INTEGRA Serum Benzodiazepines assay (SBENZ), the TDx serum and urine Benzodiazepines assay, and GC-MS. The GC-MS procedure was developed for analysis of FNP and metabolites in plasma and urine using an acid hydrolysis step resulting in the formation of specific benzophenones corresponding to FNP and its metabolites. The relative sensitivities of the assays for the detection of FNP and metabolites in serum and urine were GC-MS > SBENZ > TDx. The immunoassay results for serum samples showed peak concentrations of FNP metabolites at 8 h after FNP ingestion for three individuals and at about 1 h for the fourth individual. The GC-MS, SBENZ, and TDx urine immunoassays detected drug above the stated limit of detection (LOD) in 44, 41, and 35 serial FNP urine samples, respectively. FNP metabolites were detected in urine samples with all three assays for up to 72 h after a 2-mg dose. The improved detection rate with the SBENZ assay as compared to the TDx assay is likely explained by its higher cross-reactivity with the major metabolite, 7-amino-flunitrazepam (7-amino-FNP), and its lower LOD.

  8. Association of serum carotenoid, retinol, and tocopherol concentrations with the progression of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jinah; Shim, Eugene; Chung, Eun-Jung; Jang, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A pivotal role of oxidative stress has been emphasized in the pathogenesis as well as in the disease progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed at investigating serum levels of antioxidant vitamins and elucidating whether they could be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of PD. MATERIALS/METHODS Serum levels of retinol, α- and γ-tocopherols, α- and β-carotenes, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin were measured and compared between 104 patients with idiopathic PD and 52 healthy controls matched for age and gender. In order to examine the relationship between antioxidant vitamins and the disease progression, multiple group comparisons were performed among the early PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage I and II, N = 47), advanced PD (stage III and IV, N = 57) and control groups. Separate correlation analyses were performed between the measured antioxidant vitamins and clinical variables, such as Hoehn and Yahr stage and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. RESULTS Compared to controls, PD patients had lower levels of α- and β-carotenes and lycopene. α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene levels were significantly reduced in advanced PD patients relative to early PD patients and were negatively correlated with Hoehn and Yahr stage and UPDRS motor score in PD patients. No significant differences were found in serum levels of retinol, α- and γ-tocopherols, and other carotenoids between PD patients and controls. No significant correlations were found between these vitamin levels and clinical variables in PD patients. CONCLUSIONS We found that serum levels of some carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene, were lower in PD patients, and that these carotenoids inversely correlated with clinical variables representing disease progression. Our findings suggest that decreases in serum α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene may be associated with the pathogenesis as well as progression of PD

  9. Serum Ropivacaine Concentrations and Systemic Local Anesthetic Toxicity in Trauma Patients Receiving Long-Term Continuous Peripheral Nerve Block Catheters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    concentrations were calculated from the following 2 methods: 1. Using peak area ratio of ropivacaine/ bupivacaine of samples versus peak area ratio of...ropivacaine/ bupivacaine of standards (0–3000 ng/mL) using the following formula: RopS (PA of Rop)/(PA of Bup)S /(PA of Rop)/(PA of Bup)STD Bup...1/mL serum used) where Rop ropivacaine, Bup bupivacaine , PA peak area, S sample, and STD standard. 2. Samples of ropivacaine concentrations

  10. Effects of Dietary Selenium, Sulphur and Copper Levels on Selenium Concentration in the Serum and Liver of Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning. PMID:25083101

  11. Effects of dietary selenium, sulphur and copper levels on selenium concentration in the serum and liver of lamb.

    PubMed

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning.

  12. Serum concentration of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and the copper/zinc ratio in horses with equine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Ibrahim; Deger, Yeter; Mert, Handan; Mert, Nihat; Ataseven, Veysel

    2007-07-01

    The serum concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt and copper/zinc ratio were investigated in horses infected with equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). Nine horses were naturally infected with the virus and nine healthy horses served as controls. The concentrations of copper, zinc, iron, and cobalt were determined spectrophotometrically in the blood serum of all horses. The results were (expressed in micrograms per deciliters) copper 2.80 +/- 0.34 vs 1.12 +/- 0.44, zinc 3.05 +/- 0.18 vs 0.83 +/- 0.06, iron 2.76 +/- 0.17 vs 3.71 +/- 0.69, cobalt 0.19 +/- 0.37 vs 0.22 +/- 0.45, and copper/zinc ratio 0.72 +/- 0.38 vs 1.41 +/- 0.36 for control vs infected group, respectively. In conclusion, copper and zinc concentrations of the infected group were lower than the control group (p < 0.001), whereas iron concentration and the copper/zinc ratio of the infected group were higher than the control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). The cobalt concentration was not found to be statistically different between two groups. It might be emphasized that copper/zinc ratio was significantly affected by the EHV-1 infection, so it could be taken into consideration during the course of infection.

  13. A novel biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis: serum DKK1 concentration correlates with coronary artery calcification and atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Park, Kyoung Un; Chun, Eun Ju; Choi, Sang Il; Cho, Young-Seok; Youn, Tae-Jin; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Chae, In-Ho; Song, Junghan; Choi, Dong-Ju; Kim, Cheol-Ho

    2011-09-01

    DKK1 modulates Wnt signaling, which is involved in the atherosclerosis. However, no data exist regarding the usefulness of measuring serum DKK1 concentration in predicting coronary atherosclerosis. A total of 270 consecutive patients (62.8 ± 11.2 yr; 70% male) were included. A contrast-enhanced 64-slice coronary MDCT was performed to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Agatston calcium scores (CS) were calculated to quantify the coronary artery calcification (CAC). DKK1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each subsequent DKK1 quartile, there was a significant increase in CAC (P = 0.004) and the number of segments with coronary atherosclerosis (P < 0.001). In addition, DKK1 concentration was significantly higher in patients with atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of plaque composition (P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis identified DKK1 as an independent risk factor for the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The adjusted odds ratio for coronary atherosclerotic plaque was 4.88 (95% CI, 1.67 to 14.25) for highest versus lowest quartile of the DKK1 levels. Furthermore, patients with DKK1 concentrations ≥ 68.6 pg/mL demonstrated coronary atherosclerotic plaques even when they had low CS. Serum DKK1 concentrations correlate with the coronary atherosclerosis and play an independent role in predicting the presence of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease?

    PubMed Central

    Law, M. R.; Wald, N. J.; Thompson, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate by how much and how quickly a given reduction in serum cholesterol concentration will reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN--Data on the incidence of ischaemic heart disease and serum cholesterol concentration were analysed from 10 prospective (cohort) studies, three international studies in different communities, and 28 randomised controlled trials (with mortality data analysed according to allocated treatment to ensure the avoidance of bias). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Decrease in incidence of ischaemic heart disease or mortality for a 0.6 mmol/l (about 10%) decrease in serum cholesterol concentration. RESULTS--For men results from the cohort studies showed that a decrease of serum cholesterol concentration of 0.6 mmol/l (about 10%) was associated with a decrease in incidence of ischaemic heart disease of 54% at age 40 years, 39% at age 50, 27% at 60, 20% at 70, and 19% at 80. The combined estimate from the three international studies (for ages 55-64 years) was 38% (95% confidence interval 33% to 42%), somewhat greater than the cohort study estimate of 27%. The reductions in incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the randomised trials (for ages 55-64 years) were 7% (0 to 14%) in the first two years, 22% (15% to 28%) from 2.1-5 years, and 25% (15% to 35%) after five years, the last estimate being close to the estimate of 27% for the long term reduction from the cohort studies. The data for women are limited but indicate a similar effect. CONCLUSIONS--The results from the cohort studies, international comparisons, and clinical trials are remarkably consistent. The cohort studies, based on half a million men and 18,000 ischaemic heart disease events, estimate that a long term reduction in serum cholesterol concentration of 0.6 mmol/l (10%), which can be achieved by moderate dietary change, lowers the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 50% at age 40, falling to 20% at age 70. The randomised trials, based on 45,000 men and 4000

  15. Cognitive dysfunction correlates with elevated serum S100B concentration in drug-free acutely relapsed patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Tian, Li; Chen, Nan; Xiu, Meihong; Wang, Zhiren; Yang, Guigang; Wang, Chuanyue; Yang, Fude; Tan, Yunlong

    2017-01-01

    S100B, a biomarker of glial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, has been proposed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the association of serum S100B levels with cognitive deficits using MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in schizophrenia, by excluding the impact of antipsychotics. Sixty-two unmedicated patients with schizophrenia during their acute phases were divided into a drug-naïve group (n=34) and a drug-free group (n=28). S100B serum concentrations were measured and MCCB was administered to all of the patients. Forty healthy controls donated their blood samples for S100B assessment. The results indicated that serum S100B was significantly elevated in the drug-naive/free acute-stage schizophrenic patients when compared to the healthy controls. In the drug-free group, the serum S100B level was an independent contributor to the global cognitive dysfunctions, particularly for the speed of processing, attention/vigilance, visual learning and reasoning/problem solving subscores. Nevertheless, no significant associations between S100B and MCCB composite score or any cognitive domain subscore were observed in the drug-naïve group. These findings support the hypothesis that glial dysfunction and associated marker protein S100B may contribute to the pathophysiologic development of neurocognitive deficits in the relapsed individuals with schizophrenia.

  16. Some serum acute phase proteins and immunoglobulins concentrations in calves with rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5 and Eimeria species

    PubMed Central

    Balikci, E; Al, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and IgG, IgA in calves with diarrhea caused by rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia coli F5 and Eimeria species. The experiment was carried out on 40 diarrhoeic and 10 non-diarrhoeic calves (group C). A total of 13 calves were infected with rotavirus or coronavirus (group V), 12 calves with E. coli F5 (group B) and 15 calves with Eimeria species (group P). SAA and Hp levels of calves in groups V, B and P were statistically higher than group C (P<0.05). SAA and Hp levels of the group B and group P were significantly higher than the group V (P<0.05). SAA and Hp levels in group B were not significantly higher than the group P. The levels of IgG and IgA were found to be lower in groups B and V compared to other groups. There was a negative correlation between immunoglobulins and the levels of serum Hp and SAA in groups B and V (r=-0.315 and r=-0.369, respectively, P<0.05). Serum SAA, Hp, IgA and IgG levels could be useful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of diarrhea caused by rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5 and Eimeria species. PMID:27175138

  17. Serum leptin concentrations, leptin mRNA expression, and food intake during the estrous cycle in rats.

    PubMed

    Fungfuang, Wirasak; Nakada, Tomoaki; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Terada, Misao; Yokosuka, Makoto; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn; Hau, Jann; Moon, Changjong; Saito, Toru R

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate food intake, serum leptin levels, and leptin mRNA expression during the sexual cycle in rats. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats aged 8-10 weeks were used in this experiment. Food intake was measured during the light and dark phases (light on at 07:00 and off at 19:00) of the 4-day estrous cycle in female rats. Serum leptin levels were measured by ELISA, and leptin mRNA expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR on diestrous- and proestrous-stage rats. Our results revealed that during the sexual cycle, food intake was significantly higher in the dark phase compared with the light phase. Food intake in proestrous females was significantly lower in the light and dark phases compared with the other groups. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in both phases in proestrous rats compared with diestrous rats. There was a significant increase in leptin mRNA expression in adipose tissue during the proestrous period compared with the diestrous period. These findings suggest that increased leptin mRNA expression and serum leptin levels, which are induced by estrogen during the proestrous stage, may play a role in regulating appetitive behavior.

  18. Exosomal microRNA miR-92a concentration in serum reflects human brown fat activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Buyel, Joschka J.; Hanssen, Mark J. W.; Siegel, Franziska; Pan, Ruping; Naumann, Jennifer; Schell, Michael; van der Lans, Anouk; Schlein, Christian; Froehlich, Holger; Heeren, Joerg; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography coupled with computer tomography (PET/CT) is still the standard for measuring BAT activity, but exposes subjects to ionizing radiation. To study BAT function in large human cohorts, novel diagnostic tools are needed. Here we show that brown adipocytes release exosomes and that BAT activation increases exosome release. Profiling miRNAs in exosomes released from brown adipocytes, and in exosomes isolated from mouse serum, we show that levels of miRNAs change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. One of these exosomal miRNAs, miR-92a, is also present in human serum exosomes. Importantly, serum concentrations of exosomal miR-92a inversely correlate with human BAT activity measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in two unique and independent cohorts comprising 41 healthy individuals. Thus, exosomal miR-92a represents a potential serum biomarker for BAT activity in mice and humans. PMID:27117818

  19. The serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration, a marker of vitamin D catabolism, is reduced in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Cortney; Levin, Gregory; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Ruzinski, John; Young, Bessie; Schwartz, Stephen; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Kestenbaum, Bryan; de Boer, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is characterized, in part, as a state of decreased production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D); however, this paradigm overlooks the role of vitamin D catabolism. We developed a mass spectrometric assay to quantify serum concentration of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), the first metabolic product of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by CYP24A1, and determined its clinical correlates and associated outcomes among 278 participants with chronic kidney disease in the Seattle Kidney Study. For eGFRs of 60 or more, 45–59, 30–44, 15–29, and under 15 ml/min/1.73m2, the mean serum 24,25(OH)2D concentrations significantly trended lower from 3.6, 3.2, 2.6, 2.6, to 1.7 ng/ml, respectively. Non-Hispanic Black race, diabetes, albuminuria, and lower serum bicarbonate were also independently and significantly associated with lower 24,25(OH)2D concentrations. The 24,25(OH)2D concentration was more strongly correlated with that of parathyroid hormone than was 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D. A 24,25(OH)2D concentration below the median was associated with increased risk of mortality in unadjusted analysis, but this was attenuated with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Thus, chronic kidney disease is a state of stagnant vitamin D metabolism characterized by decreases in both 1,25(OH)2D production and vitamin D catabolism. PMID:22648296

  20. Suppression of nanoparticle cytotoxicity approaching in vivo serum concentrations: limitations of in vitro testing for nanosafety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KimPresent Address: Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department Of Chemistry; Applied Biosciences, Eth Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland., Jong Ah; SalvatiPresent Address: Division Of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology; Targeting, Department Of Pharmacy, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 Av Groningen, The Netherlands., Anna; ÅbergPresent Address: Groningen Institute Of Biomolecular Sciences; Biotechnology, University Of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 Ag Groningen, The Netherlands., Christoffer; Dawson, Kenneth A.

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials challenge paradigms of in vitro testing because unlike molecular species, biomolecules in the dispersion medium modulate their interactions with cells. Exposing cells to nanoparticles known to cause cell death, we observed cytotoxicity suppression by increasing the amount of serum in the dispersion medium towards in vivo-relevant conditions.Nanomaterials challenge paradigms of in vitro testing because unlike molecular species, biomolecules in the dispersion medium modulate their interactions with cells. Exposing cells to nanoparticles known to cause cell death, we observed cytotoxicity suppression by increasing the amount of serum in the dispersion medium towards in vivo-relevant conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures; cell viability, proliferation and endocytosis levels of cultures grown in the relevant media; cellular uptake and physicochemical characterisation by DCS of silica nanoparticles; physicochemical characterisation by DLS of the amino-modified polystyrene nanoparticles used in the relevant biological media. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04970e

  1. Genetic and environmental predictors of serum 25(OH)D concentrations among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Robien, Kim; Butler, Lesley M.; Wang, Renwei; Beckman, Kenneth B.; Walek, Dinesha; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is known for maintaining calcium homeostasis and bone structure, and may also decrease susceptibility to chronic and infectious diseases. However, data on vitamin D status and its predictors among Southeast Asian populations is limited. We evaluated the distribution and determinants (genetic and environmental) of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among 504 middle-aged and elderly participants (aged 45–74 years) in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Data on dietary and other lifestyle factors were collected by trained interviewers. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolism pathway enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2R1, 3A4, 27B1, 24A1; vitamin D binding protein (GC); and vitamin D receptor (VDR)] were measured using stored biospecimens. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 68.8 nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively associated with dietary vitamin D intake, and inversely associated with hours sitting at work. BMI was not associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. CYP2R1 rs10741657, rs12794714, rs1993116; CYP3A4 rs2242480; and GC rs4588, rs7041, rs16847015, rs2298849 were statistically significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Individuals with the Gc2-2 haplotype (rs4588AA/rs7041TT) had statistically significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to all other Gc haplotypes (p-trend<0.001). The majority of participants (86%) had 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L, which is consistent with the 2011 Institute of Medicine (United States) recommendation for bone health, and 32% had concentrations of ≥75 nmol/L that are thought to be required for broader health effects. Dietary vitamin D intake, hours spent indoors at work, and genetic variation in CYP2R1, CYP3A4 and GC are significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentrations among Singapore Chinese. PMID:22583563

  2. Serum Zinc Concentrations in Children with Acute Bloody and Watery Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Chegini, Victoria; Sahmani, Mehdi; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is controversial. This study was conducted to compare serum zinc levels in children with acute diarrhoea to those found in healthy children. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the Qazvin Children’s Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, between July 2012 and January 2013. A total of 60 children with acute diarrhoea (12 children with bloody diarrhoea and 48 children with watery diarrhoea) and 60 healthy children were included. Zinc levels for all subjects were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analysed and compared between groups. Results: Mean serum zinc levels in the patients with acute bloody diarrhoea, acute watery diarrhoea and the control group were 74.1 ± 23.7 μg/dL, 169.4 ± 62.7 μg/dL and 190.1 ± 18.0 μg/dL, respectively (P = 0.01). Hypozincaemia was observed in 50.0% of children with acute bloody diarrhoea and 12.5% of those with acute watery diarrhoea. None of the patients in the control group had hypozincaemia (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Children with acute bloody diarrhoea had significantly reduced serum zinc levels in comparison to healthy children. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to examine the significance of this trend. PMID:26629379

  3. Relaxin concentrations in serum and urine of endangered and crazy mixed-up species.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B; Lasano, S; de Haas van Dorsser, F; Glickman, S; Bergfelt, D; Santymire, R; Songsassen, N; Swanson, W

    2009-04-01

    The human population explosion has pushed many mammalian wildlife species to the brink of extinction. Conservationists are increasingly turning to captive breeding as a means of preserving the gene pool. We previously reported that serum immunoactive relaxin provided a reliable means of distinguishing between true and pseudopregnancy in domestic dogs, and this method has since been found to be a reliable indicator of true pregnancy in endangered Asian and African elephants and Sumatran rhinoceroses. Our canine relaxin radioimmunoassay (RIA) has now been adapted and validated to measure relaxin in the serum and urine of felids, including domestic and wild species. Moreover, a commercially available canine serum relaxin kit (Witness) Relaxin Kit; Synbiotics, San Diego, CA), has been adapted for reliable detection of relaxin in urine of some felid species. Our porcine relaxin RIA has also been utilized to investigate the role of relaxin in reproductive processes of the spotted hyena, a species in which the female fetuses are severely masculinized in utero. Indeed, this species might well now be extinct were it not for the timely secretion of relaxin to enable copulation and birth of young through the clitoris. Additional studies have suggested relaxin may be a useful marker of pregnancy in the northern fur seal and the maned wolf (the former species has been designated as "depleted" and the latter as "near threatened"). Given appropriate immunoassay reagents, relaxin determination in body fluids thus provides a powerful tool for conservationists and biologists investigating reproduction in a wide variety of endangered and exotic species.

  4. Adiponectin, orexin A and orexin B concentrations in the serum and uterine luminal fluid during early pregnancy of pigs.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, Nina; Kiezun, Marta; Dobrzyn, Kamil; Szeszko, Karol; Maleszka, Anna; Kaminski, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant adipose-released protein that circulates in human plasma at high concentrations. The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA, hypocretin-1) and orexin B (OXB, hypocretin-2) are derived from a common precursor peptide, prepro-orexin and are produced mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus. It has been demonstrated that the peptides such as adiponectin and orexins have an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine functions. These hormones appear to be implicated in both normal and disturbed pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to determine adiponectin and orexin concentrations in the plasma and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) of pigs during early gestation and to explore the relationships between hormone concentrations and stages of pregnancy. The greatest plasma concentrations of adiponectin were observed on days 15-16 and 27-28 of pregnancy, and the least concentrations were on days 30-32 of gestation and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. In ULF, adiponectin concentrations were greater on days 15-16 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle than on days 10-11 and days 12-13 of pregnancy. The greatest OXA concentrations in the blood plasma were noted on days 10-16 of gestation, and the least OXA concentrations were on days 27-32 of pregnancy and on days 10-11 of the oestrous cycle. Orexin A concentrations in ULF were greater on days 10-11 of the cycle than throughout pregnancy. Serum OXB concentrations were greatest on days 10-11 and 30-32 of pregnancy, and least on days 12-28 of gestation. The greatest OXB concentrations in ULF were on days 10-13 of gestation, and the least OXB concentrations were on days 15-16 of pregnancy. This is first study to demonstrate the presence of adiponectin and orexins in the serum and ULF during early pregnancy of pigs as well as the relationships between adiponectin and orexin concentrations and the stage of pregnancy. The fluctuations in adiponectin

  5. Serum Amyloid A Protein Concentration in Blood is Influenced by Genetic Differences in the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Franklin, Ashley D; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Terio, Karen A; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2016-03-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among captive cheetahs. The self-aggregating AA protein responsible for this disease is a byproduct of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein degradation. Transcriptional induction of the SAA1 gene is dependent on both C/EBPβ and NF-κB cis-acting elements within the promoter region. In cheetahs, 2 alleles exist for a single guanine nucleotide deletion in the putative NF-κB binding site. In this study, a novel genotyping assay was developed to screen for the alleles. The results show that the SAA1A (-97delG) allele is associated with decreased SAA protein concentrations in the serum of captive cheetahs (n = 58), suggesting genetic differences at this locus may be affecting AA amyloidosis prevalence. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele between individuals confirmed AA amyloidosis positive versus AA amyloidosis negative at the time of necropsy (n = 48). Thus, even though there is evidence that having more copies of the SAA1A (-97delG) allele results in a potentially protective decrease in serum concentrations of SAA protein in captive cheetahs, genotype is not associated with this disease within the North American population. These results suggest that other factors are playing a more significant role in the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis among captive cheetahs.

  6. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis.

  7. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Obesity in Relation to Serum Dioxin Concentrations: The Seveso Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Samuels, Steven; Signorini, Stefano; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background: In animal studies, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters glucose transport and increases serum lipid levels and blood pressure. Epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between TCDD and metabolic disease. Objectives: On 10 July 1976, a chemical explosion in Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest known residential exposure to TCDD. Using data from the Seveso Women’s Health Study (SWHS), a cohort study of the health of the women, we examined the relation of serum TCDD to diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity > 30 years later. Methods: In 1996, we enrolled 981 women who were newborn to 40 years of age in 1976 and resided in the most contaminated areas. Individual TCDD concentration was measured in archived serum that had been collected soon after the explosion. In 2008, 833 women participated in a follow-up study. Diabetes was classified based on self-report or fasting serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. Metabolic syndrome was defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: A 10-fold increase in serum TCDD (log10TCDD) was not associated with diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.45, 1.28) or obesity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.10]. Log10TCDD was associated with metabolic syndrome, but only among women who were ≤ 12 years of age at the time of the explosion (adjusted OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29; pinteraction = 0.01). Conclusions: We found an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with TCDD, but only among women who were the youngest at the time of the explosion. Continued follow-up of the SWHS cohort will be informative. PMID:23674506

  8. Serum concentrations of micronutrients, packed cell volume, and blood hemoglobin during the first two gestations and lactations of sows.

    PubMed Central

    Girard, C L; Robert, S; Matte, J J; Farmer, C; Martineau, G P

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to describe the changes in serum concentrations of some micronutrients during the first 2 gestations and lactations of 33 gilts in order to establish blood reference values for a rapid assessment of nutritional status. In both parities, blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at mating, 5, 10 and 15 wk of gestation and l d and 4 wk after parturition (weaning). Reference values (mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum) for serum folates, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 metabolites (pyridoxal and pyridoxal-5-phosphate), calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc, copper and iron, as well as blood hemoglobin and packed cell volume are reported for each studied time. Differences between parities and between each time are also reported. Results from the present report demonstrate that knowledge of the physiological state of the sows is critical for the assessment of nutritional status of an individual or a breeding herd by interpretation of analyses of blood constituents. PMID:8809380

  9. Effects of flunixin meglumine on selected clinicopathologic variables, and serum testosterone concentration in stallions after endotoxin administration.

    PubMed

    Danek, J

    2006-09-01

    Four clinically normal stallions were infused intravenously with endotoxin (LPS) from Escherichia coli 055:B5 at a dose of 0.3 microg/kg b.w. and four stallions were treated with flunixin meglumine (FM) as a single intravenous injection at a dose of 1.1 mg/kg b.w., 5 min after the infusion of LPS. In response to endotoxin infusion, stallions' reaction was fever (increased rectal and scrotal skin temperature), increased heart rate (HR) and leucopenia. Administration of endotoxin also influenced the level of testosterone (decrease at 3-24 h and increase at 48-72 h after LPS administration) in the blood serum. FM treatment prevented an endotoxin-induced increase in rectal and scrotal skin temperature, HR, with no influence on the decrease of leucocytes. Administration of FM only had a significant effect on the latter changes (at 24-72 h) of serum testosterone concentration after addition of endotoxin.

  10. Sclerostin alters serum vitamin D metabolite and fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and the urinary excretion of calcium

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Ketha, Hemamalini; McNulty, Melissa S.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan; Craig, Theodore A.; Grande, Joseph P.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the SOST (sclerostin) gene are associated with overgrowth and sclerosis of the skeleton. To determine mechanisms by which increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus are accreted to enable enhanced bone mineralization in the absence of sclerostin, we measured concentrations of calciotropic and phosphaturic hormones, and urine and serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus in mice in which the sclerostin (sost) gene was replaced by the β-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene in the germ line. Knockout (KO) (sost−/−) mice had increased bone mineral density and content, increased cortical and trabecular bone thickness, and greater net bone formation as a result of increased osteoblast and decreased osteoclast surfaces compared with wild-type (WT) mice. β-Galactosidase activity was detected in osteocytes of sost KO mice but was undetectable in WT mice. Eight-week-old, male sost KO mice had increased serum 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased intact fibroblast growth factor 23, and elevated inorganic phosphorus concentrations compared with age-matched WT mice. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (cyp27B1) mRNA was increased in kidneys of sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Treatment of cultured proximal tubule cells with mouse recombinant sclerostin decreased cyp27B1 mRNA transcripts. Urinary calcium and renal fractional excretion of calcium were decreased in sost KO mice compared with WT mice. Sost KO and WT mice had similar serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. The data show that sclerostin not only alters bone mineralization, but also influences mineral metabolism by altering concentrations of hormones that regulate mineral accretion. PMID:23530237

  11. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on trace element concentration in serum and brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Abdel-Hasseb A; Gad, Shereen B

    2011-12-01

    As a vasodilator with good hemodynamic effects, sildenafil has been successfully used in the treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. By selectively inhibiting phosphodiestrase type 5 (PDE-5) and thus effectively reducing the breakdown of c GMP, sildenafil administration can markedly improve the erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil also elevates localized cerebral blood flow in rat brain. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil on the level of trace elements (Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr)) in blood and brain of rats. Sixteen male albino rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into two groups (8 rats/group). Sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer Inc.) was dissolved in saline and administered at a dose of 10mg/kg i.p. (0.5 ml volume) to rats in the treated group every 72 h for 12 injections. Rats in the control group were administered the same volume of saline as in treated group. All rats were sacrificed 24h after the last injection. Blood samples were collected and serum was separated and stored at -20°C. Brains were dissected and stored frozen until analysis. Trace elements concentrations were determined by flame emission atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that sildenafil injection significantly (P<0.05) increased serum and brain Se and Cu concentrations. Moreover, sildenafil increased the Cr concentration in the brain tissue. It was concluded that sildenafil citrate administration increased serum Se and Cu as well as, increased brain Se, Cu, and Cr concentrations in rats.

  12. Resting Serum Concentration of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Sportsmen and Untrained Male Adults.

    PubMed

    Niyi-Odumosu, F A; Bello, O A; Biliaminu, S A; Owoyele, B V; Abu, T O; Dominic, O L

    2017-03-06

    There is an inverse relationship between regular physical activity and concentration of serum inflammatory markers, with variations in resting CRP in trained and untrained subjects. The effect of acute and prolonged exercises has been studied on inflammatory markers with dearth of information and controversies on the resting serum values of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). Therefore, this study sought to identify and compare variations that occur in serum levels of high sensitivity CRP in groups of sportsmen (6) and physically active untrained subjects. Eighty-one healthy male participants made up of 21 untrained (control), 10 footballers, 10 athletes, 10 karates, 10 volleyballers, 10 basketballers, and 10 baseballers voluntarily participated in the study. Participants rested while in sitting position for about 30 minutes during which blood pressures and heart rates were taken. 5 mls of venous blood was withdrawn from the antecubital vein of the participants (aseptically) between 7:00 and 10:00 am into lithium heparin bottles following an overnight fast. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 3000 rpm, serum was collected and stored at -20ºC prior to biochemical assay which was done with the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for hs-CRP. Differences in the means within the sporting groups were analysed using one-way ANOVA while the difference between the trained sportsmen and untrained young adults was analysed using the independent T-test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The Mean ±SEM age, weight, height, and BMI of the participants were 22.0±0.8 years, 64.1±2.2 kg, 1.74±0.3 m, and 20.6±0.2 kg/m2 respectively. The resting concentration of hs-CRP (µg/ml) was 1.0±0.2 in the untrained, 2.6±0.7 in footballers, 3.6±2.1 in track athletes, 2.4±0.5 in basketballers, 2.2±0.5 in volleyballers, 2.4±1.3 in baseballers, and 1.7±0.5 in karate respectively. There was no significant difference in the resting hs-CRP amongst the

  13. Increased serum concentrations of circulating glycocalyx components in HELLP syndrome compared to healthy pregnancy: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Kiefer, Klaus F; Knabl, J; Martinoff, N; Schiessl, B; Conzen, P; Rehm, M; Becker, B F; Chappell, D

    2013-03-01

    Severe inflammation has been shown to induce a shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx (EGX). Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), impede the thickness of the EGX. While a controlled inflammatory reaction occurs already in normal pregnancy, women with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome had an exaggerated inflammatory response. This study investigates the shedding of the glycocalyx during normal pregnancy and in women with HELLP syndrome. Glycocalyx components (syndecan 1, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) were measured in serum of healthy women throughout pregnancy (4 time points, n = 26), in women with HELLP syndrome (n = 17) before delivery and in nonpregnant volunteers (n = 10). Serum concentrations of TNF-α and soluble TNF-α receptors (sTNF-Rs) were assessed once in all 3 groups. Syndecan 1 serum concentrations constantly rose throughout normal pregnancy. Immediately before delivery, a 159-fold increase was measured compared to nonpregnant controls (P < .01). Even higher amounts were observed in patients with HELLP prior to delivery (median 12 252 ng/mL) compared to healthy women matched by gestational age (median 5943 ng/mL; P < .01). Relevantly, increased serum levels of heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and sTNF-Rs were only detected in patients with HELLP (P < .01). These findings suggest that considerable amounts of syndecan 1 are released into maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancy. The HELLP syndrome is associated with an even more pronounced shedding of glycocalyx components. The maternal vasculature as well as the placenta has to be discussed as a possible origin of circulating glycocalyx components.

  14. Validation of Self-Reported Smokeless Tobacco Use by Measurement of Serum Cotinine Concentration Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Although investigators have assessed the relationship between self-reported cigarette smoking and biomarker levels, the validity of self-reported information on smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is uncert