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Sample records for h-ficolin serum concentration

  1. Studies of the Pattern Recognition Molecule H-ficolin

    PubMed Central

    Zacho, Rikke M.; Jensen, Lisbeth; Terp, Randi; Jensenius, Jens C.; Thiel, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Ficolins are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. H-ficolin is found in plasma associated with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When H-ficolin binds to microorganisms the MASPs are activated, which in turn activate the complement system. H-ficolin is the most abundant ficolin in humans, yet its ligand binding characteristics and biological role remain obscure. We examined the binding of H-ficolin to Aerococcus viridans as well as to a more defined artificial target, i.e. acetylated bovine serum albumin. A strict dependence for calcium ions and inhibition at high NaCl concentration was found. The binding to acetylated bovine serum albumin was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid and sodium acetate as well as by N-acetylated glucosamine and galactosamine (GlcNAc and GalNAc) and glycine (GlyNAc). The binding to A. viridans was sensitive to the same compounds, but, importantly, higher concentrations were needed for inhibition. N-Acetylated cysteine was also inhibitory, but this inhibition was parallel with reduction in the oligomerization of H-ficolin and thus represents structural changes of the molecule. Based on our findings, we developed a procedure for the purification of H-ficolin from serum, involving PEG precipitation, affinity chromatography on Sepharose derivatized with acetylated serum albumin, ion exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The purified H-ficolin was observed to elute at 700 kDa, similar to what we find for H-ficolin in whole serum. MASP-2 was co-purified with H-ficolin, and the purified H-ficolin·MASP-2 complex could activate complement as measured by cleavage of complement factor C4. This study extends our knowledge of the specificity of this pattern recognition molecule, and the purified product will enable further studies. PMID:22238349

  2. Studies of the pattern recognition molecule H-ficolin: specificity and purification.

    PubMed

    Zacho, Rikke M; Jensen, Lisbeth; Terp, Randi; Jensenius, Jens C; Thiel, Steffen

    2012-03-09

    Ficolins are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. H-ficolin is found in plasma associated with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When H-ficolin binds to microorganisms the MASPs are activated, which in turn activate the complement system. H-ficolin is the most abundant ficolin in humans, yet its ligand binding characteristics and biological role remain obscure. We examined the binding of H-ficolin to Aerococcus viridans as well as to a more defined artificial target, i.e. acetylated bovine serum albumin. A strict dependence for calcium ions and inhibition at high NaCl concentration was found. The binding to acetylated bovine serum albumin was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid and sodium acetate as well as by N-acetylated glucosamine and galactosamine (GlcNAc and GalNAc) and glycine (GlyNAc). The binding to A. viridans was sensitive to the same compounds, but, importantly, higher concentrations were needed for inhibition. N-Acetylated cysteine was also inhibitory, but this inhibition was parallel with reduction in the oligomerization of H-ficolin and thus represents structural changes of the molecule. Based on our findings, we developed a procedure for the purification of H-ficolin from serum, involving PEG precipitation, affinity chromatography on Sepharose derivatized with acetylated serum albumin, ion exchange chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography. The purified H-ficolin was observed to elute at 700 kDa, similar to what we find for H-ficolin in whole serum. MASP-2 was co-purified with H-ficolin, and the purified H-ficolin·MASP-2 complex could activate complement as measured by cleavage of complement factor C4. This study extends our knowledge of the specificity of this pattern recognition molecule, and the purified product will enable further studies.

  3. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Işlak Mutcalı, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-12-01

    The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have "microbiologically confirmed infection", "clinically documented infection", or "fever of unknown origin" were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had "microbiologically confirmed infection", 17 (37%) had "clinically documented infection", and 18 (39.1%) had "fever of unknown origin". Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and specific data while monitoring cases of bacteremia.

  4. Early Changes of Mannose-Binding Lectin, H-Ficolin, and Procalcitonin in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Işlak Mutcal, Sibel; Saltoğlu, Neşe; Balkan, İlker İnanç; Özaras, Reşat; Yemişen, Mücahit; Mete, Bilgül; Tabak, Fehmi; Mert, Ali; Öztürk, Recep; Öngören, Şeniz; Başlar, Zafer; Aydın, Yıldız; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The significance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and H-ficolin deficiency in febrile neutropenic (FN) patients and the correlation of these markers along with consecutive C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels during the infectious process are investigated. Materials and Methods: Patients with any hematological malignancies who were defined to have “microbiologically confirmed infection”, “clinically documented infection”, or “fever of unknown origin” were included in this single-center prospective observational study. Serum levels of CRP, PCT, MBL, and H-ficolin were determined on 3 separate occasions: at baseline (between hospital admission and chemotherapy), at the onset of fever, and at the 72nd hour of fever. Results: Forty-six patients (54% male, mean age 41.7 years) with 61 separate episodes of FN were evaluated. Eleven patients (23.9%) had “microbiologically confirmed infection”, 17 (37%) had “clinically documented infection”, and 18 (39.1%) had “fever of unknown origin”. Fourteen (30.4%) patients had low (<500 ng/mL) initial MBL levels and 7 (15.21%) had low (<12,000 ng/mL) H-ficolin levels. Baseline MBL and H-ficolin levels did not significantly change on the first and third days of fever (p=0.076). Gram-negative bacteremia more frequently occurred in those with low initial MBL levels (p=0.006). PCT levels were significantly higher in those with microbiologically documented infections. Mean and median PCT levels were significantly higher in cases with bacteremia. There was no significant difference between hemoculture-positive and-negative patients in terms of CRP levels. Conclusion: Monitoring serum H-ficolin levels was shown to be of no benefit in terms of predicting severe infection. Low baseline MBL levels were correlated with high risk of gram-negative bacteremia; however, no significant correlation was shown in the follow-up. Close monitoring of PCT levels is warranted to provide more accurate and

  5. Structural insights into the innate immune recognition specificities of L- and H-ficolins

    PubMed Central

    Garlatti, Virginie; Belloy, Nicolas; Martin, Lydie; Lacroix, Monique; Matsushita, Misao; Endo, Yuichi; Fujita, Teizo; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thielens, Nicole M; Gaboriaud, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Innate immunity relies critically upon the ability of a few pattern recognition molecules to sense molecular markers on pathogens, but little is known about these interactions at the atomic level. Human L- and H-ficolins are soluble oligomeric defence proteins with lectin-like activity, assembled from collagen fibers prolonged by fibrinogen-like recognition domains. The X-ray structures of their trimeric recognition domains, alone and in complex with various ligands, have been solved to resolutions up to 1.95 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Both domains have three-lobed structures with clefts separating the distal parts of the protomers. Ca2+ ions are found at sites homologous to those described for tachylectin 5A (TL5A), an invertebrate lectin. Outer binding sites (S1) homologous to the GlcNAc-binding pocket of TL5A are present in the ficolins but show different structures and specificities. In L-ficolin, three additional binding sites (S2–S4) surround the cleft. Together, they define an unpredicted continuous recognition surface able to sense various acetylated and neutral carbohydrate markers in the context of extended polysaccharides such as 1,3-β-D-glucan, as found on microbial or apoptotic surfaces. PMID:17215869

  6. Interpreting serum risperidone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boerth, Joel M; Caley, Charles F; Goethe, John W

    2005-02-01

    Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic commonly used for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Although therapeutic drug monitoring is not routine for any of the atypical antipsychotics, serum antipsychotic concentrations are measured routinely to assess treatment nonadherence. In humans, risperidone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone; together these constitute the active moiety. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations have not been reported for the parent drug, but have been reported for 9-hydroxyrisperidone and the active moiety (i.e., the combined concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone). We describe a 34-year-old Caucasian man of Sicilian descent with a history of schizophrenia, disorganized type. He was suspected to be noncompliant with his risperidone therapy. Initially, active moiety risperidone concentrations increased linearly with prescribed dosage increases. However, with continued increases, active moiety concentrations adjusted downward and remained 17-36% below anticipated levels. We propose a method for estimating target active moiety concentrations of risperidone based on dosage-a method that may be used to guide clinicians in assessing nonadherence to risperidone treatment.

  7. Circulating mannan-binding lectin, M-, L-, H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 levels in patients with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tea L; Sandahl, Thomas D; Støy, Sidsel; Schiødt, Frank V; Lee, William M; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Thiel, Steffen; Grønbaek, Henning

    2015-03-01

    The complement system is activated in liver diseases including acute liver failure (ALF); however, the role of the lectin pathway of complement has scarcely been investigated in ALF. The pathway is initiated by soluble pattern recognition molecules: mannan-binding lectin (MBL), M-, L-, and H-ficolin and collectin-liver-1 (CL-L1), which are predominantly synthesized in the liver. We aimed to study lectin levels in ALF patients and associations with clinical outcome. Serum samples from 75 patients enrolled by the US ALF Study Group were collected on days 1 and 3. We included 75 healthy blood donors and 20 cirrhosis patients as controls. Analyses were performed using sandwich-type immunoassays (ELISA, TRIFMA). At day 1, the MBL level in ALF patients was 40% lower compared with healthy controls {[median (interquartile range) 0.72 μg/ml(0.91) vs. 1.15 (1.92)(P = 0.02]}, and increased significantly by day 3 [0.83 μg/ml(0.94)(P = 0.01)]. The M-ficolin level was 60% lower [0.54 μg/ml(0.50) vs. 1.48(1.01)(P < 0.0001)]. The CL-L1 level at day 1 was slightly higher compared with healthy controls [3.20 μg/ml(2.37) vs. 2.64(0.72)(P = 0.11)]; this was significant at day 3 [3.35(1.84)(P = 0.006)]. H- and L-ficolin levels were similar to healthy controls. Spontaneous ALF survivors had higher levels of MBL at day 1 [0.96 μg/ml(1.15) vs. 0.60(0.60)(P = 0.02)] and lower levels of L-ficolin by day 3 compared with patients who died or were transplanted [1.61 μg/ml(1.19) vs. 2.17(2.19)(P = 0.02)]. We observed significant dynamics in lectin levels in ALF patients, which may suggest they play a role in ALF pathogenesis. High MBL and low L-ficolin levels are associated with survival. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Serum copper concentrations in hospitalized newborns.

    PubMed

    González-Tarancón, Ricardo; Calvo-Ruata, Luisa; Aramendía, Maite; Ortega, Carmen; García-González, Elena; Rello, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Low serum Cu and ceruloplasmin (Cp) concentrations in newborns can be the first indication of a severe Cu deficient intake or, alternatively, of genetic diseases affecting Cu metabolism. However, Cu and Cp concentrations can also be influenced by other variables that render their quantitative results difficult to interpret. Therefore, it is necessary to identify these variables and stratify Cu and Cp concentrations according to these altering factors. Serum Cu and Cp concentrations for 564 hospitalized newborns (0-12days of life) are stratified according to their age, prematurity (birth weight or gestational age), type of feeding and inflammatory state (assessed by the serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level) to identify potential correlations. Serum Cu and Cp concentrations are influenced by all four variables analyzed, although inflammation is the most significant: the greater the hs-CRP concentration, the greater the serum Cu and Cp concentrations. Prematurity is also an important factor and preterm infants often show very low Cu and Cp concentrations. Age of life and type of feeding have in turn a more modest effect on these magnitudes, being slightly greater at 3-5days of age in breastfed newborns. Inflammation and prematurity are the main variables affecting serum Cu and Cp concentrations in newborns. Therefore, hs-CRP should always be assayed in parallel to Cu status. When there is an inflammatory state proper interpretation of these concentrations can be challenging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum ionised calcium concentration: measurement versus calculation.

    PubMed Central

    Conceicao, S C; Weightman, D; Smith, P A; Luno, J; Ward, M K; Kerr, D N

    1978-01-01

    Four hundred and eighteen measurements of serum ionised calcium, total calcium, and protein concentrations were made from 47 normal volunteers, 104 patients with chronic renal failure (33 being treated conservatively and 71 with regular haemodialysis), and 83 renal transplant recipients. The serum ionised calcium concentration was measured with an Orion SS-20 meter and calculated from the total serum calcium and protein concentrations by using three formulae and a nomogram. In the normal subjects and patients undergoing regular haemodialysis, whose serum calcium concentrations were in or near the normal range, three of the calculations gave results similar to those obtained by direct measurement. In patients with conservatively treated chronic renal failure and those who had received renal transplants, however, there was poor aggrement between the methods. When patients with hypercalcaemia and hypocalcaemia from all the groups were considered separately there was again poor agreement between calculated and measured concentrations of serum ionised calcium. Of the patients whose measured concentrations of serum ionised calcium were high, 69-76% were classified as normal by the four indirect methods. We conclude that calculation of the serum ionised calcium concentrations is not an adequate substitute for direct measurement. PMID:346162

  10. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  11. Prediction Model of Serum Lithium Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Yoshino, Nariyasu; Houchi, Hitoshi; Mimura, Masaru; Fukuoka, Noriyasu

    2017-08-02

    Introduction Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary for lithium, but clinical application of several prediction strategies is still limited because of insufficient predictive accuracy. We herein proposed a suitable model, using creatinine clearance (CLcr)-based lithium clearance (Li-CL). Methods Patients receiving lithium provided the following information: serum lithium and creatinine concentrations, time of blood draw, dosing regimen, concomitant medications, and demographics. Li-CL was calculated as a daily dose per trough concentration for each subject, and the mean of Li-CL/CLcr was used to estimate Li-CL for another 30 subjects. Serum lithium concentrations at the time of sampling were estimated by 1-compartment model with Li-CL, fixed distribution volume (0.79 L/kg), and absorption rate (1.5/hour) in the 30 subjects. Results One hundred thirty-one samples from 82 subjects (44 men; mean±standard deviation age: 51.4±16.0 years; body weight: 64.6±13.8 kg; serum creatinine: 0.78±0.20 mg/dL; dose of lithium: 680.2±289.1 mg/day) were used to develop the pharmacokinetic model. The mean±standard deviation (95% confidence interval) of absolute error was 0.13±0.09 (0.10-0.16) mEq/L. Discussion Serum concentrations of lithium can be predicted from oral dosage with high precision, using our prediction model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Serum potassium concentrations: Importance of normokalaemia.

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; Fernández-Reyes, María José

    2017-06-21

    Abnormalities in potassium concentrations are associated with morbidity and mortality. In recent years it has been considered that small variations in serum potassium concentrations within normal intervals may also be associated with mortality. Strategies for achieving normokalaemia include dietary measures, limiting the use of potassium retaining drugs, and use of conventional cation exchange resins (calcium/sodium polystyrene sulfonate) and/or the new non-absorbed cation exchange polymer (patiromer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid concentrations in dogs.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Nora; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum methylmalonic acid (MMA), a proposed marker of cellular cobalamin deficiency, and serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs. Serum samples from 555 dogs were grouped according to their serum cobalamin concentrations (<150 ng/L to 1000 ng/L). Additionally, serum samples were collected from 43 healthy dogs to calculate a reference interval for canine serum MMA. MMA was measured using a GC/MS method. Groups were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post test. Proportions of dogs above the upper limit of the reference interval were calculated and a χ2-test for trend was performed to evaluate the association between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations. The reference interval for serum MMA was calculated to be 414.7-1192.5 nmol/L. Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <251 ng/L had significantly higher MMA concentrations (P<0.05) and the χ2-test for trend showed a trend for increasing serum MMA concentrations with decreasing serum cobalamin concentrations (P<0.0001). Additionally, a number of dogs with normal serum cobalamin concentrations had increased serum MMA concentrations, suggesting that some of these dogs may have cobalamin deficiency on a cellular level. Further studies are warranted to determine if these dogs should receive cobalamin supplementation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Serum vitamin K concentration and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Naoko; Okano, Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Vitamin K (VK) is well known for its role in the synthesis of a number of blood coagulation factors. VK is also an important factor for bone metabolism via gamma-carboxylation of VK-dependent proteins such as osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein, and protein S. Recently, it is rare that severe VK deficiency is observed. However, low dietary VK intake or low VK status has been shown to be associated with low bone mineral density and increased hip fracture risk. These studies suggest that there is potential VK insufficiency in bone, even in sufficient VK status for blood coagulation. In the present review, the studies concerning relationship between serum VK concentration and bone health, including pharmacokinetics of VK analogues (such as phylloquinone and menaquinone) and factors which affect on blood circulation of VK, are reviewed.

  15. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-04-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.

  16. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (≥200 nmol/L vs. <200 nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (≥200 nmol/L compared with <200 nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs ≥200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates >45 beats per min (compared with ≤45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs.

  17. Serum Calcium Concentration in Ethylene Glycol Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Michael; Marraffa, Jeanna M; Wojcik, Susan; Grant, William

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of ethylene glycol intoxication can be challenging. Definitive testing for ethylene glycol is not readily available and clinical decisions are often based on clinical suspicion and the results of more readily available tests. One of these findings is hypocalcemia, presumable through complexation with the ethylene glycol metabolite oxalate. We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2013 with laboratory confirmed ethylene glycol intoxication. Serum calcium on presentation was compared to blood gas pH on presentation as well as presentation serum bicarbonate. We did not find any relationship between calcium and serum pH either by linear regression or when dichotomized by pH ≥ or <7.3. We did observe an inverse relationship between serum calcium and bicarbonate. Hypocalcemia is not commonly observed following ethylene glycol poisoning, even in acidotic patients.

  18. Serum calcium and phosphate concentrations and intracranial atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, K

    2014-01-01

    Serum calcium and phosphate concentrations are independent risk factors for stroke and positively associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated whether higher serum calcium and phosphate concentrations would be associated with intracranial atherosclerosis in a stroke-free Korean population. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 361 stroke-free subjects who consecutively visited a general health promotion center. Included subjects had serum calcium, phosphate, and albumin drawn and underwent brain magnetic resonance angiography. The basilar, middle cerebral, intracranial internal carotid, and intracranial vertebral arteries were evaluated. Serum calcium concentration was corrected for serum albumin concentration. Mean ± SD values were 52 ± 10 years for age, 2.35 ± 0.09 mmol/l for uncorrected serum calcium concentration, 2.24 ± 0.08 mmol/l for corrected serum calcium concentration, and 1.19 ± 0.18 mmol/l for serum phosphate concentration. Seventy-four subjects (21%) had intracranial atherosclerosis. Subjects in the upper three quartiles of corrected serum calcium concentration had a significantly greater risk for intracranial atherosclerosis compared with the lowest quartile with the odds ratios of 3.50 (95% confidence interval 1.50-8.15), 3.11 (95% confidence interval 1.26-7.69), and 3.77 (95% confidence interval 1.58-9.03), respectively. However, serum phosphate and uncorrected serum calcium concentrations were not associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. Corrected serum calcium concentrations are positively associated with the presence of intracranial atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in serum potassium concentrations between Chinese, Indians and Malays.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that potassium concentrations may vary between different geographical regions, possibly reflecting ethnic differences in potassium status. This study compared the serum potassium concentrations of three Asian ethnicities in a single geographical location. Details of simultaneous serum potassium, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride and serum index measurements for samples from polyclinics and health screening were extracted for multivariable linear regression. Haemolysed and duplicate patient samples were excluded. Separate analysis was performed based on measurement platform (Roche or Beckman-Coulter) and patient location. Eighty-five thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven records met the inclusion criteria. When controlled for age, gender, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride, the average serum potassium concentration in Indians was 0.13-0.16 mmol/L higher than in Malays, who in turn had average serum potassium concentrations 0.05-0.06 mmol/L higher than Chinese when controlled for age, gender, serum creatinine, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. For patients undergoing health screening, the average serum potassium concentration in Indians and Malays was 0.12 mmol/L higher than in Chinese. Chinese individuals have lower average serum potassium concentrations than Indians and Malays. This may have clinical implications in relation to the high occurrence of thyrotoxic hypokalaemic paralysis and the aetiology of sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) in Asians.

  20. Serum copper and zinc concentrations in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Cesur, Salih; Kocaturk, Pelin Aribal; Kavas, Guzin Ozelci; Aksaray, Sebahat; Tezeren, Deniz; Ciftci, Ugur

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the alterations in serum trace element concentrations, including zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in patients with brucellosis and to compare them with the results of healthy individuals. Seventy-five subjects, 60 patients with brucellosis and 15 healthy individuals were included in this study. The serum Zn and Cu concentrations were measured by using atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer in sera of patients with brucellosis and statistically compared with those of healthy individuals. Serum Cu concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with brucellosis than that of healthy individual (130.5+/-24.7, 96+/-8.65 microg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.01). Serum Zn concentration was lower in patients with brucellosis than those of healthy subjects (79.5 +/-13.5 and 83+/-5.59 microg/dl, respectively) (p < 0.01). Serum trace element concentrations showed significant alterations in patients with brucellosis compared with healthy subjects.

  1. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995

  2. Serum copper concentration as an index of clinical lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Molteni, A.; Ward, W.F.; Kim, Y.T.; Shetty, R.; Brizio-Molteni, L.; Giura, R.; Ribner, H.; Lomont, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this ongoing study is to determine whether thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer produces an early increase in serum copper (Cu) concentration, an increase which might predict clinical outcome. Copper and iron concentrations were measured in serum obtained from nonsmall cell lung cancer patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the start of radiotherapy. Control groups included patients irradiated for breast cancer (low dose of radiation to the lung), for endometrial, cervical or prostatic cancer, and patients with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cutaneous burns with or without smoke inhalation. Serum Cu concentration increased at least 10 micrograms/dl from the pretreatment level in approximately 75% of the adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung cancer patients, but in only 1 of 4 undifferentiated lung cancer cases. In virtually all of these responders, serum Cu increased to a maximum at 2 weeks after the start of therapy, then plateaued or decreased slightly despite continuing irradiation. Within the subset of squamous cell lung cancers, there was a direct correlation between the degree of histologic differentiation and both baseline serum Cu concentration and the probability of an early increase therein. In contrast, only 33% of breast cancer patients and 15% of endometrial, cervical and prostate cancer patients exhibited an increase in serum Cu concentration at 2 weeks after the start of radiotherapy. Serum Cu concentration was within normal limits in virtually all patients with congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and COPD. Burn patients exhibited a significant reduction in serum Cu, although concomitant smoke inhalation increased serum Cu back to low-normal levels. Serum iron concentration did not change significantly in any category of patients.

  3. Serum ferritin concentration in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lynn, K L; Mitchell, T R; Shepperd, J

    1980-09-01

    Studies in 144 patients on maintenace hemodialysis have shown that serum ferritin concentration is influenced by the period the patient has been on dialysis, the presence of liver disease and to some extent the underlying diagnosis. It was observed that parenteral iron therapy could still produce an increase in hemoglobin concentration when the serum ferritin was as high as 60--55 micrograms/l. This suggests that the target serum ferritin, whatever the route of iron replacement, should be at least 55 micrograms/l. The higher levels of ferritin at which an increase in hemoglobin concentration can occur, together with the variable increment in serum ferritin after parenteral iron, indicates that the simple relationship between serum ferritin and marrow iron stores may be distrubed in some patients.

  4. Serum copper concentration as an index of experimental lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Ischiropoulos, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Serum copper (Cu) concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury in two rat models of pneumotoxicity: hemithoracic irradiation and monocrotaline ingestion. In both models there was a dose- and time-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration. This hypercupremia paralleled the development of pulmonary endothelial dysfunction (decreased lung plasminogen activator activity and increased prostacyclin production) and pulmonary fibrosis (hydroxyproline accumulation). In the radiation model, lung injury and hypercupremia persisted for at least 6 months, and were spared similarly when the total dose was delivered in multiple daily fractions as compared to single doses. In irradiated rats, the elevated serum Cu concentration was accompanied by increases in plasma ceruloplasmin, lung Cu concentration, and lung Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. In monocrotaline-treated rats, lung damage and hypercupremia also were accompanied by a reduction in liver Cu concentration, and by a direct correlation between the concentrations of Cu and SGOT in the serum. In both models, some but not all modifiers of lung damage (penicillamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, pentoxifylline) also partially prevented the insult-induced hypercupremia. In contrast, serum iron concentration was largely independent of treatment in all experiments. These data suggest that elevated serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in irradiated and monocrotaline-treated rats.

  5. Serum Dioxin Concentrations and Age at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Warner, Marcella; Marks, Amy R.; Samuels, Steven; Gerthoux, Pier ario; Vercellini, Paolo; Olive, David L.; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G.; Mocarelli, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a halogenated compound that binds the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is a by-product of numerous industrial processes including waste incineration. Studies in rats and monkeys suggest that TCDD may affect ovarian function. We examined the relationship of TCDD and age at menopause in a population of women residing near Seveso, Italy, in 1976, at the time of a chemical plant explosion. We included 616 of the women who participated 20 years later in the Seveso Women’s Health Study. All women were premenopausal at the time of the explosion, had TCDD levels measured in serum collected soon after the explosion, and were ≥ 35 years of age at interview. Using proportional hazards modeling, we found a 6% nonsignificant increase in risk of early menopause with a 10-fold increase in serum TCDD. When TCDD levels were categorized, compared with women in the lowest quintile (< 20.4 ppt), women in quintile 2 (20.4–34.2 ppt) had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.1 (p = 0.77), quintile 3 (34.3–54.1 ppt) had an HR of 1.4 (p = 0.14), quintile 4 (54.2–118 ppt) had an HR of 1.6 (p = 0.10), and quintile 5 (> 118 ppt) had an HR of 1.1 (p = 0.82) for risk of earlier menopause. The trend toward earlier menopause across the first four quintiles is statistically significant (p = 0.04). These results suggest a nonmonotonic dose-related association with increasing risk of earlier menopause up to about 100 ppt TCDD, but not above. PMID:16002373

  6. Effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Itoga, Yoshie; Yasuhara, Masato

    2006-12-03

    To clarify the mechanism of fluoroquinolone-induced abnormalities in blood glucose, the effect of levofloxacin on serum glucose concentration was investigated in rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of levofloxacin and their arterial blood was sampled periodically. The serum glucose concentration decreased after an injection of 100 mg/kg of levofloxacin, while it increased at levofloxacin 300 mg/kg. The serum immunoreactive insulin concentration increased as the dose of levofloxacin increased. The serum epinephrine concentration was rapidly elevated by levofloxacin at 300 mg/kg. The serum histamine concentration increased after injections of levofloxacin, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Diphenhydramine (1 mg/kg) antagonized the hyperglycemia induced by 300 mg/kg of levofloxacin. In an in vitro study, the release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla in the presence of levofloxacin was determined. Levofloxacin (300 microg/ml) did not affect epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla. Levofloxacin can induce hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in rats. Levofloxacin can promote histamine release, leading to an increased serum epinephrine concentration and hyperglycemia.

  7. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  8. Serum albumin concentrations and oedema in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1986-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration was measured in 195 infants of 25 to 42 weeks' gestation during the neonatal period. Concentrations were significantly lower in preterm infants, rising from a mean of 19 g/l at 26 weeks to 31 g/l at term. There was a 15% increase in albumin concentrations in the first three weeks of life. Oedema in the early and late neonatal period was common in preterm infants but correlated poorly with hypoalbuminaemia. Measurement of serum albumin concentrations in preterm infants either routinely or because of oedema is not clinically useful. PMID:3740904

  9. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration.

    PubMed

    Berg, G; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-10-01

    High serum copper concentration--a well-known effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use--has been linked to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The influence of OCs containing newer progestins has not been investigated, however. This concern was addressed in a 1987-88 cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 610 nonpregnant, nonlactating West German women 18-44 years of age. 195 women (32.1%) were current OC users, but only 152 of these women were able to cite the name of the formulation they were taking. In 70% of cases, the OC contained less than 45 mcg of ethylestradiol (median dose, 32.4 mcg). The most common progestin components were desogestrel (41%) and levonorgestrel (30%). Mean serum copper concentration was higher among users of all types of OCs than among non-users, but this concentration varied more strongly according to the OC's progestin compound than its estrogen content. The greatest increase in serum copper (55% compared with non-users) was recorded in users of OCs containing anti-androgen progestins, followed by desogestrel (46%), norethisterone/lynestrenol (42%), and levonorgestrel (34%). The increase in serum copper was more pronounced in women taking OCs containing 45 mcg or less of ethylestradiol than in users of OCs with a high estrogen dose. In the regression models, the different progestin compounds alone explained 28% of the total variance in serum copper concentration. Further investigation of OC-induced increases in serum copper concentration and their impact on cardiovascular risk are warranted.

  10. Vitamin A concentrations in serum and liver from Florida panthers.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; Cunningham, M W; Linda, S B

    1999-04-01

    Many of the anomalies and clinical signs afflicting the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) are suggestive of vitamin A deficiency. Our objectives in this study were to determine if a vitamin A deficiency exists in the free-ranging panther population and to determine if there are differences in vitamin A levels among various subgroups of free-ranging panthers. Retinol concentrations were used as an index to Vitamin A concentrations and were determined in serum and liver from free-ranging (serum, n = 45; liver, n = 22) and captive (serum, n = 9; liver, n = 2) juvenile and adult Florida panthers from southern peninsular Florida (USA), and in liver from free-ranging cougars (F. concolor subspp.) from Washington (USA) and Texas (USA) between November 1984 and March 1994. Combined juvenile (6- to 24-mo-old) and adult (> 24-mo-old) free-ranging Florida panthers had mean +/- SD serum retinol concentrations of 772.5 +/- 229 pmol/ml. Adult free-ranging Florida panthers had mean liver retinol concentrations of 4794.5 +/- 3747 nmol/g. Free-ranging nursing Florida panther kittens (age < 1 mo) had mean serum retinol concentrations of 397.9 +/- 69 pmol/ml. Among subgroups of free-ranging Florida panthers, females had higher corrected mean serum retinol concentrations than males and adult free-ranging Florida panthers had higher mean liver retinol concentrations than juveniles. Retinol concentrations in free-ranging Florida panthers did not differ significantly from those in captive panthers (liver and serum) or other free-ranging cougars (liver). Based on limited published values and our controls, a vitamin A deficiency could not be demonstrated in the Florida panther population nor were any subgroups or individuals considered deficient.

  11. Serum calprotectin concentrations in dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Jergens, Albert E; Ackermann, Mark R; Barr, James W; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-12-01

    To measure serum calprotectin concentration in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) before and after initiation of treatment and evaluate its correlation with a clinical scoring system (canine IBD activity index), serum canine C-reactive protein concentration, and severity of histopathologic changes. 34 dogs with idiopathic IBD and 139 healthy control dogs. From dogs with IBD, blood samples were collected immediately before (baseline) and 3 weeks after initiation of 1 of 2 treatments: prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; n = 21) or a combination of prednisone and metronidazole (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; 13). Blood samples were collected once from each of the control dogs. For all samples, serum calprotectin concentration was determined via radioimmunoassay. Mean serum calprotectin concentrations for dogs with IBD at baseline (431.1 μg/L) and 3 weeks after initiation of treatment (676.9 μg/L) were significantly higher, compared with that (219.4 μg/L) for control dogs, and were not significantly correlated with the canine IBD activity index, serum C-reactive protein concentration, or severity of histopathologic changes. The use of a serum calprotectin concentration of ≥ 296.0 μg/L as a cutoff had a sensitivity of 82.4% (95% confidence interval, 65.5% to 93.2%) and specificity of 68.4% (95% confidence interval, 59.9% to 76.0%) for distinguishing dogs with idiopathic IBD from healthy dogs. Serum calprotectin concentration may be a useful biomarker for the detection of inflammation in dogs, but the use of certain drugs (eg, glucocorticoids) appears to limit its clinical usefulness.

  12. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  13. Organochlorines in Swedish women: determinants of serum concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Anders Wicklund; Granath, Fredrik; Aune, Marie; Atuma, Samuel; Darnerud, Per Ola; Bjerselius, Rickard; Vainio, Harri; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2003-01-01

    We studied associations between lifestyle/medical factors and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and five chlorinated pesticides/metabolites among 205 Swedish women (54-75 years old). Serum concentrations were significantly associated with age, body mass index, body weight change, diabetes mellitus, consumption of fatty fish, and place of residence. The findings suggest that lifestyle/medical factors may confound results in epidemiologic studies when they are related to both serum concentrations and disease. Moreover, disease itself may influence serum concentrations of some organochlorines, as indicated by the negative associations between recent weight change and serum concentrations of some PCB congeners, p,p -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and the positive association between diabetes mellitus and HCB concentrations. Age was the only determinant that showed a consistent association with all compounds studied (positive); otherwise associations with single determinants varied among compounds even within the PCB group. This shows that the studied organochlorines should not be treated as a homogeneous group of compounds in epidemiologic studies. PMID:12611665

  14. Duration of breastfeeding and serum PCB 153 concentrations in children

    PubMed Central

    Lancz, Kinga; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A.; Murínová, Ľubica; Wimmerová, Soňa; Šovčíková, Eva; Dedík, Ladislav; Strémy, Maximilián; Drobná, Beata; Farkašová, Dana; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals which, because of their lipophilic properties, are abundant in human breast milk. Breastfed infants are therefore at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs. The commonly used exposure estimations, based solely on breast milk PCB levels and duration of breastfeeding, may lead to exposure misclassification. To improve assessments of exposure to PCBs, we determined PCB 153 serum concentration, as a model substance for PCBs, at the critical time of weaning for each child in 305 breastfed infants from 5 single time point concentration measurements spread over 7 years and data on duration of breastfeeding, using an earlier developed model of the system type. We approximated the dependence of PCB 153 serum concentration, Ctbf, adjusted to cord serum concentration, C0, on nursing period, by a polynomial function Ctbf/C0=0.596+0.278t−0.0047t2 which reliably predicts exposure to PCB 153 of breastfed infants, important for assessment of dose-outcome relationships. Adjustment of current serum concentrations to cord serum concentration improved validity of exposure assessment. PMID:25460618

  15. Duration of breastfeeding and serum PCB 153 concentrations in children.

    PubMed

    Lancz, Kinga; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Murínová, Lubica; Wimmerová, Soňa; Sovčíková, Eva; Dedík, Ladislav; Strémy, Maximilián; Drobná, Beata; Farkašová, Dana; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals which, because of their lipophilic properties, are abundant in human breast milk. Breastfed infants are therefore at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs. The commonly used exposure estimations, based solely on breast milk PCB levels and duration of breastfeeding, may lead to exposure misclassification. To improve assessments of exposure to PCBs, we determined PCB 153 serum concentration, as a model substance for PCBs, at the critical time of weaning for each child in 305 breastfed infants from 5 single time point concentration measurements spread over 7 years and data on duration of breastfeeding, using an earlier developed model of the system type. We approximated the dependence of PCB 153 serum concentration, Ctbf, adjusted to cord serum concentration, C0, on nursing period, by a polynomial function Ctbf/C0=0.596+0.278t-0.0047t(2) which reliably predicts exposure to PCB 153 of breastfed infants, important for assessment of dose-outcome relationships. Adjustment of current serum concentrations to cord serum concentration improved validity of exposure assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Nielsen, Flemming; Mølbak, Kåre; Weihe, Pal; Heilmann, Carsten

    2012-01-25

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood. To determine whether PFC exposure is associated with antibody response to childhood vaccinations. Prospective study of a birth cohort from the National Hospital in the Faroe Islands. A total of 656 consecutive singleton births were recruited during 1997-2000, [corrected] and 587 participated in follow-up through 2008. Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years. Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Among PFCs in maternal pregnancy serum, PFOS showed the strongest negative correlations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, for which a 2-fold greater concentration of exposure was associated with a difference of -39% (95% CI, -55% to -17%) in the diphtheria antibody concentration. PFCs in the child's serum at age 5 years showed uniformly negative associations with antibody levels, especially at age 7 years, except that the tetanus antibody level following PFOS exposure was not statistically significant. In a structural equation model, a 2-fold greater concentration of major PFCs in child serum was associated with a difference of -49% (95% CI, -67% to -23%) in the overall antibody concentration. A 2-fold increase in PFOS and PFOA concentrations at age 5 years was associated with odds ratios between 2.38 (95% CI, 0.89 to 6.35) and 4.20 (95% CI, 1.54 to 11.44) for falling below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/mL for tetanus and diphtheria antibodies at age 7 years. Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years.

  17. [Does coffee drinking influence serum uric acid concentration?].

    PubMed

    Olak-Białoń, Bogusława; Marcisz, Czesław; Jonderko, Gerard; Olak, Zygfryd; Szymszal, Jan; Orzeł, Arkadiusz

    2004-01-01

    The drinking of coffee, a commonly used beverage, was a subject of many studies, mainly regarded to coffee influence on cardiovascular system. However, only one study indicates that coffee drinking in male adults may lead to decrease in serum uric acid level. Hyperuricaemia is a risk factor of many diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of coffee drinking on serum uric acid concentration. 1955 working persons aged from 18 to 65 years were included into research. There were 571 women among them. We determined energy expenditure during professional work, blood pressure, body mass index, and measured serum levels of uric acid, glucose and creatinine. The amount of coffee and ethanol consumption was evaluated on the ground of an interview. It was showed that persons drinking coffee have lower serum uric acid concentration than non-drinkers, especially among women, who drank more coffee then men. Uricaemia was correlated negatively with number of cups of coffee consumed and positively with body mass index, ethanol consumption and diastolic blood pressure. The author conclude that: 1) among women drinking on an average 10 cups of coffee per week appeared a decrease in serum uric acid concentration and a lower risk of development of hyperuricaemia, 2) elevated serum uric acid concentration is accompanied by elevated blood pressure and increased body mass index.

  18. The association between serum TSH concentration and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Boelaert, Kristien

    2009-12-01

    There is mounting evidence that the serum concentration of TSH is an independent predictor for the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in patients with nodular thyroid disease. Furthermore, preoperative serum TSH concentrations are higher in patients with more aggressive tumours, suggesting a potential role for TSH in the progression of differentiated thyroid cancer. Based on these observations, patients with higher serum TSH concentrations and borderline cytological results may require more aggressive investigation and treatment when compared with those with lower baseline TSH levels. The mechanisms underlying the finding of higher serum TSH in patients with thyroid cancer remain unexplained. In this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer, Fiore et al. have analysed the relationship between serum TSH and diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer in 10 178 patients with nodular thyroid disease who were investigated by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. They found significantly higher TSH concentrations in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid cancer compared with those with benign disease. In addition, they found that the development of autonomous thyroid function (TSH<0.4 muU/ml) was associated with a reduction in the risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this commentary, the evidence regarding the association between serum TSH and thyroid cancer is discussed placing these new findings into context.

  19. Serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    PubMed

    Righton, Alison L; St Leger, Judy A; Schmitt, Todd; Murray, Michael J; Adams, Lance; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    Individual dietary preferences and difficulty with animal training create challenges and nutritional concerns when evaluating a captive sea otter (Enhydra lutris) diet. The importance of vitamin A within the body reflects the necessity that it be ingested in adequate amounts to ensure optimal health. To compare levels of serum vitamin A concentrations from captive sea otters on daily oral vitamin A supplementation, serum samples from eight adult sea otters from three institutions were evaluated for serum vitamin A concentrations. The eight animals were fed a total of four different diets and received oral supplementation via three different methods. Multiple diet items were analyzed for vitamin A content and were found to have low to nondetectable levels of vitamin A. Oral vitamin A supplementation, as a slurry with dietary items, was shown to be effective and a mean serum concentration of approximately 170 +/- 51 microg/L was obtained for serum vitamin A concentrations in captive sea otters. Captive diets can be modified to increase vitamin A concentration and supplementation and, if accepted, can be used as a means to ensure adequate vitamin A intake.

  20. Temporal association between serum prolactin concentration and exposure to styrene

    PubMed Central

    Luderer, U; Tornero-Velez, R; Shay, T; Rappaport, S; Heyer, N; Echeverria, D

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that occupational exposure to styrene is associated with increased serum levels of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL). Aims: To test the hypotheses that: (1) the effect of styrene exposure on PRL secretion is an acute effect, not a subchronic or chronic effect; (2) blood styrene, as a measure of absorbed dose, is a stronger predictor of serum PRL level than personal breathing zone air styrene concentration. Methods: Subjects were recruited from 17 workplaces in the reinforced plastics industry. Personal breathing zone air styrene, whole blood styrene, and serum PRL were measured during one to three sessions, approximately one year apart. Linear multiple regression was used to model the relations between acute (air styrene or blood styrene obtained at same time as PRL), subchronic (average air or blood styrene over two or three sessions), and chronic (years of work in industry or facility times average air styrene over all sessions) indices of styrene exposure and serum PRL. Results: Acute blood styrene concentration was the strongest predictor of serum PRL concentration, with the model predicting a 2.06-fold increase in PRL (95% CI 1.11 to 3.84) for every 10-fold increase in blood styrene. Serum PRL tended to increase with increasing styrene exposure in both men and women; however, women tended to have higher PRL levels. For women, the change in blood styrene between sessions 1 and 2 was a significant predictor of the change in serum PRL between sessions. Conclusions: Results confirm that styrene exposure enhances serum PRL concentrations and support an acute effect of styrene on PRL secretion. PMID:15031390

  1. Serum nickel concentrations in hemodialysis patients with environmental exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, S.M.; Fay, W.P.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1989-05-01

    Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum specimens from 22 healthy hospital workers and 30 patients with end-stage renal disease treated by extracorporeal hemodialysis, who resided in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, a city with extensive nickel mines and smelters. Samples of tap water from Sudbury contained 109 +/- 46 micrograms Ni per L (P less than 0.01 vs 0.4 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding water samples from Hartford, Connecticut). Serum nickel concentrations averaged 0.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms Ni per L in Sudbury hospital workers (P less than 0.05 vs 0.2 +/- 0.2 micrograms Ni per L in corresponding serums from 43 healthy hospital workers in Hartford). In serums collected post-treatment from Sudbury hemodialysis patients, nickel concentrations averaged 8.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms Ni per L, (i.e., 14-times the corresponding mean in Sudbury hospital workers, P less than 0.01), but were not significantly higher than the nickel concentrations in serums from 42 Hartford hemodialysis patients (7.2 +/- 2.2 micrograms Ni per L). This study confirms the presence of hypernickelemia in hemodialysis patients, but does not suggest that hemodialysis patients have significantly increased risk of nickel toxicity in Sudbury, compared to Hartford, despite the high nickel concentrations in Sudbury tap water. This favorable outcome attests to the efficient deionization of water used to prepare hemodialysis solutions in Sudbury.

  2. Effect of propranolol on mepivacaine serum concentrations in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Sanda Mihaela; Nechifor, Mihai; Baniceru, Mihaela; Croitoru, Octavian; Popescu, Florica

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of propranolol pretreatment on mepivacaine serum concentrations in dental patients. In a double blind, randomized, 2-way crossover study, 10 patients ingested 30 mg propranolol or placebo, 2 hours before local anesthesia for dental scaling. Each subject received a single dose of 51 mg mepivacaine for posterior superior alveolar nerve block. Mepivacaine in venous serum was measured for up to 1 hour, after 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes from injection. Serum concentrations of mepivacaine were determined by gas chromatography. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after propranolol or placebo and after each sampling. Peak serum concentrations of mepivacaine, C(max) (1.214 +/- 0.746 microg/mL(-1)), were significantly increased by propranolol (2.249 +/- 1.559 microg/mL(-1), P < .05). Propranolol pretreatment reduced blood pressure and heart rate. Although propranolol pretreatment increased almost doublefold mepivacaine serum concentrations and reduced blood pressure and heart rate, mepivacaine can be used safely in dental patients taking propranolol for short-duration interventions.

  3. Serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Karakiewicz, Beata; Kozielec, Tadeusz; Brodowski, Jacek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Noceń, Iwona; Starczewski, Andrzej; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2007-03-01

    Drug addiction is a complex problem which leads to many somatic, psychic and social diseases. It is accompanied by the disturbed metabolism of various macro and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients and analyze whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and methadone treatment affect the level of serum magnesium in these patients. The examination was conducted in a group of 83 people - patients of Szczecin-Zdroje Psychiatric Hospital (Poland). They were 21 to 49 years old, and the mean age was 32 +/- 7 years. The control group consisted of 81 healthy individuals. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the magnesium concentration. The total serum magnesium concentration was calculated for the whole patient group, subgroups of women and men, a subgroup of people infected with HIV, and a subgroup receiving methadone substitution treatment. How magnesium behaves depending on age and addiction period, was checked. The mean concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the patients examined was 0.57 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than in the control group. In the subgroup of men it was 0.57 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of women - 0.55 mmol/L; the differences were not statistically significant. In the patient group nobody had the appropriate magnesium concentration in blood serum. No significant correlation was found between the magnesium concentration, age of the patients and addiction period. In the subgroup of seropositive people the mean concentration of magnesium was 0.55 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of non-infected patients - 0.58 mmol/L; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean concentration of magnesium in the subgroup treated with methadone was 0.59 mmol/L, and in the subgroup not involved in this type of therapy - 0.55 mmol/L; it was not a statistically significant difference.

  4. Increases in Serum Growth Hormone Concentrations Associated with GHB Administration.

    PubMed

    Brailsford, Alan D; Bartlett, Christiaan; Kicman, Andrew T; Cowan, David A

    2017-01-01

    The administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been reported to augment the increase in growth hormone (GH) secretion associated with the onset of sleep. The ability of GHB to stimulate GH production in the absence of sleep in both male and female volunteers was investigated as part of a GHB administration study. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men and six women) were given a small oral dose (25 mg/kg) of GHB (as Xyrem(®)) at 10:00 h. Basal blood samples (as serum) were taken 10 min prior to GHB administration, with additional samples taken at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360 and 480 min post-administration. The serum concentrations of GHB were measured by GC-MS and GH by immunometric assay. Following GHB administration, volunteers exhibited effects consistent with mild sedation, i.e., relaxed with normal responses to verbal stimuli. Despite none being asleep, an increase in serum GH concentration occurred in 11 out of the 12 volunteers (5 women and 6 men). In these volunteers, peak GH concentrations occurred 45-60 min post-administration compared with a mean serum tmax for GHB of 23 min (SD = 5.4 min). The absolute increase in GH was similar for men and women, averaging 3.4 and 3.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean intra-individual increase in GH was much greater in males (29 times) compared with females (2 times), as males had (as expected) smaller basal GH concentrations (mean = 0.26 ng/mL) compared with females (mean = 5.4 ng/mL). After maximizing, the GH concentration decreased rapidly (in agreement with GHB concentrations), returning to basal concentrations at ~90-120 min post-administration. GHB administration at a small therapeutic dose results in increases in serum GH concentrations in healthy male and female volunteers in the absence of sleep onset.

  5. Serum hepcidin concentrations correlate with serum iron level and outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Wen-Yao; Zhao, Ting; Zhong, Qi; Zhou, Kai; Meng, Zhao-You; Wang, Yan-Chun; Wang, Peng-Fei; Fang, Huang; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2015-10-01

    Iron plays a detrimental role in the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain damage, while hepcidin is the most important iron-regulated hormone. Here, we investigate the association between serum hepcidin and serum iron, outcome in patients with ICH. Serum samples of 81 cases with ICH were obtained on consecutive days to detect the levels of hepcidin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) was measured at admission and on days 7 and 30, and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was evaluated at 3 months after ICH. Additionally, the correlations of serum hepcidin with serum iron and the mRS score were analyzed by a generalized linear model. Higher serum hepcidin levels were detected in patients with poor outcomes (P < 0.001), and the mRS score increased by a mean of 1.135 points (95% CI 1.021-1.247, P < 0.001) for every serum hepcidin quartile after adjusting for other prognostic variables. Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum hepcidin was negatively correlated with serum iron (r = -0.5301, P < 0.001), and a significantly lower concentration of serum iron was found in patients with poor outcomes (P = 0.007). Additionally, serum hepcidin was independently correlated with mRS scores of ICH patients (OR 1.115, 95% CI 0.995-1.249, P = 0.021). Our results suggest that serum hepcidin is closely related to the outcome of patients with ICH and may be a biological marker for outcome prediction.

  6. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p < 0.01). Our results suggest that vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  7. Genetic Determinants of Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Men

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Coviello, Andrea D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Heier, Margit; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Kate L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kähönen, Mika; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Meitinger, Thomas; Mellström, Dan; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nauck, Matthias; Nilsson, Maria; Penninx, Brenda; Pye, Stephen R.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Reincke, Martin; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulloor, Jagadish; Viikari, Jorma; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wu, Tsung-Sheng; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ziv, Elad; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Raitakari, Olli; Eriksson, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Harris, Tamara B.; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Haring, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871) and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620) to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) locus (17p13-p12) were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10−41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10−22). Subjects with ≥3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10−16). The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01). Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation. PMID:21998597

  8. Predictors of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Anniston residents.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Wattigney, W A; Dutton, N D; Sjödin, A; Shelton, C; Turner, W E; Bartell, S M; Bartell, S; Carpenter, D O; Cash, J; Foushee, R; Percy, A; Frumkin, H; Lavender, M; Moysich, K; Olson, J; Pavuk, M; Rosenbaum, P; Silverstone, A; Weinstock, R; Shelton, C

    2014-10-15

    The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005-2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11-170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility.

  9. Predictors of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Anniston residents

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Wattigney, W.A.; Dutton, N.D.; Sjödin, A.; Shelton, C.; Turner, W.E.; Bartell, S.M.; Bartell, S.; Carpenter, D.O.; Cash, J.; Foushee, R.; Percy, A.; Frumkin, H.; Lavender, M.; Moysich, K.; Olson, J.; Pavuk, M.; Rosenbaum, P.; Silverstone, A.; Weinstock, R.; Shelton, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005–2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55 years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11–170.4 ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility. PMID:25115605

  10. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  11. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  12. Modified Atkins diet may reduce serum concentrations of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, M; Taubøll, E; Selmer, K K; Iversen, P O; Nakken, K O

    2015-03-01

    Modified Atkins diet is a treatment option for patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy that is not suitable for surgery. In the last few years, we have tried dietary treatment added to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adult patients with severe epilepsy. To examine a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between the modified Atkins diet and AEDs. In four patients, AED serum concentrations were measured before onset and after 4 and 12 weeks on the diet. The patients used combinations of two or three AEDs, including carbamazepine, clobazam, lamotrigine, nitrazepam, oxcarbazepine, valproate, zonisamide, and topiramate. The patients did not change the type or dose of their AEDs during the diet period. After 12 weeks on the diet, the average serum concentrations of the respective AEDs were reduced by 35% (range 6-46%) compared to prediet values. Modified Atkins diet used as add-on therapy to AEDs in four patients with drug resistant seizures caused a considerable decrease in AED serum concentrations. In individual patients, this could be of clinical relevance, and we recommend that AED serum concentrations should be closely monitored when offering this diet to adults with epilepsy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Podoplanin serum and urine concentration in transitional bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Sankiewicz, Anna; Guszcz, Tomasz; Mena-Hortelano, Rocio; Zukowski, Krzysztof; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDP) is a mucin - a type of transmembrane protein expressed in numerous tissues during ontogeny and in adult animals, including the brain, heart, kidney, osteoblasts and lymphoid organs. The aim of this study was to determine podoplanin concentration in the blood serum and urine of patients with bladder cancer. Quantifying podoplanin concentration and its correlation with various clinicopathological parameters may be useful for more accurate predictions and identifying high-risk patients. The present study included 82 patients with bladder cancer confirmed by transurethral resection or cystectomy and 27 healthy volunteers. The Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging biosensor was applied for the detection of podoplanin in the serum and urine samples. Significant differences in serum and urine podoplanin concentration levels were observed between bladder cancer patients. The statistically significant higher values of PDP were detected in serum of patients with invasive, more aggressive, larger, multifocal tumors. The association between podoplanin concentration and clinicopathological features indicates that it might be useful while making therapeutic decisions.

  14. Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Nielsen, Flemming; Mølbak, Kåre; Weihe, Pal; Heilmann, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Context Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood. Objective To determine whether PFC exposure is associated with antibody response to childhood vaccinations. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of a birth cohort from the National Hospital in the Faroe Islands. A total of 656 consecutive singleton births were recruited during 1997-2000, and 587 participated in follow-up through 2008. Main Outcome Measures Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years. Results Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Among PFCs in maternal pregnancy serum, PFOS showed the strongest negative correlations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, for which a 2-fold greater concentration of exposure was associated with a difference of −39% (95% CI, −55% to −17%) in the diphtheria antibody concentration. PFCs in the child’s serum at age 5 years showed uniformly negative associations with antibody levels, especially at age 7 years, except that the tetanus antibody level following PFOS exposure was not statistically significant. In a structural equation model, a 2-fold greater concentration of major PFCs in child serum was associated with a difference of −49% (95% CI, −67% to −23%) in the overall antibody concentration. A 2-fold increase in PFOS and PFOA concentrations at age 5 years was associated with odds ratios between 2.38 (95% CI, 0.89 to 6.35) and 4.20 (95% CI, 1.54 to 11.44) for falling below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/mL for tetanus and diphtheria antibodies at age 7 years. Conclusion Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with

  15. Detection of surface bound complement at increasing serum anticoagulant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, S; Askendal, A; Lindahl, T L; Tengvall, P

    2008-04-01

    Surface mediated immune complement activation can be detected by a variety of antibody utilizing methods such as ELISA, fluorescence- or radiolabelling techniques, QCM, and ellipsometry. In the present work we investigated how the common anticoagulants heparin, dalteparin, fondaparinux and sodium citrate affected the binding of anti-complement factor 3c (anti-C3c) on a model complement activator surface, immobilised IgG, after incubation in human blood serum. The results show, as expected, that different anticoagulants affect the antibody binding differently. Increasing amounts of heparin, dalteparin and sodium citrate in normal serum resulted in a decreasing anti-C3c binding. The antibody deposition was not sensitive for the fondaparinux concentration. Surprisingly high concentrations of anti-coagulantia were needed to completely eradicate the antibody binding. Experiments in EGTA-serum showed that anticoagulants interfered directly with both the classical and alternative pathways. Control C3a-des arg ELISA measurements show that the lowered antibody surface binding was not a result of complement depletion in serum. Kallikrein generation by hydrophilic glass surfaces was not affected by high anticoagulant concentrations.

  16. Airborne Precursors Predict Maternal Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; Webster, Thomas F; Martin, Jonathan W; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Webster, Glenys M

    2017-07-05

    Human exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), can occur directly from contaminated food, water, air, and dust. However, precursors to PFAAs (PreFAAs), such as dipolyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctyl sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), which can be biotransformed to PFAAs, may also be a source of exposure. PFAAs were analyzed in 50 maternal sera samples collected in 2007-2008 from participants in Vancouver, Canada, while PFAAs and PreFAAs were measured in matching samples of residential bedroom air collected by passive sampler and in sieved vacuum dust (<150 μm). Concentrations of PreFAAs were higher than for PFAAs in air and dust. Positive associations were discovered between airborne 10:2 FTOH and serum PFOA and PFNA and between airborne MeFOSE and serum PFOS. On average, serum PFOS concentrations were 2.3 ng/mL (95%CI: 0.40, 4.3) higher in participants with airborne MeFOSE concentrations in the highest tertile relative to the lowest tertile. Among all PFAAs, only PFNA in air and vacuum dust predicted serum PFNA. Results suggest that airborne PFAA precursors were a source of PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS exposure in this population.

  17. Sodium cromoglycate in asthma: correlation between response and serum concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Yahav, Y; Dany, S; Katznelson, D; Farfel, Z

    1988-01-01

    The clinical response to sodium cromoglycate treatment was compared with its concentration in serum. Twenty five children with asthma entered a 10 week trial of two baseline weeks followed by eight weeks of treatment by the inhalation of 20 mg of sodium cromoglycate spincaps four times a day. Individual clinical response was determined by the differences between baseline and treatment periods of: (a) percentage of symptomless days (delta score 0); (b) diary derived daily score for four symptoms (delta DS); and (c) peak expiratory flow rate (delta PEFR). At the end of the treatment period, patients inhaled a 20 mg spincap of sodium cromoglycate and the technique of inhalation was graded. Concentrations of sodium cromoglycate in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples withdrawn 5 to 120 minutes after inhalation. Delta Score 0, delta DS, and delta PEFR correlated significantly with the area under the concentration time curve. Both the area under the sodium cromoglycate concentration time curve and clinical response correlated significantly with inhalation technique score. We suggest that response of children with asthma to inhalation treatment with sodium cromoglycate is correlated to its serum concentrations. PMID:3133990

  18. Common Genetic Variants Associate with Serum Phosphorus Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Köttgen, Anna; Felix, Janine F.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Hausman, Dorothy B.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Gieger, Christian; Ried, Janina S.; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M.; Wichmann, H. Erich; Campbell, Harry; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; de Boer, Ian H.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Man; Arking, Dan E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Yang, Qiong; Levy, Daniel; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Siscovick, David S.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential mineral that maintains cellular energy and mineralizes the skeleton. Because complex actions of ion transporters and regulatory hormones regulate serum phosphorus concentrations, genetic variation may determine interindividual variation in phosphorus metabolism. Here, we report a comprehensive genome-wide association study of serum phosphorus concentration. We evaluated 16,264 participants of European ancestry from the Cardiovascular Heath Study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Framingham Offspring Study, and the Rotterdam Study. We excluded participants with an estimated GFR <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 to focus on phosphorus metabolism under normal conditions. We imputed genotypes to approximately 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the HapMap and combined study-specific findings using meta-analysis. We tested top polymorphisms from discovery cohorts in a 5444-person replication sample. Polymorphisms in seven loci with minor allele frequencies 0.08 to 0.49 associate with serum phosphorus concentration (P = 3.5 × 10−16 to 3.6 × 10−7). Three loci were near genes encoding the kidney-specific type IIa sodium phosphate co-transporter (SLC34A1), the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), proteins that contribute to phosphorus metabolism. We also identified genes encoding phosphatases, kinases, and phosphodiesterases that have yet-undetermined roles in phosphorus homeostasis. In the replication sample, five of seven top polymorphisms associate with serum phosphorous concentrations (P < 0.05 for each). In conclusion, common genetic variants associate with serum phosphorus in the general population. Further study of the loci identified in this study may help elucidate mechanisms of phosphorus regulation. PMID:20558539

  19. Predictors of Serum Chlorinated Pesticide Concentrations among Prepubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paige L.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan A.; Lee, Mary M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have evaluated predictors of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a class of lipophilic persistent chemicals. Objectives: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum OCP concentrations—hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)—among boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were recruited in a prospective cohort. The initial study visit included a physical examination; blood collection; health, lifestyle, and food-frequency questionnaires; and determination of residential distance from a local factory complex that produced HCB and β-HCH. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for OCPs at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of the boys’ serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations. Results: Among 355 boys with OCP measurements, median serum HCB, β-HCH, and p,p´-DDE concentrations were 158, 167, and 284 ng/g lipid, respectively. Lower body mass index, longer breastfeeding duration, and local dairy consumption were associated with higher concentrations of OCPs. Boys who lived < 2 km from the factory complex had 64% (95% CI: 37, 96) and 57% (95% CI: 32, 87) higher mean HCB and β-HCH concentrations, respectively, than boys who lived ≥ 5 km away. Living > 3 years in Chapaevsk predicted higher β-HCH concentrations, and having parents who lacked a high school education predicted higher p,p´-DDE concentrations. Conclusions: Among this cohort of prepubertal Russian boys, predictors of serum OCPs included consumption of local dairy products, longer local residence, and residential proximity to the local factory complex. Citation: Lam T, Williams PL, Burns JS, Sergeyev O, Korrick SA, Lee MM, Birnbaum LS, Revich B, Altshul LM, Patterson DG Jr, Turner WE, Hauser R. 2013. Predictors of serum chlorinated pesticide concentrations

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  1. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates during continuous intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    van Boekholt, A; Fleuren, H; Mouton, J; Kramers, C; Sprong, T; Gerrits, P; Semmekrot, B

    2016-06-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal bacterial infection with intermittent dosing (ID) regimens. However, increasing bacterial resistance, in addition to a lack of new antimicrobial agents, urges the optimization of current therapeutic options. Clinical studies in adults suggest continuous infusion (CI) regimens of beta-lactam antibiotics to be superior to ID. There are as yet no guidelines concerning the CI dosing of amoxicillin. The present study was developed to describe the CI pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of amoxicillin during the first 3 days of life in search of the optimal dosing regimen. Neonates with a gestational age above 34 weeks, at risk of neonatal infection and requiring amoxicillin therapy, were included. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin were measured during CI on days 1 and 3 in the steady state. Twenty-two serum samples of 11 patients were collected. All patients reached and retained serum concentrations of amoxicillin within the therapeutic range without exceeding the toxic concentration (serum concentrations on day 1 mean 55.4 mg/l, range 30.9-69.5, SD 10.5, and on day 3 48.8 mg/l, range 25.5-92.4, SD 18.4). There was no significant decrease in concentration from day 1 to day 3 (p = 0.38). This study showed therapeutic, nontoxic concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates on CI of amoxicillin in the first 3 days of life. Randomized controlled trials should reveal whether the clinical benefits of the CI of amoxicillin exceed those of ID regimens.

  2. Effect of altitude training on serum creatine kinase activity and serum cortisol concentration in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over

  3. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  4. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  5. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably.

  6. Urine and serum concentrations of Cytokeratin 19 in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kuessel, Lorenz; Wild, Julia; Haslacher, Helmuth; Perkmann, Thomas; Ristl, Robin; Zeisler, Harald; Schmid, Maximilian

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Cytokeratin 19 as biomarker for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Cytokeratin 19 protein fragment CYFRA 21-1 was measured by means of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays in urine and serum samples of 32 women with preeclampsia and 32 samples of normotensive healthy singleton pregnancies at random, matched for gestational age, as controls. The median serum concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 in controls and women with preeclampsia were 2.4 (range 1.3-6.6)ng/mL and 4.4 (range 2.1-16.2)ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). The median urine concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 in controls and women with preeclampsia were 13.7 (range 0.7-441.4)ng/mL and 11.8 (range 1.5-338.6)ng/mL, respectively (p=0.629). Calculation of a ROC curve to study the use of serum CYFRA 21-1 concentration as a predictor of preeclampsia revealed cut-off points with the highest sum of specificity and sensitivity of 3.2ng/mL, leading to specificity of 75% and sensitivity of 84%. A similar curve calculated for CYFRA 21-1 in urine showed an area under the curve of 0.536 meaning no predictive power. The correlation between urinary excretion of protein in 24h and serum concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 in the case group was r=0.26, which is not significant (p=0.258). The correlation between proteinuria and urine values of CYFRA 21-1 was r=0.10, which also is not significant (p=0.666). Serum levels of Cytokeratin 19 fragment are increased in women with preeclampsia. However this does not result in a significant difference in CYFRA 21-1 levels in maternal urine. Thus Cytokeratin 19 fragment may prove to be a valuable biomarker for preeclampsia in serum but not urine. We propose further longitudinal studies to investigate the role of Cytokeratin 19 in maternal serum of women with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of serum concentration on the cytotoxicity of clay particles.

    PubMed

    Lordan, Sinéad; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle cytotoxicity testing based on in vitro methods frequently lack consistency. Even the inclusion of the commonly employed growth supplement, FCS (fetal calf serum), generates variable results. Thus, our object was to investigate the effect of FCS concentration on the cytotoxic behaviour of the unmodified nanoclay, Cloisite® Na(+). Human monocytic U937 cells in medium supplemented with 5% FCS, 2.5% FCS or serum-free medium were treated with 1 mg/ml Cloisite Na(+). Cell growth in 2.5% FCS was significantly inhibited by Cloisite Na(+) within 48 h, whereas little effect was seen with a supplement of 5% FCS. Without serum, cell growth was inhibited and Cloisite Na(+) had a detrimental effect on these cells. In media supplemented with FCS, the nanoclays agglomerated together to form large bundles, whereas they were evenly dispersed throughout the medium in the absence of serum. Clay particles, therefore, have cytotoxic properties that may be linked to their dispersion pattern. These adverse effects seem to be masked by 5% FCS. Serum supplementation is an important consideration in the toxicological assessments of nanomaterials on cells, which needs to be addressed in the standardization of in vitro testing methods. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  8. Salivary and serum leptin concentrations in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Purwar, Parth; Khan, M A; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Pandey, Shivani; Singh, Babita; Dixit, Jaya; Sareen, Sagar

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of leptin has led to the elucidation of a robust physiologic system that not only maintains fat stores but is also an integral part of the host defense mechanism. However, leptin concentrations in the saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) has not been explored despite the potential role of salivary biomarkers in determining the presence, risk, and progression of periodontal disease. Eighty-four participants (44 with generalized severe CP and 40 without periodontitis) were enrolled. For each patient, the values of periodontal parameters were recorded, such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (AL), and percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical AL ≥5 mm. Saliva and serum samples were collected to estimate the leptin concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Statistical analysis was performed using software. Participants with CP demonstrated significantly higher BOP, PI, GI, and percentage of sites with clinical AL >5 mm (P <0.05). Leptin was detectable in all the clinical samples. Salivary leptin concentrations in patients with CP were significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (6,200.61 ± 2,322.11 versus 8,799.60 ± 901.70 pg/mL), whereas serum leptin concentrations were significantly higher in patients with CP than in healthy volunteers (11,600.00 ± 1,705.01 versus 7,616.62 ± 1,169.83 pg/mL). In addition, the results reflected a significant negative correlation of salivary leptin and a positive correlation of serum leptin with PD (P <0.05). The results suggest that leptin concentrations in saliva and serum are significantly altered in CP and relate closely to current disease activity; however, further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  9. Serum Acetaminophen Protein Adduct Concentrations in Pediatric Emergency Department Patients.

    PubMed

    Heard, Kennon; Anderson, Victoria; Dart, Richard C; Kile, Deidre; Lavonas, Eric J; Green, Jody L

    2017-04-01

    Acetaminophen toxicity is a common cause of pediatric liver failure. The diagnosis may be limited by the short window of detection of acetaminophen in serum. Recently acetaminophen protein adducts (APAP-CYS) have been used as a biomarker with a longer duration of detection. The objective of this study was to describe the serum concentrations of APAP-CYS in pediatric patients with and without reported therapeutic acetaminophen exposure. A cross-sectional study of children age 1 to <12 years presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Subjects were stratified by recent acetaminophen use and had serum APAP-CYS measured using LC/MS. One hundred patients were enrolled. All of the patients whose caregivers denied acetaminophen exposure had nondetectable APAP-CYS. Fifty-two percent of subjects who were reported to have taken acetaminophen in the preceding 2 weeks had detectable serum APAP-CYS. The APAP-CYS concentrations were positively correlated with higher overall dose and more recent ingestion. APAP-CYS is detectable in the majority of children taking acetaminophen and not detected in the majority of children who are not exposed to acetaminophen.

  10. Serum creatine kinase B concentrations in acute cerebrovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, F E; Homburger, H A; Yanagihara, T

    1984-11-01

    Serum creatine kinase B (CKB) concentrations were measured every 12 hours for five days in 38 patients during acute cerebrovascular diseases and in nine controls. Mean CKB concentration was 6.2 +/- 0.8 ng/mL. The fluctuation of the CKB concentration following ischemic stroke was as notable as the elevation immediately after the ischemic event. The two abnormalities were observed in 13 of 17 patients with acute cerebral infarction, and the extent of abnormalities roughly correlated with the volume of tissue damage. The profiles were normal for patients with transient vascular events. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage demonstrated wide fluctuation along with high CKB concentration. Although transient elevation of the CKB concentration in some patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage was observed after angiography or clinical worsening, the fluctuation in patients with ischemic stroke was not associated with worsening of neurologic conditions or recurrence of ischemic events.

  11. Ejaculation increases the serum prostate-specific antigen concentration.

    PubMed

    Tchetgen, M B; Song, J T; Strawderman, M; Jacobsen, S J; Oesterling, J E

    1996-04-01

    To determine the effect of ejaculation on the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration in men at risk for developing prostate cancer. A prospective, community-based study was conducted in which 64 men, aged 49 to 79 years, underwent a serum PSA determination immediately before ejaculation (baseline) and at 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours following ejaculation. The serum PSA also was measured 48 hours and 1 week after ejaculation if the concentration had not returned to the baseline value by the previous time interval. All subjects abstained from ejaculation for a minimum of 7 days prior to the study and until the PSA concentration returned to the baseline level. Absolute and relative change in serum PSA concentration, as well as the time to return to baseline PSA concentration following ejaculation, were assessed. The serum PSA concentration increased following ejaculation in 87% of the subjects. The mean baseline PSA was 1.8 ng/mL (median, 0.7 ng/mL). The mean absolute PSA change +/- standard deviation 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ejaculation was 0.8 +/- 1.32 ng/mL, 0.3 +/- 0.66 ng/mL, 0.2 +/- 0.33 ng/mL, and 0.4 +/- 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. The mean relative PSA change +/- standard error 1 hour, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours after ejaculation was 41 +/- 4%, 9 +/- 1.5%, 8 +/- 1.3%, and 10 +/- 2.3%, respectively. The absolute and relative changes in PSA concentration noted 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after ejaculation were statistically significant (P = 0.0001). A strong correlation was observed between absolute change in PSA and baseline serum PSA, at each time interval (1 hour: r = 0.68, 6 hours: r = 0.77, 24 hours: r = 0.70; P < 0.0001) after ejaculation. Similarly, a significant correlation was noted between absolute change in PSA and patient age at each time interval (1 hour: r = 0.37, 6 hours: r = 0.38; P = 0.002, 24 hours: r = 0.55; P < 0.0001). Ninety-two percent of subjects returned to baseline by 24 hours (95% confidence

  12. Serum concentrations of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Faroese whale meat consumers.

    PubMed

    Weihe, Pal; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Nielsen, Flemming; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Needham, Larry L; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    To learn the extent of human exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in a remote fishing population, we measured, in Faroese children and pregnant women, the serum concentrations of nine PFCs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The serum samples analyzed had been collected between 1993 and 2005 from 103 children 7 years of age, 79 of these children at 14 years of age, and from 12 pregnant women and their children 5 years later. PFOS was detected in all samples analyzed, and both PFOA and PFNA were detected in all but one of the samples. The concentrations found are comparable tothose reported elsewhere. Correlations between paired concentrations were poor. However, PFOS and PFNA concentrations correlated well with the frequency of pilotwhale dinners and with concentrations of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. One whale meal every two weeks increased the PFOS concentration in 14-year-olds by about 25% and PFNA by 50%. The high frequency of detection of most PFCs suggests widespread exposure in the Faroe Islands already by the early 1990s, with whale meat being an important source.

  13. Multiple sclerosis influences on the augmentation of serum Klotho concentration.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mona; Emami Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Yarani, Reza; Tavakoli, Farhad; Siroos, Bahaadin

    2016-03-15

    We have already shown that the concentration of secreted form of Klotho decreases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The current study aimed at assessing possible changes in the serum Klotho concentration of MS patients. Participants involved 15 new cases of RRMS patients in the relapse phase, 15 RRMS patients who had been suffering from the disease for more than three years and were under regular treatments (interferon beta-1a) and, finally, 15 non-MS patients who constituted the control group. Beside thorough neurological examinations, demographic and clinical data (e.g. gender, age, duration of disease and expanded disability status scale) were obtained. Serum Klotho concentration was measured using ELISA method. The results showed no statistically meaningful difference between new cases of RRMS (585.56pg/ml±153.99) and control group (556.81pg/ml±120.36; P=0.859). The serum Klotho level, however, was significantly higher in patients with prolonged disease duration (696.94pg/ml±170.52; P=0.037) in comparison with the subjects in the control group. In conclusion, this study showed that serum Klotho concentration tends to be higher in MS patients when compared to control group. This finding might be attributed to treatment of MS patients with immunomodulatory drugs or a compensatory response to enhance CNS regeneration and/or vitamin D biosynthesis. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of Klotho in MS pathophysiology.

  14. Analysis of serum zinc and copper concentrations in hair loss.

    PubMed

    Kil, Min Seong; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Sang Seok

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that some trace elements such as zinc and copper play a significant role in many forms of hair loss. However, the effect of zinc and copper in the pathogenesis of hair loss is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the zinc and copper status in each of four types of hair loss. A study was carried out with 30 health controls and 312 patients who were diagnosed with alopecia areata (AA), male pattern hair loss, female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium (TE) (2008 to 2011; Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital). Zinc and copper serum concentrations were evaluated between controls and each of four types of hair loss patients. In all of the hair loss patients, the mean serum zinc was 84.33±22.88, significantly lower than the control group (97.94±21.05 µg/dl) (p=0.002), whereas the serum copper was 96.44±22.62, which was not significantly different (p=0.975). The analysis of each group showed that all groups of hair loss had statistically lower zinc concentration, but not copper concentrations. However, the ratio of the patients with serum zinc concentration lower than 70 µg/dl was significantly high in only the AA group (odds ratio, OR 4.02; confidence interval, CI 1.13 to 14.31) and the TE group (OR 1.12; CI 1.12 to 17.68). The data led to the hypothesis of zinc metabolism disturbances playing a key role in hair loss, especially AA and TE, whereas the effect of copper on hair growth and shedding cycles still needs more study.

  15. Association between serum cytokine concentrations and the presence of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Mirhafez, Seyed Reza; Tajfard, Mohammad; Avan, Amir; Pasdar, Alireza; Nedaeinia, Reza; Aghasizade, Malihe; Davari, Hafezeh; Manian, Mostafa; Mahdizadeh, Adeleh; Meshkat, Zahra; Movahedi, Ali; Amini, Nahid Ghaed; Eskandari, Nahid; Salehi, Rasoul; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2016-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an established risk factor for coronary-heart-disease. Inflammatory cytokines are known to be important mediators of atherogenesis; however, the relationship between the concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines and the presence of hypertriglyceridemia has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the serum levels of several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Four hundred and eighty-four subjects with/without established hypertriglyceridemia were recruited. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical analysis (including a full fasting lipid profile) were determined. The serum levels of several cytokines and growth factors including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, EGF, and VEGF were measured followed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Individuals with hypertriglyceridemia had a significantly higher body mass index, total-cholesterol and triglyceride, compared to the group without hypertriglyceridemia. Serum levels of MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-8 were significantly higher in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia [e.g., IL-8 from 7.8ng/L (95% CI: 4.6-18.9) versus 5.7ng/L (95% CI: 3.6-11.9), P<0.05]. The multivariate analysis showed that the increased serum concentration of TNF-α was independently associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), while the serum levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 were associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Subjects with serum triglycerides of ≥2.25mmol/L had an altered cytokine-profile, particularly with respect to serum IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-α, which might partially account for its adverse clinical-consequences. Further-investigations in a large multi-center setting are warranted to unravel the potential functional-importance of these cytokines in individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Serum irisin concentration in women with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmicki, Mariusz; Telejko, Beata; Lipinska, Danuta; Pliszka, Justyna; Szamatowicz, Michal; Wilk, Juliusz; Zbucka-Kretowska, Monika; Laudanski, Piotr; Kretowski, Adam; Gorska, Maria; Szamatowicz, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Irisin is a novel myokine and adipokine which induces an increase in total body energy expenditure, improving insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in experimental animals. In the present study, serum irisin concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay in 130 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 140 BMI-matched patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Median irisin level was significantly lower in the patients with GDM than in the NGT subjects (1703.3 [1354.8-2097.9 ng/ml] versus 1873.8 [1519.8-2294.8 ng/ml], p = 0.01); however, 3 months after childbirth its concentrations did not differ markedly between the two groups (1165.9 [872.1-1497.5] ng/ml versus 1139.0 [984.0-1376.7] ng/ml). In the whole group, irisin concentration correlated negatively with 2 h glucose level (R = -0.14, p = 0.03). In the women with NGT, irisin concentration correlated positively with IS(OGTT) (R = 0.22, p = 0.04) and the disposition index (DI(120)) (R = 0.24, p = 0.03), as well as negatively with 2 h insulin level (R = -0.23, p = 0.03) and HOMA-IR (R = -0.24, p = 0.02). Multiple regression analysis revealed that 2 h glucose and DI(120) were the only variables significantly influencing serum irisin (β = 0.158, p = 0.03 and β = 0.159, p = 0.02, respectively). Our results suggest that serum irisin concentration increases markedly in pregnant women, but this increase seems to be significantly lower in patients with GDM.

  17. Cytokine and Growth Factor Concentrations in Canine Autologous Conditioned Serum.

    PubMed

    Sawyere, Dominique M; Lanz, Otto I; Dahlgren, Linda A; Barry, Sabrina L; Nichols, Anne C; Werre, Stephen R

    2016-07-01

    To compare cytokine and growth factor concentrations in canine autologous conditioned serum (ACS) to canine plasma. Experimental in vivo study. Client-owned, adult dogs (n=22). Blood collected from 16 medium to large breed dogs was used to produce ACS (Orthokine(®) vet irap 10 syringes) and citrated plasma (control). Canine-specific ELISA assays were run per manufacturers' instructions for interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, IL-1β, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). Serum, in addition to plasma and ACS, was collected from an additional 6 dogs for TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-1ra analysis (total of 22 dogs). Data were analyzed for differences in each cytokine concentration using pairwise comparisons between ACS, plasma, and serum using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Significance was set at P<.05. There was a large variability in growth factor and cytokine concentrations in ACS and plasma for individual dogs. There were no significant differences in IL-10, TNF-α, IGF-1, FGF-2, and TGF-β1 concentrations between ACS, plasma, and serum. The IL-1β concentrations in ACS (median, range 46.3 pg/mL, 0-828.8) and IL-4 (0.0 pg/mL, 0-244.1) were significantly higher than plasma (36.6 pg/mL, 0-657.1 and 0.0 pg/mL, 0-0, respectively). The IL-1ra concentration in ACS (median, range 3,458.9 pg/mL, 1,243.1-12,089.0) was significantly higher than plasma (692.3 pg/mL, 422.5-1,475.6). The IL-1ra:IL-1β ratio in ACS was significantly higher than plasma (39.9 vs. 7.2). IL-1ra concentrations in canine ACS were comparable to those published for people and horses and pro-inflammatory cytokines remained low in canine ACS. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and an inverse correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p < 0.001), monounsaturated fat intake(p < 0.05), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), body mass index(p < 0.001), waist circumference(p < 0.001) and the waist/height ratio(p < 0.001). An elevated resistin concentration(fifth quintile) was associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.71-0.93), saturated fat intake(OR=1.34 CI95%=1.16-1.56), monounsaturated fat intake(OR=0.88 CI95%=0.78-0.99), a total cholesterol level of ≥200 mg/dL(OR=0.81 CI95%=0.72-0.91), a low HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and serum triglycerides(p=0.004) and the inverse associations between the resistin level and adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p=0.002), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001) and cholesterol fractions and the waist/height ratio(p=0.02). In the general population, the serum resistin level is associated with fat intake: positively with saturated fat intake and inversely with monounsaturated fat intake. As a consequence, the resistin level is also inversely associated with adherence to the

  19. Decrease in serum potassium concentration during epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R G

    1987-11-01

    A mean decrease in the arterial serum potassium concentration (S-K) of 0.40 mmol/l (range 0-1.0) was found in 45 elderly men who were studied before and after induction of epidural anaesthesia (using mepivacaine 2% with adrenaline). The decrease was similar in patients who received acetated Ringer solution or dextran 40 in normal saline as intravenous fluid supplementation. No difference in S-K change was found between patients with a normal (less than 115 mumol/l) or elevated serum creatinine concentration. The decrease in S-K prevailed at the end of surgery except in patients with an elevated serum creatinine. Corrections of S-K for changes in arterial blood pH and rectal temperature during induction of anaesthesia did not explain the decrease in S-K. Correlations of clinical parameters such as the extension of anaesthesia, amount of intravenous fluid given and blood pressure changes gave conflicting results. A smaller decrease or no change in S-K was usually seen in arterial (n = 7) and venous (n = 7) samples when no intravenous fluid was given, as well as in venous samples when acetated Ringer solution was given (n = 6).

  20. Effect of serum cotinine on vitamin D serum concentrations among american females with different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Manavi, Kiano Reza; Alston-Mills, Brenda P; Thompson, Marvin P; Allen, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of blood serum concentration of cotinine among non-smokers, passive/light smokers and active smoker females in the United States population as it compares to vitamin D blood serum concentrations. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that is designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n=22,196). The analyses demonstrated that among all three smoking categories, black female active smokers have lower vitamin D (13.374 ng/ml), than hispanic (19.213 ng/ml) or white (24.929 ng/ml) females. It was demonstrated that the active smoker black females have the highest percentage of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in the population compared to other ethnic females. The cotinine blood serum concentrations can also affect vitamin D concentrations in addition to other factors such as gender, ethnicity, dietary supplement intake and sun exposure. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased serum ceruloplasmin concentration in aluminum welders exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Pierre, F; Baruthio, F; Diebold, F; Wild, P; Goutet, M

    1988-01-01

    During an epidemiological survey on arc welders, serum copper and ceruloplasmin were determined in two groups of workers. One group consisted of aluminum welders who were divided into two groups: 13 welders working inside aluminum tanks (confined atmosphere) and 8 welders engaged in the production of vans for dump trucks (nonconfined atmosphere). The reference group consisted of 26 workers of the same plant who were not exposed to welding fumes. Ozone, the major pollutant in aluminum arc welding, was thought to be the principal factor in the significant decrease (P less than 0.01) of mean ceruloplasmin in confined welders. This decrease in the level of ceruloplasmin was still within the reference values and was not linked to age or to tobacco consumption. We found a linear relationship between ceruloplasmin concentration and the cumulated worktime along the week. This effect could be a sign in the serum of a lung reaction against oxidant activity in this type occupational exposure.

  2. Trends in serum relaxin concentration among elite collegiate female athletes.

    PubMed

    Dragoo, Jason L; Castillo, Tiffany N; Korotkova, Tatiana A; Kennedy, Ashleigh C; Kim, Hyeon Joo; Stewart, Dennis R

    2011-01-19

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum relaxin concentration (SRC) and menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use among elite collegiate female athletes. Evaluation of SRC in athletes is necessary, because relaxin has been associated with increased knee joint laxity and decreased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strength in animal models. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female athletes participating in sports at high risk for ACL tears - basketball, field hockey, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, and volleyball - were invited to participate. All participants completed a questionnaire about their menstrual history and hormonal contraceptive use. Venipuncture was performed to obtain samples of serum progesterone and relaxin. Samples were obtained during the mid-luteal phase from ovulating participants, and between the actual or projected cycle days 21 to 24, from anovulatory participants. Serum concentration of relaxin and progesterone was determined by ELISA and the data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software with significance set at P = 0.05. 169 female athletes participated. The mean SRC among all participants was 3.08 ± 6.66 pg/mL). The mean SRC differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (1.41 pg/mL) and those not using hormonal contraceptives (3.08 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Mean SRC was lowest among amenorrheic participants (1.02 pg/mL) and highest among oligomenorrheic participants (3.71 pg/mL) and eumenorrheic participants (3.06 pg/mL); these differences were not significant (P = 0.53). Mean serum progesterone concentration (SPC) differed significantly between those participants using hormonal contraceptives (2.80 ng/mL), and those not using hormonal contraceptives (6.99 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). There is a positive correlation between serum progesterone and SRC and an attenuation of SRC with hormonal contraceptive use. Our results underscore the significant role that hormonal

  3. Serum concentration of sialic acids in naturally occurring ovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Abtahi Froushani, Seyyed Meysam; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa

    2014-10-01

    This study is designated to assess the effect of the severity of Babesia ovis infection on sialic acid concentration in blood sera in naturally infected sheep. Infected animals (diseased group) comprised 38 Iranian fat-tailed sheep, about 1-3 years old, naturally infected with B. ovis, divided into four subgroups with respect to parasitemia rates (low 0.1-0.3 %, moderate 0.4-0.9 %, high 1-2.5 %, and very high >2.5 %). The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using PCR analysis. As a control group, ten clinically healthy sheep reared under the same management and environmental conditions were also sampled. Hematological parameters and the concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA), and protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA) were measured in both groups. Compared to controls, sialic acid concentrations showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in infected sheep. Parasitemia rate was positively correlated with sialic acid concentrations. This study demonstrated that B. ovis infection induced marked and persistent elevations of serum sialic acid concentrations. It seems that increase of serum sialic acid concentrations during parasitemia alter receptor-ligand interactions, which are known to play important role in immune response. Furthermore, sialic acid would indirectly inhibit the action of leukocytes and consequently promote the evasion of the immune response and persistence of the parasite in the host. This factor could influence the parasite-host cell adhesion, but further detailed biochemical investigations are needed to precisely explain the exact role of sialic acid in invasion process of the parasite to the host cells.

  4. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; <30 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and <60 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na(+) intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na(+) concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and serum osmolality (297 ± 6 vs 299 ± 5, 301 ± 6 mOsm/kg; P < 0.05) than low-salt and typical sweaters. Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms.

  5. Serum concentrations of gentamicin following oral administration to preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Grylack, L; Boehnert, J; Scanlon, J

    1982-01-01

    Serum gentamicin concentration was measured in 31 newborn babies who received oral gentamicin for prophylaxis of necrotizing enterocolitis in order to determine the presence and degree of gastrointestinal absorption and its relationship to birth weight, gestational age, postnatal age and perinatal asphyxia. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg every 6 h by nasogastric tube was administered during a 3-week course after birth. The mean birth weight was 1,269 +/- 489 g; mean gestational age 29.6 +/- 3.7 weeks. The mean serum gentamicin levels were: 0.06 +/- 0.03 microgram/ml at 30 min after the first dose; 0.29 +/- 0.48 microgram/ml at 4 h; 1.62 +/- 1.43 microgram/ml at 24 h, and 0.33 +/- 0.57 microgram/ml at 7 days. The 24-hour and 7-day samples were taken before the next dose. The mean 24-hour level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than the other levels. There was no significant (p less than 0.05) relationship between the 24-hour serum gentamicin level and birth weight, gestational age or umbilical venous pH.

  6. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona

    2017-04-01

    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  7. Serum concentration of adipocytokines in prepubertal vegetarian and omnivorous children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Rowicka, Grażyna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation. Patients with endocrine disorders or genetic syndromes, as well as those who were taking medications that could affect growth, pubertal development or nutritional status were excluded. Children were divided into groups: vegetarians (n=30), normal-weight omnivores (n=30) and obese omnivores (n=30). Anthropometric measurement (weight, height) was performed in all children and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to determine fat mass, the percentage of body fat and lean body mass using a Lunar Prodigy (GE, USA). Dietary constituents were assessed by questionnaire (nutrient intake from a 3-day period: 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) and calculated using the nutritional computer program Dietetyk2®. Serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides concentrations were assessed by standard enzymatic methods. Serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. There were no significant differences in body weight, height, BMI and lean mass values between vegetarians and normal-weight children on traditional mixed diet. Children on vegetarian diet had lower fat mass (p<0.05) and fat mass/lean mass ratio (p<0.05) than normal-weight omnivores. However, omnivorous children with simple obesity had significantly higher body weight, height, BMI, fat and lean mass in comparison to vegetarian as well to normal-weight omnivorous children. The fat mass/lean mass ratio in obese children was about 2.5-fold

  8. Dietary Sodium Modifies Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Humans.

    PubMed

    Todd, Alwyn S; Walker, Robert J; MacGinley, Robert J; Kelly, Jaimon; Merriman, Tony R; Major, Tanya J; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-09-07

    Subjects with hypertension are frequently obese or insulin resistant, both conditions in which hyperuricemia is common. Obese and insulin-resistant subjects are also known to have blood pressure that is more sensitive to changes in dietary sodium intake. Whether hyperuricemia is a resulting consequence, moderating or contributing factor to the development of hypertension has not been fully evaluated and very few studies have reported interactions between sodium intake and serum uric acid. We performed further analysis of our randomized controlled clinical trials (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #12609000161224 and #12609000292279) designed to assess the effects of modifying sodium intake on concentrations of serum markers, including uric acid. Uric acid and other variables (including blood pressure, renin, and aldosterone) were measured at baseline and 4 weeks following the commencement of low (60 mmol/day), moderate (150 mmol/day), and high (200-250 mmol/day) dietary sodium intake. The median aldosterone-to-renin ratio was 1.90 [pg/ml]/[pg/ml] (range 0.10-11.04). Serum uric acid fell significantly in both the moderate and high interventions compared to the low sodium intervention. This pattern of response occurred when all subjects were analyzed, and when normotensive or hypertensive subjects were analyzed alone. Although previously reported in hypertensive subjects, these data provide evidence in normotensive subjects of an interaction between dietary sodium intake and serum uric acid. As this interaction is present in the absence of hypertension, it is possible it could play a role in hypertension development, and will need to be considered in future trials of dietary sodium intake. The trials were registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000161224 and ACTRN1260.

  9. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    PubMed Central

    Papazoglu, Cristian; Ang, Jonathan R.; Mandel, Michael; Basak, Prasanta; Jesmajian, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy. PMID:26653695

  10. Association between Prediagnostic Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Zigmont, Victoria; Garrett, Amy; Peng, Jin; Seweryn, Michal; Rempala, Grzegorz A.; Harris, Randall; Holloman, Christopher; Gundersen, Thomas E.; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Schwartzbaum, Judith

    2016-01-01

    There are no previous studies of the association between prediagnostic serum vitamin D concentration and glioma. Vitamin D has immunosuppressive properties; as does glioma. It was, therefore, our hypothesis that elevated vitamin D concentration would increase glioma risk. We conducted a nested case–control study using specimens from the Janus Serum Bank cohort in Norway. Blood donors who were subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 592), between 1974 and 2007, were matched to donors without glioma (n = 1112) on date and age at blood collection and sex. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), an indicator of vitamin D availability, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Seasonally adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were estimated for each control quintile of 25(OH)D using conditional logistic regression. Among men diagnosed with high grade glioma >56, we found a negative trend (P=.04). Men diagnosed ≤ 56 showed a borderline positive trend (P=.08). High levels (>66 nmol/L) of 25(OH)D in men > 56 were inversely related to high grade glioma from ≥ 2 years before diagnosis (OR=0.59; 95%CI=0.38,0.91) to ≥ 15 years before diagnosis (OR=0.61; 95%CI=0.38,0.96). Our findings are consistent long before glioma diagnosis and are therefore unlikely to reflect preclinical disease. PMID:26317248

  11. Association Between Prediagnostic Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Glioma.

    PubMed

    Zigmont, Victoria; Garrett, Amy; Peng, Jin; Seweryn, Michal; Rempala, Grzegorz A; Harris, Randall; Holloman, Christopher; Gundersen, Thomas E; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Johannesen, Tom Borge; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Schwartzbaum, Judith

    2015-01-01

    There are no previous studies of the association between prediagnostic serum vitamin D concentration and glioma. Vitamin D has immunosuppressive properties; as does glioma. It was, therefore, our hypothesis that elevated vitamin D concentration would increase glioma risk. We conducted a nested case-control study using specimens from the Janus Serum Bank cohort in Norway. Blood donors who were subsequently diagnosed with glioma (n = 592), between 1974 and 2007, were matched to donors without glioma (n = 1112) on date and age at blood collection and sex. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], an indicator of vitamin D availability, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Seasonally adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for each control quintile of 25(OH)D using conditional logistic regression. Among men diagnosed with high grade glioma >56, we found a negative trend (P = .04). Men diagnosed ≤ 56 showed a borderline positive trend (P = .08). High levels (>66 nmol/L) of 25(OH)D in men >56 were inversely related to high grade glioma from ≥2 yr before diagnosis (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.38, 0.91) to ≥15 yr before diagnosis (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.38,0.96). Our findings are consistent long before glioma diagnosis and are therefore unlikely to reflect preclinical disease.

  12. No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Raila, J; Schweigert, F J; Stanitznig, A; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Baldermann, S; Wittek, T

    2016-11-09

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol.

  13. Equine endurance exercise alters serum branched-chain amino acid and alanine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Trottier, N L; Nielsen, B D; Lang, K J; Ku, P K; Schott, H C

    2002-09-01

    Six 2-year-old Arabian horses were used to determine whether 60 km prolonged endurance exercise (approximately 4 h) alters amino acid concentrations in serum and muscle, and the time required for serum amino acid concentrations to return to basal resting values. Blood and muscle samples were collected throughout exercise and during a 3 day recovery period. Isoleucine concentration in muscle tended to increase and leucine and valine did not change due to exercise. Serum alanine concentrations did not increase immediately after exercise, but increased at 24, 48 and 72 h postexercise. Serum isoleucine, leucine, and valine concentrations decreased after exercise and time required to reach pre-exercising concentrations was 48 h. In conclusion, endurance exercise in the horse decreases serum isoleucine, leucine, and valine concentrations, and increases serum alanine concentration. The decrease in serum branched-chain amino acid concentrations did not correspond to a measurable increase in total muscle branched-chain amino acid concentrations.

  14. Physical activity, fitness, and serum leptin concentrations in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Artero, Enrique G; Labayen, Idoia; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A; Manios, Yannis; Béghin, Laurent; Polito, Angela; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Castillo, Manuel J; González-Gross, Marcela; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2012-04-01

    To examine the association of physical activity and fitness with leptin concentrations in European adolescents, after taking into account several potential confounders including total body fat (TBF). We conducted a cross-sectional study in a school setting for the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. This study included 902 (509 girls) adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years. Weight, height, and TBF (sum of 6 skinfold thickness) were measured, and fat free mass and body mass index were calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Physical fitness was assessed by the handgrip, standing long jump, 4 × 10-m shuttle run, and 20-m shuttle run tests. Serum fasting leptin, insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured, and homeostasis model assessment was computed. Multiple linear regression models were used. Vigorous physical activity and fitness tests (all P < .05) were negatively associated with leptin, independently of several confounders including TBF and homeostasis model assessment. These associations remained significant after further controlling for each other (physical activity and fitness). These results suggest that vigorous physical activity and fitness moderate the levels of leptin concentrations, regardless of relevant confounders including TBF. Intervention programs addressed to increase high intensity physical activity and fitness as well as to assess its impact on leptin concentration are required. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Influencing Measurement of Serum Iron Concentration in Dogs: Diurnal Variation and Hyperferritinemia

    PubMed Central

    CHIKAZAWA, Seishiro; HORI, Yasutomo; KANAI, Kazutaka; ITO, Naoyuki; HOSHI, Fumio; ORINO, Koichi; WATANABE, Kiyotaka; HIGUCHI, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated diurnal variation and hyperferritinemia as factors that influence the values of serum iron concentration in dogs, using the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) colorimetric method. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the morning than in the evening in 6 clinically healthy beagle dogs, and the maximum decrease in serum iron concentration was 47.3%. Moreover, the change in serum iron concentrations in 22 clinical canine cases with various serum ferritin levels was evaluated by immunoprecipitation of ferritin. The rate of decline in the serum iron concentrations positively correlated with serum ferritin levels (r=0.48, P=0.024). These results show that it is necessary to consider the sampling time and serum ferritin level for accurate interpretation of serum iron concentrations in dogs. PMID:23877842

  16. Annual changes in serum leptin concentration in the adult female Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Tsubota, Toshio; Sato, Miho; Okano, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Sachiko; Asano, Makoto; Komatsu, Takeshi; Shibata, Haruki; Saito, Masayuki

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, assay of the serum leptin concentration of the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) was attempted using a canine-leptin-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The dose-response curve of the bear serum was linear and parallel to the canine leptin standard curve. In mated and unmated bears, the serum leptin concentration was stable at low levels from May to August or September, gradually increased from September or October, and then remarkably increased in late November. We conclude that this method may be useful for measuring bear serum leptin concentration and that the serum leptin concentration changes annually with a peak in late November.

  17. The effect of exposure to aluminium on concentrations of essential metals in serum of foundry workers.

    PubMed Central

    Röllin, H B; Theodorou, P; Kilroe-Smith, T A

    1991-01-01

    The concentrations of aluminium (Al) in serum and urine of 33 volunteers exposed to inhalation of Al2O3 dust at a concentration in the air of less than 1 mg Al/m3 were measured. These were compared with results from 20 normal subjects not exposed. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and total iron (Fe) in serum were also measured. The Al concentration in serum was significantly raised in the subjects exposed to dust, but Al concentrations in urine showed no significant difference from controls. This suggests a possible change in distribution of metals in the body tissues due to the presence of Al, with incomplete excretion of Al in the urine. This redistribution was selective, as the serum concentrations of Cu were conclusively decreased whereas the serum concentrations of Zn were conclusively increased. The serum concentration of Fe did not change significantly. PMID:2025590

  18. Association between serum pepsinogen A and C levels, serum gastrin concentrations and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Pöllmann, G; Czerwenka, C; Klein, G

    1999-01-01

    Pepsinogen A and C as well as gastrin were measured in the serum of 117 patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, the patients were divided up in groups by aids of a semiquantitative, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori: 20 patients without H. pylori antibodies (AB) negative, 18 positive + (= weak AB-titre), 21 positive +2 (medium AB-titre), and 58 positive +3 (high AB-titre). The semiquantitative determinations of H. pylori-AB correlated with pepsinogen A, C and gastrin. Patients with H. pylori-AB positive +3 showed significantly higher values of pepsinogen C (p < or = 0.01) as well as pepsinogen A and gastrin (p < or = 0.05) than H. pylori-AB negative patients. Significantly increased levels of pepsinogen A (> 150 ng/ml) and C (> 25 ng/ml) were found to occur in 39% and 100% of patients with high H. pylori-AB titres. The measurement of serum pepsinogen C concentrations may provide additional diagnostic information of the extent of mucosal lesions in patients with positive H. pylori-AB titres treated with antirheumatic drugs. Our findings suggest that the semi-quantitative classification of positive AB-results can be useful in cases determining H. pylori infection and mucosal irritation if other investigations are not available.

  19. Prediction of serum ionized calcium concentration by serum total calcium measurement in cats.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A; Chew, Dennis J

    2010-07-01

    Feline serum samples (n = 434) were classified as hypercalcemic, normocalcemic, or hypocalcemic based on both total calcium (tCa) and ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (PDLR), and negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (NDLR) were calculated for prediction of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in all samples, in hypoalbuminemic cats, and in those with chronic renal failure (CRF) as compared with cats that had other conditions. Diagnostic discordance in prediction of iCa using tCa was 40%. Sensitivity of tCa in prediction of ionized hypercalcemia was low and specificity was high. The PDLR for prediction of ionized hypercalcemia or hypocalcemia was low in all cats, especially in those with CRF. Due to the high level of diagnostic discordance, tCa should not be used to predict iCa concentration. Concentration of iCa should be measured directly when accurate assessment of calcium status is needed.

  20. Effect of ovarian hormones on serum adiponectin and resistin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chalvatzas, Nektarios; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Kosmas, Georgios; Kallitsaris, Athanasios; Pournaras, Spyros; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian hormones on adiponectin and resistin levels in women. Experimental study. University hospital. Thirteen normally cycling women (7 in group 1 and 6 in group 2) and 8 postmenopausal women (group 3). Women of group 1 were investigated in a control cycle and in a subsequent cycle in which total abdominal hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingooophorectomy (TAH+BSO) was performed on day 3. In both cycles, the women received increasing doses of E(2) from days 3 to 5. Women of group 2 underwent TAH+BSO on day 3 without receiving any hormonal treatment. Women of group 3 received increasing doses of E(2) for 15 days. Adiponectin, resistin, and E(2) concentrations. In group 1, serum adiponectin and resistin levels did not show any significant changes for the week following day 3 and were similar in the two cycles. In group 2, adiponectin and resistin levels were similar before and after TAH+BSO and remained stable during the first postoperative week. In group 3, no significant changes in adiponectin and resistin levels were seen during the 15 days of E(2) administration. Adiponectin and resistin values were not affected either by estrogen treatment or after ovariectomy in women. It is suggested that ovarian hormones are not involved in the regulation of adiponectin and resistin secretion in women.

  1. Serum transferrin receptor concentration indicates increased erythropoiesis in Kenyan children with asymptomatic malaria.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, H; West, C E; Ndeto, P; Burema, J; Beguin, Y; Kok, F J

    2001-12-01

    Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum transferrin receptor concentrations are not or are only marginally influenced by the inflammatory response to infection. We assessed iron status and examined the relation between serum transferrin receptor concentrations and malaria in children aged 2-36 mo who were asymptomatic for malaria. This was a community-based cluster survey (n = 318). Prevalences of malaria, anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110 g/L), iron deficiency (serum ferritin concentration <12 microg/L), and iron deficiency anemia were 18%, 69%, 53%, and 46%, respectively. Malaria was associated with lower mean hemoglobin concentrations (92.7 compared with 104.1 g/L; P = 0.0001) and higher geometric mean serum concentrations of transferrin receptor (11.4 compared with 7.8 mg/L; P = 0.005), ferritin (21.6 compared with 11.9 microg/L; P = 0.05), and C-reactive protein (12.5 compared with 6.8 mg/L; P = 0.004). There was no evidence for an association between serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and transferrin receptor. Children with malaria had higher serum transferrin receptor concentrations than expected for the degree of anemia, even after adjustment for inflammation indicated by serum C-reactive protein concentration quartiles (P = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with the notion that malaria-induced hemolysis is accompanied by increased erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor concentration is not useful for detecting iron deficiency in individuals with malaria. Individuals with high concentrations of serum C-reactive protein or similar acute phase reactants should be excluded from analysis if serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L are to be used to measure iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas.

  2. Copper deficiency in sheep: an assessment of relationship between concentrations of copper in serum and plasma.

    PubMed

    Laven, Ra; Smith, Sl

    2008-12-01

    To assess the relationship between concentrations of copper in serum and plasma in sheep. Concentrations of Cu were measured in paired serum and heparinised plasma samples collected from 110 sheep in nine flocks. Linear regression was used to evaluate whether flock or gender had a significant effect on the association between concentrations of Cu in serum and plasma. The individual results for concentrations of Cu in serum were then compared with those from plasma, using correlation and limits of agreement plotting. Concentrations of Cu in serum ranged from 7.3 to 22 (mean 14.0) micromol/L, while concentrations in plasma ranged from 9 to 27 (mean 16.3) micromol/L. On average, concentrations of Cu in serum were 2.3 micromol/L lower than in plasma. Over the range of values seen in this study, concentrations of Cu in plasma and serum were significantly correlated (r=0.89), and mean concentrations in serum were 87% of those in plasma. There was no effect of flock or gender on the relationship between concentrations of Cu in serum and plasma. Despite the significant correlation, there was marked variability between individual samples in the proportion of Cu that was lost during clotting, with the 95% limits of agreement for serum Cu ranging from 70 to 104% of the plasma concentration. As in cattle, the individual variability in the loss of Cu during clotting in sheep is too great for concentration of Cu in serum to be used as a substitute for that in plasma. When assessing the blood Cu pool as part of the diagnosis of Cu-responsive disease in sheep, the concentration of Cu in plasma should be measured in preference to that of serum. We suggest that a range of 4.5 to 9 micromol/L in plasma be used to define marginal Cu status in sheep.

  3. Association of Serum Irisin Concentrations with Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine, is closely correlated with obesity and body mass index. Obesity is one risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if serum irisin concentrations are correlated with the presence and severity of CAD. Material/Methods Serum irisin concentrations were determined in 350 patients with CAD and in 214 healthy subjects. The severity of CAD was assessed by coronary atherosclerosis index (CAI). Results Serum irisin concentrations were significantly lower in CAD patients compared with healthy controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that serum irisin concentrations were an independent determinant of the presence of CAD. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum irisin concentrations were negatively correlated with CAI in CAD patients. Conclusions Decreased serum irisin concentrations may be associated with the presence and severity of CAD. PMID:27815563

  4. Association of Serum Irisin Concentrations with Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen

    2016-11-05

    BACKGROUND Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine, is closely correlated with obesity and body mass index. Obesity is one risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if serum irisin concentrations are correlated with the presence and severity of CAD. MATERIAL AND METHODS Serum irisin concentrations were determined in 350 patients with CAD and in 214 healthy subjects. The severity of CAD was assessed by coronary atherosclerosis index (CAI). RESULTS Serum irisin concentrations were significantly lower in CAD patients compared with healthy controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that serum irisin concentrations were an independent determinant of the presence of CAD. In addition, Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum irisin concentrations were negatively correlated with CAI in CAD patients CONCLUSIONS Decreased serum irisin concentrations may be associated with the presence and severity of CAD.

  5. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis. PMID:26197334

  6. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Hyoung-Tae; Lim, Yaeji; Kim, Min-Ji; Kwon, O Jung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-07-21

    Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01). Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05). A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05). Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  7. Association of postprandial serum triglyceride concentration and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in overweight and obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Verkest, K R; Fleeman, L M; Morton, J M; Groen, S J; Suchodolski, J S; Steiner, J M; Rand, J S

    2012-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia has been proposed to contribute to the risk of developing pancreatitis in dogs. To determine associations between postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations or pancreatic disease. Thirty-five client-owned overweight (n = 25) or obese (n = 10) dogs weighing >10 kg. Healthy dogs were prospectively recruited for a cross-sectional study. Serum triglyceride concentrations were measured before and hourly for 12 hours after a meal. Fasting cPLI and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations were assayed. Cut-off values for hypertriglyceridemia were set a priori for fasting (≥ 88, ≥ 177, ≥ 354, ≥ 885 mg/dL) and peak postprandial (≥ 133, ≥ 442, ≥ 885 mg/dL) triglyceride concentrations. The association between hypertriglyceridemia and high cPLI concentrations was assessed by exact logistic regression. Follow-up was performed 4 years later to determine the incidence of pancreatic disease. Eight dogs had peak postprandial triglycerides >442 mg/dL and 3 dogs had fasting serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L. Odds of high cPLI concentrations were 16.7 times higher in dogs with peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL relative to other dogs (P < .001). Fasting triglyceride concentration was not significantly associated with cPLI concentrations. None of the dogs with high triglyceride concentrations and one of the dogs with low fasting and peak postprandial triglyceride concentrations developed clinically important pancreatic disease. Overweight and obese dogs with peak serum postprandial triglyceride concentrations ≥ 442 mg/dL after a standard meal are more likely to have serum cPLI concentrations ≥ 400 μg/L, but did not develop clinically important pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on serum glucose concentration in horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget; Berghaus, Roy D; Camus, Melinda S; Hart, Kelsey

    2015-03-01

    Although delays between blood sample collection and analysis are common in veterinary medicine, the effect of prolonged serum-clot contact time on serum glucose concentration is not well established and species differences have not been elucidated. The objective was to investigate the effect of storage time and temperature on serum glucose concentration in stored whole blood samples from horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon. Whole blood specimens were divided into 7 no-additive tubes and serum was separated from one sample within one hour, serving as the reference sample. The remaining samples were stored at 4°C and 25°C, then centrifuged and serum glucose measured by automated analysis at 2, 4, and 8 hours postcollection. Glucose concentrations were compared using linear mixed models. The decline in serum glucose concentration for all samples stored at 4°C was not statistically significant, except for the 8-hour samples from sturgeon and dog. At 25°C, serum glucose concentration was comparable to reference values at 2 hours in sturgeon and alpaca, but significantly lower at 4 and 8 hours in those species, and at all time points in equine and canine specimens, being most prominent after 8 hours of storage in canine specimens. Storage at 4°C limits serum glucose decline for at least 4 hours in all species tested and up to 8 hours in specimens of horse and alpaca. At 25°C, serum-clot contact time should not exceed 1 hour in equine and canine samples, and 2 hours in specimens from alpaca and sturgeon. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Storage of serum in plastic and glass containers may alter the serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Riebow, John F

    2004-05-01

    Valid exposure assessment and biomonitoring of toxicants rely on standardized specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement. In a study designed to determine organochlorine concentrations in blood samples, we recruited participants from registered anglers in Michigan. After participants were interviewed, blood was collected from study subjects, either at home by a phlebotomist or in a commercial blood-draw station. The phlebotomists stored their samples in glass containers, but without our knowledge, the commercial laboratory transferred the specimens to plastic containers for freezing in its central facility. Samples were analyzed in the Analytical Chemistry Section Laboratory of the Michigan Department of Community Health. This laboratory also provided information on storage in glass (n = 28) versus plastic containers (n = 113). We conducted linear regression analyses to assess factors that may explain the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Our results indicate that storage of serum in plastic containers altered the total concentrations of PCBs, in particular, the higher chlorinated PCBs (PCB-180 and PCB-199), but not DDE or PBBs. No other characteristics of the samples could explain the higher PCB values (0.75 micro g/L vs. 0.45 micro g/L; p = 0.025) of those stored in plastic containers. The proportion of PCB detects in both subsamples did not differ. Some preceding studies have provided information on whether specimens were stored in glass or plastic containers; however, a number of studies have not. We suggest the initiation of a new review process to determine whether these earlier reports were based on unbiased PCB determinations. We recommend standardizing specimen collection, handling, storage, and measurement, which is particularly necessary for newly emerging analytes.

  10. Concentrations of vancomycin in bone and serum of normal rabbits and those with osteomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K J; Mader, J T

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of vancomycin in the bone and serum of rabbits with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis were assessed after each rabbit was given a single dose of vancomycin. Simultaneous mean concentrations of vancomycin in infected rabbits 1 h after administration of the antibiotic were 36.4 +/- 4.6 micrograms/ml (serum), 5.3 +/- 0.8 microgram/g (infected bone), and 3.0 +/- 0.2 micrograms/g (noninfected bone). Concentrations of vancomycin in serum of normal controls were higher than concentrations of vancomycin in serum of osteomyelitic rabbits after 1, 2, 3, and 6 h. PMID:6703678

  11. Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations in normal and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Day, M J; Penhale, W J

    1988-11-01

    The normal level of serum IgA in Western Australian dogs was defined by single radial immunodiffusion using sera from 100 healthy randomly selected adult crossbred animals. Serum IgA values of 185 animals from six breeds were also determined. The mean and variance of serum IgA of these groups were similar to the crossbred dogs with the exception of German shepherd dogs where these values were statistically greater. In addition, 210 dogs with a range of chronic diseases (autoimmune, hypersensitivity, pyoderma, neoplasia, demodecosis, disseminated aspergillosis) were assayed and low values recorded in five cases. In all disease groups the mean serum IgA value was significantly greater than in the crossbred group and the variance significantly greater in most of these groups. The German shepherd group were the only normal dogs with a mean and variance similar to those of the clinical series suggesting that this breed may have a primary defect in IgA metabolism.

  12. The Relationship Between Serum Bilirubin Concentration and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Mehmet; Demir, Canan; Uyan, Umut; Melek, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that higher serum bilirubin inhibits the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells; also there is a relationship between serum bilirubin and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between bilirubin and atrial fibrillation (AF) is still unknown. In our study, we compared serum bilirubin, between nonvalvular AF patients and controls. Materials and Method One hundred and two patients with nonvalvular chronic AF without any other cardiovascular disease (mean age 62.51 ± 5.88) were included in our study. One hundred age-matched healthy people with sinus rhythm were accepted as control groups (mean age 61.35 ± 5.44). Routine biochemical parameters and serum bilirubin levels were performed. Results No statistically significant difference was found between two groups in terms of basic characteristics. Total, direct and indirect serum bilirubin levels were significantly lower among persons with AF compared to controls (0.82 ± 0.8 vs. 0.48 ± 0.5, 0.30 ± 0.2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.1 and 0.52 ± 0.5 vs. 0.29 ± 0.3 mg/dL; all P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion As a result, our study revealed a relationship between serum bilirubin and nonvalvular AF.

  13. Association between premature ovarian failure, polymorphisms in MTHFR and MTRR genes and serum homocysteine concentration.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ningning; Chen, Songchang; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Minmin; Zhang, Junyu; Yang, Yanmei; Zhu, Bo; Bai, Xiaoxia; Hu, Yuting; Huang, Hefeng; Xu, Chenming

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between premature ovarian failure (POF), MTHFR C677T/A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes and serum homocysteine (Hcy) concentration. A prospective study was conducted in Chinese women, which included POF patients (n = 180) and controls (n = 195). Peripheral blood samples were used to determine MTHFR C677T/A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes, and serum Hcy and sex hormone concentrations. Results showed that serum Hcy concentrations of POF patients were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). In POF patients, serum Hcy concentrations were significantly correlated with oestradiol and FSH concentrations (r = -0.174, P = 0.037 and r = +0.238, P = 0.006, respectively). There were no significant differences in the distributions of MTHFR C677T/A1298C or MTRR A66G genotypes between the two groups. However, these genetic variants influenced serum Hcy concentrations in POF patients, especially for MTRR 66 AA/AG/GG genotypes, which were significantly correlated with the patients' Hcy concentrations (τ = 0.166, P = 0.033). These results suggest that serum Hcy concentrations in Chinese POF patients are increased and correlated with serum oestradiol/FSH concentrations. In conclusion, MTHFR C667T/A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes are not associated with POF development, but they affect the patients' serum Hcy concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of magnesium-deficient diet on serum and urine magnesium concentrations in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Norris, C R; Christopher, M M; Howard, K A; Nelson, R W

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of using serum total and ionized magnesium (Mg) concentrations and urine Mg concentrations to identify Mg deficiency in cats. 6 healthy castrated male cats. A Mg-replete diet was fed for 37 days, followed by a Mg-deficient diet for 37 days. On days 1, 3, and 7 of the last week of each diet, serum ionized and total Mg concentrations were determined; in addition, urine Mg concentration was determined each day of the last week. Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations were compared with urine Mg concentration, amount of Mg excreted during 24 hours (24-hour urine Mg excretion), ratio of urine Mg concentration to urine creatinine concentration (Umg:Ucr), and urinary fractional excretion of Mg (FEmg) to determine which variable best predicted Mg status. Cats fed Mg-deficient diets had significantly lower serum total and ionized Mg concentrations and 24-hour urine Mg excretion values, compared with cats fed Mg-replete diets. Serum total Mg concentration was the best predictor of Mg status. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion was a repeatable, reliable measurement and had the best correlation with serum total Mg concentration. Serum total Mg concentration also correlated with urine Mg concentration, Umg:Ucr, and FEmg. Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations can be used to identify cats with dietary-induced Mg deficiencies. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion and urine Mg concentration correlated best with serum total Mg concentration and, therefore, may be the most useful urine variables for identifying Mg deficiency.

  15. Serum fetuin-A concentrations are positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongwei; Ju, Huixiang; Sun, Mingzhong; Chen, Hongmei; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Dongmei; Ji, Yuqiao; Ji, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Fetuin-A was considered to be involved in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with diabetes and its vascular complications, but the mechanisms leading to higher VEGF levels are still not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data to show the associations between fetuin-A and VEGF in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. We recruited 345 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In this study, there was a significant positive correlation between serum fetuin-A concentrations and serum VEGF levels (r=0.223, P<0.001), and the correlation remained significant even after adjustment for other confounding factors in the multivariate regression model (β=0.151, P=0.006). Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis showed that the degree of association of high concentrations of fetuin-A with high levels of VEGF is higher than that with low levels of VEGF (odds ratio of M-H [ORM-H], 2.938; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-4.553). In addition, this study showed that both fetuin-A and VEGF were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-reactive protein (CRP). These data suggested that serum fetuin-A concentrations were positively associated with serum VEGF levels in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  16. Neonatal serum magnesium concentrations are determined by total maternal dose of magnesium sulfate administered for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Borja-Del-Rosario, Pamela; Basu, Sudeepta Kumar; Haberman, Shoshana; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2014-03-01

    Antenatal magnesium in preterm labor for neuroprotection decreases the incidence of cerebral palsy. However, there are no guidelines on the dose and duration of magnesium infusion for neuroprotection. As increased neonatal serum magnesium concentrations may be related to higher risk of morbidity and mortality, the role of total amount of magnesium and maternal serum magnesium concentrations associated with safe neonatal serum magnesium concentrations is not known. A retrospective study was conducted on 289 mothers who received antenatal magnesium for neuroprotection as a loading dose of 4-6 g infused over 30 min, followed by a maintenance infusion of 1-2 g/h. Total magnesium dose infused to the mother and maternal serum magnesium concentrations were correlated with neonatal serum magnesium concentrations. Of the 289 mothers, 192 mother/baby dyads had all three measurements (maternal total magnesium dose, and maternal and neonatal serum magnesium concentrations). Magnesium infusion was continued beyond 24 h in 60 mothers. Total maternal magnesium dose at 24 and 48 h of infusion correlated with neonatal serum magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, P<0.0001 and r=0.35, P<0.0001, respectively), but not with maternal serum magnesium concentrations (r=0.004, P=0.98 and r=0.14, P=0.21). However, there was no correlation between the maternal and neonatal serum magnesium concentrations (r=0.10, P=0.15). Total dose of magnesium infused to the mother correlates with neonatal serum magnesium concentrations. To keep neonatal serum magnesium concentrations within a range that is effective for neuroprotection and safe for the neonates, the total dose received by the mother needs to be monitored and limited.

  17. Relation of Serum and Vitreous Concentrations of Fetuin-A with Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunming; Hou, Jiangping; Wang, Shengxi; Jiang, Rui

    2015-06-25

    Fetuin-A, a liver-derived glycoprotein, is correlated with diabetes. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate serum and vitreous concentrations of fetuin-A in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). We randomly selected 224 diabetic patients and 68 control subjects for this study. RESULTS :There were markedly higher serum and vitreous fetuin-A concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients than in the other three groups. NPDR patients exhibited elevated vitreous fetuin-A concentrations compared with patients without DR. However, no significant differences in serum fetuin-A concentrations were observed between NPDR patients and patients without DR. In addition, there were significantly lower concentrations of serum and vitreous fetuin-A in control subjects compared with the other three groups. The occurrence and severity of DR is correlated with serum and vitreous fetuin-A concentrations.

  18. Serum potassium concentration in hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus with long-term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, A H; Avasthi, P S

    1987-05-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (serum potassium level >6 mmol per liter [mEq per liter]), often with electrocardiographic disturbances, was noted at presentation in 30% of 73 hyperglycemic episodes (serum glucose concentration >25 mmol per liter [455 mg per dl]) observed in 15 in-hospital patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were receiving long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Serum glucose concentration and total carbon dioxide content correlated significantly with the presenting serum potassium concentration. Treatment with parenteral insulin alone resulted in a decrease of the serum glucose value from 41 +/- 14 (standard deviation) to 11 +/- 5 mmol per liter (P <.001) and of serum potassium level from 5.2 +/- 1.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.6 mmol per liter (P <.001). The changes in serum glucose concentration and in carbon dioxide content and the serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia were found to be independent correlates of the decrease in potassium concentration during treatment. Insulin alone resulted in correction of hyperkalemia in all instances. Posttreatment hypokalemia was noted in only two instances, each associated with both ketoacidosis and low-normal serum potassium concentration at hyperglycemia. Giving insulin is the only treatment usually needed for the hyperkalemia of hyperglycemia in patients on ongoing dialysis.

  19. Serum concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor in collagen diseases.

    PubMed

    Kadono, T; Kikuchi, K; Kubo, M; Fujimoto, M; Tamaki, K

    1996-09-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a cytoplasmic polypeptide growth regulator that induces endothelial cell and fibroblast proliferation, is produced by endothelial cells and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that this factor is involved in fibrotic changes in muscle and skin in collagen diseases. The serum level of bFGF was measured in 74 patients with systemic sclerosis, 12 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 33 with dermatomyositis, 13 with Raynaud's disease, and 20 control subjects. bFGF was undetectable in the serum of normal persons, but detectable levels were found in 31 of 74 patients with systemic sclerosis and 7 of 33 patients with dermatomyositis. Elevated serum bFGF level was correlated with an elevated plasma endothelin level and anticentromere antibody in patients with systemic sclerosis. An elevated serum bFGF level correlated with lung fibrosis and an elevated creatine kinase level in the patients with dermatomyositis. Measurement of the serum bFGF level may be useful to detect vascular damage in patients with systemic sclerosis and muscule fibrosis in patients with dermatomyositis.

  20. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; D'Urso, Antonietta; Ryan, Kathleen A; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Semba, Richard D; Steinle, Nanette I; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Patrick F

    2016-02-06

    Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10(-9)). Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841) in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations.

  1. A Common Variant in the SETD7 Gene Predicts Serum Lycopene Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    D’Adamo, Christopher R.; D’Urso, Antonietta; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Semba, Richard D.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and higher serum concentrations of lycopene have been associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and other chronic diseases. Identifying determinants of serum lycopene concentrations may thus have important public health implications. Prior studies have suggested that serum lycopene concentrations are under partial genetic control. The goal of this research was to identify genetic predictors of serum lycopene concentrations using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach among a sample of 441 Old Order Amish adults that consumed a controlled diet. Linear regression models were utilized to evaluate associations between genetic variants and serum concentrations of lycopene. Variant rs7680948 on chromosome 4, located in the intron region of the SETD7 gene, was significantly associated with serum lycopene concentrations (p = 3.41 × 10−9). Our findings also provided nominal support for the association previously noted between SCARB1 and serum lycopene concentrations, although with a different SNP (rs11057841) in the region. This study identified a novel locus associated with serum lycopene concentrations and our results raise a number of intriguing possibilities regarding the nature of the relationship between SETD7 and lycopene, both of which have been independently associated with prostate cancer. Further investigation into this relationship might help provide greater mechanistic understanding of these associations. PMID:26861389

  2. Technical note: comparison of salivary and serum cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in ewes.

    PubMed

    Yates, D T; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Yates, L J; Wesley, R L

    2010-02-01

    An ACTH challenge was conducted to determine if salivary cortisol concentration reflects serum cortisol concentration in ewes. Twelve yearling ewes (64.0 +/- 1.2 kg) were administered ACTH (100 IU, intravenously) or saline. Serum and salivary samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h before ACTH administration, at 15-min intervals for 2 h after treatment, and at 30-min intervals for an additional 3 h, and cortisol concentration was determined by RIA. Although ewes responded to ACTH and saline, cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.001) in ACTH-treated ewes from 15 to 120 min and tended to be greater (P = 0.054) at 150 min after challenge in serum. In saliva, cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.001) in ACTH-treated ewes from 30 to 120 min and tended to be greater (P = 0.092) at 15 min after challenge. No difference was observed between ACTH-treated ewes and controls for time to peak serum cortisol concentration (P = 0.126) and time to peak salivary cortisol concentration (P = 0.109), or between saliva and serum for time to peak cortisol concentration (P = 0.220) and return to baseline cortisol concentration (P = 0.341). The serum (P = 0.009) and salivary (P = 0.050) cortisol areas under the curve between 0 and 150 min were greater for ACTH-treated ewes than controls, and serum (P = 0.002) and salivary (P < 0.001) cortisol return to baseline concentration was longer for ACTH-treated ewes. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was 0.88 (P < 0.001). These data indicate that salivary cortisol concentration is closely related to serum cortisol concentration and that the former may represent a suitable noninvasive alternative to blood collection for measurement of cortisol in sheep.

  3. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  4. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  5. Serum digoxin concentrations and clinical signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity in the paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Brady S; Garner, April; Zapata, Troy; Orcutt, Jeffrey; Niu, Mary; Lopez, Keila N

    2016-03-01

    Serum digoxin levels have limited utility for determining digoxin toxicity in adults. Paediatric data assessing the utility of monitoring serum digoxin concentration are scarce. We sought to determine whether serum digoxin concentrations are associated with signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity in children. We carried out a retrospective review of patients 2 ng/ml). There were 87 patients who met study criteria (male 46%, mean age 8.4 years). CHD was present in 67.8% and electrocardiograms were performed in 72.4% of the patients. The most common indication for digoxin toxicity was heart failure symptoms (61.5%). Toxic serum digoxin concentrations were present in 6.9% of patients (mean 2.6 ng/ml). Symptoms associated with digoxin toxicity occurred in 48.4%, with nausea/vomiting as the most common symptom (36.4%), followed by tachycardia (29.5%). Compared with those without toxic serum digoxin concentrations, significantly more patients with toxic serum digoxin concentrations were female (p=0.02). The presence of electrocardiogram abnormalities and/or signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity was not significantly different between patients with and without serum digoxin concentrations (p>0.05). Serum digoxin concentrations in children are not strongly associated with signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity.

  6. Low serum bilirubin concentration is associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Muhei; Fukui, Michiaki; Tomiyasu, Ki-ichiro; Akabame, Satoshi; Nakano, Koji; Hasegawa, Goji; Oda, Yohei; Nakamura, Naoto

    2009-09-01

    Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant and previous studies have reported the relationship between low serum bilirubin concentration and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between serum bilirubin concentration and coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study consisted of 637 participants and we evaluated the relationship between CAC score determined by multislice computed tomography and serum bilirubin concentration. An inverse correlation was found between serum bilirubin concentration and log(CAC+1) (r=-0.361, P<0.0001). Multiple regression analysis also demonstrated that age (beta=0.261, P=0.0125), systolic blood pressure (beta=0.153, P=0.0237), uric acid (beta=0.126, P=0.0441), estimated glomerular filtration rate (beta=-0.139, P=0.0416) and serum bilirubin concentration (beta=-0.281, P<0.0001) were independent determinants of log(CAC+1). An increment of 1 micromol/L in serum bilirubin concentration was associated with 14% decrease in the odds for CAC score > or =400 after adjustment for several risk factors. Both age and SBP were also positively associated with CAC score > or =400, but the odds ratio for CAC score > or =400 was greater for every 1 micromol/L increment in serum bilirubin concentration than for every 1-year increment in age and 1-mmHg increment in SBP. Low serum bilirubin concentration is associated with coronary artery calcification. Serum bilirubin concentration can be measured easily in the clinical laboratory and applied in medical practice, and low serum bilirubin concentration would be useful as a provisional new risk factor of CAC.

  7. Growth hormone stimulation of serum insulin concentration in cattle: nutritional dependency and potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Feng, J; Gu, Z; Wu, M; Gwazdauskas, F C; Jiang, H

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies on the effect of growth hormone (GH) on serum insulin concentration in cattle had generated seemingly conflicting results, and little was known about the mechanism by which GH affects serum insulin concentration in cattle, if it does. In this study, we determined whether the effect of GH on serum insulin concentration in cattle could be affected by the nutritional levels of the animal and whether GH increased serum insulin concentration in cattle by directly stimulating insulin release or insulin gene expression in the pancreatic islets. Administration of recombinant bovine GH increased serum insulin concentration in nonlactating, nonpregnant beef cows fed a daily concentrate meal in addition to ad libitum hay, but it had no effect in those cows fed hay only. Both GH treatments for 1 and 24h increased insulin concentrations in cultures of pancreatic islets isolated from growing cattle. Growth hormone treatment for 24h increased insulin mRNA expression in cultured bovine pancreatic islets. Growth hormone treatment for 16h increased reporter gene expression directed by a approximately 1,500-bp bovine insulin gene promoter in a rat insulin-producing beta cell line. Taken together, these results suggest that exogenous GH can increase serum insulin concentration in cattle, but this effect depends on the nutritional levels of fed cattle, and that GH increases serum insulin concentration in cattle by stimulating both insulin release and insulin gene expression in the pancreatic islets.

  8. Measurement of betamethasone concentration in maternal serum treated for fetal lung maturity; Is it feasible?

    PubMed

    Salim, Raed; Suleiman, Abeer; Colodner, Raul; Nachum, Zohar; Goldstein, Lee H; Shalev, Eliezer

    2016-02-10

    The association between maternal serum concentration of betamethasone given for fetal lung maturity and perinatal outcome has not been investigated. This may be due to an absence of a reliable method for measuring serum betamethasone concentrations. We aimed in the current study to assess the feasibility of a specific ELISA kit to measure the concentrations of betamethasone in maternal serum and to examine the trend of sequential measurements after a course of betamethasone for fetal lung maturity. Pregnant women at risk for preterm birth who received betamethasone between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were prospectively included. Serum concentrations were determined before administering betamethasone (baseline), and 36 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, and 5 to 7 days after the 1(st) dose. Betamethasone concentration in samples was determined using Corticosteroid ELISA kit. The Friedman test was used to test whether there were significant differences between the measurements. Five singleton pregnancies were included. Using the ELISA kit, betamethasone concentration in maternal serum samples was obtained for all women. Among the five measurements performed, the concentration was highest at 36 hours after the 1(st) dose and close to baseline at the 5(th) measurement performed after 5 to 7 days (p < 0.05). Serum concentration varied at each time point between the five women but similar trend was observed. Betamethasone concentration is measurable in the serum of pregnant women with this ELISA kit.

  9. Effect of magnesium sulfate concentration on serum ionized magnesium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Mia; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul; Mandel, Dror

    2010-08-01

    We undertook this in vitro study to quantify the effect that addition of magnesium (Mg) sulfate to neonatal serum, as compared with adult serum, might have on ionized Mg (Mg (2+)) concentration. We used one cord blood sample and one adult blood sample that we made hypermagnesemic by adding various amounts of magnesium sulfate to study five levels of serum Mg. Each sample was then studied at one of three levels of pH, from extreme alkalosis to extreme acidosis. We measured the changes in serum Mg (2+) and serum ionized calcium (Ca (2+)) in reaction to these changes in pH and Mg. At each pH level, there was an exponential increase in the serum Mg (2+) (and no significant change in serum Ca (2+)) with increasing serum Mg. Multiple regression analysis using Mg (2+) as the dependent variable and baseline Ca (2+), phosphorous, albumin, and blood type (adult versus cord blood) as well as blood pH and serum Mg as independent variables indicated that serum Mg and pH were the only variables significantly influencing serum Mg (2+). Within the range of serum Mg considered, the addition of magnesium sulfate in vitro causes an exponential increase in Mg (2+) and no significant change in serum Ca (2+). Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  10. Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Cranford, Shannon M; Norby, Bo; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-11-01

    Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (<251 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (<150 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Border Collies, and German Shepherd Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations.

  11. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P < 0.001) and people of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic race/ethnicity (+0.06 and +0.07 mg/dL versus non-Hispanic white, respectively; P < 0.001). Dietary intakes of phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  12. Serum phosphorus concentrations in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    PubMed

    de Boer, Ian H; Rue, Tessa C; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2009-03-01

    Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Cross-sectional study. 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Serum phosphorus concentration. Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P < 0.001) and people of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic race/ethnicity (+0.06 and +0.07 mg/dL versus non-Hispanic white, respectively; P < 0.001). Dietary intakes of phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. Macular and serum carotenoid concentrations in patients with malabsorption syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew S; Zhao, Da You; Bernstein, Paul S

    2008-03-01

    The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are believed to protect the human macula by absorbing blue light and quenching free radicals. Intestinal malabsorption syndromes such as celiac and Crohn's disease are known to cause deficiencies of lipid-soluble nutrients. We hypothesized that subjects with nutrient malabsorption syndromes will demonstrate lower carotenoid levels in the macula and blood, and that these lower levels may correlate with early-onset maculopathy. Resonance Raman spectrographic (RRS) measurements of macular carotenoid levels were collected from subjects with and without a history of malabsorption syndromes. Carotenoids were extracted from serum and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subjects with malabsorption (n = 22) had 37% lower levels of macular carotenoids on average versus controls (n = 25, P < 0.001). Malabsorption was not associated with decreased serum carotenoid levels. Convincing signs of early maculopathy were not observed. We conclude that intestinal malabsorption results in lower macular carotenoid levels.

  14. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs with suspected acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Dong-In; KIM, Hakhyun; SON, Purum; KANG, Ji-Houn; KANG, Byeong-Teck; YANG, Mhan-Pyo

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether circulating serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH) D] differed between healthy dogs and dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP). Twenty-two healthy dogs and twenty client-owned dogs with AP were enrolled in the study. Serum concentrations of 25-(OH) D, blood ionized calcium (iCa), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Concentrations of serum 25-(OH) D and blood iCa in dogs with AP were significantly lower than those of healthy dogs, and serum concentrations of CRP in dogs with AP were significantly higher than those of healthy dogs. A significant difference in 25-(OH) D serum concentrations was observed between survivor and non-survivor dogs with AP. After resolution of clinical signs, concentrations of serum 25-(OH) D, blood iCa, and serum CRP did not differ compared to those before treatment. This study shows that dogs with AP exhibit decreased 25-(OH) D levels, which might be associated with calcium imbalances and mortality rate in canine AP. PMID:28659537

  15. Serum concentrations of canine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein in healthy dogs after incubation using an autologous serum processing system.

    PubMed

    Huggins, S S; Suchodolski, J S; Bearden, R N; Steiner, J M; Saunders, W B

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to optimize and validate a canine IL-1RA ELISA using commercially available reagents and to determine the effect of an autologous serum processing system (IRAP II) on IL-1RA concentrations in canine serum. The clinical detection limit of the optimized ELISA was 188.8 to 39,965.6 pg/mL. The observed-to-expected ratio (O:E) for three serial dilutions for four serum samples ranged from 109.6 to 132.2%. The O:E for four serum samples spiked with four concentrations of canine IL-1 RA ranged from 98.7 to 114.3%. Coefficients of variances for intra- and interassay variability ranged from 1.4 to 3.0 and 6.3 to 9.8, respectively. The ELISA was sensitive, linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible. Mean±SD serum concentration of IL-1RA in 12 healthy dogs was 396.6±208.0 pg/mL. There was a significant increase in IL-1RA when blood was incubated in the IRAP II system (15,955.0±6421.0 pg/mL, P<0.0001). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Longitudinal measures of serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations in incident dialysis patients: the comprehensive dialysis study.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Johansen, Kirsten L; Chertow, Glenn M; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E; Kaysen, George A

    2013-03-01

    Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in dialysis patients. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, comorbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation, and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations in incident dialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report, we examined the data from 266 Nutrition substudy participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine level, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, recorded at study entry and thereafter every 3 months for 1 year. In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Serum albumin level increases early in the course of dialysis, whereas prealbumin level does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in dialysis patients may lead to an improved approach to the management of

  17. Associations of Maternal and Neonatal Serum Trace Element Concentrations with Neonatal Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzuki, Shinya; Morimoto, Nao; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Matsushita, Takeji

    2013-01-01

    Background Trace elements play important nutritional roles in neonates. Our objective was to examine whether there are differences in maternal/neonatal serum trace element concentrations between mature infants and premature infants. Methods During 2012, 44 infants born at National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, were enrolled. Serum samples were collected to measure serum iron, zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations 5 days after birth. Maternal serum samples were obtained before delivery and cord blood was taken at delivery to measure the same trace elements. We compared the results between term group whose birth weight were ≥2500 g and gestational age were ≥37 weeks and premature group whose birth weight were <2500 g or gestational age were <37 weeks. Variables significantly different between two groups were included in linear regression models to identify significant predictors of birth weight. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Serum selenium concentrations were lower in premature group than in term group (43.3±7.0 µg/L vs. 52.0±8.9 µg/L, P = 0.001). Maternal serum selenium concentrations were also significantly lower in the mothers of premature group than in the mothers of term group (79.3±19.3 µg/L vs. 94.1±18.1 µg/L, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences in neonatal or maternal iron, zinc, or copper concentrations between two groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that, except for gestational age, only maternal serum selenium was significantly associated with birth weight (P = 0.015). Conclusions Serum selenium concentrations were lower in premature group and their mothers compared with the term group. The maternal serum selenium concentration was positively correlated with birth weight. These results suggest that maternal serum selenium concentration may influence neonatal birth weight. PMID:24086594

  18. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E.

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones. PMID:28384169

  19. Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Yerramilli, Maha; Obare, Edward; Li, Jun; Yerramilli, Murthy; Jewell, Dennis E

    2017-01-01

    Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

  20. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid concentrations in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, Nora; Parnell, Nolie K; Hill, Steve L; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia or methylmalonic acidemia (or both) in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease. Serum samples from 56 dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 43 control dogs. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations were measured in all samples and compared between groups. A correlation between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations and the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index was evaluated via the Spearman rank correlation. 20 of 56 (36%) dogs with gastrointestinal disease had hypocobalaminemia. Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with gastrointestinal disease than in control dogs. Five of 56 (9%) dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 5 of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased MMA concentrations. There was a significant negative correlation (Spearman r = -0.450) between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease. No correlation was found between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum cobalamin or MMA concentrations. These data indicated the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease was 20 of 56 (36%). Five of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased serum MMA concentrations, which indicated that although hypocobalaminemia was common in these dogs, it did not always appear to be associated with a deficiency of cobalamin on a cellular level. Hypocobalaminemia is a risk factor for negative outcome in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and should be considered in every patient with corresponding clinical signs.

  1. Association of serum irisin concentrations with the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Li, Xueqin; Sun, Dejun; Cai, Shaoxi

    2016-10-11

    Obesity is involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Irisin, a recently discovered myokine, protects the mice from obesity. This study aims to determine the association of serum irisin concentrations with the presence and severity of OSAS. This cross-sectional investigation was performed in 165 male OSAS patients and 98 healthy male subjects. Serum irisin concentrations were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The serum irisin concentrations of OSAS patients significantly decreased compared with the healthy controls (P<.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that serum irisin concentrations were an independent determinant of OSAS (OR .971, 95% CI .960 to .981; P<.001). Serum irisin concentrations were significantly reduced among patients with severe OSAS compared with patients with mild and moderate OSAS (P<.001 and P=.010, respectively). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that serum irisin concentrations were inversely correlated with OSAS severity (r=-.327, P<.001). Decreased serum irisin concentrations are associated with the presence and severity of OSAS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Serum copper concentration as an index of lung injury in rats exposed to hemithorax irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Fitzsimons, E.J.; Hinz, J.

    1988-06-01

    Serum copper concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury (monitored by lung prostacyclin production) with respect to the effects of time, dose, dose fractionation, and penicillamine dose modification in rats irradiated to the right hemithorax. Both lung PGI2 production and serum Cu concentration increased with increasing /sup 60/Co gamma-ray dose in animals sacrificed 2 or 6 months postirradiation, and the highest values for both responses were observed at the latter autopsy time. At 2 months postirradiation, the elevations in lung PGI2 production and serum Cu concentration also were spared similarly when total radiation doses were delivered in five equal daily fractions as compared to single doses. Finally, the ability of D-penicillamine to ameliorate the radiation-induced hyperproduction of PGI2 by rat lung was accompanied by an attenuation of the dose-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration at 2 months postirradiation in the drug-treated rats. In contrast, serum iron concentration was independent of time, dose, and penicillamine. At 2 months after irradiation, there also was a dose-dependent increase in lung hydroxyproline (collagen) content, the magnitude of which correlated closely with serum copper concentration in individual animals. Thus serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in rats irradiated to the hemithorax and can predict lung hydroxyproline (collagen) content in individual irradiated rats.

  3. Serum thyroxine concentrations after radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Meric, S.M.; Hawkins, E.C.; Washabau, R.J.; Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-one cats with hyperthyroidism were given one dose of radioactive iodine (131I) IV. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured before treatment in all cats, at 12-hour intervals after treatment in 10 cats, and at 48-hour intervals after treatment in 21 cats. Serum T4 concentrations also were measured one month after /sup 131/I therapy in 29 cats. Activity of 131I administered was 1.5 to 6.13 mCi, resulting in a dose of 20,000 rads to the thyroid. Serum T4 concentrations before /sup 131/I administration were 5.3 to 51.0 micrograms/dl, with a median T4 concentration of 11.0 micrograms/dl. Serum T4 decreased most rapidly during the first 3 to 6 days after treatment. Sixteen cats (55%) had normal serum thyroxine concentrations by day 4 after 131I administration, and 23 cats (74%) were euthyroxinemic by day 8 after treatment. One month after administration of 131I, the 29 cats evaluated were clinically improved, and 24 (83%) of the 29 cats evaluated had normal serum T4 concentrations, 3 cats (10%) remained hyperthyroxinemic, and 2 cats (7%) were hypothyroxinemic. Therefore, administration of 131I was a safe and effective method to quickly decrease serum T4 concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

  4. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    PubMed

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  5. Longitudinal Measures of Serum Albumin and Prealbumin Concentrations in Incident Dialysis Patients: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E.; Kaysen, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in patients on dialysis. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, co-morbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin in incident dialysis patients. Design, Setting, Subjects and Outcome Measures The Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report we examined data from 266 Nutrition sub-study participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, measured at study entry and every 3 months for one year. Results In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Conclusions Serum albumin increases early in the course of dialysis whereas prealbumin does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in persons on dialysis may lead to an improved approach to the management of protein energy

  6. Early postictal serum lactate concentrations are superior to serum creatine kinase concentrations in distinguishing generalized tonic-clonic seizures from syncopes.

    PubMed

    Matz, Oliver; Heckelmann, Jan; Zechbauer, Sebastian; Litmathe, Jens; Brokmann, Jörg C; Willmes, Klaus; Schulz, Jörg B; Dafotakis, Manuel

    2017-09-12

    Concentrations of serum creatine kinase (CK) and serum lactate are frequently measured to help differentiate between generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and syncope. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to systematically compare these two markers. The primary outcome is the measurement of serum lactate and CK in blood samples drawn within 2 h of the event in patients admitted with either a GTCS (n = 49) or a syncope (n = 36). Furthermore, the specificity and sensitivity of serum lactate and CK are determined as diagnostic markers in distinguishing between GTCS and syncope. GTCS patients have significantly higher serum lactate levels compared to syncope patients (p < 0.001). In contrast, CK does not differ between groups at admission. Regarding the first hour after the seizure, we identify a cut-off for serum lactate of 2.45 mmol/l for diagnosing GTCS as the cause of an impairment of consciousness with a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.93 (AUC: 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-1.0). In the second hour after the event, the ROC analysis yields similar results (AUC: 0.94; 95% CI 0.85-1.0). Serum lactate is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker to discriminate GTCS from syncope and is superior to CK early after admission to the emergency department.

  7. Serum-Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Atherosclerotic Diseases in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Geissen, Markus; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Winkler, Martin S.; Geffken, Maria; Peine, Sven; Schoen, Gerhard; Debus, E. Sebastian; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel; Daum, Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Atherosclerotic changes of arteries are the leading cause for deaths in cardiovascular disease and greatly impair patient’s quality of life. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid that regulates potentially pro-as well as anti-atherogenic processes. Here, we investigate whether serum-S1P concentrations are associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and carotid stenosis (CS). Methods and Results Serum was sampled from blood donors (controls, N = 174) and from atherosclerotic patients (N = 132) who presented to the hospital with either clinically relevant PAD (N = 102) or CS (N = 30). From all subjects, serum-S1P was measured by mass spectrometry and blood parameters were determined by routine laboratory assays. When compared to controls, atherosclerotic patients before invasive treatment to restore blood flow showed significantly lower serum-S1P levels. This difference cannot be explained by risk factors for atherosclerosis (old age, male gender, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, obesity, diabetes or smoking) or comorbidities (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney insufficiency or arrhythmia). Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that S1P has more power to indicate atherosclerosis (PAD and CS) than high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In 35 patients, serum-S1P was measured again between one and six months after treatment. In this group, serum-S1P concentrations rose after treatment independent of whether patients had PAD or CS, or whether they underwent open or endovascular surgery. Post-treatment S1P levels were highly associated to platelet numbers measured pre-treatment. Conclusions Our study shows that PAD and CS in humans is associated with decreased serum-S1P concentrations and that S1P may possess higher accuracy to indicate these diseases than HDL-C. PMID:27973607

  8. Serum adipokine concentrations in dogs with diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Hye-Sun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether serum adipokine concentrations differed between healthy dogs and dogs with diabetes mellitus (DM). To accomplish this, 19 dogs with newly diagnosed DM were compared to 20 otherwise healthy dogs. The serum concentrations of visfatin, leptin, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly higher in diabetic dogs than in healthy dogs, whereas the serum adiponectin concentrations were lower in diabetic dogs. However, there were no significant differences in the IL-10 and resistin levels between groups. The serum leptin concentrations in diabetic dogs with and without concurrent disorders differed significantly. Treatment with insulin induced a significant decrease in IL-6 in diabetic dogs without concurrent disorders. These results show that the clinical diabetic state of dogs could modulate the circulating visfatin and adiponectin concentrations directly, while upregulation of leptin was probably a result of concurrent disorders rather than an effect of persistent hyperglycemia as a result of DM. PMID:25643799

  9. Approach to the hemodialysis patient with an abnormal serum bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Lisawat, Panupong; Gennari, F John

    2014-07-01

    We present a patient receiving hemodialysis with a persistently high serum bicarbonate concentration to illustrate the evaluation and management issues for patients with both high (>25 mEq/L) and low (<20 mEq/L) pretreatment values. Patients with high serum bicarbonate concentrations typically are malnourished and have low rates of endogenous acid production. Evaluation should begin with assessment of whether an acute and potentially reversible cause of metabolic alkalosis is present. If not, management should be directed at treating malnutrition. By contrast, patients with low predialysis serum bicarbonate concentrations, in the absence of an acute and reversible cause, may benefit from increasing the level by an adjustment in dialysate bicarbonate concentration. However, the level at which one should intervene and to what extent serum bicarbonate concentration should be increased are unresolved issues. Whether such an intervention will reduce mortality risk has not been determined. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pretreatment serum xanthophyll concentrations as predictors of head and neck cancer recurrence and survival

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Anna E.; Bellile, Emily L.; Rozek, Laura S.; Peterson, Karen E.; Ren, Jianwei; Harris, Ethan; Mueller, Christie; Jolly, Shruti; Peterson, Lisa A.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations of pretreatment serum carotenoids, tocopherols, and quercetin with prognosis in 154 newly diagnosed head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods Pretreatment blood and health surveys were collected. Serum micronutrients were measured by HPLC. Data on recurrence and death were collected annually. Cox proportional hazards models measured associations of serum nutrient concentrations with recurrence and overall survival. Results During a median follow-up time of 37 months, there were 32 recurrences and 27 deaths. After controlling for covariates, subjects with high versus low serum xanthophyll and total carotenoid concentrations had significantly longer recurrence-free time (P = 0.002 and P = 0.02, respectively). Overall survival time was significantly longer in subjects with high versus low serum xanthophyll concentrations (P = 0.02). Conclusions Future research should evaluate the possible benefits of interventions to increase intakes of rich food sources of xanthophylls in this patient population. PMID:26614223

  11. Effects of mayonnaise on postprandial serum lutein/zeaxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Sayaka; Masuda, Yasunobu; Usuda, Mika; Marushima, Ranko; Ueji, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Mineo; Maruyama, Chizuko

    2009-12-01

    To clarify the effects of different physical forms of oil on postprandial serum lutein/zeaxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations, we performed a vegetable meal loading test. Eighteen healthy subjects participated in the test, which consisted of broccoli as a control (CON) meal, broccoli with oil (OIL), and broccoli with mayonnaise (MS), consumed in random order. After collection of fasting blood samples, subjects consumed one of the three test meals. Fasting and postprandial changes in serum carotenoids were assessed 2, 4, and 6 h after ingestion of each test meal. Serum lutein/zeaxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations were measured. Although no significant change was noted after the CON meal, the serum lutein/zeaxanthin concentration was higher at 4 h after consumption of the OIL meal, and at 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the MS meal, as compared with the fasting state. Serum beta-carotene concentrations did not change after ingestion of either the CON or the OIL meal but were elevated 2, 4, and 6 h after MS ingestion as compared with the fasting state. The incremental areas under the curves (IAUCs) of serum lutein/zeaxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations were higher after the MS meal than after the CON meal. IAUCs after the OIL meal exhibited no statistically significant differences from the CON and MS meals. We suggest that mayonnaise contributes to increase serum lutein/zeaxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations when consumed with vegetables rich in these carotenoids.

  12. Nutrient and food intake in relation to serum leptin concentration among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Mitsuyo; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Goda, Toshinao; Oka, Jun; Baba, Keiko; Ohki, Kazuko; Watanabe, Reiko; Sugiyama, Yoshiko

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating leptin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We examined cross-sectional associations between nutrient and food intake and serum leptin concentration in young Japanese women. Subjects were 424 female Japanese dietetic students 18-22 y of age. Intake of macronutrients (protein, total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and carbohydrate), dietary fiber, and 12 food groups was assessed with a validated, self-administered, comprehensive, diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. For nutrients, only dietary fiber was a significant determinant of serum leptin concentration. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with lower serum leptin concentration independent of potential confounding factors, including body mass index (mean serum leptin concentrations in the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary fiber intake were 8.6 and 7.5 ng/mL, respectively; P for trend = 0.026). Vegetables and pulses were the only foods significantly associated with serum leptin concentration, with higher intakes independently associated with lower concentrations (mean serum leptin concentrations in the lowest and highest quintiles of intake were 8.1 and 7.0 ng/mL, P for trend = 0.007, for vegetables and 8.8 and 7.6 ng/mL, P for trend = 0.019, for pulses, respectively). Intake of dietary fiber, vegetables, and pulses showed an independent inverse association with serum leptin concentration in a group of young Japanese women.

  13. Serum sialic acid enzymatic assay based on microtitre plates: application for measuring capillary serum sialic acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Simpson, H; Chusney, G D; Crook, M A; Pickup, J C

    1993-06-01

    We have adapted a commercially-available kit for the enzymatic determination of sialic acid so that the reaction can be carried out in microtitre wells and the coloured end product quantitated on an ELISA plate reader. The small volume of serum used allows sialic acid to be measured in capillary blood samples. The assay was based on release of sialic acid from glycoconjugates by neuraminidase, cleavage of sialic acid by N-acetyl neuraminic acid aldolase to pyruvate, and then oxidation of pyruvate to hydrogen peroxide by pyruvate oxidase. Hydrogen peroxide was determined by the red product formed in the presence of peroxidase, 4-aminoantipyrine and N-ethyl-N-2-hydroxyethyl-3-toluidine. The assay was linear to at least 10 mmol/l and unaffected by haemolysis, and by the addition of glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, bilirubin and pyruvate. Capillary serum sialic acid concentrations were not significantly different from simultaneously measured venous serum sialic acid levels. Self-collected capillary blood samples were obtained from healthy subjects over 6 h during the day. No variations in serum sialic acid concentrations were found in response to a meal. We conclude that this micro-adaptation of a specific sialic acid assay will be suitable for epidemiological surveys of serum sialic acid collected by patients and normal subjects.

  14. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration in cats with diabetes mellitus and acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rebecca I M; Nelson, Richard W; Feldman, Edward C; Kass, Philip H; Pollard, Rachel; Refsal, Kent R

    2007-01-01

    Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been used in place of serum growth hormone quantification for identifying acromegaly in diabetic cats. The utility of IGF-I as a screening test for acromegaly has not been critically evaluated. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of serum IGF-I concentration for identifying acromegaly. Serum IGF-I is a useful screening test for acromegaly in diabetic cats. A review was made of the medical records of 74 diabetic cats that had serum IGF-I quantified. The diabetes was classified as well controlled (15 cats), poorly controlled because of problems with the insulin treatment regimen, concurrent disease, or both (40), or poorly controlled with clinical findings consistent with acromegaly (19). A review of medical records was made. Serum IGF-I concentration was significantly (P < .0001) increased in acromegalic diabetic cats, compared with well-controlled and poorly controlled diabetic cats. Sensitivity and specificity for serum IGF-I concentration were 84% (95%/ confidence interval [CI] = 60.4-96.6%) and 92% (95% CI = 81.3-97.2%), respectively. There was no significant correlation between serum IGF-I concentration and duration of insulin treatment (r = 0.23, P = .089), insulin dosage (r = 0.14, P = .30), age (r = 0.16, P = .12), and pituitary volume (r = 0.40, P = .11), but a modest correlation was found between serum IGF-I concentration and body weight (r = 0.48, P < .0001). Results support the use of serum IGF-I concentration as a screening test for acromegaly in diabetic cats that have clinical findings supportive of the disease.

  15. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Brown, M P; Stover, S M; Kelly, R H; Farver, T B; Knight, H D

    1981-03-01

    Six adult mares were given a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline HCl (50 mg/ml) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine oxytetracycline concentrations were measured serially over a 48-h period. The highest measured serum oxytetracycline concentration was 8.01 mcg/ml at 1/2 h. Oxytetracycline was detected in synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid, which obtained mean peak oxytetracycline concentrations of 4.43 mcg/ml and 4.20 mcg/ml, at 1/2 h and 1 h, respectively. These concentrations steadily declined in parallel with serum concentrations and were not measurable at 48 h. Urine oxytetracycline concentration was relatively high, with a peak concentration of 1565.2 mcg/ml at 1/2 h after drug administration.

  16. Rapid falls in maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Bredow, M T; Goldie, D J

    1985-01-01

    The pronounced falls in AFP concentration sometimes seen in samples taken for screening in early pregnancy are consistent with the range of AFP half lives measured in 14 postpartum women of 59-133 h. PMID:2580865

  17. Serum concentrations of HE4 change little during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Hallamaa, Marianne; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Suvitie, Pia; Perheentupa, Antti

    2014-07-01

    Human epididymal secretory protein 4 (HE4) is a biomarker for ovarian cancer. The effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on HE4 was evaluated to determine whether substantial hormonal stimulation of the ovaries affects the serum levels of this marker. Findings were compared with serum concentrations of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), currently the most commonly used marker for ovarian cancer. Prospective cohort study. University hospital infertility clinic. Infertility patients undergoing IVF treatment. We determined the serum concentration of HE4 and CA125 in serial blood samples in 20 women treated with IVF. Samples were taken following gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist suppression, two to three times during FSH stimulation, at ovum pick-up and 2 weeks following embryo transfer at the time of the pregnancy test. Ovarian follicles were counted and serum estradiol concentrations measured throughout treatment. Serum HE4, CA125 and estradiol concentrations. Serum HE4 levels did not increase significantly during the FSH stimulation. The majority of values remained below the normal reference range (<70 pm) throughout the treatment. Serum CA125 concentration also remained low during stimulation. Serum estradiol concentration reflected the severity of ovarian stimulation during IVF, increasing 3.9-fold with stimulation. Serum HE4 concentrations respond little if at all to supraphysiological ovarian stimulation, suggesting that the amount of circulating HE4 in women with normal ovaries is independent of gonadotropin stimulation. Hormonal stimulation of the ovaries is unlikely to affect the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors with HE4. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations in 15 dogs with perineal hernia.

    PubMed

    Mann, F A; Boothe, H W; Amoss, M S; Tangner, C H; Puglisi, T A; Hobson, H P

    1989-06-01

    Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations, and serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio were evaluated in 15 dogs (greater than or equal to 5 years old) with perineal hernia (9 sexually intact males and 6 castrated males) and in 9 clinically normal sexually intact male dogs greater than or equal to 5 years old. There was no significant difference in serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio between sexually intact male dogs with perineal hernia and clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. In castrated dogs with perineal hernia, serum testosterone concentration and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio were significantly (P less than 0.05) lower, compared with those values in sexually intact dogs with perineal hernia and in clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. There was no significant difference in serum estradiol 17-beta concentration among sexually intact male dogs with perineal hernia, castrated dogs with perineal hernia, and clinically normal sexually intact male dogs. Serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations in dogs with perineal hernia did not differ from those values in clinically normal male dogs of the same age. Castration cannot be recommended for the treatment of perineal hernia unless a castration-responsive contributing factor such as prostatomegaly is identified, unless the pelvic diaphragm of dogs with perineal hernia has high sensitivity to normal or low serum testosterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations, or unless there is documentation that other androgens and/or estrogens are involved.

  19. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.

    PubMed

    Brown, G A; Vukovich, M D; Reifenrath, T A; Uhl, N L; Parsons, K A; Sharp, R L; King, D S

    2000-09-01

    The effects of androgen precursors, combined with herbal extracts designed to enhance testosterone formation and reduce conversion of androgens to estrogens was studied in young men. Subjects performed 3 days of resistance training per week for 8 weeks. Each day during Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, subjects consumed either placebo (PL; n = 10) or a supplement (ANDRO-6; n = 10), which contained daily doses of 300 mg androstenedione, 150 mg DHEA, 750 mg Tribulus terrestris, 625 mg Chrysin, 300 mg Indole-3-carbinol, and 540 mg Saw palmetto. Serum androstenedione concentrations were higher in ANDRO-6 after 2, 5, and 8 weeks (p <.05), while serum concentrations of free and total testosterone were unchanged in both groups. Serum estradiol was elevated at Weeks 2, 5, and 8 in ANDRO-6 (p <.05), and serum estrone was elevated at Weeks 5 and 8 (p <.05). Muscle strength increased (p <.05) similarly from Weeks 0 to 4, and again from Weeks 4 to 8 in both treatment groups. The acute effect of one third of the daily dose of ANDRO-6 and PL was studied in 10 men (23 +/- 4 years). Serum androstenedione concentrations were elevated (p <.05) in ANDRO-6 from 150 to 360 min after ingestion, while serum free or total testosterone concentrations were unchanged. These data provide evidence that the addition of these herbal extracts to androstenedione does not result in increased serum testosterone concentrations, reduce the estrogenic effect of androstenedione, and does not augment the adaptations to resistance training.

  20. Change in serum albumin concentration is inversely and independently associated with risk of incident metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Hong, Yong Joo; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Low serum albumin concentration is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. However, high serum albumin level appears to be linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to dissect the relative contributions of baseline and change in serum albumin concentration to the risk of incident metabolic syndrome. This was a 5-year (63,060 person-years) retrospective longitudinal study of 12,567 participants without metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease who were enrolled in a health screening program. The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to baseline and change in serum albumin concentration. A total of 2582 incident cases of metabolic syndrome developed. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS increased with increasing quartile of baseline serum albumin level compared with those in the lowest quartile, in a fully adjusted model (p for trend = 0.013). The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of incident MetS comparing the second, third, and fourth quartiles to the first quartile of change in serum albumin level were 0.478 (0.421-0.544), 0.353 (0.307-0.405), and 0.262 (0.224-0.305) in the fully adjusted model, respectively (p for trend <0.001). Percent change in serum albumin concentration inversely correlated with percent change in serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r=-3.5444, p<0.001). Although a higher baseline level of serum albumin was linked to increased risk of incident metabolic syndrome, increase in serum albumin concentration might be a protective factor against the risk of MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of lacosamide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    May, Theodor W; Brandt, Christian; Helmer, Renate; Bien, Christian G; Cawello, Willi

    2015-07-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the exposure of the central nervous system (CNS) to the antiepileptic drug (AED) lacosamide, under steady state conditions, in patients with epilepsy who take oral lacosamide alongside up to three other AEDs. Twenty-seven serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 21 patients receiving lacosamide for the treatment of epilepsy (50-600 mg/day over two or three doses). This included 23 time-matched pairs of serum and CSF samples from 19 patients. The concentration of lacosamide in each sample was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Linear regression was used to characterize the relationship between the CSF-to-serum ratio of lacosamide concentration and the time since dosing, the daily lacosamide dose, or the daily dose normalized by volume of distribution (Vd , approximated to total body water), and between the drug concentrations in each compartment (CSF vs. serum). Concentrations of lacosamide in CSF (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 7.37 ± 3.73 μg/ml, range 1.24-14.95, n = 27) and serum (mean ± SD 8.16 ± 3.82 μg/ml, range 2.29-15.45, n = 27) samples showed a good correlation over the dose range investigated. The mean CSF-to-serum ratio of lacosamide concentrations was 0.897 ± 0.193 (range 0.492-1.254, n = 23 time-matched pairs) and was independent of lacosamide dose. Drug concentrations in the CSF are often used to indicate those in the brain interstitial fluid. In patients with epilepsy who follow a stable oral AED dosing regimen, lacosamide concentration in CSF is approximately 85% of that found in serum, suggesting that serum may be a valuable indicator of lacosamide concentration in the CNS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ether serum concentrations in a Californian population of children, their parents, and older adults: an exposure assessment study

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many household items. Given concerns over their potential adverse health effects, we identified predictors and evaluated temporal changes of PBDE serum concentrations.MethodsPBDE serum concentrations...

  4. Vitamin Status as a Determinant of Serum Homocysteine Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Athanasios; Apergis, George; Dimitriadis, George; Vergados, Ioannis; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of serum homocysteine levels and vitamin status with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. This study included 65 patients with and 75 patients without diabetic retinopathy. Patients with diabetic retinopathy had significantly higher serum homocysteine levels (P < 0.001), higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (P < 0.001), lower serum folic acid (P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 (P = 0.014) levels than those without diabetic retinopathy. Regression analysis revealed that homocysteine was an independent risk factor for diabetic retinopathy and there was a threshold in its serum level (13.7 μmol/L), above which the risk of diabetic retinopathy greatly increases (OR = 1.66, P = 0.001). Folic acid was associated with decreased odds for diabetic retinopathy (OR = 0.73, P < 0.001). There was a threshold in serum vitamin B12 level (248.4 pg/mL), below which serum homocysteine concentration significantly increases with decreasing serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.003). Our findings suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Decreased serum levels of folic acid and vitamin B12, through raising serum homocysteine concentrations, may also affect the diabetic retinopathy risk. PMID:25006590

  5. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds during pregnancy and the newborn

    SciTech Connect

    Roncevic, N.; Pavkov, S.; Galetin-Smith, R.; Vukavic, T.; Vojinovic, M.; Djordjevic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread use of organochlorine compounds as insecticides during the past few decades has led to their ubiqitous presence in the environment. The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced for use as coolant and insulator fluids for transformers and capacitors, as heat transfer fluids and as fire retardants for wood products; heavy industrial usage has led to widespread contamination of the environment with the PCBs. Organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and PCBs are highly lipid soluble and are resistant to environmental degradation. In human beings these compounds are stored in adipose tissue and are resistant to metabolism. These substances are present in women and the fetus is exposed during utero development by transplacental transfer. Relatively high serum levels of OCIs and PCBs have been found in women with premature delivery. Also, DDT and PCB residue levels were higher in California sea lions which gave birth prematurely than in those with full-term pups. OCIs may disturb the hormonal balance of pregnancy and perhaps precipitate labor. Some DDT analogs are reported to have estrogenic effects and PCBs were also estrogenically active. Limited data exist on the levels and kinetics of OCIs and PCBs during pregnancy and in newborns.

  6. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  7. Association of serum omentin-1 concentrations with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haiyu; Sheng, Lianbing; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Hao, Tianyu

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Omentin is a newly discovered adipokine that possesses an anti-inflammatory function. The aim of this study was to determine the association of serum omentin-1 concentration with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. Serum concentrations of omentin-1 were measured in 128 women with preeclampsia and 96 women with uncomplicated pregnancies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Patients with preeclampsia had significantly lower serum concentrations of omentin-1 compared to healthy controls. In addition, those patients with severe preeclampsia had significantly lower concentrations of serum omentin-1 compared to those with mild preeclampsia. Simple linear regression analysis showed that in patients with preeclampsia the serum concentrations of omentin-1 showed significant correlation with body mass index (P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P < 0.001). Decreased concentrations of serum omentin-1 appear to be associated with the presence and severity of preeclampsia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Serum Cobalamin and Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations in Hyperthyroid Cats Before and After Radioiodine Treatment.

    PubMed

    Geesaman, B M; Whitehouse, W H; Viviano, K R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism, the most common endocrine disorder in cats, has been associated with low serum cobalamin concentrations. Whether this is a functional cobalamin deficiency of clinical importance has not been assessed. Cats with hyperthyroidism experience a functional cobalamin deficiency which correlates with their clinical catabolic state and is reversible with return of the euthyroid state. Thirty-nine client-owned hyperthyroid cats. Prospective observational study. Serum cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and clinical scores were determined in each hyperthyroid cat at enrollment and when euthyroid (60 days after radioiodine treatment). Five of the 39 hyperthyroid cats (13%) had a low serum cobalamin concentration ranging from <150 to 290 ng/L. Serum cobalamin concentrations normalized to >350 ng/L in 2 of the hypocobalaminemic cats once euthyroid. None of the hyperthyroid/hypocobalaminemic cats had increased serum methylmalonic acid concentrations (175-601 nmol/L). In cats with clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, there was no correlation between serum cobalamin concentrations with total T4 concentration (P = .12) or clinical scores including body weight (P = .11) and BCS (P = .54). In this population of hyperthyroid cats, the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia was low. Specifically, hyperthyroid cats, in which concurrent gastrointestinal disease is unlikely. Hypocobalaminemia is not a functional deficiency requiring supplementation in hyperthyroid cats without gastrointestinal disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  10. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  11. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  12. Serum concentrations and effects of gabapentin and vigabatrin: observations from a dose titration study.

    PubMed

    Lindberger, Martin; Luhr, Owe; Johannessen, Svein I; Larsson, Sirkku; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2003-08-01

    To explore possible concentration-effect relationships, gabapentin (GBP) and vigabatrin (VGB) serum concentrations were obtained from patients participating in an add-on dose-titration trial comparing GBP and VGB in partial epilepsy. Patients randomized to GBP started on 1800 mg/d and could have their dosage increased stepwise to 2400 and 3600 mg/d if seizures persisted. Those randomised to VGB started on 1000 mg/d, and the dose could be increased to 2000 and 4000 mg/d. Blood samples were obtained at steady state, at a nonstandardized time, from 27 patients randomized to GBP and from 36 randomized to VGB. Serum samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment effect was expressed as percentage reduction in number of seizures from baseline. In addition, patients were classified as responders (>50% reduction in number of seizures from baseline) or nonresponders. There was no significant correlation between serum concentrations of GBP and seizure reduction at the lowest dosage, 1800 mg/d (r = -0.02, P = 0.94, Spearman-rank), nor between VGB serum levels and seizure reduction at 1000 mg/d of VGB (r = -0.14, P = 0.44). The serum GBP concentrations among responders to GBP 1800 mg/d were 26 +/- 12 micro mol/L (mean +/- SD), which was not different from serum concentrations in nonresponders, 28+/-13 micro mol/L. Nor was there a difference between serum concentrations of responders and nonresponders to VGB 1000 mg/d (32 +/- 23 and 44 +/- 36 micro mol/L, respectively). Hence, with the present study design we were unable to identify specific target ranges of GBP and VGB serum concentrations.

  13. Extremely high maternal alkaline phosphatase serum concentration with syncytiotrophoblastic origin

    PubMed Central

    Boronkai, A; Than, N G; Magenheim, R; Bellyei, S; Szigeti, A; Deres, P; Hargitai, B; Sumegi, B; Papp, Z; Rigo, J

    2005-01-01

    An extremely high alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentration (3609 IU/litre) was found in a 20 year old primigravida at 37 week’s gestation, prompting an examination of its histological and cellular origin. Immunohistochemistry and western blots using antibodies against AP, Ki-67, phospho-protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/Erk1/2), phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phospho-stress activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, total-Akt, total-GSK-3β, and phospho-p38-MAPK were carried out on index and control placental samples of the same gestational age. Compared with controls, staining of the index placenta showed minimal AP labelling of the brush border and remarkable positivity of the intervillous space. Cytotrophoblastic proliferation was 8–10% in the index placenta compared with 1–2% in controls. The index placenta also had raised concentrations of protein kinases with important roles in cell differentiation. The proliferation and differentiation rates of the cytotrophoblasts were found to be five times higher in index samples than in controls. It is hypothesised that loss of syncytial membranes in immature villi led to increased AP concentrations in the maternal circulation and decreased AP staining of the placenta. Loss of the syncytium might also stimulate increased proliferation of villous cytotrophoblasts, which would then fuse and maintain the syncytium. PMID:15623487

  14. Relationship between clozapine dose, serum concentration, and clinical outcome in children and adolescents in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wohkittel, Christopher; Gerlach, Manfred; Taurines, Regina; Wewetzer, Christoph; Unterecker, Stefan; Burger, Rainer; Schreck, Diana; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Romanos, Marcel; Egberts, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Information on dose- and concentration-related clinical effects of clozapine treatment in children and adolescents is scarce. This study aimed to examine the relationship between dose, serum concentration, and clinical outcome as well as the influencing factors thereof in paediatric patients treated with clozapine. Data from a routine Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) service between 2004 and 2014 were studied in 68 patients, aged 11-18 years. Severity of illness, therapeutic effectiveness and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were assessed by standardized means. A relationship between the daily dose (mean 319 mg, 4.9 mg/kg) and serum concentration (mean 387 ng/ml) of clozapine was found with the variation in dose explaining 30 % of the variability in clozapine serum concentrations. Also gender contributed to the variability, however, no influence of age or concomitant medications was detected. Furthermore, a significant association was found between clozapine serum concentration and the occurrence of ADRs. Patients without ADRs had a lower mean serum concentration than those with mild (261.4 vs 407.3 ng/ml, P = 0.018) and moderate ADRs (261.4 vs 416.3 ng/ml, P = 0.028). As clozapine was estimated to be effective in lower blood concentrations, guidance on a possibly lower therapeutic range of clozapine serum levels in paediatric patients is provided. With ADRs increasing under higher concentrations, TDM is strongly recommended in paediatric clozapine therapy for individualized dosing. Dose adjustment in females also might be reasonable according to gender-related differences in serum concentrations. However, regarding the limitations of this study results should be validated in larger studies with more standardized designs.

  15. Low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis associated with increased serum IL-6 concentration and azotaemia.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Bąska, Piotr; Długosz, Ewa

    2015-06-30

    Low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome, also named euthyroid sick syndrome or non-thyroidal illness syndrome, has been recognized in canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, where it manifested by lowering of the serum thyrotropin (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4) and free thyroxin (FT4) concentrations. This syndrome has also been observed in critical diseases in humans and animals, and the severity of the disease is considered an important factor in lowering of thyroid hormone concentrations. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a role in the development of low T3 syndrome by causing a decrease in deiodinases 1 and 2 activity and increased activity of deiodinase 3, enzymes involved in the conversion of thyroxin (T4) to T3. The purpose of this study was to compare the concentrations of serum thyroid hormones and TSH between healthy dogs and dogs with babesiosis, and to determine correlations between serum IL-6 concentration and serum total T3 (TT3), TT4, FT4, and TSH concentrations, and the level of azotaemia in dogs with babesiosis. The concentrations of IL-6, TT3, TT4, FT4, TSH, urea and creatinine were determined in 13 dogs with canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis and in 10 healthy dogs. The results of this study showed decreases in TT3, TT4, FT4, and TSH and increases in IL-6, urea and creatinine concentrations in affected dogs in comparison to healthy dogs. The concentration of IL-6 was negatively correlated with TT3 and TSH concentrations and the TT3 concentration was negatively correlated with serum urea and creatinine concentrations. This study showed low T3 syndrome in canine babesiosis, which was confirmed by the determination of the T3 concentration, and demonstrates that in canine babesiosis the T3 concentration is associated with IL-6 concentration.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF SERUM 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO COLLECTIONS OF CAPTIVE GORILLAS (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA).

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Susan L; Chen, Tai C; Murphy, Hayley; Holick, Michael F; Tlusty, Michael; Baitchman, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were assessed in subadult to adult captive lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (n = 26) at two institutions with different husbandry and management practices. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations for gorillas managed predominantly indoors was low (14.2 ± 5.9 ng/ml), despite consuming commercial biscuits fortified with vitamin D3. Concentrations of 25(OH)D in gorillas with near daily outdoor access were significantly higher than gorillas managed indoors, although many individuals still had serum values below concentrations recommended for adult humans. Consideration should be given to assessing 25(OH)D concentrations in all captive gorillas and providing specific supplementation, particularly to juveniles without access to direct sunlight.

  17. Digoxin intoxication: the relationship of clinical presentation to serum digoxin concentration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas W.; Haber, Edgar

    1970-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum digoxin concentration has been used to study the interrelationships of circulating levels of the drug and various factors in the clinical setting in 48 hospitalized patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to digoxin intoxication. 131 patients on maintenance doses of digoxin without toxicity and 48 patients with equivocal evidence of digoxin excess were also studied and compared with the toxic group. Patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances due to digoxin intoxication tended to be older and to have diminished renal function compared with the nontoxic group; body weight, serum potassium concentration, underlying cardiac rhythm, and nature of cardiac disease were not significantly different for the groups as a whole. Despite comparable mean daily digoxin dosages, digoxin intoxicated patients had a mean serum digoxin concentration of 3.7 ±1.0 (SD) ng/ml, while nontoxic patients had a mean level of 1.4 ±0.7 ng/ml (P < 0.001), 90% of patients without evidence of toxicity had serum digoxin concentrations of 2.0 ng/ml or less, while 87% of the toxic group had levels above 2.0; the range of overlap between the two groups extended from 1.6 to 3.0 ng/ml. Patients with atrioventricular block as their principal toxic manifestation had a significantly lower mean serum digoxin concentration than those in whom ectopic impulse formation was the chief rhythm disturbance. Patients with equivocal evidence of digoxin excess had received comparable daily maintenance doses of digoxin but had a mean serum concentration of 1.9 ±0.8 ng/ml, intermediate between those of the nontoxic (P < 0.005) and toxic (P < 0.001) groups. Renal function as judged by mean blood urea nitrogen concentration was also intermediate. The data indicate that knowledge of the serum digoxin concentration, weighed in the clinical context, is useful in the management of patients receiving this drug. PMID:5480861

  18. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its association with bone mineral density and serum parathyroid hormone levels during winter in urban males from Guiyang, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Shi, Lixin; Peng, Nianchun; Xu, Shujing; Zhang, Miao; Zhang, Song; Li, Hong; Zhuang, Huijun; Gong, Mingxian; Wu, Danrong; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-28

    Serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)) may influence serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD). In the present study, we assessed serum 25OHD concentration and its association with PTH and BMD in urban males from Guiyang (N26.57°), the capital city of Guizhou province, Southwest China. We recruited 634 males aged >20 years from the Guiyang Health Measures Survey, and stratified them into three groups according to age: young (20-39 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and older (60-79 years). We measured serum concentrations of 25OHD, PTH levels and BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4), femoral neck and total hip. In addition, we also explored the relationship between 25OHD and lifestyle, socio-economic characteristics and medical history by applying covariance analysis and locally weighted regression plots. The results showed that serum 25OHD was 75 nmol/l in 12·6 % of the subjects. Higher level of serum PTH was detected in relation to lower concentrations of serum 25OHD up to 50 nmol/l. A negative correlation between serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations was observed (r -0·207, P=0·003). Mean concentration of serum PTH increased gradually and plateaued while concentrations of serum 25OHD decreased to 50 nmol/l. Gradual increase in serum PTH was observed as 25OHD concentration was <25 nmol/l (P=0·004). BMD values at all sites were greater in the higher serum 25OHD concentration group. This study shows that low concentrations of serum 25OHD were common in males, and bone health was likely to be improved when serum 25OHD values were between 30 and 50 nmol/l.

  19. Impact of Whole-Blood Processing Conditions on Plasma and Serum Concentrations of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Wan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, So-Youn

    2016-02-01

    Pre-analytical variations in plasma and serum samples can occur because of variability in whole-blood processing procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delayed separation of whole blood on the plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines. The concentrations of 16 cytokines were measured in plasma and serum samples when the centrifugation of whole blood at room temperature was delayed for 4, 6, 24, or 48 h, and the values were compared with those observed after separation within 2 h of whole-blood collection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed for cytokines to determine whether cytokine levels in plasma and serum samples can be used to assess delayed separation of whole blood. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β increased significantly (>2-fold) when separation was delayed at room temperature for 24 h. The concentrations of 6 of these cytokines (all except serum IL-1β and IL-6) demonstrated high diagnostic performance (area under the ROC curve >0.8) for delayed separation of whole blood. Furthermore, these cytokine concentrations typically exhibited high sensitivity and specificity at each optimal cutoff point. Conversely, IL-17A was stable in both plasma and serum samples, even when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 h. This study shows that certain cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF, sCD40L, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) could be used for assessing the quality of plasma or serum samples.

  20. Comparison between blood serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in horses using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M; Sulon, J; Beckers, J-F; Ledoux, D; Vandenheede, M

    2011-07-01

    In horses, serum cortisol concentration is considered to provide an indirect measurement of stress. However, it includes both free and bound fractions. The sampling method is also invasive and often stressful. This is not the case for salivary cortisol, which is collected using a more welfare-friendly method and represents a part of the free cortisol fraction, which is the biologically active form. To compare salivary and serum cortisol assays in horses, in a wide range of concentrations, using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, in order to validate salivary cortisol for stress assessment in horse. In 5 horses, blood samples were drawn using an i.v. catheter. Saliva samples were taken using swabs. Cortisol was assayed by radioimmunoassay. All data were treated with a regression method, which pools and analyses data from multiple subjects for linear analysis. Mean ± s.d. cortisol concentrations measured at rest were 188.81 ± 51.46 nmol/l in serum and 1.19 ± 0.54 nmol/l in saliva. They started increasing immediately after ACTH injection and peaks were reached after 96 ± 16.7 min in serum (356.98 ± 55.29 nmol/l) and after 124 ± 8.9 min in saliva (21.79 ± 7.74 nmol/l, P<0.05). Discharge percentages were also different (225% in serum and 2150% in saliva, P<0.05). Correlation between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations showed an adjusted r(2) = 0.80 (P<0.001). The strong link between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was also estimated by a regression analysis. The reliability of both RIAs and regression found between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations permits the validation of saliva-sampling as a noninvasive technique for cortisol level assessment in horses. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  1. The concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in blood serum of women in labour.

    PubMed

    Wasiluk, A; Dabrowska, M; Jaworski, S; Prokopowicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-ACT) in blood serum of parturient women was determined. The investigation was conducted in 33 women bearing eutrophic newborns and 36 women bearing hypotrophic newborns. The control group consisted of 30 healthy non-pregnant women in reproductive age. Concentrations of A-1-ACT were determined using the radial immunodiffusion method according to Mancini et al. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group I was three times higher than minimal concentration. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group II was two times higher than minimal concentration. In the control group, the difference between minimal and maximal concentrations of A-1-ACT was inconsiderable. The lack of statistically significant differences between these three groups suggests that labour stress does not influence serum concentrations of this inhibitor. The importance of A-1-ACT in the placental tissue may be connected with immunological mechanisms that assure development and maintenance of pregnancy.

  2. Decreased Serum Hepcidin Concentration Correlates with Brain Iron Deposition in Patients with HBV-Related Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Ying; He, Yi-Feng; Dai, Zhi; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Cheng, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. Methods Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. Results Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional brain iron repletion. Serum

  3. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Ding, Jing; Liu, Jian-Ying; He, Yi-Feng; Dai, Zhi; Chen, Cai-Zhong; Cheng, Wei-Zhong; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional brain iron repletion. Serum hepcidin may be a clinical

  4. Serum Carotenoid Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women from the United States with and without Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhifang; Zhang, Zhumin; Penniston, Kristina L.; Binkley, Neil; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant defenses may be compromised in osteoporotic women. Little is known about fruit and vegetable or carotenoid consumption among postmenopausal women. The primary carotenoids in human serum are α- and β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. This study investigated the interrelationships among serum carotenoid concentrations, fruit and vegetable intake, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women (n = 59, 62.7 ± 8.8 y). Bone density was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis diagnosis was based upon T-scores. Serum samples (n = 53) and 3-day diet records (n = 49) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyzed differences between carotenoids after adjusting for serum retinol; supplement usage; milk, yogurt, fruit, and vegetable intake; and BMI. Pearson statistics correlated carotenoids with specific fruit or vegetable intake. Serum lycopene concentrations were lower in the osteoporosis group than controls (p = 0.03). β-Cryptoxanthin intake was higher in the osteoporosis group (p = 0.0046). Total fruit and vegetable intakes were correlated with serum lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin (p = 0.03, 0.006, respectively). Serum α-carotene concentration was associated with carrot intake, and zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin with lettuce intake. Carotenoids that may have beneficial skeletal effects are lower in women with osteoporosis. Research is needed to identify potential protective mechanisms or utilization of carotenoids during osteoporosis. PMID:19003732

  5. Serum cholecystokinin concentrations in dogs with naturally acquired pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Noh, Sungjun; Kim, Hye-Sun; Chang, Jinhwa; Kang, Ji-Houn; Chang, Dongwoo; Yang, Mhan-Pyo

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM). ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6). Serum CCK concentrations were then measured before and 1, 2, and 4 hours after consumption of a high-fat meal. Concentrations in dogs with PDH were also measured before and after trilostane treatment. Results were compared among groups and assessment points. RESULTS Preprandial serum CCK concentrations in group C were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, and D, but no significant differences in postprandial CCK concentrations were identified among the groups 1, 2, or 4 hours after the meal. With respect to trilostane treatment of dogs with PDH, no significant differences were identified between pre- and post-trilostane serum CCK concentrations in group C or D. Median CCK concentration after trilostane treatment was higher in group D than in group C, but this difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcomes in this study did not support the hypothesis that a low circulating CCK concentration affects the development of GBM in dogs with PDH.

  6. Copper and zinc concentrations in the uterine fluid and blood serum during the bovine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations variation during the bovine estrus cycle , 232 blood and genital tract samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by the examination of the ovaries and the uterine tonicity. Of the 46 samples selected for use in the study, 13 were pro-estrus, 10 estrus, 8 metestrus, and 15 diestrus. The uterus was incised and uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The total mean (± SEM) Cu concentrations in serum and uterine fluid samples, determined by spectrophotometry, were 66.1± 6.5 and 171.3 ± 33.2µg dL(-1) respectively, which were significantly different, while total mean serum and uterine fluid Zn concentrations were 91.9 ± 5.4 and 291.6 ± 23.4 µg dL(-1), which also showed a significant difference. The mean serum Cu values in different phases of the estrous cycle were not significantly different, while uterine fluid Cu content in pro-estrus and diestrus were significantly higher than those in estrus and metestrus, and were also significantly higher than those of the serum samples. The mean Zn value of serum samples at different stages of the cycle was not significantly different. The mean Zn value of the uterine fluid samples was also not significantly different in different stages, but in pro-estrus, metestrus, and in diestrus they were highly significantly different from those of the serum. These results showed that Cu concentrations in the uterine fluid vary at different stages of the cycle and are higher than those in the blood serum, but, the uterine Zn content does not vary during the estrous cycle and is much higher than those in the serum, that seems to be due to the secretory action of the uterine mucosa.

  7. Serum concentrations of canine alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor in cobalamin-deficient Yorkshire Terrier dogs.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Heilmann, Romy M; Bridges, Cory S; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-05-01

    Fecal canine alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1-PI) concentration has been reported to be increased in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy due to the loss of cα1-PI into the gastrointestinal tract. A chronic loss of cα1-PI may theoretically deplete serum cα1-PI, potentially altering the proteinase-to-proteinase inhibitor balance. Protein-losing enteropathy has been reported to occur frequently in certain dog breeds such as Yorkshire Terriers and to be associated with hypocobalaminemia. The objective was to compare serum cα1-PI concentrations in Yorkshire Terriers with and without cobalamin (COB) deficiency. Serum samples from 52 COB-deficient and 69 normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers, which had been submitted to the Gastrointestinal Laboratory (2008-2011; College Station, TX), were included retrospectively. Serum cα1-PI concentrations were measured using an in-house radioimmunoassay and compared between Yorkshire Terriers with and without COB deficiency using a Mann-Whitney U test. A Fisher exact test was used to evaluate whether a decreased serum cα1-PI concentration is associated with COB deficiency in Yorkshire Terriers. Serum cα1-PI concentrations were significantly lower in COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers (median: 1,016 mg/l, range: 315-3,945 mg/l) than in normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers (median: 1,665 mg/l, range: 900-2,970 mg/l; P < 0.0001). One-fourth (n = 13) of the COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers had a serum cα1-PI concentration below the lower limit of the reference interval (<732 mg/l), and COB deficiency was associated with decreased serum cα1-PI concentrations (P < 0.0001). In the current study, serum cα1-PI concentrations are significantly lower in COB-deficient Yorkshire Terriers when compared to normocobalaminemic Yorkshire Terriers. Further studies are needed to determine the functional and potential prognostic implications of serum cα1-PI concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

  8. Hypercalcitoninemia associated with return of serum calcium concentration toward normal in chronically parathyroidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, T C; Garner, S C

    1979-06-01

    In chronically parathyroidectomized male Fischer and Holtzman rats, we found a progressive rise in the levels of serum immunoreactive calcitonin (CT) despite hypocalcemia. The rise was preceded by an increase in the thyroidal CT concentration (determined by RIA) and hyperplasia of C cells (determined by the immunoperoxidase bridge technique). In association with the rise in serum CT, we also observed a return of serum Ca toward normal levels, which the evidence suggests was not due to compensatory regeneration of parathyroid remnants after incomplete parathyroidectomy. It also is unlikely that ectopic parathyroid tissue was responsible for the return of serum Ca toward normal. Since the increase in serum CT after parathyroidectomy coincided with the return of serum Ca toward normal, we postulate that a gradual rise in serum Ca in chronically parathyroidectomized rats might stimulate the "CT-saturated" thyroid glands to release CT, thus leading to a progressive increase in serum CT. Alternatively, it is possible that the increase in serum CT after parathyroidectomy may be due in part simply to nonspecific leakage of CT from the "CT-saturated" thyroid glands.

  9. Concentrations of organophosphorus, polybromobenzene, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in human serum, and relationships between concentrations and donor ages.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Hu, Jicheng; Xu, Meng; Sun, Yiming; Ma, Yulong

    2017-03-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants, polybromobenzenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in pooled human serum samples collected in an area in which these chemicals are produced in North China. Tri (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was found at a higher concentration than the other chemicals, and the mean TCEP concentration was 480.4 ng/g lipid. This is the first time TCEP has been detected in human serum from China. The PBDE concentration in serum was found to have decreased between 2007 and 2013. BDE-209 remained the dominant PBDE congener, and its mean concentration was 91.3 ng/g lipid in this study. The polybromobenzene concentrations were relatively low, but pentabromobenzene and pentabromotoluene were found in very many of the samples. The highest TCEP, tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, pentabromobenzene, and pentabromotoluene concentrations were found in samples from young people (<30 y old). This suggests that the risks posed by these alternative flame retardants also need more concerns.

  10. Serum canine pancreatic-specific lipase concentrations in dogs with naturally occurring Babesia rossi infection.

    PubMed

    Köster, Liza S; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-08-13

    Babesia rossi is the cause of a highly virulent multisystemic disease with a variable outcome, which is a reliable model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of canine pancreatic-specific lipase (cPL) in a population of dogs with naturally acquired B. rossi infection. In addition, the associations between serum cPL and death and SIRS status were examined. An observational study recruited 87 dogs diagnosed with B. rossi infection and serum cPL concentrations were measured daily until discharge or death. The median concentration of serum cPL was 124.0 µg/L (interquartile range: 51.0 µg/L - 475.5 µg/L) on admission (n = 87) and 145.5 µg/L (62.3 µg/L - 434.0 µg/L) on day two of hospitalisation (n = 40). Twenty-four dogs (28%) had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (> 400 µg/L) at admission with 13 dogs (32.5%) presenting as such on the second day of hospitalisation. The median concentration of serum cPL in dogs with SIRS was 158 µg/L (interquartile range: 52.5 µg/L - 571.5 µg/L; n = 53), which was significantly higher than in those without SIRS (75 µg/L; 50.3 µg/L - 131.8 µg/L; n = 32) (P = 0.018). This study demonstrated that an unexpectedly high number of dogs diagnosed with naturally acquired canine babesiosis had a serum cPL concentration within the diagnostic range for acute pancreatitis and a significantly higher serum cPL concentration was found in dogs that were classified as having SIRS.

  11. Effect of prepartum dietary calcium on intake and serum and urinary mineral concentrations of cows.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2006-02-01

    Nine multiparous and 12 primiparous cows were fed diets containing an anionic salt supplement and moderate Ca (0.99%) or high Ca (1.50%) concentrations for 21 d prepartum to determine the effects of dietary Ca concentration on serum and urine electrolytes and on postpartum intake and milk yield. Blood samples were collected during 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) for prepartum diets was approximately -6 mEq/100 g of dry matter (Na + K - Cl - S). Immediately postpartum, cows were fed diets with positive DCAD with greater than 1.00% Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentrations 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum were 9.62, 8.41, and 9.38 mg/dL. There were no treatment effects on serum Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentration was higher for primiparous than multiparous cows (9.34 vs. 8.93 mg/dL) for the trial and at calving (8.77 vs. 8.13 mg/dL). Mean serum HCO(3)(-) and urinary pH, respectively, were 20.32 mEq/L and 5.67 prepartum, 25.82 mEq/L and 7.62 at calving, and 26.08 mEq/L and 8.25 postpartum. No differences due to treatment were observed for serum and urinary concentrations of HCO(3)(-), pH, Mg, Na, K, and Cl. Milk yield was similar for 0.99 and 1.50% Ca treatments (22.8 and 20.7 kg/d). Diets containing 0.99 or 1.5% Ca maintained serum Ca at adequate levels around parturition and resulted in similar dry matter intake and postpartum milk yield.

  12. Determination of serum fPLI concentrations in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Forcada, Yaiza; German, Alexander J; Noble, Peter J M; Steiner, Joerg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Graham, Peter; Blackwood, Laura

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common feline endocrinopathies. Pancreatitis is a reported cause for poor control of DM in cats; however, its prevalence in diabetic cats is unknown. Measurement of serum feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI) has been proposed as a sensitive and specific test for the detection of pancreatitis in cats. The aim of this study was to assess fPLI concentrations in diabetic cats and compare these with non-diabetic cats of similar age. Samples from 29 cats with DM and 23 non-diabetic cats were analysed. Serum fPLI concentrations were significantly higher in samples from diabetic cats (P<0.01). A weak association was found between serum fructosamine and fPLI concentrations (R(2)=0.355, P=0.015), but there was no association between fPLI concentrations and the degree of diabetic control. There were no significant differences in reported clinical signs between cats with or without DM regardless of serum fPLI concentration. This is the first study to demonstrate elevated serum fPLI concentrations in cats with DM, suggesting that pancreatitis could be a significant comorbidity in these cats.

  13. Total serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lajevardi, Vahideh; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mohtasham, Sima; Ansari, Mahsa; Hedayat, Kosar; Nassiri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disorder that involves the skin, nails and joints. With regard to the role of the immune system in psoriasis, the current study compared serum IgE concentration in patients with psoriasis with control group. Current case-control study was conducted in Dermatology clinic of Razi hospital, Tehran University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. Fifty-eight patients with psoriasis e referred to the clinic were assigned as patient group and 58 healthy subjects with matched age and sex as a control group. Patient's history, family history and demographic characteristics such as age and sex, duration and severity of disease using PASI, were collected and entered into a form. Consent form was obtained from participants. Serum IgE concentrations of both study groups were measured by electrochemiluminescence assay in the laboratory A total number of 58 patients with psoriasis, mean age of 44.15 (19-76 years) and 58 controls with matched age and sex were studied. Mean average of serum IgE concentration in the control group was 115.13 versus 200/06 concentration in patients group (P=0.16). Serum IgE concentration in 22.4% of patients versus 17.2% in controls was greater than normal concentration (P=0.48). No significant correlation was between serum IgE concentration and disease severity using PASI (P=0.11, r=0.21), neither a significant correlation with disease duration, age and gender. According to the present study, serum IgE concentrations are not greater in patients with psoriasis. IgE concentration is also not associated with the severity of psoriasis based on the PASI score, therefore, the role of IgE in psoriasis can be considered insignificant as some previous studies indicate.

  14. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; P<.0001), and higher TmP per GFR (2.77 ± 0.72 vs. 2.43 ± 0.78 mg/dl; P<.0001) than those not treated with diuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  15. Concentration-dependent reversible self-oligomerization of serum albumins through intermolecular β-sheet formation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arpan; Prajapati, Roopali; Chatterjee, Surajit; Mukherjee, Tushar Kanti

    2014-12-16

    Proteins inside a cell remain in highly crowded environments, and this often affects their structure and activity. However, most of the earlier studies involving serum albumins were performed under dilute conditions, which lack biological relevance. The effect of protein-protein interactions on the structure and properties of serum albumins at physiological conditions have not yet been explored. Here, we report for the first time the effect of protein-protein and protein-crowder interactions on the structure and stability of two homologous serum albumins, namely, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), at physiological conditions by using spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Concentration-dependent self-oligomerization and subsequent structural alteration of serum albumins have been explored by means of fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy at pH 7.4. The excitation wavelength (λex) dependence of the intrinsic fluorescence and the corresponding excitation spectra at each emission wavelength indicate the presence of various ground state oligomers of serum albumins in the concentration range 10-150 μM. Circular dichroism and thioflavin T binding assay revealed formation of intermolecular β-sheet rich interfaces at high protein concentration. Excellent correlations have been observed between β-sheet content of both the albumins and fluorescence enhancement of ThT with protein concentrations. SEM images at a concentration of 150 μM revealed large dispersed self-oligomeric states with sizes vary from 330 to 924 nm and 260 to 520 nm for BSA and HSA, respectively. The self-oligomerization of serum albumins is found to be a reversible process; upon dilution, these oligomers dissociate into a native monomeric state. It has also been observed that synthetic macromolecular crowder polyethylene glycol (PEG 200) stabilizes the self-associated state of both the albumins which is contrary to expectations that the

  16. Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated alkylates: calculation of benchmark doses based on serum concentrations in children.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2013-04-19

    Immune suppression may be a critical effect associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), as indicated by recent data on vaccine antibody responses in children. Therefore, this information may be crucial when deciding on exposure limits. Results obtained from follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort were used. Serum-PFC concentrations were measured at age 5 years, and serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids were obtained at age 7 years. Benchmark dose results were calculated in terms of serum concentrations for 431 children with complete data using linear and logarithmic curves, and sensitivity analyses were included to explore the impact of the low-dose curve shape. Under different linear assumptions regarding dose-dependence of the effects, benchmark dose levels were about 1.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and 0.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctanoic acid at a benchmark response of 5%. These results are below average serum concentrations reported in recent population studies. Even lower results were obtained using logarithmic dose-response curves. Assumption of no effect below the lowest observed dose resulted in higher benchmark dose results, as did a benchmark response of 10%. The benchmark dose results obtained are in accordance with recent data on toxicity in experimental models. When the results are converted to approximate exposure limits for drinking water, current limits appear to be several hundred fold too high. Current drinking water limits therefore need to be reconsidered.

  17. Effects of ophthalmic disease on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in the horse.

    PubMed

    Labelle, A L; Hamor, R E; Macneill, A L; Lascola, K M; Breaux, C B; Tolar, E L

    2011-07-01

    There is little scientific information available about the ability of ocular disease to cause a systemic inflammatory response. Horses are frequently affected with ocular disease and ensuring their systemic health prior to performing vision saving surgery under anaesthesia is essential for the successful treatment of ophthalmic disease. Ocular disease will cause elevations in the concentration of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 38 mature horses with ulcerative keratitis or uveitis and no evidence of systemic disease, 9 mature horses with no evidence of ocular or systemic disease (negative controls) and 10 mature horses with systemic inflammatory disease and no evidence of ocular disease (positive controls). Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A. Fibrinogen and serum amyloid A were significantly different in the positive control group compared to the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.126). There was no significant difference between the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.001). Ulcerative keratitis and anterior uveitis are not associated with elevated concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. When the clinician is presented with a patient with ocular disease and elevated plasma fibrinogen or serum amyloid A concentrations, a nonocular inflammatory focus should be suspected. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Dietary phosphorus regulates serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Antoniucci, Diana M; Yamashita, Takeyoshi; Portale, Anthony A

    2006-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is important in the regulation of phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism. States of excess circulating FGF-23 are associated with renal phosphate wasting and inappropriately low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] concentrations. Conversely, states of absent or biologically inactive circulating FGF-23 are associated with increased serum phosphorus and 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations. Restriction of the dietary intake of phosphorus increases renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25(OH)(2)D production, whereas the opposite occurs when dietary phosphorus is supplemented. We sought to determine whether serum FGF-23 concentration is regulated by dietary phosphorus and thereby mediates the physiological response of serum 1,25(OH)(2)D to changes in dietary phosphorus. We studied 13 healthy men as inpatients during a 4-wk dietary phosphorus intervention study. Subjects consumed a constant diet that provided 500 mg of phosphorus per day, which was supplemented to achieve three phosphorus intakes, each of 9 d: 1) control = 1500 mg/d; 2) supplemented = 2300 mg/d; 3) restricted = 625 mg/d. Intakes of calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and energy were constant. Serum FGF-23, 1,25(OH)(2)D, phosphorus, and calcium concentrations were measured. Serum FGF-23 concentrations decreased significantly from 30.7 +/- 8.7 pg/ml during phosphorus supplementation to 19.6 +/- 7.0 pg/ml during phosphorus restriction. Serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations increased significantly from 29 +/- 10 pg/ml (75 +/- 26 pmol/liter) during phosphorus supplementation to 40 +/- 16 pg/ml (104 +/- 42 pmol/liter) during phosphorus restriction (P < 0.001). Serum 1,25(OH)(2)D concentrations varied inversely with those of serum FGF-23 (r = -0.67, P < 0.001). We conclude that in healthy men, changes in dietary phosphorus within the physiological range of intakes regulate serum FGF-23 concentrations and suggest that dietary phosphorus regulation of 1,25(OH)(2)D production is

  19. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-bin; Li, Xin-hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. METHODS: The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4–8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative

  20. Increased serum IgD concentrations in patients with Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Corte, G; Ferrarini, M; Tonda, P; Bargellesi, A

    1977-05-01

    Serum IgD concentrations have been determined in twenty-one patients with Hodgkin's disease, in eight patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and in twenty-eight normal (control) individuals by both a solidphase radio-immuno-assay and radial-immunodiffusion. Fourteen of the Hodgkin's patients displayed three to forty-five-fold increased serum IgD levels as compared to control individuals, while in the remaining seven patients IgD concentrations were practically normal. Patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas had decreased IgD concentrations.

  1. Serum ionic fluoride concentrations are significantly decreased after treatment with alendronate in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hironori; Tanno, Kozo; Muro-oka, Genyoh; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-11-20

    We determined serum ionic fluoride (SIF) concentrations before and after treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate to clarify whether SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. A total of 45 postmenopausal women with primary osteoporosis who were treated with alendronate over a 6-month period were enrolled (mean age, 64.2 years). SIF concentrations were measured by the flow injection method with an ion-selective electrode. Concentrations of bone turnover markers (serum bone alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, serum type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide and urinary deoxypryridinoline) and lumbar spine BMD (LsBMD) were also measured. SIF, bone turnover markers and LsBMD before and after treatment were compared. Concentrations of SIF as well as concentrations of all bone turnover markers were significantly decreased after treatment: means (standard deviations) before and after treatment were 0.62 (0.13) and 0.32 (0.09) μmol/l, respectively (P<0.001) and the percent change was -46.3%. LsBMD was also significantly increased by 6.7% after treatment. The reduction of SIF concentrations is probably caused by inhibition of bone resorption due to the action of alendronate. The findings suggest that SIF concentrations directly reflect a change in bone metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of ongoing blood loss on human serum concentrations of perfluorinated acids.

    PubMed

    Lorber, M; Eaglesham, G E; Hobson, P; Toms, L-M L; Mueller, J F; Thompson, J S

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected in serum at low concentrations in background populations. Higher concentrations haven been observed in adult males compared to females, with a possible explanation that menstruation offers females an additional elimination route. In this study, we examined the significance of blood loss as an elimination route of PFAAs. Pooled serum samples were collected from individuals undergoing a medical procedure involving ongoing blood withdrawal called venesection. Concentrations from male venesection patients were approximately 40% lower than males in the general population for perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). A simple pharmacokinetic model was used to test the hypothesis that blood loss could explain why adult males have higher concentrations of PFAAs than females, and why males undergoing venesections had lower concentrations compared to males in the general population. The model application generally supported these hypotheses showing that venesection might reduce blood serum concentrations by 37% (PFOA) and 53% (PFOS) compared to the observed difference of 44% and 37%. Menstruation was modeled to show a 22% reduction in PFOA serum concentrations compared to a 24% difference in concentrations between males and females in the background population. Uncertainties in the modeling and the data are identified and discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of ophthalmic preservatives on serum concentration and local irritation of ocularly applied insulin.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, H; Tei, C; Nishida, K; Nakamura, J

    1995-01-01

    We previously compared hypoglycemic responses after the instillation of insulin formulations. A hypoglycemic response was actually observed after an instillation of insulin with ophthalmic preservatives. In the present study, in order to evaluate the usefulness of insulin formulation containing ophthalmic preservatives, a serum concentration of insulin and an irritation to the eye were investigated after instillation of the insulin formulation in albino rabbits. The ophthalmic preservatives used were benzalkonium chloride, paraben, 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and sorbic acid. As a result, ophthalmic preservatives, especially benzalkonium chloride and paraben, increased the serum concentration of insulin. The insulin concentration showed a significant correlation with the hypoglycemic response reported previously. This result indicates that ophthalmic preservatives increase the absorption of ocularly applied insulin, and the absorbed insulin decreases serum glucose concentration. The insulin formulation with preservatives showed little irritation on rabbit eyes according to blinking measurements. These results indicate that ophthalmic preservatives are useful for the systemic delivery of ocularly applied insulin.

  4. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels.

  5. Relationships between serum and colon concentrations of carotenoids and fatty acids in randomized dietary intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, Danielle K; Brenner, Dean E; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Rapai, Mary E; Cornellier, Maria L; Djuric, Zora

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the effect of preventive diets on colonic nutrient concentrations. This study randomized 120 persons at increased risk of colon cancer to a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet for six months. The former targeted increases in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated, and n3 fats. The Healthy Eating diet was based on Healthy People 2010 recommendations. At baseline, dietary fat and carotenoid intakes were poorly associated (Spearman ρ < 0.4) with serum and colon concentrations. Strong associations were observed between serum and colon measurements of β-cryptoxanthin (ρ = 0.58; P < 0.001), α-carotene (ρ = 0.48; P < 0.001), and β-carotene (ρ = 0.45; P < 0.001). After six months, the Healthy Eating intervention increased serum lutein, β-, and α-carotene significantly (P < 0.05). In the Mediterranean arm, the significant increases were in serum lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, monounsaturated, and n3 fats. A significant group-by-time interaction (P = 0.03) was obtained for monounsaturated fats. Colonic increases in carotenoids and n3 fats were significant only in Healthy Eating arm, whereas the group-by-time interaction was significant for β-carotene (P = 0.02) and α-carotene (P = 0.03). Changes in colon concentrations were not significantly associated with reported dietary changes. Changes in colon and serum concentrations were strongly associated for β-cryptoxanthin (ρ = 0.56; P < 0.001) and α-carotene (ρ = 0.40; P < 0.001). The associations between colonic and serum concentrations suggest the potential use of using serum concentration as a target in dietary interventions aimed at reducing colon cancer risk.

  6. Generic Olanzapine Substitution in Patients With Schizophrenia: Assessment of Serum Concentrations and Therapeutic Response After Switching.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Bruno, Antonio; Santoro, Vincenza; Lanza, Giulia; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria; Zoccali, Rocco; Spina, Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    Several reports of loss of efficacy or adverse effects have been described after generic substitution of antipsychotics. To date, studies comparing serum drug levels in patients switched to generic antipsychotics in a standard clinical setting are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate if switching to generic olanzapine in patients affected by schizophrenia is associated with differences in its serum concentrations and therapeutic response. Preswitching and postswitching serum olanzapine concentrations were compared in schizophrenic outpatients who were switched from a chronic treatment with branded olanzapine to the same dose of its generic alternative. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was concurrently administered to assess modifications in schizophrenia symptom control. A total of 25 patients (13 women and 12 men, mean age 41.2 ± 12.8 years) concluded the study. Mean olanzapine dose was 12.2 ± 5.4 mg/d. The mean olanzapine serum concentrations decreased from 27.7 ± 14.4 ng/mL during treatment with the branded formulation to 22.6 ± 12.3 ng/mL after switching to the generic formulation (P < 0.01). The log-transformed ratio of generic/brand-name olanzapine serum concentration at steady state was 0.81 (90% confidence interval: 0.72-0.91). The total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores did not significantly change after switching from branded to generic formulation (49.6 ± 8.3 versus 48.6 ± 9.5, P = 0.777). No patient exhibited disease relapse or required dose adjustment after switching. Significantly lower serum olanzapine concentrations were found after switching from branded to generic olanzapine. Although these modifications did not significantly impair schizophrenia symptoms control, it cannot be excluded that a longer exposure to lower olanzapine serum concentrations may result in relapse of schizophrenic symptoms. Generic substitution should be considered as an indication for therapeutic drug monitoring in psychiatry.

  7. Assessment of serum catecholamine concentrations in patients with pheochromocytoma undergoing videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Marcos F; Tauzin-Fin, Patrick; Vasconcelos, Paulo L; Ballanger, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed the changes in serum catecholamine concentrations, i.e. adrenaline and noradrenaline, in response to surgical stress in patients with pheochromocytoma who undergone videolaparoscopic adrenalectomy. Between January 1998 and March 2002, 11 patients underwent 12 videolaparoscopic adrenalectomies. In one case, the adrenalectomy was bilateral. Serum catecholamines were measured at 6 surgical times: T0: control before induction; T1: following the induction, laryngoscopy and intubation sequence; T2: after installing the pneumoperitoneum; T3: during manipulation-exeresis of the pheochromocytoma; T4: following ablation of the pheochromocytoma; T5: in the recovery room following intervention when the patient was extubated and was hemodynamically stable. Mean concentrations of serum noradrenaline were significantly different when the T0 and T2 surgical times were compared (T0: 3161 pg/mL; T2: 40440 pg/mL; p < 0.01), T0 and T3 (T0: 3161 pg/mL; T3: 46021 pg/mL; p < 0.001), T1 and T3 (T1: 5531 pg/mL; T3: 46021 pg/mL; p < 0.01), T2 and T4 (T2: 40440 pg/mL; T4: 10773 pg/mL; p < 0.01) and T3 and T5 (T3: 46021 pg/mL; T5: 2549 pg/mL; p < 0.001). Mean concentrations of serum adrenaline were significantly different when the T0 and T3 surgical times were compared (T0: 738 pg/mL; T3: 27561 pg/mL; p < 0.01). The pneumoperitoneum significantly increases serum noradrenaline concentrations, manipulation of the adrenal gland significantly increases the serum concentrations of noradrenaline and adrenaline, and the pheochromocytoma ablation significantly decreases serum noradrenaline concentrations.

  8. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in serum and colostrum of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Fernanda Barros S.; Clemente, Heleni Aires; Bezerra, Dalila Fernandes; Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Melo, Larisse Rayanne M.; Bellot, Paula Emília N. R.; Dantas, Raquel Costa S.; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the levels of α-tocopherol in colostrum and in the serum of healthy and diabetic mothers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 51 volunteer mothers, 20 with the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus and 31 without associated diseases. Serum and colostrum samples were collected in fasting in the immediate postpartum period and α-tocopherol was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to define the nutritional status of vitamin E, the cutoff point for the serum (697.7µg/dL) was adopted. Student's t-test for independent variables compared the average concentrations of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum between control and gestational diabetes mellitus groups. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between the concentration of α-tocopherol in serum and colostrum for both groups. Differences were considered significant when p<0.05. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum was 1,483.1±533.8µg/dL for Control Group and 1,368.8±681.8µg/dL for diabetic women, without differences between groups (p=0.50). However, α-tocopherol concentration in the serum was 1,059.5±372.7µg/dL in the Control Group and 1,391.4±531.5µg/dL in the diabetic one (p<0.01). No correlation was found between the concentration of α-tocopherol in the serum and in the colostrum for control and diabetic groups. CONCLUSIONS: The groups had adequate nutritional status of vitamin E. Gestational diabetes was not associated with changes in α-tocopherol concentration in colostrum. PMID:25119748

  9. Predictability of peak serum gentamicin concentration with dosage based on body surface area.

    PubMed

    Siber, G R; Smith, A L; Levin, M J

    1979-01-01

    We examined gentamicin dosage based on body surface area (60 mg/m2 intravenously every eight hours) as a means of attaining therapeutic but nontoxic serum concentrations in 58 patients ranging in age from 0.7 to 73 years. All but one patient had peak serum levels between 3.4 and 8.0 microgram/ml. The mean serum gentamicin half-life was shorter in patients less than 10 years of age (76 minutes) than in patients aged 10 to 50 years (116 minutes) and in patients aged 50 to 63 years (184 minutes) (all significant at P less than 0.01). We conclude that gentamicin dosage based on body surface area produces uniform peak serum gentamicin concentrations in both children and adults, and that the safety and efficacy of a shorter dosage interval for children deserves investigation.

  10. Dietary carotenoids are associated with cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers mediated by serum carotenoid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Sang-Jin; McCullough, Marjorie L; Song, Won O; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2014-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Previous studies indicated that higher serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with some of these biomarkers. However, whether dietary carotenoid intake is inversely associated with these CVD risk biomarkers is not well known. We assessed the associations between individual dietary carotenoid intake and CVD risk biomarkers and tested whether the serum carotenoid concentrations explain (mediate) or influence the strength of (moderate) the associations, if any association exists. Dietary data collected from 2 24-h dietary recalls and serum measurements in adult men (n = 1312) and women (n = 1544) from the NHANES 2003-2006 were used. Regression models designed for survey analysis were used to examine the associations between individual dietary carotenoids and log-transformed blood cholesterol, CRP, and tHcy. The corresponding individual serum carotenoid concentration was considered as mediator (and moderator if applicable). After adjustment for covariates, significant inverse associations with LDL cholesterol were observed for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05) and lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.001), and with tHcy for dietary β-carotene (P < 0.05), lycopene (P < 0.05), and total carotenoids (P < 0.05). Dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake was also positively associated with HDL cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). Most of these associations were null after additional adjustment for corresponding serum carotenoid concentrations, indicating the complete mediation effects of serum carotenoids. Serum β-carotene significantly moderated the associations between dietary β-carotene and CRP (P-interaction < 0.05), and quartile 4 of dietary β-carotene was associated with lower CRP concentrations only among participants with serum β-carotene > 0.43 μmol/L. In this population-based cross-sectional study

  11. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults.

    PubMed

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Avila, Jaqueline C; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P

    2017-01-31

    Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study's aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27-2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40-2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12-2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults.

  12. Concentration of IgG in Serum and Large Intestine of Dysenteric Swine

    PubMed Central

    Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.; Lagacé, A.; Roy, R. S.; Tremblay, A.

    1973-01-01

    Radial immunodiffusion tests employing swine IgG monospecific antiserum have permitted the determination of the IgG concentration in the serum and large intestine of healthy and dysenteric 12 week old boars. Specific and significant increases in IgG were observed in serum and colon during the acute from of the disease, but in the cecum only, during the subacute phase of the disease. PMID:4270811

  13. Hyperresponse to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Accompanying Small Decreases in Serum Thyroid Hormone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Vagenakis, Apostolos G.; Rapoport, Basil; Azizi, Fereidoun; Portnay, Gary I.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Ingbar, Sidney H.

    1974-01-01

    To determine whether pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is enhanced by small decreases in serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), 12 euthyroid volunteers were given 190 mg iodide po daily for 10 days to inhibit T4 and T3 release from the thyroid. Basal serum T4, T3, and TSH concentrations and the serum T4 and TSH responses to 400 μg TRH i.v. were assessed before and at the end of iodide administration. Iodide induced small but highly significant decreases in basal serum T4 (8.0±1.6 vs. 6.6±1.7 μg/100 ml; mean ± SD) and T3 (128±15 vs. 110±22 ng/100 ml) and increases in basal serum TSH (1.3±0.9 vs. 2.1±1.0 μU/ml). During iodide administration, the TSH response to TRH was significantly increased at each of seven time points up to 120 min. The maximum increment in serum TSH after TRH increased from a control mean of 8.8±4.1 to a mean of 13.0±2.8 μU/ml during iodide administration. As evidence of the inhibitory effect of iodide on hormonal release, the increment in serum T3 at 120 min after TRH was significantly lessened during iodide administration (61±42 vs. 33±24 ng/100 ml). These findings demonstrate that small acute decreases in serum T4 and T3 concentrations, resulting in values well within the normal range, are associated both with slight increases in basal TSH concentrations and pronounced increases in the TSH response to TRH. These results demonstrate that a marked sensitivity of TSH secretion and responsiveness to TRH is applicable to decreasing, as well as increasing, concentrations of thyroid hormones. PMID:4214837

  14. Increased serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in beta thalassaemia: effect of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Meliconi, R; Uguccioni, M; Lalli, E; Nesci, S; Delfini, C; Paradisi, O; Lucarelli, G; Gasbarrini, G; Facchini, A

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were determined in beta thalassemic patients before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to evaluate whether changes in TNF concentrations after BMT were related to immune mediated complications. METHODS: Serum TNF concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) in paired samples from 71 patients with beta thalassemia before and after BMT. Serial samples from 13 patients were also studied for up to six months after BMT. Forty one normal healthy children matched for sex and age were studied as controls. RESULTS: beta thalassemic patients had high serum TNF concentrations before transplantation compared with controls. These were not related to sex, age, duration of disease, number of blood transfusions, transferrin concentrations or splenectomy. DQw1 positive patients showed significantly lower TNF concentrations than non-DQw1 cases. Patients with severe liver fibrosis had significantly higher TNF concentrations. No correlation was found between TNF values and BMT outcome before transplantation but TNF alpha values fell significantly after BMT. The decrease persisted only in patients with successful engraftment. In serial samples studied for up to six months after BMT, TNF values decreased but in four out of five patients with graft rejection and in all five with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) sharp increases occurred at the time of clinical symptoms. No correlation was found between the degree of GVHD and serum TNF-alpha concentrations nor between TNF-alpha concentrations after BMT and the presence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. CONCLUSIONS: About 50% of beta thalassemic patients have increased serum TNF, and the changes after BMT are related to the occurrence of immune mediate complications. The persistence of low TNF concentrations after successful engraftment may be due to the preparative regimen and the lack of adverse immune reactions. PMID:1740519

  15. Relationship between serum IL-7 concentrations and lymphopenia upon different levels of HIV immune control.

    PubMed

    Fluur, Caroline; Rethi, Bence; Thang, Pham Hong; Vivar, Nancy; Mowafi, Frida; Lopalco, Lucia; Foppa, Caterina Uberti; Karlsson, Anders; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Chiodi, Francesca

    2007-05-11

    Serum IL-7 levels correlate with T-cell depletion in HIV-infected individuals. In some patients, we observed that serum IL-7 decreases upon progression to AIDS, suggesting a role for IL-7 in T-cell maintenance in sporadic cases. Interestingly, IL-7 levels were significantly lower in stable long-term non-progressors (LTNP) than in patients who lost the LTNP status in a 3-year follow-up (P < 0.001), indicating that the serum IL-7 concentration might be a valuable marker for maintenance of the LTNP state.

  16. Relationship between the serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids and aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cakiroğlu, D; Meral, Y; Sancak, A A; Cifti, G

    2007-07-14

    The serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids--triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein--were determined in 18 normal dogs and 23 dogs diagnosed as aggressive on the basis of interviews with their owners and an assessment of their behaviour with reference to a canine overt aggression chart. The serum serotonin levels in the aggressive dogs were significantly lower than in the normal dogs (P<0.01), but the differences in serum lipids between the two groups were not statistically significant.

  17. [Rapid determination of serum iron concentration using bathophenanthroline sulfonate in a formate buffered system].

    PubMed

    Pré, J; Benlatrèche, C

    1977-03-01

    A simple accurate and very reproducible procedure for measuring serum iron concentration without precipitating serum proteins is described. In the same time, iron is released from serum transferrin, reduced and determined at 535 mn by incubation in a water bath at 55 degrees for five minutes within a formate buffered system (pH 2,6; i = 0,05) including bathophenanthroline sulfonate. This method yields values very similar to those obtained by that of the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH).

  18. Electrophoresis pattern of serum from mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1977-01-01

    Three day old mice were continuously exposed to sulphur dioxide concentrations at 0ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.15ppm and 1ppm for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and centrifuged for electrophoresis studies of the serum in 5 percent acrylamide gel. The length of bands of different serum proteins from the SO2 exposed mice was at a variance as compared with the length of bands from the control exposed mice and alpha-1 band seems to be missing from the serum of SO2 exposed mice.

  19. Evaluation of ionized and total serum magnesium concentrations in hyperthyroid cats.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Cornelia V; Horney, Barbara S; Burton, Shelley A; MacKenzie, Allan L

    2006-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism can increase the renal excretion of magnesium and thus cause hypomagnesemia in various species. Anaerobically collected blood samples from 15 hyperthyroid and 40 normal, healthy cats were analyzed with an ion-selective electrode analyzer and a serum biochemical analyzer. There was no significant difference in ionized or total serum magnesium concentration between the 2 groups, but there was a significant difference (P = 0.004) in the ratio of ionized to total serum magnesium concentrations between the healthy cats and the hyperthyroid cats with thyroxine (T4) concentrations at or above the median. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.894, P = 0.000) between the ionized and total magnesium concentrations in the hyperthyroid cats. The hyperthyroid cats had a significantly lower (P = 0.003) total serum protein concentration than the healthy cats. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.670, P = 0.006) was detected between the ionized magnesium and logarithmically transformed total T4 concentrations in the hyperthyroid cats, which suggests that the severity of hyperthyroidism may contribute to a decrease in the ionized magnesium concentration.

  20. Evaluation of ionized and total serum magnesium concentrations in hyperthyroid cats

    PubMed Central

    Horney, Barbara S.; Burton, Shelley A.; MacKenzie, Allan L.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Hyperthyroidism can increase the renal excretion of magnesium and thus cause hypomagnesemia in various species. Anaerobically collected blood samples from 15 hyperthyroid and 40 normal, healthy cats were analyzed with an ion-selective electrode analyzer and a serum biochemical analyzer. There was no significant difference in ionized or total serum magnesium concentration between the 2 groups, but there was a significant difference (P = 0.004) in the ratio of ionized to total serum magnesium concentrations between the healthy cats and the hyperthyroid cats with thyroxine (T4) concentrations at or above the median. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.894, P = 0.000) between the ionized and total magnesium concentrations in the hyperthyroid cats. The hyperthyroid cats had a significantly lower (P = 0.003) total serum protein concentration than the healthy cats. A significant negative correlation (r = −0.670, P = 0.006) was detected between the ionized magnesium and logarithmically transformed total T4 concentrations in the hyperthyroid cats, which suggests that the severity of hyperthyroidism may contribute to a decrease in the ionized magnesium concentration. PMID:16639946

  1. Calibration-free concentration analysis of protein biomarkers in human serum using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Grover Shah, Veenita; Ray, Sandipan; Karlsson, Robert; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2015-11-01

    In complex biological samples such as serum, determination of specific and active concentration of target proteins, independent of a calibration curve, will be valuable in many applications. Calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA) is a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based label-free approach, which calculates active concentration of proteins using their known diffusion coefficient and observed changes in binding rates at different flow rates under diffusion-limited conditions. Here, for the first time we demonstrate the application of CFCA for determining protein biomarker abundance, specifically serum amyloid A (SAA), directly in the serum samples of patients suffering from different infectious and non-infectious diseases. The assay involves preparation of appropriate reaction surfaces by immobilizing antibodies on CM5 chips via amine coupling followed by serum sample preparation and injection over activated and reference surfaces at flow-rates of 5 and 100 μL/min. The system was validated in healthy and diseased (infectious and non-infectious) serum samples by quantifying two different proteins: β2-microglobulin (β2M) and SAA. All concentration assays were performed for nearly 100 serum samples, which showed reliable quantification in unattended runs with high accuracy and sensitivity. The method could detect the serum β2M to as low as 13 ng/mL in 1000-fold serum dilution, indicating the possible utility of this approach to detect low abundance protein biomarkers in body fluids. Applying the CFCA approach, significant difference in serum abundance of SAA was identified in diseased subjects as compared to the healthy controls, which correlated well with our previous proteomic investigations. Estimation of SAA concentration for a subset of healthy and diseased sera was also performed using ELISA, and the trend was observed to be similar in both SPR assay and ELISA. The reproducibility of CFCA in various serum samples made the interpretation of assay

  2. Individual difference in serum oxytocin concentrations of calves and the correlation with those in dams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Oyakawa, Chisako; Roh, Sanggun; Sato, Shusuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined individual differences in serum oxytocin concentrations (OT) of calves, and assessed whether these differences were correlated with their dams' milk and serum OT. Eight Holstein (H), nine Japanese Shorthorn (JS), and six Japanese Black (JB) calves were examined. Blood was collected three times during the first month in H calves, while their dams' blood was collected three times prior to parturition. Milk was collected twice after parturition from H cows. Blood from JS and JB calves were collected at 1 and 4 months old, while of their dams only once before parturition. Serum OT in H calves at 7 days old was significantly correlated with that at 30 days. Serum OT of JS calves at 1 month old was significantly correlated to that at 4 months, while of JB calves was also positively correlated (r = 0.70). Serum OT of calves showed significant individual differences in each breed. Serum OT of calves was not correlated with the milk OT of dams, except for 3-day-old calves that fed on their dams' milk. We concluded that although serum OT differed among individuals, this difference was stable within each individual and not affected by the serum OT of the dams.

  3. Evaluation of serum myeloperoxidase concentration in dogs with heart failure due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Suh, Sang-Il; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme involved in the process of heart failure and is found to have good diagnostic and prognostic values in humans with chronic heart failure. This study evaluated the relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of heart failure (HF) due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI) in dogs. Eighty-two client-owned dogs consisting of 69 dogs with different stages of HF due to CMVI and 13 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum MPO concentrations in the healthy and CMVI groups were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a canine-specific monoclonal anti-MPO antibody. Serum MPO concentrations were 273.3 ± 179.6 ng/L in the controls, 140.8 ± 114.1 ng/L in the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) I group, 109.0 ± 85.2 ng/L in the ISACHC II group, and 106.0 ± 42.3 ng/L in the ISACHC III group. Close negative correlation to serum MPO concentration was found in the severity of heart failure (ISACHC stage). Although this study found a modest relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of HF due to CMVI in dogs, it also suggested that serum MPO levels decreased as the severity of HF increased.

  4. Serum and urine selenium concentrations as indicators of body status in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alarcón, M; López-G de la Serrana, H; Pérez-Valero, V; López-Martínez, C

    1999-03-22

    Serum and urine selenium levels were determined in patients with diabetes by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean serum selenium concentrations measured in patients with diabetes mellitus (64.9 +/- 22.8 micrograms/l) were significantly lower than those determined in the control group (74.9 +/- 27.3 micrograms/l) (P < 0.05). Mean serum selenium concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups of diabetic patients considered (P > 0.05). Mean urine selenium concentration in diabetic patients (18.8 +/- 10.7 micrograms/l) were not significantly different from those measured in the control group (20.2 +/- 10.1 micrograms/l) (P < 0.05). No significant differences in serum and urine selenium levels were found if related to sex of patients (P > 0.05). Application of linear regression analysis to serum and urine selenium levels and patients' age showed a non-statistically significant correlation (P > 0.05). Given the marked overlap between the two ranges of the populations, the predictive values of serum selenium in diabetic patients are low.

  5. Serum cardiac troponin I concentrations in naturally occurring myelosuppressive and non-myelosuppressive canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Christos K; Mylonakis, Mathios E; O'Brien, Peter J; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration measured on admission was associated with the clinical severity of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis and was predictive of clinical outcome (death or survival) in dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis. Serum cTnI concentration was compared among 22 dogs with non-myelosuppressive ehrlichiosis (NME), 22 dogs with myelosuppressive ehrlichiosis (ME) and 10 healthy dogs. Unlike healthy dogs, 45.5% NME and 59.1% ME dogs had increased cTnI concentrations. There was no difference in the frequency of cTnI increase or mean cTnI concentrations between the NME and ME groups, whereas mean cTnI concentration was significantly lower in healthy dogs. No association was established between cTnI concentration on admission and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in serum and plasma samples from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Jesús; Paz, Eduardo; Tutor, J Carlos

    2008-02-01

    At present, the determination of steady-state trough serum/plasma concentrations of clozapine is considered a useful tool for the clinical management of schizophrenic patients treated with this drug. In a previously published study, it was indicated that only plasma should be used to avoid a significant underestimation of clozapine and norclozapine concentrations; however, a formal evaluation of this topic has still not been made, and a consensus on the use of plasma or serum for therapeutic clozapine monitoring may be desirable. Paired samples of serum and plasma (K3EDTA solution contained in Vacutainer tubes) were obtained from 40 schizophrenic patients, and clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. For the parent drug and its metabolite, serum concentrations were higher than in plasma (approximately 7%), although the correction of plasma concentrations in function of hematocrit values reduced this difference to 3%. High correlation coefficients were found between the serum and uncorrected or corrected plasma clozapine concentrations (r = 0.996, P < 0.001), with clinically acceptable differences between the means and standard error of the estimate and consequently with transferability of the results. The clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in five lithium heparin-containing plasma samples (371.9 +/- 226.7 ng/mL and 217.9 +/- 113.1 ng/mL) were analogous to the corresponding hematocrit-corrected EDTA-containing plasma values (374.4 +/- 225.4 ng/mL and 223.5 +/- 115.2 ng/mL), with correlation coefficients of r > or = 0.998 (P < 0.001). Serum or plasma samples may be used for the therapeutic monitoring of clozapine, and no practical advantages have been found with regard to the stability of the drug or imprecision obtained by using either type of biological matrix.

  7. Serum adiponectin concentration in relation to macronutrient and food intake in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating adiponectin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between macronutrient and food intake and serum adiponectin concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1047 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 y. Using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, we assessed intake of nutrients (protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and foods (rice, bread, noodles, potatoes, confectioneries, fats and oils, pulses, fish and shellfish, meats, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, coffee, green and oolong tea, black tea, and soft drinks) and glycemic index and load. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, none of the nutrients examined was a significant determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. There was no association for glycemic index or load. Coffee was the only food significantly and independently associated with serum adiponectin concentration. Mean (SE) values of serum adiponectin concentration for each quartile of coffee intake were 12.4 (0.2), 12.4 (0.5), 12.5 (0.3), and 13.2 (0.3) μg/mL, respectively (P for trend = 0.04). In a group of young Japanese women, higher coffee intake was independently associated with higher serum adiponectin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, W. Y.; Palomaki, G. E.; Haddow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the association between cigarette smoking in adults and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations the results of 54 published studies were analysed. Overall, smokers had significantly higher serum concentrations of cholesterol (3.0%), triglycerides (9.1%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (10.4%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.7%) and lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (-5.7%) and apolipoprotein AI (-4.2%) compared with nonsmokers. Among non-smokers and light, moderate, and heavy smokers a significant dose response effect was present for cholesterol (0, 1.8, 4.3, and 4.5% respectively), triglycerides (0, 10.7, 11.5, and 18.0%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, 7.2, 44.4, and 39.0%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -1.1, 1.4, and 11.0%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -4.6, -6.3, and -8.9%), and apolipoprotein AI (0, -3.7 and -5.7% in non-smokers and light and heavy smokers). These dose response effects may provide new evidence for a causal relation between exposure to cigarette smoke and changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations whether as a direct result of physiological changes or of dietary changes induced by smoking. Adequate prospective data to estimate the excess risk of coronary artery disease existed only for cholesterol concentration. When that information was combined with data from the present study, and given that smokers as a group face an average overall excess risk of coronary artery disease of 70%, it was estimated that the observed increased serum cholesterol concentration in smokers may account for at least 9% of that excess risk. Furthermore, the dose response effect of smoking on serum cholesterol concentration suggests a gradient of increased absolute risk of coronary artery disease between light and heavy smokers. PMID:2496857

  9. Placental cortisol and cord serum IGFBP-2 concentrations are important determinants of postnatal weight gain.

    PubMed

    Street, M E; Smerieri, A; Petraroli, A; Cesari, S; Viani, I; Garrubba, M; Rossi, M; Bernasconi, S

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to identify simple biochemical markers at birth that may predict subjects at risk of growth failure and metabolic complications in later life. Limited research to date has been performed on relationships of specific biochemical determinants at birth with postnatal weight gain and growth. We proposed to establish whether placental cortisol and IL-6 concentrations and cord serum IGF-II and IGFBP-2 concentrations influenced postnatal growth. We followed up from pregnancy 23 IUGR and 37 AGA subjects, and determined placental cortisol and IL-6 concentrations, and cord serum IGF-II, and IGFBP-2 concentrations at birth. We obtained height and weight measurements at 3, 6, 12, 24 months and 5 years of age in 20 IUGR and 15 AGA subjects of comparable gestational age. A multiple linear regression model was designed to establish the effect of the placental and cord serum peptides on postnatal linear growth and weight gain. All IUGR subjects had catch-up growth before 2 years of age. Placental cortisol concentration correlated positively with weight gain during the first 5 years of postnatal growth (P<0.05). Subjects with the highest placental cortisol concentrations were those who showed a greater increase in weight. Cord serum IGFBP-2 concentrations correlated positively with weight gain throughout the 5 year observation period (P:0.003). The subjects with the highest concentrations showed a greater weight gain. Placental cortisol and cord serum IGFBP-2 concentrations were related to postnatal weight gain, suggesting that the fetal environment has long-term effects on growth.

  10. Short communication serum copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in lice-infested sheep.

    PubMed

    Deger, Y; Dede, S; Deger, S

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in serum concentration of copper, zinc, and calcium in sheep naturally infested with lice (Bovicola caprae, Linognathus africanus, Linognatus ovillus, and Linognattus pedalis). Twenty sheep naturally infested with lice and 20 healthy sheep were used as subjects. Blood samples were collected from the sheep before and 8 and 15 d after treatment with Avermectin, a veterinary antiparasitic drug. The samples were analyzed for their serum copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of these elements in the infested animals were lower than in the healthy controls, mainly because the general condition of the affected sheep was poor. When the infested animals were treated with an ectoparasitic drug, the serum levels of the studied elements rose to normal ranges while the health of the animals improved.

  11. The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis severity is highly age-dependent.

    PubMed

    Detrez, Iris; Van Steen, Kristel; Segaert, Siegfried; Gils, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated, and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring that is aiming to optimize the psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every 3 months for a period of 1 year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the oldest age group (+59 years) showed the opposite trend (β =0.22). Similar age effects were observed in the relation of etanercept concentration with BSA (P=0.02) and PGA (P=0.02). The influence of age and length of time in therapy on the etanercept concentration-disease severity relation was unaffected by body mass index (BMI) or any other possible confounder. Incidence of anti-etanercept antibodies was low (2%). The age-dependent relation between etanercept serum concentrations is both unexpected and intriguing and needs further investigation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Strategic administration of enrofloxacin in poultry to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Gutierrez, O L; Zamora, Q M

    2003-03-01

    To achieve a higher maximal serum concentration (Cs(max)) of enrofloxacin after oral administration of 10mg/kg/day of three commercial preparations of enrofloxacin to chickens, two concentrations of the drug were tested (0.1 and 0.2%), under controlled laboratory conditions. A single oral bolus dose was delivered directly into the proventriculus of each of 240 chickens, which were equally divided into six groups: three received the customary concentration (0.1%), and three received the higher concentration. A quantitative/qualitative microbiological analytical method to determine serum concentrations of enrofloxacin and a software program to obtain pharmacokinetic variables, revealed that time vs. concentration relationships best fitted double peak shape curves, Cs(max1) and Cs(max2). Statistically significant (P>0.01) increments were obtained when 0.2% enrofloxacin oral solutions from the three different commercial preparations were administered. The increments ranged from 175% to 338% for Cs(max1) and 69% to 342% for Cs(max2). Optimal bactericidal concentrations of enrofloxacin are usually twice the value of their minimal inhibitory concentration. Although clinical trials are now required, it would appear that increments in the serum concentration of enrofloxacin may reduce to the rate at which bacterial resistance occurs and so increase clinical efficacy without affecting the cost per treatment.

  13. Predicting age at menopause from serum antimüllerian hormone concentration.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Shakeri, Nezhat; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to estimate age at menopause using serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentration. We randomly selected 266 study participants from a pool of 1,265 eligible women in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort. We measured AMH levels three times at about 3-year intervals. There were 63 occurrences of menopause in our participants over an average of 6-year follow-up. We built an accelerated failure time model using serum AMH level at the start of follow-up to estimate age at menopause. The goodness of fit for the model was tested using Cox-Snell residuals and the Bland-Altman plot. We estimated ages at menopause for different levels of serum AMH concentration among women aged 20 to 49 years. For those who reached menopause, serum AMH concentrations about 6 years before the event provided fairly accurate estimates of the age at menopause. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable agreement between predicted and observed values. Serum AMH concentrations can reasonably forecast the age at menopause for individual women.

  14. Serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs with cobalamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Heilmann, Romy M; Stupka, Kenneth C; Rangachari, Venkat R; Weber, Katja; Holzenburg, Andreas; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-08-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is suspected to be hereditary in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs (Shar-Peis), and inherited causes of cobalamin deficiency may affect the cellular processing of cobalamin. In humans, a defect of the two main cobalamin-dependent intracellular enzymes (i.e., methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase) may lead to hyperhomocysteinemia and hypermethylmalonic acidemia. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum homocysteine (HCY) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in cobalamin-deficient Shar-Peis and dogs of six other breeds. Serum samples (n=297) from cobalamin-deficient dogs (Shar-Peis, German Shepherd dogs, Labrador Retrievers, Yorkshire Terriers, Boxers, Cocker Spaniels, and Beagles) were analyzed for serum HCY and MMA concentrations. A Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate if cobalamin deficiency in Shar-Peis is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Serum HCY and MMA concentrations were higher in cobalamin-deficient Shar-Peis compared to cobalamin-deficient dogs of the six other breeds (P<0.0001). Hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with cobalamin deficiency in Shar-Peis (P=0.009). In addition, serum HCY and MMA concentrations did not differ between cobalamin-deficient German Shepherd dogs with and without exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), a potential cause of secondary cobalamin deficiency. These findings suggest that the function of the two intracellular cobalamin-dependent enzymes is impaired in Shar-Peis with cobalamin deficiency. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Direct monitoring changes of salbutamol concentration in serum by chemiluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Canli; Zhang, Ruichao; Na, Na; Delanghe, Joris R; Ouyang, Jin

    2011-07-15

    We report in this manuscript, the use of direct ammonium persulfate-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) imaging, to monitor changes to measure serum salbutamol concentration in subjects of different haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes at different dosing time. It was noted that CL generated from Hp was decreased due to salbutamol's reducibility, which was used for monitoring salbutamol concentration in serum. The serum from the subjects treated by oral administration of salbutamol, was collected at different dosing time and was separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) prior to the CL detection. According to CL images, samples were separated into three groups based on the Hp phenotypes. The curves of CL signal intensity versus time were obtained for each group, and we demonstrated that there were more significant variables on binding ability between groups. The maximum salbutamol concentration in the serum appeared after 4h, which was in agreement with the literature. In addition, the binding constants of salbutamol to Hp were determined by a fluorescence-based method, whose results were in agreement with the phenomenon of the greater salbutamol metabolism rate for Group Hp 1-1 than Group Hp 2-2. The presented method can monitor changes of salbutamol concentration in serum directly, making the procedures much simple, convenient, rapid and has the property of lower cost. It provided us with excellent reference information for the individual dosage regimen of different Hp groups, which hopefully could become a potential method for further pharmaceutical research.

  16. Comparison of Polyfluoroalkyl Compound Concentrations in Maternal Serum and Amniotic Fluid: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Wolff, Mary S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are detectable in amniotic fluid is unknown. Using paired samples from 28 women, we compared the concentration of 8 PFCs measured in serum, the standard matrix for assessing human exposure, amniotic fluid from routine amniocentesis, and urine. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all maternal serum samples. The number of amniotic fluid samples with detectable concentrations differed by PFC (PFOA n=24; PFNA n=10; PFOS n=9; PFHxS n=4). The correlation coefficient between maternal serum and amniotic PFC levels varied considerably by PFC (PFOA ρ=0.64, p<0.001; PFNA ρ=0.05, p=0.9; PFOS ρ=0.76, p=0.01; PFHxS ρ=0.80, p=0.2). Using linear regression, PFOA appeared to be commonly detected in amniotic fluid if the serum concentration exceeded approximately 1.5 ng/mL whereas PFOS was rarely detected in amniotic fluid until the serum concentration was about 5.5 ng/mL. No PFCs were detected in urine. PMID:22613200

  17. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Pastor, Josep; Szczubiał, Marek; Piech, Tomasz; Bochniarz, Mariola; Wawron, Władysław; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2015-09-26

    Pyometra is a serious bacterial infection of the uterus affecting female dogs and manifests as an accumulation of pus in the uterine lumen. The aim of the study was to assess changes in serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (controls) and bitches with pyometra before surgery, and 3 and 10 days after ovariohysterectomy. Before surgery, bitches with pyometra had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 than the controls. After surgery, the serum concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased significantly. In healthy dogs, the concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 showed a significant increase 3 days after surgery followed by a decrease on day 10. An increase in serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 was present before surgery in bitches with pyometra and 3 days after ovariohysterectomy in healthy controls. Concentrations decreased after ovariohysterectomy and/or proper healing, suggesting that these cytokines can be useful for assessment of the postoperative period in bitches.

  18. Effects of pentolinium on blood sugar and serum potassium concentrations during anaesthesia and surgery.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, N R; Battit, G E

    1975-12-01

    Blood surgar and serum potassium (K+) concentrations were measured before, during and 60 min after surgery in two groups of 10 non-diabetic patients during nitrous oxide/halothane/tubocurarine anaesthesia. In the control group the arterial pressure was maintained within the patients' normal ranges, while in the study group pentolinium was administered i.v. (average 22 mg per patient) to achieve and maintain a mean arterial pressure of 50 mm Hg (+/-10 SEM). In the normotensive group the blood sugar concentration increased markedly and significantly during surgery and in the early postoperative period while the serum K+ concentration was essentially unchanged. In the hypotensive group pentolinium produced a striking modification of the surgery-induced hyperglycaemic response (but not to hypoglycaemic values) as well as a small but significant decrease in serum K+ concentration. The observed increase in the blood sugar concentration may be part of the autonomic response to surgical stress. Two mechanisms can explain the reduction in serum K+ concentration: (1) decreased hepatic glycogenolysis and (2) attenuation of the suppressive effect of adrenaline on insulin release, both effects being secondary to the ganglion-blocking property of pentolinium. These results are in contrast to the widely held belief that ganglion-blocking drugs cause hypoglycaemia.

  19. Monitoring the circadian rhythm of serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in the horse.

    PubMed

    Bohák, Zs; Szabó, F; Beckers, J-F; Melo de Sousa, N; Kutasi, O; Nagy, K; Szenci, O

    2013-07-01

    Daily fluctuations of cortisol concentration in the blood or saliva have been repeatedly reported. However, several contradictions in the existing literature appear on this subject. The present study was performed to definitively establish options for testing adrenocortical function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate parallel circadian rhythms in salivary and serum cortisol concentrations during a 24-h period. Twenty horses were examined under the same conditions. Blood and saliva samples were taken every 2 h for 24 h to determine the daily changes in cortisol concentrations of saliva and serum at rest and to determine the relationship between salivary and serum cortisol levels. Cosinor analysis of group mean data confirmed a significant circadian component for both serum and salivary cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001 in both cases). The serum cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:50 AM (95% CI, 10:00 AM-11:40 AM), a MESOR of 22.67 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 11.93 ng/mL. The salivary cortisol circadian rhythm had an acrophase at 10:00 AM (95% CI, 9:00 AM-11:00 AM), a MESOR of 0.52 ng/mL, and an amplitude of 0.12 ng/mL. We found a significant but weak association between salivary and serum cortisol concentrations; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (P < 0.001). The use of salivary cortisol level as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may be warranted. However, the salivary cortisol levels are more likely to be correlated with free plasma cortisol than with the total plasma cortisol concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum fetuin A concentration is elevated in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz M; Białokoz-Kalinowska, Irena; Kłusek-Oksiuta, Monika; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    To assess the serum fetuin A concentration as a potential marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in obese children with NAFLD. A prospective analysis of 45 obese children initially diagnosed with liver pathology (elevated serum ALT activity and/or ultrasonographic liver brightness and/or hepatomegaly) was conducted. The diagnosis of NAFLD was established in the children with elevated serum ALT activity and liver steatosis on ultrasound examination. Viral hepatitis, autoimmune, metabolic liver diseases (Wilson disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis) and drug and toxin-induced liver injury were excluded in all children. The degree of liver steatosis was graded according to Saverymuttu scale and the total liver lipids concentration was assessed using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS). Serum fetuin A concentration was significantly higher in examined children compared to the control group (n=30) (p=0.00002). Higher serum fetuin A concentration was also observed in children with NAFLD (n=19) in comparison to the controls (p=0.000026). Additionally, higher BMI values, waist circumferences, ALT and GGT activity, intensity of liver steatosis on ultrasound and total concentration of lipids in the liver in (1)H MRS were found in children with NAFLD compared to the rest of the examined obese patients (n=26). There was not found any correlation of the investigated glycoprotein with any other assessed parameters both in children with NAFLD and obese children without NAFLD. Higher serum fetuin A concentration found in children with NAFLD compared to the control group support the hypothesis that atherosclerotic processes may develop faster in hepatopatic obese patients. Copyright © 2014 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Dose-response effect of ergocalciferol therapy on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Roland N; Berry, Scott C; Ziebarth, Jamie D; Swanson, Joseph M; Maish, George O; Minard, Gayle; Brown, Rex O

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship between ergocalciferol therapy and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in enterally fed, critically ill patients with traumatic injuries. A retrospective cohort of critically ill patients with traumatic injuries and vitamin D deficiency (25-OH vitamin D <50 nmol/L) were given either 50 000 IU of liquid ergocalciferol weekly, twice weekly, or three times weekly while in the intensive care unit (ICU). Serum 25-OH vitamin D and ionized calcium concentrations were monitored weekly. Ergocalciferol therapy was stopped when the serum 25-OH vitamin D was >75 nmol/L, if the patient experienced hypercalcemia (ionized calcium >1.34 mmol/L), when the patient was discharged from the ICU, or if enteral nutrition was discontinued. Sixty-five patients (16, 18, and 31 per dosage group) were examined. One (6%), two (11%), and eight (26%) patients achieved normal 25-OH vitamin D concentrations after 2 to 4 wk of ergocalciferol therapy for each dosage group, respectively (P < 0.001). Serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations improved from 36 ± 6, 40 ± 7, and 37 ± 6 nmol/L to 50 ± 15, 54 ± 21, and 62 ± 17 nmol/L, respectively, after 2 wk of ergocalciferol therapy (P < 0.001) Two (13%), one (6%), and seven (23%) patients developed hypercalcemia for each dosage group, respectively (P = NS). Ergocalciferol therapy improved baseline serum 25-OH vitamin D concentrations but was inadequate for consistently achieving normal serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D during critical illness. The trend in increasing appearance of mild hypercalcemia for the highest dosage group is concerning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rude, R K; Adams, J S; Ryzen, E; Endres, D B; Niimi, H; Horst, R L; Haddad, J G; Singer, F R

    1985-11-01

    The effect of magnesium deficiency on vitamin D metabolism was assessed in 23 hypocalcemic magnesium-deficient patients by measuring the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] before, during, and after 5-13 days of parenteral magnesium therapy. Magnesium therapy raised mean basal serum magnesium [1.0 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SEM) mg/dl] and calcium levels (7.2 +/- 0.2 mg/dl) into the normal range (2.2 +/- 0.1 and 9.3 +/- 0.1 mg/dl, respectively; P less than 0.001). The mean serum 25OHD concentration was in the low normal range (13.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml) before magnesium administration and did not significantly change after this therapy (14.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml). Sixteen of the 23 patients had low serum 1,25-(OH)2D levels (less than 30 pg/ml). After magnesium therapy, only 5 of the patients had a rise in the serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentration into or above the normal range despite elevated levels of serum immunoreactive PTH. An additional normocalcemic hypomagnesemic patient had low 1,25-(OH)2D levels which did not rise after 5 days of magnesium therapy. The serum vitamin D-binding protein concentration, assessed in 11 patients, was low (273 +/- 86 micrograms/ml) before magnesium therapy, but normalized (346 +/- 86 micrograms/ml) after magnesium repletion. No correlation with serum 1,25-(OH)2D levels was found. The functional capacity of vitamin D-binding protein to bind hormone, assessed by the internalization of [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 by intestinal epithelial cells in the presence of serum was not significantly different from normal (11.42 +/- 1.45 vs. 10.27 +/- 1.27 fmol/2 X 10(6) cells, respectively). These data show that serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations are frequently low in patients with magnesium deficiency and may remain low even after 5-13 days of parenteral magnesium administration. The data also suggest that a normal 1,25-(OH)2D level is not required for the PTH-mediated calcemic response to magnesium administration. We

  3. Lower Serum Bilirubin and Uric Acid Concentrations in Patients with Parkinson's Disease in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Qing-Shan; Sun, Li; Hao, Meng-Wei; Hu, Zhao-Ting

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the correlation between bilirubin and uric acid (UA) concentrations and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population. A total of 425 PD patients and 460 controls were included in the current study. Patients were diagnosed by a neurologist and assessed using the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale. Venous blood samples were collected, and bilirubin and UA concentrations were analyzed. Compared to controls, indirect bilirubin (IBIL) and UA concentrations were lower in PD patients (P IBIL = 0.015, P UA = 0.000). Serum IBIL in different age subgroups and H&Y stage subgroups were also lower compared to the control group (P IBIL = 0.000, P UA = 0.000) but were not significantly different among these subgroups. Females in the control group had significantly lower serum IBIL and UA concentrations than males (P IBIL = 0.000, P UA = 0.000) and the PD group (P IBIL = 0.027, P UA = 0.000). In early PD (patients with <2-year medical history and no treatment), serum IBIL and UA concentrations were also lower than the controls (P IBIL = 0.013, P UA = 0.000). Although IBIL concentration was positively correlated with UA concentration in controls (R IBIL = 0.229, P IBIL = 0.004), this positive association was not observed in the PD group (R IBIL = -0.032, P IBIL = 0.724). Decreased levels of serum IBIL and UA were observed in PD patients. It is possible that individuals with decreased serum bilirubin and UA concentrations lack the endogenous defense system to prevent peroxynitrite and other free radicals from damaging and destroying dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra. Our results provide a basis for further investigation into the role of bilirubin in PD.

  4. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n = 24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n = 410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker's measured serum PCB levels and the same worker's cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14-24% of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22-39% for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB.

  5. Serum CETP concentration is not associated with measures of body fat: The NEO study.

    PubMed

    Blauw, Lisanne L; de Mutsert, Renée; Lamb, Hildo J; de Roos, Albert; Rosendaal, Frits R; Jukema, J Wouter; Wang, Yanan; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue has been postulated to contribute substantially to the serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) pool. However, in a recent large cohort study waist circumference was not associated with plasma CETP. The aim of the present study was to further examine associations of accurate measures of body fat and body fat distribution with serum CETP concentration. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, we examined in 6606 participants (aged 45-65 years) the associations of total body fat, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), abdominal subcutaneous (aSAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2547) and total and trunk fat mass assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (n = 909) with serum CETP concentration. Regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity, sex, dietary intake of fat and cholesterol, physical activity, smoking and menopausal status. Mean (SD) age was 56 (6) years and BMI 26.3 (4.4) kg/m(2), 56% were women. Mean serum CETP concentration was 2.47 μg/mL. The difference in serum CETP was 0.02 μg/mL (95%CI: -0.01, 0.05) per SD total body fat (8.7%), and 0.02 μg/mL (0.00, 0.04) per SD BMI (4.4 kg/m(2)). Similar associations around the null were observed for waist circumference, WHR, aSAT, VAT, total and trunk fat mass. In this population-based study, there was no evidence for clinically relevant associations between several measures of body fat and serum CETP concentration. This finding implies that adipose tissue does not contribute to the CETP pool in serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  7. Associations between serum hepcidin, ferritin and Hb concentrations and type 2 diabetes risks in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Zhou, Daizhan; An, Peng; Wu, Qian; Wang, Hao; Wu, Aimin; Mu, Mingdao; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Hui; He, Lin; Liu, Yun; Wang, Fudi

    2013-12-01

    Systemic Fe overload can contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, few studies have systematically evaluated the associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks for the development of T2D. In this regard, whether hepcidin concentrations are associated with T2D remains controversial. We measured serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations in a case-control study of 1259 Han Chinese participants to evaluate the possible associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks of T2D. Individuals with diabetes (n 555) and control participants (n 704) were recruited and serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations were quantified. Additionally, selected biochemical and anthropometric variables were determined. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations with T2D. A linear regression analysis was used to test for associations between serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations and a number of clinical, demographic and diabetes-associated variables. We found that serum hepcidin concentrations correlated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations. No differences in hepcidin concentrations were found between the group with diabetes and the control group. Hepcidin concentrations were not significantly correlated with T2D risk factors. We also found that serum ferritin concentrations were elevated in individuals with diabetes and were positively correlated with both Hb concentrations and T2D risk factors. The present findings suggest that serum ferritin concentrations correlate with T2D risk factors, while serum hepcidin concentrations are positively associated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations, but do not correlate with T2D.

  8. Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given by Alternate Routes in Swine (Sus scrofa) During Controlled Hemorrhage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-17

    additional pages if necessary.) PROTOCOL#: FDG20160013A DATE: 25 July 2017 PROTOCOL TITLE: Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given...marked decrease and delay to peak concentration . However, all routes achieved a serum adequate concentration as defined by previous studies in humans...used to determine the concentration of TXA in the serum at these time points. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline

  9. Serum concentrations of macro and trace elements in heroin addicts of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, José F; Sañudo, Ricardo I; Rodríguez, Elena M; Romero, Carlos Díaz

    2004-01-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se concentrations were determined in the serum of 106 heroin addicts and were compared with the concentrations obtained in a control group formed of 186 apparently healthy individuals. Heroin addicts displayed K and Se mean concentrations lower (p < 0.05), and Na, Mg, P mean concentrations and a Cu/Zn ratio higher (p < 0.05) than those mean values observed in the control group. The Mg and P concentrations in the serum of heroin addicts tended to normalize when age increased. The heroin addicts included in the methadone maintenance treatment program had higher serum mean concentrations of K and Mg than the heroin addicts in the detoxification process. The Na, K and Mg concentrations displayed highly significant correlations, with a different behavior for the heroin addicts group and the control group. When applying factor analysis and representing the scores of the first and second factors, the heroin addicts tended to differentiation from the control group. However, methadone substitution treatment was not able to normalize these concentrations.

  10. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  11. Estimation of free copper ion concentrations in blood serum using T1 relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blicharska, Barbara; Witek, Magdalena; Fornal, Maria; MacKay, Alex L.

    2008-09-01

    The water proton relaxation rate constant R1 = 1/ T1 (at 60 MHz) of blood serum is substantially increased by the presence of free Cu 2+ ions at concentrations above normal physiological levels. Addition of chelating agents to serum containing paramagnetic Cu 2+ nulls this effect. This was demonstrated by looking at the effect of adding a chelating agent—D-penicillamine (D-PEN) to CuSO 4 and CuCl 2 aqueous solutions as well as to rabbit blood serum. We propose that the measurement of water proton spin-lattice relaxation rate constants before and after chelation may be used as an alternative approach for monitoring the presence of free copper ions in blood serum. This method may be used in the diagnosis of some diseases (leukaemia, liver diseases and particularly Wilson's disease) because, in contrast to conventional methods like spectrophotometry which records the total number of both bound and free ions, the proton relaxation technique is sensitive solely to free paramagnetic ions dissolved in blood serum. The change in R1 upon chelation was found to be less than 0.06 s -1 for serum from healthy subjects but greater than 0.06 s -1 for serum from untreated Wilson's patients.

  12. Whole blood, serum, and saliva lead concentrations in 6- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Costa de Almeida, Glauce Regina; de Freitas Tavares, Cristiane Fernandes; de Souza, Ana Maria; Sampaio de Sousa, Tiago; Rodrigues Funayama, Carolina Araújo; Barbosa, Fernando; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda

    2010-03-01

    With increasing evidence of adverse health effects of lower lead levels (below 10microg/dL in whole blood), studies on novel internal dose biomarkers are needed. This study aimed at: (1) assessing the lead exposure by measuring this element in whole blood (Pb-blood), serum (Pb-serum), and 3 different types of saliva: whole (Pb-whole-saliva), submandibular/sublingual (Pb-sub-saliva) and parotid saliva (Pb-parotid-saliva); (2) correlating Pb-blood with Pb-serum; and (3) relating Pb-blood and Pb-serum with the lead found in the different salivas. The study population included 444 children aged 6 to 8 years attending 4 government schools in the district of Campos Eliseos, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Whole blood, serum, parotid, submandibular/sublingual ("sub-saliva"), and whole saliva were collected in trace element-free tubes. Lead concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median Pb-blood and Pb-serum were 2.1microg/dL and 0.4microg/L, respectively. Ten percent of the children had Pb-blood between 4.0 and 9.4microg/dL. Boys showed higher Pb-blood than girls (2.3 vs. 2.0microg/dL, p<0.0003). Lead concentrations in whole, sub, and parotid saliva were 1.7, 1.4, and 1.3microg/L, respectively. No significant correlations were found between Pb-blood and Pb-serum, between Pb-blood and lead in the 3 different salivas, or between Pb-serum and Pb-whole-saliva or Pb-sub-saliva. However, there was a weak statistically significant correlation between Pb-serum and Pb-parotid-saliva. In conclusion, the mean Pb-blood concentration was 2.4microg/dL, with 10% of the children exhibiting Pb-blood between 4.0 and 9.4microg/dL. Boys presented higher Pb-blood. Results suggest that Pb-blood has no correlation with Pb-serum or lead in the 3 different salivas collected here. A weak but statistically significant correlation between Pb-serum and Pb-parotid-saliva was found. Our results also point to the need for carrying out more

  13. Predictors of Serum Dioxin, Furan and PCB Concentrations among Women from Chapaevsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. METHODS Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23–52 years were collected between 2003–2005 as part of the Russian Children’s Study. Serum dioxin, furan and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The median total PCB concentrations and total TEQs were 260 ng/g lipid and 25 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In multivariate analyses, both total PCB concentrations and total TEQs increased significantly with age, residential proximity to a local chemical plant, duration of local farming, and consumption of local beef. Both decreased with longer breastfeeding, recent increases in body mass index, and later blood draw date. These demographic and lifestyle predictors showed generally similar associations with the various measures of serum dioxins, furans, and PCBs. PMID:20578718

  14. Serum Sialic Acid Concentration and Content in ApoB-Containing Lipoproteins in Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Cylwik, Bogdan; Panasiuk, Anatol; Filisiak, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech

    2016-01-01

    The great significance for the metabolism of lipoproteins is the composition of carbohydrate chain of apolipoproteins, where sialic acid (SA) is located. In VILDL and LDL sialic acid is attached to apolipoprotein B. The sialylation of serum proteins including apolipoprotein B can be affected in the course of liver diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of liver diseases on the concentration and content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins. The tested group consisted of 165 patients (118 males, 47 females) with liver diseases: alcoholic cirrhosis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, chronic viral hepatitis, and liver cancer. ApoB-containing lipoproteins were isolated by a turbidimetric procedure and SA concentration was measured according to an enzymatic method. There was a significant increase in the serum concentration of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in viral hepatitis. Although the serum concentration of ApoB was not significantly different between specific liver diseases, the serum levels of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins appeared to be different. There is an association between SA concentration and triglycerides in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis. Also, in viral hepatitis SA concentration correlated negatively with HDL-cholesterol. The content of SA in ApoB-containing lipoproteins in alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis was significantly higher than that in the control group, but did not differ between diseases. This study may explain the variations in serum lipids and lipoproteins in liver diseases. It seems that the reason for these abnormalities is the changes in the concentration of sialic acid in ApoB-containing lipoproteins.

  15. Effect of caffeine-containing versus decaffeinated coffee on serum clozapine concentrations in hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Raaska, Kari; Raitasuo, Virpi; Laitila, Jouko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-01-01

    Clozapine and caffeine are metabolised mainly by the cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. Studies suggest that caffeine in coffee inhibits clozapine metabolism and increases serum clozapine concentrations. Our objective was to study whether coffee in the amounts usually consumed has an effect on steady-state serum clozapine concentrations. A randomised placebo-controlled cross-over design with two phases was used. Twelve hospitalised clozapine-using patients volunteered in the study where, after one-week run-in period, either caffeine-containing or decaffeinated instant coffee was available ad libitum for seven days. Serum concentrations of clozapine, N-desmethylclozapine, clozapine-N-oxide, caffeine, paraxanthine and C-reactive protein were measured after run-in period and on days 4 and 8 of the following study phases. Two patients were excluded from the statistical analysis because of non-compliance based on serum caffeine and paraxanthine determinations. In six fully compliant patients caffeine-containing coffee increased the mean serum trough concentration of clozapine by 26% (non-significant (NS), 95% CI -3% to +54%, P=0.07), N-desmethylclozapine by 6% (95% CI 1% to 12%, P=0.03), and clozapine-N-oxide by 7% (NS, 95% CI -6% to +20%, P=0.22). The ratio of N-desmethylclozapine/clozapine decreased by 13% (NS, 95% CI -1% to +27%, P=0.06) and that of clozapine-N-oxide/clozapine by 7% (NS, 95% CI -5% to +17%, P=0.19). In the analysis of combined data (including day 4 data of the four patients compliant up to that point) serum trough concentration of clozapine was 20% (95% CI 3% to 37% to P=0.03) higher, and that of N-desmethylclozapine 7% (95% CI 2% to 13%, P=0.02) higher during the caffeine phase than during the decaffeinated phase. We conclude that the effect of instant coffee drinking on serum clozapine concentrations is of minor clinical relevance in most of the patients, but some individuals may be more sensitive to this interaction due e.g. to genetic factors

  16. Serum and follicular fluid organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing assisted reproduction technologies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduction and early pregnancy in relation to organochlorine exposure but human studies remain limited. The increased use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) presents unique opportunities for the assessment of environmental influences on early pregnancy outcomes not otherwise observable in humans, but studies need to be designed to maximize the efficiency of the exposure data collected while minimizing exposure measurement error. Methods The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between concentrations of organochlorines in serum and follicular fluid samples collected from a subset of women undergoing ART in a large study that took place between 1994 and 2003, as well as the temporal reliability of serum organochlorine concentrations among women undergoing multiple ART cycles in the study. PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT), the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and mirex were measured in 72 follicular fluid samples and 265 serum samples collected from 110 women. Results Organochlorine concentrations in paired serum and follicular fluid samples were correlated, with Pearson and Spearman coefficients ranging from 0.60 to 0.92. Serum organochlorine concentrations were two- to three-fold greater than in follicular fluid, and a significant inverse trend was observed in the distribution of follicular fluid:serum ratios with increasing molecular weight of the compound (p-value for trend < 0.0001). Serum organochlorine concentrations were highly reliable over the course of several months, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 to 0.98. Finally, there was evidence for a declining trend in organochlorine

  17. CA15.3 Serum Concentrations in Older Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Padín-Iruegas, María Elena; Arias, José Ignacio; Herranz, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3 ± 4.2; range: 71–88; median 76). A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8 ± 4.0; range: 55–70; median 63) was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL), and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041) tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age. PMID:25365176

  18. CA15.3 serum concentrations in older women with infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Padín-Iruegas, María Elena; Arias, José Ignacio; Herranz, Michel

    2014-10-31

    Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3±4.2; range: 71-88; median 76). A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8±4.0; range: 55-70; median 63) was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL), and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041) tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age.

  19. Serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Ling; Abliz, Guzalnur; Mijit, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Despite many epidemiological studies on the effects of dietary antioxidant micronutrients on risk of cervical cancer, the findings remain uncertain and little evidence is available for serum nutrient markers. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol concentrations and risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women. We conducted a hospital-based case- control study in which 358 adults (158 incident cases and 200 controls) were recruited from Xinjiang, China. Serum levels of carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin), retinol, and tocopherols (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol) were assessed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We found inverse associations between serum carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin) and tocopherol (α-tocopherol) concentrations and the risk of cervical cancer after adjusting for potential confounders, but a null association for retinol. The ORs for 1-SD increase were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56- 0.92; p=0.003) for total carotenoids and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60-0.94; p=0.008) for total tocopherols. These results show that higher serum concentrations of some carotenoids and tocopherols are associated with a lower risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women.

  20. Serum Retinol and Carotenoid Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Nash, Sarah H; Till, Cathee; Song, Xiaoling; Lucia, M Scott; Parnes, Howard L; Thompson, Ian M; Lippman, Scott M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Schenk, Jeannette

    2015-10-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies examining associations of serum retinol and carotenoids with prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. This case-control study nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial evaluated associations of serum retinol and carotenoids with total, low-, and high-grade prostate cancer risk in a highly screened study population. We used logistic regression adjusting for age, family history of prostate cancer, race, body mass index, and serum cholesterol to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prostate cancer by quartiles of serum retinol and carotenoids, separately in the placebo (975 cases/1,009 frequency-matched controls) and finasteride (708 cases/743 frequency-matched controls) arms of the trial. Serum retinol concentrations were associated with increased risk of total prostate cancer [OR (95% CI) comparing the highest quartile of serum retinol with the lowest: 1.30 (1.00-1.68)] and high-grade prostate cancer [OR (95% CI), 1.74 (1.14-2.68)] in the placebo arm of the trial only. Also in the placebo arm, there was a moderate positive association of α-carotene with risk of total prostate cancer [OR (95% CI), 1.32 (1.01-1.73)]. None of the other carotenoids was associated with prostate cancer risk in the placebo arm. No associations were observed for retinol and carotenoids in the finasteride arm. In the placebo arm of this prospective study, high serum retinol and α-carotene concentrations were associated with increased risk of total and high-grade prostate cancers. Men with higher levels of serum retinol and α-carotene may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Therapeutic window of serum haloperidol concentration in acute schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, S; Neuhof, S; Braun, V; Meyer, F P

    1998-09-01

    Although several studies have been performed on the serum level-therapeutic effect relationship of neuroleptic drugs, the application of therapeutic drug-monitoring of neuroleptics is still a matter of controversy. Until now, haloperidol provided the most promising results. For this reason, an investigation of the dependence of clinical improvement on haloperidol serum levels was conducted in an acute psychiatric ward (Landeskrankenhaus Bernburg). In an open clinical trial haloperidol serum levels were measured in 57 acute schizophrenic patients for at least three weeks and correlated with clinical outcome (percent change of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, BPRS). A bisigmoidal model was used for data analysis. After three weeks of treatment, the major result proved to be a significant relationship between haloperidol serum level and therapeutic effect with pseudo-r2=0.316 and p=0.0031. Clinical improvement is enhanced by increasing haloperidol concentration up to about 10 ng/ml. It attains a maximum at about 10 ng/ml and decreases at haloperidol serum levels in a range of 10 ng/ml to 50 ng/ml. A simulation of this dependence of clinical improvement on serum levels, mediated by the variable dose design, can be excluded because of the results of a retrospective analysis of dosing behavior. Further evidence is thus provided for the dependence of therapeutic effect on the serum haloperidol concentration in acute schizophrenia. For practical application the position of a therapeutic window can be defined by a lower threshold level of about 5 ng/ml and an upper threshold of about 17 ng/ml. However, a maximal therapeutic effect is assured at 10 ng/ml. This should be the target value in serum level-guided dose adjustments.

  2. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum visfatin concentration: their relationship in periodontal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Raghavendra, N M; Prasad, M V Ramchandra; Kathariya, Rahul; Patel, Swati Pradeep; Sharma, Anuj

    2011-09-01

    Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator that acts as growth factor, cytokine, and enzyme involved in energy including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism and was recently demonstrated to exert several proinflammatory functions. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of visfatin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples and to find out their association, if any. At the beginning of the study, 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females; age range: 23 to 53 years) were selected and divided into three groups based on the gingival index, probing depths, clinical attachment levels, and radiologic parameters (bone loss). Group 1 (10 patients with healthy periodontium; age range: 25-36 years), group 2 (15 patients with gingivitis; age range: 25-36 years), and group 3 (15 patients with chronic periodontitis; age range: 23-53 years) GCF (by microcapillary pipettes) and serum (by venipuncture) samples were collected to estimate levels of visfatin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Mean visfatin concentrations increased in GCF and serum with the severity of disease from healthy to gingivitis to periodontitis groups and differed significantly (P <0.05). However, it was found that GCF values were higher than serum values. The highest to lowest visfatin concentrations were found in groups 3 through 1, respectively. Visfatin in GCF and serum correlated positively with periodontal parameters in the chronic periodontitis group. The results suggest that GCF and serum visfatin concentrations increase with the severity of periodontal disease. Hence, visfatin values were considered an inflammatory marker in periodontal disease in GCF and serum. Visfatin also deserves further consideration as a therapeutic target.

  3. The serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Teraura, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Minami, Takaomi; Takeshima, Taro; Shimooki, Osamu; Kajii, Eiji

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease is a febrile disease of childhood that is associated with increased inflammatory cytokines and immunoregulatory abnormalities. While the serum concentrations of soluble IL-2 receptor can change under such pathologies, the relevance of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease has not been specified. We aimed to summarize the existing studies that reported the soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in patients with Kawasaki disease. Original articles that were published up to July 2016 were collected using a PubMed/Medline-based search engine. A total of nine articles that reported the serum soluble IL-2 receptor concentrations in acute-phase Kawasaki disease were eligible. All of the articles described a high soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with Kawasaki disease relative to the level of controls or the reference range. Two of five articles on patients with coronary artery aneurysms described a significantly higher soluble IL-2 receptor concentration in patients with coronary artery aneurysms than patients without. Two articles on patients with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy described a significant decrease of the soluble IL-2 receptor concentration after the therapy. Accordingly, the serum soluble IL-2 receptor can be a potent marker of disease activity and therapeutic effects in patients with Kawasaki disease; further studies are thus warranted for its use in the clinical setting.

  4. Increased serum IgD concentrations in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Saulsbury, F T

    1998-05-01

    Serum IgD concentrations were measured in 39 children with Henoch Schonlein purpura (HSP) and 40 control children by means of radial immunodiffusion. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM concentrations in the HSP patients were measured by nephelometry. The geometric mean IgD concentration in children with HSP (16.7 microg/ml) was significantly higher than in control children (9.1 microg/ml; P=0.03). Serial testing in 10 HSP patients revealed no significant change in IgD concentrations over periods ranging from 1 to 12 months. There was no relationship between IgD and IgA concentrations in the HSP patients. Nineteen of the 39 HSP patients (49%) had nephritis. The mean IgD concentration in patients with nephritis (10.7 microg/ml) did not differ from control values, but was significantly lower than the mean IgD level in the remaining 20 patients who did not have nephritis (25.4 microg/ml; P=0.02). These results indicate that serum IgD levels are increased in children with HSP who did not have nephritis. IgD concentrations in patients with nephritis were similar to levels in control children.

  5. Concentrations of antioxidant vitamins in maternal and cord serum and their effect on birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhong; Ren, Wei-Hong; Liao, Wen-qiang; Zhang, Guo-Yuan

    2009-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy could impair fetal growth and that antioxidant vitamins (e.g. vitamins A, E and C) have a significant role in maintaining physiological processes of pregnancy and growth. To determine the concentrations of vitamins A, E, and C in pair-matched maternal and cord serum samples of neonate, and thus to investigate the relationship between maternal serum levels of these vitamins at delivery and birth outcomes. A total of 143 mother-neonate pairs were recruited into the cross-sectional descriptive study. Demographic information was investigated by questionnaire. After delivery, both cord and maternal blood were collected for quantification of serum levels of vitamins A, E and C by HPLC. Maternal serum levels of vitamins A and E were significantly higher than those in cord serum. In contrast, vitamin C level in cord serum was significantly higher than that in maternal serum. Further, we found that maternal vitamin A status was significantly correlated to both birth weight (r=0.19, p=0.0419) and birth height (r=0.21, p=0.0311), and these were manifested by these findings: (i) per 250.2 g reduction in birth weight concomitant with 1 micromol/L increase in maternal serum vitamin A level (p<0.01; 95% CI: 56.9-451.5); and (ii) per 1% increase in the ratio of serum vitamin A level of neonate to mother concomitant with 0.8 cm increase in birth height (p=0.049; 95% CI: 0.004-1.639). Maternal vitamin A, but not vitamins E and C, during pregnancy had a significant effect on birth outcomes. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of these antioxidant vitamins in fetal growth at various gestation stages.

  6. Serum sodium concentration changes are related to fluid balance and sweat sodium loss.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Matthew D; Trinity, Joel D; Zachwieja, Jeffrey J; Stofan, John R; Hiller, W Douglas; Coyle, Edward F

    2010-09-01

    This study determined if changes in serum sodium concentration are related to fluid balance as well as sweat sodium losses in triathletes competing in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon. Endurance trained athletes (N = 46, age = 24-67 yr) were studied during 30 min of stationary cycling at 70%-75% of HRmax in a warm outdoor laboratory (26.4 degrees C +/- 1.7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT], 28.3 degrees C +/- 1.2 degrees C dry bulb [DB]) 3-7 d before race day. Sweat sodium concentration was measured from absorbent patches on the forearm and scapula, and sweating rate was derived from changes in body mass. Before and after the race, serum sodium concentration, body mass, and nutritional intake during the race were also measured (N = 46). Sweating and race day comparisons and changes in serum sodium concentration were analyzed via Student's t-test, correlation, and multiple regression. In men, the change in serum sodium concentration during the race was correlated with relative sweating rate (mL.kg.h; r = -0.49, P = 0.012), rate of sweat sodium loss (mEq.kg.h; r = -0.44, P = 0.023), and body mass change (kg; r = -0.54, P = 0.005). Together, the rate of sweat sodium loss and body mass change accounted for 46% of the change in serum sodium concentration in men (R = 0.46). In women, body mass change alone was significantly correlated with the change in serum sodium concentration (r = 0.31). The rate of sodium intake (mEq.kg.h) was related to the rate of sweat sodium loss in women (mEq.kg.h; r = 0.64, P = 0.035) but not in men (r = 0.27, P = 0.486). Changes in serum sodium concentration during an ultraendurance triathlon are significantly related to interactions of fluid balance, sweat sodium loss, and sodium ingestion.

  7. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin concentration in killer whales and sea otters by radial immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bernadette C; Brotheridge, Rory M; Jessup, David A; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2002-10-28

    Killer whales and sea otters maintained in captivity are the subjects of routine health monitoring programs, and interest in immunologic studies in sea otters has been rising recently in response to potential impacts from infectious disease and environmental pollution on the threatened southern sea otter population. Development of species-specific reagents for immunologic studies in these two marine mammals is currently in its infancy. In this study, killer whale and sea otter immunoglobulin-specific polyclonal antibodies were generated, and used to develop tests for serum Ig concentration in the killer whale (Orcinus orca) and the southern (Enhydra lutris nereis) and northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris lutris). Killer whale serum IgG was purified using caprylic acid/ammonium sulfate precipitation. Sea otter plasma IgG was purified using protein-A-agarose. Polyclonal anti-Ig antisera were produced in rabbits, and specificity confirmed by immunoelectrophoresis. Radial immunodiffusion was used to measure Ig concentration in serum or plasma samples derived from 21 captive killer whales, 18 wild and 4 captive southern sea otters and 15 wild and 4 captive northern sea otters grouped by age. Mean killer whale serum Ig concentration (+/-95% confidence interval) ranged from 15.04 +/- 3.97 g/l for animals aged 0-5 years to 26.65 +/- 9.8 g/l for animals aged >10 years. Mean sea otter serum Ig concentration (+/-95% confidence interval) ranged from 28.39 +/- 11.00 g/l for southern sub-adults to 32.76 +/- 11.58 g/l for southern adults. No significant difference in serum Ig concentration was found between southern and northern sea otters. Serum Ig concentrations in two northern sea otter pups were low compared to those of adult sea otters. The two serum Ig quantitation assays produced were highly specific and reproducible and will be useful additions to the limited number of tests available for immune function in these marine mammal species. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Effect of diabetes on serum potassium concentrations in acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Foo, K; Sekhri, N; Deaner, A; Knight, C; Suliman, A; Ranjadayalan, K; Timmis, A D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare serum potassium concentrations in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in the early phase of acute coronary syndromes. Background: Acute phase hypokalaemia occurs in response to adrenergic activation, which stimulates membrane bound sodium-potassium-ATPase and drives potassium into the cells. It is not known whether the hypokalaemia is attenuated in patients with diabetes because of the high prevalence of sympathetic nerve dysfunction. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 2428 patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Patients were stratified by duration of chest pain, diabetic status, and pretreatment with β blockers. Results: The mean (SD) serum potassium concentration was significantly higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients (4.3 (0.5) v 4.1 (0.5) mmol/l, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified diabetes as an independent predictor of a serum potassium concentration in the upper half of the distribution (odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.00). In patients presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset, there was a progressive increase in plasma potassium concentrations from 4.08 (0.46) mmol/l in patients presenting within 2 hours, to 4.20 (0.47) mmol/l in patients presenting between 2–4 hours, to 4.24 (0.52) mmol/l in patients presenting between 4–6 hours (p = 0.0007). This pattern of increasing serum potassium concentration with duration of chest pain was attenuated in patients with diabetes, particularly those with unstable angina. Similar attenuation occurred in patients pretreated with β blockers. Conclusion: In acute coronary syndromes, patients with diabetes have significantly higher serum potassium concentrations and do not exhibit the early dip seen in non-diabetics. This may reflect sympathetic nerve dysfunction that commonly complicates diabetes. PMID:12482786

  9. Cure of tuberculosis despite serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs below published reference ranges.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Monica; Corti, Natascia; Müller, Daniel; Henning, Lars; Gutteck, Ursula; von Braun, Amrei; Weber, Rainer; Fehr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic target serum concentrations of first-line antituberculosis drugs have not been well defined in clinical studies in tuberculosis (TB) patients. We retrospectively investigated the estimated maximum serum concentrations (eC max) of antituberculosis drugs and clinical outcome of TB patients with therapeutic drug monitoring performed between 2010-2012 at our institution, and follow-up until March 2014. The eC max was defined as the highest serum concentration during a sampling period (2, 4 and 6 hours after drug ingestion). We compared the results with published eC max values, and categorised them as either "within reference range", "low eC max", or "very low eC max".Low/very low eC max-levels were defined as follows: isoniazid 2-3/<2 mg/l, rifampicin 4-8/<4 mg/l, rifabutin 0.2-0.3/<0.2 mg/l, ethambutol 1-2/<0.1 mg/l and pyrazinamide <20 mg/l. Concentrations of antituberculosis drugs in 175 serum samples of 17 patients with TB were analysed. In 12 (71%) patients, multiple therapeutic drug monitoring samples were collected over time, in 5 (29%) patients only one sample was available for therapeutic drug monitoring. Overall, 94% of all patients had at least one low antituberculosis drug concentration. Overall, 64% of all eC max levels were classified as "low" or "very low". The eC max was below the relevant reference range in 80% of isoniazid, 95% of rifampicin, 30% of pyrazinamide, and 30% of ethambutol measurements. All but one patient were cured of tuberculosis. Although many antituberculosis drug serum concentrations were below the widely used reference ranges, 16 of 17 patients were cured of tuberculosis. These results challenge the use of the published reference ranges for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  10. Correlation of tenascin-C concentrations in serum with outcome of traumatic brain injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Lou, Lin; Yang, Kai-Chuang; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xu, Yan; Lu, Gang; He, Hai-Yan

    2017-09-01

    Tenascin-C, a matricellular protein, is involved in brain injury. However, change of tenascin-C concentrations in peripheral blood remains unknown after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Serum tenascin-C concentrations were measured in 100 healthy controls, 108 severe TBI patients, 79 moderate TBI patients and 32 mild TBI patients. Serum tenascin-C concentrations of patients were significantly higher than those of controls. Tenascin-C concentrations negatively correlated with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in all patients (r=-0.658, P<0.001). In severe TBI patients, tenascin-C in serum significantly discriminated patients at risk of 6-month mortality (area under curve, 0.821; 95% confidence interval, 0.735-0.888) and poor outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) (area under curve, 0.833; 95% confidence interval, 0.749-0.898) and emerged as an independent predictor for 6-month mortality (odds ratio, 1.114; 95% confidence interval, 1.008-1.233; P=0.005), overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.085; 95% confidence interval, 1.010-1.166; P=0.003) and unfavorable outcome (odds ratio, 1.049; 95% confidence interval, 1.014-1.076; P=0.001). By receiver-operating characteristic analysis, serum tenascin-C concentrations had similar prognostic value compared with GCS scores. Enhanced serum tenascin-C concentrations are closely related to trauma severity and clinical outcomes, substantializing tenascin-C as a potential prognostic biomarker after TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between increased serum thyrotropin concentration and the oldest old: what do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Glaucia Cruzes; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Araújo, Lara Miguel Quirino; Almada, Clineu de Mello

    2015-01-01

    To assess studies that evaluate the relation between serum thyrotropin concentration, very old subjects, and their events. We searched the PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases for articles published between 2004 and 2012. Our search was restricted to studies involving humans aged 65 years or older, and written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Studies that evaluated the association between elevated serum thyrotropin concentration among elderly subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism were chosen since at least in part they included a subpopulation of individuals aged 80 years and above. Thirteen studies were selected. No significant increase in risk of cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease, or total mortality was observed. Elevated thyrotropin concentration was associated with longevity. More randomized controlled trials are required to better define the potential benefits of elevated thyrotropin concentration in this oldest old population, hormone replacement, and longevity. PMID:25807244

  12. Variability of serum indomethacin concentrations after oral and intravenous administration to preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Mrongovius, R; Imbeck, H; Wille, L; Müller, H; Seyberth, H W

    1982-03-01

    Fifteen preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus and respiratory distress syndrome were given indomethacin (0.2 mg/kg) at 12 h intervals up to three times, either orally or intravenously, in an uncontrolled, non-randomized study. Serum indomethacin concentrations were determined in blood samples taken 12 h after dosing. There was considerable variability in the serum indomethacin concentrations, especially after oral administration, although the mean concentrations after each of the three doses were similar after both oral and intravenous administration. The frequency of closures and transient closures of the ductus arteriosus was also similar for both routes of administration. There was, however, no relation between concentration and effect in individual patients. The sustained exposure to indomethacin which appears to be necessary for ductal closure can sometimes be attained by oral administration.

  13. Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Concentrations Among Drug Abusers on Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Yousefi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, modulates a number of metabolic processes. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) changes the level of hormones produced by adipose tissue in addicts. However, current data remains contradictory. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MMT on serum adiponectin levels in drug addicts. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five drug abusers with a mean age of 37.4 ± 8.7 years were referred to the Baharan Hospital, Zahedan, and 22 healthy age-matched control subjects with a mean age of 35 ± 9.5 years were enrolled in the study. Addicts were treated with methadone at (40 to 120 mg/d) for six months. Measurement of anthropometric parameters, serum adiponectin, and biochemical parameter levels, were assessed in the addicts, before and after six months of MMT, but only once in the healthy controls. Results: The mean basal serum adiponectin level was not significantly lower in the drug abuser group compared to the healthy subjects (P > 0.05). After six months of MMT, the mean serum adiponectin level of the drug addicts was not significantly different from their mean baseline level or that of the healthy subjects (P > 0.05). However, the mean baseline serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in overweight/obese addicts when compared to underweight patients and healthy individuals (P < 0.001). After six months of MMT, the mean level of serum adiponectin increased significantly in the underweight subjects compared to the normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.0001) and the control group (P < 0.001). Adiponectin concentration was correlated inversely with body mass index and positively correlated with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusions: This study showed that MMT did not markedly alter the concentration of serum adiponectin in drug abusers. However, in regard to the variations in the serum lipid profiles and anthropometric parameters, the findings

  14. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Serum Pepsinogen I Concentration in Peptic Ulcer Patients: Effect of Bacterial Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sill Moo; Park, Joongwon; Chang, Sae Kyung; Yoo, Byung Chul; Kim, Ho Jung

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: In order to test the hypothesis that H. pylori infections in the gastric antrum increase pepsinogen I release, fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations were compared in peptic ulcer patients with and without H. pylori infection. A randomized prospective study was performed to determine whether the increased serum pepsinogen I concentrations associated with H. pylori infection respond to treatment that eradicates H. pylori. Methods: Fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations were measured by RIA in 736 patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed benign peptic ulcer with and without H. pylori infection. Out of 511 patients with H. pylori infection, 110 patients (group 1) were randomly selected and were treated with metronidazole and tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate combined with ranitidine and antacid, and 97 patients (group 2) were treated only with ranitidine and antacid. The third group, 54 patients free of H. pylori infection, was designed to evaluate the influence of H2-receptor antagonist and antacid on the change of pepsinogen I. Fasting pepsinogen I concentration and H. pylori status were compared before and after the treatment. Results: Patients infected by H. pylori (gastric ulcer 208, duodenal ulcer 303; total 511) had significantly higher fasting serum pepsinogen I concentrations than H. pylori negative patients (gastric ulcer 110, duodenal ulcer 115: total 225). Mean pepsinogen I level of the former was 124.3±46.9 and that of the latter was 77.9±25.8 ng/ml. (p<0.0001) The difference in serum pepsinogen I concentrations according to the location of ulcer crater was significant only in non-infected subjects e.g., mean pepsinogen I level H. pylori-negative gastric ulcer was significantly lower than that of H. pylori-negative duodenal ulcer patients. H. pylori was eradicated in all the patients who had received antibacterial therapy for 4 weeks and serum pepsinogen I concentrations were significantly decreased from 129.8+43.0 to

  15. Serum carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations vary by dietary pattern among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Carithers, Teresa C.; Taylor, Herman A.; Bogle, Margaret L; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intakes and biochemical concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols have been associated with chronic diseases. Objective To describe dietary patterns in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants and to determine if biochemical measurements of antioxidants differ across these. Design Cross sectional analysis of data for 373 African American men and women (35–80 y), participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the JHS. Methods Dietary intake was assessed with a region specific food frequency questionnaire. Patterns were defined by cluster analysis of food groups, as percent of energy intake. Results Four dietary patterns were identified: 1) Fast food 2) Southern 3) Prudent and 4) Juice. Individuals in the Fast food pattern (n=153) had significantly lower serum concentrations of lutein plus zeaxanthin and beta cryptoxanthin; those in the Southern cluster (n=99) had significantly lower serum alpha carotene; and those in the Prudent (n=63) and Juice (n=58) clusters had significantly higher serum alpha carotene and beta cryptoxanthin (P < 0.05) relative to those in at least one other cluster (all P < 0.05). The Juice cluster also had higher serum alpha tocopherol concentrations relative to the Fast food cluster. Conclusions Diets high in fast food, snacks, soft drinks and meat were associated with relatively low concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. This pattern contained the largest number of participants, and could contribute to the extensive health disparities seen in this region. PMID:19027404

  16. Fluctuation of serum zuclopenthixol concentrations in patients treated with zuclopenthixol decanoate in viscoleo.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, J H; Olesen, O V; Larsen, N E

    1994-04-01

    Zuclopenthixol serum concentrations were measured in 58 psychiatric patients referred for routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Patients were treated for prolonged time with zuclopenthixol decanoate in viscoleo in doses of 50-500 mg, administered intramuscularly at 14-day intervals. The serum concentration was determined at days 7 (C7) and 14 (C14) following injection. The mean ratio C7/C14 was 2.0 and was independent of the dosage given. In 14 patients, additional blood samples were drawn at day 3 (C3) following injection. The mean ratio C3/C14 of this group was 3.2. An almost log-linear decline of the serum concentration from day 3 to 14 appeared, which corresponds to an apparent half-life of zuclopenthixol in this dosage form of 7.4 days. The marked fluctuations of serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol from peak to trough levels in patients given fortnightly injections of the depot preparation indicate that shorter intervals between injections should be considered in many cases in order to diminish side effects.

  17. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  18. Prognostic Significance of Serum and Urinary Neopterin Concentrations in Patients with Rectal Carcinoma Treated with Chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Zezulová, Michaela; Bartoušková, Marie; Hlídková, Eva; Juráňová, Jarmila; Červinková, Barbora; Kasalová, Eva; Adam, Tomáš; Krčmová, Lenka Kujovská; Solichová, Dagmar; Cwiertka, Karel; Vrána, David; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the prognostic significance of serum and urinary neopterin concentrations in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma treated with (chemo)radiation. Urinary and serum neopterin and peripheral blood cell count were determined in 49 patients with rectal carcinoma before the start of (chemo)radiation. Neopterin concentrations exhibited a significant inverse correlation with hemoglobin and positive correlation with leukocyte count, platelet count and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio. Increased serum neopterin concentration was associated with significantly inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival. However, a significant association was observed only in 28 patients treated in the neoadjuvant setting. Although increased urinary neopterin was also associated with inferior RFS and overall survival, this was not statistically significant. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was also associated with poor prognosis. The data presented herein indicate a prognostic significance of serum neopterin concentrations in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased serum zinc concentration during depressive episode in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Marcin; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Reczyński, Witold; Misztak, Paulina; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2016-01-15

    Zinc may be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depressive disorder. However, data on this issue in bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. The aim of the study was to assess zinc concentrations in the blood serum of patients at various phases and stages of bipolar disorder. The study included 129 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I (n=69) or type II (n=60). Fifty-eight were in a depressive episode, 23 in a manic episode and 48 in remission. Fifty healthy volunteers made a control group. Zinc concentration was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum zinc level in patients diagnosed with BD type I in the depressive phase was significantly reduced as compared with mania, remission and healthy subjects. In the BD type II, serum zinc level in hypomania, depression or remission phase was not significantly different from the control group. In the whole group, lower level of zinc in depression compared to remission and control subjects was found during late stage of the illness but not in the early stage. Zinc concentration was not dependent on the severity of manic or depressive symptoms and subtype of depression but correlated positively with the number of manic/hypomanic relapses in the past year. Lack of prospective model, heterogeneity of pharmacological treatment, small number of subgroups presenting specified clinical features. Decreased serum zinc concentration occurs in depression in BD type I and probably in depression in the late stage of BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soluble TRAIL Concentration in Serum Is Elevated in People with Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qunye; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a multi-functional cytokine, which is involved in the pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that TRAIL stimulated lipid uptake and foam cell formation in macrophages in vitro. Several clinical studies have suggested that the serum concentration of TRAIL may be increased in humans with elevated blood cholesterol; however, the current data appear to be inconclusive in this regard. In the present study, we examined the relationships between the serum TRAIL concentration and cholesterol levels in 352 generally healthy subjects undergoing the routine annual health check. We showed that there were significant correlations between TRAIL concentration and levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols. The level of TRAIL was significantly elevated in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, although this relationship might be also associated with changes of other metabolic factors. Moreover, we showed that the level of blood cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects in the upper quartile of serum TRAIL. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the serum TRAIL concentration is elevated in people with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26633016

  1. Serum concentrations of vitamin D and organ dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Fernanda Sampaio; Freitas, Flavio Geraldo Resende; Bafi, Antonio Tonete; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the serum concentrations of vitamin D and their variations in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and in control subjects upon admission and after 7 days of hospitalization in the intensive care unit and to correlate these concentrations with the severity of organ dysfunction. Methods This case-control, prospective, observational study involved patients aged > 18 years with severe sepsis or septic shock paired with a control group. Serum vitamin D concentrations were measured at inclusion (D0) and on the seventh day after inclusion (D7). Severe deficiency was defined as vitamin D levels < 10ng/ml, deficiency as levels between 10 and 20ng/ml, insufficiency as levels between 20 and 30ng/ml, and sufficiency as levels ≥ 30ng/mL. We considered a change to a higher ranking, together with a 50% increase in the absolute concentration, to represent an improvement. Results We included 51 patients (26 with septic shock and 25 controls). The prevalence of vitamin D concentration ≤ 30ng/ml was 98%. There was no correlation between the serum concentration of vitamin D at D0 and the SOFA score at D0 or D7 either in the general population or in the group with septic shock. Patients with improvement in vitamin D deficiency had an improved SOFA score at D7 (p = 0.013). Conclusion In the population studied, patients with septic shock showed improvement in the serum concentrations of vitamin D on the seventh day compared with the controls. We also found a correlation between higher vitamin D concentrations and a greater decrease in the severity of organ dysfunction. PMID:26761476

  2. Itraconazole moderately increases serum concentrations of oxybutynin but does not affect those of the active metabolite.

    PubMed

    Lukkari, E; Juhakoski, A; Aranko, K; Neuvonen, P J

    1997-01-01

    Oxybutynin has low oral bioavailability due to an extensive presystemic metabolism. It has been suggested that the biotransformation of oxybutynin is dependent on CYP3A. Because itraconazole, a widely used mycotic, is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, we wanted to study a possible interaction between oxybutynin and itraconazole. In this double-blind, randomized, two-phase cross-over study, ten healthy volunteers received either 200 mg itraconazole or placebo for 4 days. On day 4, each volunteer ingested a single dose of 5 mg oxybutynin. Serum concentrations of oxybutynin, its active metabolite N-desethyloxybutynin, and itraconazole were monitored over 24 h. Itraconazole significantly increased both the area under the serum drug concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) and the peak concentration of oxybutynin twofold. The AUC0-t and the peak concentration of N-desethyloxybutynin were not significantly affected by itraconazole. Itraconazole did not change the peak time or the elimination half-life of either oxybutynin or N-desethyloxybutynin. The occurrence of adverse events after oxybutynin administration was not increased by itraconazole. Itraconazole moderately increases serum concentrations of oxybutynin, probably by inhibiting the CYP3A-mediated metabolism. However, the concentrations of N-desethyloxybutynin were practically unchanged. Since about 90% of the antimuscarinic activity of oxybutynin is attributable to N-desethyloxybutynin, any interaction of oxybutynin with CYP3A4 inhibiting drugs has only minor clinical significance.

  3. Manganese and selenium concentrations in umbilical cord serum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ode, Amanda; Rylander, Lars; Gustafsson, Peik; Lundh, Thomas; Källén, Karin; Olofsson, Per; Ivarsson, Sten A; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Existing evidence on the effects of manganese and selenium during fetal life on neurodevelopmental disorders is inadequate. This study aims to investigate the hypothesized relationship between fetal exposure to manganese and selenium and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis in childhood. Children born between 1978 and 2000 with ADHD (n=166) were identified at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Malmö, Sweden. Controls from the same region (n=166) were selected from the Medical Birth Register and were matched for year of birth and maternal country of birth. Manganese and selenium were measured in umbilical cord serum. The median cord serum concentrations of manganese were 4.3μg/L in the cases and 4.1μg/L in the controls. The corresponding concentrations of selenium were 47 and 48μg/L. When the exposures were analyzed as continuous variables no associations between cord manganese or selenium concentration and ADHD were observed. However, children with selenium concentrations above the 90th percentile had 2.5 times higher odds (95% confidence interval 1.3-5.1) of having ADHD compared to those with concentrations between the 10th and 90th percentiles. There was no significant interaction between manganese and selenium exposure (p=0.08). This study showed no association between manganese concentrations in umbilical cord serum and ADHD. The association between ADHD diagnoses in children with relatively high cord selenium was unexpected and should be interpreted with caution.

  4. Interrelationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and lipid profiles in premenopausal Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal A.; Patel, Prerna P.; Mughal, Zulf; Padidela, Raja; Patel, Ashish D.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, and observational studies have associated it with an atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: To determine the interrelationship between Vitamin D and lipid profile in apparently healthy premenopausal Indian women, considering confounding factors such as lifestyle that independently influence lipids. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy premenopausal women (20–45 year) were recruited from Gujarat, India. Data were collected on anthropometry, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and diet. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, and lipid profile. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive correlation between serum 25[OH]D concentrations and serum lipids. Results: Ninety-three percent women showed Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed significant inverse correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r = −0.202, P = 0.027), triglycerides (TG) (r = −0.284, P = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.184, P = 0.044) and positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.250, P = 0.006). On dichotomizing the population according to median 25(OH)D concentration (11.1 ng/dl), no significant differences were observed between the groups for anthropometry, sunlight exposure, and lifestyle. Serum lipid profiles were significantly different, above median serum 25(OH)D concentration group showed favorable serum lipids (TC: 179.3 ± 30 vs. 191.8 ± 31.7 mg/dl; TG: 140 ± 39.1 vs. 165.5 ± 53.4 mg/dl; LDL-C: 100 ± 30.2 vs. 112 ± 32 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 14 vs. 47.6 ± 9.3 mg/dl)(P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that association of 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile even after considering lifestyle factors which independently influence lipids

  5. Relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly outpatients treated with magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Ken; Tanoue, Akiko; Ito, Masaaki; Takemura, Yousuke

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the relationship between renal function and serum magnesium concentration in elderly patients treated with magnesium oxide (MgO) in an outpatient setting of an urban hospital in Japan. In the present study, 44 elderly outpatients (23 patients with constipation treated with daily oral MgO and 21 untreated patients in the control group) who visited Kameyama municipal medical center were enrolled. Variables were age, sex, weight, height, serum magnesium concentration, serum blood urea nitrogen level, serum creatinine level, use of other magnesium-containing supplements and symptoms associated with hypermagnesemia. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and classified patients based on eGFR category. Compared with the control group, the MgO group showed a significantly higher concentration of serum magnesium (median 2.2 mg/dL [interquartile range 2.1-2.3] vs 2.4 mg/dL [2.2-2.6], P < 0.001). Hypermagnesemia (>2.6 mg/dL) was noted only in the MgO group. However, symptoms associated with hypermagnesemia occurred in patients from both groups, with no significant difference between groups. In the MgO group, significant difference was seen in the median serum magnesium concentration between eGFR categories (P < 0.05). The category G4 (eGFR 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ) group had the highest serum magnesium concentration in the MgO group (3.0 mg/L [2.9-3.1]). Elderly patients treated with MgO have higher serum magnesium levels compared with the control group. MgO should be prescribed with caution in patients with low renal function as shown by a GFR category G3b or less (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ). Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 600-605. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  7. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  8. The effects of fasting and refeeding on serum parathormone and calcitonin concentrations in young and old male rats.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, Z; Myśliwski, A; Wyrzykowska, M; Hoppe, A

    2001-05-01

    Although fasting and refeeding reveal the existence of age-related changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, the effects of aging on mineral metabolism in refed animals are unknown. We therefore investigated hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in young (4 months) and old (26 months) male rats fasted for 48 hours and then refed for 4 or 24 hours. Serum concentrations of total and ionized calcium and parathormone were similar in control young and old rats. Serum calcitonin level was higher, and the concentrations of albumin and inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase activity were lower in fed old rats. In young fasted rats, the serum ionized and total calcium was decreased, and phosphate concentration was increased. In old rats, fasting resulted in the increase of serum parathormone level. Fasting reduced serum alkaline phosphatase activity to a similar extent in both age groups. In young rats, refeeding for 24h normalized serum calcium and phosphate levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, and decreased serum concentrations of PTH and calcitonin. In old refed rats, serum calcitonin concentration was raised by 77% compared to fed or fasted animals, whereas parathormone levels were normalized. Our results indicate that old fasted or refed rats maintain normal serum calcium concentration in a different way than young animals, possibly through the increase in serum levels of parathormone and/or calcitonin. Thus, dietary manipulations such as fasting and refeeding constitute an interesting model for the investigation of the effects of aging on the hormonal regulation of serum calcium level.

  9. Predictors of Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Concentrations among Children Aged 1-5 Years.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Jacobson, Melanie H; Preston, Emma V; Lee, Grace E; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Marder, M Elizabeth; Marcus, Michele; Barr, Dana B

    2017-01-03

    Serum concentrations of PBDEs were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 80 children aged 15-71 months. Demographic and behavioral data were collected on parental questionnaires; a research nurse recorded anthropometric measures and insurance status. For a subset of children (n = 17), PBDEs were measured in house dust and child handwipes sampled during a home visit. In linear and Tobit regression, log-transformed PBDE congeners were modeled as a function of child characteristics, including neighborhood-level socioeconomic indicators. BDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were highly correlated and summed for analysis; BDE-153 was examined individually. PBDE serum concentrations were associated with socioeconomic factors; for example, a $20,000 increase in median household income in a child's ZIP code was associated with a 34% decrease (95%CI = 14-49%) in BDE-153 and a 26% decrease (95%CI = 6-42%) in ∑BDE-47,-99,-100. Lower body-mass index (BMI) z-score and household smoking were strong predictors of higher BDE-153 levels. Among children who participated in a home visit, serum PBDE was positively correlated with handwipe PBDE (Spearman r ∑BDE-47, -99, -100 = 0.48, p = 0.09), but not dust PBDE. Results indicate socioeconomic factors and BMI are strong predictors of serum PBDE levels among young children. PBDEs measured on handwipes are more predictive of serum PBDE levels than vacuum-collected dust.

  10. Omentin serum concentration and hepatic expression in chronic hepatitis C patients - together or apart?

    PubMed

    Kukla, Michał; Waluga, Marek; Adamek, Brygida; Zalewska-Ziob, Marzena; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Gabriel, Aandrzej; Bułdak, Rafał J; Sobala-Szczygieł, Barbara; Kępa, Lucjan; Ziora, Katarzyna; Żwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Surma, Edward; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Hartleb, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is accompanied by numerous metabolic disorders, partially associated with altered adipokine system regulation. Omentin (intelectin-1) is a novel adipokine known to play a pivotal role in metabolic regulation in CHC. In a group of 63 CHC patients (29 men/34 women) infected with genotype 1b, aged 6.6 ± 14.6 years, serum omentin levels and its gene expression in liver tissue were examined and their association with metabolic and histopathological features was assessed. Serum omentin levels were significantly higher in CHC patients compared to controls (p < 0.001), regardless of sex, body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity and lipid concentrations. There was no correlation between serum omentin and omentin hepatic expression. Neither parameter was associated with any histological features. Serum omentin in non-obese CHC patients seems not to be related to metabolic disorders or liver pathology. Omentin hepatic expression shows no relationship with either serum omentin levels or histopathological features. This suggests different mechanisms regulating circulating omentin concentration and omentin hepatic expression in CHC.

  11. Serum Macroelement and Microelement Concentrations in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Muyan; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunlei; Huang, Qiaoying; Lei, Danqing; Hu, Yanling

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases. However, its pathogenesis is unclear. We aim to explore the potential relationships between serum macroelements/microelements and PCOS. A total of 1137 women were involved in the current study. PCOS was defined according to ESHRE/ASRM, and complete blood samples were collected. Serum macroelements (calcium and magnesium) and microelements (copper, zinc, and iron) were assayed through atomic absorption spectrophotometry. PCOS patients had significantly higher copper concentrations than patients without PCOS (P < 0.001). By contrast, PCOS patients had lower serum calcium levels than patients without PCOS (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the levels of serum zinc, magnesium, and iron between PCOS and non-PCOS patients. PCOS patients with acne had higher magnesium levels than those without acne (P = 0.020), and PCOS patients with hirsutism had lower magnesium levels than those without hirsutism (P = 0.037). High serum copper and low calcium levels may be correlated with PCOS. Magnesium concentrations are correlated with acne and hirsutism in PCOS patients. These results provide clues to explore the mechanism of PCOS and guidance for element treatments in PCOS patients.

  12. [Correlations between HBCD and thyroid hormone concentrations in human serum from production source area].

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Cong-Qiao; Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Liu, Wei-Zhi; Ding, Wen-Wei

    2014-10-01

    The levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in human serum from the HBCD production source region were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The concentrations (lipid weight) of ∑ HBCD in 80 serum samples ranged from not detectable to 2702.5 ng · g(-1). The mean and median values were 104.9 ng · g(-1) and 5.9 ng · g(-1), respectively. The most abundant HBCD isomer in 42 samples was γ-HBCD, while α-HBCD was the most abundant isomer in the other 26 serum samples. There was no significant difference in ∑ HBCD concentration among different age and gender. In this study, the thyroid hormone abnormality rate in the 80 residents was up to 33%. The thyroid hormone abnormality rate of the residents whose serum HBCD was detected was significantly higher than those without HBCD in serum. Since the local residents were highly exposed to HBCD, the probability of thyroid abnormality might be significantly increased.

  13. Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G.; Avila, Jaqueline C.; Kaul, Sapna; Wong, Rebeca; Veeranki, Sreenivas P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D is essential for maintaining bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and prevents falls and fractures in older adults. Mexico is undergoing an epidemiologic and demographic transition with increasing obesity rates. The study’s aim was to determine the association of obesity with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older Mexican adults. Methods: Data from 1772 Mexicans, aged ≥50 years, enrolled in a sub-sample of the 3rd wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study, were included. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were used to define vitamin D status, and were categorized into tertiles. Body mass index measures were used to categorize older adults into under/normal weight, overweight, and obese groups. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Approximately 40% and 37% of older Mexican adults were either overweight or obese, respectively. Compared to under/normal weight older Mexicans, obese adults were 1.78 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.27–2.48) and 1.94 times (95% CI 1.40–2.68) more associated with the first and second tertile concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, respectively. Overweight adults were 1.52 times (95% CI 1.12–2.06) more associated with the second tertile of serum 25(OH)D concentration than under/normal weight adults. Conclusion: Overweight/Obesity was found to be significantly associated with low concentrations of serum 25(OH) in older Mexican adults. PMID:28146127

  14. A Comparison of PBDE Serum Concentrations in Mexican and Mexican-American Children Living in California

    PubMed Central

    Fenster, Laura; Castorina, Rosemary; Marks, Amy R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Holland, Nina; Guerra, Armando Garcia; Lopez-Carillo, Lizbeth; Bradman, Asa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which are used as flame retardants, have been found to be higher in residents of California than of other parts of the United States. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the role of immigration to California on PBDE levels in Latino children. Methods: We compared serum PBDE concentrations in a population of first-generation Mexican-American 7-year-old children (n = 264), who were born and raised in California [Center for Health Analysis of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study], with 5-year-old Mexican children (n = 283), who were raised in the states in Mexico where most CHAMACOS mothers had originated (Proyecto Mariposa). Results: On average, PBDE serum concentrations in the California Mexican-American children were three times higher than their mothers’ levels during pregnancy and seven times higher than concentrations in the children living in Mexico. The PBDE serum concentrations were higher in the Mexican-American children regardless of length of time their mother had resided in California or the duration of the child’s breast-feeding. These data suggest that PBDE serum concentrations in these children resulted primarily from postnatal exposure. Conclusions: Latino children living in California have much higher PBDE serum levels than their Mexican counterparts. Given the growing evidence documenting potential health effects of PBDE exposure, the levels in young children noted in this study potentially present a major public health challenge, especially in California. In addition, as PBDEs are being phased out and replaced by other flame retardants, the health consequences of these chemical replacements should be investigated and weighed against their purported fire safety benefits. PMID:21498147

  15. Osteocalcin as a negative regulator of serum leptin concentration in humans: insight from triathlon competitions.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Ara, Ignacio; Dorado, Cecilia; Vicente-Rodríguez, German; Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Cabrero, Javier Chavarren; Serrano-Sanchez, José A; Santana, Alfredo; Calbet, Jose A L

    2010-10-01

    Osteocalcin is a hormone produced by osteoblasts which acts as a negative regulator of fat mass, protecting against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. To determine if an acute increase in osteocalcin concentration is associated with opposed changes in circulating leptin levels and insulin resistance we studied 15 middle and long distance male triathletes, (age 32.1 ± 6.9 years), before and 48 h after an Olympic (OT) or an Ironman (IT) triathlon competition. Muscle power, anaerobic capacity, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and serum concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, osteocalcin, leptin, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA) were determined pre- and post-race. Pre- and 48 h post-race total and regional lean body mass was not altered, but fat mass was similarly increased (~250 g) 48 h after the competitions. This elicited an increase in plasma leptin of 33% after the IT while it remained unchanged after the OT, likely due to a 25% increase in plasma osteocalcin which occurred only after the OT (all p < 0.05). Post-race HOMA remained unchanged in OT and IT. Performance was normalized 48 h after the competitions, with the exception of a slightly lower jumping capacity after the IT. Serum testosterone concentration tended to decrease by 10% after the IT whilst dihydrotestosterone was reduced by 24% after the IT. In conclusion, an acute increase in serum osteocalcin concentration blunts the expected increase of serum leptin concentration that should occur with fat mass gain. This study provides evidence for osteocalcin as a negative regulator of serum leptin in humans.

  16. Evaluation of a Brix refractometer to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Deelen, S M; Ollivett, T L; Haines, D M; Leslie, K E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a digital Brix refractometer for the assessment of success of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin compared with the measurement of serum total protein (STP) by refractometry. Blood samples (n = 400) were collected from calves at 3 to 6d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and STP and percentage Brix (%Brix) were determined using a digital refractometer. The mean IgG concentration was 24.1g/L [standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0] with a range from 2.1 to 59.1g/L. The mean STP concentration was 6.0 g/dL (SD ± 0.8) with a range from 4.4 to 8.8 g/dL. The mean %Brix concentration was 9.2% (SD ± 0.9) with a range of 7.3 to 12.4%. Brix percentage was highly correlated with IgG (r = 0.93). Test characteristics were calculated to assess failure of passive transfer (FPT; serum IgG <10 g/L). The sensitivity and specificity of STP at 5.5 g/dL were 76.3 and 94.4%, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to plot the true positive rate against the false positive rate for consecutive %Brix values. The optimal combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.9%) was at 8.4% Brix. Serum total protein was also positively correlated with %Brix (r = 1.00) and IgG (r = 0.93). Dairy producers can successfully monitor their colostrum management and the overall success of passive transfer using a digital Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of Poverty on Serum Phosphate Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Isakova, Tamara; Enfield, Gwen; Wolf, Myles

    2010-01-01

    Objective Increased serum phosphate is associated with adverse health outcomes. High intake of inexpensive processed and fast foods is common in impoverished communities and is linked with excessive dietary phosphorus intake and elevated serum phosphate concentrations in chronic kidney disease patients. We examined the impact of socioeconomic status on dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphate concentrations in the general population. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 14,261 adult participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors and Outcomes Poverty to income ratio (PIR; family income indexed to the federal poverty level) was the primary index of socioeconomic status. Serum phosphate was the primary outcome variable. Results Although estimated phosphorus intake decreased with decreasing quartiles of PIR (P < 0.001), serum phosphate was inversely associated with PIR (P = 0.003). The relationship between lower PIR and higher serum phosphate remained significant after adjustment for demographic, laboratory, and dietary intake characteristics (P = 0.02). Compared to participants in the highest PIR quartile (income >300% of the federal poverty level), participants in the lowest quartile (income < the federal poverty level) had more than twice the odds of hyperphosphatemia (≥4.4 mg/dl) in unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses (OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.5, 3.2). Conclusions Although lower income was associated with decreased estimated phosphorus intake, increasing poverty was independently linked with increased serum phosphate and higher likelihood of hyperphosphatemia. These findings may indicate that conventional dietary instruments underestimate phosphorus intake, especially among impoverished individuals. Further studies are needed to explore these possibilities. PMID:20537917

  18. Association between Serum Unmetabolized Folic Acid Concentrations and Folic Acid from Fortified Foods.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Cecília Zanin; Paniz, Clóvis; de Carli, Eduardo; Marchioni, Dirce M; Colli, Célia; Steluti, Josiane; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Fazili, Zia; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira Maria

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) concentrations and folic acid from fortified foods and nutrients known as dietary methyl-group donors (folate, methionine, choline, betaine and vitamins B2, B6 and B12) in participants exposed to mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flours with folic acid. Cross-sectional study carried out with 144 healthy Brazilian participants, both sexes, supplement nonusers. Serum folate, UMFA, vitamin B12 and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) were biochemically measured. Dietary intake was assessed by 2 non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs) and deattenuated energy-adjusted nutrient data were used for statistical analysis. Ninety eight (68.1%) participants were women. Median (interquartile range) age was 35.5 (28.0-52.0) years. Elevated serum folate concentrations (>45 nmol/L) were found in 17 (11.8%), while folate deficiency (<7 nmol/L) in 10 (6.9%) participants. No one had vitamin B12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L). An elevated serum UMFA concentration was defined as > 1 nmol/L (90th percentile). UMFA concentrations were positively correlated with folic acid intake and negatively correlated to choline, methionine and vitamin B6 intakes. Participants in the lowest quartile of UMFA concentrations had lower dietary intake of total folate (DFEs) and folic acid, and higher dietary intake of methionine, choline and vitamin B6 than participants in the highest quartile of UMFA. Folic acid intake (OR [95% CI] = 1.02 [1.01-1.04)] and being a male (OR [95% CI] = 0.40 [0.19-0.87) were associated with increased and reduced odds for UMFA concentrations > 0.55 nmol/L (median values), respectively. UMFA concentrations were directly influenced by folic acid intake from fortified foods in a healthy convenience sample of adult Brazilians exposed to mandatory flour fortification with folic acid.

  19. Protein and fat mobilization and associations with serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; Houweling, M; Schonewille, J T; Tielens, A G M; Jorritsma, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on variation between dairy cows in muscle and fat tissue mobilization around parturition and to study the association between protein and fat mobilization and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations (hyperketonemia) in this period. Thirty-four cows kept under similar conditions at a university dairy farm (no experimental treatments) were monitored from 4 wk before until 8 wk after calving. Mobilization of muscle protein was investigated by analysis of plasma 3-methylhistidine concentrations (3-MH, analyzed by a recently developed HPLC tandem mass spectrometry method) and ultrasound measurements of longissimus muscle thickness. Mobilization of fat tissue was monitored by serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness. Large variation was observed between cows in onset and duration of periparturient protein and fat mobilization. Plasma 3-MH concentrations and muscle thickness profiles indicated that protein mobilization started, on average, before parturition and continued until approximately wk 4 of lactation. Serum NEFA concentrations and backfat thickness profiles showed that fat mobilization occurred from parturition until the end of the study. Thus, muscle protein mobilization occurred in advance of fat mobilization in most cows from this study. We hypothesized that this might be due to a prepartum amino acid deficiency in the absence of negative energy balance. The incidence of hyperketonemia in this study was 16/34 = 47%. With the exception of 3 cows defined as having severe hyperketonemia, cows with lower 3-MH concentrations had higher serum BHBA concentrations. A possible explanation for this observation might be that higher mobilization of protein around calving might restrict ketone body production due to the higher availability of glucogenic precursors in the period of most severe negative energy balance and highest fat mobilization. The

  20. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-07

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perfluoroalkyl Substance Serum Concentrations and Immune Response to FluMist Vaccination among Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010 – 2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The resuts of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study’s many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. PMID:27208468

  3. Correlation between plasma ammonia level and serum trough concentration of free valproic acid in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yosuke; Fujisaki, Kanako; Sato, Yuhki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring of valproic acid (VPA) is essential to prevent toxicity, but the correlation between plasma ammonia level and serum VPA concentration remains unclear. We examined the correlation of plasma ammonia level with VPA dose and serum trough concentrations of total and free VPA in Japanese patients with epilepsy. Thirty-eight data sets from 19 Japanese patients with epilepsy were analyzed. The relations of VPA dose and serum total and free VPA concentrations with plasma ammonia level, and the breakpoints of VPA parameters predicting hyperammonemia (plasma ammonia higher than 60 µmol/L) were analyzed. A significant positive correlation was observed between plasma ammonia level and VPA dose (r(s)=0.56, p=0.00062), serum trough total VPA concentration (r(s)=0.55, p=0.00086) and serum trough free VPA concentration (r(s)=0.58, p=0.00041). The breakpoints predicting hyperammonemia were VPA dose of 30.4 mg/kg, serum trough total VPA concentration of 90.9 µg/mL, and serum trough free VPA concentration of 8.65 µg/mL, with impurity reductions at 1.35, 1.35 and 2.02, respectively. These findings suggest that serum trough concentration of free VPA is the most reliable predictor for hyperammonemia, and that the risk of developing hyperammonemia may increase in patients with serum trough free VPA concentrations higher than 8.65 µg/mL.

  4. Association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and bone stress fractures in Finnish young men.

    PubMed

    Ruohola, Juha-Petri; Laaksi, Ilkka; Ylikomi, Timo; Haataja, Riina; Mattila, Ville M; Sahi, Timo; Tuohimaa, Pentti; Pihlajamäki, Harri

    2006-09-01

    Low vitamin D level may predict rickets, osteomalacia, or osteoporosis. We examined serum 25(OH)D concentration as a predisposing factor for bone stress fracture in 756 military recruits. The average serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in the group with fracture, suggesting a relationship between vitamin D and fatigue bone stress fracture. Low vitamin D level may predict rickets, osteomalacia, or osteoporosis. Fatigue bone stress fracture is one of the most frequently seen types of overuse injuries in athletes and military recruits. An association was recently shown between vitamin D and BMC. A correlation has also been found between low femoral BMD and stress fractures. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentration in a population sample of military recruits to determine if vitamin D is a predisposing factor for fatigue bone stress fracture. We prospectively followed 800 randomly selected, healthy Finnish military recruits with a mean age of 19 years for developing stress fractures in homogenous circumstances. Blood for serum 25(OH)D concentration was drawn at entry into military service, and the weight, height, body mass index (BMI), muscle strength, and 12-minute running were measured for all subjects. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with enzyme immunoassay. At end of the 90-day follow-up, 756 subjects completed the study. Subjects without fracture constituted controls. Twenty-two recruits with stress fracture were identified (2.9%), the incidence being 11.6 (95% CI: 6.8-16.5) per 100 person-years. In the final multivariate analysis, the significant risk factor for stress fracture in conscripts was a below median serum 25(OH)D level (75.8 nM), OR being 3.6 (95% CI: 1.2-11.1). No significant associations between BMI (p = 0.255), age (p = 0.216), or smoking (p = 0.851) and bone stress fracture were found in this study population. A lower level of serum 25(OH)D concentration may be a generally predisposing element for bone stress fractures

  5. Serum Paraoxonase Activity and Malondialdehyde Serum Concentrations Remain Unaffected in Response to Hydroxyurea Therapy in β-Thalassemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Saqib H; Hashim, Zehra; Shamsi, Tahir S; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-07-01

    β-Thalassemia is the most common hereditary disorder characterized by reduced production of β-globin chains of hemoglobin A (HbA). In recent years, hydroxyurea (HU) has shown promising therapeutic benefits in patients with β-thalassemia by fetal hemoglobin augmentation. We have analyzed effects of hydroxyurea treatment on oxidative stress in β-thalassemia patients by assessing activities of paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations. Blood samples from 159 individuals including 56 HU-treated and 58 untreated β-thalassemia patients and 45 healthy controls were analyzed. PON activity was found to be highest in healthy individuals (177.76 ± 4.44 U/mL) as compared to treated (52.67 ± 3.65 U/mL) and untreated (55.11 ± 3.26 U/mL) patients. A similar trend was observed in the case of arylesterase activity in normal, β-thalassemia-treated, and untreated (210.0 ± 11.25 U/mL, 163.03 ± 9.04 U/mL, 139.77 ± 10.10 U/mL) subjects. Serum MDA concentrations (2.59 ± 0.09 nmol/mL, 2.45 ± 0.08 nmol/mL, and 1.15 ± 0.05 nmol/mL) and total ROS concentrations (3.73 ± 0.20 nmol/mL, 3.54 ± 0.23 nmol/mL, and 2.45 ± 0.14 nmol/mL) were significantly elevated in both groups (untreated and treated) as compared to healthy individuals (P < .01). Oxidative stress was found to be markedly elevated in β-thalassemia patients as compared to healthy controls. Insignificant differences were, however, observed in mean concentrations of PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, serum MDA concentration and total ROS concentrations between HU-treated and untreated patients. We propose that HU therapy alone seems to be ineffective in managing oxidative stress and is likely to offer a better clinical outcome when supplemented with efficient iron chelation therapy and antioxidants. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Serum concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor and depth of trophoblastic invasion in ampullary ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cabar, Fábio Roberto; Teshima, Décio Roberto Kamio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo; Antonangelo, Leila; Schultz, Regina; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association between the depth of trophoblastic infiltration and serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration in patients with an ampullary pregnancy. This prospective cross-sectionalstudy involved 34 patients with an ampullary ectopic pregnancy who underwent salpingectomy between 2012 and 2013. Maternal serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Trophoblastic invasion was classified histologically as follows: stage I, limited to the tubal mucosa; stage II, reaching the muscle layer; and stage III,involving the full thickness. The qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate differences in serum vascular endothelial growth factor among the degrees of trophoblastic invasion. ROC curves were constructed to determine vascular endothelial growth factor cut-off values that predict the degree of tubal invasion based on the best sensitivity and specificity. Eight patients had stage I trophoblastic invasion, seven had stage II, and 19 had stage III. The median serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration was 69.88 pg/mL for stage I, 14.53 pg/mL for stage II and 9.08 pg/mL for stage III, with a significant difference between stages I and III. Based on the ROC curve, a serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of 25.9 pg/mL best differentiated stage I from stages II and III with asensitivity of 75.0%, specificity of 76.9%, and area under the curve of 0.798. The depth of trophoblastic penetration into the tubal wall isassociated with serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in ampullary pregnancies.

  7. Serum concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor and depth of trophoblastic invasion in ampullary ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cabar, Fábio Roberto; Kamio Teshima, Décio Roberto; Pereira, Pedro Paulo; Antonangelo, Leila; Schultz, Regina; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the depth of trophoblastic infiltration and serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration in patients with an ampullary pregnancy. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectionalstudy involved 34 patients with an ampullary ectopic pregnancy who underwent salpingectomy between 2012 and 2013. Maternal serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were measured using Luminex technology. Trophoblastic invasion was classified histologically as follows: stage I, limited to the tubal mucosa; stage II, reaching the muscle layer; and stage III,involving the full thickness. The qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate differences in serum vascular endothelial growth factor among the degrees of trophoblastic invasion. ROC curves were constructed to determine vascular endothelial growth factor cut-off values that predict the degree of tubal invasion based on the best sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Eight patients had stage I trophoblastic invasion, seven had stage II, and 19 had stage III. The median serum vascular endothelial growth factorconcentration was 69.88 pg/mL for stage I, 14.53 pg/mL for stage II and 9.08 pg/mL for stage III, with a significant difference between stages I and III. Based on the ROC curve, a serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of 25.9 pg/mL best differentiated stage I from stages II and III with asensitivity of 75.0%, specificity of 76.9%, and area under the curve of 0.798. CONCLUSIONS: The depth of trophoblastic penetration into the tubal wall isassociated with serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in ampullary pregnancies. PMID:28076513

  8. The association between HIV (treatment), pregnancy serum lipid concentrations and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Marissa J; Browne, Joyce L; Venter, Francois; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J

    2017-07-11

    Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis. Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception. This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.

  9. Serum uric acid concentrations and risk of frailty in older adults.

    PubMed

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Carnicero, José Antonio; Buño, Antonio; García-García, Francisco José; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate for the first time the longitudinal relationship between serum uric acid concentrations and risk of frailty. Prospective cohort study of 2198 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60years recruited in 2008-2010. At baseline, information was obtained on socio-demographic factors, health behaviors and morbidity, while serum uric acid was determined in 12-h fasting blood samples. Study participants were followed-up through 2012 to assess incident frailty, defined as ≥2 of the following 4 Fried criteria: exhaustion, muscle weakness, low physical activity, and slow walking speed. During a mean 3.5-year follow-up, 256 cases of incident frailty were identified. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third tertiles of uric acid to the lowest tertile were, respectively: 1.18 (0.83-1.68) and 1.57 (1.11-2.22); p-linear trend=0.01. The corresponding result for a 1mg/dL increase in serum uric acid concentration was 1.12 (1.00-1.24). Similar associations were observed across subgroups defined by sex, age, body mass index, and physical activity. As regards each frailty component, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) per 1mg/dL increase in serum uric acid were 1.10 (0.99-1.23) for low physical activity, 1.08 (0.95-1.23) for low walking speed, 1.08 (0.67-1.73) for exhaustion and 0.91 (0.81-1.02) for weakness. Serum uric acid concentrations are positively associated with the risk of frailty in older adults. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether specific dietary recommendations or pharmacological strategies aimed at lowering serum uric acid would be beneficial to prevent the development of this syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Majority of MicroRNAs Detectable in Serum and Saliva Is Concentrated in Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Alessia; Tandon, Mayank; Alevizos, Ilias; Illei, Gabor G.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using microRNAs (miRNA) as biomarkers in autoimmune diseases. They are easily accessible in many body fluids but it is controversial if they are circulating freely or are encapsulated in microvesicles, particularly exosomes. We investigated if the majority of miRNas in serum and saliva are free-circulating or concentrated in exosomes. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from fresh and frozen human serum and saliva. The amount of selected miRNAs extracted from the exosomal pellet and the exosome-depleted serum and saliva was compared by quantitative RT-PCR. Some miRNAs tested are ubiquitously expressed, others were previously reported as biomarkers. We included miRNAs previously reported to be free circulating and some thought to be exosome specific. The purity of exosome fraction was confirmed by electronmicroscopy and western blot. The concentration of miRNAs was consistently higher in the exosome pellet compared to the exosome-depleted supernatant. We obtained the same results using an equal volume or equal amount of total RNA as input of the RT-qPCR. The concentration of miRNA in whole, unfractionated serum, was between the exosomal pellet and the exosome-depleted supernatant. Selected miRNAs, which were detectable in exosomes, were undetectable in whole serum and the exosome-depleted supernantant. Exosome isolation improves the sensitivity of miRNA amplification from human biologic fluids. Exosomal miRNA should be the starting point for early biomarker studies to reduce the probability of false negative results involving low abundance miRNAs that may be missed by using unfractionated serum or saliva. PMID:22427800

  11. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  12. Association between pruritus and serum concentrations of parathormone, calcium and phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Ramin; Joshaghani, Hamid Reza; Bayzayi, Faranak; Haddad, Mahboobeh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-07-01

    Chronic renal disorders have a progressive course in most cases, and finally result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the mainstays in the treatment of these patients. Disturbance in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism and alteration of serum levels of parathormone (PTH) are observed in these patients. One of the most common cutaneous manifestations in patients on HD is pruritus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pruritus and serum concentrations of Ca, P and PTH in patients with chronic renal disease. This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients on HD at the Fifth-Azar Hospital in Gorgan, Iran, in 2010. Information related to the patients, including age, gender, pruritus, time of pruritus and duration on dialysis, was extracted from questionnaires. Serum concentrations of intact PTH, Ca and P were measured. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test and SPSS-16 software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the 120 study patients, 50% were male and the mean age (±SD) was 49 ± 12.3 years. Sixty percent of the patients had pruritus, of whom 33.3% had PTH levels above the normal range. Among the 40% of the patients who did not have pruritus, 39.6% had PTH levels higher than the normal levels. The mean serum Ca and P levels were 8.44 ± 1.65 mg/dL and 5.48 ± 1.81 mg/dL, respectively. The mean (±SD) Ca-P product was 55.46 ± 47.16 and the mean PTH concentration was 274.34 ± 286.53 pg/mL. No significant association was found between pruritus and age, sex, serum PTH and P levels as well as Ca-P product. However, the association between serum Ca levels and pruritus was significant (P = 0.03). Our study showed that most patients with pruritus had serum Ca levels in the abnormal range (lower or higher), and there was no significant correlation between serum iPTH level and pruritis. Thus, good control of serum Ca levels is important to

  13. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P < 0.0001) levels of hepcidin, CRP and IL-6 than NC. Hepcidin in dialysis patients is significantly related to age (r = 0.373, P = 0.012), serum triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P < 0.0001). In multiple regression analysis, hepcidin correlated independently with triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P < 0.0001). Elevated levels of hepcidin in patients with CKD on dialysis may be related to the occurrence of high triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated.

  14. Effects of placentophagy on serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations in rats after parturition or superovulation.

    PubMed

    Blank, M S; Friesen, H G

    1980-11-01

    In rats that were allowed to eat the placentae after parturition concentrations of serum prolactin were elevated on Day 1 but concentrations of serum progesterone were depressed on Days 6 and 8 post partum when compared to those of rats prevented from eating the placentae. In rats treated with PMSG to induce superovulation serum prolactin and progesterone values were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated on Days 3 and 5 respectively, after being fed 2 g rat placenta/day for 2 days. However, feeding each rat 4 g placenta/day significantly (P < 0.02) lowered serum progesterone on Day 5. Oestrogen injections or bovine or human placenta in the diet had no effect. The organic phase of a petroleum ether extract of rat placenta (2 g-equivalents/day) lowered peripheral concentrations of progesterone on Day 5, but other extracts were ineffective. We conclude that the rat placenta contains orally-active substance(s) which modify blood levels of pituitary and ovarian hormones.

  15. The response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations to vitamin D intake and insolation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S; Wright, H

    1980-05-01

    1. Vitamin D-depleted, housed sheep were given diets providing fixed intakes of cholecalciferol ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 microgram/kg body-wt per d for 220 d. Thereafter they were shorn, deprived of dietary cholecalciferol and turned out from 30 June to 30 November. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in serum was determined at frequent intervals. 2. The serum concentrations of 25-OHD took approximately 10 weeks to stabilize after which they reflected dietary intake over 0.1--0.4 microgram/kg body-wt per d. For intakes of 0.4 and 0.8 microgram/kg body-wt per d the mean maximum concentrations were similar, but the rates of increase differed. The latter was proportional to the logarithm of intake over the range studied. 3. Changes in serum 25-OHD due to insolation were similar in all sheep regardless of their starting values, and consequently in some animals reached levels considerably greater than from the dietary source. 4. Although the response of serum 25-OHD to the higher dietary intakes appeared to be limited there was no evidence of any such control over the response ot endogenously-synthesized vitamin.

  16. Estimate of serum immunoglobulin G concentration using refractometry with or without caprylic acid fractionation.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Polo, J; Lago, A; Campbell, J; Quigley, J; Tyler, H

    2013-07-01

    Objectives of this study were to develop a rapid calf-side test to determine serum IgG concentrations using caprylic acid (CA) fractionation, followed by refractometry of the IgG-rich supernatant and compare the accuracy of this method with results obtained using refractometry using raw serum. Serum samples (n=200) were obtained from 1-d-old calves, frozen (-20°C), and shipped to the laboratory. Samples were allowed to thaw for 1h at room temperature. Fractionation with CA was conducted by adding 1mL of serum to a tube containing 45, 60, or 75µL of CA and 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5mL of 0.06 M acetic acid. The tube contents were mixed well, allowed to react for 1 min, and then centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 0, 10, or 20 min at 25°C. The %Brix and refractive index of the fractionated supernatant were determined using a digital refractometer. Nonfractionated serum was analyzed for %Brix (BRn), refractive index (nDn), and IgG concentration by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration was 19.0 mg/mL [standard deviation (SD)=9.7], with a range of 3.5 to 47.0 mg/mL. The mean serum BRn was 8.6 (SD=0.91), with a range of 6.8 to 11.0. The mean serum nDn was 1.34566 (SD=0.00140), with a range of 1.34300 to 1.34930. Serum nDn was positively correlated with IgG concentration (correlation coefficient=0.86; n=185). Fractionated samples treated with 1mL 0.6 M acetic acid and 60µL of CA and not centrifuged before analysis resulted in a strong relationship between the refractive index of the fractionated supernatant and IgG (correlation coefficient=0.80; n=45). Regression was used to determine cut points indicative of 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <10 mg/mL at 24 h old). The nDn were 1.34414, 1.34448, and 1.34480 to predict 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL of serum, respectively. The BRn cut points were 7.6, 7.8, and 8.0, respectively. The nDn cut points of 1.34448 and

  17. Influence of matrix on concentrations of somatotropin measured in serum with commercial immunoradiometric assays.

    PubMed

    Felder, R A; Holl, R W; Martha, P; Bauler, G; Hellman, P; Wills, M R; Thorner, M O

    1989-07-01

    Using immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) from Hybritech Inc. (H) and Nichols Institute Diagnostics (ND), we measured somatotropin (human growth hormone, hGH) in serum samples obtained every 20 min for 24 h from 10 prepubertal subjects with short stature. Results obtained with the ND reagents were 2.74 times greater than those obtained with the H reagents (P = 0.00001, r = 0.94, SEE = 3.9, n = 720). We therefore compared the IRMAs with the standard hGH RIA from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Hormone and Pituitary Program, using the genetically engineered hGH preparations (from Genentech Inc.) 22-kDa hGH and methionated 20-kDa hGH. We also assayed human pituitary hGH (NIH, lot no. AFP-4793B). Each hGH preparation was diluted in three diluent buffer systems: horse serum from H and from ND, and human serum. The RIA and H-IRMA gave superimposable standard curves for all hGH preparations in each diluent. The methionated 20-kDa hGH was not detected in the H-assay. Use of human serum matrix in the ND-IRMA shifted the standard curve as compared with the horse-serum matrix, giving equivalent binding at lower concentrations; i.e., serum hGH was overestimated in samples assayed against standards diluted in horse serum. Quality-control materials (Ciba-Corning) yielded disparate results in all three assays, yet human serum pools containing hGH gave similar results in the H and the NIH assays, and higher values in ND. When a human serum standard was used in the ND assay, both IRMAs gave similar results to the RIA assay for human serum samples. Reference intervals for hGH should be determined by each analytical laboratory, to prevent misdiagnosis of patients. Furthermore, quality-control material should be of human origin, because commercially supplied quality-control material does not react the same as human serum in some hGH assays.

  18. Effect of obesity-related plasma hemodilution on serum tumor marker concentration in women.

    PubMed

    Park, Minyoung; Chang, In Ho; Kang, Hyun; Han, Seung Su

    2015-05-01

    We determined to investigate the effect of plasma hemodilution on tumor marker concentration in obese women. We collected the data for tumor markers (cancer-associated antigen 125 [CA125], carbohydrate antigen 19-9 [CA19-9], carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] and α-fetoprotein) from 6917 healthy women who visited the health promotion center at the Chung-Ang University Hospital from 2003 to 2011. We used multivariate linear regression analysis and χ(2) -test for linear-by-linear association adjusting for age, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine to determine the association between the serum tumor marker concentrations, plasma volume, tumor marker mass, and body mass index (BMI). Higher BMI was significantly associated with higher plasma volume (P < 0.001 for trend). The lower concentrations of CA125 and CA19-9 were significantly associated with increasing BMI (P < 0.001). Serum concentration and mass of CEA and α-fetoprotein were increased with higher BMI in obese women (P < 0.001). CEA in women had the opposite result to that in men due to visceral fat in women. This study shows that we should consider the hemodilution effect in Asian obese women when interpreting serum tumor marker concentration in cancer screening. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations in HIV-infected children with fat redistribution syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verkauskiene, Rasa; Dollfus, Catherine; Levine, Martine; Faye, Albert; Deghmoun, Samia; Houang, Muriel; Chevenne, Didier; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Blanche, Stéphane; Lévy-Marchal, Claire

    2006-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipodystrophy is characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected children are related to alterations in endocrine function of adipose tissue. A multicenter study was conducted in 130 HIV-infected children. Lipodystrophy definition was based on the central to peripheral skinfold ratio. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin concentrations, glycemia, and lipid profile were measured in all children. Fat redistribution syndrome was apparent in 32 children: 14 with atrophic (LPDA) and 18 with hypertrophic lipodystrophy (LPDH). Mean serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in LPDA and LPDH groups compared with the group with no lipodystrophy (LPD-). Fasting insulin concentration was significantly higher in LPDA and LPDH groups versus LPD-. Mean serum leptin concentration was significantly increased only in LPDH compared with LPDA and LPD- groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration decreased in the LPDA versus LPD- group. Controlling for puberty stage, gender, percentage of total fat mass, serum lipids, HIV treatment, and disease severity, adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with central obesity and insulin/glucose ratio. Fat redistribution had no significant effect on leptin concentration, which was directly related to the percentage of body fat, female gender, and insulin/glucose ratio. In conclusion, HIV-infected children with symptoms of fat redistribution have decreased levels of adiponectin, associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.

  20. Importance of low serum vitamin B12 and red cell folate concentrations in elderly hospital inpatients.

    PubMed

    Blundell, E L; Matthews, J H; Allen, S M; Middleton, A M; Morris, J E; Wickramasinghe, S N

    1985-10-01

    To determine the functional importance of the low B12 and red cell folate concentrations repeatedly observed in the elderly 200 consecutive patients admitted to a geriatric unit were studied. Forty six of the patients had low serum concentrations of B12 (15), red cell folate (26), or both (five). Serum B12 and red cell folate concentrations correlated with mean cell volume, and serum B12 correlated with the neutrophil lobe count. Bone marrow deoxyuridine suppression was abnormal in 35% of the patients with low vitamin concentrations, but 55% of those with abnormal deoxyuridine suppression had morphologically normal bone marrow, and 73% had a normal mean cell volume. In patients with low vitamin values the deoxyuridine suppressed value correlated with the haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil lobe count. Thus synthesis of thymidylate was impaired by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency in at least 8% of newly admitted elderly patients, many of whom had normal blood counts despite the biochemical disturbance affecting haemopoiesis. A nutritionally depleted diet may have been responsible for many of the low vitamin values.

  1. Direct detection of antibody concentration and affinity in human serum using microscale thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lippok, Svenja; Seidel, Susanne A I; Duhr, Stefan; Uhland, Kerstin; Holthoff, Hans-Peter; Jenne, Dieter; Braun, Dieter

    2012-04-17

    The direct quantification of both the binding affinity and absolute concentration of disease-related biomarkers in biological fluids is particularly beneficial for differential diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we extend microscale thermophoresis to target immunological questions. Optically generated thermal gradients were used to deplete fluorescently marked antigens in 2- and 10-fold-diluted human serum. We devised and validated an autocompetitive strategy to independently fit the concentration and dissociation constant of autoimmune antibodies against the cardiac β1-adrenergic receptor related to dilated cardiomyopathy. As an artificial antigen, the peptide COR1 was designed to mimic the second extracellular receptor loop. Thermophoresis resolved antibody concentrations from 2 to 200 nM and measured the dissociation constant as 75 nM. The approach quantifies antibody binding in its native serum environment within microliter volumes and without any surface attachments. The simplicity of the mix and probe protocol minimizes systematic errors, making thermophoresis a promising detection method for personalized medicine.

  2. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  3. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

  4. Concentrations of environmental phenols and parabens in milk, urine and serum of lactating North Carolina women.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erin P; Mendola, Pauline; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2015-07-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Concentrations of Environmental Phenols and Parabens in Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Erin P.; Mendola, Pauline; vonEhrenstein, Ondine S.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Phenols and parabens show some evidence for endocrine disruption in laboratory animals. The goal of the Methods Advancement for Milk Analysis (MAMA) Study was to develop or adapt methods to measure parabens (methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl) and phenols (bisphenol A (BPA), 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, triclosan) in urine, milk and serum twice during lactation, to compare concentrations across matrices and with endogenous biomarkers among 34 North Carolina women. These non-persistent chemicals were detected in most urine samples (53-100%) and less frequently in milk or serum; concentrations differed by matrix. Although urinary parabens, triclosan and dichlorophenols concentrations correlated significantly at two time points, those of BPA and benzophenone-3 did not, suggesting considerable variability in those exposures. These pilot data suggest that nursing mothers are exposed to phenols and parabens; urine is the best measurement matrix; and correlations between chemical and endogenous immune-related biomarkers merit further investigation. PMID:25463527

  6. Molten globule intermediates of human serum albumin in low concentration of urea.

    PubMed

    Muralidhara, B K; Prakash, V

    2002-10-01

    Interaction of non-electrolytes such as urea with proteins especially at lower concentrations is opening-up newer concepts in the understanding of protein stability and folding in proteomics. In this study, the secondary and tertiary structural characteristics and thermal stability of human serum albumin at lower concentrations of urea have been monitored. The protein attains a molten globule like structure at concentration urea below 2 M. This structural state also shows an increase in the alpha-helical content as compared to the native state. At concentrations of urea above 2 M, human serum albumin starts unfolding, resulting in a three-state transition with two mid points of transitions at around 4 M and 7 M urea concentrations. The characteristics of the partially folded intermediates are discussed with respect to the three component system analyses. Preferential hydration dominates over preferential interaction at lower concentration of urea (up to 2.5 M) and at higher concentration, the preferential interaction overtakes preferential hydration in a competitive manner. Formation of structural intermediates at lower concentration of urea is hypothesized as a general phenomenon in proteins and fits in with the observation with preferential interaction parameters by Timasheff and co-workers in the case of lysozyme and ribonuclease at different pH values.

  7. Serum alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations qualitatively respond to sustained carrot feeding.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Horvitz, Micah A; Dosti, Mandy Porter; Simon, Philipp W

    2009-11-01

    Beta-carotene is a predominant source of vitamin A in developing countries. Genetically selected "high carotene" carrots could have an impact on the vitamin A and antioxidant status of people if widely adopted. A 3 x 3 crossover study in humans (n = 10) evaluated the difference in uptake and clearance of alpha- and beta-carotene from carrots genetically selected and traditionally bred to have high, typical, or no carotene. Subjects were fed white (0 mg alpha- and beta-carotene/d), orange (1.8 mg alpha-carotene and 2.6 mg beta-carotene/d), or dark-orange (4 mg alpha-carotene and 7 mg beta-carotene/d) carrots in muffins for 11 d, with a 10-d washout phase between treatments. Serum carotenoid and retinol concentrations were measured by HPLC. C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of underlying inflammation or infection which may lower serum retinol, was measured at the beginning of each period. A significant treatment effect occurred for serum alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations (P < 0.001), and a trend towards a negative effect of subjects' BMI on concentrations (P= 0.08). A significant treatment by sequence interaction was observed (P = 0.038), which was attributable to a difference in serum alpha- and beta-carotene concentrations between carrot treatments in the first period. Serum retinol remained stable for the first 20 d of the intervention and then decreased (P = 0.02). CRP was not elevated in any subject. High carotene carrots provide more provitamin A carotenoids than the typical store-bought variety, without a change in flavor. The availability of high carotene carrots could readily increase consumption of beta-carotene and potentially impact the vitamin A status of those individuals who are deficient or at risk of depletion.

  8. Optimal Serum Cholesterol Concentrations are Associated with Accelerated Bone Loss in African Ancestry Men

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Allison L.; Miljkovic, Iva; Evans, Rhobert; Bunker, Clareann H.; Patrick, Alan L.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol associations with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss have been inconclusive, and longitudinal data are sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test if fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with areal and volumetric BMD and BMD change, Methods We determined the association of serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations with cross-sectional and longitudinal (mean follow-up: 6.1 years) measures of BMD in a cohort of 1289 in African ancestry men (mean age: 56.4 years). Fasting serum triglycerides, HDL and LDL were measured at baseline concurrent with BMD assessments. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify integral hip BMD and peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the radius and tibia was used to quantify volumetric BMD. Men were categorized as optimal, borderline or high-risk for triglyceride, HDL and LDL concentrations based on adult treatment panel III guidelines. Results Lower serum triglyceride or LDL and higher HDL concentrations were associated with lower trabecular BMD at baseline (all p<0.05). Similarly, men classified as having optimal levels of LDL, HDL or triglycerides at baseline experienced the greatest integral BMD loss at the hip and trabecular BMD loss at the tibia (all p<0.05), independent of potential confounding factors. Conclusions We found that clinically optimal serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were associated with accelerated bone loss among Afro-Caribbean men. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved and potential clinical significance of these findings. PMID:26602914

  9. Pain involving the motor system and serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-03-22

    Since the role of vitamin D is essential in numerous biological processes its deficiency was suggested to be a risk factor for e.g. osteoporosis, musculoskeletal pain and spine pain. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether serum vitamin D concentration is related to pain involving the motor system in Polish postmenopausal women working in agriculture. The study group consisted of 1,751 post-menopausal women, aged 45-65, at least 12 months from the last menstrual period, living in rural areas and working in agriculture. The research method was self-assessment of pain involving the motor system using VAS, laboratory test of serum vitamin D concentration and a medical interview. Statistical methods included generalized linear models, analysis of variance, t test for two means in two independents, χ2 test of stochastic independence. Postmenopausal women working in agriculture and suffering from pain in at least one part of the motor system were younger and lower educated, they also had higher abdominal obesity and lower serum vitamin D, compared to those without pain in any part of the motor system. Decreased serum vitamin D concentration in postmenopausal women working in agriculture is important from the aspect of a higher prevalence of pain in the thoracic spine and more severe pain in the neck spine, but not for severity of pain in the lumbar spine; higher occurrence of pain in both hands or wrists; higher prevalence and more severe pain in at least one knee; and no prevalence or severity of pain in the shoulders and elbows. Serum vitamin D concentration is important for the prevalence and severity of pain in the neck and thoracic spine, knees and hands or wrists, but not for the lumbar spine, shoulders and elbows.

  10. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin; Sun, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006, and examined whether potentially diabetogenic POPs account for associations between lactation and diabetes. Among 4479 parous women, breastfeeding history was defined as the number of children breastfed ≥1 month. Diabetes was identified by self-report or hemoglobin A1c >6.5%. Twenty-four POPs were measured in serum among subsamples of 668 to 1073 participants. Compared with women without lactation history, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes among those with 1-2 and ≥3 lactation periods were 0.83(0.61, 1.13) and 0.63(0.44, 0.91; P trend=0.03). Lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with serum concentrations of 17 out of the 24 organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), and perfluoroalkyl substances (Ptrend<0.05). Comparing the ≥3 lactations group with women without a lactation history, the relative reduction of POPs ranged from 12% (PCB-196) to 30% (oxychlordane). The inverse association between lactation and diabetes was slightly attenuated after adjustment for POPs. Age-stratified analyses showed that the inverse association between lactation periods and serum POP concentrations was observed primarily among participants <60 years, whereas age did not significantly modify the association between lactation history and diabetes prevalence. Crudely-classified lifetime lactation history was inversely associated with concurrent serum POP concentrations and diabetes prevalence. Prospective studies are needed to clarify how lactation could complement diabetes prevention through decreasing the POP body burdens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations in Mother's Serum and the Timing of Pubertal Onset in Sons

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Williams, Paige L.; Korrick, Susan A.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Emond, Claude; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited. Methods We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons’ age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother–son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons’ pubertal onset—defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL—was assessed annually by the same physician. Results In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1– 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons’ pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more. Conclusions Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons’ births—which may reflect sons’ prenatal and early-life exposures—were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset. PMID:21968773

  12. Clarithromycin Decreases IL-6 Concentration in Serum and BAL Fluid in Patients with Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Radzikowska, Elżbieta; Roży, Adriana; Jagus, Paulina; Polubiec-Kownacka, Małgorzata; Wiatr, Elżbieta; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Roszkowski-Śliż, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are involved in the development of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). It has been shown that macrolides inhibit cytokine production in the alveolar macrophages of COP patients. The aim of the study was to assess the concentrations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL-f) in COP patients treated with clarithromycin (CAM). The study involved 26 patients (18 women and 8 men, mean age 56.46 ± 8.83 years) with biopsy-proven COP. After being treated with CAM, a complete recovery was achieved in 22 patients, while four patients did not respond to the treatment. The ELISA method was used to measure the serum and BAL-f concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β. Before treatment, the serum IL-1β1, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β1 concentrations were similar in responders and non-responders. Significant decreases in serum concentrations of IL-6 (8.98 ± 13.26 pg/mL vs. 3.1 ± 6.95 pg/mL; p = 0.005), IL-8 (20.14 ± 25.72 pg/mL vs. 10.14 ± 6.8 pg/mL; p = 0.007) and TGF-β1 (37.89 ± 12.49 ng/mL vs. 26.49 ± 12.45 ng/mL; p = 0.001) were found after treatment, as well as a significant decrease in the BAL-f concentration of IL-6 (30.56 ± 56.78 pg/mL vs. 4.53 ± 5.84 pg/mL; p = 0.036). Clarithromycin treatment resulted in a significantly lower mean value of serum IL-6 responders than non-responders. In COP patients, response to clarithromycin treatment was associated with decreases in serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β, and of rations, and of the BAL-f concentration of IL-6.

  13. Dynamic changes of immunoglobulin concentrations in pig colostrum and serum around parturition.

    PubMed

    Markowska-Daniel, I; Pomorska-Mól, M; Pejsak, Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations in porcine serum and colostrum, in order to evaluate their variations in the perinatal period, as well as to clarify whether there is a correlation between colostrum intake, initial level of immunoglobulins (Ig) in piglet serum and development of their own immunity. The mean IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations in sow serum 10 days before parturition were 1.58, 6.12 and 39.56 mg/ml, respectively. Seven days later only the IgG level was insignificantly lower (34.94 mg/ml, p = 0.55), while concentrations of IgA and IgM increased to 2.25 and 7.25 mg/ml, respectively (p = 0.23 and 0.62, respectively). The mean initial IgG concentration in colostrum at farrowing was 118.5 mg/ml and differed between sows. The average value of IgA in colostrum at birth was 23.8 mg/ml and decreased to 7.85 mg/ml at 6 hours (h) and to 4.59 mg/ml at 24 h after the onset of farrowing. IgM concentration at birth was 12.1 mg/ml and decreased to 4.23 mg/ml at 24 h postpartum. Positive relationships were found between concentrations of IgM and IgA in serum of piglets at 14 and 56 days of life (r = 0.41 and 0.80, respectively, p < or = 0.05) as well as for IgG concentration in the piglets serum at 7 days and 56 days of age (r = 0.48, p < or = 0.05). The above observations suggest that there is a correlation between the level of Ig in piglet serum in the first days of life and improvement of their own immunity.

  14. Serum concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of pregnant females and changes in their concentrations during gestation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Jain, Ram B; Wolkin, Amy F; Rubin, Carol H; Needham, Larry L

    2009-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females residing in the United States and assessed differences in these concentrations in all pregnant females during gestation. We reviewed demographic and laboratory data for pregnant females participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including concentrations of 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 9 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 9 organochlorine pesticides. We report serum concentrations for first-time pregnant females (2001-2002; n = 49) and evaluate these concentrations in all pregnant females by trimester (1999-2002; n = 203) using a cross-sectional analysis. The chemicals with >or= 60% detection included PCBs (congeners 126, 138/158, 153, 180), PCDDs/PCDFs [1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1234678HpCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (123678HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (1234678HpCDF), 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethenylidene)-bis(4-chlorobenzene) (p,p'-DDE)], and trans-nonachlor. The geometric mean concentration (95% confidence intervals) for 1234678HpCDD was 15.9 pg/g lipid (5.0-50.6 pg/g); for 123678HxCDD, 9.7 pg/g (5.5-17.1 pg/g); and for 1234678HpCDF, 5.4 pg/g (3.3-8.7 pg/g). The differences in concentrations of these chemicals by trimester were better accounted for with the use of lipid-adjusted units than with whole-weight units; however, the increase in the third-trimester concentration was greater for PCDDs/PCDFs (123678HxCDD, 1234678HpCDF) than for the highest concentration of indicator PCBs (138/158, 153, 180), even after adjusting for potential confounders. The concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females living in the United States suggest a decline in exposures to these chemicals since their ban or restricted use and emission. The redistribution of body burden for

  15. Pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce serum triglycerides and the expression of lipogenic genes.

    PubMed

    Larrieta, Elena; Velasco, Fidel; Vital, Paz; López-Aceves, Teresita; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, María Luisa; Rojas, Alberto; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2010-10-10

    Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin reduce hypertriglyceridemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect lipid metabolism are largely unknown. The present study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on triglyceridemia, insulin sensitivity and on mRNA expression of various lipogenic genes. Three-week-old male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a biotin-control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7mg of free biotin/kg diet, respectively) over a period of eight weeks. Serum triglyceride concentrations, insulin and glucose tolerance and mRNA abundance of various lipogenic genes were investigated. The biotin-supplemented group showed 35% less serum triglycerides than control mice. In the liver, we found a significant (P<0.05) reduction of mRNA levels of SREBP1-c, glucose transporter-2, phosphofructokinase-1, pyruvate kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression increased. No changes in glucokinase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, FoxO1 or PPAR-gamma expression were observed. In adipose tissue, we found a decreased expression of SREBP1c, glucose-6-phosphate deshydrogenase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, phosphofructokinase-1 and PPAR-gamma, but no changes in FoxO1 expression. Moreover, the group fed a biotin-supplemented diet showed a significant decrease in adipose tissue weight. No differences in insulin sensitivity or serum insulin concentrations were observed between groups. Our results indicate that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease serum tryglyceride concentrations and lipogenic gene expression in liver and adipose tissues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Endothelial function and serum concentration of toxic metals in frequent consumers of fish.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Silvio; Vasto, Sonya; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Grosso, Giuseppe; Bergante, Sonia; Galvano, Fabio; Massenti, Fatima Maria; Amodio, Emanuele; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Verga, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Consumption of fish is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but there is paucity of data concerning its effect on endothelial function. Furthermore, investigation of the effects of fish consumption on health must take into account the ingestion of contaminants, including transition metals and some metalloids, which may have unfavorable effects on health, including those on the cardiovascular system. We investigated the association between fish consumption, endothelial function (flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery), and serum concentration of some toxic metals in apparently healthy people. Twenty-nine high fish consumers (at least 3 portions a week) were compared with 25 low fish consumers (less than 1 portion a week). All participants were free of diabetes, cardiovascular or other systemic diseases. Serum metal (antimonium, arsenic, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, strontium) concentrations were measured in subgroups of 24 high fish consumers and 19 low fish consumers. Both groups exhibited similar habitual dietary patterns, age and anthropometric characteristics. The high fish consumers had higher flow mediated dilation (9.7 ± 1.8 vs. 7.3 ± 1.9%; P<0.001), but also higher serum concentrations of mercury (5.87 ± 2.69 vs. 1.65 ± 1.10 mcg/L; P<0.001) and arsenic (6.04 ± 3.25 vs. 2.30 ± 1.58 mcg/L; P<0.001). The fasting plasma glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with both mercury (r = 0.39; P = 0.01) and arsenic concentrations (r = 0.55; P<0.001). Habitual consumption of high amounts of fish is associated with better endothelial function despite higher serum concentrations of mercury and arsenic.

  17. Endothelial Function and Serum Concentration of Toxic Metals in Frequent Consumers of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Silvio; Vasto, Sonya; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Grosso, Giuseppe; Bergante, Sonia; Galvano, Fabio; Massenti, Fatima Maria; Amodio, Emanuele; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Verga, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Consumption of fish is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, but there is paucity of data concerning its effect on endothelial function. Furthermore, investigation of the effects of fish consumption on health must take into account the ingestion of contaminants, including transition metals and some metalloids, which may have unfavorable effects on health, including those on the cardiovascular system. We investigated the association between fish consumption, endothelial function (flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery), and serum concentration of some toxic metals in apparently healthy people. Methods Twenty-nine high fish consumers (at least 3 portions a week) were compared with 25 low fish consumers (less than 1 portion a week). All participants were free of diabetes, cardiovascular or other systemic diseases. Serum metal (antimonium, arsenic, mercury, lead, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium, strontium) concentrations were measured in subgroups of 24 high fish consumers and 19 low fish consumers. Results Both groups exhibited similar habitual dietary patterns, age and anthropometric characteristics. The high fish consumers had higher flow mediated dilation (9.7±1.8 vs. 7.3±1.9%; P<0.001), but also higher serum concentrations of mercury (5.87±2.69 vs. 1.65±1.10 mcg/L; P<0.001) and arsenic (6.04±3.25 vs. 2.30±1.58 mcg/L; P<0.001). The fasting plasma glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with both mercury (r = 0.39; P = 0.01) and arsenic concentrations (r = 0.55; P<0.001). Conclusions Habitual consumption of high amounts of fish is associated with better endothelial function despite higher serum concentrations of mercury and arsenic. PMID:25401695

  18. Serum BDNF Concentrations Show Strong Seasonal Variation and Correlations with the Amount of Ambient Sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Molendijk, Marc L.; Haffmans, Judith P. M.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Prickaerts, Jos; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2012-01-01

    Earlier findings show seasonality in processes and behaviors such as brain plasticity and depression that in part are regulated by Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). Based on this we investigated seasonal variation in serum BDNF concentrations in 2,851 persons who took part in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Analyses by month of sampling (monthly n’s >196) showed pronounced seasonal variation in serum BDNF concentrations (P<.0001) with increasing concentrations in the spring-summer period (standardized regression weight (ß) = 0.19, P<.0001) and decreasing concentrations in the autumn-winter period (ß = −0.17, P<.0001). Effect sizes [Cohen’s d] ranged from 0.27 to 0.66 for monthly significant differences. We found similar seasonal variation for both sexes and for persons with a DSM-IV depression diagnosis and healthy control subjects. In explorative analyses we found that the number of sunshine hours (a major trigger to entrain seasonality) in the week of blood withdrawal and the 10 weeks prior to this event positively correlated with serum BDNF concentrations (Pearson’s correlation coefficients ranged: 0.05 – 0.18) and this could partly explain the observed monthly variation. These results provide strong evidence that serum BDNF concentrations systematically vary over the year. This finding is important for our understanding of those factors that regulate BDNF expression and may provide novel avenues to understand seasonal dependent changes in behavior and illness such as depression. Finally, the findings reported here should be taken into account when designing and interpreting studies on BDNF. PMID:23133609

  19. Hot flashes are not predictive for serum concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen has dramatically reduced the recurrence and mortality rate of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. However, the efficacy of tamoxifen varies between individuals and 40% of patients will have a recurrence despite adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. Factors that predict tamoxifen efficacy would be helpful for optimizing treatment. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite, endoxifen, may be positively related to treatment outcome. In addition, hot flashes are suggested to be positively associated with tamoxifen treatment outcome. Methods We investigated in a series of 109 patients whether the frequency and severity of hot flashes were related to concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites. A serum sample of all patients was analyzed for the concentration of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, endoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, as well as for estradiol concentrations and several single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2D6. Additionally, these patients completed a questionnaire concerning biometric data and treatment side effects. Results We found no evidence supporting an association between concentrations of tamoxifen or metabolites and either the frequency or severity of hot flashes in the covariate unadjusted analyses. However, including interactions with menopausal status and pre-treatment hot flash (PTHF) history indicated that post-menopausal women with PTHF experienced an increasing frequency of hot flashes with increasing serum concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites. This finding was not altered when adjusting for potential confounding factors (duration of tamoxifen treatment, CYP2D6 phenotype, estradiol serum concentration, age and body mass index). In addition we observed a positive association between body mass index and both hot flash frequency (p = 0.04) and severity (p < 0.0001). We also observed that patients with lower estradiol levels reported more severe hot flashes (p = 0.02). Conclusions No univariate

  20. Hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentration during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Majid; Barmaki, Babak; Nasimi, Ali

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypertension on hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations in normotensive (NT) and deoxycorticosteron acetate (DOCA)-Salt hypertensive (HT) rats. Uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock was induced in NT and HT rats (n=7 each) by preliminary bleed of 25 ml/kg followed by a 75% tail amputation. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and serum nitrite were measured pre-hemorrhage and during hemorrhage. Changes in time-averaged MAP after hemorrhage were significantly greater in HT group than NT. After resuscitation, the HT rats failed to restore MAP to baseline level. Serum nitrite level in both groups was significantly increased during shock period. Survival rate of HT animals was lower than NT group, although it was not statistically significant. Marked reduction of MAP and less improvement after resuscitation suggested the less adaptation of cardiovascular system in HT animals which may interfere with management of these subjects during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock.

  1. Monitoring of heparin concentration in serum by Raman spectroscopy within hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetani, Altaf; Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Harb, Alaa; Anis, Hanan

    2011-08-01

    The feasibility of using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy has been explored for real time monitoring of heparin concentration in serum. Heparin is an important blood anti-coagulant whose precise monitoring and controlling in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and dialysis is of utmost importance. Our method of heparin monitoring offers a novel alternative to existing clinical procedures in terms of accuracy, response time and sample volume. The optical design configuration simply involves a 785-nm laser diode whose light is coupled into HC-PCF filled with heparin-serum mixtures. By non-selectively filling HC-PCF, a strong modal field overlap is obtained. Consequently, an enhanced Raman signal (>90 times) is obtained from various heparin-serum mixtures filled HC-PCFs compared to its bulk counterpart (cuvette). The present scheme has the potential to serve as a `generic biosensing tool' for diagnosing a wide range of biological samples.

  2. Association of dietary phosphate and serum phosphorus concentration by levels of kidney function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Linda W; Nolte, Joy V; Gaber, A Osama; Suki, Wadi N

    2015-08-01

    The health implications of dietary phosphorus intake and the role of kidney function in managing serum phosphorus homeostasis are well studied. However, examining the source of dietary phosphorus intake and its impact on serum phosphorus has not been characterized in population studies. This study aimed to distinguish the association of food sources of organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphate additives with serum phosphorus concentration. A cross-sectional analysis of 24-h food recall data from 7895 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was performed. Phosphorus content of foods was categorized as organic or inorganic. Correlations of serum phosphorus to clinical and dietary intake variables were achieved by using multiple regression analysis. After controlling for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²), and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, a significant increase in serum phosphorus occurred with dairy foods with inorganic phosphates [parameter estimate (PE) ± SE: 0.07 ± 0.02 mg/dL, P < 0.01] or without inorganic phosphates (PE: 0.02 ± 0.01, P < 0.001) and cereals/grains with inorganic phosphates (PE: 0.005 ± 0.002, P < 0.01). Significantly higher serum phosphorus occurred when eGRF was <30 (PE: 0.24 ± 0.08, P < 0.0001), but eGFR 30-44 (PE: -0.11 ± 0.04, P < 0.01) and 45-60 (PE: -0.10 ± 0.04, P < 0.01) were associated with lower serum phosphorus; higher serum phosphorus was associated with BMI <18.5 (PE: 0.18 ± 0.05, P = 0.0009) but lower with BMI ≥35-39 (PE: -0.09 ± 0.03, P = 0.0013) or ≥40 (PE: -0.10 ± 0.03, P = 0.014). This analysis shows that dairy products and cereals/grains having inorganic phosphate additives significantly increase serum phosphorus concentration, despite being consumed less frequently than foods without phosphate additives. It seems prudent for the Nutrient Facts Label to include phosphorus but also for food manufacturers to consider

  3. Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify immunoglobulin G concentrations in alpaca serum.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Hou, S; Riley, C B; Shaw, R A; Jewett, N; McClure, J T

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, economical, and quantitative assays for measurement of camelid serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are limited. In camelids, failure of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins has a reported prevalence of up to 20.5%. An accurate method for quantifying serum IgG concentrations is required. To develop an infrared spectroscopy-based assay for measurement of alpaca serum IgG and compare its performance to the reference standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. One hundred and seventy-five privately owned, healthy alpacas. Eighty-two serum samples were collected as convenience samples during routine herd visits whereas 93 samples were recruited from a separate study. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by RID assays and midinfrared spectra were collected for each sample. Fifty samples were set aside as the test set and the remaining 125 training samples were employed to build a calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) regression with Monte Carlo cross validation to determine the optimum number of PLS factors. The predictive performance of the calibration model was evaluated by the test set. Correlation coefficients for the IR-based assay were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively, for the entire data set and test set. Sensitivity in the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) ([IgG] <1,000 mg/dL) was 71.4% and specificity was 100% for the IR-based method (test set) as gauged relative to the RID reference method assay. This study indicated that infrared spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, is an effective method for measurement of IgG in alpaca serum. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  5. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 serum activity and concentration are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blauschmidt, Sindy; Greither, Thomas; Lampe, Katharina; Köller, Solveig; Kaltwaßer, Petra; Behre, Hermann M

    2017-08-11

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease, the etiology of which is not well understood. Alterations in potential candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of androgens, folliculogenesis, and insulin and glucose metabolism have been suggested as possible etiologies. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis and, thus, in the regulation of insulin secretion. The aim of our study was to analyze the DPP4 activity and concentrations in the serum of PCOS and non-PCOS patients and, additionally, study the activation of the DPP4 promoter by androgens in vitro. Serum samples were obtained from 288 female patients treated at the Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology (154 non-PCOS and 134 PCOS patients). DPP4 activity was measured by the conversion of the DPP4 substrate Gly-Pro p-nitroanilide hydrochloride and DPP4 concentration with a commercial ELISA. Luciferase reporter assays, qPCR and Western Blot analyses were performed for the in vitro evaluation of the activation of the DPP4 promoter by androgens. DPP4 serum activity was increased in women with PCOS, regardless of which Rotterdam criteria led to the PCOS diagnosis. Furthermore, DPP4 serum levels were strongly correlated with the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serum level. In vitro, the DPP4 promoter was stimulated by androgens in luciferase reporter assays, and DPP4 mRNA expression was increased in KGN granulosa carcinoma cells after androgen treatment. The results suggested that a deregulation of DPP4 serum levels could be an additional characteristic of the metabolic imbalances associated with PCOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum zinc and magnesium concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Pushparani, D S; Anandan, S Nirmala; Theagarayan, P

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with periodontitis patients and to correlate them with the levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides among the study subjects. A total of 600 subjects participated in the study, who were divided into four groups as control healthy individuals (group I), type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II), type 2 DM with periodontitis (group III), and periodontitis subjects without DM (group IV), matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes. Serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c, Zn, and Mg were measured using enzymatic methods in an UV absorption spectrophotometer, and LDL-c was calculated using Friedwald's formula. Student's t-test, Pearson correlations, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. The serum zinc level was found to be significantly increased in type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II) and periodontitis subjects without type 2 DM (group IV) (P < 0.0001), and the level was lowered in type 2 DM with periodontitis (group III) when compared to control. The serum Mg level was found to be significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) in group II, group III, and in group IV, when compared to control. We found a significant increased level of serum total cholesterol and LDL-c and decreased triglycerides and HDL-c in type 2 DM subjects with periodontitis (group III, P < 0.0001). Patients with DM and periodontitis had altered metabolism of Zn and Mg which were linked to increased values of serum cholesterol and LDL-c and decreased HDL-c, contributing to the progression and complications of type 2 DM with periodontitis.

  7. Serum zinc and magnesium concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Pushparani, D. S.; Anandan, S. Nirmala; Theagarayan, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with periodontitis patients and to correlate them with the levels of serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides among the study subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 subjects participated in the study, who were divided into four groups as control healthy individuals (group I), type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II), type 2 DM with periodontitis (group III), and periodontitis subjects without DM (group IV), matched for age, sex, and duration of diabetes. Serum concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c, Zn, and Mg were measured using enzymatic methods in an UV absorption spectrophotometer, and LDL-c was calculated using Friedwald's formula. Student's t-test, Pearson correlations, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The serum zinc level was found to be significantly increased in type 2 DM without periodontitis (group II) and periodontitis subjects without type 2 DM (group IV) (P < 0.0001), and the level was lowered in type 2 DM with periodontitis (group III) when compared to control. The serum Mg level was found to be significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) in group II, group III, and in group IV, when compared to control. We found a significant increased level of serum total cholesterol and LDL-c and decreased triglycerides and HDL-c in type 2 DM subjects with periodontitis (group III, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Patients with DM and periodontitis had altered metabolism of Zn and Mg which were linked to increased values of serum cholesterol and LDL-c and decreased HDL-c, contributing to the progression and complications of type 2 DM with periodontitis. PMID:24872627

  8. Resting and dobutamine stress test induced serum concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide in German Shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Spasojević Kosić, Ljubica; Trailović, Dragiša R; Matunović, Radomir

    2012-12-01

    Studies of clinical uses of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) represent one of the most important advances in cardiology since the introduction of echocardiography as a clinical diagnostic procedure. Defining the clinical potential of BNP in canine cardiology has not been completed yet. The aim of this study is to measure BNP concentrations in healthy German Shepherd dogs of different ages as a baseline in resting and when conventional protocol of the dobutamine stress test (DST) is applied to dogs. Concentrations of BNP were measured in blood serum by the radioimmunoassay method. The values of BNP concentrations were compared to cardiac parameters obtained by standard cardiac diagnostic procedures (radiology, electrocardiography and echocardiography). No significant differences in serum BNP concentrations existed in dogs of different ages. A statistically significant increase in BNP concentrations was registered after DST. These changes in BNP concentrations were related to ST/T electrocardiographic changes, and correlated to changes in the left ventricular internal diameter in systole (LVESD). These data suggest that BNP is not increased in aged dogs with normal cardiac systolic function and renal function, and that myocardial ischemia leads to a significant increase in BNP concentrations even in dogs with normal left ventricular function.

  9. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    PubMed Central

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  10. The effect of serum iron concentration on iron secretion into mouse milk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peifang; Sawicki, Valerie; Lewis, Andy; Hanson, Linda; Monks, Jenifer; Neville, Margaret C

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of iron in mouse milk is approximately 3 times that of the serum. Although there is clear evidence for the presence of the transferrin receptor in the rodent mammary gland, the precise mechanisms of iron transfer into milk are not known. Milk iron was linearly related to the serum iron:transferrin ratio in lactating mice whose serum iron ranged from 8 to 66 μm. Increasing the iron binding capacity of the milk by 340 μm by targeting the lactoferrin transgene to the mammary gland did not alter the relation between milk iron and the serum iron:transferrin ratio. The steady-state distribution ratio of 125I-transferrin between plasma and milk was about 0.2, indicating that transcytosed transferrin contributed a maximum of 6% of the milk iron. Fluorescently labelled transferrin incubated with the in situ gland localized mainly near the basal surface of the mammary alveolar cells. These experiments provide evidence that the initial and rate-limiting step in the transfer of iron into milk is binding to a basal transferrin receptor. A theoretical model of the relation between milk and serum iron suggests that the affinity of apotransferrin for the basal recycling system may be higher than observed in many other cell types. PMID:10713971

  11. Physiological concentrations of serum cortisol are related to vascular risk markers in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Rodríguez, Pilar; Osiniri, Inés; Grau-Cabrera, Pilar; Riera-Pérez, Elena; Prats-Puig, Anna; Carbonell-Alferez, Míriam; Schneider, Stephan; Mora-Maruny, Carme; De Zegher, Francis; Ibánez, Lourdes; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel

    2010-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that cortisol contributes to cardiovascular risk. It is unclear whether physiological concentrations of serum cortisol are related to vascular risk markers in children. The cross-sectional associations between morning serum cortisol and cardiovascular risk markers: blood pressure (BP) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), were examined in a sample of healthy prepubertal children (age, 6.8 ± 0.1 y) attending primary care clinics. Serum cortisol was associated with increased systolic BP (SBP; n = 223; p < 0.001) and carotid IMT (n = 91; p < 0.0001). These associations were independent from age, BMI, body fat, waist, insulin resistance, serum lipids, and heart rate (HR). No gender interactions were apparent in these associations. In summary, a higher morning serum cortisol within the physiological range is in prepubertal children associated with vascular risk markers. Because childhood risk factors predict adult risk for cardiovascular disease, these observations may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular disease early in life.

  12. Decreased angiogenin concentration in vitreous and serum in proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Marek, Natalia; Raczyńska, Krystyna; Siebert, Janusz; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Myśliwska, Jolanta; Reiwer-Gostomska, Magdalena; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2011-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss in young adults in developed countries. The disease therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents gives some positive results, but is associated with retinal ischemia and vasoconstriction. Therefore, determination of factors involved in the physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the diabetic eye is of great importance for understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and its effective treatment. Previously, we found that diabetic patients were characterized by increased serum concentration of VEGF, but decreased levels of other proangiogenic factor-angiogenin. The involvement of VEGF in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is well established, but there is lack of data regarding angiogenin in retinopathy. Therefore, in the present study we measured angiogenin concentration in vitreous and serum samples of the patients with type 1 diabetes to determine its role in diabetic retinopathy. In addition, in each time, we compared the level of angiogenin with level of VEGF as a known factor involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Angiogenin was found to be significantly more abundant in serum than in vitreous in both diabetic groups. In addition, patients with retinopathy had twofold lower vitreous angiogenin levels than diabetic individuals without complications. On the contrary, vitreous concentration of VEGF was dramatically increased only in participants with retinopathy. Patients without diabetic complications had significantly lower VEGF levels in vitreous than in serum and were characterized by high local and systemic concentration of angiogenin. These data suggest a local imbalance between two proangiogenic factors-VEGF and angiogenin in retinopathy. Low vitreous concentration of angiogenin in diabetic patients suggests that this factor is not responsible for pathological neovascularization in diabetic eye. Further studies will elucidate if angiogenin can be

  13. Intradialytic serum protein concentrations differ between nightly nocturnal and conventional haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Kathryn J; Somerville, Christine A; Knight, Richard; Simmonds, Rosemary; Boddington, Janeane; Agar, John W M

    2005-08-01

    Nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD) is a new haemodialysis (HD) modality that has been shown to have many benefits when compared with conventional haemodialysis (CHD). Previous results from our NHD programme have demonstrated a 7% fall in the postdialysis serum albumin concentration when compared with the pre-HD levels. A similar, physiological, 9% haemodilution of albumin is seen in normal individuals on assuming a supine posture. In this observational study, the intradialytic change in the concentration of 11 serum proteins (total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine transaminase, amylase, transferrin, complement factors 3 and 4, free thyroxine and C-reactive protein (CRP)) was measured in 10 patients on NHD and in 10 age- and sex-matched controls on CHD. The ultrafiltration rate (UFR) was also recorded. We demonstrated an intradialytic fall in the total protein (0.63%), albumin (2.40%), alkaline phosphatase (1.84%), amylase (8.82%), complement factor 3 (2.73%) and CRP (8.19%) in patients on NHD. This was of a lesser magnitude than that occurring in the pilot study but still approximated the physiological fall in serum proteins occurring with overnight recumbency in normal individuals. In contrast, all serum proteins measured rose during CHD, reflecting intravascular volume contraction and haemoconcentration. The UFR was significantly lower in NHD than CHD (234.52+/-20.90 mL/h vs 435.38+/-38.44 mL/h, P<0.001). We concluded that NHD is a modality that facilitates the use of a low UFR and hence the slow removal of volume which, in turn, results in a minimal perturbation of the normal recumbent volume distribution mechanism and the partial preservation of the normal physiological response to recumbency of the serum protein concentration.

  14. Changes of Serum Adiponectin and Testosterone Concentrations Following Twelve Weeks Resistance Training in Obese Young Men.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Circulating levels of adiponectin and testosterone decrease in obese men and this increases risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to survey changes of serum adiponectin and testosterone concentrations following twelve weeks resistance training in obese young men. In a semi-experimental study, twenty one obese young men were randomly placed in two groups: resistance training (26.5 ± 2.8 years) and control (27.4 ± 2.9 years). General characteristics of subjects and serum levels of adiponectin and testosterone were assessed before and after training. Resistance training protocol consisted of twelve weeks weight training (3 sessions per week, 10 exercises, 3 sets of 8 - 12 repetitions in each exercise, intensity 60% - 80% of one repetition maximum, rest between sets 1 minute and between exercises 2 minutes, duration of main training 20 - 40 minutes per each session). Resistance training had no significant effect on body weight and body mass index (P > 0.05), whereas it decreased body fat percent (P = 0.017). Also, serum adiponectin (8.1 ± 1.8 vs. 10.5 ± 2.3 μg/mL) and testosterone concentrations (6.9 ± 2.4 vs. 8.2 ± 1.7 ng/mL) were increased after resistance training (P = 0.033, P = 0.018 respectively), while there were no significant changes in serum levels of these hormones in control group (P > 0.05). Twelve weeks of resistance training increased serum concentrations of adiponectin and testosterone in obese young men. With respect to inverse associations between changes of adiponectin and testosterone with BFP and insulin level variations after resistance training, it is recommended that obese young men do resistance training to benefit useful decreasing/preventive effects of this type of training against the risks of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

  15. Serum ADMA concentration-- an independent factor determining FMD impairment in cardiac syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Haberka, Maciej; Mizia-Stec, Katarzyna; Gasior, Zbigniew; Mizia, Magdalena; Janowska, Joanna; Holecki, Michał; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of decreased endogenous vascular reactivity in individuals with cardiac syndrome X (CSX) are not fully understood. To evaluate the following serum markers: total nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and to establish their relation to ultrasound indexes of endothelial function and structural remodeling in CSX patients. The study group consisted of 43 CSX patients (mean age: 56.3 +/- 9 years), while the control group included 21 healthy subjects (mean age: 54.86 +/- 6.9 years). The high-resolution ultrasound was performed to measure: flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), nitroglycerine-mediated vasodilatation (NMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries. In CSX patients, significantly lower FMD (9.06 +/- 3.2%) and significantly higher IMT (0.667 +/- 0.14 mm) values were observed compared to healthy individuals (17.42 +/- 8.4%, 0.571 +/- 0.2 mm; P < 0.05). Mean total NO serum concentration was significantly higher in the CSX group (48.2 +/- 18.2 micromol/L) as compared to controls (32.1 +/- 1.4 micromol/L; P < 0.0001). There were no differences in serum ADMA and PDGF levels. In CSX patients, FMD values correlated with NO (r = 0.323; P = 0.039) and ADMA (r = -0.387; P = 0.012) serum levels; however, there were no significant correlations between NO and ADMA concentrations. Serum ADMA concentration is the only independent factor determining FMD impairment.

  16. Determination of trace cobalt concentrations in human serum by adsorptive stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Kajic, Petra; Milosev, Ingrid; Pihlar, Boris; Pisot, Venceslav

    2003-01-01

    The goal of our study was to develop an accurate and reliable method for determining trace cobalt concentrations in human serum. The method was used to determine cobalt in the sera of healthy persons and patients with orthopaedic implants containing cobalt - a possible source of systemic release of cobalt into the human body. This goal is of vital interest since cobalt and its compounds are classified by IARC as potentially carcinogenic to humans. We used an electrochemical method, adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV), which made possible the low detection limit and high sensitivity needed for measurements in human serum. The serum was acid digested by a combination of H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 in a 10 mL Kjeldhal flask. The digested sample was then dissolved in 0.1 mol/L ammonia buffer, pH 9.0 +/- 0.2. The determination is based on the adsorptive collection of the complex of cobalt (II) with dimethylglyoxime on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The optimum values of adsorption potential and time were determined to be -0.8 V and 60 s. The optimisation of the sample digestion protocol and measurement procedures ensured the reliable assessment of low cobalt concentrations, down to 0.03 microg/L. The mean concentration of serum cobalt in four healthy persons was 0.11 +/- 0.06 microg/L, and in four patients with total hip replacements 0.34 +/- 0.07 microg/L. This method will be used routinely for measuring serum cobalt levels in patients with total hip replacements.

  17. Serum S100B protein concentration in brain-dead organ donors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Łukasz J; Czempik, Piotr Filip; Saucha, Wojciech; Kokocińska, Danuta; Knapik, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Protein S100B is considered to be a marker of brain damage, but there is a paucity of data regarding the utility of its assessment in brain-dead organ donors. The aim of the study was to compare serum protein S100B concentrations between brain-dead organ donors and patients with a confirmed permanent neurological deficit but without signs of brain death. The concentration of serum S100B protein was measured in 12 brain-dead organ donors (including 7 males with a median age of 40 years). All measurements were taken when brain death was confirmed by the commission. Twenty-nine patients (including 13 males with a median age of 63 years) who died in the medical ICU with confirmed permanent brain injury without signs of brain death acted as controls. In these patients, S-100B protein measurements were performed upon ICU admission. In brain-dead organ donors, the median values of serum S100B protein were much higher in comparison to the control group (median and IQR, respectively: 5.04 μg L⁻¹; 1.775-6.765 vs 0.897 μg L⁻¹; 0.324-1.880, P < 0.001). S100B serum values > 1.81 μg L⁻¹ predicted brain death with the highest accuracy (AUROC = 0.83; 95% CI 0.68-0.93; P < 0.001). Concentrations of serum S100B protein in brain-dead organ donors are extremely high and may support the diagnosis of brain death. This fact may be of value when the presence of reflex movements (frequently reported despite brain death) might delay determination of brain death and result in the failure of organ donation.

  18. Serum concentrations of apoptosis-associated molecules in septic children with leukemia, neutropenia and fever.

    PubMed

    Reyna-Figueroa, Jesus; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Galindo-Delgado, Patricia; Fernández-Bautista, María Fernanda; Castro-Oteo, Paola Guadalupe; Martínez-Matsumoto, Pilar; Perez, Erika Melchy; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Limón-Rojas, Ana Elena; Ortiz-Ibarra, Federico Javier; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2017-05-01

    It has been shown that Fas, Fas-L, TNF and TNFR-1 display high serum concentrations in subjects with sepsis. This suggests that these are potential severity markers. However, the serum concentration of these molecules in children with leukemia and suspected sepsis has to be established before proposing their use as diagnostic biomarkers. We included children <17 years of age diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with neutropenia and fever (NF). The subjects were divided into two groups: (1) leukemia and NF with sepsis, (2) leukemia and NF without sepsis. Determination of serum levels of TNF-α, TNFR-1, Fas and Fas-L was performed using ELISA tests, and apoptosis percentage using flow cytometry. Seventy-two subjects with ALL and NF were included in the two groups. The highest serum levels of TNF-α (35.2 ± 7.6 pg/ml) and TNF-R1 (4102 ± 2440) and the lowest levels of Fas-L (19.4 ± 7.3 pg/ml) were found in group 2: however, the difference in comparison with patients without sepsis was not statistically significant. Low levels of Fas-L and low percentage of apoptotic cells are observed in septic subjects. This pattern may reflect the presence of sepsis among subjects with NF secondary to leukemia.

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and physical function in adult men

    PubMed Central

    Ceglia, Lisa; Chiu, Gretchen R.; Harris, Susan S.; Araujo, Andre B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Recent reports suggest that vitamin D status influences musculoskeletal health; yet, there are limited data in adult men. This study investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was associated with lean body mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in men. Design Population-based, observational survey Participants 1,219 black, Hispanic, and white randomly-selected men aged 30–79 y from the Boston Area Community Health/Bone Survey Measurements Lean body mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, hand-grip strength, a composite physical function score (chair stand and walking speed), 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), testosterone, age, race, body mass index, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, arthritis, self-reported health, calcium intake, physical activity. Results The distributions of serum 25(OH)D quartiles differed by race/ethnicity, education, and smoking status. After adjustment for multiple lifestyle factors, serum 25(OH)D was not related to lean body mass, grip strength, or the composite physical function score (all p>0.20). There was no variation in the associations between 25(OH)D level and outcomes by race/ethnicity. The relationship between PTH and the outcomes revealed similar results. Conclusion In this population-based sample of adult men with a broad age range, there was no association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and lean body mass, muscle strength, and physical function after controlling for multiple lifestyle factors. PMID:21083597

  20. Temporal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) serum concentrations over one year.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Carignan, Courtney C; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies.

  1. Oral lixivaptan effectively increases serum sodium concentrations in outpatients with euvolemic hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Decaux, Guy; Josiassen, Richard C; Yagil, Yoram; Kopyt, Nelson; Thacker, Hemant P; Mannelli, Massimo; Bichet, Daniel G; Orlandi, Cesare

    2012-12-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in clinical practice. Its incidence increases with age and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently, the vaptans, antagonists of the arginine vasopressin pathway, have shown promise for safe treatment of hyponatremia. Here we evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of oral lixivaptan, a selective vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, for treatment of nonhospitalized individuals with euvolemic hyponatremia (sodium less than 135 mmol/l) in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study. About half of the 206 patients were elderly in a chronic care setting. Of these patients, 52 were given a placebo and 154 were given 25-100 mg per day lixivaptan, titrated based on the daily serum sodium measurements. Compared with placebo (0.8 mmol/l), the serum sodium concentration significantly increased by 3.2 mmol/l from baseline to day 7 (primary efficacy endpoint) with lixivaptan treatment. A significantly greater proportion of patients that received lixivaptan achieved normal serum sodium (39.4%) by day 7 relative to placebo (12.2%). Overall, lixivaptan was considered safe and well-tolerated. Thus, oral lixivaptan can be safely initiated in the outpatient setting and effectively increases serum sodium concentrations in outpatients with euvolemic hyponatremia.

  2. Temporal Variability of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations over One Year

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  3. Oral Zinc Supplementation Decreases the Serum Iron Concentration in Healthy Schoolchildren: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; de Araújo Silva, Alfredo; Costa, João Batista Sousa; França, Mardone Cavalcante; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Brandão-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    The recognized antagonistic actions between zinc and iron prompted us to study this subject in children. A convenience sample was used. Thirty healthy children between 8 and 9 years of age were studied with the aim of establishing the effect of a 3-mo oral zinc supplementation on iron status. Fifteen individuals were given a placebo (control group), and 15 were given 10 mg Zn/day (experimental group). Blood samples were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180 and 210 min after a 12-h overnight fast, before and after placebo or zinc supplementation. This supplementation was associated with significant improvements in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, calcium, iron, and zinc intake in accordance with the recommendations for age and sex. The basal serum zinc concentration significantly increased after oral zinc supplementation (p < 0.001). However, basal serum iron concentrations and area under the iron curves significantly decreased in the experimental group (p < 0.0001) and remained at the same level throughout the 210-min study. The values obtained for hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin, transferrin, transferrin saturation, ceruloplasmin and total protein were within normal reference ranges. In conclusion, the decrease in serum iron was likely due to the effects of chronic zinc administration, and the decrease in serum iron was not sufficient to cause anemia. PMID:25192026

  4. Retrospective pilot study for analysis of antidepressant serum concentrations of citalopram and venlafaxine during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hefner, G; Shams, M E E; Unterecker, S; Falter, T; Hiemke, C

    2015-09-01

    Inflammation-mediated changes in drug metabolism may increase drug levels in blood and lead to intoxications. The objective of this study was to find out whether elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased serum concentrations of the antidepressants citalopram and venlafaxine. Therapeutic drug monitoring request forms of psychiatric patients were screened retrospectively. The serum concentrations in relation to the daily doses [(C/D) (ng/ml/mg)] and the metabolic ratios (metabolite/drug) were compared intraindividually under normal (<5 mg/l) and pathological (>5 mg/l) condition by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Elevated levels of CRP were not associated with a significant (P>0.05) increase in C/D for citalopram (2.4 ng/ml/mg vs. 2.85 ng/ml/mg, N=15) or in C/D for the active moiety of venlafaxine (1.76 ng/ml/mg vs. 1.68 ng/ml/mg, N=39), compared with normal CRP serum levels. No significant difference in the metabolic ratio was observed in both groups. There was no major effect of inflammation on the metabolism of citalopram and venlafaxine. Because of the broad therapeutic indices of these 2 drugs, the drugs seem to be a good choice for the treatment of depression, even if an infection occurs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and physical function in adult men.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, Lisa; Chiu, Gretchen R; Harris, Susan S; Araujo, Andre B

    2011-03-01

    Recent reports suggest that vitamin D status influences musculoskeletal health; yet, there are limited data in adult men. This study investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was associated with lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in men. Population-based, observational survey. 1219 black, Hispanic and white randomly selected men aged 30-79 years from the Boston Area Community Health/Bone Survey. Lean body mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hand grip strength, a composite physical function score (chair stand and walking speed), 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), testosterone, age, race, body mass index, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, arthritis, self-reported health, calcium intake, physical activity. The distributions of serum 25(OH)D quartiles differed by race/ethnicity, education and smoking status. After adjustment for multiple lifestyle factors, serum 25(OH)D was not related to lean body mass, grip strength or the composite physical function score (all P>0.20). There was no variation in the associations between 25(OH)D level and outcomes by race/ethnicity. The relationship between PTH and the outcomes revealed similar results. In this population-based sample of adult men with a broad age range, there was no association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and lean body mass, muscle strength and physical function after controlling for multiple lifestyle factors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Nativity and serum concentrations of antioxidants in Mexican American children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Persky, Victoria; Chavez, Noel

    2014-04-16

    There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4-16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  7. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  8. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    PubMed

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  9. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. Objective This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Methods Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10–100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Results Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Conclusions Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies

  10. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Susan L; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10-100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F

  11. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  12. Tryptophan concentrations in rat brain. Failure to correlate with free serum tryptophan or its ratio to the sum of other serum neutral amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, J D; Hirsch, M J; Faller, D V

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats were deprived of food overnight and then given free access to diets designed to raise (carbohydrate) or lower (carbohydrate and large neutral amino acids) brain tryptophan concentrations. Similar diets were supplemented with 40% fat and fed to other groups. All animals were killed 2h after food presentation. Sera from animals fed carbohydrate plus fat contained 2.5 times as much free tryptophan concentrations did not differ. Similarly, sera from rats fed on carbohydrate, large neutral amino acids, and 40% fat contained 5 times as much free tryptophan as those from rats given this meal without fat, but brain tryptophan concentrations increased by only 26%. Correlations were made between brain tryptophan and (1) free serum tryptophan, (2) the ratio of free serum tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids in serum that compete with it for uptake into the brain, (3) total serum tryptophan or (4) the ratio of total serum tryptophan to the sum of its circulating competitors. The r values for correlations (3) and (4) (i.e. those involving total serum tryptophan) were appreciably higher than those for correlations (1) and (2). Brain tyrosine concentrations also were found to correlate well with the ratio of serum tyrosine to the sum of its competitors. Competition for uptake into the brain among large neutral amino acids (represented here by serum ratios) thus appears to determine the changes in the brain concentrations of these amino acids under physiological conditions(i.e. after food consumption). Total, not free, serum tryptophan is the relevant index for predicting brain tryptophan concentrations. PMID:1016241

  13. Temporal association of serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kiwata, M; Kuwano, R; Sato, N; Tanaka, T; Nagata, M; Taira, H; Kusunoki, H

    2012-03-15

    Concentrations of serum estradiol-17β and progesterone were monitored in six female walruses using an enzyme immunoassay. Progesterone concentrations increased from March to May in females aged 6 y or older, and subsequently declined (October). No significant elevation of estradiol-17β concentration was detected before an elevation of progesterone concentration. Vaginal smears from four females were examined with Papanicolaou staining. In all females, most epithelial cells were basophilic intermediate-superficial cells; no color change from basophilic to eosinophilic of the cells was detected. Meanwhile, the percentage of anucleate cells in vaginal smears reached its highest value before the elevation of progesterone concentration, followed by an increase in the percentage of leukocytes. We inferred that the change in populations of anucleate cells and leukocytes in vaginal smears reflected ovarian status and CL formation in female walruses.

  14. [Serum concentration of calcium and calcitonin in hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Fereira-Valbuena, H; Fernández de Argüello, E; Campos, G; Ryder, E; Avellaneda, A

    1991-01-01

    Serum calcium and calcitonin were determined in 13 patients (12 women and 1 man), ages ranging from 30 to 40 years, with clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' Disease, confirmed by serum determinations of T3 and T4, with the purpose of establishing the relationship that these two substances may have in this pathology. The results obtained showed a decrease in seric calcium concentration in relation to a control group (10.02 +/-) 0.48 vs 11.49 +/- 0.28 mg/dl; p less than 0.005) and an increase in calcitonin concentration (193.6 +/- 8.62 vs 116.7 +/- 7.61 pg/ml; p less than 0.0001). We also found a significative negative association (r = -0.69; p less than 0.01) between these two compounds in the group of patients with hyperthyroidism, not being found in the control group.

  15. A concentration-dependent mechanism by which serum albumin inactivates replacement lung surfactants.

    PubMed Central

    Warriner, H E; Ding, J; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2002-01-01

    Endogenous lung surfactant, and lung surfactant replacements used to treat respiratory distress syndrome, can be inactivated during lung edema, most likely by serum proteins. Serum albumin shows a concentration-dependent surface pressure that can exceed the respreading pressure of collapsed monolayers in vitro. Under these conditions, the collapsed surfactant monolayer can not respread to cover the interface, leading to higher minimum surface tensions and alterations in isotherms and morphology. This is an unusual example of a blocked phase transition (collapsed to monolayer form) inhibiting bioactivity. The concentration-dependent surface activity of other common surfactant inhibitors including fibrinogen and lysolipids correlates well with their effectiveness as inhibitors. These results show that respreading pressure may be as important as the minimum surface tension in the design of replacement surfactants for respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11806925

  16. Another smoking hazard: raised serum IgE concentration and increased risk of occupational allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Zetterström, O; Osterman, K; Machado, L; Johansson, S G

    1981-01-01

    Individual smoking histories of a general population sample and of two groups of workers exposed to occupational allergens were related to serum IgE concentrations and results of radioallergosorbent and prick tests in the workers. The geometric mean IgE concentration was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. The distribution of serum IgE values in the two groups showed an apparent difference, with a bimodal appearance in the smokers. Evidence of sensitisation against occupational allergens was more common in workers who smoked. The adjuvant effect of smoking on IgE antibody production might be due to damage to airways mucosa and supports the mucosal theory of atopy. PMID:6797514

  17. Greater serum carotenoid concentration associated with higher bone mineral density in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z-Q; Cao, W-T; Liu, J; Cao, Y; Su, Y-X; Chen, Y-M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study has been performed to investigate the relationship between serum carotenoids and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese population. We found that women with higher serum β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, or α-carotene exhibited higher BMD at various bone sites. Similar association was observed between α-carotene and BMD in men. Carotenoids may positively regulate bone metabolism through their antioxidant properties; however, few studies have examined the relation between serum carotenoids and bone health. We aimed to determine the associations between the serum concentration of several carotenoid subclasses and BMD in a Chinese population. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. We measured 1898 women and 933 men aged 59.6 years who completed serum β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin + lutein, lycopene, and α-carotene concentration analyses and BMD assessments. Serum individual carotenoids were assessed by the methods of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was applied to determine BMD at whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, femur neck, and trochanter. ANCOVA was used to examine the correlations between categorized individual carotenoids and BMD at measured sites. After adjusting for potential covariates, a monotonic dose-response positive correlation between circulating levels of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and α-carotene and BMD at various skeletal sites was observed in women. Women in the top (vs. bottom) quartiles of serum β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, or α-carotene exhibited 1.8-2.3, 1.5-2.0, or 1.3-2.7 % higher BMD at the bone sites with significant results (P-trend <0.05), respectively. For men, the corresponding values were 2.6-4.0 % for α-carotene at the whole body and hip regions (P-trend <0.001-0.023). These results suggest that serum carotenoids have a favorable association with bone health in the study population, especially in women.

  18. Use Of Colistin Serum Concentrations After Intravenous Administration Of Colistimethate Sodium To Determine Pharmacokinetic And Pharmacodynamic Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-2-0183 TITLE: Use of Colistin Serum Concentrations...September 2010 – 27 September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Use of Colistin Serum Concentrations After Intravenous Administration of...define the pharmacokinetics of colistin after colistimethate sodium infusion and use clinical and microbiological data to explore pharmacodynamic

  19. Comparative study of serum zinc concentrations in benign and malignant prostate disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Qingjiang; Hu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Xingyou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Long, Zhou; Li, Longkun

    2016-05-12

    Many studies have investigated the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostatic disease, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to June 2015 for studies that involved the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Fourteen studies were identified from the databases. Our results illustrated that the serum zinc concentrations in prostate cancer patients were significantly lower than those in Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and normal controls (SMD (95% CI), -0.94 [-1.57, -0.32]; -1.18 [-1.90, -0.45]). However, the serum zinc concentrations in BPH patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (SMD (95% CI) 1.77 [0.15, 3.39]). The present study showed that different levels of serum zinc concentrations are correlated with different prostatic disease. Serum zinc concentration may be used as a tool for the diagnosis and screening of prostate disease. But, further studies with well-designed larger sample studies are needed in this field to further clarify the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease.

  20. Comparative study of serum zinc concentrations in benign and malignant prostate disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Qingjiang; Hu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Xingyou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Long, Zhou; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostatic disease, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to June 2015 for studies that involved the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Fourteen studies were identified from the databases. Our results illustrated that the serum zinc concentrations in prostate cancer patients were significantly lower than those in Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and normal controls (SMD (95% CI), −0.94 [−1.57, −0.32]; −1.18 [−1.90, −0.45]). However, the serum zinc concentrations in BPH patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (SMD (95% CI) 1.77 [0.15, 3.39]). The present study showed that different levels of serum zinc concentrations are correlated with different prostatic disease. Serum zinc concentration may be used as a tool for the diagnosis and screening of prostate disease. But, further studies with well-designed larger sample studies are needed in this field to further clarify the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. PMID:27170414

  1. [Study of cholesterol concentration based on serum UV-visible absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Guo, Xin; Chen, Hui

    2009-04-01

    In the present paper, UV-visible absorption spectrum and neural network theory were used for the analysis of cholesterol concentration. Experimental investigation shows that the absorption spectrum has the following characteristics in the wave band of 350-600 nm: (1) There is a stronger absorption peak at 416 nm for the test sample with different cholesterol concentration; (2) There is a shoulder peak between 450 and 500 nm, whose central wavelength is 460 nm; (3) There is a weaker peak at 578 nm; (4) Absorption spectrums shape of different cholesterol concentration is different obviously. The absorption spectrum of serum is the synthesis result of cholesterol and other components (such as sugar), and the information is contained at each wavelength. There is no significant correlation between absorbance and cholesterol content at 416 nm, showing a random relation, so whether cholesterol content is abnormal is not determined by the absorbance peak at 416 nm. Based on the evident correlation between serum absorption spectrum and cholesterol concentration in the wave band of 455-475 nm, a neural network model was built to predict the cholesterol concentration. The correlation coefficient between predicted cholesterol content output A and objectives T reaches 0.968, which can be regarded as better prediction, and it provides a spectra test method of cholesterol concentration.

  2. Impact of magnesium sulfate on serum magnesium concentrations and intracellular electrolyte concentrations among patients undergoing radio frequency catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin A; Clyne, Christopher A; Henyan, Nickole; Migeed, Magdy; Yarlagadda, Ravi; Silver, Burton B; Kluger, Jeffrey; White, C Michael

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated the impact of intravenous magnesium on intracellular magnesium (iMg) and serum magnesium (sMg) in patients undergoing radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF received 4g intravenous magnesium sulfate or normal saline in a randomized, double-blinded fashion. Venous blood and buccal cells were collected for evaluation of sMg and iMg at baseline, postinfusion, at the end of ablation procedure and six-hours posttherapy. All subjects (n = 18) had baseline sMg within normal range but iMg concentrations below normal in 89% of subjects. Baseline sMg and iMg concentrations were similar between groups. After infusion, the magnesium group had significantly higher sMg concentration than the placebo group over the six hours. In contrast, iMg concentrations were significantly higher than placebo immediately after the infusion (P = 0.007) but not at the end of RFCA or six-hours postinfusion (P = 0.187 and P = 0.267). iMg deficiencies exist despite normal sMg concentrations in patients undergoing RFCA. Intravenous magnesium sulfate corrects iMg deficiencies immediately postinfusion.

  3. Association of Low Serum Concentration of Bilirubin with Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    concentrations were decreased in individuals baseline tracing obtained before the subjects reached with CAD, whereas some of the liver-function enzyme age...Angiographic Data lis, IN). After July 1987, dextran sulfate, Mr 50 000 Summary statistics for the two groups are given in (Ciba Corning, Oberlin, OH), was...low serum bilirubin con- activity or increases in iron stores (9). centrations have been associated with good health, and It remains to be seen

  4. The effect of hemodialysis and hemoperfusion on serum valproic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Kandrotas, R J; Love, J M; Gal, P; Oles, K S

    1990-09-01

    We report a patient with dialysis-induced encephalopathy who was taking divalproex sodium for a seizure disorder. Her serum valproic acid concentration appeared to be in the low therapeutic range at 54 mg/l yet she continued to have seizure activity. The elimination half-life and apparent clearance of valproic acid were the same for both a dialysis and nondialysis day, indicating that hemodialysis/hemoperfusion has little effect on the overall removal of valproic acid from the body.

  5. Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women

    PubMed Central

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations. PMID:21711174

  6. Refractometer assessment of colostral and serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimation of the quantity of colostral IgG or serum IgG absorbed following ingestion of colostrum by calves is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of colostrum feeding practices on dairy farms. Milk total solids concentrations determination is a critical part of quality assessment of nonsaleable whole milk prior to feeding to calves. To date, on-farm methods to assess colostral IgG, serum IgG or milk total solids concentrations have been performed separately with various instruments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a single electronic, hand-held refractometer for assessing colostral and serum IgG concentrations and milk total solids in dairy cattle. Colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations were determined by the refractometer. Corresponding analysis of colostral and serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID) while milk total solids were determined by spectrophotometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for colostrum and serum samples were calculated as determined by RID. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer for milk samples was calculated as determined by spectrophotometry. Results The sensitivity of the refractometer was 1 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations. Specificity of the refractometer was 0.66, 0.24 and 0 for colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids determinations, respectively. The refractometer underestimated colostral IgG, serum IgG and milk total solids concentrations compared to the concentrations determined by RID or spectrophotometry. Conclusions The refractometer was an acceptable, rapid, convenient on-farm method for determining colostral IgG and milk total solids. The refractometer was not an acceptable method for determination of serum IgG concentrations as it severely underestimated the serum IgG concentrations. PMID:25125217

  7. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p < 0.001) and significantly lower in CD patients than in UC patients (p = 0.006). Se concentrations in patients were significantly influenced by sex, body mass index (BMI), the inflammatory biomarker α-1-antitrypsin, surgery, medical treatment, the severity, extent, and form of the disease and the length of time since onset (p < 0.05). Se concentrations in IBD patients were positively and linearly correlated with nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p < 0.05). A greater impairment of serum Se and cardiovascular status was observed in CD than in UC patients. An adequate nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  8. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in California women’s serum and residential dust

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Smith, Sabrina Crispo; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto X.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through various routes, including consumption of contaminated food and accidental ingestion of settled dust. Objectives We aimed to identify key routes of exposure to organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in California women of reproductive age. Methods Blood was collected from 48 mothers participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study from 2006–2007 and analyzed for POPs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression models of natural-log transformed serum concentrations were used to identify determinants of exposure from available questionnaire information on dietary habits, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics, as well as vacuum cleaner dust-POP levels. Results After adjusting for blood lipid levels, age, body mass index, cumulative lactation, and sampling date, serum concentrations of multiple major PCBs were positively associated with fish consumption, but not dust-PCB levels. After adjusting for blood lipid levels, Hispanic ethnicity, country of origin, and household annual income, serum concentrations of multiple major PBDEs were positively associated with dust-PBDE levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the relative contribution of specific exposure routes to total POP intake varies by chemical class, with dust being a relatively important source of PBDEs and diet being a relatively important source of PCBs. PMID:25460621

  9. Concentrations of teicoplanin in serum and atrial appendages of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, M G; Saginur, R; Desaulniers, D; Trottier, S; Goldstein, W; Foucault, P; Lessard, C

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of teicoplanin in sera and heart tissues of 49 patients undergoing coronary bypass were measured. Each patient received a 6- or 12-mg/kg dose of teicoplanin administered in a slow intravenous bolus injection over 3 to 5 min beginning at the time of induction of anesthesia. Mean +/- standard error of the mean concentrations in serum were, for the two doses, respectively, 58.1 +/- 1.7 and 123.3 +/- 7.4 micrograms/ml 5 min after administration and 22.2 +/- 0.7 and 56.5 +/- 2.8 micrograms/ml at the time of removal of atrial appendages. Mean +/- standard error of the mean concentrations in tissue were 70.6 +/- 1.7 and 139.8 +/- 2.2 micrograms/g, respectively, giving mean tissue/serum ratios of 3.7 +/- 0.3 and 2.8 +/- 0.2, respectively. Teicoplanin penetrates heart tissue readily and reaches levels in the serum far in excess of the MICs for most pathogens that have been found to cause infections following open heart surgery. PMID:2149493

  10. Serum cholesterol concentration and mortality from accidents, suicide, and other violent causes.

    PubMed Central

    Vartiainen, E.; Puska, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Lönnqvist, J.; Ehnholm, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the association of mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths with serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN--Baseline measurements in two randomly chosen independent cohorts were carried out in 1972 and 1977. Mortality was monitored over 10-15 years through the national death registry. SETTING--Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS--The two cohorts comprised men (n = 10,898) and women (n = 11,534) born between 1913 and 1947. There were 193 deaths due to accidents, suicides, and violence among men and 43 among women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths was used as the end point. Deaths from these causes were pooled together in the analyses. RESULTS--Serum cholesterol concentration was not associated with mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths in the univariate analyses or in the proportional hazards regression analyses including smoking, systolic blood pressure, alcohol drinking, and education. In both genders smoking was more prevalent among those who died from accidents, suicides, and other violent causes than from other causes. Frequent use of alcohol increased mortality from these causes. CONCLUSION--The risk of accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths was not related to serum cholesterol concentration, whereas such deaths were more prevalent in smokers and alcohol drinkers. PMID:7920128

  11. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O’Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D’Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Study, LifeLines Cohort; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Leach, Irene Mateo; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Consortium, CARDIoGRAM; Consortium, DIAGRAM; Consortium, ICBP; Consortium, MAGIC; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout. PMID:23263486

  12. Tumour gastrin expression and serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with gastric carcinoma are poor diagnostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Seim-Wikse, T; Kolbjørnsen, O; Jörundsson, E; Benestad, S L; Bjornvad, C R; Grotmol, T; Kristensen, A T; Skancke, E

    2014-01-01

    Hypergastrinaemia is observed commonly in human patients with gastric carcinoma and is associated with atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection, both of which predispose to development of gastric tumours. Increased expression of gastrin is also described as a prognostic indicator for gastric carcinoma in man. Gastric carcinoma is rare in dogs and generally carries a grave prognosis. In this study, the expression of gastrin was investigated immunohistochemically in gastric biopsy samples from 64 dogs with gastric carcinoma. Serum gastrin concentrations were measured in 15 of these dogs and compared with those of seven healthy control dogs. Tumour tissue expressed gastrin in 8% (5/64) of the dogs with gastric carcinoma. There was no significant difference in serum gastrin concentrations between dogs with gastric carcinoma and healthy controls (P = 0.08). Expression of gastrin in gastric carcinomas is less common in dogs than in man and may therefore not be relied on as a prognostic marker in this species. Serum gastrin concentration alone is also not a useful biomarker for gastric carcinoma in dogs.

  13. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.

  14. Relationships of the platelet aggregate ratio to serum cholesterol concentration, smoking and age

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James W.; Lewis, H. Daniel; Phillips, Phyllis E.; Davis, Rebecca F.

    1981-01-01

    The platelet aggregate ratio has been found to be decreased in some patients with vascular diseases suggesting the presence of increased circulating platelet aggregates. It has also been reported that hypercholesterolaemia is associated with an enhanced response of platelets to aggregating agents in platelet-rich plasma. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine correlation of the platelet aggregate ratio with the serum cholesterol concentration of men with vascular diseases. For 52 men referred because of known or suspected coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or venous thromboembolism, the correlation coefficient of 0·06 suggested that the serum cholesterol concentration within the range observed (135-360 mg/dl) was not a factor influencing the platelet aggregate ratio. There was not a statistically significant difference between the mean platelet aggregate ratios or the mean serum cholesterol concentrations of the 21 non-smokers and the 31 smokers studied. A correlation coefficient of 0·03 between the platelet aggregate ratio and age of the patient suggested that the platelet aggregate ratio was independent of age in men with occlusive vascular diseases. PMID:7329876

  15. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations.Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC.Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale.Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  16. Baseline Serum Concentrations of Zinc, Selenium, and Prolactin in Critically Ill Children*

    PubMed Central

    Heidemann, Sabrina M.; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John; Bell, Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Carcillo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin in critically ill children within 72 hours of PICU admission, and to investigate relationships between these immunomodulators and lymphopenia. Design An analysis of baseline data collected as part of the multicenter Critical Illness Stress Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial. Setting PICUs affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Patients All children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial that had baseline serum samples available for analysis. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Of 293 critically ill children enrolled in the CRISIS Prevention Trial, 284 had baseline serum samples analyzed for prolactin concentration, 280 for zinc concentration, and 278 for selenium concentration within 72 hours of PICU admission. Lymphocyte counts were available for 235 children. Zinc levels ranged from nondetectable (< 0.1 μg/mL) to 2.87 μg/mL (mean 0.46 μg/mL and median 0.44 μg/mL) and were below the normal reference range for 235 (83.9%) children. Selenium levels ranged from 26 to 145 ng/mL (mean 75.4 ng/mL and median 74.5 ng/mL) and were below the normal range for 156 (56.1%) children. Prolactin levels ranged from nondetectable (< 1 ng/mL) to 88 ng/mL (mean 12.2 ng/mL and median 10 ng/mL). Hypoprolactinemia was present in 68 (23.9%) children. Lymphopenia was more likely in children with zinc levels below normal than those with zinc levels within or above the normal range (82 of 193 [42.5%] vs. 10 of 39 [25.6%], p = 0.0498). Neither selenium nor prolactin concentrations were associated with lymphopenia (p = 1.0 and p = 0.72, respectively). Conclusions Serum concentrations of zinc, selenium, and prolactin are often low in critically ill children early after PICU admission. Low serum zinc levels are associated with lymphopenia, whereas low selenium and prolactin levels are not. The implications of these findings and the mechanisms by

  17. Schistosomiasis mansoni: ultrasound-evaluated hepatic fibrosis and serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Silva, C C; Domingues, A L; Lopes, E P; Morais, C N; Santos, R B; Luna, C F; Nader, H B; Martins, J R

    2011-04-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a fibrogenic liver disease that constitutes a major health problem in north-eastern Brazil. Although one common manifestation of the disease, periportal fibrosis (PPF), can be assessed by ultrasonography by well-trained physicians, the necessary equipment and personnel are not always readily available. Serum markers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), have been used as alternative means of measuring fibrosis. Recently serum concentrations of HA have been evaluated in 77 Brazilians (61 cases of schistosomiasis mansoni and 16 healthy controls) and compared against the ultrasound-evaluated PPF in the same subjects. The HA was measured using a non-competitive fluorescence-based assay, while the PPF was explored using a portable ultrasound scanner (SSD-500; Aloka, Tokyo) and graded, as patterns A-F, according to the World Health Organization's 'Niamey protocol'. In general, the serum concentrations of HA were found to be positively correlated with the severity of the PPF. The mean concentration of HA in the sera of the 16 controls was significantly lower than that recorded in the schistosomiasis cases who showed PPF of patterns D or E (P<0·001 for each). The cases who showed pattern-C PPF also had significantly less HA in their sera than the cases with PPF of patterns D or E (P<0·001 for each), and the cases with pattern-D fibrosis had significantly lower HA concentrations in their sera than the cases with PPF of pattern E (P<0·001). In an analysis based on a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve, an HA concentration of 20·2 μg/litre of serum was identified as a threshold that could be used to distinguish moderate cases of PPF (i.e. patterns C or D) from the more advanced cases (i.e. patterns E or F), with a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 65%. In conclusion, it appears that serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid could be used as markers for periportal fibrosis in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni.

  18. Cobicistat Significantly Increases Tacrolimus Serum Concentrations in a Renal Transplant Recipient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhe; Kane, Brenna M; Petty, Lindsay A; Josephson, Michelle A; Sutor, Jozefa; Pursell, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic booster in several fixed-dose combination products for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzymes, significant drug-drug interactions are expected between cobicistat and medications that are metabolized primarily through the CYP3A pathway, including calcineurin inhibitors (e.g., tacrolimus and cyclosporine). We describe a case of tacrolimus toxicity due to supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentrations when Stribild (elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) was initiated for newly diagnosed HIV infection in a 50-year-old renal transplant recipient who was previously receiving a stable tacrolimus regimen. Drug-drug interaction via CYP3A inhibition was acknowledged, and weekly labs were ordered to allow for close monitoring of renal function and tacrolimus serum concentrations as recommended by Stribild prescribing information. The patient reported headache, insomnia, stomachache, and decreased urine output within 1 week of starting Stribild and was found to have acute kidney injury (serum creatinine [Scr ]concentration increasing from 1.5-2.3 mg/dl) and a serum tacrolimus concentration of 111.2 ng/ml at 1 week follow-up (goal trough level 4-6 ng/ml). Both tacrolimus and Stribild were withheld. In 15 days, the patient's tacrolimus serum concentration returned to goal. In the interim, he required twice/week clinic visits for laboratory assessments and an emergency department visit for management of hyperkalemia (potassium 6.5 mEq/L). Triumeq (abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine) was started about 4 weeks later after Scr returned to baseline, and his tacrolimus serum trough concentrations subsequently remained stable. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing the extent, significance, and onset of cobicistat and tacrolimus drug-drug interaction in clinical practice. As more fixed-dose combination products including

  19. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  20. Influence of diurnal variation and fasting on serum iron concentrations in a community-based population.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-09-23

    Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Association of Japanese dietary pattern with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Niu, K; Monma, H; Kobayashi, Y; Guan, L; Sato, M; Minamishima, D; Nagatomi, R

    2012-03-01

    Although previous studies suggest that the traditional Japanese dietary pattern is independently associated with a low cardiovascular disease mortality risk, the mechanisms mediating or linking this association are not well understood. Adiponectin has emerged as a valuable biomarker for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. We designed a cross-sectional study of 702 men (median [interquartile range] age, 44.5 [37.8-54.2] years) living in Japan. Dietary consumption was assessed via a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. We used principal-components analysis to derive 3 major dietary patterns-"Japanese", "sweets-fruits" and, "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)"- from 39 food groups. Serum adiponectin concentration was measured by using a specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After adjustment for potential confounders, the geometric mean (95% confidence interval) for log-transformed adiponectin concentration associated with "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 5.24 (4.84-5.69) for the lowest tertile, 5.82 (5.39-6.29) for the middle tertile, and 5.95 (5.47-6.46) for the highest tertile (P for trend <0.01). In contrast, a significant inverse association was found between the "Izakaya" pattern factor score tertiles and adiponectin concentration (P for trend = 0.03). Greater adherence to the "Japanese" dietary pattern was independently associated to a higher serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. This finding supports the hypothesis that the traditional Japanese diet may have a potentially beneficial effect on adiponectin concentrations. A long-term prospective study or randomized trials are required to clarify this causality. C