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Sample records for h1n1 virus replication

  1. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses replicate efficiently but elicit an attenuated inflammatory response in polarized human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) produced a spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe illness and death. Respiratory symptoms were frequently associated with virus infection, with relatively high rate of gastrointestinal symptoms reported. To better understand 2009 H1N1 virus pathogenesis in humans, we studied virus and host responses following infection of two cell types: polarized bronchial and pharyngeal epithelial cells, which exhibit many features of the human airway epithelium, and colon epithelial cells to serve as a human intestinal cell model. Selected 2009 H1N1 viruses were compared to both seasonal H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses that have circulated among North American pigs since before the 2009 pandemic. All H1N1 viruses replicated productively in airway cells; however, in contrast to seasonal H1N1 virus infection, infection with the 2009 H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 viruses resulted in an attenuated inflammatory response, a weaker interferon response, and reduced cell death. Additionally, the H1N1 viruses of swine origin replicated less efficiently at the temperature of the human proximal airways (33°C). We also observed that the 2009 H1N1 viruses replicated to significantly higher titers than seasonal H1N1 virus in polarized colon epithelial cells. These studies reveal that in comparison to seasonal influenza virus, H1N1 viruses of swine origin poorly activate multiple aspects of the human innate response, which may contribute to the virulence of these viruses. In addition, their less efficient replication at human upper airway temperatures has implications for the understanding of pandemic H1N1 virus adaptation to humans.

  2. [Pathogenic effect of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 under replication in cultures of human cells].

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, O P; Vorob'eva, I V; Safonova, O A; Malyshev, N A; Schwalm, F; Klenk, H -D

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of the pandemic influenza virus H1N1 in cultures of bronchial (Calu-3) and intestinal (Caco-2) differentiated epithelial cells of human origin was studied. The canine epithelial cell lines, MDCK-H and MDCK-2, were comparatively tested. The two human cell lines were found to be highly sensitive to the influenza pandemic strains A/Hamburg/05/09 and A/Moscow/501/2011 and maintained their replication without addition of trypsin to culture medium. Virus strains of seasonal influenza H1N1, such as A/Moscow/450/2003, A/Memphis/14/96, and laboratory strain A/PR/8/34, multiplied in these human cells in similar manner. The intracellular cleavage HA0-->HA1+HA2 by the host virus-activating protease (IAP) occurred in both human cell lines under infection with each influenza virus H1N1 including pandemic ones. Comparatively, this cleavage of all influenza H1N1 virus strains appeared to be either undetectable or low-detectible in MDCK-H and MDCK-2, respectively, thereby implying low levels of active IAP in these cells. Multiplication of pandemic and seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses in Calu-3 and Caco-2 cells caused cytopathic effect, which was accompanied with low autophagy and apoptosis events. These data allow recommending human cell lines, Calu-3 and Caco-2, for optimized isolation and passaging of clinical strains of Influenza pandemic viruses H1N1.

  3. The neuraminidase and matrix genes of the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus cooperate functionally to facilitate efficient replication and transmissibility in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Qiao, Chuanling; Qi, Wenbao; Shen, Huigang; Chen, Ying; Ma, Jingqun; Li, Xi; Webby, Richard J.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) contains neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) genes from Eurasian avian-like swine influenza viruses (SIVs), with the remaining six genes from North American triple-reassortant SIVs. To characterize the role of the pH1N1 NA and M genes in pathogenesis and transmission, their impact was evaluated in the background of an H1N1 triple-reassortant (tr1930) SIV in which the HA (H3) and NA (N2) of influenza A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 virus were replaced with those from the classical H1N1 A/swine/Iowa/15/30 (1930) virus. The laboratory-adapted 1930 virus did not shed nor transmit in pigs, but tr1930 was able to shed in infected pigs. The NA, M or both genes of the tr1930 virus were then substituted by those of pH1N1. The resulting virus with both NA and M from pH1N1 grew to significantly higher titre in cell cultures than the viruses with single NA or M from pH1N1. In a pig model, only the virus containing both NA and M from pH1N1 was transmitted to and infected sentinels, whereas the viruses with single NA or M from pH1N1 did not. These results demonstrate that the right combination of NA and M genes is critical for the replication and transmissibility of influenza viruses in pigs. PMID:22337640

  4. Replication, pathogenesis and transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in non-immune pigs.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Sharon M; Núñez, Alejandro; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Essen, Stephen C; Clifford, Derek; Slomka, Marek J; Kuntz-Simon, Gaëlle; Garcon, Fanny; Nash, Bethany; Hanna, Amanda; Heegaard, Peter M H; Quéguiner, Stéphane; Chiapponi, Chiara; Bublot, Michel; Garcia, Jaime Maldonado; Gardner, Rebecca; Foni, Emanuela; Loeffen, Willie; Larsen, Lars; Van Reeth, Kristien; Banks, Jill; Irvine, Richard M; Brown, Ian H

    2010-02-05

    The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1], [2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and veterinary health consideration in the context of the evolving pandemic is whether the H1N1/09 virus could become established in pig populations [4]. We performed an infection and transmission study in pigs with A/California/07/09. In combination, clinical, pathological, modified influenza A matrix gene real time RT-PCR and viral genomic analyses have shown that infection results in the induction of clinical signs, viral pathogenesis restricted to the respiratory tract, infection dynamics consistent with endemic strains of influenza A in pigs, virus transmissibility between pigs and virus-host adaptation events. Our results demonstrate that extant H1N1/09 is fully capable of becoming established in global pig populations. We also show the roles of viral receptor specificity in both transmission and tissue tropism. Remarkably, following direct inoculation of pigs with virus quasispecies differing by amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site, only virus with aspartic acid at position 225 (225D) was detected in nasal secretions of contact infected pigs. In contrast, in lower respiratory tract samples from directly inoculated pigs, with clearly demonstrable pulmonary pathology, there was apparent selection of a virus variant with glycine (225G). These findings provide potential clues to the existence and biological significance of viral receptor-binding variants with 225D and 225G during the 1918 pandemic [5].

  5. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-02-02

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways.

  6. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses.

  7. Avian influenza viruses that cause highly virulent infections in humans exhibit distinct replicative properties in contrast to human H1N1 viruses

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Philippe F.; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Paradis, Éric; Mendoza, Emelissa; Coombs, Kevin M.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses present an emerging epidemiological concern as some strains of H5N1 avian influenza can cause severe infections in humans with lethality rates of up to 60%. These have been in circulation since 1997 and recently a novel H7N9-subtyped virus has been causing epizootics in China with lethality rates around 20%. To better understand the replication kinetics of these viruses, we combined several extensive viral kinetics experiments with mathematical modelling of in vitro infections in human A549 cells. We extracted fundamental replication parameters revealing that, while both the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses replicate faster and to higher titers than two low-pathogenicity H1N1 strains, they accomplish this via different mechanisms. While the H7N9 virions exhibit a faster rate of infection, the H5N1 virions are produced at a higher rate. Of the two H1N1 strains studied, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain exhibits the longest eclipse phase, possibly indicative of a less effective neuraminidase activity, but causes infection more rapidly than the seasonal strain. This explains, in part, the pandemic strain’s generally slower growth kinetics and permissiveness to accept mutations causing neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without significant loss in fitness. Our results highlight differential growth properties of H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 influenza viruses. PMID:27080193

  8. Asparagine substitution at PB2 residue 701 enhances the replication, pathogenicity, and transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Pearce, Melissa B; Li, Yan; Wang, Jieru; Mason, Robert J; Tumpey, Terrence M; Wentworth, David E

    2013-01-01

    The 2009/2010 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) contains an avian-lineage PB2 gene that lacks E627K and D701N substitutions important in the pathogenesis and transmission of avian-origin viruses in humans or other mammals. Previous studies have shown that PB2-627K is not necessary because of a compensatory Q591R substitution. The role that PB2-701N plays in the H1N1pdm phenotype is not well understood. Therefore, PB2-D701N was introduced into an H1N1pdm virus (A/New York/1682/2009 (NY1682)) and analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Mini-genome replication assay, in vitro replication characteristics in cell lines, and analysis in the mouse and ferret models demonstrated that PB2-D701N increased virus replication rates and resulted in more severe pathogenicity in mice and more efficient transmission in ferrets. In addition, compared to the NY1682-WT virus, the NY1682-D701N mutant virus induced less IFN-λ and replicated to a higher titer in primary human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the acquisition of the PB2-701N substitution by H1N1pdm viruses may result in more severe disease or increase transmission in humans.

  9. Reduced replication capacity of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2010-2011 winter season in Tottori, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Akeno; Itagaki, Asao; Tsuchie, Hideaki; Tokuhara, Misato; Okada, Takayoshi; Narai, Sakae; Kasagi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Kageyama, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    A novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been circulating in humans since March-April, 2009. The 2009-2010 epidemic involved predominantly a single subtype of A(H1N1)pdm09 (at 96%, 46/48) in the sentinel sites of this study. However, A(H1N1)pdm09 started to circulate together with other type/subtype (49%, 33/68) at the first peak in the next epidemic season in 2010-2011: A(H1N1)pdm09/A(H3N2) (9%, 6/68), A(H1N1)pdm09/B (35%, 24/68), and A(H1N1)pdm09/A(H3N2)/B (4%, 3/68). Single infection of A(H1N1)pdm09 became a rare event (8%, 5/65) at the second peak of the same season in 2010-2011 compared with that at the first peak (50%, 34/68). Concurrently with this decline, single infections of others, A(H3N2) or B, became evident (6%, 4/65; 14%, 9/65, respectively). Triple infections were more common (29%, 19/65) at the second peak than at the first peak (4%). The A(H1N1)pdm09 detected in 2010-2011 produced less virus upon 72 hr of incubation in vitro after the inoculations at 10(4) and 3,300 copies/ml (2.3 × 10(9) and 2.3 × 10(9) copies/ml on average) than that in 2009-2010 (3.7 × 10(9) and 1.3 × 10(10) copies/ml on average; P<0.05 by ANOVA test), respectively. As described above, the replication capacity of A(H1N1)pdm09 seems to have deteriorated in the 2010-2011 season presumably due to substantial herd immunity and allowed the existence of other type/subtype. These results suggest that assessment of replication capacity is indispensable for analysis of influenza epidemics.

  10. Evaluation of seasonal influenza vaccines for H1N1pdm09 and type B viruses based on a replication-incompetent PB2-KO virus.

    PubMed

    Ui, Hiroki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Uraki, Ryuta; Kiso, Maki; Oishi, Kohei; Murakami, Shin; Mimori, Shigetaka; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-04

    Vaccination is the first line of protection against influenza virus infection in humans. Although inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines are available, each vaccine has drawbacks in terms of immunogenicity and safety. To overcome these issues, our group has developed a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that replicates only in PB2-expressing cells. Here we generated PB2-KO viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments from H1N1pdm09 or type B viruses and tested their vaccine potential. The two PB2-KO viruses propagated efficiently in PB2-expressing cells, and expressed chimeric HA as expected. Virus-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in mice immunized with the viruses, and the immunized mice showed milder clinical signs and/or lower virus replication levels in the respiratory tract upon virus challenge. Our results indicate that these PB2-KO viruses have potential as vaccine candidates.

  11. Genetic characterization of an adapted pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus that reveals improved replication rates in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wörmann, Xenia; Lesch, Markus; Welke, Robert-William; Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Abdurishid, Mirshat; Sieben, Christian; Geissner, Andreas; Brinkmann, Volker; Kastner, Markus; Karner, Andreas; Zhu, Rong; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.; Herrmann, Andreas; and others

    2016-05-15

    The 2009 influenza pandemic originated from a swine-origin H1N1 virus, which, although less pathogenic than anticipated, may acquire additional virulence-associated mutations in the future. To estimate the potential risk, we sequentially passaged the isolate A/Hamburg/04/2009 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. After passage 6, we observed a 100-fold increased replication rate. High-throughput sequencing of viral gene segments identified five dominant mutations, whose contribution to the enhanced growth was analyzed by reverse genetics. The increased replication rate was pinpointed to two mutations within the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segment (HA{sub 1} D130E, HA{sub 2} I91L), near the receptor binding site and the stem domain. The adapted virus also replicated more efficiently in mice in vivo. Enhanced replication rate correlated with increased fusion pH of the HA protein and a decrease in receptor affinity. Our data might be relevant for surveillance of pre-pandemic strains and development of high titer cell culture strains for vaccine production. - Highlights: • We observed a spontaneous mutation of a 2009-pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in vitro. • The adaptation led to a 100-fold rise in replication rate in human A549 cells. • Adaptation was caused by two mutations in the HA gene segment. • Adaptation correlates with increased fusion pH and decreased receptor affinity.

  12. Impacts of different expressions of PA-X protein on 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwa; Yu, Hai; Li, Yonghai; Ma, Jingjiao; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Henningson, Jamie; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Yuhao; Nagy, Abdou; Bawa, Bhupinder; Li, Zejun; Tong, Guangzhi; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-04-01

    Although several studies have investigated the functions of influenza PA-X, the impact of different expressions of PA-X protein including full-length, truncated or PA-X deficient forms on virus replication, pathogenicity and host response remains unclear. Herein, we generated two mutated viruses expressing a full-length or deficient PA-X protein based on the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus that expresses a truncated PA-X to understand three different expressions of PA-X protein on virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses. The results showed that expression of either full-length or truncated PA-X protein enhanced viral replication and pathogenicity as well as reduced host innate immune response in mice by host shutoff activity when compared to the virus expressing the deficient PA-X form. Furthermore, the full-length PA-X expression exhibited a greater effect on virus pathogenicity than the truncated PA-X form. Our results provide novel insights of PA-X on viral replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses.

  13. A highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 with 2009 pandemic H1N1 internal genes demonstrated increased replication and transmission in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV), A/Iraq/775/06, and a reassortant virus comprised of the HA and NA from A/Iraq/775/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1, A/N...

  14. Effect of priming with H1N1 influenza viruses of variable antigenic distances on challenge with 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Christopher D; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice N; Wei, Chih-Jen; Nabel, Gary J; Subbarao, Kanta

    2012-08-01

    Compared to seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus caused greater morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. People over 60 years of age showed a higher prevalence of cross-reactive pH1N1 antibodies, suggesting that they were previously exposed to an influenza virus or vaccine that was antigenically related to the pH1N1 virus. To define the basis for this cross-reactivity, ferrets were infected with H1N1 viruses of variable antigenic distance that circulated during different decades from the 1930s (Alaska/35), 1940s (Fort Monmouth/47), 1950s (Fort Warren/50), and 1990s (New Caledonia/99) and challenged with 2009 pH1N1 virus 6 weeks later. Ferrets primed with the homologous CA/09 or New Jersey/76 (NJ/76) virus served as a positive control, while the negative control was an influenza B virus that should not cross-protect against influenza A virus infection. Significant protection against challenge virus replication in the respiratory tract was observed in ferrets primed with AK/35, FM/47, and NJ/76; FW/50-primed ferrets showed reduced protection, and NC/99-primed ferrets were not protected. The hemagglutinins (HAs) of AK/35, FM/47, and FW/50 differ in the presence of glycosylation sites. We found that the loss of protective efficacy observed with FW/50 was associated with the presence of a specific glycosylation site. Our results suggest that changes in the HA occurred between 1947 and 1950, such that prior infection could no longer protect against 2009 pH1N1 infection. This provides a mechanistic understanding of the nature of serological cross-protection observed in people over 60 years of age during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

  15. Effect of Priming with H1N1 Influenza Viruses of Variable Antigenic Distances on Challenge with 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Wright, Amber; Vogel, Leatrice N.; Wei, Chih-Jen; Nabel, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus caused greater morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. People over 60 years of age showed a higher prevalence of cross-reactive pH1N1 antibodies, suggesting that they were previously exposed to an influenza virus or vaccine that was antigenically related to the pH1N1 virus. To define the basis for this cross-reactivity, ferrets were infected with H1N1 viruses of variable antigenic distance that circulated during different decades from the 1930s (Alaska/35), 1940s (Fort Monmouth/47), 1950s (Fort Warren/50), and 1990s (New Caledonia/99) and challenged with 2009 pH1N1 virus 6 weeks later. Ferrets primed with the homologous CA/09 or New Jersey/76 (NJ/76) virus served as a positive control, while the negative control was an influenza B virus that should not cross-protect against influenza A virus infection. Significant protection against challenge virus replication in the respiratory tract was observed in ferrets primed with AK/35, FM/47, and NJ/76; FW/50-primed ferrets showed reduced protection, and NC/99-primed ferrets were not protected. The hemagglutinins (HAs) of AK/35, FM/47, and FW/50 differ in the presence of glycosylation sites. We found that the loss of protective efficacy observed with FW/50 was associated with the presence of a specific glycosylation site. Our results suggest that changes in the HA occurred between 1947 and 1950, such that prior infection could no longer protect against 2009 pH1N1 infection. This provides a mechanistic understanding of the nature of serological cross-protection observed in people over 60 years of age during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. PMID:22674976

  16. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Mortier, Daniëlla; van Heteren, Melanie; Oostermeijer, Herman; Fagrouch, Zahra; de Laat, Rudy; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Remarque, Edmond J; Kondova, Ivanela; Verschoor, Ernst J; Bogers, Willy M J M

    2015-01-01

    The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  17. Classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses confer cross protection from swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice and ferrets.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Young; Chen, Grace L; Santos, Celia; Lamirande, Elaine W; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-12-05

    The hemagglutinin of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is a derivative of and is antigenically related to classical swine but not to seasonal human H1N1 viruses. We compared the A/California/7/2009 (CA/7/09) virus recommended by the WHO as the reference virus for vaccine development, with two classical swine influenza viruses A/swine/Iowa/31 (sw/IA/31) and A/New Jersey/8/1976 (NJ/76) to establish the extent of immunologic cross-reactivity and cross-protection in animal models. Primary infection with 2009 pandemic or NJ/76 viruses elicited antibodies against the CA/7/09 virus and provided complete protection from challenge with this virus in ferrets; the response in mice was variable and conferred partial protection. Although ferrets infected with sw/IA/31 virus developed low titers of cross-neutralizing antibody, they were protected from pulmonary replication of the CA/7/09 virus. The data suggest that prior exposure to antigenically related H1N1 viruses of swine-origin provide some protective immunity against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.

  18. Swine influenza H1N1 virus induces acute inflammatory immune responses in pig lungs: a potential animal model for human H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Mahesh; Dwivedi, Varun; Krakowka, Steven; Manickam, Cordelia; Ali, Ahmed; Wang, Leyi; Qin, Zhuoming; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Lee, Chang-Won

    2010-11-01

    Pigs are capable of generating reassortant influenza viruses of pandemic potential, as both the avian and mammalian influenza viruses can infect pig epithelial cells in the respiratory tract. The source of the current influenza pandemic is H1N1 influenza A virus, possibly of swine origin. This study was conducted to understand better the pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza virus and associated host mucosal immune responses during acute infection in humans. Therefore, we chose a H1N1 swine influenza virus, Sw/OH/24366/07 (SwIV), which has a history of transmission to humans. Clinically, inoculated pigs had nasal discharge and fever and shed virus through nasal secretions. Like pandemic H1N1, SwIV also replicated extensively in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and lung lesions were typical of H1N1 infection. We detected innate, proinflammatory, Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, as well as SwIV-specific IgA antibody in lungs of the virus-inoculated pigs. Production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes was also detected. Higher frequencies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, γδ T cells, dendritic cells, activated T cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in SwIV-infected pig lungs. Concomitantly, higher frequencies of the immunosuppressive T regulatory cells were also detected in the virus-infected pig lungs. The findings of this study have relevance to pathogenesis of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in humans; thus, pigs may serve as a useful animal model to design and test effective mucosal vaccines and therapeutics against influenza virus.

  19. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains.

  20. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Chilean commercial turkeys with genetic and serologic comparisons to U.S. H1N1 avian influenza vaccine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus has caused acute respiratory disease in humans, first in Mexico and then spreading around the world. The resulting pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) virus was isolated in swine in Canada in June, 2009, and later in turkey breeders in Chile, ...

  1. Characterization of triple reassortant H1N1 influenza A viruses from swine in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Yassine, H M; Khatri, M; Zhang, Y J; Lee, C W; Byrum, B A; O'Quin, J; Smith, K A; Saif, Y M

    2009-10-20

    An H1N1 influenza A virus, A/swine/Ohio/24366/07, was isolated from pigs in an Ohio county fair. Twenty-six people who came in contact with the infected pigs developed respiratory disease and two of these people were laboratory confirmed as H1N1 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The A/swine/Ohio/24366/07 virus we isolated from swine was shown at the CDC to have 100% identical genome sequence to the human virus associated with the county fair. This prompted us to characterize three swine and two human origin H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated at different time points in the State of Ohio. The three swine viruses were shown to be triple reassortant viruses harboring genes of human (PB1), swine (HA, NA, NP, M, and NS), and avian (PB2 and PA) lineage viruses. Although viruses evaluated in this study were isolated during a short time interval (3 years), genetic drift was observed within the HA and NA genes, including changes at the receptor binding and antigenic sites of HA1 protein. Nevertheless, all viruses exhibited antigenic similarity as evaluated with hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing tests. Internal genes were similar to other reassortant viruses of various subtypes currently circulating in the United States. Interestingly, two of the swine viruses including the 2007 isolate replicated well in human airway epithelial cells, however, another virus isolated in 2006 showed very little replication.

  2. Higher level of replication efficiency of 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus than those of seasonal and avian strains: kinetics from epithelial cell culture and computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Hugh; Levin, Drew; Forrest, Stephanie; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Tipper, Jennifer; Knight, Jennifer; Donart, Nathaniel; Layton, R Colby; Pyles, John; Gao, Peng; Harrod, Kevin S; Perelson, Alan S; Koster, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity and transmission of influenza A viruses are likely determined in part by replication efficiency in human cells, which is the net effect of complex virus-host interactions. H5N1 avian, H1N1 seasonal, and H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains were compared by infecting human differentiated bronchial epithelial cells in air-liquid interface cultures at relatively low virus particle/cell ratios. Differential equation and computational models were used to characterize the in vitro kinetic behaviors of the three strains. The models were calibrated by fitting experimental data in order to estimate difficult-to-measure parameters. Both models found marked differences in the relative values of p, the virion production rate per cell, and R(0), an index of the spread of infection through the monolayer, with the values for the strains in the following rank order (from greatest to least): pandemic strain, followed by seasonal strain, followed by avian strain, as expected. In the differential equation model, which treats virus and cell populations as well mixed, R(0) and p varied proportionately for all 3 strains, consistent with a primary role for productivity. In the spatially explicit computational model, R(0) and p also varied proportionately except that R(0) derived for the pandemic strain was reduced, consistent with constrained viral spread imposed by multiple host defenses, including mucus and paracrine antiviral effects. This synergistic experimental-computational strategy provides relevant parameters for identifying and phenotyping potential pandemic strains.

  3. Reassortant Eurasian Avian-Like Influenza A(H1N1) Virus from a Severely Ill Child, Hunan Province, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Zhang, Hong; Xiang, Xingyu; Zhong, Lili; Yang, Lei; Guo, Junfeng; Xie, Yiran; Li, Fangcai; Deng, Zhihong; Feng, Hong; Huang, Yiwei; Hu, Shixiong; Xu, Xin; Zou, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaodan; Bai, Tian; Chen, Yongkun; Li, Zi

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy in China who had severe pneumonia. The virus was a genetic reassortant of Eurasian avian-like influenza A(H1N1) (EA-H1N1) virus. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes of the reassortant virus were highly similar to genes in EA-H1N1 swine influenza viruses, the polybasic 1 and 2, polymerase acidic, and nucleoprotein genes originated from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the nonstructural protein gene derived from classical swine influenza A(H1N1) (CS H1N1) virus. In a mouse model, the reassortant virus, termed influenza A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus, showed higher infectivity and virulence than another human EA-H1N1 isolate, influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2011(H1N1) virus. In the respiratory tract of mice, virus replication by influenza A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus was substantially higher than that by influenza A/Jiangsu/1/2011(H1N1) virus. Human-to-human transmission of influenza A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus has not been detected; however, given the circulation of novel EA-H1N1 viruses in pigs, enhanced surveillance should be instituted among swine and humans. PMID:27767007

  4. Characterization of H1N1 swine influenza viruses circulating in Canadian pigs in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), of apparent swine origin, may have evolved in pigs unnoticed because of insufficient surveillance. Consequently, the need for surveillance of influenza viruses circulating in pigs has received added attention. In this study we characterized H1N1 viruses isolated from ...

  5. Induction of cell surface human leukocyte antigen-G expression in pandemic H1N1 2009 and seasonal H1N1 influenza virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Xiao; Chen, Bao-Guo; Shi, Wei-Wu; Zhen, Rui; Xu, Dan-Ping; Lin, Aifen; Yan, Wei-Hua

    2011-02-01

    A novel H1N1 virus of swine origin (H1N1v) recently caused a pandemic; however, knowledge of immunologic aspects of the virus infection are limited. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) was speculated to play critical roles in viral infection, although its clinical relevance in H1N1 infection remains unknown. In this study, HLA-G expression in peripheral T lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells (in 50 H1N1v-infected and 41 seasonal H1N1-infected patients and 27 control subjects) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Plasma-soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G, in 28 H1N1v-infected, 29 seasonal H1N1-infected patients and 85 control subjects) were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of HLA-G-positive T lymphocytes and monocytes among patients with H1N1v and seasonal H1N1 infections was dramatically increased compared with controls (all p < 0.001). Treg was markedly increased among H1N1v- infected patients compared with normal controls (p = 0.041), but not for the seasonal H1N1-infected patients. Meanwhile, no significant difference was observed for sHLA-G levels between the groups. Together, cell surface HLA-G expression was markedly induced in H1N1v-infected and seasonal H1N1-infected patients, and increased Treg was observed only in H1N1v-infected patients. Given its immune-suppressive property, elevated cell surface HLA-G expression may help to explain the virus escaping from host immune responses.

  6. rapidSTRIPE H1N1 test for detection of the pandemic swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pranav; Graser, Elmara; Robst, Stephan; Hillert, Roger; Meye, Axel; Hillebrand, Timo; Niedrig, Matthias

    2011-04-01

    The rapidSTRIPE H1N1 test, based on a nucleic acid lateral-flow assay, has been developed for diagnosis of a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. This test is simple and cost-effective and allows specific detection of the S-OIV A (H1N1) virus from swab sampling to final detection on a lateral-flow stripe within 2 to 3 h.

  7. Characterization of an artificial swine-origin influenza virus with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus: a genesis clue of pandemic strain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xueli; Sun, Yipeng; Pu, Juan; Fan, Lihong; Shi, Weimin; Hu, Yanxin; Yang, Jun; Xu, Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Dongjun; Ma, Guangpeng; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus, derived from a reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses, possesses a unique gene segment combination that had not been detected previously in animal and human populations. Whether such a gene combination could result in the pathogenicity and transmission as H1N1/2009 virus remains unclear. In the present study, we used reverse genetics to construct a reassortant virus (rH1N1) with the same gene combination as H1N1/2009 virus (NA and M genes from a Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine virus and another six genes from a North American triple-reassortant H1N2 swine virus). Characterization of rH1N1 in mice showed that this virus had higher replicability and pathogenicity than those of the seasonal human H1N1 and Eurasian avian-like swine H1N1 viruses, but was similar to the H1N1/2009 and triple-reassortant H1N2 viruses. Experiments performed on guinea pigs showed that rH1N1 was not transmissible, whereas pandemic H1N1/2009 displayed efficient transmissibility. To further determine which gene segment played a key role in transmissibility, we constructed a series of reassortants derived from rH1N1 and H1N1/2009 viruses. Direct contact transmission studies demonstrated that the HA and NS genes contributed to the transmission of H1N1/2009 virus. Second, the HA gene of H1N1/2009 virus, when combined with the H1N1/2009 NA gene, conferred efficient contact transmission among guinea pigs. The present results reveal that not only gene segment reassortment but also amino acid mutation were needed for the generation of the pandemic influenza virus.

  8. Pathogenesis and transmission of triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses isolated before the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Maines, Taronna R; Blau, Dianna M; Zaki, Sherif R; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2011-02-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus represents the greatest incidence of human infection with an influenza virus of swine origin to date. Moreover, triple-reassortant swine (TRS) H1N1 viruses, which share similar host and lineage origins with 2009 H1N1 viruses, have been responsible for sporadic human cases since 2005. Similar to 2009 H1N1 viruses, TRS viruses are capable of causing severe disease in previously healthy individuals and frequently manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, their ability to cause severe disease has not been extensively studied. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of two TRS viruses associated with disease in humans in the ferret model. TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses exhibited comparable viral titers and histopathologies following virus infection and were similarly unable to transmit efficiently via respiratory droplets in the ferret model. Utilizing TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses, we conducted extensive hematologic and blood serum analyses on infected ferrets to identify lymphohematopoietic parameters associated with mild to severe influenza virus infection. Following H1N1 or H5N1 influenza virus infection, ferrets were found to recapitulate several laboratory abnormalities previously documented with human disease, furthering the utility of the ferret model for the assessment of influenza virus pathogenicity.

  9. North American triple reassortant and Eurasian H1N1 swine influenza viruses do not readily reassort to generate a 2009 pandemic H1N1-like virus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Qinfang; Qiao, Chuanling; del Real, Gustavo; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Webby, Richard J; Richt, Jürgen A

    2014-03-11

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) was derived through reassortment of North American triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like swine influenza viruses (SIVs). To date, when, how and where the pH1N1 arose is not understood. To investigate viral reassortment, we coinfected cell cultures and a group of pigs with or without preexisting immunity with a Eurasian H1N1 virus, A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (SP04), and a North American triple reassortant H1N1 virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07). The infected pigs were cohoused with one or two groups of contact animals to investigate viral transmission. In coinfected MDCK or PK15 continuous cell lines with KS07 and SP04 viruses, more than 20 different reassortant viruses were found. In pigs without or with preexisting immunity (immunized with commercial inactivated swine influenza vaccines) and coinfected with both viruses, six or seven reassortant viruses, as well as the parental viruses, were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from the lungs. Interestingly, only one or two viruses transmitted to and were detected in contact animals. No reassortant containing a gene constellation similar to that of pH1N1 virus was found in either coinfected cells or pigs, indicating that the reassortment event that resulted in the generation of this virus is a rare event that likely involved specific viral strains and/or a favorable, not-yet-understood environment. IMPORTANCE The 2009 pandemic-like H1N1 virus could not be reproduced either in cell cultures or in pigs coinfected with North American triple reassortant H1N1 and Eurasian H1N1 swine influenza viruses. This finding suggests that the generation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus by reassortment was a rare event that likely involved specific viral strains and unknown factors. Different reassortant viruses were detected in coinfected pigs with and without preexisting immunity, indicating that host immunity plays a relevant role in driving viral reassortment of

  10. Isolation and characterization of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are endemic diseases in pork producing countries around the world. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) raised questions about the occurrence of this virus in Brazilian swine populations. During a 2009-2010 swine influenza virus r...

  11. Susceptibility of poultry to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, cases of acute respiratory disease were reported in humans caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus in Mexico. The causative agent was complex reassortant influenza A virus with gene segments from North American classic H1N1 swine viruses, North American avian viruses, huma...

  12. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Chilean commercial turkeys with genetic and serologic comparisons to U.S. H1N1 avian influenza vaccine isolates.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Gonder, Eric; Tilley, Becky; Hernandez, Andres; Hodgson, Jorge; Wojcinski, Helen; Jiang, Haijun; Suarez, David L

    2011-12-01

    Beginning in April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus caused acute respiratory disease in humans, first in Mexico and then around the world. The resulting pandemic influenza A H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) virus was isolated in swine in Canada in June 2009 and later in breeder turkeys in Chile, Canada, and the United States. The pH1N1 virus consists of gene segments of avian, human, and swine influenza origin and has the potential for infection in poultry following exposure to infected humans or swine. We examined the clinical events following the initial outbreak of pH1N1 in turkeys and determined the relatedness of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segments from the pH1N1 to two H1N1 avian influenza (AI) isolates used in commercial turkey inactivated vaccines. Overall, infection of turkey breeder hens with pH1N1 resulted in -50% reduction of egg production over 3-4 weeks. Genetic analysis indicated one H1N1 AI vaccine isolate (Alturkey/North Carolina/17026/1988) contained approximately 92% nucleotide sequence similarity to the pH1N1 virus (A/Mexico/4109/2009); whereas, a more recent AI vaccine isolate (A/ swine/North Carolina/00573/2005) contained 75.9% similarity. Comparison of amino acids found at antigenic sites of the HA protein indicated conserved epitopes at the Sa site; however, major differences were found at the Ca2 site between pH1N1 and A/ turkey/North Carolina/127026/1988. Hemagglutinin-inhibition (HI) tests were conducted with sera produced in vaccinated turkeys in North Carolina to determine if protection would be conferred using U.S. AI vaccine isolates. HI results indicate positive reactivity (HI titer > or = 5 log2) against the vaccine viruses over the course of study. However, limited cross-reactivity to the 2009 pH1N1 virus was observed, with positive titers in a limited number of birds (6 out of 20) beginning only after a third vaccination. Taken together, these results demonstrate that turkeys treated with these vaccines would likely not be protected against pH

  13. Predicting the antigenic structure of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from "classical swine H1N1" virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s-1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population.

  14. Predicting the Antigenic Structure of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from “classical swine H1N1virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruses are still circulating in the human population with highly altered antigenicity of HA. However, information on the structural basis to compare the HA antigenicity among 2009 H1N1, the 1918 pandemic, and seasonal human H1N1 viruses has been lacking. By homology modeling of the HA structure, here we show that HAs of 2009 H1N1 and the 1918 pandemic virus share a significant number of amino acid residues in known antigenic sites, suggesting the existence of common epitopes for neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to both HAs. It was noted that the early human H1N1 viruses isolated in the 1930s–1940s still harbored some of the original epitopes that are also found in 2009 H1N1. Interestingly, while 2009 H1N1 HA lacks the multiple N-glycosylations that have been found to be associated with an antigenic change of the human H1N1 virus during the early epidemic of this virus, 2009 H1N1 HA still retains unique three-codon motifs, some of which became N-glycosylation sites via a single nucleotide mutation in the human H1N1 virus. We thus hypothesize that the 2009 H1N1 HA antigenic sites involving the conserved amino acids will soon be targeted by antibody-mediated selection pressure in humans. Indeed, amino acid substitutions predicted here are occurring in the recent 2009 H1N1 variants. The present study suggests that antibodies elicited by natural infection with the 1918 pandemic or its early descendant viruses play a role in specific immunity against 2009 H1N1, and provides an insight into future likely antigenic changes in the evolutionary process of 2009 H1N1 in the human population. PMID:20049332

  15. Reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with circulating human and avian influenza viruses: public health risk implications.

    PubMed

    Stincarelli, Maria; Arvia, Rosaria; De Marco, Maria Alessandra; Clausi, Valeria; Corcioli, Fabiana; Cotti, Claudia; Delogu, Mauro; Donatelli, Isabella; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2013-08-01

    Exploring the reassortment ability of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1pdm09) influenza virus with other circulating human or avian influenza viruses is the main concern related to the generation of more virulent or new variants having implications for public health. After different coinfection experiments in human A549 cells, by using the A/H1N1pdm09 virus plus one of human seasonal influenza viruses of H1N1 and H3N2 subtype or one of H11, H10, H9, H7 and H1 avian influenza viruses, several reassortant viruses were obtained. Among these, the HA of H1N1 was the main segment of human seasonal influenza virus reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Conversely, HA and each of the three polymerase segments, alone or in combination, of the avian influenza viruses mainly reassorted in the A/H1N1pdm09 virus backbone. Of note, A/H1N1pdm09 viruses that reassorted with HA of H1N1 seasonal human or H11N6 avian viruses or carried different combination of avian origin polymerase segments, exerted a higher replication effectiveness than that of the parental viruses. These results confirm that reassortment of the A/H1N1pdm09 with circulating low pathogenic avian influenza viruses should not be misjudged in the prediction of the next pandemic.

  16. North American Triple Reassortant and Eurasian H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Do Not Readily Reassort to Generate a 2009 Pandemic H1N1-Like Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Qinfang; Qiao, Chuanling; del Real, Gustavo; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Webby, Richard J.; Richt, Jürgen A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1) was derived through reassortment of North American triple reassortant and Eurasian avian-like swine influenza viruses (SIVs). To date, when, how and where the pH1N1 arose is not understood. To investigate viral reassortment, we coinfected cell cultures and a group of pigs with or without preexisting immunity with a Eurasian H1N1 virus, A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (SP04), and a North American triple reassortant H1N1 virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07). The infected pigs were cohoused with one or two groups of contact animals to investigate viral transmission. In coinfected MDCK or PK15 continuous cell lines with KS07 and SP04 viruses, more than 20 different reassortant viruses were found. In pigs without or with preexisting immunity (immunized with commercial inactivated swine influenza vaccines) and coinfected with both viruses, six or seven reassortant viruses, as well as the parental viruses, were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from the lungs. Interestingly, only one or two viruses transmitted to and were detected in contact animals. No reassortant containing a gene constellation similar to that of pH1N1 virus was found in either coinfected cells or pigs, indicating that the reassortment event that resulted in the generation of this virus is a rare event that likely involved specific viral strains and/or a favorable, not-yet-understood environment. PMID:24618255

  17. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  18. Characterization of H1N1 swine influenza viruses circulating in Canadian pigs in 2009.

    PubMed

    Nfon, Charles K; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Zhang, Shunzhen; Handel, Katherine; Kehler, Helen; Labrecque, Olivia; Lewis, Nicola S; Vincent, Amy L; Copps, John; Alexandersen, Soren; Pasick, John

    2011-09-01

    The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1), of apparent swine origin, may have evolved in pigs unnoticed because of insufficient surveillance. Consequently, the need for surveillance of influenza viruses circulating in pigs has received added attention. In this study we characterized H1N1 viruses isolated from Canadian pigs in 2009. Isolates from May 2009 were comprised of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA) genes of classical SIV origin in combination with the North American triple-reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette, here termed contemporary SIV (conSIV) H1N1. These conSIV H1N1 viruses were contiguous with the North American αH1 cluster, which was distinct from the pH1N1 isolates that were antigenically more related to the γH1 cluster. After the initial isolation of pH1N1 from an Alberta pig farm in early May 2009, pH1N1 was found several times in Canadian pigs. These pH1N1 isolates were genetically and antigenically homogeneous. In addition, H1N1 viruses bearing seasonal human H1 and N1 genes together with the TRIG cassette and an NA encoding an oseltamivir-resistance marker were isolated from pigs. The NS gene of one of these seasonal human-like SIV (shSIV) H1N1 isolates was homologous to pH1N1 NS, implicating reassortment between the two strains. Antigenic cross-reactivity was observed between pH1N1 and conSIV but not with shSIV H1N1. In summary, although there was cocirculation of pH1N1 with conSIV and shSIV H1N1 in Canadian pigs after May 2009, there was no evidence supporting the presence of pH1N1 in pigs prior to May 2009. The possibility for further reassortants being generated exists and should be closely monitored.

  19. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of reassortant H9 influenza viruses with genes from pandemic H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chuanling; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Shen, Huigang; Qi, Wenbao; Chen, Ying; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Jürgen A; Ma, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Both H9N2 avian influenza and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses (pH1N1) are able to infect humans and swine, which has raised concerns that novel reassortant H9 viruses with pH1N1 genes might be generated in these hosts by reassortment. Although previous studies have demonstrated that reassortant H9 viruses with pH1N1 genes show increased virulence in mice and transmissibility in ferrets, the virulence and transmissibility of reassortant H9 viruses in natural hosts such as chickens and swine remain unknown. This study generated two reassortant H9 viruses (H9N2/CA09 and H9N1/CA09) in the background of the pH1N1 A/California/04/2009 (CA09) virus by replacing either both the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes or only the HA gene with the respective genes from the A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997 (H9N2) virus and evaluated their replication, pathogenicity and transmission in chickens and pigs compared with the parental viruses. Chickens that were infected with the parental H9N2 and reassortant H9 viruses seroconverted. The parental H9N2 and reassortant H9N2/CA09 viruses were transmitted to sentinel chickens, but H9N1/CA09 virus was not. The parental H9N2 replicated poorly and was not transmitted in pigs, whereas both H9N2/CA09 and H9N1/CA09 viruses replicated and were transmitted efficiently in pigs, similar to the pH1N1 virus. These results demonstrated that reassortant H9 viruses with pH1N1 genes show enhanced replication and transmissibility in pigs compared with the parental H9N2 virus, indicating that they may pose a threat for humans if such reassortants arise in swine.

  20. Susceptibility of turkeys to pandemic H1N1 virus by reproductive tract insemination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in April 2009, cases of acute respiratory disease were reported in humans caused by a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) in Mexico which has since spread globally in the human population and been declared a pandemic. Initial studies using intranasal route of inoculation failed to produc...

  1. [Virological characteristics of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Horimoto, Taisuke; Yamada, Shinya; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    In the spring of 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 virus, whose antigenicity is quite different from those of seasonal human H1N1 strains, emerged in Mexico and readily transmitted and spread among humans, resulting in the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. This novel H1N1 virus was shown to be a triple reassortant comprising genes derived from avian, human, and swine viruses. Here, we review our current knowledge of this pandemic influenza virus and discuss future aspects of the pandemic.

  2. Akt inhibitor MK2206 prevents influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Oxana V; Söderholm, Sandra; Virtanen, Salla; Von Schantz, Carina; Bychkov, Dmitrii; Vashchinkina, Elena; Desloovere, Jens; Tynell, Janne; Ikonen, Niina; Theisen, Linda L; Nyman, Tuula A; Matikainen, Sampsa; Kallioniemi, Olli; Julkunen, Ilkka; Muller, Claude P; Saelens, Xavier; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Kainov, Denis E

    2014-07-01

    The influenza pH1N1 virus caused a global flu pandemic in 2009 and continues manifestation as a seasonal virus. Better understanding of the virus-host cell interaction could result in development of better prevention and treatment options. Here we show that the Akt inhibitor MK2206 blocks influenza pH1N1 virus infection in vitro. In particular, at noncytotoxic concentrations, MK2206 alters Akt signaling and inhibits endocytic uptake of the virus. Interestingly, MK2206 is unable to inhibit H3N2, H7N9, and H5N1 viruses, indicating that pH1N1 evolved specific requirements for efficient infection. Thus, Akt signaling could be exploited further for development of better therapeutics against pH1N1 virus.

  3. Challenge and polymorphism analysis of the novel A (H1N1) influenza virus to normal animals.

    PubMed

    Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Zhan, Lingjun; Deng, Wei; Zhu, Hua; Gao, Hong; Sun, Huihui; Ma, Chunmei; Lv, Qi; Li, Fengdi; Chen, Honglin; Zhang, Lianfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2010-07-01

    The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus that emerged from April 2009 in Mexico has spread rapidly to many countries and initiated a human pandemic. It is important to determine whether the virus has existed in, or will spread to, normal household animals, and whether A (H1N1)-like viruses derived from the animal is able to proliferate in cell lines derived from human. In this current paper, familiar animals, including pigs, chickens, ducks, cats, dogs, rats, mice, and Brandt's voles were challenged with the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus, and genetic variations of the viral genome were analyzed after three passages in the susceptible animals. To further determine the virulence of these animals derived influenza A (H1N1)-like viruses, viral replication dynamic curves were monitored after inoculation in MDCK cells and human A549 cells. Our results indicated that pigs, BALB/c mice, and Brandt's voles, but not chickens, ducks, cats, dogs, and rats, could be infected by the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. Genome sequence alignment results showed that there was one genetic variation (G408T) in the HA gene of Brandt's vole derived virus and another one (C194A) in the NA gene of BALB/c mice derived virus, and the virulence of these two viruses in MDCK and A549 cells was significantly lower than the virus originally derived from human beings.

  4. Adaptation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Ilyushina, Natalia A; Khalenkov, Alexey M; Seiler, Jon P; Forrest, Heather L; Bovin, Nicolai V; Marjuki, Henju; Barman, Subrata; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J

    2010-09-01

    The molecular mechanism by which pandemic 2009 influenza A viruses were able to sufficiently adapt to humans is largely unknown. Subsequent human infections with novel H1N1 influenza viruses prompted an investigation of the molecular determinants of the host range and pathogenicity of pandemic influenza viruses in mammals. To address this problem, we assessed the genetic basis for increased virulence of A/CA/04/09 (H1N1) and A/TN/1-560/09 (H1N1) isolates, which are not lethal for mice, in a new mammalian host by promoting their mouse adaptation. The resulting mouse lung-adapted variants showed significantly enhanced growth characteristics in eggs, extended extrapulmonary tissue tropism, and pathogenicity in mice. All mouse-adapted viruses except A/TN/1-560/09-MA2 grew faster and to higher titers in cells than the original strains. We found that 10 amino acid changes in the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex (PB2 E158G/A, PA L295P, NP D101G, and NP H289Y) and hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein (K119N, G155E, S183P, R221K, and D222G) controlled enhanced mouse virulence of pandemic isolates. HA mutations acquired during adaptation affected viral receptor specificity by enhancing binding to alpha2,3 together with decreasing binding to alpha2,6 sialyl receptors. PB2 E158G/A and PA L295P amino acid substitutions were responsible for the significant enhancement of transcription and replication activity of the mouse-adapted H1N1 variants. Taken together, our findings suggest that changes optimizing receptor specificity and interaction of viral polymerase components with host cellular factors are the major mechanisms that contribute to the optimal competitive advantage of pandemic influenza viruses in mice. These modulators of virulence, therefore, may have been the driving components of early evolution, which paved the way for novel 2009 viruses in mammals.

  5. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Réunion Island.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Eric; Pascalis, Hervé; Temmam, Sarah; Hervé, Séverine; Saulnier, Aure; Turpin, Magali; Barbier, Nicolas; Hoarau, Johny; Quéguiner, Stéphane; Gorin, Stéphane; Foray, Coralie; Roger, Matthieu; Porphyre, Vincent; André, Paul; Thomas, Thierry; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dellagi, Koussay; Simon, Gaëlle

    2012-10-01

    During 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus affected humans on Réunion Island. Since then, the virus has sustained circulation among local swine herds, raising concerns about the potential for genetic evolution of the virus and possible retransmission back to humans of variants with increased virulence. Continuous surveillance of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in pigs is recommended.

  6. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-09-28

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control.

  7. Serological Evidence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Infections in Greek Swine.

    PubMed

    Kyriakis, C S; Papatsiros, V G; Athanasiou, L V; Valiakos, G; Brown, I H; Simon, G; Van Reeth, K; Tsiodras, S; Spyrou, V; Billinis, C

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal genes of avian decent. These viruses pose antigenically distinct HAs, which allow the retrospective diagnosis of infection in serological investigations. However, cross-reactions between the HA of pH1N1 and the HAs of the other circulating H1 IAVs complicate serological diagnosis. The prevalence of IAVs in Greek swine has been poorly investigated. In this study, we examined and compared haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against previously established IAVs and pH1N1 in 908 swine sera from 88 herds, collected before and after the 2009 pandemic. While we confirmed the historic presence of the three IAVs established in European swine, we also found that 4% of the pig sera examined after 2009 had HI antibodies only against the pH1N1 virus. Our results indicate that pH1N1 is circulating in Greek pigs and stress out the importance of a vigorous virological surveillance programme.

  8. Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-05-25

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  9. Structural basis of preexisting immunity to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C; Krause, Jens C; Hai, Rong; Crowe, James E; Wilson, Ian A

    2010-04-16

    The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

  10. Design and Characterization of a Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Hemagglutinin Vaccine for H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Donald M.; Darby, Christopher A.; Lefoley, Bradford C.; Crevar, Corey J.; Alefantis, Timothy; Oomen, Raymond; Anderson, Stephen F.; Strugnell, Tod; Cortés-Garcia, Guadalupe; Vogel, Thorsten U.; Parrington, Mark; Kleanthous, Harold

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the challenges of developing influenza A vaccines is the diversity of antigenically distinct isolates. Previously, a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza was derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA). This COBRA HA elicited a broad antibody response against H5N1 isolates from different clades. We now report the development and characterization of a COBRA-based vaccine for both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolates. Nine prototype H1N1 COBRA HA proteins were developed and tested in mice using a virus-like particle (VLP) format for the elicitation of broadly reactive, functional antibody responses and protection against viral challenge. These candidates were designed to recognize H1N1 viruses isolated within the last 30 years. In addition, several COBRA candidates were designed based on sequences of H1N1 viruses spanning the past 100 years, including modern pandemic H1N1 isolates. Four of the 9 H1N1 COBRA HA proteins (X1, X3, X6, and P1) had the broadest hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against a panel of 17 H1N1 viruses. These vaccines were used in cocktails or prime-boost combinations. The most effective regimens that both elicited the broadest HAI response and protected mice against a pandemic H1N1 challenge were vaccines that contained the P1 COBRA VLP and either the X3 or X6 COBRA VLP vaccine. These mice had little or no detectable viral replication, comparable to that observed with a matched licensed vaccine. This is the first report describing a COBRA-based HA vaccine strategy that elicits a universal, broadly reactive, protective response against seasonal and pandemic H1N1 isolates. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccine approaches have the potential to be paradigm shifting for the influenza vaccine field, with the goal of replacing the current standard of care with broadly cross-protective vaccines. We have used COBRA technology to develop an HA head

  11. Identification of reassortant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Korean pigs.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Yeon; Park, Sung Jun; Kim, Hye Kwon; Rho, Semi; Nguyen, Giap Van; Song, Daesub; Kang, Bo Kyu; Moon, Hyung Jun; Yeom, Min Joo; Park, Bong Kyun

    2012-05-01

    Since the 2009 pandemic human H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in April 2009, novel reassortant strains have been identified throughout the world. This paper describes the detection and isolation of reassortant strains associated with human pandemic influenza H1N1 and swine influenza H1N2 (SIV) viruses in swine populations in South Korea. Two influenza H1N2 reassortants were detected, and subtyped by PCR. The strains were isolated using Madin- Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and genetically characterized by phylogenetic analysis for genetic diversity. They consisted of human, avian, and swine virus genes that were originated from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus and a neuraminidase (NA) gene from H1N2 SIV previously isolated in North America. This identification of reassortment events in swine farms raises concern that reassortant strains may continuously circulate within swine populations, calling for the further study and surveillance of pandemic H1N1 among swine.

  12. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, José Ernesto; Gonzalez-Duran, Elizabeth; Alcantara-Perez, Patricia; Wong-Arambula, Claudia; Olivera-Diaz, Hiram; Cortez-Ortiz, Iliana; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Nguyen, Ha; Gubareva, Larisa; Lopez-Martinez, Irma; Díaz-Quiñonez, Jose Alberto; Lezana-Fernández, Miguel Angel; Gatell-Ramírez, Hugo Lopez; Villalobos, Jose Angel Cordova; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    During May 2009–April 2010, we analyzed 692 samples of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus from patients in Mexico. We detected the H275Y substitution of the neuraminidase gene in a specimen from an infant with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who was treated with oseltamivir. This virus was susceptible to zanamivir and resistant to adamantanes and oseltamivir. PMID:21291607

  13. PLC-γ1 is involved in the inflammatory response induced by influenza A virus H1N1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Yuan, Chen; Ding, Xiuyan; Xu, Shuai; Yang, Jiayun; Liang, Yuying; Zhu, Qiyun

    2016-09-01

    We have previously reported that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase γ1 (PLC-γ1) signaling is activated by influenza virus H1N1 infection and mediates efficient viral entry in human epithelial cells. In this study, we show that H1N1 also activates PLCγ-1 signaling in human promonocytic cell line -derived macrophages. Surprisingly, the activated PLCγ-1 signaling is not important for viral replication in macrophages, but is involved in the virus-induced inflammatory responses. PLC-γ1-specific inhibitor U73122 strongly inhibits the H1N1 virus-induced NF-κB signaling, blocking the up-regulation of TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α, and reactive oxidative species. In a positive feedback loop, IL-1β and TNF-α activate the PLCγ-1 signaling in both epithelial and macrophage cell lines. In summary, we have shown for the first time that the PLCγ-1 signaling plays an important role in the H1N1-induced inflammatory responses. Our study suggests that targeting the PLCγ-1 signaling is a potential antiviral therapy against H1N1 by inhibiting both viral replication and excessive inflammation.

  14. Antigenic and genetic analyses of H1N1 influenza A viruses from European pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, I H; Ludwig, S; Olsen, C W; Hannoun, C; Scholtissek, C; Hinshaw, V S; Harris, P A; McCauley, J W; Strong, I; Alexander, D J

    1997-03-01

    H1N1 influenza A viruses isolated from pigs in Europe since 1981 were examined both antigenically and genetically and compared with H1N1 viruses from other sources. H1N1 viruses from pigs and birds could be divided into three groups: avian, classical swine and 'avian-like' swine viruses. Low or no reactivity of 'avian-like' swine viruses in HI tests with monoclonal antibodies raised against classical swine viruses was associated with amino acid substitutions within antigenic sites of the haemagglutinin (HA). Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene revealed that classical swine viruses from European pigs are most similar to each other and are closely related to North American swine strains, whilst the 'avian-like' swine viruses cluster with avian viruses. 'Avian-like' viruses introduced into pigs in the UK in 1992 apparently originated directly from strains in pigs in continental Europe at that time. The HA genes of the swine viruses examined had undergone limited variation in antigenic sites and also contained fewer potential glycosylation sites compared to human H1N1 viruses. The HA exhibited antigenic drift which was more marked in 'avian-like' swine viruses than in classical swine strains. Genetic analyses of two recent 'avian-like' swine viruses indicated that all the RNA segments are related most closely to those of avian influenza A viruses.

  15. Initial incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus into European pigs.

    PubMed

    Welsh, M D; Baird, P M; Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, M P; Hanna, A; Reid, S M; Essen, S; Russell, C; Thomas, S; Barrass, L; McNeilly, F; McKillen, J; Todd, D; Harkin, V; McDowell, S; Choudhury, B; Irvine, R M; Borobia, J; Grant, J; Brown, I H

    2010-05-22

    The initial incursion of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus (pH1N1) into a European pig population is reported. Diagnosis of swine influenza caused by pandemic virus was made during September 2009 following routine submission of samples for differential diagnosis of causative agents of respiratory disease, including influenza A virus. All four pigs (aged six weeks) submitted for investigation from a pig herd of approximately 5000 animals in Northern Ireland, experiencing acute-onset respiratory signs in finishing and growing pigs, were positive by immunofluorescence for influenza A. Follow-up analysis of lung tissue homogenates by real-time RT-PCR confirmed the presence of pH1N1. The virus was subsequently detected on two other premises in Northern Ireland; on one premises, detection followed the pre-export health certification testing of samples from pigs presumed to be subclinically infected as no clinical signs were apparent. None of the premises was linked to another epidemiologically. Sequencing of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes revealed high nucleotide identity (>99.4 per cent) with other pH1N1s isolated from human beings. Genotypic analyses revealed all gene segments to be most closely related to those of contemporary pH1N1 viruses in human beings. It is concluded that all three outbreaks occurred independently, potentially as a result of transmission of the virus from human beings to pigs.

  16. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection in Giant Pandas, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-01-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas. PMID:24565026

  17. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in giant pandas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Desheng; Zhu, Ling; Cui, Hengmin; Ling, Shanshan; Fan, Shengtao; Yu, Zhijun; Zhou, Yuancheng; Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Jun; Xia, Xianzhu; Xu, Zhiwen; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Chengdong

    2014-03-01

    We confirmed infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in giant pandas in China during 2009 by using virus isolation and serologic analysis methods. This finding extends the host range of influenza viruses and indicates a need for increased surveillance for and control of influenza viruses among giant pandas.

  18. Emergence and characterisation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in Hungarian swine herds.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Adám; Kiss, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Biksi, Imre; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor; Jankovics, István; Rózsa, Mónika; Szalai, Bálint; Takács, Mária; Tóth, Adám György; Dán, Adám

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

  19. Prophylaxis and therapy of pandemic H1N1 virus infection using egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-e; Wen, Junlin; Zhao, Suqing; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Influenza A virus infects the human respiratory system and causes acute and fatal pulmonary diseases. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains highlights the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this work, IgY antibody was raised in immunized laying hens, and its antiviral activity was evaluated in the context of passive immunization. With inactivated whole H1N1 virus, high-titer IgY antibody 9.18 mg/mL egg yolk was induced by the eighth week after immunization. Western blotting and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test demonstrated that the IgY antibody could specifically bind the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 virus. In the plaque reduction assay, the IgY antibody reduced the H1N1 viral infection in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. In a mouse model, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited in vivo protection by reducing the infectious titer of the virus in the lung while maintaining the weight and normal structure of the lung tissue. Additionally, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited protective activity comparable to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. These results demonstrated that IgY can be easily produced and can offers an effective alternative approach for influenza control.

  20. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Medina, Rafael A; Manicassamy, Balaji; Stertz, Silke; Seibert, Christopher W; Hai, Rong; Belshe, Robert B; Frey, Sharon E; Basler, Christopher F; Palese, Peter; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2010-06-15

    The 1918 influenza A virus caused the most devastating pandemic, killing approximately 50 million people worldwide. Immunization with 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 virus vaccines results in cross-protective antibodies against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, indicating antigenic similarities among these viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that vaccination with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine elicits 1918 virus cross-protective antibodies in mice and humans, and that vaccination or passive transfer of human-positive sera reduced morbidity and conferred full protection from lethal challenge with the 1918 virus in mice. The spread of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in the population worldwide, in addition to the large number of individuals already vaccinated, suggests that a large proportion of the population now have cross-protective antibodies against the 1918 virus, greatly alleviating concerns and fears regarding the accidental exposure/release of the 1918 virus from the laboratory and the use of the virus as a bioterrorist agent.

  1. Phylogenetic evolution of swine-origin human influenza virus: a pandemic H1N1 2009.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, A; Markowska-Daniel, I

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of the genome constellation in pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 2009 from different countries and different hosts is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the evolution and migration of these strains. The complete genome sequences of selected worldwide distributed influenza A viruses are publicly available and there have been few longitudinal genome studies of human, avian and swine influenza A viruses. All possible to download SIV sequences of influenza A viruses available at GISAID Platform (Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data) were analyzed firstly through the web servers of the Influenza Virus Resource in NCBI. Phylogenetic study of circulating human pandemic H1N1 virus indicated that the new variant possesses a distinctive evolutionary trait. There is no one way the pandemic H1N1 have acquired new genes from other distinguishable viruses circulating recently in local human, pig or domestic poultry populations from various geographic regions. The extensive genetic diversity among whole segments present in pandemic H1N1 genome suggests that multiple introduction of virus have taken place during the period 1999-2009. The initial interspecies transmission could have occurred in the long-range past and after it the reassortants steps lead to three lineages: classical SIV prevalent in the North America, avian-like SIV in Europe and avian-like related SIV in Asia. This analysis contributes to the evidence that pigs are not the only hosts playing the role of "mixing vessel", as it was suggested for many years.

  2. Enhanced Pneumonia With Pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in the major swine producing regions of North America consist of multiple subtypes of endemic H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (1). Genetic drift and r...

  3. Changes to the dynamic nature of hemagglutinin and the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Chen, Noam; Ducatez, Mariette F; McBride, Ryan; Barman, Subrata; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Webster, Robert G; Haliloglu, Turkan; Paulson, James C; Russell, Charles J; Hertz, Tomer; Ben-Tal, Nir; Webby, Richard J

    2015-08-13

    The virologic factors that limit the transmission of swine influenza viruses between humans are unresolved. While it has been shown that acquisition of the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) gene segments from a Eurasian-lineage swine virus was required for airborne transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09), we show here that an arginine to lysine change in the hemagglutinin (HA) was also necessary. This change at position 149 was distal to the receptor binding site but affected virus-receptor affinity and HA dynamics, allowing the virus to replicate more efficiently in nasal turbinate epithelium and subsequently transmit between ferrets. Receptor affinity should be considered as a factor limiting swine virus spread in humans.

  4. Tracking the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in the Italian region Campania.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Di Spirito, Antimo; Cuomo, Nunzia; Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; Flaminio, Giovanni; Altamura, Fabiana; Ambrosino, Daniele; Cantalupo, Federich; Costa, Caterina; Pentimalli, Francesca; Tarro, Giulio

    2012-07-01

    A novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus affecting humans was detected in April 2009 in Mexico, Canada, and USA. The S-OIV infection caused a mild to severe febrile respiratory disease throughout the world. Here, we briefly review the main features of influenza A viruses, which caused also other pandemics in the past, and focus in particular on the epidemiology data of the H1N1 influenza in the Italian region Campania, which resulted the most affected by the S-OIV and the one with more lethal cases. In Campania, the peak of influenza preceded of about 2 weeks the incidence peak at the national level. Moreover, the percentage of H1N1-positive patients was much higher in the main town Naples, compared to the other Campania provinces. The age group from 7 months to 17 years was the most affected by the H1N1 infection (43.45%), similarly to what reported at the national level. Here, we discuss the possible reasons of the high H1N1 incidence in Campania and the implications that these findings could have on the future prevention campaigns.

  5. Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Baioni, Laura; Luppi, Andrea; Moreno, Ana; Castellan, Alberto; Foni, Emanuela

    2013-10-03

    In this study, the full-genome sequence of a novel reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is reported. The isolate has a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms.

  6. Full-Genome Sequence of a Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Baioni, Laura; Luppi, Andrea; Moreno, Ana; Castellan, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the full-genome sequence of a novel reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV) is reported. The isolate has a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms. PMID:24092781

  7. The hemagglutinin structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tianwei; Wang, Gengyan; Li, Anzhang; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Caiming; Zhang, Rongfu; Cai, Qixu; Song, Wenjun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-09-15

    The interaction between hemagglutinin (HA) and receptors is a kernel in the study of evolution and host adaptation of H1N1 influenza A viruses. The notion that the avian HA is associated with preferential specificity for receptors with Sia{alpha}2,3Gal glycosidic linkage over those with Sia{alpha}2,6Gal linkage is not all consistent with the available data on H1N1 viruses. By x-ray crystallography, the HA structure of an avian H1N1 influenza A virus, as well as its complexes with the receptor analogs, was determined. The structures revealed no preferential binding of avian receptor analogs over that of the human analog, suggesting that the HA/receptor binding might not be as stringent as is commonly believed in determining the host receptor preference for some subtypes of influenza viruses, such as the H1N1 viruses. The structure also showed difference in glycosylation despite the preservation of related sequences, which may partly contribute to the difference between structures of human and avian origin.

  8. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Cameron G.; Davies, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V.

    2016-01-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  9. Influenza virus A (H1N1) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Nofs, Sally; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Thomas, Kathy V; Toplon, David; Rouse, Dawn; Kennedy, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    In February 2007, an outbreak of respiratory disease occurred in a group of giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) at the Nashville Zoo. Isolates from 2 affected animals were identified in March 2007 as a type A influenza virus related to human influenza subtype H1N1.

  10. Inside the Outbreak of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)v Virus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Lopez, Hector M.; Perea-Araujo, Lizbeth; Miliar-García, Angel; Dominguez-López, Aarón; Xoconostle-Cázarez, Beatriz; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Ramírez Hernandez, Jorge A.; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar; Orozco, Maria Esther; Ahued-Ortega, Armando; Villaseñor-Ruiz, Ignacio; Garcia-Cavazos, Ricardo J.; Teran, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Influenza viruses pose a threat to human health because of their potential to cause global disease. Between mid March and mid April a pandemic influenza A virus emerged in Mexico. This report details 202 cases of infection of humans with the 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1)v which occurred in Mexico City as well as the spread of the virus throughout the entire country. Methodology and Findings From May 1st to May 5th nasopharyngeal swabs, derived from 751 patients, were collected at 220 outpatient clinics and 28 hospitals distributed throughout Mexico City. Analysis of samples using real time RT-PCR revealed that 202 patients out of the 751 subjects (26.9%) were confirmed to be infected with the new virus. All confirmed cases of human infection with the strain influenza (H1N1)v suffered respiratory symptoms. The greatest number of confirmed cases during the outbreak of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1)v were seen in neighbourhoods on the northeast side of Mexico City including Iztapalapa, Gustavo A. Madero, Iztacalco, and Tlahuac which are the most populated areas in Mexico City. Using these data, together with data reported by the Mexican Secretariat of Health (MSH) to date, we plot the course of influenza (H1N1)v activity throughout Mexico. Conclusions Our data, which is backed up by MSH data, show that the greatest numbers of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) cases were seen in the most populated areas. We speculate on conditions in Mexico which may have sparked this flu pandemic, the first in 41 years. We accept the hypothesis that high population density and a mass gathering which took in Iztapalapa contributed to the rapid spread of the disease which developed in three peaks of activity throughout the Country. PMID:20949040

  11. Increased virulence of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant pandemic H1N1 virus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Suk; Hee Baek, Yun; Kim, Eun-Ha; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Semi; Lim, Gyo-Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Decano, Arun G; Lee, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Young-Il; Webby, Richard J; Choi, Young-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 2009 (A[H1N1]pdm09) variants associated with oseltamivir resistance have emerged with a histidine-to-tyrosine substitution in the neuraminidase(NA) at position 274 (H274Y). To determine whether the H274Y variant has increased virulence potential, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, with or without the H274Y mutation, was adapted by serial lung-to-lung passages in mice. The mouse-adapted H274Y (maCA04H274Y) variants showed increased growth properties and virulence in vitro and in vivo while maintaining high NA inhibitor resistance. Interestingly, most maCA04H274Y and maCA04 viruses acquired common mutations in HA (S183P and D222G) and NP (D101G), while only maCA04H274Y viruses had consensus additional K153E mutation in the HA gene, suggesting a potential association with the H274Y substitution. Collectively, our findings highlight the potential emergence of A(H1N1)pdm09 drug-resistant variants with increased virulence and the need for rapid development of novel antiviral drugs. PMID:23924955

  12. [NP gene of pandemic H1N1 virus attenuates virulence of mouse-adapted human influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Zhirnov, O P; Syrtsev, V V; Schwalm, F; Klenk, H D

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied a possible role of the caspase cleavage motif located in the nucleoprotein (NP) of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 in the regulation of viral virulence properties. A reverse genetics method was used to obtain chimeric seasonal-like mouse-adapted influenza virus hvA/PE/8/34 (H1N10) carrying either the NP gene of wild type pandemic virus with incomplete caspase motif ETGC or mutated pandemic NP with natural caspase cleavage site of human type ETDG. The wild-type NP gene of the pandemic virus was found to poorly fit to the gene pattern of closely related seasonal-like hvA/PR/8/34 virus (H1N1) and did not rescue mature virus production whereas a mutated NP with human-type caspase cleavage site maintained gene fitness, giving rise to a chimeric virus. The generated chimeric virus hvA/PR/8/34 carrying the mutated pandemic NP successfully replicated in the murine lung, but was attenuated and did not reach the virulence level of seasonal-like mouse-adapted virus hvA/PR/8/34. The findings indicate that the NP caspase cleavage site plays a role in viral adaptation and viral virulence in mammals.

  13. Infrarenal Aorta Thrombosis Associated with H1N1 Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saglam, Mustafa; Arıkan, Ali; Doner, Barıs; Akıncı, Gulay

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, of which influenza A, B, and C viruses constitute three separate genera. Arterial thrombosis associated with H1N1 influenza A virus infection has rarely been reported. A Turkish man aged 28 years was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea, bilateral lower extremity insensitivity, and cold. He reported symptoms of fever, myalgia, and cough, which he had had for fifteen days before being admitted to our hospital. The patient was tested for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which were positive. Abdominal computerized tomography with contrast revealed a large occlusive thrombus within the infrarenal aorta. PMID:27872775

  14. Prediction of biological functions on glycosylation site migrations in human influenza H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shisheng; Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Wentian; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation alteration is typically employed by various viruses for escaping immune pressures from their hosts. Our previous work had shown that not only the increase of glycosylation sites (glycosites) numbers, but also glycosite migration might be involved in the evolution of human seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses. More importantly, glycosite migration was likely a more effectively alteration way for the host adaption of human influenza H1N1 viruses. In this study, we provided more bioinformatics and statistic evidences for further predicting the significant biological functions of glycosite migration in the host adaptation of human influenza H1N1 viruses, by employing homology modeling and in silico protein glycosylation of representative HA and NA proteins as well as amino acid variability analysis at antigenic sites of HA and NA. The results showed that glycosite migrations in human influenza viruses have at least five possible functions: to more effectively mask the antigenic sites, to more effectively protect the enzymatic cleavage sites of neuraminidase (NA), to stabilize the polymeric structures, to regulate the receptor binding and catalytic activities and to balance the binding activity of hemagglutinin (HA) with the release activity of NA. The information here can provide some constructive suggestions for the function research related to protein glycosylation of influenza viruses, although these predictions still need to be supported by experimental data.

  15. Transmission of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in a Train in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fuqiang; Luo, Huiming; Zhou, Lei; Yin, Dapeng; Zheng, Canjun; Wang, Dingming; Gong, Jian; Fang, Gang; He, Jianfeng; McFarland, Jeffrey; Yu, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in North America in April 2009 and spread globally. We describe the epidemiology and public health response to the first known outbreak of 2009 H1N1 in a train, which occurred in June 2009 in China. Methods After 2 provinces provided initial reports of 2009 H1N1 infection in 2 persons who had travelled on the same train, we conducted a retrospective epidemiologic investigation to collect information from the passengers, crew members, contacts, and health care providers. We explored the source of infection and possible routes of transmission in the train. All cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Results Train #1223 traveled 40 hours, made 28 stops in 4 Chinese provinces, and boarded 2555 passengers, who logged a total of 59 144 person-hours of travel time. Nineteen confirmed 2009 H1N1 cases were identified. Of these, 13 were infected and developed symptoms on the train and 6 occurred among contacts who developed illness during medical monitoring. In addition, 3 asymptomatic cases were identified based on RT-PCR testing of respiratory swabs from contacts. The attack rate among contacts of confirmed cases in the same car was higher than that among contacts in other cars (3.15% vs. 0%, P < 0.001). Attack rates increased with exposure time. Conclusions Close contact and long exposure may have contributed to the transmission of 2009 H1N1 virus in the train. Trains may have played an important role in the 2009 influenza pandemic. PMID:21646746

  16. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks.

  17. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Virus A (H1N1), Europe, 2007–08 Season

    PubMed Central

    Lackenby, Angie; Hungnes, Olav; Lina, Bruno; van der Werf, Sylvie; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Opp, Matthias; Paget, John; van de Kassteele, Jan; Hay, Alan; Zambon, Maria

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, the 2007–08 winter season was dominated by influenza virus A (H1N1) circulation through week 7, followed by influenza B virus from week 8 onward. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase emerged independently of drug use. By country, the proportion of ORVs ranged from 0% to 68%, with the highest proportion in Norway. The average weighted prevalence of ORVs across Europe increased gradually over time, from near 0 in week 40 of 2007 to 56% in week 19 of 2008 (mean 20%). Neuraminidase genes of ORVs possessing the H275Y substitution formed a homogeneous subgroup closely related to, but distinguishable from, those of oseltamivir-sensitive influenza viruses A (H1N1). Minor variants of ORVs emerged independently, indicating multiclonal ORVs. Overall, the clinical effect of ORVs in Europe, measured by influenza-like illness or acute respiratory infection, was unremarkable and consistent with normal seasonal activity. PMID:19331731

  18. Adaptation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in experimental mouse models.

    PubMed

    Prokopyeva, E A; Sobolev, I A; Prokopyev, M V; Shestopalov, A M

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, three mouse-adapted variants of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were obtained by lung-to-lung passages of BALB/c, C57BL/6z and CD1 mice. The significantly increased virulence and pathogenicity of all of the mouse-adapted variants induced 100% mortality in the adapted mice. Genetic analysis indicated that the increased virulence of all of the mouse-adapted variants reflected the incremental acquisition of several mutations in PB2, PB1, HA, NP, NA, and NS2 proteins. Identical amino acid substitutions were also detected in all of the mouse-adapted variants of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, including PB2 (K251R), PB1 (V652A), NP (I353V), NA (I106V, N248D) and NS1 (G159E). Apparently, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus easily adapted to the host after serial passages in the lungs, inducing 100% lethality in the last experimental group. However, cross-challenge revealed that not all adapted variants are pathogenic for different laboratory mice. Such important results should be considered when using the influenza mice model.

  19. Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2009-06-18

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities. A prime example is the recent emergence of swine-origin H1N1 viruses that have transmitted to and spread among humans, resulting in outbreaks internationally. Efforts to control these outbreaks and real-time monitoring of the evolution of this virus should provide us with invaluable information to direct infectious disease control programmes and to improve understanding of the factors that determine viral pathogenicity and/or transmissibility.

  20. The Genomic Contributions of Avian H1N1 Influenza A Viruses to the Evolution of Mammalian Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Among the influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild aquatic birds, only H1, H2, and H3 subtypes have caused epidemics in humans. H1N1 viruses of avian origin have also caused 3 of 5 pandemics. To understand the reappearance of H1N1 in the context of pandemic emergence, we investigated whether avian H1N1 IAVs have contributed to the evolution of human, swine, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we concluded that the polymerase gene segments (especially PB2 and PA) circulating in North American avian H1N1 IAVs have been reintroduced to swine multiple times, resulting in different lineages that led to the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. Moreover, the similar topologies of hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein and neuraminidase and matrix gene segments suggest that each surface glycoprotein coevolved with an internal gene segment within the H1N1 subtype. The genotype of avian H1N1 IAVs of Charadriiformes origin isolated in 2009 differs from that of avian H1N1 IAVs of Anseriformes origin. When the antigenic sites in the hemagglutinin of all 31 North American avian H1N1 IAVs were considered, 60%-80% of the amino acids at the antigenic sites were identical to those in 1918 and/or 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Thus, although the pathogenicity of avian H1N1 IAVs could not be inferred from the phylogeny due to the small dataset, the evolutionary process within the H1N1 IAV subtype suggests that the circulation of H1N1 IAVs in wild birds poses a continuous threat for future influenza pandemics in humans. PMID:26208281

  1. The Genomic Contributions of Avian H1N1 Influenza A Viruses to the Evolution of Mammalian Strains.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Carter, Robert; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Among the influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild aquatic birds, only H1, H2, and H3 subtypes have caused epidemics in humans. H1N1 viruses of avian origin have also caused 3 of 5 pandemics. To understand the reappearance of H1N1 in the context of pandemic emergence, we investigated whether avian H1N1 IAVs have contributed to the evolution of human, swine, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, we concluded that the polymerase gene segments (especially PB2 and PA) circulating in North American avian H1N1 IAVs have been reintroduced to swine multiple times, resulting in different lineages that led to the emergence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 IAVs. Moreover, the similar topologies of hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein and neuraminidase and matrix gene segments suggest that each surface glycoprotein coevolved with an internal gene segment within the H1N1 subtype. The genotype of avian H1N1 IAVs of Charadriiformes origin isolated in 2009 differs from that of avian H1N1 IAVs of Anseriformes origin. When the antigenic sites in the hemagglutinin of all 31 North American avian H1N1 IAVs were considered, 60%-80% of the amino acids at the antigenic sites were identical to those in 1918 and/or 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Thus, although the pathogenicity of avian H1N1 IAVs could not be inferred from the phylogeny due to the small dataset, the evolutionary process within the H1N1 IAV subtype suggests that the circulation of H1N1 IAVs in wild birds poses a continuous threat for future influenza pandemics in humans.

  2. T-705 (favipiravir) induces lethal mutagenesis in influenza A H1N1 viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Wong, Sook-San; Armstrong, Jianling; Marjuki, Henju; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A

    2013-04-01

    Several novel anti-influenza compounds are in various phases of clinical development. One of these, T-705 (favipiravir), has a mechanism of action that is not fully understood but is suggested to target influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We investigated the mechanism of T-705 activity against influenza A (H1N1) viruses by applying selective drug pressure over multiple sequential passages in MDCK cells. We found that T-705 treatment did not select specific mutations in potential target proteins, including PB1, PB2, PA, and NP. Phenotypic assays based on cell viability confirmed that no T-705-resistant variants were selected. In the presence of T-705, titers of infectious virus decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) during serial passage in MDCK cells inoculated with seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI; 0.0001 PFU/cell) or with 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses at a high MOI (10 PFU/cell). There was no corresponding decrease in the number of viral RNA copies; therefore, specific virus infectivity (the ratio of infectious virus yield to viral RNA copy number) was reduced. Sequence analysis showed enrichment of G→A and C→T transversion mutations, increased mutation frequency, and a shift of the nucleotide profiles of individual NP gene clones under drug selection pressure. Our results demonstrate that T-705 induces a high rate of mutation that generates a nonviable viral phenotype and that lethal mutagenesis is a key antiviral mechanism of T-705. Our findings also explain the broad spectrum of activity of T-705 against viruses of multiple families.

  3. T-705 (Favipiravir) Induces Lethal Mutagenesis in Influenza A H1N1 Viruses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Wong, Sook-San; Armstrong, Jianling; Marjuki, Henju; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Several novel anti-influenza compounds are in various phases of clinical development. One of these, T-705 (favipiravir), has a mechanism of action that is not fully understood but is suggested to target influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We investigated the mechanism of T-705 activity against influenza A (H1N1) viruses by applying selective drug pressure over multiple sequential passages in MDCK cells. We found that T-705 treatment did not select specific mutations in potential target proteins, including PB1, PB2, PA, and NP. Phenotypic assays based on cell viability confirmed that no T-705-resistant variants were selected. In the presence of T-705, titers of infectious virus decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) during serial passage in MDCK cells inoculated with seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI; 0.0001 PFU/cell) or with 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses at a high MOI (10 PFU/cell). There was no corresponding decrease in the number of viral RNA copies; therefore, specific virus infectivity (the ratio of infectious virus yield to viral RNA copy number) was reduced. Sequence analysis showed enrichment of G→A and C→T transversion mutations, increased mutation frequency, and a shift of the nucleotide profiles of individual NP gene clones under drug selection pressure. Our results demonstrate that T-705 induces a high rate of mutation that generates a nonviable viral phenotype and that lethal mutagenesis is a key antiviral mechanism of T-705. Our findings also explain the broad spectrum of activity of T-705 against viruses of multiple families. PMID:23325689

  4. Cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell immunity between the pandemic H1N1-2009 and H1N1-1918 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Gras, Stephanie; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Valkenburg, Sophie A; Laurie, Karen; Liu, Yu Chih; Denholm, Justin T; Richards, Michael J; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Kelso, Anne; Doherty, Peter C; Turner, Stephen J; Rossjohn, Jamie; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2010-07-13

    Preexisting T-cell immunity directed at conserved viral regions promotes enhanced recovery from influenza virus infections, with there being some evidence of cross-protection directed at variable peptides. Strikingly, many of the immunogenic peptides derived from the current pandemic A(H1N1)-2009 influenza virus are representative of the catastrophic 1918 "Spanish flu" rather than more recent "seasonal" strains. We present immunological and structural analyses of cross-reactive CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity directed at a variable (although highly cross-reactive) immunodominant NP(418-426) peptide that binds to a large B7 family (HLA-B*3501/03/0702) found throughout human populations. Memory CD8(+) T-cell specificity was probed for 12 different NP(418) mutants that emerged over the 9 decades between the 1918 and 2009 pandemics. Although there is evidence of substantial cross-reactivity among seasonal NP(418) mutants, current memory T-cell profiles show no preexisting immunity to the 2009-NP(418) variant or the 1918-NP(418) variant. Natural infection with the A(H1N1)-2009 virus, however, elicits CD8(+) T cells specific for the 2009-NP(418) and 1918-NP(418) epitopes. This analysis points to the potential importance of cross-reactive T-cell populations that cover the possible spectrum of T-cell variants and suggests that the identification of key residues/motifs that elicit cross-reactive T-cell sets could facilitate the evolution of immunization protocols that provide a measure of protection against unpredicted pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, it is worth exploring the potential of vaccines that incorporate peptide variants with a proven potential for broader immunogenicity, especially to those that are not recognized by the current memory T-cell pool generated by exposure to influenza variants that cause successive seasonal epidemics.

  5. Antibody recognition of the pandemic H1N1 Influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding site.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minsun; Lee, Peter S; Hoffman, Ryan M B; Zhu, Xueyong; Krause, Jens C; Laursen, Nick S; Yoon, Sung-Il; Song, Langzhou; Tussey, Lynda; Crowe, James E; Ward, Andrew B; Wilson, Ian A

    2013-11-01

    Influenza virus is a global health concern due to its unpredictable pandemic potential. This potential threat was realized in 2009 when an H1N1 virus emerged that resembled the 1918 virus in antigenicity but fortunately was not nearly as deadly. 5J8 is a human antibody that potently neutralizes a broad spectrum of H1N1 viruses, including the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses. Here, we present the crystal structure of 5J8 Fab in complex with a bacterially expressed and refolded globular head domain from the hemagglutinin (HA) of the A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pandemic virus. 5J8 recognizes a conserved epitope in and around the receptor binding site (RBS), and its HCDR3 closely mimics interactions of the sialic acid receptor. Electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions of 5J8 Fab in complex with an HA trimer from a 1986 H1 strain and with an engineered stabilized HA trimer from the 2009 H1 pandemic virus showed a similar mode of binding. As for other characterized RBS-targeted antibodies, 5J8 uses avidity to extend its breadth and affinity against divergent H1 strains. 5J8 selectively interacts with HA insertion residue 133a, which is conserved in pandemic H1 strains and has precluded binding of other RBS-targeted antibodies. Thus, the RBS of divergent HAs is targeted by 5J8 and adds to the growing arsenal of common recognition motifs for design of therapeutics and vaccines. Moreover, consistent with previous studies, the bacterially expressed H1 HA properly refolds, retaining its antigenic structure, and presents a low-cost and rapid alternative for engineering and manufacturing candidate flu vaccines.

  6. Genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Worobey, Michael; Han, Guan-Zhu; Rambaut, Andrew

    2014-06-03

    The source, timing, and geographical origin of the 1918-1920 pandemic influenza A virus have remained tenaciously obscure for nearly a century, as have the reasons for its unusual severity among young adults. Here, we reconstruct the origins of the pandemic virus and the classic swine influenza and (postpandemic) seasonal H1N1 lineages using a host-specific molecular clock approach that is demonstrably more accurate than previous methods. Our results suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus originated shortly before 1918 when a human H1 virus, which we infer emerged before ∼1907, acquired avian N1 neuraminidase and internal protein genes. We find that the resulting pandemic virus jumped directly to swine but was likely displaced in humans by ∼1922 by a reassortant with an antigenically distinct H1 HA. Hence, although the swine lineage was a direct descendent of the pandemic virus, the post-1918 seasonal H1N1 lineage evidently was not, at least for HA. These findings help resolve several seemingly disparate observations from 20th century influenza epidemiology, seroarcheology, and immunology. The phylogenetic results, combined with these other lines of evidence, suggest that the high mortality in 1918 among adults aged ∼20 to ∼40 y may have been due primarily to their childhood exposure to a doubly heterosubtypic putative H3N8 virus, which we estimate circulated from ∼1889-1900. All other age groups (except immunologically naive infants) were likely partially protected by childhood exposure to N1 and/or H1-related antigens. Similar processes may underlie age-specific mortality differences between seasonal H1N1 vs. H3N2 and human H5N1 vs. H7N9 infections.

  7. Novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses in pigs in Tianjin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Hua; Lu, Chao; Yang, Chun-Lei; Feng, Jing; Han, Wei; Ren, Wei-Ke; Tian, Xiang-Xue; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Wen, Feng; Li, Ze-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ruan, Bao-Yang; Yan, Ming-Hua; Yu, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses and therefore have been proposed to be mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment. In this study, for the first time, we report the isolation and genetic analyses of three novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses from pigs in Tianjin, Northern China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these novel viruses contained genes from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PB2, PB1, PA and NP), Eurasian swine (HA, NA and M) and triple-reassortant swine (NS) lineages. This indicated that the reassortment among the 2009 pandemic H1N1, Eurasian swine and triple-reassortant swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in Tianjin and resulted in the generation of new viruses. Furthermore, three human-like H1N1, two classical swine H1N1 and two Eurasian swine H1N1 viruses were also isolated during the swine influenza virus surveillance from 2009 to 2013, which indicated that multiple genetic lineages of swine H1N1 viruses were co-circulating in the swine population in Tianjin, China. The emergence of novel triple-reassortant H1N1 swine influenza viruses may be a potential threat to human health and emphasizes the importance of further continuous surveillance.

  8. Inactivation of H1N1 viruses exposed to acidic ozone water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Kwang H.; Seong, Baik L.

    2009-10-01

    The inactivation of H1N1 viruses upon exposure to acidic ozone water was investigated using chicken allantoic fluids of different dilutions, pH values, and initial ozone concentrations. The inactivation effect of the acidic ozone water was found to be stronger than the inactivation effect of the ozone water combined with the degree of acidity, indicating a synergic effect of acidity on ozone decay in water. It is also shown that acidic ozone water with a pH value of 4 or less is very effective means of virus inactivation if provided in conjunction with an ozone concentration of 20 mg/l or higher.

  9. Antigenic drift of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus in A ferret model.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Teagan; Carolan, Louise A; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Lee, Raphael T C; Job, Emma; Reading, Patrick C; Petrie, Stephen; McCaw, James M; McVernon, Jodie; Hurt, Aeron C; Kelso, Anne; Mosse, Jennifer; Barr, Ian G; Laurie, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance data indicate that most circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses have remained antigenically similar since they emerged in humans in 2009. However, antigenic drift is likely to occur in the future in response to increasing population immunity induced by infection or vaccination. In this study, sequential passaging of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus by contact transmission through two independent series of suboptimally vaccinated ferrets resulted in selection of variant viruses with an amino acid substitution (N156K, H1 numbering without signal peptide; N159K, H3 numbering without signal peptide; N173K, H1 numbering from first methionine) in a known antigenic site of the viral HA. The N156K HA variant replicated and transmitted efficiently between naïve ferrets and outgrew wildtype virus in vivo in ferrets in the presence and absence of immune pressure. In vitro, in a range of cell culture systems, the N156K variant rapidly adapted, acquiring additional mutations in the viral HA that also potentially affected antigenic properties. The N156K escape mutant was antigenically distinct from wildtype virus as shown by binding of HA-specific antibodies. Glycan binding assays demonstrated the N156K escape mutant had altered receptor binding preferences compared to wildtype virus, which was supported by computational modeling predictions. The N156K substitution, and culture adaptations, have been detected in human A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses with N156K preferentially reported in sequences from original clinical samples rather than cultured isolates. This study demonstrates the ability of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to undergo rapid antigenic change to evade a low level vaccine response, while remaining fit in a ferret transmission model of immunization and infection. Furthermore, the potential changes in receptor binding properties that accompany antigenic changes highlight the importance of routine characterization of clinical samples in human A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza surveillance.

  10. Differences in transmissibility and pathogenicity of reassortants between H9N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses from humans and swine.

    PubMed

    He, Liang; Wu, Qiwen; Jiang, Kaijun; Duan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Jingjing; Xu, Haixu; Cui, Zhu; Gu, Min; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-07-01

    Both H9N2 subtype avian influenza and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses (pH1N1) can infect humans and pigs, which provides the opportunity for virus reassortment, leading to the genesis of new strains with potential pandemic risk. In this study, we generated six reassortant H9 viruses in the background of three pH1N1 strains from different hosts (A/California/04/2009 [CA04], A/Swine/Jiangsu/48/2010 [JS48] and A/Swine/Jiangsu/285/2010 [JS285]) by replacing either the HA (H9N1-pH1N1) or both the HA and NA genes (H9N2-pH1N1) from an h9.4.2.5-lineage H9N2 subtype influenza virus, A/Swine/Taizhou/5/08 (TZ5). The reassortant H9 viruses replicated to higher titers in vitro and in vivo and gained both efficient transmissibility in guinea pigs and increased pathogenicity in mice compared with the parental H9N2 virus. In addition, differences in transmissibility and pathogenicity were observed among these reassortant H9 viruses. The H9N2-pH1N1viruses were transmitted more efficiently than the corresponding H9N1-pH1N1 viruses but showed significantly decreased pathogenicity. One of the reassortant H9 viruses that were generated, H9N-JS48, showed the highest virulence in mice and acquired respiratory droplet transmissibility between guinea pigs. These results indicate that coinfection of swine with H9N2 and pH1N1viruses may pose a threat for humans if reassortment occurs, emphasizing the importance of surveillance of these viruses in their natural hosts.

  11. Mammalian pathogenesis of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus isolated in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Kyeongcheol; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kang, Chun

    2014-06-24

    Oseltamivir, a neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, has been widely used for the treatment of patients infected with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. With the increasing use of oseltamivir, drug-resistant mutants emerged rapidly and 11 cases of resistant viruses were detected during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in South Korea. To better understand the differences between oseltamivir-susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant virus, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of the NA H275Y mutant virus, A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009, in ferrets and mice with those of oseltamivir-susceptible A/Korea/01/2009 virus. Oseltamivir-resistant virus infected ferrets showed mild clinical signs and the virus replicated well in the upper respiratory tract and slightly in the lower respiratory tract. No virus was detected in the extrapulmonary organs. Severe bronchopneumonia and thickening of alveolar walls were detected in the lungs. Viral antigens were detected mainly in the bronchiolar epithelial cells, cells present in the interstitial septa, pneumocytes and peribronchial glands with severe peribronchitis. A/Gyeongnam/1820/2009 virus-infected mice showed weight loss and the virus replicated in lungs with high titer. Histopathologically, the mice showed mild to moderate alveolitis, interstitial pneumonia and perivascular lymphoid tissue hyperplasia. In lungs, bronchiolar epithelial cells, pneumocytes and interstitial inflammatory cells were infected by influenza virus and trachea epithelial cells were the sites of infection. When compared with the results of A/Korea/01/2009 oseltamivir-susceptible pandemic influenza virus, an oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in South Korea showed fewer pathogenic properties in ferrets and similar fitness in mice.

  12. On the spread of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Venado, Aida; Moreno, Andrés; Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna L; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe

    2009-06-01

    A novel influenza A H1N1 virus of swine origin is responsible for the influenza epidemic affecting Mexico, the United States of America (USA), and 39 other countries. While the origin of this emerging pathogen remains uncertain, an increase in the reported incidence of respiratory diseases was noted during March 2009 at the town of La Gloria, in the southeastern state of Veracruz, Mexico. So far, this is the first community in which a case of novel influenza A H1N1 virus has been identified. Further cases were rapidly detected in other areas of Mexico and elsewhere. Initially, the atypical respiratory disease outbreak caused great uncertainty posing a challenge to the Mexican health system. Control measures such as social distancing, timely medical care, and personal hygiene have so far proven effective in containing the outbreak, resulting in a decline of the number of new cases. To the best of our knowledge, it appears that the virus might not be as virulent or contagious as previously thought. Here we provide a description of the influenza epidemic spread in Mexico. As the virus disseminates worldwide, there is concern about the possibility of a new reassortment resulting in a more pathogenic strain that will pose a threat for every country. The influenza epidemic provided lessons that underscore the importance of epidemiologic surveillance and preparedness. Further investigation to address questions about this new virus and conditions for its spread is warranted.

  13. Continual re-introduction of human pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses into US swine, 2009-2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses (pH1N1) increased the genetic diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) globally and is linked to the emergence of new pandemic threats, including H3N2v variants. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the Unit...

  14. Genetic characterization of Thai swine influenza viruses after the introduction of pandemic H1N1 2009.

    PubMed

    Charoenvisal, Nataya; Keawcharoen, Juthatip; Sreta, Donruethai; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tantawet, Siriporn; Jittimanee, Suphattra; Arunorat, Jirapat; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2013-08-01

    Pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1), influenza virus containing triple reassortant internal genes (TRIG) from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses emerged in 2009 as a highly infectious virus that was able to be transmitted from humans to pigs. During June 2010-May 2012, influenza virus surveillance was conducted in Thai pig population. Twenty-three samples (1.75%) were successfully isolated from total of 1,335 samples. Interestingly, pH1N1 (7 isolates, 30.34%), reassortant pH1N1 (rH1N1) (1 isolate, 4.35%), Thai endemic H1N1 (enH1N1) (3 isolates, 13.04%), reassortant H3N2 with pH1N1 internal genes (rH3N2) (9 isolates, 39.13%), and reassortant H1N2 with pH1N1 internal genes (rH1N2) (3 isolates, 13.04%) were found. It should be noted that rH1N1, rH1N2, and rH3N2 viruses contained the internal genes of pH1N1 virus having a TRIG cassette descendant from the North American swine lineage. Although all isolates in this study were obtained from mild clinically sick pigs, the viruses were still highly infective and possibly may play an important role in human-animal interfacing transmission. In addition, the TRIG cassette may have an influence on antigenic shift resulting in emergence of novel viruses, as seen in this study. Continuing surveillance of influenza A natural hosts, particularly in pigs is necessary.

  15. An update on swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1: a review.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Sebastian U; Schnitzler, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities. The recent flu pandemic caused by a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (S-OIV) presents an opportunity to examine virulence factors, the spread of the infection and to prepare for major influenza outbreaks in the future. The virus contains a novel constellation of gene segments, the nearest known precursors being viruses found in swine and it probably arose through reassortment of two viruses of swine origin. Specific markers for virulence can be evaluated in the viral genome, PB1-F2 is a molecular marker of pathogenicity but is not present in the new S-OIV. While attention was focused on a threat of an avian influenza H5N1 pandemic emerging from Asia, a novel influenza virus of swine origin emerged in North America, and is now spreading worldwide. However, S-OIV demonstrates that even serotypes already encountered in past human pandemics may constitute new pandemic threats. There are concerns that this virus may mutate or reassort with existing influenza viruses giving rise to more transmissible or more pathogenic viruses. The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic virus was relatively mild in its first wave and acquired more virulence when it returned in the winter. Thus preparedness on a global scale against a potential more virulent strain is highly recommended. Most isolates of the new S-OIVs are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors, and currently a vaccine against the pandemic strain is being manufactured and will be available this fall. This review summarizes the current information on the new pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.

  16. Possible basis for the emergence of H1N1 viruses with pandemic potential from avian hosts

    PubMed Central

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Krauss, Scott; Zanin, Mark; Danner, Angela; Gulati, Shelly; Jones, Jeremy C; Friedman, Kimberly; Graham, Allison; Forrest, Heather; Seiler, Jon; Air, Gillian M; Webster, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses of the H1N1 subtype have emerged from the avian influenza gene pool in aquatic birds and caused human pandemics at least twice during the past century. Despite this fact, surprisingly little is known about the H1N1 gene pool in the aquatic bird reservoir. A preliminary study showed that an H1N1 virus from a shorebird of the Charadriiformes order was transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, whereas an H1N1 virus from a bird of the Anseriformes order was not. Here we show that two of the three H1N1 viruses isolated from Charadriiformes species in 2009 were transmitted between animals through the airborne route of infection, and five H1N1 isolates from Anseriformes species were not. The one H1N1 virus from a Charadriiformes species that failed to transmit through the airborne route was a reassortant possessing multiple internal gene segments from Anseriformes species. The molecular differences between the airborne-transmissible and non-airborne-transmissible H1N1 viruses were multigenic, involving the selection of virus with human-like receptor-binding specificity (α2-6 sialic acid) and multiple differences in the polymerase complex, mainly in the PB2, PB1-F2, and nonstructural genes. PMID:26251829

  17. Early Outbreak of 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico Prior to Identification of pH1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Ma, Stefan; Velasco Hernandez, Jorge X.; Lee, Vernon J.; Lim, Wei Yen

    2011-01-01

    Background In the aftermath of the global spread of 2009 influenza A (pH1N1) virus, still very little is known of the early stages of the outbreak in Mexico during the early months of the year, before the virus was identified. Methodology/Main Findings We fit a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, to the number of excess laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Mexico and Mexico City during the first 15 weeks in 2009 over the average influenza case number of the previous five baseline years of 2004-2008 during the same period to ascertain the turning point (or the peak incidence) of a wave of early influenza infections, and to estimate the transmissibility of the virus during these early months in terms of its basic reproduction number. The results indicate that there may have been an early epidemic in Mexico City as well as in all of Mexico during February/March. Based on excess influenza cases, the estimated basic reproduction number R0 for the early outbreak was 1.59 (0.55 to 2.62) for Mexico City during weeks 5–9, and 1.25 (0.76, 1.74) for all of Mexico during weeks 5–14. Conclusions We established the existence of an early epidemic in Mexico City and in all of Mexico during February/March utilizing the routine influenza surveillance data, although the location of seeding is unknown. Moreover, estimates of R0 as well as the time of peak incidence (the turning point) for Mexico City and all of Mexico indicate that the early epidemic in Mexico City in February/March had been more transmissible (larger R0) and peaked earlier than the rest of the country. Our conclusion lends support to the possibility that the virus could have already spread to other continents prior to the identification of the virus and the reporting of lab-confirmed pH1N1 cases in North America in April. PMID:21909366

  18. Virulence and genetic compatibility of polymerase reassortant viruses derived from the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and circulating influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Suk; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Lee, Jun Han; Baek, Yun Hee; Park, Kuk Jin; Kwon, Hyeok-il; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Chul-Joong; Kim, Hyunggee; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G; Choi, Young Ki

    2011-07-01

    Gene mutations and reassortment are key mechanisms by which influenza A virus acquires virulence factors. To evaluate the role of the viral polymerase replication machinery in producing virulent pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses, we generated various polymerase point mutants (PB2, 627K/701N; PB1, expression of PB1-F2 protein; and PA, 97I) and reassortant viruses with various sources of influenza viruses by reverse genetics. Although the point mutations produced no significant change in pathogenicity, reassortment between the pandemic A/California/04/09 (CA04, H1N1) and current human and animal influenza viruses produced variants possessing a broad spectrum of pathogenicity in the mouse model. Although most polymerase reassortants had attenuated pathogenicity (including those containing seasonal human H3N2 and high-pathogenicity H5N1 virus segments) compared to that of the parental CA04 (H1N1) virus, some recombinants had significantly enhanced virulence. Unexpectedly, one of the five highly virulent reassortants contained a A/Swine/Korea/JNS06/04(H3N2)-like PB2 gene with no known virulence factors; the other four had mammalian-passaged avian-like genes encoding PB2 featuring 627K, PA featuring 97I, or both. Overall, the reassorted polymerase complexes were only moderately compatible for virus rescue, probably because of disrupted molecular interactions involving viral or host proteins. Although we observed close cooperation between PB2 and PB1 from similar virus origins, we found that PA appears to be crucial in maintaining viral gene functions in the context of the CA04 (H1N1) virus. These observations provide helpful insights into the pathogenic potential of reassortant influenza viruses composed of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and prevailing human or animal influenza viruses that could emerge in the future.

  19. H1N1 influenza viruses varying widely in hemagglutinin stability transmit efficiently from swine to swine and to ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guohua; Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Kaplan, Bryan S.; Webby, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5.1 to 5.9 for H1 viruses and pH 5.3 to 5.8 for H3 viruses. Thus, contemporary swine isolates vary widely in HA stability, having values favored by both avian (pH >5.5) and human and ferret (pH ≤5.5) species. Using an early 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus backbone, we generated three viruses differing by one HA residue that only altered HA stability: WT (pH 5.5), HA1-Y17H (pH 6.0), and HA2-R106K (pH 5.3). All three replicated in pigs and transmitted from pig-to-pig and pig-to-ferret. WT and R106 viruses maintained HA genotype and phenotype after transmission. Y17H (pH 6.0) acquired HA mutations that stabilized the HA protein to pH 5.8 after transmission to pigs and 5.5 after transmission to ferrets. Overall, we found swine support a broad range of HA activation pH for contact transmission and many recent swine H1N1 and H3N2 isolates have stabilized (human-like) HA proteins. This constitutes a heightened pandemic risk and underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance and control efforts for swine viruses. PMID:28282440

  20. Shedding of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus among Health Care Personnel, Seattle, Washington, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zerr, Danielle M.; Englund, Janet A.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Kuypers, Jane; Swenson, Paul; Kwan-Gett, Tao Sheng; Bell, Shaquita L.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that health care personnel (HCP) infected with pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus not work until 24 hours after fever subsides without the use of antipyretics. During an influenza outbreak, we examined the association between viral shedding and fever among infected HCP. Participants recorded temperatures daily and provided nasal wash specimens for 2 weeks after symptom onset. Specimens were tested by using PCR and culture. When they met CDC criteria for returning to work, 12 of 16 HCP (75%) (95% confidence interval 48%–93%) had virus detected by PCR, and 9 (56%) (95% confidence interval 30%–80%) had virus detected by culture. Fever was not associated with shedding duration (p = 0.65). HCP might shed virus even when meeting CDC exclusion guidelines. Further research is needed to clarify the association between viral shedding, symptoms, and infectiousness. PMID:21470453

  1. Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yasutaka; Ono, Takeshi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Nguyen, Vinh Quang; Matsui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chitosan (Ch) composites with antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus were prepared. The Ag NP/Ch composites were obtained as yellow or brown floc-like powders following reaction at room temperature in aqueous medium. Ag NPs (3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm average diameters) were embedded into the chitosan matrix without aggregation or size alternation. The antiviral activity of the Ag NP/Ch composites was evaluated by comparing the TCID50 ratio of viral suspensions treated with the composites to untreated suspensions. For all sizes of Ag NPs tested, antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus increased as the concentration of Ag NPs increased; chitosan alone exhibited no antiviral activity. Size dependence of the Ag NPs on antiviral activity was also observed: antiviral activity was generally stronger with smaller Ag NPs in the composites. These results indicate that Ag NP/Ch composites interacting with viruses exhibit antiviral activity.

  2. Subtype identification of the novel A H1N1 and other human influenza A viruses using an oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xiaoping; Li, Yongqiang; Sun, Honghe; Wu, Weili; Liu, Hong; Lin, Fang; Qing, Chenfeng; Chang, Guohui; Zhu, Qingyu; Chen, Weijun; Yang, Yinhui

    2010-01-01

    A novel strain of influenza A (H1N1) virus was isolated in Mexico and the US in March and April 2009. This novel virus spread to many countries and regions in a few months, and WHO raised the level of pandemic alert from phase 5 to phase 6 on June 11, 2009. The accurate identification of H1N1 virus and other human seasonal influenza A viruses is very important for further treatment and control of their infections. In this study, we developed an oligonucleotide microarray to subtype human H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses, which could distinguish the novel H1N1 from human seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses and swine H1N1 influenza viruses. The microarray utilizes a panel of primers for multiplex PCR amplification of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (MP) genes of human influenza A viruses. The 59-mer oligonucleotides were designed to distinguish different subtypes of human influenza A viruses. With this microarray, we accurately identified and correctly subtyped the reference virus strains. Moreover, we confirmed 4 out of 39 clinical throat swab specimens from suspected cases of novel H1N1.

  3. Spillback transmission of European H1N1 avian-like swine influenza viruses to turkeys: A strain-dependent possibility?

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Francesco; Fusaro, Alice; Tassoni, Luca; Patrono, Livia Victoria; Milani, Adelaide; Maniero, Silvia; Salviato, Annalisa; Terregino, Calogero

    2016-04-15

    In 1979, an avian influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype began to circulate in European swine herds, rapidly replacing classical swine H1N1 viruses. Spill-back transmissions to turkeys were recorded occasionally, but they might have been underreported due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection and the lack of specific surveillance. In our study, we evaluated the infectivity and transmissibility in turkeys of seven strains of H1N1 avian-like swine viruses isolated from 1979 to 2006, and compared them with their closest progenitor A/duck/Bavaria/1/77 (H1N1), to establish whether the adaptation to pigs has gradually decreased their fitness in turkeys. Our data indicate that the circulation of European H1N1 in pigs might have impaired the possibility of infecting turkeys. Nevertheless, the two swine-origin strains, which showed the ability to replicate and transmit in turkeys, possess typical swine-like genetic traits, not different from the rest of the tested isolates, suggesting replication of avian-like swine H1N1 viruses in turkeys as a strain-dependent polygenic feature.

  4. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, She-Lan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Xu-Hui; Chen, Jin; Huang, Ren-Jie; Ruan, Bing; He, Hong-Xuan; Wang, Cheng-Min; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Sun, Zhou; Xie, Li; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen abstracts and 87 full texts regarding pregnant women infected with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus were systematically reviewed by using a PubMed search and assessing pandemic, clinical, laboratory test, vaccine, and control experiences. Both policy and health education were excluded. This review counted the total number of pregnant cases from different countries and analyzed their epidemic features, including trimester distribution, morbidity, hospitalization, intensive care unit admissions, maternal mortality, underlying diseases, complications, high-risk factors for death, pregnancy outcome, and clinical symptoms compared with the previous pandemic seasonal influenza A/H1N1 as compared with the general population. Early identification and treatment were the most important factors in different countries and areas examined. The vaccine and antiviral drugs that have been the most efficient means to control the novel virus appear to be safe but require more extensive study. In the future, the focus should be placed on understanding vertical transmission and the severe mechanisms.

  5. Monitoring and Characterization of Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Japan, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Ejima, Miho; Anraku, Akane; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Kishida, Noriko; Hong, Xu; Takashita, Emi; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Yamashita, Kazuyo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Yumiko; Oguchi, Akio; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Masato

    2011-01-01

    To monitor and characterize oseltamivir-resistant (OR) pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with the H275Y mutation, we analyzed 4,307 clinical specimens from Japan by neuraminidase (NA) sequencing or inhibition assay; 61 OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were detected. NA inhibition assay and M2 sequencing indicated that OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was resistant to M2 inhibitors, but sensitive to zanamivir. Full-genome sequencing showed OR and oseltamivir-sensitive (OS) viruses had high sequence similarity, indicating that domestic OR virus was derived from OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Hemagglutination inhibition test demonstrated that OR and OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were antigenically similar to the A/California/7/2009 vaccine strain. Of 61 case-patients with OR viruses, 45 received oseltamivir as treatment, and 10 received it as prophylaxis, which suggests that most cases emerged sporadically from OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009, due to selective pressure. No evidence of sustained spread of OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was found in Japan; however, 2 suspected incidents of human-to-human transmission were reported. PMID:21392439

  6. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses, United States, 2013–14

    PubMed Central

    Okomo-Adhiambo, Margaret; Fry, Alicia M.; Su, Su; Nguyen, Ha T.; Elal, Anwar Abd; Negron, Elizabeth; Hand, Julie; Garten, Rebecca J.; Barnes, John; Xiyan, Xu; Villanueva, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    We report characteristics of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and patients infected with these viruses in the United States. During 2013–14, fifty-nine (1.2%) of 4,968 analyzed US influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses had the H275Y oseltamivir resistance–conferring neuraminidase substitution. Our results emphasize the need for local surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility among circulating influenza viruses. PMID:25532050

  7. Oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses from the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 season in Nara Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masaki; Okayama, Akiko; Kitahori, Yoshiteru

    2014-01-01

    We examined the incidence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses from the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 season in Nara Prefecture, Japan. To detect the oseltamivir resistance marker in neuraminidase (NA), 365 influenza viruses (60 seasonal A(H1N1) and 305 A(H1N1)pdm09) were sequenced. The H275Y mutation in the NA gene, which confers resistance to oseltamivir, was identified in 93.8% (30/32) of seasonal A(H1N1) viruses that were circulating during the 2008/2009 season. Moreover, the detection rate of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was 4.1% (3/74) and 2.8% (5/180) in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 season, respectively. Four cases of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection occurred in the same hematology ward during the 2010/2011 season. Our data show a low frequency of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in Nara Prefecture but suggested the possibility of human-to-human transmission of this virus.

  8. From where did the 2009 'swine-origin' influenza A virus (H1N1) emerge?

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Adrian J; Armstrong, John S; Downie, Jean C

    2009-11-24

    The swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus that appeared in 2009 and was first found in human beings in Mexico, is a reassortant with at least three parents. Six of the genes are closest in sequence to those of H1N2 'triple-reassortant' influenza viruses isolated from pigs in North America around 1999-2000. Its other two genes are from different Eurasian 'avian-like' viruses of pigs; the NA gene is closest to H1N1 viruses isolated in Europe in 1991-1993, and the MP gene is closest to H3N2 viruses isolated in Asia in 1999-2000. The sequences of these genes do not directly reveal the immediate source of the virus as the closest were from isolates collected more than a decade before the human pandemic started. The three parents of the virus may have been assembled in one place by natural means, such as by migrating birds, however the consistent link with pig viruses suggests that human activity was involved. We discuss a published suggestion that unsampled pig herds, the intercontinental live pig trade, together with porous quarantine barriers, generated the reassortant. We contrast that suggestion with the possibility that laboratory errors involving the sharing of virus isolates and cultured cells, or perhaps vaccine production, may have been involved. Gene sequences from isolates that bridge the time and phylogenetic gap between the new virus and its parents will distinguish between these possibilities, and we suggest where they should be sought. It is important that the source of the new virus be found if we wish to avoid future pandemics rather than just trying to minimize the consequences after they have emerged. Influenza virus is a very significant zoonotic pathogen. Public confidence in influenza research, and the agribusinesses that are based on influenza's many hosts, has been eroded by several recent events involving the virus. Measures that might restore confidence include establishing a unified international administrative framework coordinating

  9. Development and characterization of a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated using H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chun-yan; Tang, Yi-gui; Qi, Zong-li; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Xiang-rong; Huo, Xue-ping; Li, Yan; Feng, Qing; Zhao, Peng-hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Hai-fang; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xin-jian

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the antigenic epitopes of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of H1N1 influenza virus, a panel consisting of 84 clones of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated using the HA proteins from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine lysate and the seasonal influenza H1N1(A1) vaccines. Thirty-three (39%) of the 84 mAbs were found to be strain-specific, and 6 (7%) of the 84 mAbs were subtype-specific. Twenty (24%) of the 84 mAbs recognized the common HA epitopes shared by 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1), and A3 (H3N2) influenza viruses. Twenty-five of the 84 clones recognized the common HA epitopes shared by the 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal A1 (H1N1) and A3 (H3N2) human influenza viruses, and H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We found that of the 16 (19%) clones of the 84 mAbs panel that were cross-reactive with human respiratory pathogens, 15 were made using the HA of the seasonal A1 (H1N1) virus and 1 was made using the HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue microarray (TMA) showed that 4 of the 84 mAb clones cross-reacted with human tissue (brain and pancreas). Our results indicated that the influenza virus HA antigenic epitopes not only induce type-, subtype-, and strain-specific monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus but also cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies against human tissues. Further investigations of these cross-reactive (heterophilic) epitopes may significantly improve our understanding of viral antigenic variation, epidemics, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and adverse effects of influenza vaccines.

  10. Influenza A/H1N1 2009 Pandemic and Respiratory Virus Infections, Beijing, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (A/H1N1 2009pdm) in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and its impact on the epidemic of seasonal influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, nasal and throat swabs taken from 7,776 patients with suspected viral ARTIs from 2006 through 2010 in Beijing, China were screened by real-time PCR for influenza virus typing and subtyping and by multiplex or single PCR tests for other common respiratory viruses. We observed a distinctive dual peak pattern of influenza epidemic during the A/H1N1 2009pdm in Beijing, China, which was formed by the A/H1N1 2009pdm, and a subsequent influenza B epidemic in year 2009/2010. Our analysis also shows a small peak formed by a seasonal H3N2 epidemic prior to the A/H1N1 2009pdm peak. Parallel detection of multiple respiratory viruses shows that the epidemic of common respiratory viruses, except human rhinovirus, was delayed during the pandemic of the A/H1N1 2009pdm. The H1N1 2009pdm mainly caused upper respiratory tract infections in the sampled patients; patients infected with H1N1 2009pdm had a higher percentage of cough than those infected with seasonal influenza or other respiratory viruses. Our findings indicate that A/H1N1 2009pdm and other respiratory viruses except human rhinovirus could interfere with each other during their transmission between human beings. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of such interference is needed for effective control of future influenza epidemics. PMID:23029253

  11. Neuraminidase Activity and Resistance of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus to Antiviral Activity in Bronchoalveolar Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ruangrung, Kanyarat; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Maneechotesuwan, Kittipong; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Chakritbudsabong, Warunya; Assawabhumi, Jirawatna; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human bronchoalveolar fluid is known to have anti-influenza activity. It is believed to be a frontline innate defense against the virus. Several antiviral factors, including surfactant protein D, are believed to contribute to the activity. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus was previously shown to be less sensitive to surfactant protein D. Nevertheless, whether different influenza virus strains have different sensitivities to the overall anti-influenza activity of human bronchoalveolar fluid was not known. We compared the sensitivities of 2009 pandemic H1N1, seasonal H1N1, and seasonal H3N2 influenza virus strains to inhibition by human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The pandemic and seasonal H1N1 strains showed lower sensitivity to human BAL fluid than the H3N2 strains. The BAL fluid anti-influenza activity could be enhanced by oseltamivir, indicating that the viral neuraminidase (NA) activity could provide resistance to the antiviral defense. In accordance with this finding, the BAL fluid anti-influenza activity was found to be sensitive to sialidase. The oseltamivir resistance mutation H275Y rendered the pandemic H1N1 virus but not the seasonal H1N1 virus more sensitive to BAL fluid. Since only the seasonal H1N1 but not the pandemic H1N1 had compensatory mutations that allowed oseltamivir-resistant strains to maintain NA enzymatic activity and transmission fitness, the resistance to BAL fluid of the drug-resistant seasonal H1N1 virus might play a role in viral fitness. IMPORTANCE Human airway secretion contains anti-influenza activity. Different influenza strains may vary in their susceptibilities to this antiviral activity. Here we show that the 2009 pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses were less sensitive to human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid than H3N2 seasonal influenza virus. The resistance to the pulmonary innate antiviral activity of the pandemic virus was determined by its neuraminidase (NA) gene, and it was shown that the

  12. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Revisited: an Evolutionary Retrospective

    PubMed Central

    Christman, MC; Kedwaii, A; Xu, J; Donis, RO; Lu, G

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus is unique in many aspects, especially in its genetics and evolution. In this paper, we examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this novel virus through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis, and present results in the context of a review of the literature. The pandemic virus was found to arise from a reassortment of two swine viruses, each of which ultimately arose from interspecies transmission. It experienced fast evolutionary rates and strong selection pressures, diverging into two different clusters at the early pandemic stage. Cluster I became extinct at the end of 2009 whereas cluster II continued to circulate at much lower rates in 2010. Therefore, on August 10 of 2010 the WHO declared the end of the pandemic. Important mutations associated with host specificity, virulence, and drug resistance were detected in the pandemic virus, indicating effective transmission and increased severity in humans. Much has been learned about the evolutionary dynamics of this pandemic virus; however, it is still impossible to predict when the next pandemic will occur and which virus will be responsible. Improved surveillance at different levels (both national and international) and in different hosts (especially in swine) appears to be crucial for early detection and prevention of future influenza pandemics. PMID:21382522

  13. Immunogenicity of Virus Like Particle Forming Baculoviral DNA Vaccine against Pandemic Influenza H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Gwon, Yong-Dae; Kim, Sehyun; Cho, Yeondong; Heo, Yoonki; Cho, Hansam; Park, Kihoon; Lee, Hee-Jung; Choi, Jiwon; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of influenza H1N1 in 2009, representing the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century, was transmitted to over a million individuals and claimed 18,449 lives. The current status in many countries is to prepare influenza vaccine using cell-based or egg-based killed vaccine. However, traditional influenza vaccine platforms have several limitations. To overcome these limitations, many researchers have tried various approaches to develop alternative production platforms. One of the alternative approach, we reported the efficacy of influenza HA vaccination using a baculoviral DNA vaccine (AcHERV-HA). However, the immune response elicited by the AcHERV-HA vaccine, which only targets the HA antigen, was lower than that of the commercial killed vaccine. To overcome the limitations of this previous vaccine, we constructed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope-coated, baculovirus-based, virus-like-particle (VLP)–forming DNA vaccine (termed AcHERV-VLP) against pandemic influenza A/California/04/2009 (pH1N1). BALB/c mice immunized with AcHERV-VLP (1×107 FFU AcHERV-VLP, i.m.) and compared with mice immunized with the killed vaccine or mice immunized with AcHERV-HA. As a result, AcHERV-VLP immunization produced a greater humoral immune response and exhibited neutralizing activity with an intrasubgroup H1 strain (PR8), elicited neutralizing antibody production, a high level of interferon-γ secretion in splenocytes, and diminished virus shedding in the lung after challenge with a lethal dose of influenza virus. In conclusion, VLP-forming baculovirus DNA vaccine could be a potential vaccine candidate capable of efficiently delivering DNA to the vaccinee and VLP forming DNA eliciting stronger immunogenicity than egg-based killed vaccines. PMID:27149064

  14. Adamantane- and Oseltamivir-Resistant Seasonal A (H1N1) and Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses in Guangdong, China, during 2008 and 2009 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Zou, Lirong; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Jiazheng; Ni, Hanzhong; Hou, Nianmei; Wang, Yajing; Li, Hui; Wu, Jie; Jonges, Marcel; Meijer, Adam; Koopmans, Marion; Ke, Changwen

    2011-01-01

    Adamantane and oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses is a major concern to public health officials. To determine the prevalence of antiviral-resistant influenza viruses in Guangdong, China, 244 seasonal A (H1N1) and 222 pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 viruses were screened for oseltamivir resistance by a fluorescence-based neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay along with NA gene sequencing. Also, 147 seasonal A (H1N1) viruses were sequenced to detect adamantane resistance markers in M2. Adamantane-resistant seasonal A (H1N1) viruses clustering to clade 2C were dominant in 2008, followed by oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A (H1N1) viruses, clustering to clade 2B during January and May 2009. In June 2009, a lineage of double-resistant seasonal A (H1N1) viruses emerged, until it was replaced by the pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 viruses. The lineage most likely resulted from reassortment under the pressure of the overuse of adamantanes. As all viruses were resistant to at least one of the two types of antiviral agents, the need for close monitoring of the prevalence of antiviral resistance is stressed. PMID:21593267

  15. Antiviral role of Toll-like receptors and cytokines against the new 2009 H1N1 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Chen, Hong; Sun, Yajiao; Chen, Fuhui

    2012-02-01

    People are generally susceptible to the 2009 new mutate of H1N1 influenza due to lack of appropriate immunity. Influenza H1N1 2009 infection triggers a massive inflammatory response that contributes to fever, lung impairment or other tissue damage, eventually leading to death. Infection with pathogenic influenza virus H1N1 induces severe pulmonary immune pathology. To date, more than 10,000 cases worldwide have died of the disease. It still has strong infectious ability although the mortality of influenza isn't currently high. Therefore, to explore the pathogenesis of H1N1 influenza can help with the disease prevention, diagnosis and provide a theoretical basis and the new ideas of treatment. Laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 were enrolled to collect general information on pre-clinical, clinical and laboratory data for analysis. Blood samples were obtained from patients with H1N1, healthy volunteers and patients with bacterial pneumonia. Serum were separated and collected. RT-PCR and ELISA methods were applied to detect the different expression of TLRs and cytokines. The young, pregnant and postpartum women and infant are highly susceptible to influenza H1N1 2009 infection; degree of susceptibility is not associated with BMI. Biochemical changes can be seen in the patients with influenza H1N1 2009 infection: ALT, AST, CK, LDH increased in varying degrees. TLR2, TLR3, TLR9 expression increased in the patients with influenza H1N1 2009 infection; no obvious changes of TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 can be detected. In pregnant and postpartum women group, only TLR9 expression increased. The expression of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α in the patients with influenza H1N1 2009 infection was significantly increased; while IL-10 expression decreased and IL-4 expression did not change. H1N1 influenza-infected pregnant and postpartum women group, only IL-2 and TNF-α expression expression increased, other cytokines decreased or didn't change. TLR2, TLR3, TLR9 are the

  16. The tree shrew provides a useful alternative model for the study of influenza H1N1 virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The influenza pandemics have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animal models are useful in the study of influenza virus pathogenesis. Because of various limitations in current laboratory animal models, it is essential to develop new alternative animal models for influenza virus research aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to virus infection in human. Method We investigated the replicative efficiency of influenza H1N1 virus (classic strain (Influenza A/PR/8/34), seasonal influenza isolate (A/Guangzhou/GIRD/02/09) and swine-origin human influenza virus (A/Guangzhou/GIRD/07/09)) at Day1,2,4,6 and 9 p.i. using TCID50 and qPCR assay in tree shrew model. Body temperature was monitored in the morning and evening for 3 days before infection and for 14 days. Seroconversion was detected by determining the neutralizing antibody titers against the challenge viruses in the pre- and exposure serum samples collected before infection and at 14 days p.i., respectively. Lungs and tracheas of tree shews were collected at day 14 post p.i. for histopathological analysis. Lectinhistochemistry analysis was conducted to identify the distribution of SAα2,3 Gal and SAα2,6 Gal receptors in the lung and trachea. Results The infected tree shrew displayed mild or moderate systemic and respiratory symptoms and pathological changes in respiratory tracts. The human H1N1 influenza virus may replicate in the upper respiratory tract of tree shrews. Analysis of the receptors distribution in the respiratory tract of tree shrews by lectinhistochemistry showed that sialic acid (SA)α2,6-Gal receptors were widely distributed in the trachea and nasal mucosa, whereas (SA)α2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung tissue. Conclusions Based on these findings, tree shrew seemed to mimic well influenza virus infection in humans. We propose that tree shrews could be a useful alternative mammalian model to study pathogenesis of

  17. Aliphatic and alicyclic camphor imines as effective inhibitors of influenza virus H1N1.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Anastasiya S; Yarovaya, Оlga I; Baev, Dmitry S; Shernyukov, Аndrey V; Shtro, Anna A; Zarubaev, Vladimir V; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2017-02-15

    A series of camphor derived imines was synthesised and evaluated in vitro for antiviral activity. Theoretical evaluations of ADME properties were also carried out. Most of these compounds exhibited significant activity against the drug-resistant strains of influenza A virus. Especially, compounds 2 (SI = 632) and 3 (SI = 417) presented high inhibition against influenza subtypes A/Puerto Rico/8/34 and A/California/07/09 of H1N1pdm09. Analysis of the structure-activity relationship showed that the activity was strongly dependent on the length of the aliphatic chain: derivatives with a shorter chain possessed higher activity, while the suppressing action of compounds with long aliphatic chains was lower.

  18. Toward a method for tracking virus evolutionary trajectory applied to the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Squires, R Burke; Pickett, Brett E; Das, Sajal; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2014-12-01

    In 2009 a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) emerged as the first official influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Early genomic sequence analysis pointed to the swine origin of the virus. Here we report a novel computational approach to determine the evolutionary trajectory of viral sequences that uses data-driven estimations of nucleotide substitution rates to track the gradual accumulation of observed sequence alterations over time. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments show that sequences belonging to the resulting evolutionary trajectory of the H1N1pdm09 lineage exhibit a gradual accumulation of sequence variations and tight temporal correlations in the topological structure of the phylogenetic trees. These results suggest that our evolutionary trajectory analysis (ETA) can more effectively pinpoint the evolutionary history of viruses, including the host and geographical location traversed by each segment, when compared against either BLAST or traditional phylogenetic analysis alone.

  19. Guidance for Testing and Labeling Claims against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus (Formerly called Swine Flu )

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides guidance labeling and testing for antimicrobial pesticides in several forms that are used to treat hard non-porous surfaces in healthcare facilities and other settings against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A Virus.

  20. [Influenza A/H1N1 virus--old and new].

    PubMed

    Bodas, Moran; Davidovich, Nadav; Balicer, Ran D

    2009-08-01

    Swine influenza is a disease known since 1918. Four decades Later, scientists were already isolating the disease-causing agent and learning more about its ability to infect humans. Generally, swine influenza viruses, similarly to avian influenza viruses, do not easily infect humans; however, the viruses' ability to undergo substantial genetic re-assortment enhances the emergence of novel influenza viruses, better capable of infecting and transmitting between humans. Pigs also form good "mixing vessels" for human and avian origin influenza viruses, enabling the emergence of highly virulent influenza strains. Human infection with swine influenza has been recorded in the past, both as sporadic infections and as outbreaks. The best known human swine influenza outbreak took place in Fort Dix (USA) in 1976, concluding in the immunization of almost 45 million U.S. citizens, in a highly controversial immunization program. The current H1N1 (S-OIV) Influenza outbreak was declared by the WHO as an influenza pandemic, setting to rest the lately popular question "when will the next pandemic occur?" and laying the foundations for the evaluation of preparedness plans. There is great importance in data collection and subsequent updating of current procedures and doctrines.

  1. A novel monoclonal antibody effective against lethal challenge with swine-lineage and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The HA protein of the 2009 pandemic H1N1viruses (14 H1N1pdm) is antigenically closely related to the HA of classical North American swine H1N1 influenza viruses (cH1N1). Since 1998, through reassortment and incorporation of HA genes from human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, swine influenza strains...

  2. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species. Although its hemagglutinin gene is related to North Ameri...

  3. Efficacy of Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccines Against 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The gene constellation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is a unique combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages, but prior to April 2009 had never before been identified in swine or other species (1). Although its hemagglutinin gene is relat...

  4. Productive infection of human skeletal muscle cells by pandemic and seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Desdouits, Marion; Munier, Sandie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Jeannin, Patricia; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Ozden, Simona; Gessain, Antoine; Van Der Werf, Sylvie; Naffakh, Nadia; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Besides the classical respiratory and systemic symptoms, unusual complications of influenza A infection in humans involve the skeletal muscles. Numerous cases of acute myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis have been reported, particularly following the outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in 2009. The pathogenesis of these influenza-associated myopathies (IAM) remains unkown, although the direct infection of muscle cells is suspected. Here, we studied the susceptibility of cultured human primary muscle cells to a 2009 pandemic and a 2008 seasonal influenza A(H1N1) isolate. Using cells from different donors, we found that differentiated muscle cells (i. e. myotubes) were highly susceptible to infection by both influenza A(H1N1) isolates, whereas undifferentiated cells (i. e. myoblasts) were partially resistant. The receptors for influenza viruses, α2-6 and α2-3 linked sialic acids, were detected on the surface of myotubes and myoblasts. Time line of viral nucleoprotein (NP) expression and nuclear export showed that the first steps of the viral replication cycle could take place in muscle cells. Infected myotubes and myoblasts exhibited budding virions and nuclear inclusions as observed by transmission electron microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy. Myotubes, but not myoblasts, yielded infectious virus progeny that could further infect naive muscle cells after proteolytic treatment. Infection led to a cytopathic effect with the lysis of muscle cells, as characterized by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by muscle cells was not affected following infection. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis of a direct muscle infection causing rhabdomyolysis in IAM patients.

  5. Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide ("bioactivated Jewish penicillin") as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2013-01-01

    in excessive amounts mediate the overreaction of the host's immune response against the organs or tissues in which viruses are replicating, and this may explain the mechanism of tissue injuries observed in influenza virus infection of various types. In this article, the types of protection of carnosine in its bioavailable non-hydrolyzed forms in formulations are considered against reactive oxygen radical species-dependent injury, peroxynitrite damage, and other types of viral injuries in which impaired immune responses to viral pathogens are usually involved. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) shows the pharmacological intracellular correction of NO release, which might be one of the important factors of natural immunity in controlling the initial stages of influenza A virus infection (inhibition of virus replication) and virus-induced regulation of cytokine gene expression. The protective effects of orally applied non-hydrolyzed formulated species of carnosine include at least the direct interaction with NO, inhibition of cytotoxic NO-induced proinflammatory condition, and attenuation of the effects of cytokines and chemokines that can exert profound effects on inflammatory cells. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that natural products, such as chicken soup and chicken breast extracts rich in carnosine and its derivative anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine), could contribute to the pathogenesis and prevention of influenza virus infections and cold but have a limitation due to the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of dipeptides with serum carnosinase and urine excretion after oral ingestion of a commercial chicken extract. The formulations of non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural carnosine peptide and isopeptide (γ-glutamyl-carnosine) products, manufactured at the cGMP-certified facility and patented by the authors, have promise in the control and prevention of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, cough, and cold.

  6. Fitness of Pandemic H1N1 and Seasonal influenza A viruses during Co-infection: Evidence of competitive advantage of pandemic H1N1 influenza versus seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Perez, Daniel Roberto; Sorrell, Erin; Angel, Matthew; Ye, Jianqiang; Hickman, Danielle; Pena, Lindomar; Ramirez-Nieto, Gloria; Kimble, Brian; Araya, Yonas

    2009-08-24

    On June 11, 2009 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a new H1N1 influenza pandemic. This pandemic strain is as transmissible as seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A viruses. Major concerns facing this pandemic are whether the new virus will replace, co-circulate and/or reassort with seasonal H1N1 and/or H3N2 human strains. Using the ferret model, we investigated which of these three possibilities were most likely favored. Our studies showed that the current pandemic virus is more transmissible than, and has a biological advantage over, prototypical seasonal H1 or H3 strains.

  7. Predicting peptide vaccine candidates against H1N1 influenza virus through theoretical approaches.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Correa-Basurto, José

    2015-05-01

    Identification of potential epitopes that might activate the immune system has been facilitated by the employment of algorithms that use experimental data as templates. However, in order to prove the affinity and the map of interactions between the receptor (major histocompatibility complex, MHC, or T-cell receptor) and the potential epitope, further computational studies are required. Docking and molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations have been an effective source of generating structural information at molecular level in immunology. Herein, in order to provide a detailed understanding of the origins of epitope recognition and to select the best peptide candidate to develop an epitope-based vaccine, docking and MDs simulations in combination with MMGBSA free energy calculations and per-residue free energy decomposition were performed, taking as starting complexes those formed between four designed epitopes (P1-P4) from hemagglutinin (HA) of the H1N1 influenza virus and MHC-II anchored in POPC membrane. Our results revealed that the energetic contributions of individual amino acids within the pMHC-II complexes are mainly dictated by van der Waals interactions and the nonpolar part of solvation energy, whereas the electrostatic interactions corresponding to hydrogen bonds and salt bridges determine the binding specificity, being the most favorable interactions formed between p4 and MHC-II. Then, P1-P4 epitopes were synthesized and tested experimentally to compare theoretical and experimental results. Experimental results show that P4 elicited the highest strong humoral immune response to HA of the H1N1 and may induce antibodies that are cross-reactive to other influenza subtypes, suggesting that it could be a good candidate for the development of a peptide-based vaccine.

  8. Influenza virus H1N1 activates platelets through FcγRIIA signaling and thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Boilard, Eric; Paré, Guillaume; Rousseau, Matthieu; Cloutier, Nathalie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Lévesque, Tania; Borgeat, Pierre; Flamand, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Platelets play crucial functions in hemostasis and the prevention of bleeding. During H1N1 influenza A virus infection, platelets display activation markers. The platelet activation triggers during H1N1 infection remain elusive. We observed that H1N1 induces surface receptor activation, lipid mediator synthesis, and release of microparticles from platelets. These activation processes require the presence of serum/plasma, pointing to the contribution of soluble factor(s). Considering that immune complexes in the H1N1 pandemic were reported to play a pathogenic role, we assessed their contribution in H1N1-induced platelet activation. In influenza-immunized subjects, we observed that the virus scaffolds with immunoglobulin G (IgG) to form immune complexes that promote platelet activation. Mechanistically, this activation occurs through stimulation of low-affinity type 2 receptor for Fc portion of IgG (FcγRIIA), a receptor for immune complexes, independently of thrombin. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we found that the antibodies from H3N2-immunized mice activate transgenic mouse platelets that express FcγRIIA when put in the presence of H1N1, suggesting that cross-reacting influenza antibodies suffice. Alternatively, H1N1 can activate platelets via thrombin formation, independently of complement and FcγRIIA. These observations identify both the adaptive immune response and the innate response against pathogens as 2 intertwined processes that activate platelets during influenza infections.

  9. Changes in the Viral Distribution Pattern after the Appearance of the Novel Influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) Virus in Influenza-Like Illness Patients in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Laguna-Torres, Victor Alberto; Gómez, Jorge; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.; Munayco, Cesar; Ocaña, Víctor; Pérez, Juan; Gamero, María E.; Arrasco, Juan Carlos; Paz, Irmia; Chávez, Edward; Cruz, Rollin; Chavez, Jaime; Mendocilla, Silvia; Gomez, Elizabeth; Antigoni, Juana; Gonzalez, Sofía; Tejada, Cesar; Chowell, Gerardo; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We describe the temporal variation in viral agents detected in influenza like illness (ILI) patients before and after the appearance of the ongoing pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) in Peru between 4-January and 13-July 2009. Methods At the health centers, one oropharyngeal swab was obtained for viral isolation. From epidemiological week (EW) 1 to 18, at the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) in Lima, the specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation. In addition, from EW 19 to 28, the specimens were also analyzed by real time-polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR). Results We enrolled 2,872 patients: 1,422 cases before the appearance of the pH1N1 virus, and 1,450 during the pandemic. Non-pH1N1 influenza A virus was the predominant viral strain circulating in Peru through (EW) 18, representing 57.8% of the confirmed cases; however, this predominance shifted to pH1N1 (51.5%) from EW 19–28. During this study period, most of pH1N1 cases were diagnosed in the capital city (Lima) followed by other cities including Cusco and Trujillo. In contrast, novel influenza cases were essentially absent in the tropical rain forest (jungle) cities during our study period. The city of Iquitos (Jungle) had the highest number of influenza B cases and only one pH1N1 case. Conclusions The viral distribution in Peru changed upon the introduction of the pH1N1 virus compared to previous months. Although influenza A viruses continue to be the predominant viral pathogen, the pH1N1 virus predominated over the other influenza A viruses. PMID:20668548

  10. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza A Virus Isolates Show Heterogeneous Virulence in Macaques ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Safronetz, David; Rockx, Barry; Feldmann, Friederike; Belisle, Sarah E.; Palermo, Robert E.; Brining, Douglas; Gardner, Don; Proll, Sean C.; Marzi, Andrea; Tsuda, Yoshimi; LaCasse, Rachel A.; Kercher, Lisa; York, Anthony; Korth, Marcus J.; Long, Dan; Rosenke, Rebecca; Shupert, W. Lesley; Aranda, Celia Alpuche; Mattoon, John S.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Kobinger, Gary; Li, Yan; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.; Richt, Jürgen A.; Parnell, Michael; Ebihara, Hideki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    The first influenza pandemic of the new millennium was caused by a newly emerged swine-origin influenza virus (SOIV) (H1N1). This new virus is characterized by a previously unknown constellation of gene segments derived from North American and Eurasian swine lineages and the absence of common markers predictive of human adaptation. Overall, human infections appeared to be mild, but an alarming number of young individuals presented with symptoms atypical for seasonal influenza. The new SOIV also showed a sustained human-to-human transmissibility and higher reproduction ratio than common seasonal viruses, altogether indicating a higher pathogenic potential for this newly emerged virus. To study the virulence of the SOIV, we used a recently established cynomolgus macaque model and compared parameters of clinical disease, virology, host responses, and pathology/histopathology with a current seasonal H1N1 virus. We here show that infection of macaques with two genetically similar but clinically distinct SOIV isolates from the early stage of the pandemic (A/Mexico/4108/2009 and A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009) resulted in upper and lower respiratory tract infections and clinical disease ranging from mild to severe pneumonia that was clearly advanced over the mild infection caused by A/Kawasaki/UTK-4/2009, a current seasonal strain. Unexpectedly, we observed heterogeneity among the two SOIV isolates in virus replication, host transcriptional and cytokine responses, and disease progression, demonstrating a higher pathogenic potential for A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. Differences in virulence may explain more severe disease, as was seen with certain individuals infected with the emerged pandemic influenza virus. Thus, the nonhuman primate model closely mimics influenza in humans. PMID:21084481

  11. Differentiation of human influenza A viruses including the pandemic subtype H1N1/2009 by conventional multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Yuki; Odagiri, Takashi; Okada, Takashi; Khandaker, Irona; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Sawayama, Rumi; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2010-09-01

    April 2009 witnessed the emergence of a novel H1N1 influenza A virus infecting the human population. Currently, pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses are co-circulating in human populations. Understanding the course of the emerging pandemic virus is important. It is still unknown how the novel virus co-circulates with or outcompetes seasonal viruses. Sustainable and detailed influenza surveillance is required throughout the world including developing countries. In the present study, a multiplex PCR using four primers was developed, which was designed to differentiate the pandemic H1N1 virus from the seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, to obtain amplicons of different sizes. Multiplex PCR analysis could clearly differentiate the three subtypes of human influenza A virus. This assay was performed using 206 clinical samples collected in 2009 in Japan. Between February and April, four samples were subtyped as seasonal H1N1 and four as seasonal H3N2. All samples collected after July were subtyped as pandemic H1N1. Currently, pandemic viruses seem to have replaced seasonal viruses almost completely in Japan. This is a highly sensitive method and its cost is low. Influenza surveillance using this assay would provide significant information on the epidemiology of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.

  12. High genetic compatibility and increased pathogenicity of reassortants derived from avian H9N2 and pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yipeng; Qin, Kun; Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Juan; Tang, Qingdong; Hu, Yanxin; Bi, Yuhai; Zhao, Xueli; Yang, Hanchun; Shu, Yuelong; Liu, Jinhua

    2011-03-08

    H9N2 influenza viruses have been circulating worldwide in multiple avian species and repeatedly infecting mammals, including pigs and humans, posing a significant threat to public health. The coexistence of H9N2 and pandemic influenza H1N1/2009 viruses in pigs and humans provides an opportunity for these viruses to reassort. To evaluate the potential public risk of the reassortant viruses derived from these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate 127 H9 reassortants derived from an avian H9N2 and a pandemic H1N1 virus, and evaluated their compatibility, replication ability, and virulence in mice. These hybrid viruses showed high genetic compatibility and more than half replicated to a high titer in vitro. In vivo studies of 73 of 127 reassortants revealed that all viruses were able to infect mice without prior adaptation and 8 reassortants exhibited higher pathogenicity than both parental viruses. All reassortants with higher virulence than parental viruses contained the PA gene from the 2009 pandemic virus, revealing the important role of the PA gene from the H1N1/2009 virus in generating a reassortant virus with high public health risk. Analyses of the polymerase activity of the 16 ribonucleoprotein combinations in vitro suggested that the PA of H1N1/2009 origin also enhanced polymerase activity. Our results indicate that some avian H9-pandemic reassortants could emerge with a potentially higher threat for humans and also highlight the importance of monitoring the H9-pandemic reassortant viruses that may arise, especially those that possess the PA gene of H1N1/2009 origin.

  13. Orally administered live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium protects mice against lethal infection with H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Pre-stimulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) by agonists has been shown to increase protection against influenza virus infection. In this study, we evaluated the protective response generated against influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8; H1N1) virus by oral and nasal administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, JOL911 strain, in mice. Oral and nasal inoculation of JOL911 significantly increased the mRNA copy number of TLR-2, TLR4 and TLR5, and downstream type I interferon (IFN) molecules, IFN-α and IFN-β, both in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in lung tissue. Similarly, the mRNA copy number of interferon-inducible genes (ISGs), Mx and ISG15, were significantly increased in both the orally and the nasally inoculated mice. Post PR8 virus lethal challenge, the nasal JOL911 and the PBS control group mice showed significant loss of body weight with 70% and 100% mortality, respectively, compared to only 30% mortality in the oral JOL911 group mice. Post sub-lethal challenge, the significant reduction in PR8 virus copy number in lung tissue was observed in oral [on day 4 and 6 post-challenge (dpc)] and nasal (on 4dpc) than the PBS control group mice. The lethal and sub-lethal challenge showed that the generated stimulated innate resistance (StIR) in JOL911 inoculated mice conferred resistance to acute and initial influenza infection but might not be sufficient to prevent the PR8 virus invasion and replication in the lung. Overall, the present study indicates that oral administration of attenuated S. Typhimurium can pre-stimulate multiple TLR pathways in mice to provide immediate early StIR against a lethal H1N1 virus challenge.

  14. Diversity of influenza viruses in swine and the emergence of a novel human pandemic influenza A (H1N1).

    PubMed

    Brockwell-Staats, Christy; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread has been declared a pandemic strain. Here we review influenza infections in swine since 1918 and the introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses of North America and Eurasia. These introductions often result in viruses of increased fitness for pigs that occasionally transmit to humans. The novel virus affecting humans is derived from a North American swine influenza virus that has acquired two gene segments [Neuraminidase (NA) and Matrix (M)] from the European swine lineages. This reassortant appears to have increased fitness in humans. The potential for increased virulence in humans and of further reassortment between the novel H1N1 influenza virus and oseltamivir resistant seasonal H1N1 or with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza stresses the need for urgent pandemic planning.

  15. Thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) findings in 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Mojtaba; Javadi, Abbas-Ali; Khorvash, Farzin; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Adibi, Atoosa; Babak, Anahita; Ataei, Behrooz; Meidani, Mohsen; Naeini, Alireza Emami; Salehi, Hasan; Avijgan, Majid; Yazdani, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Farshid

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus arrived at Isfahan in August 2009. The virus is still circulating in the world. The abnormal thoracic computerized tomographic (CT) scan findings vary widely among the studies of 2009 H1N1 influenza. We evaluated the thoracic CT findings in patients with 2009 H1N1 virus infection to describe findings compared to previously reported findings, and to suggest patterns that may be suggestive for 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in an appropriate clinical setting. METHODS: Retrospectively, the archive of all patients with a diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A were reviewed, in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, central Iran, between September 23rd 2009 to February 20th 2010. Out of 216 patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus, 26 cases with abnormal CT were enrolled in the study. Radiologic findings were characterized by the type and pattern of opacities and zonal distribution. RESULTS: Patchy infiltration (34.6%), lobar consolidation (30.8%), and interstitial infiltration (26.9%) with airbronchogram (38.5%) were the predominant findings in our patients. Bilateral distribution was seen in 80.8% of the patients. Only one patient (3.8%) showed ground-glass opacity, predominant radiographic finding in the previous reports and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). CONCLUSIONS: The most common thoracic CT findings in pandemic H1N1 were patchy infiltration, lobar consolidation, and interstitial infiltration with airbronchogram and bilateral distribution. While these findings can be associated with other infections; they may be suggestive to 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in the appropriate clinical setting. Various radiographic patterns can be seen in thoracic CT scans of the influenza patients. Imaging findings are nonspecific. PMID:22091280

  16. Population modeling of influenza A/H1N1 virus kinetics and symptom dynamics.

    PubMed

    Canini, Laetitia; Carrat, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Influenza virus kinetics (VK) is used as a surrogate of infectiousness, while the natural history of influenza is described by symptom dynamics (SD). We used an original virus kinetics/symptom dynamics (VKSD) model to characterize human influenza virus infection and illness, based on a population approach. We combined structural equations and a statistical model to describe intra- and interindividual variability. The structural equations described influenza based on the target epithelial cells, the virus, the innate host response, and systemic symptoms. The model was fitted to individual VK and SD data obtained from 44 volunteers experimentally challenged with influenza A/H1N1 virus. Infection and illness parameters were calculated from best-fitted model estimates. We predicted that the cytokine level and NK cell activity would peak at days 2.2 and 4.2 after inoculation, respectively. Infectiousness, measured as the area under the VK curve above a viral titer threshold, lasted between 7.0 and 1.3 days and was 15 times lower in participants without systemic symptoms than in those with systemic symptoms (P < 0.001). The latent period, defined as the time between inoculation and infectiousness, varied from 0.7 to 1.9 days. The incubation period, defined as the time from inoculation to first symptoms, varied from 1.0 to 2.4 days. Our approach extends previous work by including the innate response and providing realistic estimates of infection and illness parameters, taking into account the strong interindividual variability. This approach could help to optimize studies of influenza VK and SD and to predict the effect of antivirals on infectiousness and symptoms.

  17. PB2 residue 158 is a pathogenic determinant of pandemic H1N1 and H5 influenza a viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Li, Yan; Halpin, Rebecca; Hine, Erin; Spiro, David J; Wentworth, David E

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are human and animal pathogens that cause morbidity and mortality, which range from mild to severe. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by the emergence of a reassortant H1N1 subtype (H1N1pdm) influenza A virus containing gene segments that originally circulated in human, avian, and swine virus reservoirs. The molecular determinants of replication and pathogenesis of H1N1pdm viruses in humans and other mammals are poorly understood. Therefore, we set out to elucidate viral determinants critical to the pathogenesis of this novel reassortant using a mouse model. We found that a glutamate-to-glycine substitution at residue 158 of the PB2 gene (PB2-E158G) increased the morbidity and mortality of the parental H1N1pdm virus. Results from mini-genome replication assays in human cells and virus titration in mouse tissues demonstrated that PB2-E158G is a pathogenic determinant, because it significantly increases viral replication rates. The virus load in PB2-E158G-infected mouse lungs was 1,300-fold higher than that of the wild-type virus. Our data also show that PB2-E158G had a much stronger influence on the RNA replication and pathogenesis of H1N1pdm viruses than PB2-E627K, which is a known pathogenic determinant. Remarkably, PB2-E158G substitutions also altered the pathotypes of two avian H5 viruses in mice, indicating that this residue impacts genetically divergent influenza A viruses and suggesting that this region of PB2 could be a new antiviral target. Collectively, the data presented in this study demonstrate that PB2-E158G is a novel pathogenic determinant of influenza A viruses in the mouse model. We speculate that PB2-E158G may be important in the adaptation of avian PB2 genes to other mammals, and BLAST sequence analysis identified a naturally occurring human H1N1pdm isolate that has this substitution. Therefore, future surveillance efforts should include scrutiny of this region of PB2 because of its potential impact on pathogenesis.

  18. Modifications in the polymerase genes of a swine-like triple-reassortant influenza virus to generate live attenuated vaccines against 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Pena, Lindomar; Vincent, Amy L; Ye, Jianqiang; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R; Angel, Matthew; Lorusso, Alessio; Gauger, Philip C; Janke, Bruce H; Loving, Crystal L; Perez, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    On 11 June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus is the predominant influenza virus strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers and infected turkeys and swine in several countries. Thus, the development of a vaccine that is effective in multiple animal species is urgently needed. We have previously demonstrated that the introduction of temperature-sensitive mutations into the PB2 and PB1 genes of an avian H9N2 virus, combined with the insertion of a hemagglutinin (HA) tag in PB1, resulted in an attenuated (att) vaccine backbone for both chickens and mice. Because the new pandemic strain is a triple-reassortant (TR) virus, we chose to introduce the double attenuating modifications into a swine-like TR virus isolate, A/turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) (ty/04), with the goal of producing live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). This genetically modified backbone had impaired polymerase activity and restricted virus growth at elevated temperatures. In vivo characterization of two H1N1 vaccine candidates generated using the ty/04 att backbone demonstrated that this vaccine is highly attenuated in mice, as indicated by the absence of signs of disease, limited replication, and minimum histopathological alterations in the respiratory tract. A single immunization with the ty/04 att-based vaccines conferred complete protection against a lethal H1N1pdm virus infection in mice. More importantly, vaccination of pigs with a ty/04 att-H1N1 vaccine candidate resulted in sterilizing immunity upon an aggressive intratracheal challenge with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus. Our studies highlight the safety of the ty/04 att vaccine platform and its potential as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for humans and livestock.

  19. Evolution of 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses during the pandemic correlates with increased viral pathogenicity and transmissibility in the ferret model

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Anna; Marriott, Anthony C.; Dreier, Carola; Dove, Brian; Mooren, Kyra; Klingen, Thorsten R.; Sauter, Martina; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Bennett, Allan; Klingel, Karin; van Riel, Debby; McHardy, Alice C.; Carroll, Miles W.; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses have evolved after pandemic onset giving rise to severe epidemics in subsequent waves. However, it still remains unclear which viral determinants might have contributed to disease severity after pandemic initiation. Here, we show that distinct mutations in the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus genome have occurred with increased frequency after pandemic declaration. Among those, a mutation in the viral hemagglutinin was identified that increases 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus binding to human-like α2,6-linked sialic acids. Moreover, these mutations conferred increased viral replication in the respiratory tract and elevated respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets. Thus, our data show that 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses have evolved after pandemic onset giving rise to novel virus variants that enhance viral replicative fitness and respiratory droplet transmission in a mammalian animal model. These findings might help to improve surveillance efforts to assess the pandemic risk by emerging influenza viruses. PMID:27339001

  20. Detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Whiley, David M; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Bletchly, Cheryl; Faux, Cassandra E; Harrower, Bruce; Gould, Allan R; Lambert, Stephen B; Nimmo, Graeme R; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P

    2009-07-01

    Accurate and rapid diagnosis of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection is critical for minimising further spread through timely implementation of antiviral treatment and other public health based measures. In this study we developed two TaqMan-based reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods for the detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) virus targeting the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. The assays were validated using 152 clinical respiratory samples, including 61 Influenza A positive samples, collected in Queenland, Australia during the years 2008 to 2009 and a further 12 seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 influenza A isolates collected from years 2000 to 2002. A wildtype swine H1N1 isolate was also tested. RNA from an influenza A(H1N1) virus isolate (Auckland, 2009) was used as a positive control. Overall, the results showed that the RT-PCR methods were suitable for sensitive and specific detection of novel influenza A(H1N1) RNA in human samples.

  1. Characterization In Vitro and In Vivo of a Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus from a Fatal Case

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Maria Teresa; Pozo, Francisco; Guerra, Susana; García-Barreno, Blanca; Martinez-Orellana, Pamela; Pérez-Breña, Pilar; Montoya, Maria; Melero, Jose Antonio; Pizarro, Manuel; Ortin, Juan; Casas, Inmaculada; Nieto, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Pandemic 2009 H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses caused mild symptoms in most infected patients. However, a greater rate of severe disease was observed in healthy young adults and children without co-morbid conditions. Here we tested whether influenza strains displaying differential virulence could be present among circulating pH1N1 viruses. The biological properties and the genotype of viruses isolated from a patient showing mild disease (M) or from a fatal case (F), both without known co-morbid conditions were compared in vitro and in vivo. The F virus presented faster growth kinetics and stronger induction of cytokines than M virus in human alveolar lung epithelial cells. In the murine model in vivo, the F virus showed a stronger morbidity and mortality than M virus. Remarkably, a higher proportion of mice presenting infectious virus in the hearts, was found in F virus-infected animals. Altogether, the data indicate that strains of pH1N1 virus with enhanced pathogenicity circulated during the 2009 pandemic. In addition, examination of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) genotype, recently reported as involved in severe influenza virus disease, revealed that the F virus-infected patient was homozygous for the deleted form of CCR5 receptor (CCR5Δ32). PMID:23326447

  2. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  3. [Colorimetric detection of human influenza A H1N1 virus by reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification].

    PubMed

    Nie, Kai; Wang, Da-Yan; Qin, Meng; Gao, Rong-Bao; Wang, Miao; Zou, Shu-Mei; Han, Feng; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Xi-Yan; Shu, Yue-Long; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2010-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric Reverse Transcription Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) method was established to detect human influenza A H1N1 virus. The method employed a set of six specially designed primers that recognized eight distinct sequences of the HA gene for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 65 degrees C for one and half hour. The amplification process of RT-LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (Hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by agarose electrophoresis. The specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by cross-reaction with different swine and human influenza virus including human seasonal influenza A /H1N1 A /H3N2, influenza B and swine A /H1N1. The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated by serial dilutions of RNA molecules from in vitro transcription of human influenza A H1N1 HA gene. The assay was further evaluated with 30 clinical specimens with suspected pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus infection in parallel with RT-PCR detection and 26 clinical specimens with seasonal influenza virus infection. Our results showed that the RT-LAMP was able to achieve a sensitivity of 60 RNA copies with high specificity, and detection rate was comparable to that of the RT-PCR with the clinical samples of pandemic influenza A H1N1 infection. The RT-LAMP reaction with HNB could also be measured at 650nm in a microplate reader for quantitative analysis. Thus, we concluded that this colorimetric RT-LAMP assay had potential for the rapid screening of the human influenza A H1N1 virus infection in National influenza monitoring network laboratories and sentinel hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China.

  4. Different evolutionary trajectories of European avian-like and classical swine H1N1 influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Eleca J; Dugan, Vivien G; Kaser, Emilee K; Perkins, Sarah E; Brown, Ian H; Holmes, Edward C; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2009-06-01

    In 1979, a lineage of avian-like H1N1 influenza A viruses emerged in European swine populations independently from the classical swine H1N1 virus lineage that had circulated in pigs since the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918. To determine whether these two distinct lineages of swine-adapted A/H1N1 viruses evolved from avian-like A/H1N1 ancestors in similar ways, as might be expected given their common host species and origin, we compared patterns of nucleotide and amino acid change in whole genome sequences of both groups. An analysis of nucleotide compositional bias across all eight genomic segments for the two swine lineages showed a clear lineage-specific bias, although a segment-specific effect was also apparent. As such, there appears to be only a relatively weak host-specific selection pressure. Strikingly, despite each lineage evolving in the same species of host for decades, amino acid analysis revealed little evidence of either parallel or convergent changes. These findings suggest that although adaptation due to evolutionary lineages can be distinguished, there are functional and structural constraints on all gene segments and that the evolutionary trajectory of each lineage of swine A/H1N1 virus has a strong historical contingency. Thus, in the context of emergence of an influenza A virus strain via a host switch event, it is difficult to predict what specific polygenic changes are needed for mammalian adaptation.

  5. Agglutination of human O erythrocytes by influenza A(H1N1) viruses freshly isolated from patients.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Seto, Y; Kimura, T; Minoshiro, S; Shibe, K

    1991-04-01

    The hemagglutinin titers of 10 influenza A (H1N1) viruses were examined using the erythrocytes of several species. Human O erythrocytes showed the highest agglutination titer to the viruses, whereas chicken erythrocytes showed a low titer. These findings were noted for at least 10 passages by serial dilutions of the viruses in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. All influenza A(H1N1) viruses, plaque-cloned directly from throat-washing specimens of patients, also agglutinated human O but not chicken erythrocytes. The results of a hemadsorption test indicated that chicken erythrocytes possess less affinity to MDCK cells infected with the A/Osaka City/2/88(H1N1) stain than to those infected with the A/Yamagata/120/86(H1N1) strain which is used as an inactivated influenza vaccine in Japan. However, there were no significant differences between the A/Osaka City/2/88 and the A/Yamagata/120/86 strains in the hemagglutination inhibition test. Since human O erythrocytes have high agglutination activity to influenza A(H1N1) and also to A(H3N2) and B viruses in MDCK cells, these erythrocytes may be useful for the serological diagnosis of influenza.

  6. [Comparative study of the differential susceptibility of different cell lines to pandemic H1N1v influenza viruses and avian influenza, swine influenza, and human influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Danilenko, D M; Smirnova, T D; Gudkova, T M; Eropkin, M Iu; Kiselev, O I

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation characteristics of influenza viruses of different origin were tested in various human and animal cell cultures. Pandemic H1N1v influenza and swine influenza viruses were shown to have a low infectious activity in virtually all the test lines. In spite of this, the replication of this group of viruses may be detected by de novo NP synthesis. These viruses are able to activate programmed cell death. Moreover, a low inoculative virus dose exerts a stimulating effect on cell proliferation in both suspension and monolayer cell lines.

  7. Virulence determinants of pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Kiso, Maki; Shinya, Kyoko; Goto, Hideo; Takano, Ryo; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Takahashi, Kazuo; Daniels, Rod S; Hungnes, Olav; Watanabe, Tokiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-02-01

    A novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus [A(H1N1)pdm09 virus] caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. Most patients exhibited mild symptoms similar to seasonal influenza, but some experienced severe clinical signs and, in the worst cases, died. Such differences in symptoms are generally associated with preexisting medical conditions, but recent reports indicate the possible involvement of viral factors in clinical severity. To better understand the mechanism of pathogenicity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, here, we compared five viruses that are genetically similar but were isolated from patients with either severe or mild symptoms. In a mouse model, A/Norway/3487/2009 (Norway3487) virus exhibited greater pathogenicity than did A/Osaka/164/2009 (Osaka164) virus. By exploiting reassortant viruses between these two viruses, we found that viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of Norway3487 in the genetic background of Osaka164 were more pathogenic in mice than other reassortant viruses, indicating a role for HA in the high virulence of Norway3487 virus. Intriguingly, a virus possessing HA, NA, and NS derived from Norway3487 exhibited greater pathogenicity in mice in concert with PB2 and PB1 derived from Osaka164 than did the parental Norway3487 virus. These findings demonstrate that reassortment between A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses can lead to increased pathogenicity and highlight the need for continued surveillance of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.

  8. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa de; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié da; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses' epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará.

  9. Pathogenesis of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and triple-reassortant swine influenza A (H1) viruses in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) continues to cause illness worldwide, primarily in younger age groups. To better understand the pathogenesis of these viruses in mammals, we used a mouse model to evaluate the relative virulence of selected 2009 H1N1 viruses and compared them to a represe...

  10. Prospective evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Sali, Michela; Di Cristo, Valentina; Pignataro, Giulia; Prete, Valentina; Farina, Salvatore; D'Avino, Alessandro; Manzara, Stefania; Dal Verme, Lorenzo Zileri; Silveri, Nicolò Gentiloni; Cauda, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanni; Fadda, Giovanni; Di Giambenedetto, Simona

    2011-12-01

    Since several characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection remain to be determined, this study aimed to describe clinical features and complications of patients infected with H1N1. Subjects affected by influenza-like illnesses and a control group of asymptomatic patients were enrolled prospectively at an Emergency Department from October 2009 to April 2010. At enrollment, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs for virological analyses were obtained. Ill subjects were followed until recovery and swabs were collected weekly in patients infected with H1N1. Of 318 patients enrolled, 92 (28.9%) were positive to H1N1. Patients infected with H1N1 were mainly young adults and complained classic influenza-like symptoms. Fever was observed for a median time of 5 (IQR 3-7) days. Hospitalization occurred in 27.7% with 2% requiring intensive care unit admission: median length of hospitalization was 6 days (IQR 5-9). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 19.6% of patients. A similar proportion of lower airways involvement and of clinical complications was observed in subjects testing positive or negative for H1N1. However, patients infected with H1N1 were younger and hospitalized for a shorter period as compared to the control group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.045, respectively). Older age, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension were associated with an increased risk of pneumonia. Viral shedding was observed for at least 1 week in 21.3% of patients. Asymptomatic infection was uncommon (1.1%). Respiratory syndromes caused by H1N1 and factors associated with disease severity were investigated and compared to influenza-like illnesses of other origin. Such findings might contribute to improve clinical and epidemiological management of the disease.

  11. Coinfection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus in fatal cases

    PubMed Central

    Perdigão, Anne Carolinne Bezerra; Ramalho, Izabel Letícia Cavalcante; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo; Braga, Deborah Nunes Melo; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona Góes; de Melo, Maria Elisabeth Lisboa; Araújo, Rafael Montenegro de Carvalho; Lima, Elza Gadelha; da Silva, Luciene Alexandre Bié; Araújo, Lia de Carvalho; Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on four patients with fatal influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and dengue virus coinfections. Clinical, necropsy and histopathologic findings presented in all cases were characteristic of influenza-dengue coinfections, and all were laboratory-confirmed for both infections. The possibility of influenza and dengue coinfection should be considered in locations where these two viruses’ epidemic periods coincide to avoid fatal outcomes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by one of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to 4). Each of these viruses is capable of causing nonspecific febrile illnesses, classic dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Gubler 1998). As a result, dengue is often difficult to diagnose clinically, especially because peak dengue season often coincides with that of other common febrile illnesses in tropical regions (Chacon et al. 2015). In April 2009, a new virus, influenza A/H1N1/pandemic (FluA/H1N1/09pdm), caused a severe outbreak in Mexico. The virus quickly spread throughout the world, and in June 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic (WHO 2010). In Brazil, the first laboratory confirmed case of FluA/H1N1/09pdm was in July 2009 (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil, is a dengue endemic area. In this state, the virus influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 has circulated since 2009, and through the first half of 2012, 11 deaths caused by the virus were confirmed (Pires Neto et al. 2013). The influenza and dengue seasons in Ceará overlap, which led to diagnostic difficulties. We report four cases of laboratory-confirmed coinfection of deadly influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with DENV, which occurred during the dengue and influenza season in 2012 and 2013 in Ceará. PMID:27598244

  12. Efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the classical swine H1N1 subtype influenza virus in mice and pigs.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Yu, Hai; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Yang, Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2014-11-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease caused by swine influenza A viruses (SwIVs), and it poses a potential global threat to human health. Classical H1N1 (cH1N1) SwIVs are still circulating and remain the predominant subtype in the swine population in China. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (GD/PR8) harboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel cH1N1 isolate in China, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (GD/11) and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of an inactivated vaccine. The protective efficacy of this vaccine was evaluated in mice and pigs challenged with GD/11 virus. Prime and boost inoculation of GD/PR8 vaccine yielded high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and IgG antibodies for GD/11 in both mice and pigs. Complete protection of mice and pigs against cH1N1 SIV challenge was observed, with significantly fewer lung lesions and reduced viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with unvaccinated control animals. Our data demonstrated that the GD/PR8 may serve as the seed virus for a promising SwIVs vaccine to protect the swine population.

  13. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes established by seasonal human influenza cross-react against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenwei; Mao, Huawei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Yinping; Chiu, Susan S; Qin, Gang; Chan, Ping-Lung; Lam, Kwok-Tai; Guan, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Guan, Yi; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Peiris, J S Malik; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2010-07-01

    While few children and young adults have cross-protective antibodies to the pandemic H1N1 2009 (pdmH1N1) virus, the illness remains mild. The biological reasons for these epidemiological observations are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the bulk memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) established by seasonal influenza viruses from healthy individuals who have not been exposed to pdmH1N1 can directly lyse pdmH1N1-infected target cells and produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Using influenza A virus matrix protein 1 (M1(58-66)) epitope-specific CTLs isolated from healthy HLA-A2(+) individuals, we further found that M1(58-66) epitope-specific CTLs efficiently killed both M1(58-66) peptide-pulsed and pdmH1N1-infected target cells ex vivo. These M1(58-66)-specific CTLs showed an effector memory phenotype and expressed CXCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors. Of 94 influenza A virus CD8 T-cell epitopes obtained from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), 17 epitopes are conserved in pdmH1N1, and more than half of these conserved epitopes are derived from M1 protein. In addition, 65% (11/17) of these epitopes were 100% conserved in seasonal influenza vaccine H1N1 strains during the last 20 years. Importantly, seasonal influenza vaccination could expand the functional M1(58-66) epitope-specific CTLs in 20% (4/20) of HLA-A2(+) individuals. Our results indicated that memory CTLs established by seasonal influenza A viruses or vaccines had cross-reactivity against pdmH1N1. These might explain, at least in part, the unexpected mild pdmH1N1 illness in the community and also might provide some valuable insights for the future design of broadly protective vaccines to prevent influenza, especially pandemic influenza.

  14. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  15. Evaluation of the attenuation, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a live virus vaccine generated by codon-pair bias de-optimization of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Andrew J; Santos, Celia P; Anafu, Amanda; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Subbarao, Kanta

    2016-01-20

    Codon-pair bias de-optimization (CPBD) of viruses involves re-writing viral genes using statistically underrepresented codon pairs, without any changes to the amino acid sequence or codon usage. Previously, this technology has been used to attenuate the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus. The de-optimized virus was immunogenic and protected inbred mice from challenge. In order to assess whether CPBD could be used to produce a live vaccine against a clinically relevant influenza virus, we generated an influenza A/California/07/2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus with de-optimized HA and NA gene segments (2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min)), and evaluated viral replication and protein expression in MDCK cells, and attenuation, immunogenicity, and efficacy in outbred ferrets. The 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min) virus grew to a similar titer as the 2009 pH1N1 wild type (wt) virus in MDCK cells (∼10(6)TCID50/ml), despite reduced HA and NA protein expression on western blot. In ferrets, intranasal inoculation of 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min) virus at doses ranging from 10(3) to 10(5) TCID50 led to seroconversion in all animals and protection from challenge with the 2009 pH1N1 wt virus 28 days later. The 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)(Min) virus did not cause clinical illness in ferrets, but replicated to a similar titer as the wt virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract, suggesting that de-optimization of additional gene segments may be warranted for improved attenuation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the potential of using CPBD technology for the development of a live influenza virus vaccine if the level of attenuation is optimized.

  16. Evaluation of the attenuation, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a live virus vaccine generated by codon-pair bias de-optimization of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, Andrew J.; Santos, Celia P.; Anafu, Amanda; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    Codon-pair bias de-optimization (CPBD) of viruses involves re-writing viral genes using statistically underrepresented codon pairs, without any changes to the amino acid sequence or codon usage. Previously, this technology has been used to attenuate the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus. The de-optimized virus was immunogenic and protected inbred mice from challenge. In order to assess whether CPBD could be used to produce a live vaccine against a clinically relevant influenza virus, we generated an influenza A/California/07/2009 pandemic H1N1 (2009 pH1N1) virus with de-optimized HA and NA gene segments (2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)Min), and evaluated viral replication and protein expression in MDCK cells, and attenuation, immunogenicity, and efficacy in outbred ferrets. The 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)Min virus grew to a similar titer as the 2009 pH1N1 wild type (wt) virus in MDCK cells (~106 TCID50/ml), despite reduced HA and NA protein expression on western blot. In ferrets, intranasal inoculation of 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)Min virus at doses ranging from 103 to 105 TCID50 led to seroconversion in all animals and protection from challenge with the 2009 pH1N1 wt virus 28 days later. The 2009 pH1N1-(HA+NA)Min virus did not cause clinical illness in ferrets, but replicated to a similar titer as the wt virus in the upper and lower respiratory tract, suggesting that de-optimization of additional gene segments may be warranted for improved attenuation. Taken together, our data demonstrate the potential of using CPBD technology for the development of a live influenza virus vaccine if the level of attenuation is optimized. PMID:26655630

  17. Genetic Characterization of Circulating 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Viruses from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anupam; Nayak, Mukti Kant; Dutta, Shanta; Panda, Samiran; Satpathi, Biswa Ranjan; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the swine derived A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic strain outbreak became widespread throughout the different states of India. The reported cases and deaths in 2015 surpassed the previous years with more than 39000 laboratory confirmed cases and a death toll of more than 2500 people. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. In this study, we describe the full genome analysis of influenza 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from West Bengal between January through December 2015. The phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin sequence revealed clustering with globally circulating strains of genogroup 6B. This was further confirmed by the constructed concatenated tree using all eight complete gene segments of Kolkata A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates with the other strains from different timeline and lineages. A study from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2015 reported novel mutations T200A and D225N in haemagglutinin gene of a 2014 Indian strain (A/India/6427/2014). However, in all the pandemic strains of 2014–2015 reported from India, so far including A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from Kolkata, D225N mutation was not observed, though the T200A mutation was found to be conserved. Neuraminidase gene of the analyzed strains did not show any oseltamivir resistant mutation H275Y suggesting continuation of Tamiflu® as drug of choice. The amino acid sequences of the all gene segments from 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates identified several new mutations compared to the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, which may have contributed towards enhanced virulence, compared to 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strains. PMID:27997573

  18. Genetic makeup of amantadine-resistant and oseltamivir-resistant human influenza A/H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Zaraket, Hassan; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Yasushi; Baranovich, Tatiana; Dapat, Clyde; Caperig-Dapat, Isolde; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-04-01

    The emergence and widespread occurrence of antiviral drug-resistant seasonal human influenza A viruses, especially oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus, are major concerns. To understand the genetic background of antiviral drug-resistant A/H1N1 viruses, we performed full genome sequencing of prepandemic A/H1N1 strains. Seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, including antiviral-susceptible viruses, amantadine-resistant viruses, and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, obtained from several areas in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons were analyzed. Sequencing of the full genomes of these viruses was performed, and the phylogenetic relationships among the sequences of each individual genome segment were inferred. Reference genome sequences from the Influenza Virus Resource database were included to determine the closest ancestor for each segment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the oseltamivir-resistant strain evolved from a reassortant oseltamivir-susceptible strain (clade 2B) which circulated in the 2007-2008 season by acquiring the H275Y resistance-conferring mutation in the NA gene. The oseltamivir-resistant lineage (corresponding to the Northern European resistant lineage) represented 100% of the H1N1 isolates from the 2008-2009 season and further acquired at least one mutation in each of the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes. Therefore, a reassortment event involving two distinct oseltamivir-susceptible lineages, followed by the H275Y substitution in the NA gene and other mutations elsewhere in the genome, contributed to the emergence of the oseltamivir-resistant lineage. In contrast, amantadine-resistant viruses from the 2007-2008 season distinctly clustered in clade 2C and were characterized by extensive amino acid substitutions across their genomes, suggesting that a fitness gap among its genetic components might have driven these mutations to maintain it in the

  19. Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Containing Hemagglutinin Confers Protection against 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Jaber; Bourgeois, Melissa; Quan, Fu-Shi; Lipatov, Aleksandr S.; Song, Jae-Min; Chen, Li-Mei; Compans, Richard W.; York, Ian; Kang, Sang-Moo; Donis, Ruben O.

    2011-01-01

    Immunization of the world population before an influenza pandemic such as the 2009 H1N1 virus spreads globally is not possible with current vaccine production platforms. New influenza vaccine technologies, such as virus-like-particles (VLPs), offer a promising alternative. Here, we tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a VLP vaccine containing hemagglutinin (HA) and M1 from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm) in ferrets and compared intramuscular (i.m.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes of immunization. Vaccination of ferrets with VLPs containing the M1 and HA proteins from A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm) induced high antibody titers and conferred significant protection against virus challenge. VLP-vaccinated animals lost less weight, shed less virus in nasal washes, and had markedly lower virus titers in all organs tested than naïve controls. A single dose of VLPs, either i.m. or i.n., induced higher levels of antibody than did two doses of commercial split vaccine. Ferrets vaccinated with split vaccine were incompletely protected against challenge; these animals had lower virus titers in olfactory bulbs, tonsils, and intestines, but lost weight and shed virus in nasal washes to a similar extent as naïve controls. Challenge with heterologous A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus revealed that the VLPs conferred minimal cross-protection to heterologous infection, as revealed by the lack of reduction in nasal wash and lung virus titers and slightly higher weight loss relative to controls. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the strong immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VLPs compared to the split vaccine and show that i.n. vaccination with VLPs has the potential for highly efficacious vaccination against influenza. PMID:22030367

  20. Travel and age of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Age distribution of 4,986 cases of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Japan was analyzed. Cases with a travel history within 10 days preceding the illness onset were significantly older than indigenous cases (p < 0.01) reflecting age-specific travel patterns. Border controls should account for the high frequency of infection among adults.

  1. Computational 3D structures of drug-targeting proteins in the 2009-H1N1 influenza A virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Wang, Shu-Qing; Huang, Ri-Bo; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2010-01-01

    The neuraminidase (NA) and M2 proton channel of influenza virus are the drug-targeting proteins, based on which several drugs were developed. However these once powerful drugs encountered drug-resistant problem to the H5N1 and H1N1 flu. To address this problem, the computational 3D structures of NA and M2 proteins of 2009-H1N1 influenza virus were built using the molecular modeling technique and computational chemistry method. Based on the models the structure features of NA and M2 proteins were analyzed, the docking structures of drug-protein complexes were computed, and the residue mutations were annotated. The results may help to solve the drug-resistant problem and stimulate designing more effective drugs against 2009-H1N1 influenza pandemic.

  2. Structural characterization of a protective epitope spanning A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus neuraminidase monomers

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hongquan; Yang, Hua; Shore, David A.; Garten, Rebecca J.; Couzens, Laura; Gao, Jin; Jiang, Lianlian; Carney, Paul J.; Villanueva, Julie; Stevens, James; Eichelberger, Maryna C.

    2015-01-01

    A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A viruses predominated in the 2013–2014 USA influenza season, and although most of these viruses remain sensitive to Food and Drug Administration-approved neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, alternative therapies are needed. Here we show that monoclonal antibody CD6, selected for binding to the NA of the prototypic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, A/California/07/2009, protects mice against lethal virus challenge. The crystal structure of NA in complex with CD6 Fab reveals a unique epitope, where the heavy-chain complementarity determining regions (HCDRs) 1 and 2 bind one NA monomer, the light-chain CDR2 binds the neighbouring monomer, whereas HCDR3 interacts with both monomers. This 30-amino-acid epitope spans the lateral face of an NA dimer and is conserved among circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. These results suggest that the large, lateral CD6 epitope may be an effective target of antibodies selected for development as therapeutic agents against circulating H1N1 influenza viruses. PMID:25668439

  3. Bayesian coalescent analysis of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus circulating in the South American region.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Natalia; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Coppola, Leticia; Ramas, Viviana; Comas, Victoria; Soñora, Martin; Chiparelli, Hector; Cristina, Juan

    2012-12-01

    The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain (H1N1pdm). Understanding the evolution of H1N1pdm populations within the South American region is essential for studying global diversification, emergence, resistance and vaccine efficacy. In order to gain insight into these matters, we have performed a Bayesian coalescent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of all available and comparable HA and NA sequences obtained from H1N1pdm IAV circulating in the South American region. High evolutionary rates and fast population growths characterize the population dynamics of H1N1pdm strains in this region of the world. A significant contribution of first codon position to the mean evolutionary rate was found for both genes studied, revealing a high contribution of non-synonymous substitutions to the mean substitution rate. In the 178days period covered by these studies, substitutions in all HA epitope regions can be observed. HA substitutions D239G/N and Q310H have been observed only in Brazilian patients. While substitution D239G/N is not particularly associated to a specific genetic lineage, all strains bearing substitution Q310H were assigned to clade 6, suggesting a founder effect. None of the substitutions found in the NA proteins of H1N1pdm strains isolated in South America appears sufficiently close to affect the drug binding pocket for the three NA inhibitor antivirals tested. A more detailed analysis of NA proteins revealed epitope differences among 2010 vaccine and H1N1pdm IAV strains circulating in the South American region.

  4. Identification and characterization of a highly virulent triple reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjun; Vincent, Amy L; Lager, Kelly M; Janke, Bruce H; Henry, Steven C; Rowland, Raymond R R; Hesse, Richard A; Richt, Jürgen A

    2010-02-01

    A highly virulent H1N1 influenza A virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07), which caused approximately 10% mortality in finishing pigs, was isolated from herds in the Midwestern United States. Molecular and phylogenic analysis revealed this swine isolate was a triple reassortant virus, similar to an H1N1 virus that infected humans and pigs at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. A pig challenge model was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission capacity of the KS07 virus. The results confirmed that the KS07 virus is highly virulent in pigs and easily transmitted to sentinel animals. The KS07 virus failed to cross-react with a panel of H1-specific swine sera. Interestingly, the KS07 virus shed for a prolonged period up to 7 days in infected pigs, indicating that this virus can spread efficiently between animals. The highly virulent H1N1 swine influenza virus is further evidence of reassortment among avian, human and swine influenza viruses and justifies the need for continued surveillance of influenza viruses in swine.

  5. Novel Virus Influenza A (H1N1sw) in South-Eastern France, April-August 2009

    PubMed Central

    Zandotti, Christine; Salez, Nicolas; Mantey, Karine; Resseguier, Noémie; Gazin, Céline; Raoult, Didier; Charrel, Rémi N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background In April 2009, the first cases of pandemic (H1N1)-2009 influenza [H1N1sw] virus were detected in France. Virological surveillance was undertaken in reference laboratories of the seven French Defence Zones. Methodology/Principal Findings We report results of virological analyses performed in the Public Hospitals of Marseille during the first months of the outbreak. (i) Nasal swabs were tested using rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) and two RT-PCR assays. Epidemiological characteristics of the 99 first suspected cases were analyzed, including detection of influenza virus and 18 other respiratory viruses. During three months, a total of 1,815 patients were tested (including 236 patients infected H1N1sw virus) and distribution in age groups and results of RIDT were analyzed. (ii) 600 sera received before April 2009 and randomly selected from in-patients were tested by a standard hemagglutination inhibition assay for antibody to the novel H1N1sw virus. (iii) One early (May 2009) and one late (July 2009) viral isolates were characterized by sequencing the complete hemagglutinine and neuraminidase genes. (iiii) Epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of cases that occurred in July 2009 in a summer camp were analyzed. Conclusions/Significance This study presents new virological and epidemiological data regarding infection by the pandemic A/H1N1 virus in Europe. Distribution in age groups was found to be similar to that previously reported for seasonal H1N1. The first seroprevalence data made available for a European population suggest a previous exposure of individuals over 40 years old to influenza viruses antigenically related to the pandemic (H1N1)-2009 virus. Genomic analysis indicates that strains harbouring a new amino-acid pattern in the neuraminidase gene appeared secondarily and tended to supplant the first strains. Finally, in contrast with previous reports, our data support the use of RIDT for the detection of infection in children

  6. RATE AND INFLUENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUS CO-INFECTION ON PANDEMIC (H1N1) INFLUENZA DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Frank P.; Spahlinger, Timothy; Zhou, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Many patients with influenza have more than one viral agent with co-infection frequencies reported as high as 20%. The impact of respiratory virus copathogens on influenza disease is unclear. We sought to determine if respiratory virus co-infection with pandemic H1N1 altered clinical disease. Methods Respiratory samples from 229 and 267 patients identified with and without H1N1 influenza respectively were screened for the presence of 13 seasonal respiratory viruses by multiplex RT-PCR. Disease severity between coinfected and monoinfected H1N1 patients were quantified using a standardized clinical severity scale. Influenza viral load was calculated by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Thirty (13.1%) influenza samples screened positive for the presence of 31 viral copathogens. The most prominent copathogens included rhinovirus (61.3%), and coronaviruses (16.1%). Median clinical severity of both monoinfected and co-infected groups were 1. Patients coinfected with rhinovirus tended to have lower clinical severity (median 0), whereas non rhinovirus co-infections had substantially higher clinical severity (median 2). No difference in H1N1 viral load was observed between co-infected and mono infected groups. Conclusions Respiratory viruses co-infect patients with influenza disease. Patients coinfected with rhinovirus had less severe disease while non-rhinovirus co-infections were associated with substantially higher severity without changes in influenza viral titer. PMID:21546090

  7. T cell-mediated protection against lethal 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hailong; Santiago, Félix; Lambert, Kris; Takimoto, Toru; Topham, David J

    2011-01-01

    Genetic mutation and reassortment of influenza virus gene segments, in particular those of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), that lead to antigenic drift and shift are the major strategies for influenza virus to escape preexisting immunity. The most recent example of such phenomena is the first pandemic of H1N1 influenza of the 21st century, which started in 2009. Cross-reactive antibodies raised against H1N1 viruses circulating before 1930 show protective activity against the 2009 pandemic virus. Cross-reactive T-cell responses can also contribute to protection, but in vivo support of this view is lacking. To explore the protection mechanisms in vivo, we primed mice with H1 and H3 influenza virus isolates and rechallenged them with a virus derived from the 2009 H1N1 A/CA/04/09 virus, named CA/E3/09. We found that priming with influenza viruses of both H1 and H3 homo- and heterosubtypes protected against lethal CA/E3/09 virus challenge. Convalescent-phase sera from these primed mice conferred no neutralization activity in vitro and no protection in vivo. However, T-cell depletion studies suggested that both CD4 and CD8 T cells contributed to the protection. Taken together, these results indicate that cross-reactive T cells established after initial priming with distally related viruses can be a vital component for prevention of disease and control of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection. Our results highlight the importance of establishing cross-reactive T-cell responses for protecting against existing or newly emerging pandemic influenza viruses.

  8. Structure and anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of three polysaccharides from Eucheuma denticulatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guangli; Li, Miaomiao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lv, Youjing; Li, Guangsheng; Jiao, Guangling; Zhao, Xia

    2012-12-01

    Three polysaccharides (EW, EH and EA) were prepared from a red alga Eucheuma denticulatum by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide water solution. Their monosaccharide compositions, relative molecular mass and structural characterization were determined by gas chromatography, high performance 1iquid chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. EW was hybrid ı/κ/ν-carrageenan (70 ı/17κ/13ν-carrabiose), EH was mainly ı-carrageenan, and EA was mainly α-1,4-Glucan (88%) but mixed with small amount of ı-carrageenan (12%). The relative molecular mass of EW, EH and EA was 480, 580 and 510 kDa, respectively. The anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus activity of these three polysaccharides was evaluated using the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells model. EW showed good anti-H1N1 virus activity, its IC50 was 276.5 μg mL-1, and the inhibition rate to H1N1 virus was 52% when its concentration was 250 μg mL-1. The IC50 of ı-carrageenan EH was 366.4 μg mL-1, whereas EA showed lower anti-H1N1 virus activity (IC50>430 μg mL-1). Available data obtained give positive evidence that the hybrid carrageenan EW from Eucheuma denticulatum can be used as potential anti-H1N1 virus inhibitor in future.

  9. Porcine mast cells infected with H1N1 influenza virus release histamine and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Hong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2017-04-01

    Mast cells reside in many tissues, including the lungs, and might play a role in enhancing influenza virus infections in animals. In this study, we cultured porcine mast cells from porcine bone marrow cells with IL-3 and stem cell factor to study the infectivity and activation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin. Porcine mast cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus, without the subsequent production of infectious viruses but were activated, as indicated by the release of histamines. Inflammatory cytokine- and chemokine-encoding genes, including IL-1α, IL-6, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, were upregulated in the infected porcine mast cells. Our results suggest that mast cells could be involved in enhancing influenza-virus-mediated disease in infected animals.

  10. Reassortment between swine influenza A viruses increased their adaptation to humans in pandemic H1N1/09.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Yuki; Suzuki, Akira; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    In April 2009, pandemic H1N1/09 influenza, which originated from swine influenza, appeared in North America, and it has since spread globally among humans. It is important to know how swine influenza A virus broke the host barrier to cause a pandemic. We analyzed 673 strains of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses and assessed the internal genes PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS. Here we found accumulation of mutations in segments that were retained as well as introduced due to genetic reassortment of viruses. The retained segments may have to mutate to accommodate new segments. The mutations caused by interaction among segments retained and introduced due to reassortment between swine influenza viruses may have increased the adaptation of the virus to humans, leading to pandemic H1N1/09. We indicate the sites that probably contributed to the acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission.

  11. Differential Induction of Type I and Type III Interferons by Swine and Human Origin H1N1 Influenza A Viruses in Porcine Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Venkatramana D; Roach, Erin; Zaidman, Nathan A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Rotschafer, Jessica H; O'Grady, Scott M; Cheeran, Maxim C-J

    2015-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) have been shown to inhibit influenza A virus (IAV) replication and play an essential role in controlling viral infection. Here we studied the kinetics and magnitude of induction of type I and type III IFN transcripts by primary porcine airway epithelial cells (pAECs) in response to swine and human origin IAV. We observed that swine influenza viruses (SIV) replicate more efficiently than the human pandemic influenza A/California/2009 (pH1N1 CA/09) in pAECs. Interestingly, we also found significant difference in kinetics of IFN-β, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3 gene expression by these viruses. While there was delay of up to 12 hours post infection (h p.i.) in induction of IFN genes in pAECs infected with swine IAV A/Sw/Illinois/2008 (H1N1 IL/08), human pH1N1 CA/09 rapidly induced IFN-β, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3 gene expression as early as 4 h p.i. However, the magnitude of IFN-β and IFN-λ3 induction at 24 h p.i. was not significantly different between the viral strains tested. Additionally, we found that swine H1N1 IL/08 was less sensitive to dsRNA induced antiviral response compared to human pH1N1 CA/09. Our data suggest that the human and swine IAVs differ in their ability to induce and respond to type I and type III interferons in swine cells. Swine origin IAV may have adapted to the pig host by subverting innate antiviral responses to viral infection.

  12. A PB1 T296R substitution enhance polymerase activity and confer a virulent phenotype to a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijun; Cheng, Kaihui; Sun, Weiyang; Zhang, Xinghai; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Zhang, Qianyi; Xin, Yue; Xue, Li; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Jing; Yang, Songtao; Qin, Chuan; Wilker, Peter R; Yue, Donghui; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-12-01

    While the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus has become established in the human population as a seasonal influenza virus, continued adaptation may alter viral virulence. Here, we passaged a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (A/Changchun/01/2009) in mice. Serial passage in mice generated viral variants with increased virulence. Adapted variants displayed enhanced replication kinetics in vitro and vivo. Analysis of the variants genomes revealed 6 amino acid changes in the PB1 (T296R), PA (I94V), HA (H3 numbering; N159D, D225G, and R226Q), and NP (D375N). Using reverse genetics, we found that a PB1-T296R substitution found in all adapted viral variants enhanced viral replication kinetics in vitro and vivo, increased viral polymerase activity in human cells, and was sufficient for enhanced virulence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in mice. Therefore, we defined a novel influenza pathogenic determinant, providing further insights into the pathogenesis of influenza viruses in mammals.

  13. Survival analysis of infected mice reveals pathogenic variations in the genome of avian H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Koçer, Zeynep A; Fan, Yiping; Huether, Robert; Obenauer, John; Webby, Richard J; Zhang, Jinghui; Webster, Robert G; Wu, Gang

    2014-12-12

    Most influenza pandemics have been caused by H1N1 viruses of purely or partially avian origin. Here, using Cox proportional hazard model, we attempt to identify the genetic variations in the whole genome of wild-type North American avian H1N1 influenza A viruses that are associated with their virulence in mice by residue variations, host origins of virus (Anseriformes-ducks or Charadriiformes-shorebirds), and host-residue interactions. In addition, through structural modeling, we predicted that several polymorphic sites associated with pathogenicity were located in structurally important sites, especially in the polymerase complex and NS genes. Our study introduces a new approach to identify pathogenic variations in wild-type viruses circulating in the natural reservoirs and ultimately to understand their infectious risks to humans as part of risk assessment efforts towards the emergence of future pandemic strains.

  14. Identification and analysis of the first 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus from U.S. feral swine.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, A; Nikooienejad, A; Esfahani, M S; Metz, R P; Schwartz, S; Atashpaz-Gargari, E; Deliberto, T J; Lutman, M W; Pedersen, K; Bazan, L R; Koster, L G; Jenkins-Moore, M; Swenson, S L; Zhang, M; Beckham, T; Johnson, C D; Bounpheng, M

    2013-08-01

    The first case of pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) virus in feral swine in the United States was identified in Texas through the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Services' surveillance program. Two samples were identified as pandemic influenza by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Full-genome Sanger sequencing of all eight influenza segments was performed. In addition, Illumina deep sequencing of the original diagnostic samples and their respective virus isolation cultures were performed to assess the feasibility of using an unbiased whole-genome linear target amplification method and multiple sample sequencing in a single Illumina GAIIx lane. Identical sequences were obtained using both techniques. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all gene segments belonged to the pH1N1 (2009) lineage. In conclusion, we have identified the first pH1N1 isolate in feral swine in the United States and have demonstrated the use of an easy unbiased linear amplification method for deep sequencing of multiple samples.

  15. Acute phase protein response during subclinical infection of pigs with H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2012-10-12

    In the present study acute phase proteins (APPs) responses in pigs after subclinical infection with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) were evaluated. Fourteen 5 weeks old, seronegative piglets, both sexes were used. Ten of them were infected intranasally with SwH1N1. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) concentrations in serum were measured using commercial ELISAs. No significant clinical signs were observed in any of the infected pigs, however, all infected animals developed specific antibodies against SwH1N1 and viral shedding was observed from 2 to 5 dpi. Only concentrations of Hp and SAA were significantly induced after infection, with mean maximum levels from days 1 to 2 post infection (dpi). The concentrations of CRP and Pig-MAP remained generally unchanged, however in half of infected pigs the concentration of CRP tended to increase at 1 dpi (but without statistical significance). The results of our study confirmed that monitoring of APPs may be useful for detection of subclinically infected pigs. The use of SAA or Hp and Pig-MAP may be a valuable in combination [i.e. Hp (increased concentration) and Pig-MAP (unchanged concentration)] to detect subclinically SIV infected pigs, or to identify pigs actually producing a large amount of virus. Additional studies need to be done in order to confirm these findings.

  16. Epidemiological survey on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Kurdistan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2009.

    PubMed

    Afrasiabian, S; Mohsenpour, B; Bagheri, K H; Barari, M; Ghaderi, E; Hashemi, R; Garibi, F

    2014-04-03

    This study evaluated the epidemiology of suspected cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009-2010 in Kurdistan province, a frontier province of the Islamic Republic of Iran. A questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, clinical presentation and outcome, and history of exposure and travel was completed by patients attending health centres and hospitals in the province. Nasal and throat swabs were analysed by RT-PCR. A total of 1059 suspected cases were assessed; H1N1 influenza A was confirmed in 157 (14.8%). The highest proportion of confirmed cases was 30.0%, among children aged < 1 year. In multivariate analysis, previous contact with symptomatic influenza patients (OR = 2.17) and hospitalization (OR = 3.88) were the only significant risk factors for confirmed H1N1 infection. Age, sex, residency, presenting symptoms and history of national or international travel were not significant. Influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread in Islamic Republic of Iran; probably transmitted by travellers to Kurdistan.

  17. Unseasonal transmission of H3N2 influenza A virus during the swine-origin H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Ghedin, Elodie; Wentworth, David E; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Bera, Jayati; DePasse, Jay; Fitch, Adam; Griesemer, Sara; Hine, Erin; Katzel, Daniel A; Overton, Larry; Proudfoot, Kathleen; Sitz, Jeffrey; Szczypinski, Bridget; StGeorge, Kirsten; Spiro, David J; Holmes, Edward C

    2010-06-01

    The initial wave of swine-origin influenza A virus (pandemic H1N1/09) in the United States during the spring and summer of 2009 also resulted in an increased vigilance and sampling of seasonal influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2), even though they are normally characterized by very low incidence outside of the winter months. To explore the nature of virus evolution during this influenza "off-season," we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 and H3N2 sequences sampled during April to June 2009 in New York State. Our analysis revealed that multiple lineages of both viruses were introduced and cocirculated during this time, as is typical of influenza virus during the winter. Strikingly, however, we also found strong evidence for the presence of a large transmission chain of H3N2 viruses centered on the south-east of New York State and which continued until at least 1 June 2009. These results suggest that the unseasonal transmission of influenza A viruses may be more widespread than is usually supposed.

  18. Increased prevalence of a rare mutant of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in a Eurasian region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhao-Guo; Li, Shan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Yi, Ying; Yang, Yu; Yu, Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus sparked an influenza pandemic. The emergence of mutations in the viral genome is therefore of ongoing concern. In this study, the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences of 3444 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses reported to the GenBank database and the sequences of 48 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses detected in the Chinese city of Qingdao were analyzed. Among the 3492 viruses, 101 carried a serine to proline substitution at position 128 (S128P) in the viral HA gene. All the 101 S128P mutants belonged to Clade 7 which has become dominant worldwide since the summer of 2009. Among the 3492 viruses, 1646 were collected before July 25, 2009, and none of these viruses carried the S128P mutation. Furthermore, after July 25, 2009, the prevalence of the S128P mutant was 33.56% (99/295) in a region of Eurasia including Russia, Mongolia, mainland China and South Korea, but only 0.11% (2/1846) in the rest of the world. The data suggested that the originally rare S128P mutant has become prevalent in the Eurasia region, indicating that the S128P mutant likely transmitted more efficiently than other strains of the virus. Therefore, it is of significance to observe whether the S128P mutant will be more dominant worldwide in the coming future and investigate the exact effects of the S128P mutation.

  19. Insights into the increasing virulence of the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Chen, Dijun; Xiong, Min; Zhu, Jiping; Lin, Xian; Wang, Lun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Lingling; Zhang, Hongyu; Chen, Huanchun; Chen, Ming; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses have been stabilized in swine herds, and some strains display higher pathogenicity than the human-origin isolates. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is applied to explore the systemic transcriptome responses of the mouse lungs infected by swine (Jia6/10) and human (LN/09) H1N1/2009 viruses. The transcriptome data show that Jia6/10 activates stronger virus-sensing signals, such as the toll-like receptor, RIG-I like receptor and NOD-like receptor signalings, as well as a stronger NF-κB and JAK-STAT signals, which play significant roles in inducing innate immunity. Most cytokines and interferon-stimulated genes show higher expression lever in Jia/06 infected groups. Meanwhile, virus Jia6/10 activates stronger production of reactive oxygen species, which might further promote higher mutation rate of the virus genome. Collectively, our data reveal that the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 virus elicits a stronger innate immune reaction and pro-oxidation stimulation, which might relate closely to the increasing pathogenicity.

  20. Performance of rapid-test kits for the detection of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Kuo, Yung-Bin; Huang, Chung-Guei; Chau, Shao-Wen; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2011-05-01

    The early detection of pandemic influenza strains is a key factor for clinicians in treatment decisions and infection control practices. The aims of this study were to determine the analytical sensitivity and clinical performance of the commercially available influenza rapid tests in Taiwan. Four rapid tests for influenza virus (BinaxNow test, QuickVue test, TRU test, and Formosa Rapid test) were evaluated for their detection limit against four influenza viruses (the 2009 pandemic influenza A virus H1N1, seasonal influenza virus H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B virus) circulating in Taiwan. The viral load of these isolates were quantified by rtRT-PCR and then diluted 2-fold serially for the comparison. The lowest detectable viral load of the pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 by the Formosa Rapid test, QuickVue test, TRU test, and Binax Now test was 5.3×10(4), 1.0×10(5), 1.0×10(5), and 4.2×10(5)copies/μL, respectively. Of these four tests, the two most sensitive tests (the QuickVue test and the Formosa Rapid test) were chosen to evaluate 62 nasopharyngeal specimens from patients who were suspected of infection with pandemic influenza A virus H1N1. The positive rate for the Formosa Rapid test and the QuickVue test were 53.2% (33/62) and 45.2% (28/62) (McNemar's test, P=0.125), respectively. In conclusion, the Formosa Rapid test was the most sensitive test in the present study for the detection of influenza antigens and its clinical performance was similar to that of the QuickVue test (Kappa=0.776). This suggests that the Formosa Rapid test could be used to aid clinical decision making in primary health care settings during outbreaks of influenza.

  1. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-02

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba.

  2. Novel antigenic shift in HA sequences of H1N1 viruses detected by big data analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiying; Xu, Chongfeng; Duan, Ziyuan

    2017-03-28

    The influenza virus H1N1 has been prevalent all over the world for nearly a century. Many studies on its evolutionary history, substitution rate and antigenicity-associated sites have been done with small datasets. To have a complete view, we analysed 3171 full-length HA sequences from human H1N1 viruses sampled from 1918 to 2016, and discovered a new clade has formed with sequences isolated in Iran. Based on genetic distance calculations, we revealed an uneven evolutionary rate among sequences isolated in different years. We also found that the HA1 fragment of the new clade is like that of viruses that existed in the 1930s, while the HA2 fragment is closely associated with strains isolated after the 2009 pandemic. This new, "mixed" HA sequence indicates a cryptic antigenic shift event occurred, and it should draw more attention to the new clade identified from sequences from Iran.

  3. Research update on avian influenza viruses and H1N1 influenza virus in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory conducts research on many areas related to AI including pathogenesis and transmission studies, use of vaccination, virus ...

  4. Validation of a polymerase chain reaction-oligochromatography test for detection of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Loreto; Prat, Cristina; Blanco, Silvia; Bas, Albert; Domínguez, M J; Hernández, M Ángeles; Rodrigo, Carlos; Ausina, Vicente

    2012-02-01

    The outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus caused the first influenza pandemic disease of the 21st century. In August 2010, the pandemic moved into the post-pandemic period. However, localized outbreaks of various magnitudes continued with a higher rate of disease severity. The aim of this study was to assess a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-oligochromatographic assay (Speed-Oligo) in the diagnosis of novel influenza A (H1N1) 2009. A total of 405 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens from 400 pediatric and adults patients with suspected infection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity values of the Speed-Oligo assay in comparison to reverse transcriptase-PCR assay developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were 86.5% and 92.2%, respectively. The new assay is simple, rapid, and provides a good sensitivity for detection of influenza A (H1N1) 2009. This assay might be a good alternative to real-time PCR assays for laboratories not equipped with real-time PCR instruments.

  5. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Suppresses RIG-I Initiated Innate Antiviral Responses in the Human Lung

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J. Leland; Metcalf, Jordan P.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is believed to play an important role in the recognition of, and response to, influenza virus and other RNA viruses. Our study focuses on the hypothesis that pandemic H1N1/09 influenza virus alters the influenza-induced proinflammatory response and suppresses host antiviral activity. We first compared the innate response to a clinical isolate of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, OK/09, a clinical isolate of seasonal H3N2 virus, OK/06, and to a laboratory adapted seasonal H1N1 virus, PR8, using a unique human lung organ culture model. Exposure of human lung tissue to either pandemic or seasonal influenza virus resulted in infection and replication in alveolar epithelial cells. Pandemic virus induces a diminished RIG-I mRNA and antiviral cytokine response than seasonal virus in human lung. The suppression of antiviral response and RIG-I mRNA expression was confirmed at the protein level by ELISA and western blot. We performed a time course of RIG-I and interferon-β (IFN-β) mRNA induction by the two viruses. RIG-I and IFN-β induction by OK/09 was of lower amplitude and shorter duration than that caused by PR8. In contrast, the pandemic virus OK/09 caused similar induction of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8 and IL-6, at both the transcriptional and translational level as PR8 in human lung. Differential antiviral responses did not appear to be due to a difference in cellular infectivity as immunohistochemistry showed that both viruses infected alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. These findings show that influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus suppresses anti-viral immune responses in infected human lung through inhibition of viral-mediated induction of the pattern recognition receptor, RIG-I, though proinflammatory cytokine induction was unaltered. This immunosuppression of the host antiviral response by pandemic virus may have contributed to the more serious lung

  6. Immunization of pigs with an attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinant expressing the haemagglutinin of pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2014-04-01

    Pigs can be severely harmed by influenza, and represent important reservoir hosts, in which new human pathogens such as the recent pandemic swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus can arise by mutation and reassortment of genome segments. To obtain novel, safe influenza vaccines for pigs, and to investigate the antigen-specific immune response, we modified an established live-virus vaccine against Aujeszky's disease of swine, pseudorabies virus (PrV) strain Bartha (PrV-Ba), to serve as vector for the expression of haemagglutinin (HA) of swine-origin H1N1 virus. To facilitate transgene insertion, the genome of PrV-Ba was cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome. HA expression occurred under control of the human or murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoters (P-HCMV, P-MCMV), but could be substantially enhanced by synthetic introns and adaptation of the codon usage to that of PrV. However, despite abundant expression, the heterologous glycoprotein was not detectably incorporated into mature PrV particles. Replication of HA-expressing PrV in cell culture was only slightly affected compared to that of the parental virus strain. A single immunization of pigs with the PrV vector expressing the codon-optimized HA gene under control of P-MCMV induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies. The vaccinated animals were protected from clinical signs after challenge with a related swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus, and challenge virus shedding was significantly reduced.

  7. Recurrent plastic bronchitis in a child with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and influenza B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun; Cho, Hwa Jin; Han, Dong Kyun; Choi, Yoo Duk; Yang, Eun Seok; Cho, Young Kuk; Ma, Jae Sook

    2012-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of bronchial casts. It is associated with congenital heart disease or pulmonary disease. In children with underlying conditions such as allergy or asthma, influenza can cause severe plastic bronchitis resulting in respiratory failure. A review of the literature showed nine cases of plastic bronchitis with H1N1 including this case. We report a case of a child with recurrent plastic bronchitis with eosinophilic cast associated with influenza B infection, who had recovered from plastic bronchitis associated with an influenza A (H1N1) virus infection 5 months previously. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of recurrent plastic bronchitis related to influenza viral infection. If patients with influenza virus infection manifest acute respiratory distress with total lung atelectasis, clinicians should consider plastic bronchitis and early bronchoscopy should be intervened. In addition, management for underlying disease may prevent from recurrence of plastic bronchitis.

  8. Genetic Characteristics and Immunogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Isolate from Pig in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Jin Sik; Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Han, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sung Jae; Park, Bong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets. This strain could therefore be a potential vaccine candidate for swine influenza control in commercial farms. PMID:27799877

  9. Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of H1 Influenza Viruses from United States Swine Prior to the Emergence of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine play a role for the evolution of influenza A viruses. Prior to the introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus from humans into pigs, four phylogenetic clusters of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H1 influenza viruses could be found in U.S. swine. Viruses from the classical H1N1 swine lineage...

  10. Detection of Extensive Cross-Neutralization between Pandemic and Seasonal A/H1N1 Influenza Viruses Using a Pseudotype Neutralization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Labrosse, Béatrice; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Porcher, Raphaël; LeGoff, Jérôme; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Simon, François; Molina, Jean-Michel; Clavel, François

    2010-01-01

    Background Cross-immunity between seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses remains uncertain. In particular, the extent that previous infection or vaccination by seasonal A/H1N1 viruses can elicit protective immunity against pandemic A/H1N1 is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Neutralizing titers against seasonal A/H1N1 (A/Brisbane/59/2007) and against pandemic A/H1N1 (A/California/04/2009) were measured using an HIV-1-based pseudovirus neutralization assay. Using this highly sensitive assay, we found that a large fraction of subjects who had never been exposed to pandemic A/H1N1 express high levels of pandemic A/H1N1 neutralizing titers. A significant correlation was seen between neutralization of pandemic A/H1N1 and neutralization of a standard seasonal A/H1N1 strain. Significantly higher pandemic A/H1N1 neutralizing titers were measured in subjects who had received vaccination against seasonal influenza in 2008–2009. Higher pandemic neutralizing titers were also measured in subjects over 60 years of age. Conclusions/Significance Our findings reveal that the extent of protective cross-immunity between seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses may be more important than previously estimated. This cross-immunity could provide a possible explanation of the relatively mild profile of the recent influenza pandemic. PMID:20543954

  11. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk.

  12. Glycosylation on Hemagglutinin Affects the Virulence and Pathogenicity of Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza A Virus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongtao; Bradley, Konrad C.; Cao, Jiyue; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin; Zhou, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    The two glycosylation sites (Asn142 and Asn177) were observed in the HA of most human seasonal influenza A/H1N1 viruses, while none in pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A (pH1N1) viruses. We investigated the effect of the two glycosylation sites on viral virulence and pathogenicity in mice using recombinant pH1N1. The H1N1/144 and H1N1/177 mutants which gained potential glycosylation sites Asn142 and Asn177 on HA respectively were generated from A/Mexico/4486/2009(H1N1) by site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics, the same as the H1N1/144+177 gained both glycosylation sites Asn142 and Asn177. The biological characteristics and antigenicity of the mutants were compared with wild-type pH1N1. The virulence and pathogenicity of recombinants were also detected in mice. Our results showed that HA antigenicity and viral affinity for receptor may change with introduction of the glycosylation sites. Compared with wild-type pH1N1, the mutant H1N1/177 displayed an equivalent virus titer in chicken embryos and mice, and increased virulence and pathogenicity in mice. The H1N1/144 displayed the highest virus titer in mice lung. However, the H1N1/144+177 displayed the most serious alveolar inflammation and pathogenicity in infected mice. The introduction of the glycosylation sites Asn144 and Asn177 resulted in the enhancement on virulence and pathogenicity of pH1N1 in mice, and was also associated with the change of HA antigenicity and the viral affinity for receptor. PMID:23637827

  13. Genetic and pathobiologic characterization of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viruses from a naturally infected swine herd.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Neufeld, James; Kehler, Helen; Emburry-Hyatt, Carissa; Hooper-McGreevy, Kathleen; Kasloff, Samantha; Dalman, Brett; Bystrom, Jan; Alexandersen, Soren; Li, Yan; Pasick, John

    2010-03-01

    Since its initial identification in Mexico and the United States, concerns have been raised that the novel H1N1 influenza virus might cause a pandemic of severity comparable to that of the 1918 pandemic. In late April 2009, viruses phylogenetically related to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were isolated from an outbreak on a Canadian pig farm. This outbreak also had epidemiological links to a suspected human case. Experimental infections carried out in pigs using one of the swine isolates from this outbreak and the human isolate A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009 showed differences in virus recovery from the lower respiratory tract. Virus was consistently isolated from the lungs of pigs infected with A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009, while only one pig infected with A/swine/Alberta/OTH-33-8/2008 yielded live virus from the lung, despite comparable amounts of viral RNA and antigen in both groups of pigs. Clinical disease resembled other influenza virus infections in swine, albeit with somewhat prolonged virus antigen detection and delayed viral-RNA clearance from the lungs. There was also a noteworthy amount of genotypic variability among the viruses isolated from the pigs on the farm. This, along with the somewhat irregular pathobiological characteristics observed in experimentally infected animals, suggests that although the virus may be of swine origin, significant viral evolution may still be ongoing.

  14. Rapid detection and differentiation of swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009) from other seasonal influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiangqin; Wang, Xue; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Zhang, Panhe; Tang, Wei; Ye, Zhiping; Eichelberger, Maryna; Hewlett, Indira

    2012-11-09

    We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings.

  15. Implication of inflammatory macrophages, nuclear receptors and interferon regulatory factors in increased virulence of pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus after host adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses were responsible for numerous severe infections in humans, these viruses do not typically cause corresponding severe disease in mammalian models. However, the generation of a virulent 2009 H1N1 virus following serial lung passage in mice has allowed for...

  16. One-Step Real-Time RT-PCR for Pandemic Influenza A Virus (H1N1) 2009 Matrix Gene Detection in Swine Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the spring of 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus began to spread among humans worldwide. The genomic features of the new pandemic H1N1 were immediately identified: it contained gene segments with ancestors in North American and Eurasian swine influenza virus (SIV) lineages providing the virus a...

  17. The PB2-E627K mutation attenuates viruses containing the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic polymerase.

    PubMed

    Jagger, Brett W; Memoli, Matthew J; Sheng, Zong-Mei; Qi, Li; Hrabal, Rachel J; Allen, Genevieve L; Dugan, Vivien G; Wang, Ruixue; Digard, Paul; Kash, John C; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-05-18

    The swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus emerged in early 2009 and caused the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. The virus has spread efficiently to both the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres and has been associated with over 16,000 deaths. Given the virus's recent zoonotic origin, there is concern that the virus could acquire signature mutations associated with the enhanced pathogenicity of previous pandemic viruses or H5N1 viruses with pandemic potential. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the polymerase PB2 gene at residues 627 and 701 would enhance virulence but found that influenza viruses containing these mutations in the context of the pandemic virus polymerase complex are attenuated in cell culture and mice.

  18. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Head Region of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Play Detrimental Roles in H1N1-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zi-Wei; Yuan, Shuofeng; Poon, Kwok-Man; Wen, Lei; Yang, Dong; Sun, Zehua; Li, Cun; Hu, Meng; Shuai, Huiping; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Chu, Hin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-01-01

    Engaging the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) for killing of virus-infected cells and secretion of antiviral cytokines and chemokines was incorporated as one of the important features in the design of universal influenza vaccines. However, investigation of the ADCC epitopes on the highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinin (HA) head region has been rarely reported. In this study, we determined the ADCC and antiviral activities of two putative ADCC epitopes, designated E1 and E2, on the HA head of a pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in vitro and in a lethal mouse model. Our data demonstrated that sera from the E1-vaccinated mice could induce high ADCC activities. Importantly, the induction of ADCC response modestly decreased viral load in the lungs of H1N1-infected mice. However, the elevated ADCC significantly increased mouse alveolar damage and mortality than that of the PBS-vaccinated group (P < 0.0001). The phenotype was potentially due to an exaggerated inflammatory cell infiltration triggered by ADCC, as an upregulated release of cytotoxic granules (perforin) was observed in the lung tissue of E1-vaccinated mice after H1N1 influenza virus challenge. Overall, our data suggested that ADCC elicited by certain domains of HA head region might have a detrimental rather than protective effect during influenza virus infection. Thus, future design of universal influenza vaccine shall strike a balance between the induction of protective immunity and potential side effects of ADCC. PMID:28377769

  19. Emergence of a new swine H3N2 and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus reassortant in two Canadian animal populations, mink and swine.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Donald; Allard, Véronique; Doyon, Jean-François; Bellehumeur, Christian; Spearman, J Grant; Harel, Josée; Gagnon, Carl A

    2011-12-01

    A swine H3N2 (swH3N2) and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1) influenza A virus reassortant (swH3N2/pH1N1) was detected in Canadian swine at the end of 2010. Simultaneously, a similar virus was also detected in Canadian mink based on partial viral genome sequencing. The origin of the new swH3N2/pH1N1 viral genes was related to the North American swH3N2 triple-reassortant cluster IV (for hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA] genes) and to pH1N1 for all the other genes (M, NP, NS, PB1, PB2, and PA). Data indicate that the swH3N2/pH1N1 virus can be found in several pigs that are housed at different locations.

  20. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for differentiating the Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus from swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Uchida, Yuko; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Tsuda, Tomoyuki; Saito, Takehiko

    2010-12-01

    Since the Pandemic H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) influenza virus emerged in human in 2009, H1N1pdm, classical swine H1, Eurasian avian-like H1, human-like H1 and human-like H3 swine influenza viruses have circulated in pig populations, and avian H9N2 viruses have been isolated in pigs as well. In this study, TaqMan single-step real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays targeting the hemagglutinin gene were developed to differentiate H1N1pdm from other genetic lineages of the H1 subtype and other subtypes of influenza viruses circulating in human and pig populations for veterinary use. H1N1pdm rtRT-PCR detected H1N1pdm RNA and did not cross-react with classical swine H1, Eurasian avian-like H1, human-like H1, human-like H3 swine and avian H9 influenza viruses RNA. Classical swine H1, Eurasian avian-like H1, human-like H1 and H3 and avian H9 rtRT-PCR were reacted exclusively with viral RNA of their respective lineages and subtypes. The results demonstrate that these assays are useful for the diagnosis of the H1N1pdm virus in both human- and animal-health-related fields.

  1. Experimental infection of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with pandemic 2009 H1N1 and swine H1N1 and H3N2 triple reassortant influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Oesterle, Paul T; Poulson, Rebecca L; Jones, Cheryl A; Tompkins, S Mark; Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E

    2013-04-01

    European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. This association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. We inoculated European Starlings and House Sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (H1N1 and H3N2) and one human isolate representing the H1N1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. No viral shedding was observed in House Sparrows, and shedding was minimal and transient in two of 12 (17%) European Starlings. One of these two infected Starlings seroconverted 14 days after inoculation. These results suggest that these two passerine species are minimally susceptible to current influenza viruses in domestic pigs and therefore pose a negligible risk for transmission between or within swine production facilities.

  2. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime

    2014-08-01

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh.

  3. Novel swine-origin influenza virus A (H1N1): the first pandemic of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Chang, Luan-Yin; Shih, Shin-Ru; Shao, Pei-Lan; Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning; Huang, Li-Min

    2009-07-01

    An influenza epidemic was detected in April 2009 at the border between the United States and Mexico. The virus was identified soon after to be a swine-origin influenza virus A (S-OIV A) (H1N1). This virus has an HA gene that is derived from the 1918 swine influenza virus and other genes from human, avian, and Eurasian swine influenza viruses. Clinically, it behaves similarly to seasonal influenza. The only differentiating characteristics are vomiting and diarrhea in a quarter of infected patients, which are rare in seasonal influenza. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared the first pandemic of the 21st century, caused by S-OIV A (H1N1). Vaccination is the only way to dampen this pandemic. Many questions await answers, including the clinical impact of the pandemic, optimal doses of vaccine, and the future destiny of the virus. A breakthrough in vaccinology against influenza is needed to address the recurring influenza pandemic.

  4. Identification of swine H1N2/pandemic H1N1 reassortant influenza virus in pigs, United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed; Khatri, Mahesh; Wang, Leyi; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2012-07-06

    In October and November 2010, novel H1N2 reassortant influenza viruses were identified from pigs showing mild respiratory signs that included cough and depression. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel H1N2 reassortants possesses HA and NA genes derived from recent H1N2 swine isolates similar to those isolated from Midwest. Compared to the majority of reported reassortants, both viruses preserved human-like host restrictive and putative antigenic sites in their HA and NA genes. The four internal genes, PB2, PB1, PA, and NS were similar to the contemporary swine triple reassortant viruses' internal genes (TRIG). Interestingly, NP and M genes of the novel reassortants were derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1. The NP and M proteins of the two isolates demonstrated one (E16G) and four (G34A, D53E, I109T, and V313I) amino acid changes in the M2 and NP proteins, respectively. Similar amino acid changes were also noticed upon incorporation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 NP in other reassortant viruses reported in the U.S. Thus the role of those amino acids in relation to host adaptation need to be further investigated. The reassortments of pandemic H1N1 with swine influenza viruses and the potential of interspecies transmission of these reassortants from swine to other species including human indicate the importance of systematic surveillance of swine population to determine the origin, the prevalence of similar reassortants in the U.S. and their impact on both swine production and public health.

  5. Diversifying Selection Analysis Predicts Antigenic Evolution of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alexandra J.; Das, Suman R.; Wang, Wei; Fitzgerald, Theresa; Pickett, Brett E.; Aevermann, Brian D.; Topham, David J.; Falsey, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although a large number of immune epitopes have been identified in the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein using various experimental systems, it is unclear which are involved in protective immunity to natural infection in humans. We developed a data mining approach analyzing natural H1N1 human isolates to identify HA protein regions that may be targeted by the human immune system and can predict the evolution of IAV. We identified 16 amino acid sites experiencing diversifying selection during the evolution of prepandemic seasonal H1N1 strains and found that 11 sites were located in experimentally determined B-cell/antibody (Ab) epitopes, including three distinct neutralizing Caton epitopes: Sa, Sb, and Ca2 [A. J. Caton, G. G. Brownlee, J. W. Yewdell, and W. Gerhard, Cell 31:417–427, 1982, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(82)90135-0]. We predicted that these diversified epitope regions would be the targets of mutation as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) lineage evolves in response to the development of population-level protective immunity in humans. Using a chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, we identified 10 amino acid sites that significantly differed between the pH1N1 isolates and isolates from the recent 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 influenza seasons. Three of these sites were located in the same diversified B-cell/Ab epitope regions as identified in the analysis of prepandemic sequences, including Sa and Sb. As predicted, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays using human sera from subjects vaccinated with the initial pH1N1 isolate demonstrated reduced reactivity against 2013-2014 isolates. Taken together, these results suggest that diversifying selection analysis can identify key immune epitopes responsible for protective immunity to influenza virus in humans and thereby predict virus evolution. IMPORTANCE The WHO estimates that approximately 5 to 10% of adults and 20 to 30% of children in the world are infected by influenza virus each

  6. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Efficacy of Avian Antibodies Against Influenza Virus H5N1 and H1N1 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huan H.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Park, Hae-Jung; Byun, Young-Ho; Tran, Linh D.; Nguyen, Van D.; Kilgore, Paul E.; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Seong, Baik Lin; Song, Jae Min; Kim, Young Bong; Do, Hoa T.; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Cam V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza poses a serious threat to global health and the world economy. While vaccines are currently under development, passive immunization could offer an alternative strategy to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. Attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been made. However, passive immunization based on mAbs may require a cocktail of mAbs with broader specificity in order to provide full protection since mAbs are generally specific for single epitopes. Chicken immunoglobulins (IgY) found in egg yolk have been used mainly for treatment of infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Because the recent epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain H5N1 has resulted in serious economic losses to the poultry industry, many countries including Vietnam have introduced mass vaccination of poultry with H5N1 virus vaccines. We reasoned that IgY from consumable eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam could provide protection against infections with HPAIV H5N1. Methods and Findings We found that H5N1-specific IgY that are prepared from eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam by a rapid and simple water dilution method cross-protect against infections with HPAIV H5N1 and related H5N2 strains in mice. When administered intranasally before or after lethal infection, the IgY prevent the infection or significantly reduce viral replication resulting in complete recovery from the disease, respectively. We further generated H1N1 virus-specific IgY by immunization of hens with inactivated H1N1 A/PR/8/34 as a model virus for the current pandemic H1N1/09 and found that such H1N1-specific IgY protect mice from lethal influenza virus infection. Conclusions The findings suggest that readily available H5N1-specific IgY offer an enormous source of valuable biological material to combat a potential H5N1 pandemic. In addition, our study provides a proof-of-concept for the approach using virus-specific IgY as affordable

  7. Serologic cross reactivity of avian influenza H1 vaccinated commercial U.S. turkeys to the emergent H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the 2009 human H1N1 influenza virus was identified in turkey breeders in Chile, Canada and the U.S. resulting in infection and production losses. In these studies sera from turkeys vaccinated against avian influenza H1 were tested against the recent human pandemic H1N1 virus. Genetic ana...

  8. Novel reassortant influenza viruses between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and other influenza viruses pose a risk to public health.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weili; Wang, Feibing; Dong, Bin; Ou, Changbo; Meng, Demei; Liu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhen-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is characterized by eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allows for gene reassortment among different IAV subtypes when they co-infect a single host cell simultaneously. Genetic reassortment is an important way to favor the evolution of influenza virus. Novel reassortant virus may pose a pandemic among humans. In history, three human pandemic influenza viruses were caused by genetic reassortment between avian, human and swine influenza viruses. Since 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm/09 H1N1) influenza virus composed of two swine influenza virus genes highlighted the genetic reassortment again. Due to wide host species and high transmission of the pdm/09 H1N1 influenza virus, many different avian, human or swine influenza virus subtypes may reassert with it to generate novel reassortant viruses, which may result in a next pandemic among humans. So, it is necessary to understand the potential threat of current reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses to public health. This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens.

  9. Detection of Novel Reassortant Influenza A (H3N2) and H1N1 2009 Pandemic Viruses in Swine in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Baudon, E; Poon, L L; Dao, T D; Pham, N T; Cowling, B J; Peyre, M; Nguyen, K V; Peiris, M

    2015-09-01

    From May to September 2013, monthly samples were collected from swine in a Vietnamese slaughterhouse for influenza virus isolation and serological testing. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and a novel H3N2 originating from reassortment between A(H1N1)pdm09 and novel viruses of the North American triple reassortant lineage were isolated. Serological results showed low seroprevalence for the novel H3N2 virus and higher seroprevalence for A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In addition, serology suggested that other swine influenza viruses are also circulating in Vietnamese swine.

  10. Detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses using a paired surface plasma waves biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Li-Chen; Chang, Ying-Feng; Li, Ying-Chang; Hsieh, Jo-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Chien

    2010-08-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of conventional rapid test technique for the detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses (S-OIVs), we used a paired surface plasma waves biosensor (PSPWB) based on SPR in conjunction with an optical heterodyne technique. Experimentally, PSPWB showed a 125-fold improvement at least in the S-OIV detection as compared to conventional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the detection limit of the PSPWB for the S-OIV detection was enhanced 250-fold in buffer at least in comparison with that of conventional rapid influenza diagnostic test.

  11. Recipients of vaccine against the 1976 "swine flu" have enhanced neutralization responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    McCullers, Jonathan A; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Allison, Kim J; Branum, Kristen C; Webby, Richard J; Flynn, Patricia M

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND. The world is facing a novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A pandemic scare with a similar influenza virus in 1976 resulted in the vaccination of nearly 45 million persons. We hypothesized that prior receipt of the 1976 "swine flu" vaccine would enhance immune responses to the 2009 novel H1N1 influenza strain. METHODS. A prospective, volunteer sample of employees aged > or = 55 years at a children's cancer hospital in August 2009 was assessed for antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus and the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. RESULTS. Antibody responses by hemagglutination-inhibition assay were high against both the seasonal influenza virus (89.7% had a titer considered seroprotective) and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (88.8% had a seroprotective titer). These antibodies were effective at neutralizing the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus in 68.1% of participants (titer > or = 40), but only 18.1% had detectable neutralizing titers against the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Of 116 participants, 46 (39.7%) received the 1976 "swine flu" vaccine. Receipt of this vaccine significantly enhanced neutralization responses; 8 (17.4%) of 46 vaccine recipients had titers > or = 160, compared with only 3 (4.3%) of 70 who did not receive the vaccine (P = .018 by chi(2) test). CONCLUSIONS. In this cohort, persons aged > or = 55 years had evidence of robust immunity to the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 influenza virus. These antibodies were cross-reactive but nonneutralizing against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Receipt of a vaccine to a related virus significantly enhanced the neutralization capacity of these responses, suggesting homologous vaccination against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus would have a similar effect.

  12. A novel monoclonal antibody effective against lethal challenge with swine-lineage and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongxia; Ye, Jianqiang; Vincent, Amy L; Edworthy, Nicole; Ferrero, Andrea; Qin, Aijian; Perez, Daniel R

    2011-09-01

    The HA protein of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses (H1N1pdm) is antigenically closely related to the HA of classical North American swine H1N1 influenza viruses (cH1N1). Since 1998, through mutation and reassortment of HA genes from human H3N2 and H1N1 influenza viruses, swine influenza strains are undergoing substantial antigenic drift and shift. In this report we describe the development of a novel monoclonal antibody (S-OIV-3B2) that shows high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization titers not only against H1N1pdm, but also against representatives of the α, β, and γ clusters of swine-lineage H1 influenza viruses. Mice that received a single intranasal dose of S-OIV-3B2 were protected against lethal challenge with either H1N1pdm or cH1N1 virus. These studies highlight the potential use of S-OIV-3B2 as effective intranasal prophylactic or therapeutic antiviral treatment for swine-lineage H1 influenza virus infections.

  13. Dietary lactosucrose suppresses influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    KISHINO, Eriko; TAKEMURA, Naho; MASAKI, Hisaharu; ITO, Tetsuya; NAKAZAWA, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lactosucrose (4G-β-D-galactosylsucrose) on influenza A virus infections in mice. First, the effects of lactosucrose on fermentation in the cecum and on immune function were investigated. In female BALB/c mice, lactosucrose supplementation for 6 weeks promoted cecal fermentation and increased both secretory IgA (SIgA) levels in feces and total IgA and IgG2a concentrations in serum. Both the percentage of CD4+ T cells in Peyer’s patches and the cytotoxic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells increased significantly in response to lactosucrose. Next, we examined the effects of lactosucrose on low-dose influenza A virus infection in mice. After 2 weeks of dietary supplementation with lactosucrose, the mice were infected with low-dose influenza A virus. At 7 days post infection, a comparison with control mice showed that weight loss was suppressed, as were viral titers in the lungs. In the spleens of lactosucrose-fed mice, there was an increase in the percentage of NK cells. Lastly, mice fed lactosucrose were challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A virus. The survival rate of these mice was significantly higher than that of mice fed a control diet. These results suggested that lactosucrose supplementation suppresses influenza A virus infection by augmenting innate immune responses and enhancing cellular and mucosal immunity. PMID:26594606

  14. Genetic and Phylogenetic Analyses of Influenza A H1N1pdm Virus in Buenos Aires, Argentina ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, P. R.; Viegas, M.; Valinotto, L. E.; Mistchenko, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (H1N1pdm) spread worldwide in 2009, with 12,080 confirmed cases and 626 deaths occurring in Argentina. A total of 330 H1N1pdm viruses were detected from May to August 2009, and phylogenetic and genetic analyses of 21 complete genome sequences from both mild and fatal cases were achieved with reference to concatenated whole genomes. In addition, the analysis of another 16 hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) gene sequences of Argentinean isolates was performed. The microevolution timeline was assessed and resistance monitoring of an NA fragment from 228 samples throughout the 2009 pandemic peak was performed by sequencing and pyrosequencing. We also assessed the viral growth kinetics for samples with replacements at the genomic level or special clinical features. In this study, we found by Bayesian inference that the Argentinean complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 7 sequences. The HA sequences were related to samples from the northern hemisphere autumn-winter from September to December 2009. The NA of Argentinean sequences belonged to the New York group. The N-4 fragment as well as the hierarchical clustering of samples showed that a consensus sequence prevailed in time but also that different variants, including five H275Y oseltamivir-resistant strains, arose from May to August 2009. Fatal and oseltamivir-resistant isolates had impaired growth and a small plaque phenotype compared to oseltamivir-sensitive and consensus strains. Although these strains might not be fit enough to spread in the entire population, molecular surveillance proved to be essential to monitor resistance and viral dynamics in our country. PMID:21047959

  15. Lower Respiratory Tract Infection of the Ferret by 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Triggers Biphasic, Systemic, and Local Recruitment of Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Jeremy V.; Bagci, Ulas; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Squier, Brendan; Fraig, Mostafa; Uriarte, Silvia M.; Guo, Haixun; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    and death. Well-developed animal models that mimic human disease are essential to understanding the complex relationships of the microenvironment, organ, and system in controlling virus replication, inflammation, and disease progression. Employing the ferret model of H1N1pdm virus infection, we used live imaging and comprehensive histological analyses to address specific hypotheses regarding spatial and temporal relationships that occur during the progression of infection and inflammation. We show the general invasion of neutrophils at the organ level (lung) but also a distinct pattern of localized accumulation within the microenvironment at the site of infection. Moreover, we show that these responses were biphasic within the lung. Finally, live imaging revealed an early and sustained host metabolic response at sites of infection that may reflect damage and repair of tissues in the lungs. PMID:26063430

  16. Prevalence, genetics, and transmissibility in ferrets of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanliang; Chen, Yan; Qiao, Chuanling; He, Xijun; Zhou, Hong; Sun, Yu; Yin, Hang; Meng, Shasha; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Gu, Chunyang; Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Chen, Hualan

    2016-01-12

    Pigs are important intermediate hosts for generating novel influenza viruses. The Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have circulated in pigs since 1979, and human cases associated with EAH1N1 SIVs have been reported in several countries. However, the biologic properties of EAH1N1 SIVs are largely unknown. Here, we performed extensive influenza surveillance in pigs in China and isolated 228 influenza viruses from 36,417 pigs. We found that 139 of the 228 strains from pigs in 10 provinces in China belong to the EAH1N1 lineage. These viruses formed five genotypes, with two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 and A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013, both of which are antigenically and genetically distinct from the current human H1N1 viruses. Importantly, the EAH1N1 SIVs preferentially bound to human-type receptors, and 9 of the 10 tested viruses transmitted in ferrets by respiratory droplet. We found that 3.6% of children (≤10 y old), 0% of adults, and 13.4% of elderly adults (≥60 y old) had neutralization antibodies (titers ≥40 in children and ≥80 in adults) against the EAH1N1 A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus, but none of them had such neutralization antibodies against the EAH1N1 A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013 virus. Our study shows the potential of EAH1N1 SIVs to transmit efficiently in humans and suggests that immediate action is needed to prevent the efficient transmission of EAH1N1 SIVs to humans.

  17. [Monitoring and non pharmacologic measures during a pandemic virus (H1N1) 2009 in Spain].

    PubMed

    Amela Heras, Carmen; Cortes García, Marta; Sierra Moros, María José

    2010-01-01

    Nonpharmacological public health measures are used to reduce exposure of susceptible persons to an infectious agent. Its use is recommended at the start of a pandemic, when the transmission begins, and the characteristics of the new virus are unknown. The National Plan for Preparedness and Response to Pandemic Influenza included the application of these measures, recommending the establishment of an Advisory Committee for implementation, with a multidisciplinary composition. The mandate at this Committee is to analyze the epidemiological and social context in confronting the pandemic and to propose public health measures according to their evolution. This article describes isolation, quarantine and closure of schools measures, aiming to reduce the spread of the virus in the population. It also reviews the epidemiological parameters that help to understand the impact of its implementation. The public health measures reviewed in this paper reduce transmission of the virus, and they have to be considered in response to an influenza pandemic. The impact on health will depend on how quickly they are taken and how people accept and follow them. Response plans should recommend its use, depending on the severity and characteristics of the new pandemic virus. The data analysis should be considered as part of the response, because the information collection and analysis will be key to advising health authorities on what measures should be adopted.

  18. In vitro antiviral activity of favipiravir (T-705) against drug-resistant influenza and 2009 A(H1N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Katrina; Mishin, Vasiliy P; Deyde, Varough M; Furuta, Yousuke; Klimov, Alexander I; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2010-06-01

    Favipiravir (T-705) has previously been shown to have a potent antiviral effect against influenza virus and some other RNA viruses in both cell culture and in animal models. Currently, favipiravir is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. In this study, favipiravir was evaluated in vitro for its ability to inhibit the replication of a representative panel of seasonal influenza viruses, the 2009 A(H1N1) strains, and animal viruses with pandemic (pdm) potential (swine triple reassortants, H2N2, H4N2, avian H7N2, and avian H5N1), including viruses which are resistant to the currently licensed anti-influenza drugs. All viruses were tested in a plaque reduction assay with MDCK cells, and a subset was also tested in both yield reduction and focus inhibition (FI) assays. For the majority of viruses tested, favipiravir significantly inhibited plaque formation at 3.2 muM (0.5 microg/ml) (50% effective concentrations [EC(50)s] of 0.19 to 22.48 muM and 0.03 to 3.53 microg/ml), and for all viruses, with the exception of a single dually resistant 2009 A(H1N1) virus, complete inhibition of plaque formation was seen at 3.2 muM (0.5 microg/ml). Due to the 2009 pandemic and increased drug resistance in circulating seasonal influenza viruses, there is an urgent need for new drugs which target influenza. This study demonstrates that favipiravir inhibits in vitro replication of a wide range of influenza viruses, including those resistant to currently available drugs.

  19. Heterovariant Cross-Reactive B-Cell Responses Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza Virus A Subtype H1N1 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Song; Sasaki, Sanae; Baer, Jane; Khurana, Surender; Golding, Hana; Treanor, John J.; Topham, David J.; Sangster, Mark Y.; Jin, Hong; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Subbarao, Kanta; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The generation of heterovariant immunity is a highly desirable feature of influenza vaccines. The goal of this study was to compare the heterovariant B-cell response induced by the monovalent inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) vaccine with that induced by the 2009 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (sTIV) containing a seasonal influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]) component in young and elderly adults. Methods. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAb) from young and elderly recipients of A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine or sTIV were tested for binding activity to various influenza antigens. Results. In A(H1N1)pdm09 recipients, the PPAb titers against homotypic A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine were similar to those against the heterovariant seasonal A(H1N1) vaccine and were similar between young and elderly subjects. The PPAb avidity was higher among elderly individuals, compared with young individuals. In contrast, the young sTIV recipients had 10-fold lower heterovariant PPAb titers against the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine than against the homotypic seasonal A(H1N1) vaccine. In binding assays with recombinant head and stalk domains of hemagglutinin, PPAb from the A(H1N1)pdm09 recipients but not PPAb from the sTIV recipients bound to the conserved stalk domain. Conclusion. The A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine induced production of PPAb with heterovariant reactivity, including antibodies targeting the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain. PMID:23107783

  20. In silico modification of oseltamivir as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza A virus subtype H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Rachmania, Rizky Archintya; Parikesit, Arli Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research focused on the modification of the functional groups of oseltamivir as neuraminidase inhibitor against influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Interactions of three of the best ligands were evaluated in the hydrated state using molecular dynamics simulation at two different temperatures. The docking result showed that AD3BF2D ligand (N-[(1S,6R)-5-amino-5-{[(2R,3S,4S)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]oxy}-4-formylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl]acetamide-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate) had better binding energy values than standard oseltamivir. AD3BF2D had several interactions, including hydrogen bonds, with the residues in the catalytic site of neuraminidase as identified by molecular dynamics simulation. The results showed that AD3BF2D ligand can be used as a good candidate for neuraminidase inhibitor to cope with influenza A virus subtype H1N1. PMID:25859271

  1. Estimating the fitness advantage conferred by permissive neuraminidase mutations in recent oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Butler, Jeff; Hooper, Kathryn A; Petrie, Stephen; Lee, Raphael; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Reh, Lucia; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Baas, Chantal; Xue, Lumin; Vitesnik, Sophie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; McVernon, Jodie; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G; McCaw, James M; Bloom, Jesse D; Hurt, Aeron C

    2014-04-01

    Oseltamivir is relied upon worldwide as the drug of choice for the treatment of human influenza infection. Surveillance for oseltamivir resistance is routinely performed to ensure the ongoing efficacy of oseltamivir against circulating viruses. Since the emergence of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), the proportion of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses that are oseltamivir resistant (OR) has generally been low. However, a cluster of OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, encoding the neuraminidase (NA) H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutation, was detected in Australia in 2011 amongst community patients that had not been treated with oseltamivir. Here we combine a competitive mixtures ferret model of influenza infection with a mathematical model to assess the fitness, both within and between hosts, of recent OR A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In conjunction with data from in vitro analyses of NA expression and activity we demonstrate that contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more capable of acquiring H275Y without compromising their fitness, than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in 2009. Furthermore, using reverse engineered viruses we demonstrate that a pair of permissive secondary NA mutations, V241I and N369K, confers robust fitness on recent H275Y A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which correlated with enhanced surface expression and enzymatic activity of the A(H1N1)pdm09 NA protein. These permissive mutations first emerged in 2010 and are now present in almost all circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Our findings suggest that recent A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are now more permissive to the acquisition of H275Y than earlier A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, increasing the risk that OR A(H1N1)pdm09 will emerge and spread worldwide.

  2. Erythrocyte binding preference of 16 subtypes of low pathogenic avian influenza and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses.

    PubMed

    Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Lerdsamran, Hatairat; Pooruk, Phisanu; Webster, Robert G; Louisirirotchanakul, Suda; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Nateerom, Kannika; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2010-12-15

    All 16 subtypes of avian influenza viruses of low pathogenicity (LPAIV) as well as their hemagglutinin (H) antigens, and four 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus isolates were assayed for hemagglutinating activity against 5 erythrocyte species: goose, guinea pig, human group O, chicken and horse. Of all viruses and antigens assayed, the highest hemagglutination (HA) titers were obtained with goose and guinea pig erythrocytes. Hemagglutinating activity of replicating LPAIV and LPAIV antigens decreased, in order, with chicken and human group O; meanwhile, horse erythrocytes yielded lowest or no HA titer. Moreover, the 2009 pandemic viruses did not agglutinate both horse and chicken erythrocytes. Our study concluded that goose and guinea pig erythrocytes are the best in HA assay for all subtypes of influenza viruses.

  3. Evolution of human receptor binding affinity of H1N1 hemagglutinins from 1918 to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Nunthaboot, Nadtanet; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Malaisree, Maturos; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Decha, Panita; Sompornpisut, Pornthep; Poovorawan, Yong; Hannongbua, Supot

    2010-08-23

    The recent outbreak of the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza in humans has focused global attention on this virus, which could potentially have introduced a more dangerous pandemic of influenza flu. In the initial step of the viral attachment, hemagglutinin (HA), a viral glycoprotein surface, is responsible for the binding to the human SIA alpha2,6-linked sialopentasaccharide host cell receptor (hHAR). Dynamical and structural properties, based on molecular dynamics simulations of the four different HAs of Spanish 1918 (H1-1918), swine 1930 (H1-1930), seasonal 2005 (H1-2005), and a novel 2009 (H1-2009) H1N1 bound to the hHAR were compared. In all four HA-hHAR complexes, major interactions with the receptor binding were gained from HA residue Y95 and the conserved HA residues of the 130-loop, 190-helix, and 220-loop. However, introduction of the charged HA residues K145 and E227 in the 2009 HA binding pocket was found to increase the HA-hHAR binding efficiency in comparison to the three previously recognized H1N1 strains. Changing of the noncharged HA G225 residue to a negatively charged D225 provides a larger number of hydrogen-bonding interactions. The increase in hydrophilicity of the receptor binding region is apparently an evolution of the current pandemic flu from the 1918 Spanish, 1930 swine, and 2005 seasonal strains. Detailed analysis could help the understanding of how different HAs effectively attach and bind with the hHAR.

  4. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Jagadish; Kang, Kyung-il; Xia, Ming; Elaish, Mohamed; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Torrelles, Jordi B.; Jiang, X.; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV). Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2) chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant) significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs. PMID:27093541

  5. Entrapment of H1N1 Influenza Virus Derived Conserved Peptides in PLGA Nanoparticles Enhances T Cell Response and Vaccine Efficacy in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Jagadish; Kang, Kyung-il; Xia, Ming; Elaish, Mohamed; Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Ouyang, Kang; Dhakal, Santosh; Arcos, Jesus; Torrelles, Jordi B; Jiang, X; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs are believed to be one of the important sources of emerging human and swine influenza viruses (SwIV). Influenza virus conserved peptides have the potential to elicit cross-protective immune response, but without the help of potent adjuvant and delivery system they are poorly immunogenic. Biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (PLGA-NP) based vaccine delivery system enhances cross-presentation of antigens by the professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, Norovirus P particle containing SwIV M2e (extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2) chimera and highly conserved two each of H1N1 peptides of pandemic 2009 and classical human influenza viruses were entrapped in PLGA-NPs. Influenza antibody-free pigs were vaccinated with PLGA-NPs peptides cocktail vaccine twice with or without an adjuvant, Mycobacterium vaccae whole cell lysate, intranasally as mist. Vaccinated pigs were challenged with a virulent heterologous zoonotic SwIV H1N1, and one week later euthanized and the lung samples were analyzed for the specific immune response and viral load. Clinically, pigs vaccinated with PLGA-NP peptides vaccine had no fever and flu symptoms, and the replicating challenged SwIV was undetectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Immunologically, PLGA-NP peptides vaccination (without adjuvant) significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells response in the lung lymphocytes, despite not boosting the antibody response both at pre- and post-challenge. In summary, our data indicated that nanoparticle-mediated delivery of conserved H1N1 influenza peptides induced the virus specific T cell response in the lungs and reduced the challenged heterologous virus load in the airways of pigs.

  6. 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus Causes Disease and Upregulation of Genes Related to Inflammatory and Immune Responses, Cell Death, and Lipid Metabolism in Pigs▿

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Belisle, Sarah E.; Mosier, Derek; Li, Xi; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Liu, Qinfang; Qiao, Chuanling; Elder, Jake; Webby, Richard; Katze, Michael G.; Richt, Juergen A.

    2011-01-01

    There exists limited information about whether adaptation is needed for cross-species transmission of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1). Here, we compare the pathogenesis of two pH1N1 viruses, one derived from a human patient (A/CA/04/09 [CA09]) and the other from swine (A/swine/Alberta/25/2009 [Alb09]), with that of the 1918-like classical swine influenza virus (A/swine/Iowa/1930 [IA30]) in the pig model. Both pH1N1 isolates induced clinical symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, decreased activity, fever, and labored breathing in challenged pigs, but IA30 virus did not cause any clinical symptoms except fever. Although both the pH1N1 viruses and the IA30 virus caused lung lesions, the pH1N1 viruses were shed from the nasal cavities of challenged pigs whereas the IA30 virus was not. Global gene expression analysis indicated that transcriptional responses of the viruses were distinct. pH1N1-infected pigs had an upregulation of genes related to inflammatory and immune responses at day 3 postinfection that was not seen in the IA30 infection, and expression levels of genes related to cell death and lipid metabolism at day 5 postinfection were markedly different from those of IA30 infection. These results indicate that both pH1N1 isolates are more virulent due in part to differences in the host transcriptional response during acute infection. Our study also indicates that pH1N1 does not need prior adaptation to infect pigs, has a high potential to be maintained in naïve swine populations, and might reassort with currently circulating swine influenza viruses. PMID:21900171

  7. Challenge of Pigs with Natural Immunity to H1 and H3 Swine Influenza Virus with Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus raised many questions about the implications for this virus in swine (1). One such question is, does prior exposure to influenza virus confer any protection against the new virus? This report describes a study to evaluate ...

  8. Comparing Deaths from Influenza H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza A: Main Sociodemographic and Clinical Differences between the Most Prevalent 2009 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background. During the 2009 spring epidemic outbreak in Mexico, an important research and policy question faced was related to the differences in clinical profile and population characteristics of those affected by the new H1N1 virus compared with the seasonal virus. Methods and Findings. Data from clinical files from all influenza A deaths in Mexico between April 10 and July 13, 2009 were analyzed to describe differences in clinical and socioeconomic profile between H1N1 and non-H1N1 cases. A total of 324 influenza A mortality cases were studied of which 239 presented rt-PCR confirmation for H1N1 virus and 85 for seasonal influenza A. From the differences of means and multivariate logistic regression, it was found that H1N1 deaths occurred in younger and less educated people, and among those who engage in activities where there is increased contact with other unknown persons (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.56–13.14). Clinical symptoms were similar except for dyspnea, headache, and chest pain that were less frequently found among H1N1 cases. Conclusions. Findings suggest that age, education, and occupation are factors that may be useful to identify risk for H1N1 among influenza cases, and also that patients with early dyspnea, headache, and chest pain are more likely to be non-H1N1 cases. PMID:23346393

  9. Characterization of an influenza A virus in Mexican swine that is related to the A/H1N1/2009 pandemic clade.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Cobián-Güemes, Georgina; de los Dolores Soto-del Río, María; Isa, Pavel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Iván; Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Martínez-Cázares, María Teresa; Romero, Pedro; Velázquez-Salinas, Lauro; Huerta-Lozano, Belem; Nelson, Martha; Montero, Hilda; Vinuesa, Pablo; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2012-11-10

    In the spring of 2009, swine-origin influenza H1N1pdm09 viruses caused the first influenza pandemic of this century. We characterized the influenza viruses that circulated early during the outbreak in Mexico, including one newly sequenced swine H1N1pdm09 virus and three newly sequenced human H1N1pdm09 viruses that circulated in the outbreak of respiratory disease in La Gloria, Veracruz. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the swine isolate (A/swine/Mexico/4/2009) collected in April 2009 is positioned in a branch that is basal to the rest of the H1N1pdm09 clade in two (NP and PA) of the eight single-gene trees. In addition, the concatenated HA-NA and the complete whole-genome trees also showed a basal position for A/swine/Mexico/4/2009. Furthermore, this swine virus was found to share molecular traits with non-H1N1pdm09 H1N1 viral lineages. These results suggest that this isolate could potentially be the first one detected from a sister lineage closely related to the H1N1pdm09 viruses.

  10. Recombinant soluble, multimeric HA and NA exhibit distinctive types of protection against pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Berend Jan; Bodewes, Rogier; de Vries, Robert P; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Bartelink, Willem; van Amerongen, Geert; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-10-01

    The emergence and subsequent swift and global spread of the swine-origin influenza virus A(H1N1) in 2009 once again emphasizes the strong need for effective vaccines that can be developed rapidly and applied safely. With this aim, we produced soluble, multimeric forms of the 2009 A(H1N1) HA (sHA(3)) and NA (sNA(4)) surface glycoproteins using a virus-free mammalian expression system and evaluated their efficacy as vaccines in ferrets. Immunization twice with 3.75-microg doses of these antigens elicited strong antibody responses, which were adjuvant dependent. Interestingly, coadministration of both antigens strongly enhanced the HA-specific but not the NA-specific responses. Distinct patterns of protection were observed upon challenge inoculation with the homologous H1N1 virus. Whereas vaccination with sHA(3) dramatically reduced virus replication (e.g., by lowering pulmonary titers by about 5 log(10) units), immunization with sNA(4) markedly decreased the clinical effects of infection, such as body weight loss and lung pathology. Clearly, optimal protection was achieved by the combination of the two antigens. Our observations demonstrate the great vaccine potential of multimeric HA and NA ectodomains, as these can be easily, rapidly, flexibly, and safely produced in high quantities. In particular, our study underscores the underrated importance of NA in influenza vaccination, which we found to profoundly and specifically contribute to protection by HA. Its inclusion in a vaccine is likely to reduce the HA dose required and to broaden the protective immunity.

  11. A North American H7N3 Influenza Virus Supports Reassortment with 2009 Pandemic H1N1 and Induces Disease in Mice without Prior Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Graham D.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Doll, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reassortment between H5 or H9 subtype avian and mammalian influenza A viruses (IAV) can generate a novel virus that causes disease and transmits between mammals. Such information is currently not available for H7 subtype viruses. We evaluated the ability of a low-pathogenicity North American avian H7N3 virus (A/shorebird/Delaware/22/2006) to reassort with mammalian or avian viruses using a plasmid-based competition assay. In addition to genome segments derived from an avian H7N9 virus, the H7N3 virus reassorted efficiently with the PB2, NA, and M segments from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PH1N1) virus. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the H7N3:PH1N1 (7 + 1) reassortant viruses revealed that the PB2, NA, or M segments from PH1N1 largely do not attenuate the H7N3 virus, whereas the PB1, PA, NP, or NS genome segments from PH1N1 do. Additionally, we assessed the functionality of the H7N3:PH1N1 7 + 1 reassortant viruses by measuring the inflammatory response in vivo. We found that infection with wild-type H7N3 resulted in increased inflammatory cytokine production relative to that seen with the PH1N1 strain and that the increase was further exacerbated by substitution of PH1N1 PB2 but not NA or M. Finally, we assessed if any adaptations occurred in the individually substituted segments after in vivo inoculation and found no mutations, suggesting that PH1N1 PB2, NA, and M are genetically stable in the background of this H7N3 virus. Taking the data together, we demonstrate that a North American avian H7N3 IAV is genetically and functionally compatible with multiple gene segments from the 2009 pandemic influenza virus strain without prior adaptation. IMPORTANCE The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus continues to circulate and reassort with other influenza viruses, creating novel viruses with increased replication and transmission potential in humans. Previous studies have found that this virus can also reassort with H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We now show that

  12. Treatment of Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections in Mice With Antiviral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smee, Donald F.; Julander, Justin G.; Tarbet, E. Bart; Gross, Matthew; Nguyen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A/Mississippi/03/2001 (H1N1) and A/Hong Kong/2369/2009 (H1N1) viruses containing the neuraminidase gene mutation H275Y (conferring resistance to oseltamivir) were adapted to mice and evaluated for suitability as models for lethal infection and antiviral treatment. The viral neuraminidases were resistant to peramivir and oseltamivir carboxylate but sensitive to zanamivir. Similar pattern of antiviral activity were seen in MDCK cell assays. Lethal infections were achieved in mice with the two viruses. Oral oseltamivir at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day bid for 5 d starting at −2 h gave 30 and 60% protection from death, respectively, due to the A/Mississippi/03/2001 infection. Intraperitoneal treatments with zanamivir at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day starting at −2 h gave 60 and 90% protection, respectively. Neither compound at ≤300 mg/kg/day protected mice when treatments began at +24 h. Amantadine was effective at 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day, rimantadine was protective at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested), and ribavirin was active at 30 and 75 mg/kg/day, with survival ranging from 60–100% for oral treatments initiated at −2 h. For treatments begun at +24 h, amantadine was protective at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day, rimantadine showed efficacy at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, and ribavirin was active at 75 mg/kg/day, with 60–100% survival per group. In the A/Hong Kong/2369/2009 infection, oral oseltamivir at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day starting at −2 h gave 50 and 70% protection from death, respectively. These infection models will be useful to study newly discovered anti-influenza virus agents and to evaluate compounds in combination. PMID:22809862

  13. TGF-β Blood Levels Distinguish Between Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Virus Sepsis and Sepsis due to Other Forms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramirez, Erick J; Ortiz-Stern, Alejandro; Martinez-Mejia, Corazon; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rendon, Adrian; Mata-Tijerina, Viviana L; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G

    2015-06-01

    There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. In this study, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and laboratory markers were evaluated to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and their association with fatal cases. Serum samples of consecutive patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and progression to sepsis were evaluated. Serum inflammatory cytokines and routine laboratory tests were performed and correlated with positivity for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the results of three clinical severity scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], CURB-65, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II]). High SOFA scores and some of its individual components, but not CURB-65 or APACHE II scores, correlate with fatal cases regardless of etiology. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, Ca(++), Cl(-), prothrombin times, and partial thromboplastin times discriminate influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. High levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were increased in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients and non-(H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). TGF-β serum levels discern between healthy controls, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients, and patients with other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. TGF-β levels were negatively correlated with SOFA on admission in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients. TGF-β levels are a useful tool for differentiating influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of pneumonia progressing to sepsis.

  14. CD206+ Cell Number Differentiates Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from Seasonal Influenza A Virus in Fatal Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Heidi G.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Melo-de la Garza, Americo; Ceceñas-Falcon, Luis Angel; Rangel-Martinez, Lilia M.; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus affected many persons around the world. There is an urgent need for finding biomarkers to distinguish between influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus. We investigated these possible biomarkers in the lung of fatal cases of confirmed influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Cytokines (inflammatory and anti-inflammatory) and cellular markers (macrophages and lymphocytes subpopulation markers) were analyzed in lung tissue from both influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus. High levels of IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α positive cells were identical in lung tissue from the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal cases when compared with healthy lung tissue (P < 0.05). Increased IL-4+ cells, and CD4+ and CD14+ cells were also found in high levels in both influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus (P < 0.05). Low levels of CD206+ cells (marker of alternatively activated macrophages marker in lung) were found in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 when compared with seasonal influenza virus (P < 0.05), and the ratio of CD206/CD14+ cells was 2.5-fold higher in seasonal and noninfluenza group compared with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, CD206+ cells differentiate between influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus in lung tissue of fatal cases. PMID:25614715

  15. Accumulation of Human-Adapting Mutations during Circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus in Humans in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Elderfield, Ruth A.; Watson, Simon J.; Godlee, Alexandra; Adamson, Walt E.; Thompson, Catherine I.; Dunning, Jake; Fernandez-Alonso, Mirian; Blumenkrantz, Deena; Hussell, Tracy; Zambon, Maria; Openshaw, Peter; Kellam, Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza pandemic that emerged in 2009 provided an unprecedented opportunity to study adaptation of a virus recently acquired from an animal source during human transmission. In the United Kingdom, the novel virus spread in three temporally distinct waves between 2009 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of complete viral genomes showed that mutations accumulated over time. Second- and third-wave viruses replicated more rapidly in human airway epithelial (HAE) cells than did the first-wave virus. In infected mice, weight loss varied between viral isolates from the same wave but showed no distinct pattern with wave and did not correlate with viral load in the mouse lungs or severity of disease in the human donor. However, second- and third-wave viruses induced less alpha interferon in the infected mouse lungs. NS1 protein, an interferon antagonist, had accumulated several mutations in second- and third-wave viruses. Recombinant viruses with the third-wave NS gene induced less interferon in human cells, but this alone did not account for increased virus fitness in HAE cells. Mutations in HA and NA genes in third-wave viruses caused increased binding to α-2,6-sialic acid and enhanced infectivity in human mucus. A recombinant virus with these two segments replicated more efficiently in HAE cells. A mutation in PA (N321K) enhanced polymerase activity of third-wave viruses and also provided a replicative advantage in HAE cells. Therefore, multiple mutations allowed incremental changes in viral fitness, which together may have contributed to the apparent increase in severity of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus during successive waves. IMPORTANCE Although most people infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza virus had mild or unapparent symptoms, some suffered severe and devastating disease. The reasons for this variability were unknown, but the numbers of severe cases increased during successive waves of human infection in the United Kingdom. To determine the causes

  16. In Silico Functional and Structural Characterization of H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Hemagglutinin, 2010-2013, Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moattari, Afagh; Dehghani, Behzad; Khodadad, Nastaran; Tavakoli, Forogh

    2015-06-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is a major virulence factor of influenza viruses and plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. Analysis of amino acid changes, epitopes' regions, glycosylation and phosphorylation sites have greatly contributed to the development of new generations of vaccine. The hemagglutinins of 10 selected isolates, 8 of 2010 and 2 of 2013 samples were sequenced and analyzed by several bioinformatic softwares and the results were compared with those of 3 vaccine isolates. The study detected several amino acid changes related to altered epitopes' sites, modification sites and physico-chemical properties. The results showed some conserved modification sites in HA structure. This study is the first analytical research on isolates obtained from Shiraz, Iran, and our results can be used to better understand the genetic diversity and antigenic variations in Iranian and Asian H1N1 pathogenic strains.

  17. Short communication: antiviral activity of subcritical water extract of Brassica juncea against influenza virus A/H1N1 in nonfat milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, N-K; Lee, J-H; Lim, S-M; Lee, K A; Kim, Y B; Chang, P-S; Paik, H-D

    2014-09-01

    Subcritical water extract (SWE) of Brassica juncea was studied for antiviral effects against influenza virus A/H1N1 and for the possibility of application as a nonfat milk supplement for use as an "antiviral food." At maximum nontoxic concentrations, SWE had higher antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1 than n-hexane, ethanol, or hot water (80°C) extracts. Addition of 0.5mg/mL of B. juncea SWE to culture medium led to 50.35% cell viability (% antiviral activity) for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells infected with influenza virus A/H1N1. Nonfat milk supplemented with 0.28mg/mL of B. juncea SWE showed 39.62% antiviral activity against influenza virus A/H1N1. Thus, the use of B. juncea SWE as a food supplement might aid in protection from influenza viral infection.

  18. Hemagglutinin protein of Asian strains of human influenza virus A H1N1 binds to sialic acid--a major component of human airway receptors.

    PubMed

    Chua, K H; Chai, H C

    2012-03-16

    Hemagglutinin (HA) protein plays an important role in binding the influenza virus to infected cells and therefore mediates infection. Deposited HA sequences of 86 Asian strains of influenza A (H1N1) viruses during the first outbreak were obtained from the NCBI database and compared. Interaction of the HA protein of influenza A (H1N1) virus with the human sialic acid receptor was also studied using bioinformatics. Overall, not more than three single-point amino acid variants/changes were observed in the HA protein region of influenza A (H1N1) virus from Asian countries when a selected group sequence comparison was made. The bioinformatics study showed that the HA protein of influenza A (H1N1) binds to the sialic acid receptor in human airway receptors, possibly key to air-borne infection in humans.

  19. Genetic Characterization of H1N1 and H1N2 Influenza A Viruses Circulating in Ontario Pigs in 2012.

    PubMed

    Grgić, Helena; Costa, Marcio; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A virus isolates detected during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pig herds in Ontario (Canada) in 2012. Six influenza viruses were included in analysis using full genome sequencing based on the 454 platform. In five H1N1 isolates, all eight segments were genetically related to 2009 pandemic virus (A(H1N1)pdm09). One H1N2 isolate had hemagglutinin (HA), polymerase A (PA) and non-structural (NS) genes closely related to A(H1N1)pdm09, and neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), polymerase B1 (PB1), polymerase B2 (PB2), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes originating from a triple-reassortant H3N2 virus (tr H3N2). The HA gene of five Ontario H1 isolates exhibited high identity of 99% with the human A(H1N1)pdm09 [A/Mexico/InDRE4487/09] from Mexico, while one Ontario H1N1 isolate had only 96.9% identity with this Mexican virus. Each of the five Ontario H1N1 viruses had between one and four amino acid (aa) changes within five antigenic sites, while one Ontario H1N2 virus had two aa changes within two antigenic sites. Such aa changes in antigenic sites could have an effect on antibody recognition and ultimately have implications for immunization practices. According to aa sequence analysis of the M2 protein, Ontario H1N1 and H1N2 viruses can be expected to offer resistance to adamantane derivatives, but not to neuraminidase inhibitors.

  20. Outcomes of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: Results from Two International Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Wentworth, Deborah; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Herman-Lamin, Kathy; Cholewinska, Grazyna; David, Daniel; Kuetter, Stefan; Ternesgen, Zelalem; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Lane, H. Clifford; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were initiated: FLU 002 in outpatients and FLU 003 in hospitalized patients. Methods and Findings Between October 2009 and December 2012, adults with influenza-like illness (ILI) were enrolled; outpatients were followed for 14 days and inpatients for 60 days. Disease progression was defined as hospitalization and/or death for outpatients, and hospitalization for >28 days, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) if enrolled from general ward, and/or death for inpatients. Infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. 590 FLU 002 and 392 FLU 003 patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 were enrolled from 81 sites in 17 countries at 2 days (IQR 1–3) and 6 days (IQR 4–10) following ILI onset, respectively. Disease progression was experienced by 29 (1 death) outpatients (5.1%; 95% CI: 3.4–7.2%) and 80 inpatients [death (32), hospitalization >28 days (43) or ICU transfer (20)] (21.6%; 95% CI: 17.5–26.2%). Disease progression (death) for hospitalized patients was 53.1% (26.6%) and 12.8% (3.8%), respectively, for those enrolled in the ICU and general ward. In pooled analyses for both studies, predictors of disease progression were age, longer duration of symptoms at enrollment and immunosuppression. Patients hospitalized during the pandemic period had a poorer prognosis than in subsequent seasons. Conclusions Patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, particularly when requiring hospital admission, are at high risk for disease progression, especially if they are older, immunodeficient, or admitted late in infection. These data reinforce the need for international trials of novel treatment strategies for influenza infection and serve as a reminder of the need to monitor the severity of seasonal and pandemic

  1. Next generation syndromic surveillance: molecular epidemiology, electronic health records and the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Rabadan, Raul; Calman, Neil; Hripcsak, George

    2009-08-22

    In the early phase of the 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic a marked increase in severity and a shift in the age distribution toward younger persons was found, with higher severity reported in patients with pre-existing medical conditions and pregnant women. Consistent with previous pandemics, the age and clinical history of the patients play a critical role in the morbidity and mortality associated with the pandemic virus. This is the first influenza pandemic in the information era, where enormous amounts of information will be available from the pathogen and the patient. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided an enormous amount of information about pathogens in near real time and at relatively low cost. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) provide another enormously rich set of information about patients, which include patient preconditions, previous exposures, immunization history, presenting complaints, duration and severity of illness, treatment history, and geographic location. An infectious disease is a complex interplay between host and pathogen. The morbidity and mortality of a virus depend on the virus, the patient, and the environment. To evaluate and understand the severity of the pandemic virus and to identify the populations at risk of mild or severe, life-threatening illness, it is compulsory to integrate viral and patient information in a fast and accurate way. Both advances in biomedical informatics with the creation of EHRs and molecular techniques provide the framework to achieve these aims.

  2. Experimental Inoculation of Pigs with Pandemic H1N1 2009 Virus and HI Cross-Reactivity with Contemporary Swine Influenza Virus Antisera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March-April 2009, a novel A/H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America. The gene constellation of the virus was demonstrated to be a combination from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before been identified in swine or other species...

  3. Genetic Analysis and Phylogenetic Characterization of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses that found in Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Haruyama, Takahiro; Hayashi, Yuji; Sinoda, Yoshinori; Sonoda, Megumi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Isolation and determination of the nucleotide sequence of hemagglutinin (HA) of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses found in Nagasaki, Japan, were conducted. The alignment results of the predicted HA amino acid sequences of these strains compared to the known global isolates revealed 5 specific amino acid differences located within the antigenic sites. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the majority of the Nagasaki isolates could be classified into 6 phylogenetic clusters. Almost all isolates collected in the early season were classified into cluster I, which apparently originated from A/Nagasaki/HA-6/2009 isolated from a patient who returned from the Philippines. This cluster ceased to spread after November 2009. Between the end of August 2009 and January 2010, 5 new phylogenetic clusters (II-VI) emerged with viruses from different origins, and cluster III continuously advanced until March 2010. These results suggest that the onset of the influenza epidemic in Nagasaki originated from patient(s) who returned from the Philippines, and subsequently, various imported strains from different origins sustained the virus spread. Among the Nagasaki isolates, A/Nagasaki/HA-58/2009 having an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which confers resistance to oseltamivir, was isolated. This is the first report in which an oseltamivir-resistant pandemic H275Y mutant was identified in Nagasaki Prefecture.

  4. Pathogenesis of infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in isogenic guinea pigs after intranasal or intratracheal inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; van Amerongen, Geert; van Run, Peter; Nieuwkoop, Nella J; Ladwig, Mechtild; Banneke, Stefanie; Schaefer, Hubert; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza virus, the ferret model is typically used. To investigate protective immune responses, the use of inbred mouse strains has proven invaluable. Here, we describe a study with isogenic guinea pigs, which would uniquely combine the advantages of the mouse and ferret models for influenza virus infection. Strain 2 isogenic guinea pigs were inoculated with H1N1pdm09 influenza virus A/Netherlands/602/09 by the intranasal or intratracheal route. Viral replication kinetics were assessed by determining virus titers in nasal swabs and respiratory tissues, which were also used to assess histopathologic changes and the number of infected cells. In all guinea pigs, virus titers peaked in nasal secretions at day 2 after inoculation. Intranasal inoculation resulted in higher virus excretion via the nose and higher virus titers in the nasal turbinates than intratracheal inoculation. After intranasal inoculation, infectious virus was recovered only from nasal epithelium; after intratracheal inoculation, it was recovered also from trachea, lung, and cerebrum. Histopathologic changes corresponded with virus antigen distribution, being largely limited to nasal epithelium for intranasally infected guinea pigs and more widespread in the respiratory tract for intratracheally infected guinea pigs. In summary, isogenic guinea pigs show promise as a model to investigate the role of humoral and cell-mediated immunities to influenza and their effect on virus transmission.

  5. Prevalence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Resistant to Oseltamivir in Shiraz, Iran, During 2012 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Khodadad, Nastaran; Moattari, Afagh; Shamsi Shahr Abadi, Mahmoud; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Sarvari, Jamal; Tavakoli, Forough; Pirbonyeh, Neda; Emami, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oseltamivir has been used as a drug of choice for the prophylaxis and treatment of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection across the world. However, the most frequently identified oseltamivir resistant virus, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, exhibit the H275Y substitution in NA gene. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and phylogenetic relationships of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Shiraz, Iran. Patients and Methods: Throat swab samples were collected from 200 patients with influenza-like disease from December 2012 until February 2013. A total of 77 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive strains were identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Oseltamivir resistance was detected using quantal assay and nested-PCR method. The NA gene sequencing was conducted to detect oseltamivir-resistant mutants and establish the phylogeny of the prevalent influenza variants. Results: Our results revealed that A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses present in these samples were susceptible to oseltamivir, and contained 5 site specific mutations (V13G, V106I, V241I, N248D, and N369K) in NA gene. These mutations correlated with increasing expression and enzymatic activity of NA protein in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which were closely related to a main influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cluster isolated around the world. Conclusions: A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, identified in this study in Shiraz, Iran, contained 5 site specific mutations and were susceptible to oseltamivir. PMID:26464773

  6. Seasonal Influenza A H1N1pdm09 Virus and Severe Outcomes: A Reason for Broader Vaccination in Non-Elderly, At-Risk People

    PubMed Central

    Omeñaca, Manuel; Panadero, Carolina; Royo, Laura; Vengoechea, Jose J.; Fandos, Sergio; de Pablo, Francisco; Bello, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent pandemics of influenza A H1N1pdm09 virus have caused severe illness, especially in young people. Very few studies on influenza A H1N1pdm09 in post-pandemic periods exist, and there is no information on the severity of both seasonal influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) from the same season, adjusting for potential confounders, including vaccine. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective observational study of adults hospitalized during the 2014 season with influenza A(H1N1) or A(H3N2). All patients underwent the same diagnostic and therapeutic protocol in a single hospital, including early Oseltamivir therapy. We included 234 patients: 146 (62.4%) influenza A(H1N1) and 88 (37.6%) A(H3N2). A(H1N1) patients were younger (p<0.01), developed more pneumonia (p<0.01), respiratory complications (p = 0.015), ARDS (p = 0.047), and septic shock (p = 0.049), were more frequently admitted to the ICU (p = 0.022), required IMV (p = 0.049), and were less frequently vaccinated (p = 0.008). After adjusting for age, comorbidities, time from onset of illness, and vaccine status, influenza A(H1N1) (OR, 2.525), coinfection (OR, 2.821), and no vaccination (OR, 3.086) were independent risk factors for severe disease. Conclusions Hospitalized patients with influenza A(H1N1) were more than twice as likely to have severe influenza. They were younger and most had not received the vaccine. Our findings suggest that seasonal influenza A(H1N1) maintains some features of pandemic viruses, and recommend wider use of vaccination in younger adult high-risk patients. PMID:27832114

  7. Genomic reassortants of pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic porcine H1 and H3 viruses in swine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kirisawa, Rikio; Ogasawara, Yoshitaka; Yoshitake, Hayato; Koda, Asuka; Furuya, Tokujiro

    2014-11-01

    From 2010 to 2013 in Japan, we isolated 11 swine influenza viruses (SIVs) from pigs showing respiratory symptoms. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that 6 H1N1 viruses originated from the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm 09) virus and the other 5 viruses were reassortants between SIVs and pdm 09 viruses, representing 4 genotypes. Two H1N2 viruses contained H1 and N2 genes originated from Japanese H1N2 SIV together with internal genes of pdm 09 viruses. Additionally, 1 H1N2 virus contained a further NP gene originating from Japanese H1N2 SIV. One H1N1 virus contained only the H1 gene originating from Japanese H1 SIV in a pdm 09 virus background. One H3N2 virus contained H3 and N2 genes originating from Japanese H3N2 SIV together with internal genes of pdm 09 virus. The results indicate that pdm 09 viruses are distributed widely in the Japanese swine population and that several reassortments with Japanese SIVs have occurred.

  8. Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of an Outbreak of Novel H1N1 (Swine Origin) Influenza A Virus among United States Military Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Blair, Patrick J.; Faix, Dennis; Arnold, John; Echols, Sara; Sherman, Sterling S.; Tueller, John E.; Warkentien, Tyler; Sanguineti, Gabriela; Bavaro, Mary; Hale, Braden R.

    2010-01-01

    Background A novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in March 2009 and subsequently caused worldwide outbreaks. The San Diego region was an early focal point of the emerging pandemic. We describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of this novel strain in a military population to assist in future outbreak prevention and control efforts. Methods We performed an epidemiologic evaluation of novel H1N1 virus infections diagnosed in San Diego County among 96,258 local US military beneficiaries. The structured military medical system afforded the ability to obtain precise epidemiologic information on the impact on H1N1 virus infection in a population. The novel H1N1 virus was confirmed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Results From 21 April through 8 May 2009, 761 patients presented with influenza-like illness and underwent rRT-PCR testing. Of these patients, 97 had confirmed novel H1N1 virus infection, with an incidence rate of 101 cases per 100,000 persons. The median age of H1N1 patients with H1N1 virus infection was 21 years (interquartile range, 15–25 years). Fever was a universal symptom in patients with H1N1 virus infection; other symptoms included cough (present in 96% of patients), myalgia or arthralgia (57%), and sore throat (51%). Sixty-eight (70%) of our patients had an identifiable epidemiologic link to another confirmed patient. The largest cluster of cases of H1N1 virus infection occurred on a Navy ship and involved 32 (8%) of 402 crew members; the secondary attack rate was 6%–14%. The rapid influenza testing that was used during this outbreak had a sensitivity of 51% and specificity of 98%, compared with rRT-PCR. Only 1 patient was hospitalized, and there were no deaths. Conclusions A novel H1N1 influenza A virus caused a significant outbreak among military beneficiaries in San Diego County, including a significant cluster of cases onboard a Navy ship. The outbreak described here

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai; Zhang, Peng-Chao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Pan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Hui-Li; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2009-08-21

    As pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses, they have been proposed to be intermediate hosts or mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this study, we reported avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was closely to avian-like H1N1 viruses and seemed to be derived from the European swine H1N1 viruses, which was for the first time reported in China; and the two H1N2 viruses (A/swine/Shanghai/1/07 and A/swine/Guangxi/13/06) were novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses containing genes from the classical swine (HA, NP, M and NS), human (NA and PB1) and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages, which indicted that the reassortment among human, avian, and swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in China and resulted in the generation of new viruses. The isolation of avian-like H1N1 influenza virus originated from the European swine H1N1 viruses, especially the emergence of two novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs serve as intermediate hosts or "mixing vessels", and swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.

  10. Origin of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus as studied by codon usage patterns and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Anhlan, Darisuren; Grundmann, Norbert; Makalowski, Wojciech; Ludwig, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The pandemic of 1918 was caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus, which is a negative strand RNA virus; however, little is known about the nature of its direct ancestral strains. Here we applied a broad genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a wide range of influenza virus genes, in particular the PB1 gene, to gain information about the phylogenetic relatedness of the 1918 H1N1 virus. We compared the RNA genome of the 1918 strain to many other influenza strains of different origin by several means, including relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), and phylogenetic relationship. We found that the PB1 gene of the 1918 pandemic virus had ENC values similar to the H1N1 classical swine and human viruses, but different ENC values from avian as well as H2N2 and H3N2 human viruses. Also, according to the RSCU of the PB1 gene, the 1918 virus grouped with all human isolates and "classical" swine H1N1 viruses. The phylogenetic studies of all eight RNA gene segments of influenza A viruses may indicate that the 1918 pandemic strain originated from a H1N1 swine virus, which itself might be derived from a H1N1 avian precursor, which was separated from the bulk of other avian viruses in toto a long time ago. The high stability of the RSCU pattern of the PB1 gene indicated that the integrity of RNA structure is more important for influenza virus evolution than previously thought.

  11. Protection of human influenza vaccines against a reassortant swine influenza virus of pandemic H1N1 origin using a pig model.

    PubMed

    Arunorat, Jirapat; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Jittimanee, Supattra; Sitthicharoenchai, Panchan; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Poolperm, Pariwat; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2017-02-28

    Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2. All sera were tested with both HI and SN assays using four representative viruses from the surveillance data in 2012 (enH1N1, pdmH1N1, rH1N2 and rH3N2). The results showed no significant differences in clinical signs and macroscopic and microscopic findings among groups. However, all pig sera from vaccinated groups had protective HI titers to the enH1N1, pdmH1N1 and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward and had protective SN titers only to pdmH1N1and rH1N2 at 21DPV onward. SN test results appeared more specific than those of HI tests. All tested sera had no cross-reactivity against the rH3N2. Both studied human subunit vaccines failed to protect and to stop viral shedding with no evidence of serological reaction against rH3N2. SIV surveillance is essential for monitoring a novel SIV emergence potentially for zoonosis.

  12. Evaluation of the antigenic relatedness and cross-protective immunity of the neuraminidase between human influenza A (H1N1) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuhua; Liu, Feng; Zeng, Hui; Sheu, Tiffany; Achenbach, Jenna E; Veguilla, Vic; Gubareva, Larisa V; Garten, Rebecca; Smith, Catherine; Yang, Hua; Stevens, James; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2014-04-01

    To determine the genetic and antigenic relatedness as well as the cross-protective immunity of human H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza virus neuraminidase (NA), we immunized rabbits with either a baculovirus-expressed recombinant NA from A/Beijing/262/95 (BJ/262) H1N1 or A/Hong Kong/483/97 (HK/483) H5N1 virus. Cross-reactive antibody responses were evaluated by multiple serological assays and cross-protection against H5N1 virus challenge was evaluated in mice. In a neuraminidase inhibition (NI) test, the antisera exhibited substantial inhibition of NA activity of the homologous virus, but failed to inhibit the NA activity of heterologous virus. However, these antisera exhibited low levels of cross-reactivity measured by plaque size reduction, replication inhibition, single radial hemolysis, and ELISA assays. Passive immunization with HK/483 NA-specific antisera significantly reduced virus replication and disease, and afforded almost complete protection against lethal homologous virus challenge in mice. However, passive immunization with BJ/262 (H1N1) NA-specific antisera was ineffective at providing cross-protection against lethal H5N1 virus challenge and only slightly reduced weight loss. Substantial amino acid variation among the NA antigenic sites was observed between BJ/262 and HK/483 virus, which was consistent with the lack of cross-reactive NI activity by the antibody and limited cross-protective immunity in mice. These results show a strong correlation between the lack of cross-protective immunity and low structural similarities of NA from a human seasonal H1N1 virus and an avian H5N1 influenza virus.

  13. Evidence of reassortment of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in swine in Argentina: are we facing the expansion of potential epicenters of influenza emergence?

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; Cappuccio, Javier; Sanguinetti, Ramon; Angel, Matthew; Ye, Jianqiang; Sutton, Troy; Dibárbora, Marina; Olivera, Valeria; Craig, Maria I.; Quiroga, Maria; Machuca, Mariana; Ferrero, Andrea; Perfumo, Carlos; Perez, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Pereda et al. (2011) Evidence of reassortment of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in swine in Argentina: are we facing the expansion of potential epicenters of influenza emergence? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(6), 409–412. In this report, we describe the occurrence of two novel swine influenza viruses (SIVs) in pigs in Argentina. These viruses are the result of two independent reassortment events between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm) and human‐like SIVs, showing the constant evolution of influenza viruses at the human–swine interface and the potential health risk of H1N1pdm as it appears to be maintained in the swine population. It must be noted that because of the lack of information regarding the circulation of SIVs in South America, we cannot discard the possibility that ancestors of the H1N1pdm or other SIVs have been present in this part of the world. More importantly, these findings suggest an ever‐expanding geographic range of potential epicenters of influenza emergence with public health risks. PMID:21668680

  14. Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Viruses A (H1N1) during 2007–2009 Influenza Seasons, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Shimabukuro, Kozue; Mochizuki, Kiku; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Shirakura, Masayuki; Kishida, Noriko; Yamashita, Kazuyo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Yumiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Tashiro, Masato

    2010-01-01

    To monitor oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y in neuraminidase (NA) in Japan during 2 influenza seasons, we analyzed 3,216 clinical samples by NA sequencing and/or NA inhibition assay. The total frequency of ORVs was 2.6% (45/1,734) during the 2007–08 season and 99.7% (1,477/1,482) during the 2008–09 season, indicating a marked increase in ORVs in Japan during 1 influenza season. The NA gene of ORVs in the 2007–08 season fell into 2 distinct lineages by D354G substitution, whereas that of ORVs in the 2008–09 season fell into 1 lineage. NA inhibition assay and M2 sequencing showed that almost all the ORVs were sensitive to zanamivir and amantadine. The hemagglutination inhibition test showed that ORVs were antigenetically similar to the 2008–09 vaccine strain A/Brisbane/59/2007. Our data indicate that the current vaccine or zanamivir and amantadine are effective against recent ORVs, but continuous surveillance remains necessary. PMID:20507742

  15. Development of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistance in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, Denmark, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Trebbien, Ramona; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang; Vorborg, Kristine; Franck, Kristina Træholt; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral treatment of immunocompromised patients with prolonged influenza virus infection can lead to multidrug resistance. This study reveals the selection of antiviral resistance mutations in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in an immunocompromised patient during a 6-month period. The patient was treated with two courses of oseltamivir (5 days and 2 months, respectively), with the first course starting at symptom onset, and subsequently zanamivir (2 months and 10 days, respectively). Respiratory samples were investigated by Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS) and, for NGS data, low-frequency-variant-detection analysis was performed. Neuraminidase-inhibition tests were conducted for samples isolated in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In a sample collected 15 days after the end of the first treatment with oseltamivir (Day 20 post-symptom onset), oseltamivir resistance was detected (mutation H275Y with 60.3% frequency by NGS). Day 149 when the patient had almost completed the second zanamivir treatment, mixes of the following resistance mutations were detected; H275Y(65.1%), I223R(9.2%), and E119G(89.6%), accompanied by additional mutations, showing a more complex viral population in the long-term treated patient. Two samples obtained on Day 151 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and nasopharyngeal swab, respectively, showed different mutation profiles, with a higher frequency of antiviral resistance mutations in BAL. The results emphasise the importance of timely antiviral resistance testing both for treatment of individual patients as well as for preventive measures to control the development and transmission of antiviral resistant viruses. PMID:28128091

  16. PA residues in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus enhance avian influenza virus polymerase activity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bussey, Kendra A; Desmet, Emily A; Mattiacio, Jonelle L; Hamilton, Alice; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Bussey, Howard E; Kim, Baek; Dewhurst, Stephen; Takimoto, Toru

    2011-07-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1) is a swine-origin reassortant containing human, avian, and swine influenza genes. We have previously shown that the polymerase complex of the pH1N1 strain A/California/04/2009 (Cal) is highly active in mammalian 293T cells, despite the avian origin of both its PA and PB2. In this study, we analyzed the polymerase residues that are responsible for high pH1N1 polymerase activity in the mammalian host. Characterization of polymerase complexes containing various combinations of Cal and avian influenza virus A/chicken/Nanchang/3-120/01 (H3N2) (Nan) by reporter gene assay indicates that Cal PA, but not PB2, is a major contributing factor to high Cal polymerase activity in 293T cells. In particular, Cal PA significantly activates the otherwise inactive Nan polymerase at 37 and 39°C but not at the lower temperature of 34°C. Further analysis using site-directed mutagenesis showed that the Cal PA residues 85I, 186S, and 336M contribute to enhanced activity of the Cal polymerase. Recombinant A/WSN/33 (H1N1) (WSN) viruses containing Nan NP and polymerase (PA, PB1, PB2) genes with individual mutations in PA at residues 85, 186, and 336 produced higher levels of viral protein than the virus containing wild-type (WT) Nan PA. Interestingly, compared to the WT, the virus containing the 85I mutation grew faster in human A549 cells and the 336M mutation most significantly enhanced pathogenicity in a mouse model, among the three PA mutations tested. Our results suggest that multiple mutations in PA, which were rarely present in previous influenza isolates, are involved in mammalian adaptation and pathogenicity of the 2009 pH1N1.

  17. Inflammatory profiles in severe pneumonia associated with the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus isolated in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Joaquín; Torres, Martha; Romo, Javier; Torres, Diana; Jiménez, Luis; Ramírez, Gustavo; Cruz, Alfredo; Espinosa, Enrique; Herrera, Teresa; Buendía, Ivette; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; González, Yolanda; Bobadilla, Karen; Hernández, Fernando; García, Jorge; Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Sada, Eduardo; Manjarrez, María E; Cabello, Carlos; Kawa, Simón; Zlotnik, Albert; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2011-11-01

    The immune mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe pneumonia associated with the A/H1N1 virus are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine whether severe A/H1N1-associated pneumonia can be explained by the emergence of particular T-cell subsets and the cytokines/chemokines they produced, as well as distinct responses to infection. T-cell subset distribution and cytokine/chemokine levels in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were determined in patients with severe A/H1N1 infection, asymptomatic household contacts, and healthy controls. Cytokine and chemokine production was also evaluated after in vitro infection with seasonal H1N1 and pandemic A/H1N1 strains. We found an increase in the frequency of peripheral Th2 and Tc2 cells in A/H1N1 patients. A trend toward increased Tc1 cells was observed in household contacts. Elevated serum levels of IL-6, CXCL8, and CCL2 were found in patients and a similar cytokine/chemokine profile was observed in BAL, in which CCL5 was also increased. Infection assays revealed that both strains induce the production of several cytokines/chemokines at 24 and 72 h, however, IL-6, CCL3, and CXCL8 were strongly up-regulated in 72-h cultures in presence of the A/H1N1 virus. Several inflammatory mediators are up-regulated in peripheral and lung samples from A/H1N1-infected patients who developed severe pneumonia. In addition, the A/H1N1 strain induces higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than the seasonal H1N1 strain. These findings suggest that it is possible to identify biomarkers of severe pneumonia and also suggest the therapeutic use of immunomodulatory drugs in patients with severe pneumonia associated with A/H1N1 infection.

  18. H5N1 hybrid viruses bearing 2009/H1N1 virus genes transmit in guinea pigs by respiratory droplet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Qianyi; Kong, Huihui; Jiang, Yongping; Gao, Yuwei; Deng, Guohua; Shi, Jianzhong; Tian, Guobin; Liu, Liling; Liu, Jinxiong; Guan, Yuntao; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2013-06-21

    In the past, avian influenza viruses have crossed species barriers to trigger human pandemics by reassorting with mammal-infective viruses in intermediate livestock hosts. H5N1 viruses are able to infect pigs, and some of them have affinity for the mammalian type α-2,6-linked sialic acid airway receptor. Using reverse genetics, we systematically created 127 reassortant viruses between a duck isolate of H5N1, specifically retaining its hemagglutinin (HA) gene throughout, and a highly transmissible, human-infective H1N1 virus. We tested the virulence of the reassortants in mice as a correlate for virulence in humans and tested transmissibility in guinea pigs, which have both avian and mammalian types of airway receptor. Transmission studies showed that the H1N1 virus genes encoding acidic polymerase and nonstructural protein made the H5N1 virus transmissible by respiratory droplet between guinea pigs without killing them. Further experiments implicated other H1N1 genes in the enhancement of mammal-to-mammal transmission, including those that encode nucleoprotein, neuraminidase, and matrix, as well as mutations in H5 HA that improve affinity for humanlike airway receptors. Hence, avian H5N1 subtype viruses do have the potential to acquire mammalian transmissibility by reassortment in current agricultural scenarios.

  19. Single-step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and differentiation of the 2009 (H1N1) influenza A virus pandemic in Thai swine populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently emerged H1N1 Influenza A virus (pandemic 1 H1N1: pH1N1) with a Swine influenza virus (SIV) genetic background spread globally from human-to-human causing the first influenza virus pandemic of the 21st century. In a short period reverse zoonotic cases in pigs followed by a wide spread of t...

  20. Evolution of influenza A virus nucleoprotein genes: implications for the origins of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Gorman, O T; Bean, W J; Kawaoka, Y; Donatelli, I; Guo, Y J; Webster, R G

    1991-07-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of 52 published and 37 new nucleoprotein (NP) gene sequences addressed the evolution and origin of human and swine influenza A viruses. H1N1 human and classical swine viruses (i.e., those related to Swine/Iowa/15/30) share a single common ancestor, which was estimated to have occurred in 1912 to 1913. From this common ancestor, human and classical swine virus NP genes have evolved at similar rates that are higher than in avian virus NP genes (3.31 to 3.41 versus 1.90 nucleotide changes per year). At the protein level, human virus NPs have evolved twice as fast as classical swine virus NPs (0.66 versus 0.34 amino acid change per year). Despite evidence of frequent interspecies transmission of human and classical swine viruses, our analysis indicates that these viruses have evolved independently since well before the first isolates in the early 1930s. Although our analysis cannot reveal the original host, the ancestor virus was avianlike, showing only five amino acid differences from the root of the avian virus NP lineage. The common pattern of relationship and origin for the NP and other genes of H1N1 human and classical swine viruses suggests that the common ancestor was an avian virus and not a reassortant derived from previous human or swine influenza A viruses. The new avianlike H1N1 swine viruses in Europe may provide a model for the evolution of newly introduced avian viruses into the swine host reservoir. The NPs of these viruses are evolving more rapidly than those of human or classical swine viruses (4.50 nucleotide changes and 0.74 amino acid change per year), and when these rates are applied to pre-1930s human and classical swine virus NPs, the predicted date of a common ancestor is 1918 rather than 1912 to 1913. Thus, our NP phylogeny is consistent with historical records and the proposal that a short time before 1918, a new H1N1 avianlike virus entered human or swine hosts (O. T. Gorman, R. O. Donis, Y. Kawaoka, and R. G. Webster

  1. TGF-β Blood Levels Distinguish Between Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Virus Sepsis and Sepsis due to Other Forms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rendón-Ramirez, Erick J.; Ortiz-Stern, Alejandro; Martinez-Mejia, Corazon; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Rendon, Adrian; Mata-Tijerina, Viviana L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. In this study, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and laboratory markers were evaluated to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and their association with fatal cases. Serum samples of consecutive patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and progression to sepsis were evaluated. Serum inflammatory cytokines and routine laboratory tests were performed and correlated with positivity for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the results of three clinical severity scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], CURB-65, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II]). High SOFA scores and some of its individual components, but not CURB-65 or APACHE II scores, correlate with fatal cases regardless of etiology. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, Ca++, Cl−, prothrombin times, and partial thromboplastin times discriminate influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. High levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were increased in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients and non-(H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). TGF-β serum levels discern between healthy controls, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients, and patients with other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. TGF-β levels were negatively correlated with SOFA on admission in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients. TGF-β levels are a useful tool for differentiating influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of pneumonia progressing to sepsis. PMID:25923384

  2. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection and avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Korteweg, Christine; Gu, Jiang

    2010-08-01

    The 2009 H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses are newly (re-) emerged influenza A viruses (2009 A(H1N1) and A(H5N1), respectively) that have recently posed tremendous health threats in many regions worldwide. With the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza A, the world witnessed the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The disease has rapidly spread across the entire globe, and has resulted in hundreds of thousands of cases with confirmed infection. Although characterized by high transmissibility, the virulence and fatality of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus have thus far remained relatively low. The reverse holds true for A(H5N1) influenza; at a fatality rate that exceeds 60%, it is known to cause severe damage to the human respiratory system, but is not presently capable of efficient transmission from human to human. Apart from the clear differences between the two types of influenza, there are some significant similarities that warrant attention. In particular, the more severe and fatal 2009 A(H1N1) influenza cases have shown symptoms similar to those reported in cases of A(H5N1) influenza. Histopathological findings for these cases, to the extent available, also appear to have similarities for both diseases in terms of damage and severity. Here we review important recent publications in this area, and we discuss some of the key commonalities and contrasts between the two influenza A types in terms of their biology, origins, clinical features, pathology and pathogenesis, and receptors and transmissibility.

  3. TNF, IL6, and IL1B Polymorphisms Are Associated with Severe Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger; Camarena, Ángel Eduardo; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. Most patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus had increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; including interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes are associated with the severity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Methods 145 patients with influenza A (H1N1) (pA/H1N1), 133 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and 360 asymptomatic healthy contacts (AHCs) were included. Eleven SNPs were genotyped in six genes (TNF, LT, IL1B, IL6, CCL1, and IL8) using real-time PCR; the ancestral genotype was used for comparison. Genotypes were correlated with 27 clinical severity variables. Ten cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-4) were measured on a Luminex 100. Results The IL6 rs1818879 (GA) heterozygous genotype was associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) virus infection (odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05–11.56), and two IL1B SNPs, rs16944 AG and rs3136558 TC, were associated with a decreased risk of infection (OR = 0.52 and OR = 0.51, respectively). Genetic susceptibility was determined (pA/H1N1 vs. AHC): the LTA rs909253 TC heterozygous genotype conferred greater risk (OR = 1.9), and a similar association was observed with the IL1B rs3136558 CC genotype (OR = 1.89). Additionally, severely ill patients were compared with moderately ill patients. The TNF-238 GA genotype was associated with an increased risk of disease severity (OR = 16.06, p = 0.007). Compared with ILIs, patients with severe pA/H1N1 infections exhibited increased serum IL-5 (p <0.001) and IL-6 (p  =  0.007) levels. Conclusions The TNF gene was associated with disease severity, whereas IL1B and IL6 SNPs were

  4. Canine susceptibility to human influenza viruses (A/pdm 09H1N1, A/H3N2 and B).

    PubMed

    Song, Daesub; Kim, Hyekwon; Na, Woonsung; Hong, Minki; Park, Seong-Jun; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Yeom, Minjoo; Jeong, Dae Gwin; An, Dong-Jun; Kim, Jeong-Ki

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the infectivity and transmissibility of the human seasonal H3N2, pandemic (pdm) H1N1 (2009) and B influenza viruses in dogs. Dogs inoculated with human seasonal H3N2 and pdm H1N1 influenza viruses exhibited nasal shedding and were seroconverted against the viruses; this did not occur in the influenza B virus-inoculated dogs. Transmission of human H3N2 virus between dogs was demonstrated by observing nasal shedding and seroconversion in naïve dogs after contact with inoculated dogs. The seroprevalence study offered evidence of human H3N2 infection occurring in dogs since 2008. Furthermore, serological evidence of pdm H1N1 influenza virus infection alone and in combination with canine H3N2 virus was found in the serum samples collected from field dogs during 2010 and 2011. Our results suggest that dogs may be hosts for human seasonal H3N2 and pdm H1N1 influenza viruses.

  5. Serologic cross reactivity of serum samples from avian influenza vaccinated commercial U.S. turkeys to the emergent H1N1 influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the 2009 human H1N1 influenza virus was identified in turkey breeders in Chile and Canada resulting in infection and egg production losses. In the U.S., vaccination of turkeys against avian influenza may include H1 and H3 viruses also isolated from swine. We tested whether sera from turk...

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Highly Virulent Triple Reassortant H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus in the Midwest of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An H1N1 influenza A virus, A/Swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07) was isolated from a herd in Kansas that was suffering severe respiratory disease and 10% mortality. A pig challenge model was developed to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission capacity of the KS07 virus. The pathogenicity and trans...

  7. PD-L1 Expression Induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Impairs the Human T Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8+ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8+ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. PMID:24187568

  8. PD-L1 expression induced by the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus impairs the human T cell response.

    PubMed

    Valero-Pacheco, Nuriban; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Mora-Velandia, Luz María; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Sánchez-Torres, Luvia Enid; Isibasi, Armando; Bonifaz, Laura; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    PD-L1 expression plays a critical role in the impairment of T cell responses during chronic infections; however, the expression of PD-L1 on T cells during acute viral infections, particularly during the pandemic influenza virus (A(H1N1)pdm09), and its effects on the T cell response have not been widely explored. We found that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus induced PD-L1 expression on human dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, as well as PD-1 expression on T cells. PD-L1 expression impaired the T cell response against A(H1N1)pdm09 by promoting CD8⁺ T cell death and reducing cytokine production. Furthermore, we found increased PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells from influenza-infected patients from the first and second 2009 pandemic waves in Mexico City. PD-L1 expression on CD8⁺ T cells correlated inversely with T cell proportions in patients infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Therefore, PD-L1 expression on DCs and T cells could be associated with an impaired T cell response during acute infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

  9. Systematic review of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus shedding: duration is affected by severity, but not age.

    PubMed

    Fielding, James E; Kelly, Heath A; Mercer, Geoffry N; Glass, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Duration of viral shedding following infection is an important determinant of disease transmission, informing both control policies and disease modelling. We undertook a systematic literature review of the duration of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus shedding to examine the effects of age, severity of illness and receipt of antiviral treatment. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database using the keywords 'H1N1', 'pandemic', 'pandemics', 'shed' and 'shedding'. Any study of humans with an outcome measure of viral shedding was eligible for inclusion in the review. Comparisons by age, degree of severity and antiviral treatment were made with forest plots. The search returned 214 articles of which 22 were eligible for the review. Significant statistical heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. The mean duration of viral shedding generally increased with severity of clinical presentation, but we found no evidence of longer shedding duration of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among children compared with adults. Shorter viral shedding duration was observed when oseltamivir treatment was administered within 48 hours of illness onset. Considerable differences in the design and analysis of viral shedding studies limit their comparison and highlight the need for a standardised approach. These insights have implications not only for pandemic planning, but also for informing responses and study of seasonal influenza now that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has become established as the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus.

  10. Introduction of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Into South Africa: Clinical Presentation, Epidemiology, and Transmissibility of the First 100 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Brett N.; Timothy, Geraldine A.; Cohen, Cheryl; Tempia, Stefano; Huma, Mmampedi; Blumberg, Lucille; Naidoo, Dhamari; Cengimbo, Ayanda; Schoub, Barry D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. We documented the introduction of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) into South Africa and describe its clinical presentation, epidemiology, and transmissibility. Methods. We conducted a prospective descriptive study of the first 100 laboratory-confirmed cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 infections identified through active case finding and surveillance. Infected patients and the attending clinicians were interviewed, and close contacts were followed up to investigate household transmission. Findings. The first case was confirmed on 14 June 2009, and by 15 July 2009, 100 cases were diagnosed. Forty-two percent of patients reported international travel within 7 days prior to onset of illness. Patients ranged in age from 4 to 70 years (median age, 21.5 years). Seventeen percent of household contacts developed influenza-like illness, and 10% of household contacts had laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. We found a mean serial interval (± SD) of 2.3 ± 1.3 days (range, 1–5 days) between successive laboratory-confirmed cases in the transmission chain. Conclusions. A(H1N1)pdm09 established itself rapidly in South Africa. Transmissibility of the virus was comparable to observations from outside of Africa and to seasonal influenza virus strains. PMID:23169962

  11. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean Region: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Magali; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dellagi, Koussay

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN) was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. Methodology We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households). Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. Principal Findings We found that i) Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global “clade 7” but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii) D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii) Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv) Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v) Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. Conclusions Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of collecting

  12. Cross-reactive T cells are involved in rapid clearance of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Weinfurter, Jason T; Brunner, Kevin; Capuano, Saverio V; Li, Chengjun; Broman, Karl W; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Friedrich, Thomas C

    2011-11-01

    In mouse models of influenza, T cells can confer broad protection against multiple viral subtypes when antibodies raised against a single subtype fail to do so. However, the role of T cells in protecting humans against influenza remains unclear. Here we employ a translational nonhuman primate model to show that cross-reactive T cell responses play an important role in early clearance of infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm). To "prime" cellular immunity, we first infected 5 rhesus macaques with a seasonal human H1N1 isolate. These animals made detectable cellular and antibody responses against the seasonal H1N1 isolate but had no neutralizing antibodies against H1N1pdm. Four months later, we challenged the 5 "primed" animals and 7 naive controls with H1N1pdm. In naive animals, CD8+ T cells with an activated phenotype (Ki-67+ CD38+) appeared in blood and lung 5-7 days post inoculation (p.i.) with H1N1pdm and reached peak magnitude 7-10 days p.i. In contrast, activated T cells were recruited to the lung as early as 2 days p.i. in "primed" animals, and reached peak frequencies in blood and lung 4-7 days p.i. Interferon (IFN)-γ Elispot and intracellular cytokine staining assays showed that the virus-specific response peaked earlier and reached a higher magnitude in "primed" animals than in naive animals. This response involved both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, "primed" animals cleared H1N1pdm infection significantly earlier from the upper and lower respiratory tract than the naive animals did, and before the appearance of H1N1pdm-specific neutralizing antibodies. Together, our results suggest that cross-reactive T cell responses can mediate early clearance of an antigenically novel influenza virus in primates. Vaccines capable of inducing such cross-reactive T cells may help protect humans against severe disease caused by newly emerging pandemic influenza viruses.

  13. Substitution of lysine at 627 position in PB2 protein does not change virulence of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huachen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Pui; Song, Wenjun; Zheng, Zuoyi; Chen, Rirong; Guo, Kunyuan; Zhang, Taixing; Peiris, Joseph S.M.; Chen, Honglin; Guan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    A lysine at the 627 position (627K) of PB2 protein of influenza virus has been recognized as a determinant for host adaptation and virulent element for some influenza viruses. While seasonal influenza viruses exclusively contained 627K, the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 possessed a glutamic acid (627E), even after circulation in humans for more than 6 months. To explore the potential role of E627K substitution in PB2 in the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, we compared pathogenicity and growth properties between a recombinant virus containing 627K PB2 gene and the parental A/California/4/2009 strain containing 627E. Our results showed that substitution of 627K in PB2 gene does not confer higher virulence and growth rate for the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in mice and cell culture respectively, suggesting 627K is not required for human adaptation of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. PMID:20303563

  14. A review of the dynamics and severity of the pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus on Réunion island, 2009.

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Renault, P; Jaffar-Bandjee, M C; Gaüzère, B A; Lagrange-Xélot, M; Fouillet, A; Poubeau, P; Winer, A; Bourde, A; Staikowsky, F; Morbidelli, P; Rachou, E; Thouillot, F; Michault, A; Filleul, L

    2010-04-01

    On Reunion Island, in response to the threat of emergence of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, we implemented enhanced influenza surveillance from May 2009 onwards in order to detect the introduction of pandemic H1N1 influenza and to monitor its spread and impact on public health. The first 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus was identified in Réunion on July 5, 2009, in a traveller returning from Australia; seasonal influenza B virus activity had already been detected. By the end of July, a sustained community pandemic virus transmission had been established. Pandemic H1N1 influenza activity peaked during week 35 (24-30 August 2009), 4 weeks after the beginning of the epidemic. The epidemic ended on week 38 and had lasted 9 weeks. During these 9 weeks, an estimated 66 915 persons who consulted a physician could have been infected by the influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, giving a cumulative attack rate for consultants of 8.26%. Taking into account the people who did not consult, the total number of infected persons reached 104 067, giving a cumulative attack rate for symptomatics of 12.85%. The crude fatality rate (CFR) for influenza A(H1N1)2009 and the CFR for acute respiratory infection was 0.7/10 000 cases. Our data show that influenza pandemic did not have a health impact on overall mortality on Réunion Island. These findings demonstrate the value of an integrated epidemiological, virological and hospital surveillance programme to monitor the scope of an epidemic, identify circulating strains and provide some guidance to public health control measures.

  15. [Evolution of the virus pandemic flu (H1N1) 2009 in the autonomous community of La Rioja].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ochoa, Eva María; Quiñones Rubio, Carmen; Lezaún Larumbe, Maria Eugenia; Blanco Martínez, Angela; Perucha González, Milagros

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The aim of this study has been to analyze the development of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in La Rioja autonomous (cases in primary healthcare and cases hospitalized). METHODS. We have included all cases with 2009 H1N1 influenza from week 28-2009 to 3-2010. The main information was collected through Primary Healthcare databases (OMI), lists of Preventive Medicine Hospital Departments, reference laboratory and individual standardized forms. This information was analyzed and described according to week, sex, age, comorbidities, clinical development and medical complication. We explore the association of to antiviral treatment and risk factors. This association was assessed using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Adjustment for confounders was performed using unconditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS. From 29-2009 week to 3-2010 week, a total of 7096 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) cases were notified from Primary Healthcare and 111 laboratory confirmed severe cases were admitted to hospital. Five cases were admitted to an ICU (4,5%) and 2 cases died. All this patients had comorbidities. None of children and pregnant female were admitted to an ICU. CONCLUSIONS. Children and young person have been population with more cases of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009. Clinical evolution of pandemic in the majority cases in La Rioja, has been mild.

  16. Detection of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus by a highly sensitive quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Mao, Guoliang; Liu, Yujun; Chen, Yuan-Chuan; Liu, Chengjing; Luo, Jun; Li, Xihan; Zen, Ke; Pang, Yanjun; Wu, Jianguo; Liu, Fenyong

    2013-02-01

    A quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been widely used successfully for detection and monitoring of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus. In this study, we report the design and characterization of a novel set of primers to be used in a qRT-PCR assay for detecting the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. The newly designed primers target three regions that are highly conserved among the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and are different from those targeted by the WHO-recommended primers. The qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers are highly specific, and as specific as the WHO-recommended primers for detecting pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and other influenza viruses including influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses of human, swine, and raccoon dog origin. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers appeared to be at least 10-fold more sensitive than those with the WHO-recommended primers as the detection limits of the assays with our primers and the WHO-recommended primers were 2.5 and 25 copies of target RNA per reaction, respectively. When tested with 83 clinical samples, 32 were detected to be positive using the qRT-PCR assays with our designed primers, while only 25 were positive by the assays with the WHO-recommended primers. These results suggest that the qRT-PCR system with the newly designed primers represent a highly sensitive assay for diagnosis of the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus infection.

  17. Seasonal and pandemic influenza H1N1 viruses induce differential expression of SOCS-1 and RIG-I genes and cytokine/chemokine production in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Martínez, Gustavo; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Jiménez-Alvarez, Luis; Espinosa, Enrique; Ortíz-Quintero, Blanca; Santos-Mendoza, Teresa; Herrera, María Teresa; Canché-Pool, Elsy; Mendoza, Criselda; Bañales, José L.; García-Moreno, Sara A.; Morán, Juan; Cabello, Carlos; Orozco, Lorena; Aguilar-Delfín, Irma; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero, Sandra; Suratt, Benjamin T.; Selman, Moisés; Zúñiga, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with pandemic (pdm) A/H1N1 virus induces high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in blood and lungs of experimental animals and humans. Methods To compare the involvement of seasonal A/PR/8/34 and pdm A/H1N1 virus strains in the regulation of inflammatory responses, we analyzed the changes in the whole-genome expression induced by these strains in macrophages and A549 epithelial cells. We also focused on the functional implications (cytokine production) of the differential induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1, SOCS-3, retinoid-inducible gene (RIG)-I and interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1) genes by these viral strains in early stages of the infection. Results We identified 130 genes differentially expressed by pdm A/H1N1 and A/PR/8/34 infections in macrophages. mRNA levels of SOCS-1 and RIG-I were up-regulated in macrophages infected with the A/PR/8/34 but not with pdm A/H1N1 virus. mRNA levels of SOCS-3 and IFNAR1 induced by A/PR/8/34 and pdm A/H1N1 strains in macrophages, as well as in A549 cells were similar. We found higher levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, CCL3, CCL5, CCL4 and CXCL8 (p<0.05) in supernatants from cultures of macrophages infected with the pdm A/H1N1 virus compared to those infected with the A/PR/8/34 strain, coincident with the lack of SOCS-1 and RIG-I expression. In contrast, levels of INF-α were higher in cultures of macrophages 48 h after infection with the A/PR/8/34 strain than with the pdm A/H1N1 virus. Conclusions These findings suggest that factors inherent to the pdm A/H1N1 viral strain may increase the production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting SOCS-1 and modifying the expression of antiviral immunity-related genes, including RIG-I, in human macrophages. PMID:23434273

  18. The prevalance of respiratory viruses among healthcare workers serving pilgrims in Makkah during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Hussain, Raheela; Alomar, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high risk of acquiring respiratory infections, healthcare workers who treat pilgrims at Hajj have not been studied in previous research on respiratory diseases during Hajj. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses among healthcare workers who treated pilgrims during Hajj 2009, the year of the influenza A H1N1 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was performed just before and after Hajj (25-29 November, 2009). Nasal and throat swabs were tested for 18 respiratory virus types and subtypes. A total of 184 healthcare workers were examined. Most were men (85%) with an average age of 41 years. Before the Hajj, rates of seasonal influenza vaccination were higher (51%) than rates of pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccination (22%). After the Hajj, participants reported high rates of maintaining hand hygiene (98%), cough etiquette (89%), and wearing a face mask (90%). Among all the viruses tested, only two were detected: rhinovirus was detected in 12.6% and Coronavirus 229E in 0.6%. Rhinovirus was detected in 21% of those who had respiratory symptoms during Hajj. Influenza A (including H1N1), influenza B. respiratory syncytial virus, other coronaviruses, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, and human bocavirus were not detected. The finding of high rates of rhinovirus infection corresponds to their frequent occurrence in adults. None of the participants had influenza A H1N1 2009, possibly because it was also infrequent among the 2009 pilgrims.

  19. Antigenic variation of H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza viruses in Japan and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Nguyen, Tung; Ngo, Long Thanh; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Uchida, Yuko; Pham, Vu Phong; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Kasuo, Shizuko; Shimada, Shinichi; Yamashita, Yasutaka; Goto, Kaoru; Kubo, Hideyuki; Le, Vu Tri; Van Vo, Hung; Do, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Matsuu, Aya; Saito, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    The antigenicity of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin is responsible for vaccine efficacy in protecting pigs against swine influenza virus (SIV) infection. However, the antigenicity of SIV strains currently circulating in Japan and Vietnam has not been well characterized. We examined the antigenicity of classical H1 SIVs, pandemic A(H1N1)2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) viruses, and seasonal human-lineage SIVs isolated in Japan and Vietnam. A hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was used to determine antigenic differences that differentiate the recent Japanese H1N2 and H3N2 SIVs from the H1N1 and H3N2 domestic vaccine strains. Minor antigenic variation between pig A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was evident by HI assay using 13 mAbs raised against homologous virus. A Vietnamese H1N2 SIV, whose H1 gene originated from a human strain in the mid-2000s, reacted poorly with post-infection ferret serum against human vaccine strains from 2000-2010. These results provide useful information for selection of optimal strains for SIV vaccine production.

  20. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Wei, Dong-Qing; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-10-16

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  1. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Infection in A Survivor Who Has Recovered from Severe H7N9 Virus Infection, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shan-Hui; Wu, Meng-Na; Qian, Yan-Hua; Ma, Guang-Yuan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Teng; Lu, Bing; Ma, Mai-Juan; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    We firstly report a patient who presented with severe complications after infection with influenza A(H1N1) pdm2009, more than 1 year after recovery from severe H7N9 virus infections. The population of patients who recovered from severe H7N9 infections might be at a higher risk to suffer severe complications after seasonal influenza infections, and they should be included in the high-risk populations recommended to receive seasonal influenza vaccination. PMID:27757100

  2. Detection of novel swine origin influenza A virus (H1N1) by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yiyue; Cui, Lunbiao; Qi, Xian; Shan, Jun; Shan, Yunfeng; Qi, Yuhua; Wu, Bing; Wang, Hua; Shi, Zhiyang

    2010-02-01

    Rapid detection of novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) (H1N1) is crucial for timely implementation of infection control measures. In this study, a haemagglutinin (HA) gene-based real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay was developed for the specific detection of S-OIV (H1N1). The assay was evaluated and validated by comparing it with existing detection methods for S-OIV (H1N1). Results obtained in a 10-fold dilution series assay demonstrated the analytic sensitivity of the present assay was comparable to that of a commercial S-OIV (H1N1) real-time RT-PCR kit and higher than that of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) TaqMan assay. The actual detection limit of the real-time NASBA assay was approximately 50 copies per reaction. Compared with reference methods (viral culture, conventional RT-PCR, and real-time RT-PCR), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the present assay were all 100%. Overall, the results showed that the real-time NASBA assay could be used for sensitive and specific detection of S-OIV (H1N1).

  3. Cytokine and chemokine responses in pediatric patients with severe pneumonia associated with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Nakai, Hidetaka; Sugata, Ken; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Ihira, Masaru; Ohashi, Masahiro; Kato, Tomochika; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2012-09-01

    Severe pneumonia and leukocytosis are characteristic, frequently observed, clinical findings in pediatric patients with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus infection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of cytokines and chemokines in complicating pneumonia and leukocytosis in patients with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus infection. Forty-seven patients with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus infection were enrolled in this study. Expression of interleukin (IL)-10 (P = 0.027) and IL-5 (P = 0.014) was significantly greater in patients with pneumonia than in those without pneumonia. Additionally, serum concentrations of interferon-γ (P = 0.009), tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.01), IL-4 (P = 0.024), and IL-2 (P = 0.012) were significantly lower in pneumonia patients with neutrophilic leukocytosis than in those without neutrophilic leukocytosis. Of the five serum chemokine concentrations assessed, only IL-8 was significantly lower in pneumonia patients with neutrophilic leukocytosis than in those without leukocytosis (P = 0.001). These cytokines and chemokines may play important roles in the pathogenesis of childhood pneumonia associated with A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus infection.

  4. Comparison of the efficacies of amantadine treatment of swine-origin influenza virus A H1N1 and seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 in Japan (2008-2009).

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Kiyomitsu; Watanabe, Atushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Hattori, Haruki; Ukai, Hiroshi; Takano, Tsuruyo; Hankins, Raleigh W

    2011-08-01

    Amantadine is not thought to be effective for the treatment of swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) based on an analysis of genetic sequences of the M2 protein. However, the actual clinical efficacy of amantadine has not been well documented. Here, we were able to compare the efficacies of amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors. Subjects consisted of 428 patients, including 144 with seasonal influenza (flu) identified between 2008 and 2009, and 284 with S-OIV identified between July 1 and November 30, 2009. Diagnosis of flu was established using a rapid diagnostic kit obtained commercially in Japan. Body temperature sheets were obtained from 95% of the S-OIV patients. Times required to recover normal body temperature were compared among subjects using different antiviral drugs. Genetic abnormalities in the M2 protein were also investigated in 66 randomly selected subjects from within the patient pool. Overall, the average hours required to recover normal body temperature in S-OIV patients treated with amantadine (160 cases), with oseltamivir (59 cases), or with zanamivir (65 cases) were 33.9 ± 20.7, 31.7 ± 16.0, or 36.3 ± 21.6, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. The N31S abnormality was found in all 14 samples taken from the H3N2 patients and in all of the 23 samples taken from in S-OIV patients. However, this abnormality was not found in any of the 30 samples taken from seasonal H1N1 patients. Amantadine was found to be equally effective in treating S-OIV patients as neuraminidase inhibitors. The genetic abnormality resulting in S31N amino acid conversion identified in some of the H3N2 and S-OIV patients is thought to alter the function of M2 protein only mildly.

  5. Evaluation of a new immunochromatographic assay for rapid identification of influenza A, B, and A(H1N1)2009 viruses.

    PubMed

    Mitamura, Keiko; Kawakami, Chiharu; Shimizu, Hideaki; Abe, Takashi; Konomi, Yasushi; Yasumi, Yuki; Yamazaki, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Masataka; Sugaya, Norio

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated Clearline Influenza A/B/(H1N1)2009, a new multi-line immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of antigens of influenza A (Flu A), B (Flu B), and A(H1N1)2009 viruses. Clearline detected Flu A, Flu B, and A(H1N1)2009 viruses with a detection limit of 4.6 × 10(3) to 7.5 × 10(4) pfu/assay. The sensitivity and specificity of detection of influenza virus by Clearline, using RT-PCR as reference standard, were determined for A(H1N1)2009, Flu A, and Flu B, in nasopharyngeal aspirate, nasopharyngeal swab, and self-blown nasal discharge specimens. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 97.3 %, Flu A = 94.5 %, and Flu B = 96.8 %, and specificity was Flu A = 99.1 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity for nasopharyngeal swab specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 91.9 %, Flu A = 92.8 %, and Flu B = 100 %, and specificity was Flu A = 98.2 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity for self-blown nasal discharge specimens was: A(H1N1)2009 = 75.7 %, Flu A = 86.5 %, and Flu B = 76.2 %, and specificity was Flu A = 98.4 % and Flu B = 100 %. Sensitivity and specificity of Clearline were sufficient for nasopharyngeal aspirate and swab specimens. For self-blown nasal discharge specimens, sensitivity was lower than for nasopharyngeal aspirates and nasopharyngeal swabs. The sensitivity of Clearline for A(H1N1)2009 was good even 6 h after the onset of symptoms. These findings suggest that Clearline may be useful for early clinical diagnosis of influenza.

  6. Human microRNAs profiling in response to influenza A viruses (subtypes pH1N1, H3N2, and H5N1).

    PubMed

    Makkoch, Jarika; Poomipak, Witthaya; Saengchoowong, Suthat; Khongnomnan, Kritsada; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Jinato, Thananya; Poovorawan, Yong; Payungporn, Sunchai

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulation of gene silencing and are involved in many cellular processes including inhibition of infected viral replication. This study investigated cellular miRNA expression profiles operating in response to influenza virus in early stage of infection which might be useful for understanding and control of viral infection. A549 cells were infected with different subtypes of influenza virus (pH1N1, H3N2 and H5N1). After 24 h post-infection, miRNAs were extracted and then used for DNA library construction. All DNA libraries with different indexes were pooled together with equal concentration, followed by high-throughput sequencing based on MiSeq platform. The miRNAs were identified and counted from sequencing data by using MiSeq reporter software. The miRNAs expressions were classified into up and downregulated miRNAs compared to those found in non-infected cells. Mostly, each subtype of influenza A virus triggered the upregulated responses in miRNA expression profiles. Hsa-miR-101, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-23b, and hsa-miR-30e* were upregulated when infected with all three subtypes of influenza A virus. Target prediction results showed that virus infection can trigger genes in cellular process, metabolic process, developmental process and biological regulation. This study provided some insights into the cellular miRNA profiling in response to various subtypes of influenza A viruses in circulation and which have caused outbreaks in human population. The regulated miRNAs might be involved in virus-host interaction or host defense mechanism, which should be investigated for effective antiviral therapeutic interventions.

  7. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-04-13

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full.

  8. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  9. Whole Genome Characterization, Phylogenetic and Genome Signature Analysis of Human Pandemic H1N1 Virus in Thailand, 2009–2012

    PubMed Central

    Makkoch, Jarika; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Payungporn, Sunchai; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Cheiocharnsin, Thaweesak; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background Three waves of human pandemic influenza occurred in Thailand in 2009–2012. The genome signature features and evolution of pH1N1 need to be characterized to elucidate the aspects responsible for the multiple waves of pandemic. Methodology/Findings Forty whole genome sequences and 584 partial sequences of pH1N1 circulating in Thailand, divided into 1st, 2nd and 3rd wave and post-pandemic were characterized and 77 genome signatures were analyzed. Phylogenetic trees of concatenated whole genome and HA gene sequences were constructed calculating substitution rate and dN/dS of each gene. Phylogenetic analysis showed a distinct pattern of pH1N1 circulation in Thailand, with the first two isolates from May, 2009 belonging to clade 5 while clades 5, 6 and 7 co-circulated during the first wave of pH1N1 pandemic in Thailand. Clade 8 predominated during the second wave and different proportions of the pH1N1 viruses circulating during the third wave and post pandemic period belonged to clades 8, 11.1 and 11.2. The mutation analysis of pH1N1 revealed many adaptive mutations which have become the signature of each clade and may be responsible for the multiple pandemic waves in Thailand, especially with regard to clades 11.1 and 11.2 as evidenced with V731I, G154D of PB1 gene, PA I330V, HA A214T S160G and S202T. The substitution rate of pH1N1 in Thailand ranged from 2.53×10−3±0.02 (M2 genes) to 5.27×10−3±0.03 per site per year (NA gene). Conclusions All results suggested that this virus is still adaptive, maybe to evade the host's immune response and tends to remain in the human host although the dN/dS were under purifying selection in all 8 genes. Due to the gradual evolution of pH1N1 in Thailand, continuous monitoring is essential for evaluation and surveillance to be prepared for and able to control future influenza activities. PMID:23251479

  10. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  11. Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Gachara, George; Symekher, Samuel; Otieno, Michael; Magana, Japheth; Opot, Benjamin; Bulimo, Wallace

    2016-06-01

    An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9×10(-3) substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the UK and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

  12. The impact of antigenic drift of influenza A virus on human herd immunity: Sero-epidemiological study of H1N1 in healthy Thai population in 2009.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Yuta; Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Bai, Guirong; Li, Yonggang; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Jampangern, Wipawee; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2010-07-26

    To examine the effect of the antigenic drift of H1N1 influenza viruses on herd immunity, neutralization antibodies from 744 sera from Thai healthy volunteers in 2008-2009, who had not been vaccinated for at least the last 5 years, were investigated by microneutralization (MN) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Significantly higher MN titers were observed for the H1N1 Thai isolate in 2006 than in 2008. The results indicate that the antigenically drifted virus effectively escaped herd immunity. Since the low neutralization activity of herd immunity against drifted viruses is an important factor for viruses to spread efficiently, continuous sero-epidemiological study is required for public health.

  13. Social factors related to the clinical severity of influenza cases in Spain during the A (H1N1) 2009 virus pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic, a change in the type of patients most often affected by influenza was observed. The objective of this study was to assess the role of individual and social determinants in hospitalizations due to influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection. Methods We studied hospitalized patients (cases) and outpatients (controls) with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data. Variables that might be related to the hospitalization of influenza cases were compared by estimation of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and the variables entered into binomial logistic regression models. Results Hospitalization due to pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infections was associated with non-Caucasian ethnicity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.17 − 4.08), overcrowding (OR: 2.84, 95% CI 1.20 − 6.72), comorbidity and the lack of previous preventive information (OR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.50 − 4.83). Secondary or higher education was associated with a lower risk of hospitalization (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 − 0.87) Conclusions In addition to individual factors such as comorbidity, other factors such as educational level, ethnicity or overcrowding were associated with hospitalization due to A (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infections. PMID:23391376

  14. Punctuated Evolution of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase (A/H1N1) under Opposing Migration and Vaccination Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The structure and properties of HA, which is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected, change significantly when the virus is transmitted from avian or swine species to humans. Here we focus first on the simpler problem of the much smaller human individual evolutionary amino acid mutational changes in NA, which cleaves sialic acid groups and is required for influenza virus replication. Our thermodynamic panorama shows that very small amino acid changes can be monitored very accurately across many historic (1945–2011) Uniprot and NCBI strains using hydropathicity scales to quantify the roughness of water film packages. Quantitative sequential analysis is most effective with the fractal differential hydropathicity scale based on protein self-organized criticality (SOC). Our analysis shows that large-scale vaccination programs have been responsible for a very large convergent reduction in common influenza severity in the last century. Hydropathic analysis is capable of interpreting and even predicting trends of functional changes in mutation prolific viruses directly from amino acid sequences alone. An engineered strain of NA1 is described which could well be significantly less virulent than current circulating strains. PMID:25143953

  15. Generation of recombinant pandemic H1N1 influenza virus with the HA cleavable by bromelain and identification of the residues influencing HA bromelain cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijia; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Zengel, James; Chen, Zhongying; Jin, Hong

    2012-01-20

    The proteolytic enzyme bromelain has been traditionally used to cleave the hemagglutinin (HA) protein at the C-terminus of the HA2 region to release the HA proteins from influenza virions. The bromelain cleaved HA (BHA) has been routinely used as an antigen to generate antiserum that is essential for influenza vaccine product release. The HA of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A/California/7/2009 (CA09) virus could not be cleaved efficiently by bromelain. To ensure timely delivery of BHA for antiserum production, we generated a chimeric virus that contained the HA1 region from CA09 and the HA2 region from the seasonal H1N1 A/South Dakota/6/2007 (SD07) virus that is cleavable by bromelain. The BHA from this chimeric virus was antigenically identical to CA09 and induced high levels of HA-specific antibodies and protected ferrets from wild-type H1N1 CA09 virus challenge. To determine the molecular basis of inefficient cleavage of CA09 HA by bromelain, the amino acids that differed between the HA2 of CA09 and SD07 were introduced into recombinant CA09 virus to assess their effect on bromelain cleavage. The D373N or E374G substitution in the HA2 stalk region of CA09 HA enabled efficient cleavage of CA09 HA by bromelain. Sequence analysis of the pandemic H1N1-like viruses isolated from 2010 revealed emergence of the E374K change. We found that K374 enabled the HA to be cleaved by bromelain and confirmed that the 374 residue is critical for HA bromelain cleavage.

  16. Proteinquakes in the Evolution of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin (A/H1N1) under Opposing Migration and Vaccination Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus contains two highly variable envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Here we show that, while HA evolution is much more complex than NA evolution, it still shows abrupt punctuation changes linked to punctuation changes of NA. HA exhibits proteinquakes, which resemble earthquakes and are related to hydropathic shifting of sialic acid binding regions. HA proteinquakes based on shifting sialic acid interactions are required for optimal balance between the receptor-binding and receptor-destroying activities of HA and NA for efficient virus replication. Our comprehensive results present a historical (1945–2011) panorama of HA evolution over thousands of strains and are consistent with many studies of HA and NA interactions based on a few mutations of a few strains. PMID:25654090

  17. Naturally Occurring Mutations in the PA Gene Are Key Contributors to Increased Virulence of Pandemic H1N1/09 Influenza Virus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yipeng; Xu, Qi; Shen, Ye; Liu, Linqing; Wei, Kai; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2014-01-01

    We examined the molecular basis of virulence of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza viruses by reverse genetics based on two H1N1/09 virus isolates (A/California/04/2009 [CA04] and A/swine/Shandong/731/2009 [SD731]) with contrasting pathogenicities in mice. We found that four amino acid mutations (P224S in the PA protein [PA-P224S], PB2-T588I, NA-V106I, and NS1-I123V) contributed to the lethal phenotype of SD731. In particular, the PA-P224S mutation when combined with PA-A70V in CA04 drastically reduced the virus's 50% mouse lethal dose (LD50), by almost 1,000-fold. PMID:24522908

  18. Simultaneous infection of pigs and people with triple-reassortant swine influenza virus H1N1 at a U.S. county fair.

    PubMed

    Killian, M L; Swenson, S L; Vincent, A L; Landgraf, J G; Shu, B; Lindstrom, S; Xu, X; Klimov, A; Zhang, Y; Bowman, A S

    2013-05-01

    Influenza-like illness was noted in people and pigs in attendance at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. The morbidity rate in swine approached 100% within 1-2 days of initial clinical signs being recognized, and approximately two dozen people developed influenza-like illness. Triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses were identified in both pigs and people at the fair. The identified viruses (A/Sw/OH/511445/2007, A/Ohio/01/2007, and A/Ohio/02/2007) were similar to H1N1 swine influenza viruses currently found in the U.S. swine population. This case illustrates the possibility of transmission of swine influenza in settings where there is close human/swine interaction.

  19. Biological characteristics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in West Siberia during pandemic and post-pandemic periods.

    PubMed

    Prokop'eva, E A; Kurskaya, O G; Saifutdinova, S G; Glushchenko, A V; Shestopalova, L V; Shestopalov, A M; Shkurupii, V A

    2014-03-01

    We studied biological characteristics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in Siberia during the 2009 pandemic and the post-pandemic period of 2011. BALB/c mice were chosen as the experimental model. Virus titers in the lungs were evaluated on days 1, 3, 6 and blood serum titers on day 15 after infection with different strains. Blood sera of convalescents after influenza of 2010-2011 epidemic season were analyzed. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains isolated during the post-pandemic period of 2011 were characterized by low epidemic activity and virulence in comparison with the strains isolated during 2009 pandemic period, which indicates completion of the pandemic cycle.

  20. Characterization of Drug-Resistant Influenza Virus A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) Variants Selected In Vitro with Laninamivir

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Mélanie; Abed, Yacine; Desrochers, François-Marc; Hamilton, Stephanie; Luttick, Angela; Tucker, Simon P.; Pryor, Melinda J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) play a major role for managing influenza virus infections. The widespread oseltamivir resistance among 2007-2008 seasonal A(H1N1) viruses and community outbreaks of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 strains highlights the need for additional anti-influenza virus agents. Laninamivir is a novel long-lasting NAI that has demonstrated in vitro activity against influenza A and B viruses, and its prodrug (laninamivir octanoate) is in phase II clinical trials in the United States and other countries. Currently, little information is available on the mechanisms of resistance to laninamivir. In this study, we first performed neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assays to determine the activity of laninamivir against a set of influenza A viruses containing NA mutations conferring resistance to one or many other NAIs. We also generated drug-resistant A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses under in vitro laninamivir pressure. Laninamivir demonstrated a profile of susceptibility that was similar to that of zanamivir. More specifically, it retained activity against oseltamivir-resistant H275Y and N295S A(H1N1) variants and the E119V A(H3N2) variant. In vitro, laninamivir pressure selected the E119A NA substitution in the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 A(H1N1) background, whereas E119K and G147E NA changes along with a K133E hemagglutinin (HA) substitution were selected in the A/Quebec/144147/2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 strain. In the A/Brisbane/10/2007 A(H3N2) background, a large NA deletion accompanied by S138A/P194L HA substitutions was selected. This H3N2 variant had altered receptor-binding properties and was highly resistant to laninamivir in plaque reduction assays. Overall, we confirmed the similarity between zanamivir and laninamivir susceptibility profiles and demonstrated that both NA and HA changes can contribute to laninamivir resistance in vitro. PMID:24957832

  1. Influence of prior pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus infection on invasion of MDCK cells by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yoko; Yano, Hisakazu; Nojima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Ryuichi; Okamoto, Ryoichi; Hirakata, Yoichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Akahoshi, Tohru; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a highly publicized cause of death associated with influenza. In this study, we performed the gentamicin-killing assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and MRSA strains to investigate whether prior infection from pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) lead to increased invasion of MDCK cells by MRSA. We found that the invasion rate of two MRSA strains (ATCC BAA-1680 [USA 300] and ATCC BAA-1699 [USA 100]) into intact MDCK cell monolayers was 0.29 ± 0.15% and 0.007 ± 0.002%, respectively (p < 0.01, n ≥ 3). In addition, the relative invasion rate of both ATCC BAA-1680 and ATCC BAA-1699 was significantly increased by prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection of MDCK monolayers from 1 ± 0.28 to 1.38 ± 0.02 and from 1 ± 0.24 to 1.73 ± 0.29, respectively (p < 0.01). These results indicate that ATCC BAA-1680 displays much stronger invasiveness of MDCK cells than ATCC BAA-1699, although invasion of both strains was increased by prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. In conclusion, this study provided the first evidence that prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection facilitates the invasion of MDCK cells by MRSA, presumably due to cellular injury caused by the virus.

  2. Acceptance of a Vaccine Against Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Among Health Care Workers in Two Major Cities in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Omer, Saad B.; Gonzalez-Diaz, Esteban; Salmon, Daniel A.; Hixson, Brooke; Navarro, Francisco; Kawa–Karasik, Simon; Frew, Paula; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Noriega, Eduardo Rodriguez; Ramirez, Ylean; Rosas, Araceli; Acosta, Edgar; Badillo, Vianey Varela; Rio, Carlos Del

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Further cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak are expected in the coming months. Vaccination has been proven to be essential to control a pandemic of influenza; therefore, considerable efforts and resources have been devoted to develop a vaccine against the influenza A (H1N1) virus. With the current availability of the vaccine, it will be important to immunize as many people as possible. However, previous data with seasonal influenza vaccines have shown that there are multiple barriers related to perceptions and attitudes of the population that influence vaccine use. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acceptance of a newly developed vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A among healthcare workers (HCW) in Mexico. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among HCW in three hospitals in the two largest cities in Mexico—Mexico City and Guadalajara—between June and September 2009. Results A total of 1097 HCW participated in the survey. Overall, 80% (n = 880) intended to accept the H1N1 pandemic vaccine and 71.6% (n = 786) reported they would recommend the vaccine to their patients. Doctors were more likely to accept and recommend the vaccine than nurses. HCWs who intend to be immunized will be more likely to do so if they know that the vaccine is safe and effective. Conclusions Knowledge of the willingness to accept the vaccine can be used to plan strategies that will effectively respond to the needs of the population studied, reducing the health and economic impact of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus. PMID:20304260

  3. Low-dose interferon Type I treatment is effective against H5N1 and swine-origin H1N1 influenza A viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Haasbach, Emanuel; Droebner, Karoline; Vogel, Annette B; Planz, Oliver

    2011-06-01

    The recent emergence of pandemic swine-origin influenza virus (H1N1) and the severe outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype leading to death in humans is a reminder that influenza remains a frightening foe throughout the world. Besides vaccination, there is an urgent need for new antiviral strategies to protect against influenza. The innate immune response to influenza viruses involves production of interferon alpha and beta (IFN-α/β), which plays a crucial role in virus clearance during the initial stage of infection. We examined the effect of IFN-α on the replication of H5N1 and H1N1 in vitro and in vivo. A single pretreatment with low-dose IFN-α reduced lung virus titers up to 1.4 log(10) pfu. The antiviral effect increased after multiple pretreatments. Low-dose IFN-α protected mice against lethal H5N1 viral infection. Further, IFN-α was also effective against H1N1 in vitro and in the mouse model. These results indicate that low-dose IFN-α treatment leads to the induction of antiviral cytokines that are involved in the reduction of influenza virus titers in the lung. Moreover, it might be possible that a medical application during pandemic outbreak could help contain fulminant infections.

  4. [Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009].

    PubMed

    Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    In the past, influenza pandemics have been occurring every 20 to 30 years. Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) has been causing unprecedented global outbreaks since 2003 and many human cases with a high case fatality rate have also been reported. But the virus that caused a pandemic in 2009 was A(H1N1) that was originated from swine influenza. The same subtype, A(H1N1) has been circulating in human population since 1977. This pandemic (H1N1) 2009 is also not as virulent as A(H5N1) in humans. Many aspects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 are different from what we had been expecting. We should reconsider the concepts and the strategies for influenza pandemic by reviewing current pandemic (H1N1).

  5. Association between Hemagglutinin Stem-Reactive Antibodies and Influenza A/H1N1 Virus Infection during the 2009 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Le Nguyen Minh; Mai, Le Quynh; Bryant, Juliet E.; Thai, Pham Quang; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Yen, Nguyen Thi Thu; Duong, Tran Nhu; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Horby, Peter; Werheim, Heiman F. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The discovery of influenza virus broadly neutralizing (BrN) antibodies prompted efforts to develop universal vaccines. Influenza virus stem-reactive (SR) broadly neutralizing antibodies have been detected by screening antibody phage display libraries. However, studies of SR BrN antibodies in human serum, and their association with natural infection, are limited. To address this, pre- and postpandemic sera from a prospective community cohort study in Vietnam were assessed for antibodies that inhibit SR BrN monoclonal antibody (MAb) (C179) binding to H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus (H1N1pdm09). Of 270 households, 33 with at least one confirmed H1N1pdm09 illness or at least two seroconverters were included. The included households comprised 71 infected and 41 noninfected participants. Sera were tested as 2-fold dilutions between 1:5 and 1:40. Fifty percent C179 inhibition (IC50) titers did not exceed 10, although both IC50 titers and percent C179 inhibition by sera diluted 1:5 or 1:10 correlated with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) titers (all P < 0.001). Thirteen (12%) participants had detectable prepandemic IC50 titers, but only one reached a titer of 10. This proportion increased to 44% after the pandemic, when 39 participants had a titer of 10, and 67% of infected compared to 44% of noninfected had detectable IC50 titers (P < 0.001). The low levels of SR antibodies in prepandemic sera were not associated with subsequent H1N1pdm09 infection (P = 0.241), and the higher levels induced by H1N1pdm09 infection returned to prepandemic levels within 2 years. The findings indicate that natural infection induces only low titers of SR antibodies that are not sustained. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccines could have substantial health and economic benefits. The focus of universal vaccine research has been to induce antibodies that prevent infection by diverse influenza virus strains. These so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies are

  6. Development and evaluation of a paramagnetic nanoparticle based immunochromatographic strip for specific detection of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianbin; Lei, Xiaoying; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Yonglan; Liang, Ping; Bao, Han; Wang, Qin; Guo, Yanhai; Yang, Jinghua; Yan, Zhen

    2013-03-01

    Influenza A/H1N1 virus spreads worldwide and has been a threat to human health and the poultry industry. Although H1N1 lateral-flow immunoassay strips are available for the detection of 2009/A/H1N1 antigens, the specificity and sensitivity of these strips are limited. Because of the monodispersity, the strong magnetic signal and the stable brown color of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which were employed in this study as label instead of commonly used colloidal gold particles. Two different monoclonal anti-HA (hemagglutinin) and anti-HA-tag mAbs were paired for conjugating with paramagnetic beads and immobilizing on the surface of nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as capture antibody respectively. After optimizing the experimental condition, we generated a superparamagnetic bead-based immunochromatographic strip. The strip could detect HA antigen from H1N1 influenza A virus sample sensitively, its detection limit was 100 pg/mL. It had low cross reactivity with H3N2 influenza A virus and did not detect influenza B virus. It had no false positive detection in all of the tested control samples. With the help of magnetic assay reader (MAR), the magnetic intensity on test lines could be recorded and quantified proportionally with the amount of antigens captured. Those properties were indeed superior to the colloidal gold-based strips. More importantly, the strip was affordable and easy to use. Conceivably, superparamagnetic bead-based immunochromatographic strip should be a valuable point-of-care test for the rapid and specific detection of influenza A virus.

  7. H1N1 influenza virus induces narcolepsy-like sleep disruption and targets sleep–wake regulatory neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tesoriero, Chiara; Codita, Alina; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Cherninsky, Andrij; Karlsson, Håkan; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bertini, Giuseppe; Harkany, Tibor; Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Bentivoglio, Marina; Kristensson, Krister

    2016-01-01

    An increased incidence in the sleep-disorder narcolepsy has been associated with the 2009–2010 pandemic of H1N1 influenza virus in China and with mass vaccination campaigns against influenza during the pandemic in Finland and Sweden. Pathogenetic mechanisms of narcolepsy have so far mainly focused on autoimmunity. We here tested an alternative working hypothesis involving a direct role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy in susceptible subjects. We show that infection with H1N1 influenza virus in mice that lack B and T cells (Recombinant activating gene 1-deficient mice) can lead to narcoleptic-like sleep–wake fragmentation and sleep structure alterations. Interestingly, the infection targeted brainstem and hypothalamic neurons, including orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons that regulate sleep–wake stability and are affected in narcolepsy. Because changes occurred in the absence of adaptive autoimmune responses, the findings show that brain infections with H1N1 virus have the potential to cause per se narcoleptic-like sleep disruption. PMID:26668381

  8. Influenza A H1N1pdm 2009 Virus in Paraguay: Nucleotide Point Mutations in Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Genes are not Associated with Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Espínola, Emilio E; Amarilla, Alberto A; Martínez, Magaly; Aquino, Víctor H; Russomando, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is associated with upper respiratory tract infections. The fourth influenza pandemic was declared in 2009. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus circulating in Paraguay. Nasal swabs were collected from 181 patients with flu symptoms managed at the Hospital of the Medical School in Asunción, Paraguay, between August and October 2009. Virus detection was carried out by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequencing of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes, and phylogenetic analysis. H1N1pdm09 was detected in 14.9% (27/181) of the suspected cases. Analysis of 13 samples showed that these viruses the clustered in a single genetic group. Neither the mutation related to exacerbation of disease (D239G in hemagglutinin) nor that related to antiviral resistance (H275Y in neuraminidase), both detected in neighboring countries, were found. This genetic analysis of H1N1pdm09 will help to understand the spread of the disease. PMID:25328558

  9. [Detection of conservative and variable epitopes of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin using monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Masalova, O V; Chichev, E V; Fediakina, I T; Mukasheva, E A; Klimova, R R; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Burtseva, E I; Ivanova, V T; Kushch, A A; L'vov, D K

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze the antigenic structure of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and to develop a sandwich ELISA for identification of pandemic strains. Competitive ELISA demonstrated that 6 MAbs against HA of the pandemic influenza A/ IIV-Moscow/01/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 virus identified six epitopes. Binding of MAbs with 22 strains circulating in Russian Federation during 2009-2012 was analyzed in the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI). The MAbs differed considerably in their ability to decrease the HI activity of these strains. MAb 5F7 identified all examined strains; MAbs 3A3 and 10G2 reacted with the majority of them. A highly sensitive sandwich ELISA was constructed based on these three MAbs that can differentiate the pandemic influenza strains from the seasonal influenza virus. The constancy of the HA epitope that reacts with MAb 5F7 provides its use for identification of the pandemic influenza strains in HI test. MAbs 3D9, 6A3 and 1E7 are directed against the variable HA epitopes, being sensitive to several amino acid changes in Sa, Sb, and Ca2 antigenic sites and in receptor binding site. These MAbs can be used to detect differences in HA structure and to study the antigenic drift of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09.

  10. H1N1 influenza virus induces narcolepsy-like sleep disruption and targets sleep-wake regulatory neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Tesoriero, Chiara; Codita, Alina; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Cherninsky, Andrij; Karlsson, Håkan; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bertini, Giuseppe; Harkany, Tibor; Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Kristensson, Krister

    2016-01-19

    An increased incidence in the sleep-disorder narcolepsy has been associated with the 2009-2010 pandemic of H1N1 influenza virus in China and with mass vaccination campaigns against influenza during the pandemic in Finland and Sweden. Pathogenetic mechanisms of narcolepsy have so far mainly focused on autoimmunity. We here tested an alternative working hypothesis involving a direct role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy in susceptible subjects. We show that infection with H1N1 influenza virus in mice that lack B and T cells (Recombinant activating gene 1-deficient mice) can lead to narcoleptic-like sleep-wake fragmentation and sleep structure alterations. Interestingly, the infection targeted brainstem and hypothalamic neurons, including orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons that regulate sleep-wake stability and are affected in narcolepsy. Because changes occurred in the absence of adaptive autoimmune responses, the findings show that brain infections with H1N1 virus have the potential to cause per se narcoleptic-like sleep disruption.

  11. Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients; a multicenter observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Dignani, Maria Cecilia; Costantini, Patricia; Salgueira, Claudia; Jordán, Rosana; Guerrini, Graciela; Valledor, Alejandra; Herrera, Fabián; Nenna, Andrea; Mora, Claudia; Roccia-Rossi, Inés; Stecher, Daniel; Carbone, Edith; Laborde, Ana; Efron, Ernesto; Altclas, Javier; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Cozzi, José

    2015-01-01

    Background: During March 2009 a novel Influenza A virus emerged in Mexico. We describe the clinical picture of the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Influenza in cancer patients during the 2009 influenza season. Methods: Twelve centers participated in a multicenter retrospective observational study of cancer patients with confirmed infection with the 2009 H1N1 Influenza A virus (influenza-like illness or pneumonia plus positive PCR for the 2009 H1N1 Influenza A virus  in respiratory secretions). Clinical data were obtained by retrospective chart review and analyzed.  Results: From May to August 2009, data of 65 patients were collected. Median age was 51 years, 57 % of the patients were female. Most patients (47) had onco-hematological cancers and 18 had solid tumors. Cancer treatment mainly consisted of chemotherapy (46), or stem cell transplantation (SCT) (16). Only 19 of 64 patients had received the 2009 seasonal Influenza vaccine. Clinical presentation included pneumonia (43) and upper respiratory tract infection (22). Forty five of 58 ambulatory patients were admitted. Mechanical ventilation was required in 12 patients (18%). Treatment included oseltamivir monotherapy or in combination with amantadine for a median of 7 days. The global 30-day mortality rate was 18%. All 12 deaths were among the non-vaccinated patients. No deaths were observed among the 19 vaccinated patients. Oxygen saturation <96% at presentation was a predictor of mortality (OR 19.5; 95%CI: 2.28 to 165.9). Conclusions: In our cancer patient population, the pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with high incidence of pneumonia (66%), and 30-day mortality (18.5%). Saturation <96% was significantly associated with death. No deaths were observed among vaccinated patients. PMID:25469231

  12. H1N1 Swine Influenza Viruses Differ from Avian Precursors by a Higher pH Optimum of Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Jan; Kouassi, Nancy Mounogou; Foni, Emanuela; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H1N1 Eurasian avian-like swine (EAsw) influenza viruses originated from an avian H1N1 virus. To characterize potential changes in the membrane fusion activity of the hemagglutinin (HA) during avian-to-swine adaptation of the virus, we studied EAsw viruses isolated in the first years of their circulation in pigs and closely related contemporary H1N1 viruses of wild aquatic birds. Compared to the avian viruses, the swine viruses were less sensitive to neutralization by lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl in MDCK cells, had a higher pH optimum of hemolytic activity, and were less stable at acidic pH. Eight amino acid substitutions in the HA were found to separate the EAsw viruses from their putative avian precursor; four substitutions—T492S, N722D, R752K, and S1132F—were located in the structural regions of the HA2 subunit known to play a role in acid-induced conformational transition of the HA. We also studied low-pH-induced syncytium formation by cell-expressed HA proteins and found that the HAs of the 1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009 pandemic viruses required a lower pH for fusion induction than did the HA of a representative EAsw virus. Our data show that transmission of an avian H1N1 virus to pigs was accompanied by changes in conformational stability and fusion promotion activity of the HA. We conclude that distinctive host-determined fusion characteristics of the HA may represent a barrier for avian-to-swine and swine-to-human transmission of influenza viruses. IMPORTANCE Continuing cases of human infections with zoonotic influenza viruses highlight the necessity to understand which viral properties contribute to interspecies transmission. Efficient binding of the HA to cellular receptors in a new host species is known to be essential for the transmission. Less is known about required adaptive changes in the membrane fusion activity of the HA. Here we show that adaptation of an avian influenza virus to pigs in Europe in 1980s was accompanied by mutations in

  13. High Burden of Non-Influenza Viruses in Influenza-Like Illness in the Early Weeks of H1N1v Epidemic in France

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, Nathalie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Chaillon, Antoine; Scemla, Anne; Gras, Guillaume; Semoun, Oren; Taboulet, Pierre; Molina, Jean-Michel; Simon, François; Goudeau, Alain; LeGoff, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Background Influenza-like illness (ILI) may be caused by a variety of pathogens. Clinical observations are of little help to recognise myxovirus infection and implement appropriate prevention measures. The limited use of molecular tools underestimates the role of other common pathogens. Objectives During the early weeks of the 2009–2010 flu pandemic, a clinical and virological survey was conducted in adult and paediatric patients with ILI referred to two French University hospitals in Paris and Tours. Aims were to investigate the different pathogens involved in ILI and describe the associated symptoms. Methods H1N1v pandemic influenza diagnosis was performed with real time RT-PCR assay. Other viral aetiologies were investigated by the molecular multiplex assay RespiFinder19®. Clinical data were collected prospectively by physicians using a standard questionnaire. Results From week 35 to 44, endonasal swabs were collected in 413 patients. Overall, 68 samples (16.5%) were positive for H1N1v. In 13 of them, other respiratory pathogens were also detected. Among H1N1v negative samples, 213 (61.9%) were positive for various respiratory agents, 190 in single infections and 23 in mixed infections. The most prevalent viruses in H1N1v negative single infections were rhinovirus (62.6%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (24.2%) and adenovirus (5.3%). 70.6% of H1N1v cases were identified in patients under 40 years and none after 65 years. There was no difference between clinical symptoms observed in patients infected with H1N1v or with other pathogens. Conclusion Our results highlight the high frequency of non-influenza viruses involved in ILI during the pre-epidemic period of a flu alert and the lack of specific clinical signs associated with influenza infections. Rapid diagnostic screening of a large panel of respiratory pathogens may be critical to define and survey the epidemic situation and to provide critical information for patient management. PMID:21858150

  14. Don't let the flu catch you: agency assignment in printed educational materials about the H1N1 influenza virus.

    PubMed

    McGlone, Matthew S; Bell, Robert A; Zaitchik, Sarah T; McGlynn, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    In English and in other languages, the agency for viral transmission can be grammatically assigned to people (e.g., Thousands may contract H1N1) or to the virus itself (e.g., H1N1 may infect thousands). These assignment options shape different conceptions of transmission as attributable either to social contact within one's control or to pursuit of an active predator. The authors tested the effect of agency assignment and agentic images on young adults' (N = 246) reactions to educational materials about H1N1 influenza. The authors hypothesized that assigning agency to the virus would heighten perceived severity and personal susceptibility relative to human agency assignment. Results were consistent with this hypothesis, indicating that virus agency increased perceptions of severity, personal susceptibility, and reported intentions to seek vaccination relative to human agency. The image manipulation did not directly affect these factors. The findings suggest that strategic agency assignment can improve the effectiveness of educational materials about influenza and other health threats.

  15. Preliminary Proteomic Analysis of A549 Cells Infected with Avian Influenza Virus H7N9 and Influenza A Virus H1N1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoman; Lu, Jiahai; Yu, Ruoxi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Ting; Dong, Fangyuan; Peng, Bo; Wu, Weihua; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Cheng, Jinquan; Yu, Muhua; Fang, Shisong

    2016-01-01

    A newly emerged H7N9 influenza virus poses high risk to human beings. However, the pathogenic mechanism of the virus remains unclear. The temporal response of primary human alveolar adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) infected with H7N9 influenza virus and H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1, pdm09) were evaluated using the proteomics approaches (2D-DIGE combined with MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) at 24, 48 and 72 hours post of the infection (hpi). There were 11, 12 and 33 proteins with significant different expressions (P<0.05) at 24, 48 and 72hpi, especially F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 (CAPZA1), Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), Poly(rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 (EIF5A) and Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolaseⅠb subunit beta (PAFAH1B2) were validated by western-blot analysis. The functional analysis revealed that the differential proteins in A549 cells involved in regulating cytopathic effect. Among them, the down-regulation of CAPZA1, OAT, PCBP1, EIF5A are related to the death of cells infected by H7N9 influenza virus. This is the first time show that the down-regulation of PAFAH1B2 is related to the later clinical symptoms of patients infected by H7N9 influenza virus. These findings may improve our understanding of pathogenic mechanism of H7N9 influenza virus in proteomics. PMID:27223893

  16. Assessing Antigenic Drift of Seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Under selective pressure from the host immune system, antigenic epitopes of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) have continually evolved to escape antibody recognition, termed antigenic drift. We analyzed the genomes of influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains circulating in Thailand between 2010 and 2014 and assessed how well the yearly vaccine strains recommended for the southern hemisphere matched them. We amplified and sequenced the HA gene of 120 A(H3N2) and 81 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus samples obtained from respiratory specimens and calculated the perfect-match vaccine efficacy using the pepitope model, which quantitated the antigenic drift in the dominant epitope of HA. Phylogenetic analysis of the A(H3N2) HA1 genes classified most strains into genetic clades 1, 3A, 3B, and 3C. The A(H3N2) strains from the 2013 and 2014 seasons showed very low to moderate vaccine efficacy and demonstrated antigenic drift from epitopes C and A to epitope B. Meanwhile, most A(H1N1)pdm09 strains from the 2012–2014 seasons belonged to genetic clades 6A, 6B, and 6C and displayed the dominant epitope mutations at epitopes B and E. Finally, the vaccine efficacy for A(H1N1)pdm09 (79.6–93.4%) was generally higher than that of A(H3N2). These findings further confirmed the accelerating antigenic drift of the circulating influenza A(H3N2) in recent years. PMID:26440103

  17. On Temporal Patterns and Circulation of Influenza Virus Strains in Taiwan, 2008-2014: Implications of 2009 pH1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Huang, Hsiang-Min; Lan, Yu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been observed that, historically, strains of pandemic influenza led to succeeding seasonal waves, albeit with decidedly different patterns. Recent studies suggest that the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic has had an impact on the circulation patterns of seasonal influenza strains in the post-pandemic years. In this work we aim to investigate this issue and also to compare the relative transmissibility of these waves of differing strains using Taiwan influenza surveillance data before, during and after the pandemic. Methods We make use of the Taiwan Center for Disease Control and Prevention influenza surveillance data on laboratory-confirmed subtyping of samples and a mathematical model to determine the waves of circulating (and co-circulating) H1, H3 and B virus strains in Taiwan during 2008–2014; or namely, short before, during and after the 2009 pandemic. We further pinpoint the turning points and relative transmissibility of each wave, in order to ascertain whether any temporal pattern exists. Results/Findings For two consecutive years following the 2009 pandemic, A(H1N1)pdm09 circulated in Taiwan (as in most of Northern Hemisphere), sometimes co-circulating with AH3. From the evolution point of view, A(H1N1)pdm09 and AH3 were able to sustain their circulation patterns to the end of 2010. In fact, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulated in six separate waves in Taiwan between summer of 2009 and spring of 2014. Since 2009, a wave of A(H1N1)pmd09 occurred every fall/winter influenza season during our study period except 2011–2012 season, when mainly influenza strain B circulated. In comparing transmissibility, while the estimated per capita weekly growth rates for cumulative case numbers (and the reproduction number) seem to be lower for most of the influenza B waves (0.06~0.26; range of 95% CIs: 0.05~0.32) when compared to those of influenza A, the wave of influenza B from week 8 to week 38 of 2010 immediately following the fall/winter wave of 2009 A(H1N1

  18. Pregnancy-Related Immune Adaptation Promotes the Emergence of Highly Virulent H1N1 Influenza Virus Strains in Allogenically Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Engels, Géraldine; Hierweger, Alexandra Maximiliane; Hoffmann, Julia; Thieme, René; Thiele, Swantje; Bertram, Stephanie; Dreier, Carola; Resa-Infante, Patricia; Jacobsen, Henning; Thiele, Kristin; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Siebels, Svenja; Fischer, Nicole; Stojanovska, Violeta; Muzzio, Damián; Jensen, Federico; Karimi, Khalil; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Arck, Petra Clara; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2017-03-08

    Pregnant women are at high risk for severe influenza disease outcomes, yet insights into the underlying mechanisms are limited. Here, we present models of H1N1 infection in syngenic and allogenic pregnant mice; infection in the latter mirrors the severe course of 2009 pandemic influenza in pregnant women. We found that the anti-viral immune response in the pregnant host was significantly restricted as compared to the non-pregnant host. This included a reduced type I interferon response as well as impaired migration of CD8(+) T cells into the lung. The multi-faceted failure to mount an anti-viral response in allogenic pregnant mice resulted in a less stringent selective environment that promoted the emergence of 2009 H1N1 virus variants that specifically counteract type I interferon response and mediate increased viral pathogenicity. These insights underscore the importance of influenza vaccination compliance in pregnant women and may open novel therapeutic avenues.

  19. Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibin; Chen, Aizhong; Miao, Yi; Xia, Shengli; Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan; Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling; Shu, Yuelong; Ma, Xiaowei; Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xiaojun; Bian, Chao; Sun, Bing

    2013-01-20

    Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  20. Transmission and pathogenicity of novel reassortants derived from Eurasian avian-like and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, Weili; Liu, Qinfang; Sun, Yipeng; Wang, Yu; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Lirong; Qin, Zhihua; He, Qiming; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Wang, Dayan; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Chang, Kin-Chow; Shu, Yuelong; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-06-02

    Given the present extensive co-circulation in pigs of Eurasian avian-like (EA) swine H1N1 and 2009 pandemic (pdm/09) H1N1 viruses, reassortment between them is highly plausible but largely uncharacterized. Here, experimentally co-infected pigs with a representative EA virus and a pdm/09 virus yielded 55 novel reassortant viruses that could be categorized into 17 genotypes from Gt1 to Gt17 based on segment segregation. Majority of novel reassortants were isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Most of reassortant viruses were more pathogenic and contagious than the parental EA viruses in mice and guinea pigs. The most transmissible reassortant genotypes demonstrated in guinea pigs (Gt2, Gt3, Gt7, Gt10 and Gt13) were also the most lethal in mice. Notably, nearly all these highly virulent reassortants (all except Gt13) were characterized with possession of EA H1 and full complement of pdm/09 ribonucleoprotein genes. Compositionally, we demonstrated that EA H1-222G contributed to virulence by its ability to bind avian-type sialic acid receptors, and that pdm/09 RNP conferred the most robust polymerase activity to reassortants. The present study revealed high reassortment compatibility between EA and pdm/09 viruses in pigs, which could give rise to progeny reassortant viruses with enhanced virulence and transmissibility in mice and guinea pig models.

  1. Effect of statin treatments on highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, seasonal and H1N1pdm09 virus infections in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Morrey, John D; Barnard, Dale L

    2013-01-01

    Statins are used to control elevated cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia, but have previously been reported to have antiviral properties. Aims To show efficacy of statins in various influenza virus mouse models. Materials & methods BALB/c mice were treated intraperitoneally or orally with several types of statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, mevastatin, pitavastatin, atorvastatin or rosuvastatin) at various concentrations before or after infection with either influenza A/Duck/ MN/1525/81 H5N1 virus, influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 virus, influenza A/ Victoria/3/75 H3N2 virus, influenza A/NWS/33 H1N1 virus or influenza A/CA/04/09 H1N1pdm09 virus. Results The statins administered intraperitoneally or orally at any dose did not significantly enhance the total survivors relative to untreated controls. In addition, infected mice receiving any concentration of statin were not protected against weight loss due to the infection. None of the statins significantly increased the mean day of death relative to mice in the placebo treatment group. Furthermore, the statins had relatively few ameliorative effects on lung pathology or lung weights at day 3 and 6 after virus exposure, although mice treated with simvastatin did have improved lung function as measured by arterial saturated oxygen levels in one experiment. Conclusion Statins showed relatively little efficacy in any mouse model used by any parameter tested. PMID:23420457

  2. The first pandemic of the 21st century: a review of the 2009 pandemic variant influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Scalera, Nikole M; Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Swine influenza was first described in the 1918 pandemic and made a resurgence in April 2009 in the form of a triple-reassortant influenza A virus, which is composed of a combination of human, swine, and Eurasian avian strains. As evidenced with previous influenza pandemics, young adults and children aged < 24 years are the population most affected. Definitive diagnosis has largely been limited by the inability of conventional influenza testing to distinguish among influenza A subtypes; however, the surge in pandemic cases clearly emerged at the end of the annual influenza season in the northern hemisphere. The pandemic variant influenza A (H1N1) strain is typically susceptible to oseltamivir and resistant to adamantanes, unlike the 2008 to 2009 seasonal influenza A (H1N1). However, 2 cases of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic-variant influenza A (H1N1) were reported in late August 2009. The full impact of the current pandemic is not yet clear, and further reassortment with the circulating seasonal influenza strains in the upcoming 2009 fall season could potentially lead to acquisition of widespread oseltamivir resistance. Vaccination will become paramount in importance for prevention and public health safety.

  3. Antigenic and genomic characterization of human influenza A and B viruses circulating in Argentina after the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed

  4. Influenza Virus Infection but Not H1N1 Influenza Virus Immunization Is Associated with Changes in Peripheral Blood NK Cell Subset Levels

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Reyes, A.; Noyola, D. E.; Monsiváis-Urenda, A.; Alvarez-Quiroga, C.

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defense against viral agents, and NK cells seem to have an important protective role during the early phases of influenza virus infections. We decided to assess the levels of NK and NKT lymphocytes and the expression levels of different membrane receptors (NKp44, NKp46, NKG2A, killer cell immune-like receptor [KIR] 3DL1/DS1, KIR2DL1/DS1, and CD161) in peripheral blood samples of patients with influenza (n = 17) and healthy individuals immunized against this virus (seasonal and [H1N1]pdm2009 influenza vaccines; n = 15 and 12, respectively). Blood samples were obtained from all individuals, and NK and NKT cell subsets were analyzed by multiparametric flow cytometry. We found that the patients with severe influenza (n = 9) showed significant increases in the percentages of NKp46+ NKp44+ NK cells and the proportions of NK and NKT lymphocytes expressing KIR2DL1 and KIR3DL1 and reductions in the percentages of NKp46+ NKp44− NK cells compared to those in the healthy controls (n = 27). In contrast, influenza immunization, against either the seasonal or the pandemic H1N1 virus, was not associated with important changes in the levels of NK and NKT lymphocytes or the expression levels of the different receptors by these cells. Our data suggest that severe influenza is associated with important and complex alterations on NK cells, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:23784853

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the neuraminidase gene of pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus circulating in the South American region.

    PubMed

    Comas, Victoria; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Soñora, Martin; Goñi, Natalia; Pereyra, Silvana; Ifran, Silvana; Moreno, Pilar; Cristina, Juan

    2015-02-02

    Molecular characterization of circulating influenza A viruses (IAV) in all regions of the world is essential to detect mutations potentially involved in increased virulence, anti-viral resistance and immune escape. In order to gain insight into these matters, a phylogenetic analysis of the neuraminidase (NA) gene of 146 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) influenza A virus strains isolated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay from 2009 to 2013 was performed. Comparison of vaccine strain A/California/7/2009 included in the influenza vaccine recommended for the Southern hemisphere from 2010 through 2013 influenza seasons and strains isolated in South America revealed several amino acid substitutions. Mapping of these substitutions revealed that most of them are located at the surface of the protein and do not interfere with the active site. 3.4% of the strains enrolled in these studies carried the H275Y substitution that confers resistance to oseltamivir. Strains isolated in South America differ from vaccine in two predicted B-cell epitope regions present at positions 102-103 and 351-352 of the NA protein. Moreover, vaccine and strains isolated in Paraguay differ also in an epitope present at position 229. These differences among strains isolated in South America and vaccine strain suggests that these epitopes may not be present in strains isolated in this region. A potential new N-linked glycosylation site was observed in the NA protein of an H1N1pdm IAV strain isolated in Brazil. The results of these studies revealed several genetic and antigenic differences in the NA of H1N1pdm IAV among vaccine and strains circulating in South America. All these findings contribute to our understanding of the course of genetic and antigenic evolution of H1N1pdm IAV populations circulating in the South American region and, consequently, contribute to the study and selection of future and more appropriate vaccines and anti-viral drugs.

  6. Aerosol Delivery of a Candidate Universal Influenza Vaccine Reduces Viral Load in Pigs Challenged with Pandemic H1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Sophie B.; Hemmink, Johanneke D.; Porter, Emily; Harley, Ross; Shelton, Holly; Aramouni, Mario; Everett, Helen E.; Brookes, Sharon M.; Bailey, Michael; Townsend, Alain M.; Charleston, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are a major health threat to livestock and humans, causing considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. Current inactivated influenza vaccines are strain specific and new vaccines need to be produced at frequent intervals to combat newly arising influenza virus strains, so that a universal vaccine is highly desirable. We show that pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in which the hemagglutinin signal sequence has been suppressed (S-FLU), when administered to pigs by aerosol can induce CD4 and CD8 T cell immune responses in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Neutralizing Ab was not produced. Detection of a BAL response correlated with a reduction in viral titer in nasal swabs and lungs, following challenge with H1N1 pandemic virus. Intratracheal immunization with a higher dose of a heterologous H5N1 S-FLU vaccine induced weaker BAL and stronger tracheobronchial lymph node responses and a lesser reduction in viral titer. We conclude that local cellular immune responses are important for protection against influenza A virus infection, that these can be most efficiently induced by aerosol immunization targeting the lower respiratory tract, and that S-FLU is a promising universal influenza vaccine candidate. PMID:27183611

  7. Sociodemographic Factors and Clinical Conditions Associated to Hospitalization in Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infected Patients in Spain, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Castro, Ady; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos; Garin, Olatz; Sáez, Marc; Soldevila, Nuria; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Domínguez, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1) virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27), hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71), chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16) and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds) were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88) and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43). The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08) or for three or more (OR 4.86) risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population. PMID:22412995

  8. Identification of Dominant Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Antigen of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vikram; Yang, Zheng; Hung, Ivan Fan Ngai; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Bojian

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) bridges innate and adaptive immunity, and it involves both humoral and cellular immune responses. ADCC has been found to be a main route of immune protection against viral infections in vivo. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is highly immunogenic and considered the most important target for immune protection. Several potent cross-reactive HA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been reported, and their conserved neutralizing epitopes have been revealed, but there has been no report so far about ADCC epitopes on HA. Here we identified two dominant ADCC epitopes, designated E1 (amino acids [aa] 92 to 117) and E2 (aa 124 to 159), on HA of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus by epitope mapping of convalescent-phase plasma IgG antibodies from six H1N1-infected human subjects in China that exhibited different levels of ADCC activity. The E1 and E2 ADCC epitopes overlapped with immunodominant epitopes of HA. Depletion of purified patient plasma IgG antibodies with EBY100 yeast cells expressing E1 or E2 decreased the ADCC activity of the IgG antibodies. E1 and E2 sequences were found to be highly conserved in H1N1 strains but less so in other subtypes of influenza A viruses. Our study may aid in designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies with high ADCC activity. Vaccine immunogens designed to include the structural determinants of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies and ADCC epitopes may confer comprehensive immune protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:23487456

  9. Antiviral activity of chlorogenic acid against influenza A (H1N1/H3N2) virus and its inhibition of neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yue; Cao, Zeyu; Cao, Liang; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb, rich in chlorogenic acid (CHA), is used for viral upper respiratory tract infection treatment caused by influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, ect in China. It was reported that CHA reduced serum hepatitis B virus level and death rate of influenza virus-infected mice. However, the underlying mechanisms of CHA against the influenza A virus have not been fully elucidated. Here, the antiviral effects and potential mechanisms of CHA against influenza A virus were investigated. CHA revealed inhibitory against A/PuertoRico/8/1934(H1N1) (EC50 = 44.87 μM), A/Beijing/32/92(H3N2) (EC50 = 62.33 μM), and oseltamivir-resistant strains. Time-course analysis showed CHA inhibited influenza virus during the late stage of infectious cycle. Indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated CHA down-regulated the NP protein expression. The inhibition of neuraminidase activity confirmed CHA blocked release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Intravenous injection of 100 mg/kg/d CHA possessed effective antiviral activity in mice, conferring 60% and 50% protection from death against H1N1 and H3N2, reducing virus titres and alleviating inflammation in the lungs effectively. These results demonstrate that CHA acts as a neuraminidase blocker to inhibit influenza A virus both in cellular and animal models. Thus, CHA has potential utility in the treatment of the influenza virus infection. PMID:28393840

  10. Reassortment between swine H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 generated diverse genetic constellations in influenza A viruses currently circulating in pigs in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant pathogen to the swine industry. Since its introduction in 2009, the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) has been repeatedly transmitted from humans to swine, but onward transmission in U.S. swine was mostly restricted to its internal genes. Reassortm...

  11. Human T-cells directed to seasonal influenza A virus cross-react with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and swine-origin triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Hillaire, Marine L B; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; de Mutsert, Gerrie; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2013-03-01

    Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cells contribute to protective immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) infections. As the majority of these cells are directed to conserved viral proteins, they may afford protection against IAVs of various subtypes. The present study assessed the cross-reactivity of human CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, induced by infection with seasonal A (H1N1) or A (H3N2) influenza virus, with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] and swine-origin triple-reassortant A (H3N2) [A(H3N2)v] viruses that are currently causing an increasing number of human cases in the USA. It was demonstrated that CD8(+) T-cells induced after seasonal IAV infections exerted lytic activity and produced gamma interferon upon in vitro restimulation with A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2)v influenza A viruses. Furthermore, CD8(+) T-cells directed to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus displayed a high degree of cross-reactivity with A(H3N2)v viruses. It was concluded that cross-reacting T-cells had the potential to afford protective immunity against A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the pandemic and offer some degree of protection against infection with A(H3N2)v viruses.

  12. Serologic evidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in northern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Zhu-Nan; Ip, Hon S.; Frost, Jessica F.; White, C. LeAnn; Murray, Michael J.; Carney, Paul J.; Sun, Xiang-Jie; Stevens, James; Levine, Min Z.; Katz, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic epizootics of pneumonia among marine mammals have been associated with multiple animal-origin influenza A virus subtypes (1–6); seals are the only known nonhuman host for influenza B viruses (7). Recently, we reported serologic evidence of influenza A virus infection in free-ranging northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) captured off the coast of Washington, USA, in August 2011 (8). To investigate further which influenza A virus subtype infected these otters, we tested serum samples from these otters by ELISA for antibody-binding activity against 12 recombinant hemagglutinins (rHAs) from 7 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and 2 lineages of influenza B virus (Technical Appendix Table 1). Estimated ages for the otters were 2–19 years (Technical Appendix Table 2); we also tested archived serum samples from sea otters of similar ages collected from a study conducted during 2001–2002 along the Washington coast (9).

  13. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Influenza A, Influenza A 2009 H1N1, and Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, E. M.; Poulter, M.; Dwyer, D.; Speers, D.; Rawlinson, W.; Baleriola, C.; Robinson, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection. PMID:22378908

  14. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection.

  15. HA1-2-fljB Vaccine Induces Immune Responses against Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xilong; Yang, Yun; Jiao, Yang; Song, Hongqin; Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Wu, Lili; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, a novel pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus caused a public emergency of international concern. Vaccination is the primary strategy for the control of influenza epidemics. However, the poor immunopotency of many vaccine antigens is a major barrier to the development of effective vaccines against influenza. Flagellin, a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) ligand, has been used as an adjuvant to enhance the immunopotency of vaccines in preclinical studies. Here, we developed a recombinant candidate vaccine, HA1-2-fljB, in which the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen (residues 62-284) from H1N1 virus was fused genetically to the N-terminus of Salmonella typhimurium fljB. The recombinant HA1-2-fljB protein was expressed efficiently in Escherichia coli, and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant HA1-2-fljB were evaluated in a mouse model. Immunization with HA1-2-fljB elicited robust IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibodies and completely protected the mice against infection by swine-origin influenza A/swine/Jangsu/38/2010 (H1N1). These results suggest that HA antigen placed at the N-terminus of flagellin is also an excellent starting point for creating a fusion HA1-2-fljB protein as a candidate vaccine, and the recombinant HA1-2-fljB protein will contribute to the development of a more effective vaccine against swine-origin influenza virus infection.

  16. A polyvalent influenza A DNA vaccine induces heterologous immunity and protects pigs against pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bragstad, Karoline; Vinner, Lasse; Hansen, Mette Sif; Nielsen, Jens; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-04-26

    The composition of current influenza protein vaccines has to be reconsidered every season to match the circulating influenza viruses, continuously changing antigenicity. Thus, influenza vaccines inducing a broad cross-reactive immune response would be a great advantage for protection against both seasonal and emerging influenza viruses. We have developed an alternative influenza vaccine based on DNA expressing selected influenza proteins of pandemic and seasonal origin. In the current study, we investigated the protection of a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine approach in pigs. We immunised pigs intradermally with a combination of influenza DNA vaccine components based on the pandemic 1918 H1N1 (M and NP genes), pandemic 2009 H1N1pdm09 (HA and NA genes) and seasonal 2005 H3N2 genes (HA and NA genes) and investigated the protection against infection with virus both homologous and heterologous to the DNA vaccine components. We found that pigs challenged with a virus homologous to the HA and NA DNA vaccine components were well protected from infection. In addition, heterologous challenge virus was cleared rapidly compared to the unvaccinated control pigs. Immunisation by electroporation induced HI antibodies >40 HAU/ml seven days after second vaccination. Heterologous virus challenge as long as ten weeks after last immunisation was able to trigger a vaccine antibody HI response 26 times higher than in the control pigs. The H3N2 DNA vaccine HA and NA genes also triggered an effective vaccine response with protective antibody titres towards heterologous H3N2 virus. The described influenza DNA vaccine is able to induce broadly protective immune responses even in a larger animal, like the pig, against both heterologous and homologous virus challenges despite relatively low HI titres after vaccination. The ability of this DNA vaccine to limit virus shedding may have an impact on virus spread among pigs which could possibly extend to humans as well, thereby diminishing the

  17. Swine influenza A (H1N1) virus (SIV) infection requiring extracorporeal life support in an immunocompetent adult patient with indirect exposure to pigs, Italy, October 2016.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Piralla, Antonio; Marzani, Federico Capra; Moreno, Ana; Campanini, Giulia; Mojoli, Francesco; Pozzi, Marco; Girello, Alessia; Chiapponi, Chiara; Vezzoli, Fausto; Prati, Paola; Percivalle, Elena; Pavan, Anna; Gramegna, Maria; Iotti, Giorgio Antonio; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of severe swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in an immunocompetent middle-aged man in October 2016 in Italy who had only indirect exposure to pigs. The patient developed a severe acute distress respiratory syndrome which was successfully supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and treated with antiviral therapy. The sole risk factor for influenza was a body mass index > 30 kg/m(2). After a month of hospitalisation, the patient was discharged in good health.

  18. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) for Early Event Detection of the H1N1 ("Swine Flu") Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    and other respiratory viruses, especially given the fact that our vaccine for H1N1 will be available later in the season. To that end, there have...the code V20 appeared quite often as a catch-all for many seemingly unrelated illnesses (e.g., flu, women’s wellness exams, HPV shots, etc).9 For...Influenza epidemiology and surveillance. Retrieved on August 29, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/ vaccines /recs/acip/downloads/mtg-slides-oct09/12-2- flu

  19. Systems-level comparison of host-responses elicited by avian H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suki M Y; Gardy, Jennifer L; Cheung, C Y; Cheung, Timothy K W; Hui, Kenrie P Y; Ip, Nancy Y; Guan, Y; Hancock, Robert E W; Peiris, J S Malik

    2009-12-14

    Human disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 can lead to a rapidly progressive viral pneumonia leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is increasing evidence from clinical, animal models and in vitro data, which suggests a role for virus-induced cytokine dysregulation in contributing to the pathogenesis of human H5N1 disease. The key target cells for the virus in the lung are the alveolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages, and we have shown that, compared to seasonal human influenza viruses, equivalent infecting doses of H5N1 viruses markedly up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in both primary cell types in vitro. Whether this H5N1-induced dysregulation of host responses is driven by qualitative (i.e activation of unique host pathways in response to H5N1) or quantitative differences between seasonal influenza viruses is unclear. Here we used microarrays to analyze and compare the gene expression profiles in primary human macrophages at 1, 3, and 6 h after infection with H5N1 virus or low-pathogenic seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus. We found that host responses to both viruses are qualitatively similar with the activation of nearly identical biological processes and pathways. However, in comparison to seasonal H1N1 virus, H5N1 infection elicits a quantitatively stronger host inflammatory response including type I interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha genes. A network-based analysis suggests that the synergy between IFN-beta and TNF-alpha results in an enhanced and sustained IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokine response at the early stage of viral infection that may contribute to the viral pathogenesis and this is of relevance to the design of novel therapeutic strategies for H5N1 induced respiratory disease.

  20. Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Krupodorova, Tetiana; Rybalko, Svetlana; Barshteyn, Victor

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of the mycelia of higher mushrooms against influenza virus type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), strain BH. All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as for influenza. For some of the investigated mushroom species-Pleurotus eryngii, Lyophyllum shimeji, and Flammulina velutipes-this is the first report of an anti-influenza effect. This study also reports the first data on the medicinal properties of A. aurea, including anti-influenza and antiherpetic activities. T. versicolor 353 mycelium was found to have a high therapeutic index (324.67), and may be a promising material for the pharmaceutical industry as an anti-influenza and antiherpetic agent with low toxicity. Mycelia with antiviral activity were obtained in our investigation by bioconversion of agricultural wastes (amaranth flour after CO2 extraction), which would reduce the cost of the final product and solve some ecological problems.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a surface mutant of the middle domain of PB2 from human influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Qiu, Hao; Yoshida, Toru; Tsumori, Yayoi; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    In the last hundred years, four influenza pandemics have been experienced, beginning with that in Spain in 1918. Influenza A virus causes severe pneumonia and its RNA polymerase is an important target for drug design. The influenza A (H1N1) virus has eight ribonucleoprotein complexes, which are composed of viral RNA, RNA polymerases and nucleoproteins. PB2 forms part of the RNA polymerase complex and plays an important role in binding to the cap structure of host mRNA. The middle domain of PB2 includes a cap-binding site. The structure of PB2 from H1N1 complexed with m(7)GTP has not been reported. Plate-like crystals of the middle domain of PB2 from H1N1 were obtained, but the quality of these crystals was not good. An attempt was made to crystallize the middle domain of PB2 complexed with m(7)GTP using a soaking method; however, electron density for m(7)GTP was not observed on preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. This protein has hydrophobic residues on its surface and is stable in the presence of high salt concentrations. To improve the solubility, a surface double mutant (P453H and I471T) was prepared. These mutations change the surface electrostatic potential drastically. The protein was successfully prepared at a lower salt concentration and good cube-shaped crystals were obtained using this protein. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of this mutant of the middle domain of PB2 are reported.

  2. Restored PB1-F2 into the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus has minimal effects in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PB1-F2 is an 87-90 amino acid long protein expressed by certain influenza A viruses. Previous studies have shown that PB1-F2 contributes to virulence in the mouse model; however, its role in natural hosts - pigs, humans, or birds - remains largely unknown. Outbreaks of domestic pigs infected with th...

  3. Assessment of the removal and inactivation of influenza viruses H5N1 and H1N1 by drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lénès, Dorothée; Deboosere, Nathalie; Ménard-Szczebara, Florence; Jossent, Jérôme; Alexandre, Virginie; Machinal, Claire; Vialette, Michèle

    2010-04-01

    Since 2003, there has been significant concern about the possibility of an outbreak of avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Moreover, in the last few months, a pandemic of a novel swine-origin influenza A virus, namely A(H1N1), has already caused hundreds of thousands of human cases of illness and thousands of deaths. As those viruses could possibly contaminate water resources through wild birds excreta or through sewage, the aim of our work was to find out whether the treatment processes in use in the drinking water industry are suitable for eradicating them. The effectiveness of physical treatments (coagulation-flocculation-settling, membrane ultrafiltration and ultraviolet) was assessed on H5N1, and that of disinfectants (monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and ozone) was established for both the H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Natural water samples were spiked with human H5N1/H1N1 viruses. For the coagulation-settling experiments, raw surface water was treated in jar-test pilots with 3 different coagulating agents (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, aluminum polychorosulfate). Membrane performance was quantified using a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration system. Ultraviolet irradiation experiments were conducted with a collimated beam that made it possible to assess the effectiveness of various UV doses (25-60 mJ/cm2). In the case of ozone, 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L residual concentrations were tested with a contact time of 10 min. Finally, for chlorine, chlorine dioxide and monochloramine treatments, several residual oxidant target levels were tested (from 0.3 to 3 mg/L) with contact times of 5-120 min. The infectivity of the H5N1 and H1N1 viruses in water samples was quantified in cell culture using a microtiter endpoint titration. The impact of coagulation-settling on the H5N1 subtype was quite low and variable. In contrast, ultrafiltration achieved more than a 3-log reduction (and more than a 4-log removal in most cases), and UV treatment was readily effective on its

  4. Protection by face masks against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on trans-Pacific passenger aircraft, 2009.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Zhibin; Ou, Jianming; Zeng, Guang; Fontaine, Robert E; Liu, Mingbin; Cui, Fuqiang; Hong, Rongtao; Zhou, Hang; Huai, Yang; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan; Leung, Yiu-Hong; Feng, Yunxia; Luo, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Yu, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0-0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect.

  5. Protection by Face Masks against Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Zhibin; Ou, Jianming; Zeng, Guang; Fontaine, Robert E.; Liu, Mingbin; Cui, Fuqiang; Hong, Rongtao; Zhou, Hang; Huai, Yang; Chuang, Shuk-Kwan; Leung, Yiu-Hong; Feng, Yunxia; Luo, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2013-01-01

    In response to several influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections that developed in passengers after they traveled on the same 2 flights from New York, New York, USA, to Hong Kong, China, to Fuzhou, China, we assessed transmission of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus on these flights. We defined a case of infection as onset of fever and respiratory symptoms and detection of virus by PCR in a passenger or crew member of either flight. Illness developed only in passengers who traveled on the New York to Hong Kong flight. We compared exposures of 9 case-passengers with those of 32 asymptomatic control-passengers. None of the 9 case-passengers, compared with 47% (15/32) of control-passengers, wore a face mask for the entire flight (odds ratio 0, 95% CI 0–0.71). The source case-passenger was not identified. Wearing a face mask was a protective factor against influenza infection. We recommend a more comprehensive intervention study to accurately estimate this effect. PMID:23968983

  6. [Outbreak of influenza pandemic virus A(H1N1) 2009 infections in the Emergency Department, Saint-Pierre, Réunion Island, July-September 2009].

    PubMed

    Staikowsky, F; Vanhecke, C; D'Andréa, C; Souab, A; Rakotoson, R; Michault, A

    2011-05-01

    A new H1N1 virus originating from swine recently emerged as the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. On July 3, 2009, this new influenza A(H1N1) virus (S-OIV) of swine origins was identified in Réunion Island, a French overseas department located in the southern hemisphere. The present study describes the characteristics of the epidemic from July 3 to September 30, 2009. Among the 479 patients included in our study (236 males, 37.3 ± 19.0 years), 255 (53.2%) were reported to have comorbidities or risk factors (RF) for complications. Complications occurred in 160 patients (33.4%). The most common complications were bronchial hyperreactivity (52.7%), pneumonia (32.1%), and decompensation caused by comorbidity (17.9%). 111 patients (23.2%) required hospitalization. Patients aged 65 and over, accounted for 11.9% of all patients, 32.4% of hospitalized patients and 22.5% of complicated S-OIV infections. Regardless of age, comorbidity and/or RF were reported in 80.0% of complicated S-OIV infections and 91.0% of hospitalized patients. Recommendations for surveillance, prevention and policy for persons with RF, particularly respiratory disease, are justified. However, the absence of risk factors did not prevent the occurrence of complications, present in 14.3% of the cases.

  7. Sequence analysis of the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus haemagglutinin gene from 2009-2010 Brazilian clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Leandro de Paula; Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Brígido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Oliveira, Maria Isabel de; Paiva, Terezinha Maria de; Santos, Cecília Luiza Simões dos

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA) gene identified by polymerase chain reaction from 90 influenza A H1N1 virus strains that circulated in Brazil from April 2009-June 2010. A World Health Organization sequencing protocol allowed us to identify amino acid mutations in the HA protein at positions S220T (71%), D239G/N/S (20%), Y247H (4.5%), E252K (3.3%), M274V (2.2%), Q310H (26.7%) and E391K (12%). A fatal outcome was associated with the D239G mutation (p < 0.0001). Brazilian HA genetic diversity, in comparison to a reference strain from California, highlights the role of influenza virus surveillance for study of viral evolution, in addition to monitoring the spread of the virus worldwide.

  8. Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Swati; Chusid, Michael J.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Havens, Peter L.; Kehl, Sue C.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Li, Shun-Hwa; Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2009-01-01

    On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW). The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2%) adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34%) tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested), with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for appropriate subtype

  9. Involvement of an Arginine Triplet in M1 Matrix Protein Interaction with Membranes and in M1 Recruitment into Virus-Like Particles of the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Moncorgé, Olivier; Panthu, Baptiste; Prchal, Jan; Décimo, Didier; Ohlmann, Théophile; Lina, Bruno; Favard, Cyril; Decroly, Etienne; Ottmann, Michèle; Roingeard, Philippe; Muriaux, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. In this study, we wanted to decipher the role of conserved basic residues of the viral M1 matrix protein in virus assembly and release. M1 plays many roles in the influenza virus replication cycle. Specifically, it participates in viral particle assembly, can associate with the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes and can bind to the cell plasma membrane and/or the cytoplasmic tail of viral transmembrane proteins. M1 contains an N-terminal domain of 164 amino acids with two basic domains: the nuclear localization signal on helix 6 and an arginine triplet (R76/77/78) on helix 5. To investigate the role of these two M1 basic domains in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus molecular assembly, we analyzed M1 attachment to membranes, virus-like particle (VLP) production and virus infectivity. In vitro, M1 binding to large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), which contain negatively charged lipids, decreased significantly when the M1 R76/77/78 motif was mutated. In cells, M1 alone was mainly observed in the nucleus (47%) and in the cytosol (42%). Conversely, when co-expressed with the viral proteins NS1/NEP and M2, M1 was relocated to the cell membranes (55%), as shown by subcellular fractionation experiments. This minimal system allowed the production of M1 containing-VLPs. However, M1 with mutations in the arginine triplet accumulated in intracellular clusters and its incorporation in VLPs was strongly diminished. M2 over-expression was essential for M1 membrane localization and VLP production, whereas the viral trans-membrane proteins HA and NA seemed dispensable. These results suggest that the M1 arginine triplet participates in M1 interaction with membranes. This R76/77/78 motif is essential for M1 incorporation in virus particles and the importance of this motif was confirmed by reverse genetic demonstrating that its mutation is lethal for the virus. These results highlight the molecular

  10. Globular Head-Displayed Conserved Influenza H1 Hemagglutinin Stalk Epitopes Confer Protection against Heterologous H1N1 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Klausberger, Miriam; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Neff, Silke; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Wilde, Monika; Palmberger, Dieter; Krammer, Florian; Jungbauer, Alois; Grabherr, Reingard

    2016-01-01

    Significant genetic variability in the head region of the influenza A hemagglutinin, the main target of current vaccines, makes it challenging to develop a long-lived seasonal influenza prophylaxis. Vaccines based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain might provide broader cross-reactive immunity. However, this region of the hemagglutinin is immunosubdominant to the head region. Peptide-based vaccines have gained much interest as they allow the immune system to focus on relevant but less immunogenic epitopes. We developed a novel influenza A hemagglutinin-based display platform for H1 hemagglutinin stalk peptides that we identified in an epitope mapping assay using human immune sera and synthetic HA peptides. Flow cytometry and competition assays suggest that the identified stalk sequences do not recapitulate the epitopes of already described broadly neutralizing stalk antibodies. Vaccine constructs displaying 25-mer stalk sequences provided up to 75% protection from lethal heterologous virus challenge in BALB/c mice and induced antibody responses against the H1 hemagglutinin. The developed platform based on a vaccine antigen has the potential to be either used as stand-alone or as prime-vaccine in combination with conventional seasonal or pandemic vaccines for the amplification of stalk-based cross-reactive immunity in humans or as platform to evaluate the relevance of viral peptides/epitopes for protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:27088239

  11. Immunogenicity, boostability, and sustainability of the immune response after vaccination against Influenza A virus (H1N1) 2009 in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Huijskens, Elisabeth; Rossen, John; Mulder, Paul; van Beek, Ruud; van Vugt, Hennie; Verbakel, Johannes; Rimmelzwaan, Guus; Koopmans, Marion; Peeters, Marcel

    2011-09-01

    The emergence of a new influenza A virus (H1N1) variant in 2009 led to a worldwide vaccination program, which was prepared in a relatively short period of time. This study investigated the humoral immunity against this virus before and after vaccination with a 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) monovalent MF59-adjuvanted vaccine, as well as the persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies. Our prospective longitudinal study included 498 health care workers (mean age, 43 years; median age, 44 years). Most (89%) had never or only occasionally received a seasonal influenza virus vaccine, and 11% were vaccinated annually (on average, for >10 years). Antibody titers were determined by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, and 5 weeks and 7 months after the second vaccination. Four hundred thirty-five persons received two doses of the 2009 vaccine. After the first dose, 79.5% developed a HI titer of ≥40. This percentage increased to 83.3% after the second dose. Persistent antibodies were found in 71.9% of the group that had not received annual vaccinations and in 43.8% of the group that had received annual vaccinations. The latter group tended to have lower HI titers (P=0.09). With increasing age, HI titers decreased significantly, by 2.4% per year. A single dose of the 2009 vaccine was immunogenic in almost 80% of the study population, whereas an additional dose resulted in significantly increased titers only in persons over 50. Finally, a reduced HI antibody response against the 2009 vaccine was found in adults who had previously received seasonal influenza virus vaccination. More studies on the effect of yearly seasonal influenza virus vaccination on the immune response are warranted.

  12. A novel bivalent vaccine based on a PB2-knockout influenza virus protects mice from pandemic H1N1 and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Kiso, Maki; Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kiyoko; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Takashita, Emi; Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-07-01

    Vaccination is an effective means to protect against influenza virus. Although inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines are currently available, each vaccine has disadvantages (e.g., immunogenicity and safety issues). To overcome these problems, we previously developed a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that replicates only in PB2 protein-expressing cells. Here, we generated two PB2-KO viruses whose PB2-coding regions were replaced with the HA genes of either A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm09) or A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The resultant viruses comparably, or in some cases more efficiently, induced virus-specific antibodies in the serum, nasal wash, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice relative to a conventional formalin-inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, mice immunized with these PB2-KO viruses were protected from lethal challenges with not only the backbone virus strain but also strains from which their foreign HAs originated, indicating that PB2-KO viruses with antigenically different HAs could serve as bivalent influenza vaccines.

  13. Clinical features and outcome of children and adolescents hospitalized with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection compared with flu-like symptoms and negative rapid tests for influenza A (H1N1) admitted in the same period of time.

    PubMed

    Tresoldi, Antoni T; Pereira, Ricardo M; Fraga, Andrea M A; Romaneli, Mariana T N; Omae, Cristiane C; Baracat, Emilio C E; Reis, Marcelo C; Miranda, Maria L F

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the clinical features and outcome of 61 pediatric hospitalized patients with influenza-like infection. Fever, cough and respiratory distress were the most common symptoms of the infection. Fifteen patients presented positive RT-PCR results for influenza A (H1N1). The group with positive results was compared with the negative one. The main significant difference was antibiotic usage and the need of mechanical ventilation in the patients with H1N1-virus infection. Among the 11 patients who required intensive care due to respiratory failure, 3 from the positive group died and none from the negative group.

  14. Involvement of the different lung compartments in the pathogenesis of pH1N1 influenza virus infection in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Vidaña, Beatriz; Martínez, Jorge; Martorell, Jaime; Montoya, María; Córdoba, Lorena; Pérez, Mónica; Majó, Natàlia

    2016-11-08

    Severe cases after pH1N1 infection are consequence of interstitial pneumonia triggered by alveolar viral replication and an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the influx of inflammatory leukocytes to the lungs. Different lung cell populations have been suggested as culprits in the unregulated innate immune responses observed in these cases. This study aims to clarify this question by studying the different induction of innate immune molecules by the distinct lung anatomic compartments (vascular, alveolar and bronchiolar) of ferrets intratracheally infected with a human pH1N1 viral isolate, by means of laser microdissection techniques. The obtained results were then analysed in relation to viral quantification in the different anatomic areas and the histopathological lesions observed. More severe lung lesions were observed at 24 h post infection (hpi) correlating with viral antigen detection in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. However, high levels of viral RNA were detected in all anatomic compartments throughout infection. Bronchiolar areas were the first source of IFN-α and most pro-inflammatory cytokines, through the activation of RIG-I. In contrast, vascular areas contributed with the highest induction of CCL2 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, through the activation of TLR3.

  15. A Hypothesis: Supplementation with Mushroom-Derived Active Compound Modulates Immunity and Increases Survival in Response to Influenza Virus (H1N1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chunchao, Han; Guo, Jian-you

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that the mushroom-derived active compound may be a potential strategy for increasing survival in response to influenza virus (H1N1) infection through the stimulation of host innate immune response. The validity of the hypothesis can be tested by immune response to influenza infection as seen through survival percentage, virus clearance, weight loss, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels, lytic efficiency in the spleens of mice and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expressions in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The hypothesis may improve people's quality of life, reduce the medical cost of our healthcare system and eliminate people's fears of influenza outbreak. PMID:21660092

  16. A Single Amino Acid in the HA of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Affects Cell Tropism in Human Airway Epithelium, but Not Transmission in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Shelton, Holly; Roberts, Kim L.; Jones, Ian M.; Pickles, Ray J.; Thompson, Catherine I.; Barclay, Wendy S.

    2011-01-01

    The first pandemic of the 21st century, pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 2009), emerged from a swine-origin source. Although human infections with swine-origin influenza have been reported previously, none went on to cause a pandemic or indeed any sustained human transmission. In previous pandemics, specific residues in the receptor binding site of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza have been associated with the ability of the virus to transmit between humans. In the present study we investigated the effect of residue 227 in HA on cell tropism and transmission of pH1N1 2009. In pH1N1 2009 and recent seasonal H1N1 viruses this residue is glutamic acid, whereas in swine influenza it is alanine. Using human airway epithelium, we show a differential cell tropism of pH1N1 2009 compared to pH1N1 2009 E227A and swine influenza suggesting this residue may alter the sialic acid conformer binding preference of the HA. Furthermore, both pH1N1 2009 E227A and swine influenza multi-cycle viral growth was found to be attenuated in comparison to pH1N1 2009 in human airway epithelium. However this altered tropism and viral growth in human airway epithelium did not abrogate respiratory droplet transmission of pH1N1 2009 E227A in ferrets. Thus, acquisition of E at residue 227 was not solely responsible for the ability of pH1N1 2009 to transmit between humans. PMID:21998692

  17. Identification of Low- and High-Impact Hemagglutinin Amino Acid Substitutions That Drive Antigenic Drift of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, William T.; Benton, Donald J.; Gregory, Victoria; Hall, James P. J.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Bedford, Trevor; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hay, Alan J.; McCauley, John W.; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Determining phenotype from genetic data is a fundamental challenge. Identification of emerging antigenic variants among circulating influenza viruses is critical to the vaccine virus selection process, with vaccine effectiveness maximized when constituents are antigenically similar to circulating viruses. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay data are commonly used to assess influenza antigenicity. Here, sequence and 3-D structural information of hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins were analyzed together with corresponding HI assay data for former seasonal influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates (1997–2009) and reference viruses. The models developed identify and quantify the impact of eighteen amino acid substitutions on the antigenicity of HA, two of which were responsible for major transitions in antigenic phenotype. We used reverse genetics to demonstrate the causal effect on antigenicity for a subset of these substitutions. Information on the impact of substitutions allowed us to predict antigenic phenotypes of emerging viruses directly from HA gene sequence data and accuracy was doubled by including all substitutions causing antigenic changes over a model incorporating only the substitutions with the largest impact. The ability to quantify the phenotypic impact of specific amino acid substitutions should help refine emerging techniques that predict the evolution of virus populations from one year to the next, leading to stronger theoretical foundations for selection of candidate vaccine viruses. These techniques have great potential to be extended to other antigenically variable pathogens. PMID:27057693

  18. Influenza A Viruses of Swine (IAV-S) in Vietnam from 2010 to 2015: Multiple Introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses into the Pig Population and Diversifying Genetic Constellations of Enzootic IAV-S.

    PubMed

    Takemae, Nobuhiro; Harada, Michiyo; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; To, Thanh Long; Nguyen, Tho Dang; Pham, Vu Phong; Le, Vu Tri; Do, Hoa Thi; Vo, Hung Van; Le, Quang Vinh Tin; Tran, Tan Minh; Nguyen, Thanh Duy; Thai, Phuong Duy; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Le, Anh Quynh Thi; Nguyen, Diep Thi; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    Active surveillance of influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) involving 262 farms and 10 slaughterhouses in seven provinces in northern and southern Vietnam from 2010 to 2015 yielded 388 isolates from 32 farms; these viruses were classified into H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Whole-genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates represented 15 genotypes, according to the genetic constellation of the eight segments. All of the H1N1 viruses were entirely A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, whereas all of the H1N2 and H3N2 viruses were reassortants among 5 distinct ancestral viruses: H1 and H3 triple-reassortant (TR) IAV-S that originated from North American pre-2009 human seasonal H1, human seasonal H3N2, and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. Notably, 93% of the reassortant IAV-S retained M genes that were derived from A(H1N1)pdm09, suggesting some advantage in terms of their host adaptation. Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis revealed that multiple introductions of A(H1N1)pdm09 and TR IAV-S into the Vietnamese pig population have driven the genetic diversity of currently circulating Vietnamese IAV-S. In addition, our results indicate that a reassortant IAV-S with human-like H3 and N2 genes and an A(H1N1)pdm09 origin M gene likely caused a human case in Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Our current findings indicate that human-to-pig transmission as well as cocirculation of different IAV-S have contributed to diversifying the gene constellations of IAV-S in Vietnam.

  19. New Orf Virus (Parapoxvirus) Recombinant Expressing H5 Hemagglutinin Protects Mice against H5N1 and H1N1 Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Jörg; Amann, Ralf; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the versatile utility of the Parapoxvirus Orf virus (ORFV) as a vector platform for the development of potent recombinant vaccines. In this study we present the generation of new ORFV recombinants expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) or nucleoprotein (NP) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. Correct foreign gene expression was examined in vitro by immunofluorescence, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The protective potential of both recombinants was evaluated in the mouse challenge model. Despite adequate expression of NP, the recombinant D1701-V-NPh5 completely failed to protect mice from lethal challenge. However, the H5 HA-expressing recombinant D1701-V-HAh5n mediated solid protection in a dose-dependent manner. Two intramuscular (i.m.) injections of the HA-expressing recombinant protected all animals from lethal HPAIV infection without loss of body weight. Notably, the immunized mice resisted cross-clade H5N1 and heterologous H1N1 (strain PR8) influenza virus challenge. In vivo antibody-mediated depletion of CD4-positive and/or CD8-posititve T-cell subpopulations during immunization and/or challenge infection implicated the relevance of CD4-positive T-cells for induction of protective immunity by D1701-V-HAh5n, whereas the absence of CD8-positive T-cells did not significantly influence protection. In summary, this study validates the potential of the ORFV vectored vaccines also to combat HPAIV. PMID:24376753

  20. Different herd level factors associated with H1N1 or H1N2 influenza virus infections in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Simon, G; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2013-11-01

    Herd-level factors associated with European H1N1 or H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) infections were assessed by mean of a cross-sectional study carried out in 125 herds in France. Serum samples from 15 fattening pigs in each herd were tested by haemagglutination inhibition. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during the farm visit. Climatic conditions in the post-weaning and fattening rooms, where the sampled pigs were housed, were measured over 20 h. Factors associated with H1N1 or H1N2 sero-positive status of the herd were identified by logistic regressions for binary outcome. For both subtypes, the odds for a herd to be SIV sero-positive increased if there were more than two pig herds in the vicinity (OR=3.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-7.6, p<0.01 and OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5-8.1 p<0.01 for H1N1 and H1N2 respectively). Different factors were specifically associated with either H1N1 or H1N2 SIV infections. The odds for a herd to be H1N1 sero-positive were significantly increased by having a large number of pigs per pen in the post-weaning room (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.6, p=0.02), temperature setpoints below 25 °C (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.4, p=0.03) and below 24 °C (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.1, p=0.03) for the heating device in the farrowing room and the ventilation controller, respectively, and moving the pigs to the fattening facility via a room housing older pigs (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6, p=0.03). A H1N2 sero-positive status was associated with a brief down period in the farrowing room (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.3, p=0.03), small floor area per pig in the post-weaning pen (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.0, p=0.02), large-sized fattening room (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p=0.03), lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening room (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.0-5.8, p=0.04) and a temperature range of less than 5 °C controlling ventilation in the fattening facilities (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4-7.4, p<0

  1. Complete Protection against Influenza Virus H1N1 Strain A/PR/8/34 Challenge in Mice Immunized with Non-Adjuvanted Novirhabdovirus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Ronan N.; Mérour, Emilie; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Novirhabdoviruses like Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) are fish-infecting Rhabdoviruses belonging to the Mononegavirales order. By reverse genetics, we previously showed that a recombinant VHSV expressing the West Nile Virus (WNV) E glycoprotein could serve as a vaccine platform against WNV. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of the Novirhabdovirus platform as a vaccine against influenza virus. Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses, rVHSV-HA and rIHNV-HA, expressing at the viral surface the hemagglutinin HA ectodomain were generated and used to immunized mice. We showed that mice immunized with either, rVHSV-HA or rIHNV-HA, elicited a strong neutralizing antibody response against influenza virus. A complete protection was conferred to the immunized mice when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza H1N1 A/PR/8/34 virus. Furthermore we showed that although acting as inert antigen in mice, since naturally inactivated over 20°C, mice immunized with rVHSV-HA or rIHNV-HA in the absence of adjuvant were also completely protected from a lethal challenge. Novirhabdoviruses platform are of particular interest as vaccines for mammals since they are cost effective to produce, relatively easy to generate and very effective to protect immunized animals. PMID:27711176

  2. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza virus (IV) infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV) in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors