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Sample records for h295r adrenocortical cell

  1. Azelnidipine inhibits aldosterone synthesis and secretion in human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Tsuyoshi; Ikeda, Keiichi; Takada, Yuko; Inada, Yuri; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Tajima, Naoko

    2009-03-01

    Blockade of a mineralocorticoid receptor is a clinically useful approach to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of azelnidipine, a unique dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel blocker, on aldosterone production in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R. Azelnidipine inhibited angiotensin II- and KCl-induced expression of steroid 11beta-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and the alpha1H subunit of the T-type Ca(2+) channel, and suppressed steroid biosynthesis in H295R cells by the same amount as efonidipine. On the basis of these findings, azelnidipine appears to suppress steroid biosynthesis in H295R cells beyond the blockade of L-type calcium channels.

  2. H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells as a Screening Platform for Steroidogenesis (NC SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones is essential for development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carc...

  3. H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells as a Screening Platform for Steroidogenesis (NC SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones is essential for development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carc...

  4. Effects of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are essential for proper development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were used to evalu...

  5. Effects of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are essential for proper development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were used to evalu...

  6. Dihydrotestosterone Stimulates Aldosterone Secretion by H295R Human Adrenocortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanes, Licy L.; Romero, Damian G.

    2009-01-01

    Men exhibit a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases than do women. The cardiovascular actions of sex steroids have been suggested as primary factors in mediating this sex difference. The mechanisms by which sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, mediate cardiovascular actions remain unclear. Excess aldosterone secretion has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The hypothesis tested in this study was that at physiological concentrations, androgens stimulate and estradiol inhibits aldosterone secretion by human adrenal cells. In contrast to our hypothesis, physiological concentrations of sex steroids did not modify aldosterone secretion by H295R human adrenocortical cells. However, supraphysiological concentrations (300–1000 nM) of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) significantly stimulated basal and Angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion. The stimulatory effect of DHT on aldosterone secretion was not blocked by the classical androgen receptor blocker flutamide. The stimulatory effect of DHT on aldosterone secretion was also independent of the intra-adrenal renin angiotensin system since it was neither modified by treatment with the Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker losartan or the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitor captopril. Inhibitors of the calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and protein kinase C intracellular signaling pathways abolished the DHT stimulatory effect on aldosterone secretion by H295R cells. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of sex steroids did not modify aldosterone secretion by human adrenal cells. However, supraphysiological concentrations of DHT stimulated aldosterone secretion by human adrenal cells by the calmodulin/CaMK and protein kinase C intracellular signaling pathways but independently of the classical androgen receptor. Supraphysiological doses of androgen may promote cardiovascular diseases via stimulation of aldosterone secretion. PMID:19428991

  7. Dihydrotestosterone stimulates aldosterone secretion by H295R human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Yanes, Licy L; Romero, Damian G

    2009-05-06

    Men exhibit a higher incidence of cardiovascular diseases than do women. The cardiovascular actions of sex steroids have been suggested as primary factors in mediating this sex difference. The mechanisms by which sex steroids, androgens and estrogens, mediate cardiovascular actions remain unclear. Excess aldosterone secretion has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The hypothesis tested in this study was that at physiological concentrations, androgens stimulate and estradiol inhibits aldosterone secretion by human adrenal cells. In contrast to our hypothesis, physiological concentrations of sex steroids did not modify aldosterone secretion by H295R human adrenocortical cells. However, supraphysiological concentrations (300-1000 nM) of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) significantly stimulated basal and Angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion. The stimulatory effect of DHT on aldosterone secretion was not blocked by the classical androgen receptor blocker flutamide. The stimulatory effect of DHT on aldosterone secretion was also independent of the intra-adrenal renin-angiotensin system since it was neither modified by treatment with the Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker losartan or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Inhibitors of the calmodulin/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and protein kinase C intracellular signaling pathways abolished the DHT stimulatory effect on aldosterone secretion by H295R cells. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of sex steroids did not modify aldosterone secretion by human adrenal cells. However, supraphysiological concentrations of DHT-stimulated aldosterone secretion by human adrenal cells by the calmodulin/CaMK and protein kinase C intracellular signaling pathways but independently of the classical androgen receptor. Supraphysiological doses of androgen may promote cardiovascular diseases via stimulation of aldosterone secretion.

  8. High-throughput screening of chemical effects on steroidogenesis using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2,060 chemical samples...

  9. High-throughput screening of chemical effects on steroidogenesis using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2,060 chemical samples...

  10. Modulation of proteomic profile in H295R adrenocortical cell line induced by mitotane.

    PubMed

    Stigliano, A; Cerquetti, L; Borro, M; Gentile, G; Bucci, B; Misiti, S; Piergrossi, P; Brunetti, E; Simmaco, M; Toscano, V

    2008-03-01

    Mitotane, 1,1-dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chloro-phenyl) ethane (o,p'-DDD), is a compound that represents the effective agent in the treatment of the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), able to block cortisol synthesis. In this type of cancer, the biological mechanism induced by this treatment remains still unknown. In this study, we have already shown a greater impairment in the first steps of the steroidogenesis and recognized a little effect on cell cycle. We also evaluated the variation of proteomic profile of the H295R ACC cell line, either in total cell extract or in mitochondria-enriched fraction after treatment with mitotane. In total cell extracts, triose phosphate isomerase, alpha-enolase, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, peroxiredoxin II and VI, heat shock protein 27, prohibitin, histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein, and profilin-1 showed a different expression. In the mitochondrial fraction, the following proteins appeared to be down regulated: aldolase A, peroxiredoxin I, heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, tubulin-beta isoform II, heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, and nucleotide diphosphate kinase, whereas adrenodoxin reductase, cathepsin D, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A were positively up-regulated. This study represents the first proteomic study on the mitotane effects on ACC. It permits to identify some protein classes affected by the drug involved in energetic metabolism, stress response, cytoskeleton structure, and tumorigenesis.

  11. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  12. Antiandrogenic mechanisms of pesticides in human LNCaP prostate and H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Christina N; Rivest, Patricia; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several pesticides suspected or known to have endocrine disrupting effects were screened for pro- or antiandrogenic properties by determining their effects on proliferation, prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) secretion and androgen receptor (AR) expression, and AR phosphorylation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, as well as on the expression and catalytic activity of the enzyme CYP17 in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, an in vitro model of steroidogenesis. Effects on SRD5A gene expression were determined in both cell lines. Benomyl, vinclozolin, and prochloraz, but not atrazine, concentration dependently (1-30 μM) decreased dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-stimulated proliferation of LNCaP cells. All pesticides except atrazine decreased DHT-stimulated PSA secretion, AR nuclear accumulation, and AR phosphorylation on serines 81 and 213 in LNCaP cells. Benomyl and prochloraz, but not vinclozolin or atrazine, decreased levels of CYP17 gene and protein expression, as well as catalytic activity in H295R cells. In the case of prochloraz, some of these effects corresponded with cytotoxicity. H295R cells expressed AR protein and SRD5A1, but not SRD5A2 transcripts. SRD5A1 gene expression in H295R cells was increased by 10 nM DHT, whereas in LNCaP cells significant induction was observed by 0.1 nM DHT. AR protein expression in H295R cells was not increased by DHT. Vinclozolin decreased DHT-induced SRD5A1 gene expression in LNCaP, but not H295R cells, indicating a functional difference of AR between the cell lines. In conclusion, pesticides may exert antiandrogenic effects through several mechanisms that are cell type-specific, including AR antagonism and down-regulation or catalytic inhibition of androgen biosynthetic enzymes, such as CYP17 and SRD5A1. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded.

  14. Pregnane Glycosides Interfere With Steroidogenic Enzymes to Down-Regulate Corticosteroid Production in Human Adrenocortical H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    KOMARNYTSKY, SLAVKO; ESPOSITO, DEBORA; POULEV, ALEXANDER; RASKIN, ILYA

    2013-01-01

    A group of bioactive steroidal glycosides (pregnanes) with anorectic activity in animals was isolated from several genera of milkweeds including Hoodia and Asclepias. In this study, we investigated the effects, structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of action of pregnane glycosides on steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical H295R cells. Administration of pregnane glycosides for 24 h suppressed the basal and forskolin-stimulated release of androstenedione, corticosterone, and cortisone from H295R cells. The conversion of progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to either androstenedione or 11-deoxycortisol was most strongly affected, with 12-cinnamoyl-, benzoyl-, and tigloyl-containing pregnanes showing the highest activity. Incubation of pregnane glycosides for 24 h had no effect on mRNA transcripts of CYP11A1, CYP21A1, CYP11B1 cytochrome enzymes and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StaR) protein, yet resulted in twofold decrease in HSD3B1 mRNA levels. At the same time, pregnane glycosides had no effect on the CYP1, 2, or 3 drug and steroid metabolism enzymes and showed weak Na+/K+ ATPase and glucocorticoid receptor binding. Taken together, these data suggest that pregnane glycosides specifically suppress steroidogenesis through strong inhibition of 11β-hydroxylase and steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase, and weak inhibition of cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme and 21β-hydroxylase, but not 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. PMID:23065845

  15. Effects of chromium(III) picolinate on cortisol and DHEAs secretion in H295R human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beob G; Adams, Julye M; Jackson, Brian A; Lindemann, Merlin D

    2010-02-01

    Dietary chromium(III) picolinate (CrPic) effects on circulating steroid hormones have been reported in various experimental animals. However, direct effects of CrPic on adrenocortical steroidogenesis are uncertain. Therefore, the objective was to determine the effects of CrPic on cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAs) secretion from H295R cells. In experiment 1, a 24-h exposure to CrPic (0 to 200 microM) had both linear (p < 0.001) and quadratic (p < 0.001) effects on cortisol secretion from forskolin-stimulated cells with the highest cortisol secretion at 0.1 microM of CrPic and the lowest at 200 microM of CrPic. In experiment 2, a 48-h exposure to CrPic (200 microM) decreased cortisol (p < 0.07) release from forskolin-stimulated cells during a 24-h collection period. In experiment 3, a 48-h exposure to CrPic (100 microM) decreased cortisol (p < 0.05) and DHEAs (p < 0.01) from forskolin-stimulated cells during a 24-h sampling period. In experiment 4, a 24-h exposure to forskolin followed by a 24-h exposure to both forskolin and CrPic (100 and 200 microM) decreased both cortisol and DHEAs secretion (p < 0.01). This study suggests that at high concentrations, CrPic inhibits aspects of steroidogenesis in agonist-stimulated adrenocortical cells.

  16. Perfluorinated compounds differentially affect steroidogenesis and viability in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) in vitro cell assay.

    PubMed

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Zimmer, Karin E; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven

    2011-08-10

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) comprise a large class of man-made chemicals of which some are persistent and present throughout the ecosystem. This raises concerns about potential harmful effects of such PFCs on humans and the environment. In order to investigate the effects of potentially harmful PFCs on steroid hormone production, human adrenocortical H295R cells were exposed to three persistent PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at six different concentrations (6nM to 600μM) for 48h. Exposure to 600μM PFOS resulted in a dose-responsive increase in oestradiol as well as a smaller dose-responsive increase in progesterone and testosterone secretion measured using radioimmunoassay. The aromatase activity was not significantly altered by PFOS. Only small changes in hormone secretion were detected following exposure to PFOA and PFNA. Gene expression of CYP11A, quantified using qRT-PCR was decreased by all exposure doses of PFOA, whereas HMGR expression was decreased by 60nM PFNA. The viability markedly decreased by exposure to 600μM of PFOA or PFNA, but not PFOS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in apoptosis following exposure to PFNA at the highest concentration. We conclude that PFOS is capable of altering steroidogenesis in the H295R in vitro model by a mechanism other than changes in gene expression or activity of aromatase. Additionally, PFCs appear to differentially affect cell viability with induction of cell death via apoptosis at high doses of PFNA.

  17. PROFILING GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN H295R ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA CELLS AND RAT TESTES TO IDENTIFY PATHWAYS OF TOXICITY FOR CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Profiling Gene Expression in Human H295R Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells and Rat Testes to Identify Pathways of Toxicity for Conazole Fungicides
    Ren1, H., Schmid1, J., Retief2, J., Turpaz2, Y.,Zhang3, X.,Jones3, P., Newsted3, J.,Giesy3, J., Wolf1, D.,Wood1, C., Bao1, W., Dix1, ...

  18. PROFILING GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN H295R ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA CELLS AND RAT TESTES TO IDENTIFY PATHWAYS OF TOXICITY FOR CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Profiling Gene Expression in Human H295R Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells and Rat Testes to Identify Pathways of Toxicity for Conazole Fungicides
    Ren1, H., Schmid1, J., Retief2, J., Turpaz2, Y.,Zhang3, X.,Jones3, P., Newsted3, J.,Giesy3, J., Wolf1, D.,Wood1, C., Bao1, W., Dix1, ...

  19. The effect of mitotane on viability, steroidogenesis and gene expression in NCI‑H295R adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Tomasz P; Wrzesiński, Tomasz; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2013-03-01

    Mitotane, also known as o,p'‑DDD or (RS)‑1‑chl-oro‑2‑[2,2‑dichloro‑1‑(4‑chlorophenyl)‑ethyl]‑benzene, is an adrenal cortex-specific cytotoxic drug used in the therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The drug also inhibits steroidogenesis, however, the mechanisms of its anticancer and antisteroidogenic effects remain unknown. At present, data on the impact of mitotane on cell viability and the regulation of genes encoding proteins associated with steroids synthesis in the adrenal cortex, including cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), are limited and contradictory. In the present study, the effect of 24‑h mitotane treatment on viability of the ACC cell line, NCI‑H295R, was analyzed, identifying a decrease in cell viability and an increase in caspase‑3 and ‑7 activities. Mitotane treatment also led to decreased cortisol and DHEAS concentration in the culture media. Concomitantly, mitotane resulted in decreased mRNA levels of two cytochromes P450 (CYP11A1 and CYP17A1), mRNAs encoding proteins involved in the synthesis of cortisol and DHEAS. Mitotane did not affect mRNA levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (encoding p21) and MYC (encoding cMyc). cMyc and p21 are key transcription factors associated with cell cycle regulation. However, mitotane inhibited expression of transforming growth factor β1 gene, encoding a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. PRKAR1A, a protein kinase A regulatory subunit, is involved in the activation of steroidogenesis. PRKAR1A mRNA levels were reduced following 24‑h treatment with mitotane. Results indicate that mitotane markedly inhibited expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, secretion of cortisol and DHEAS. Reduced expression of TGFB1 cannot account fully for the effect of mitotane on CYP11A1 and CYP17A1. We hypothesized that reduced viability of NCI‑H295R cells in the presence of mitotane may be a result of apoptosis triggered by increased

  20. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis Using H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Colleen M.; Filer, Dayne L.; Lewis, Kenneth C.; Martin, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2060 chemical samples on steroidogenesis via high-performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 10 steroid hormones, including progestagens, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. The study employed a 3 stage screening strategy. The first stage established the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC; ≥ 70% viability) per sample. The second stage quantified changes in hormone levels at the MTC whereas the third stage performed concentration-response (CR) on a subset of samples. At all stages, cells were prestimulated with 10 µM forskolin for 48 h to induce steroidogenesis followed by chemical treatment for 48 h. Of the 2060 chemical samples evaluated, 524 samples were selected for 6-point CR screening, based in part on significantly altering at least 4 hormones at the MTC. CR screening identified 232 chemical samples with concentration-dependent effects on 17β-estradiol and/or testosterone, with 411 chemical samples showing an effect on at least one hormone across the steroidogenesis pathway. Clustering of the concentration-dependent chemical-mediated steroid hormone effects grouped chemical samples into 5 distinct profiles generally representing putative mechanisms of action, including CYP17A1 and HSD3B inhibition. A distinct pattern was observed between imidazole and triazole fungicides suggesting potentially distinct mechanisms of action. From a chemical testing and prioritization perspective, this assay platform provides a robust model for high-throughput screening of chemicals for effects on steroidogenesis. PMID:26781511

  1. Orexin-A regulates cell apoptosis in human H295R adrenocortical cells via orexin receptor type 1 through the AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaocen; Zhao, Yuyan; Ju, Shujing; Guo, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of orexin-A to regulate adrenocortical cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, human H295R adrenocortical cells were exposed to orexin‑A (10‑10-10‑6 M), with orexin receptor type 1 (OX1 receptor) antagonist SB334867 or AKT antagonist PF‑04691502. It was found that orexin‑A stimulated H295R cell proliferation, reduced the pro‑apoptotic activity of caspase‑3 to protect against apoptotic cell death and increased cortisol secretion. Furthermore, phospho‑AKT protein was increased by orexin‑A. SB334867 (10‑6 M) and PF‑04691502 (10‑6 M) abolished the effects of orexin‑A (10‑6 M). These results suggested that the orexin‑A/OX1 receptor axis has a significant pro-survival function in adrenal cells, which is mediated by AKT activation. Further studies investigating the effects of orexin-A-upregulation may further elucidate the diverse biological effects of orexin-A in adrenal cells.

  2. Interleukin-6 increases the expression of key proteins associated with steroidogenesis in human NCI-H295R adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Janae; McIlmoil, Stephen; Williams, Brice J; Seager, Dennis C; Porter, James P; Judd, Allan M

    2017-03-01

    Mechanisms of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced cortisol release (CR) were investigated by exposing H295R cells to IL-6 and determining mRNA/protein expression (PCR/western blots) for steroidogenic enzymes (SE), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) (enhances SE/StAR expression), activator protein 1 (AP-1) (regulates SE/StAR expression) and adrenal hypoplasia congenita-like protein (DAX-1) (inhibits SE/StAR expression). Promoter activity of StAR (SPA) was measured by a luciferase-coupled promoter. Cortisol release was increased by 10ng/mL IL-6 (24h P<0.01). Proteins/mRNAs (StAR, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, SF-1, AP-1) and SPA were increased by IL-6 (60min 1-50ng/mL IL-6; 5ng/mL IL-6 30-120min P<0.05). Four other SE proteins/mRNAs were also increased by 10ng/mL IL-6 (60min P<0.01). Protein/mRNA for DAX-1 was decreased by IL-6 (60min 1-50ng/mL IL-6; 5ng/mL IL-6 30-120min P<0.01). Phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) was increased by IL-6 (JAK2 60min 1-50ng/mL IL-6; 10ng/mL IL-6 5-60min P<0.05; STAT1 and STAT3 60min 10ng/mL IL-6 P<0.01). Inhibition of JAK/STAT with AG490 (10μM) or piceatannol (50μM) blocked (P<0.01 10ng/mL IL-6vs. IL-6 plus AG490 or piceatannol) IL-6-induced increases in SPA and StAR mRNA. In summary, IL-6-induced CR may be facilitated by increased StAR and SE mediated by increased SF-1 and AP-1, decreased DAX-1, and increased phosphorylation of JAK/STAT.

  3. Effects of Neonicotinoids on Promoter-Specific Expression and Activity of Aromatase (CYP19) in Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma (H295R) and Primary Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) Cells.

    PubMed

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Denison, Michael S; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (CYP19; cytochrome P450 19) in humans undergoes highly tissue- and promoter-specific regulation. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, aromatase is over-expressed via several normally inactive promoters (PII, I.3, I.7). Aromatase biosynthesizes estrogens, which stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation. The placenta produces estrogens required for healthy pregnancy and the major placental CYP19 promoter is I.1. Exposure to certain pesticides, such as atrazine, is associated with increased CYP19 expression, but little is known about the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on CYP19. We developed sensitive and robust RT-qPCR methods to detect the promoter-specific expression of CYP19 in human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) and primary umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, and determined the potential promoter-specific disruption of CYP19 expression by atrazine and the commonly used neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. In H295R cells, atrazine concentration-dependently increased PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase catalytic activity. Thiacloprid and thiamethoxam induced PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase activity at relatively low concentrations (0.1-1.0 µM), exhibiting non-monotonic concentration-response curves with a decline in gene induction and catalytic activity at higher concentrations. In HUVEC cells, atrazine slightly induced overall (promoter-indistinct) CYP19 expression (30 µM) and aromatase activity (≥ 3 µM), without increasing I.1 promoter activity. None of the neonicotinoids increased CYP19 expression or aromatase activity in HUVEC cells. Considering the importance of promoter-specific (over)expression of CYP19 in disease (breast cancer) or during sensitive developmental periods (pregnancy), our newly developed RT-qPCR methods will be helpful tools in assessing the risk that neonicotinoids and other chemicals may pose to exposed women. © The Author 2015

  4. Induction and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity by natural and synthetic flavonoid compounds in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J Thomas; Hordijk, Joost; Denison, Michael S; Springsteel, Mark F; Nantz, Michael H; van den Berg, Martin

    2004-11-01

    Flavonoids and related structures (e.g., flavones, isoflavones, flavanones, catechins) exert various biological effects, including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and (anti-)estrogenic effects, and modulation of sex hormone homeostasis. A key enzyme in the synthesis of estrogens from androgens is aromatase (cytochrome P450 19; CYP19). We investigated the effects of various natural and synthetic flavonoids on the catalytic activity and promoter-specific expression of aromatase in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Natural flavones were consistently more potent inhibitors than flavanones. IC(50) values for 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, and apigenin were 4, 7, and 20 microM, respectively; for the flavanones 7-hydroxyflavanone and naringenin the IC(50) values were 65 and 85 microM, respectively. The steroidal aromatase inhibitor (positive control) 4-hydroxyandrostenedione had an IC(50) of 20 nM. The inhibition by apigenin and naringenin coincided with some degree of cytotoxicity at 100 microM. The natural flavonoid derivative rotenone (IC(50) 0.3 microM) was the most potent aromatase inhibitor tested. Several synthetic flavonoid and structurally related quinolin-4-one analogs inhibited aromatase activity. The most potent inhibitor was 4'-tert-butyl-quinolin-4-one (IC(50) 2 microM), followed by two 2-pyridinyl-substituted alpha-naphthoflavones (IC(50)s 5 and >30 microM). The two 2-pyridinyl-substituted gamma-naphthoflavones consistently produced biphasic concentration-response curves, causing about 1.5-fold aromatase induction at concentrations below 1 microM and inhibition above that level (IC(50)s 7 and >30 microM). The natural flavone quercetin and isoflavone genistein induced aromatase activity 4- and 2.5-fold induction, respectively, at 10 microM. This coincided with increased intracellular cAMP concentrations and increased levels of the cAMP-dependent pII and to a lesser extent 1.3 promoter-specific aromatase transcripts. These results shed light on the

  5. Mitotane effects in a H295R xenograft model of adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindhe, O; Skogseid, B

    2010-09-01

    Adrenocortical cancer is one of the most aggressive endocrine malignancies. Growth through the capsule or accidental release of cancer cells during surgery frequently results in metastatic disease. We investigated the antitumoral effect of 2 adrenocorticolytic compounds, O, P'-DDD and MeSO2-DDE, in the adrenocortical cell line H295R both in vitro and as a xenograft model in vivo. H295R cells were injected s. c. in nude mice. O, P'-DDD, MeSO2-DDE, or oil (control) was administered i. p., either simultaneously with cell injection at day 0 (mimicking adjuvant treatment), or at day 48 (established tumors). Accumulation of PET tracers [ (11)C]methionine (MET), [ (11)C] metomidate (MTO), 2-deoxy-2-[ (18)F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG), and [ (18)F]-l-tyrosine (FLT) in the aggregates were assessed +/- drug treatment in vitro. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited when O, P'-DDD was given at the same time as injection of tumor cells. No significant growth inhibition was observed after treatment with O, P'-DDD at day 48. A significant reduction in FLT uptake and an increased FDG uptake, compared to control, were observed following treatment with 15 microM O, P'-DDD (p<0.01) in vitro. MeSO2-DDE (15 microM) treatment gave rise to a reduced MET and an increased FLT uptake (p<0.01). Both compounds reduced the uptake of MTO compared to control (p<0.01). Treatment with O, P'-DDD simultaneously to inoculation of H295R cells in mice, imitating release of cells during surgery, gave a markedly better effect than treatment of established H295R tumors. We suggest that FLT may be a potential PET biomarker when assessing adrenocortical cancer treatment with O,P'-DDD. Further studies in humans are needed to investigate this.

  6. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    PubMed

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  7. Resveratrol inhibits androgen production of human adrenocortical H295R cells by lowering CYP17 and CYP21 expression and activities

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Nesa; Bouchoucha, Nadia; Sauter, Kay-Sara

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural compound found in grapes, became very popular for its suggested protective effects against aging. It was reported to have similar positive effects on the human metabolism as caloric restriction. Recently, positive effects of resveratrol on steroid biosynthesis in cell systems and in humans suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have also been reported, but the exact mechanism of this action remains unknown. Sirtuins seem targeted by resveratrol to mediate its action on energy homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on steroidogenesis in human adrenal H295R cells. Resveratrol was found to inhibit protein expression and enzyme activities of CYP17 and CYP21. It did not alter CYP17 and CYP21 mRNA expression, nor protein degradation. Only SIRT3 mRNA expression was found to be altered by resveratrol, but SIRT1, 3 and 5 overexpression did not result in a change in the steroid profile of H295R cells, indicating that resveratrol may not engage sirtuins to modulate steroid production. Previous studies showed that starvation leads to a hyperandrogenic steroid profile in H295R cells through inhibition of PKB/Akt signaling, and that resveratrol inhibits steroidogenesis of rat ovarian theca cells via the PKB/Akt pathway. Therefore, the effect of resveratrol on PKB/Akt signaling was tested in H295R cells and was found to be decreased under starvation growth conditions, but not under normal growth conditions. Overall, these properties of action together with recent clinical findings make resveratrol a candidate for the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders such as PCOS. PMID:28323907

  8. Resveratrol inhibits androgen production of human adrenocortical H295R cells by lowering CYP17 and CYP21 expression and activities.

    PubMed

    Marti, Nesa; Bouchoucha, Nadia; Sauter, Kay-Sara; Flück, Christa E

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural compound found in grapes, became very popular for its suggested protective effects against aging. It was reported to have similar positive effects on the human metabolism as caloric restriction. Recently, positive effects of resveratrol on steroid biosynthesis in cell systems and in humans suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have also been reported, but the exact mechanism of this action remains unknown. Sirtuins seem targeted by resveratrol to mediate its action on energy homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on steroidogenesis in human adrenal H295R cells. Resveratrol was found to inhibit protein expression and enzyme activities of CYP17 and CYP21. It did not alter CYP17 and CYP21 mRNA expression, nor protein degradation. Only SIRT3 mRNA expression was found to be altered by resveratrol, but SIRT1, 3 and 5 overexpression did not result in a change in the steroid profile of H295R cells, indicating that resveratrol may not engage sirtuins to modulate steroid production. Previous studies showed that starvation leads to a hyperandrogenic steroid profile in H295R cells through inhibition of PKB/Akt signaling, and that resveratrol inhibits steroidogenesis of rat ovarian theca cells via the PKB/Akt pathway. Therefore, the effect of resveratrol on PKB/Akt signaling was tested in H295R cells and was found to be decreased under starvation growth conditions, but not under normal growth conditions. Overall, these properties of action together with recent clinical findings make resveratrol a candidate for the treatment of hyperandrogenic disorders such as PCOS.

  9. The effects of the standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21) and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4). Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL) showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1) related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer. PMID:27188280

  10. Endocrine disruptive effects of cadmium on steroidogenesis: human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R as a cellular model for reproductive toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Knazicka, Zuzana; Forgacs, Zsolt; Lukacova, Jana; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Massanyi, Peter; Lukac, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a known endocrine disruptor with the ability to affect the production of hormones involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. In this study human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line NCI-H295R was used as an in vitro biological model to study the effect of cadmium (CdCl2) on steroidogenesis. The cell cultures were exposed to different concentrations of CdCl2 (1.90, 3.90, 7.80, 15.60, 31.20 and 62.50 μM) and compared to control (medium without CdCl2). Cell viability was measured by the metabolic activity (MTT) assay for estimation of mitochondria structural integrity. Quantification of sexual steroid production directly from aliquots of the medium was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following 48 h culture of the cells in the presence of CdCl2 a concentration-dependent depletion in progesterone production was observed at the lower concentrations of CdCl2. The lowest amount of progesterone was significantly detected in groups with the higher doses (≥ 31.20 μM) of CdCl2, which elicited significant (P < 0.01) cytotoxic action, too. Cadmium decreased testosterone release in the whole applied range even at the lower concentration of CdCl2. The release of 17β-estradiol decreased as well, but the decline was less pronounced compared to decrease of progesterone and testosterone. The cytotoxic effect was significantly (P < 0.01) detected at all concentrations of CdCl2 (1.90-62.50 μM) used in the study. However, the cell viability remained relatively high (>75%) up to 7.80 μM of CdCl2 and significantly (P < 0.01) decreased at 15.60 μM and higher concentrations of CdCl2. These results suggest that cadmium has endocrine disruptive effects on sexual steroid synthesis even at very low concentrations.

  11. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles regulate steroidogenic gene expression and steroid synthesis in the human H295R adrenocortical cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Chie; Noda, Shiho; Li Chunmei; Suzuki, Akira K; Taneda, Shinji; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-05-15

    Studies of nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) have revealed that these chemicals possess estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in vitro and in vivo and that PNMC accumulate in adrenal glands in vivo. However, the impacts of exposure to these compounds on adrenal endocrine disruption and steroidogenesis have not been investigated. To elucidate the non-receptor mediated effects of PNMC and PNMPP, we investigated the production of the steroid hormones progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol-17{beta} and modulation of nine major enzyme genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP17, CYP19, 17{beta}HSD1, 17{beta}HSD4, CYP21, 3{beta}HSD2, StAR) in human adrenal H295R cells supplied with cAMP. Exposure to 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} M PNMC and 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol-17{beta} levels and increased progesterone secretion. At 10{sup -5} M, PNMC with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP significantly stimulated expression of the 17{beta}HSD4 and significantly suppressed expression of 3{beta}HSD2. In comparison, 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} M PNMPP with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased concentrations of estradiol-17{beta}, increased progesterone levels, but did not affect testosterone and cortisol secretion due to the significant suppression of CYP17 and the non-significant but obvious suppression of CYP19. Our results clarified steroidogenic enzymes as candidates responsible for the inhibition or stimulation for the production of steroid hormones in the steroidogenic pathway, thus providing the first experimental evidence for multiple mechanisms of disruption of endocrine pathways by these nitrophenols.

  12. Transcriptional activation of human CYP17 in H295R adrenocortical cells depends on complex formation among p54(nrb)/NonO, protein-associated splicing factor, and SF-1, a complex that also participates in repression of transcription.

    PubMed

    Sewer, Marion B; Nguyen, Viet Q; Huang, Ching-Jung; Tucker, Philip W; Kagawa, Norio; Waterman, Michael R

    2002-04-01

    The first 57 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site of the human CYP17 (hCYP17) gene are essential for both basal and cAMP-dependent transcription. EMSA carried out by incubating H295R adrenocortical cell nuclear extracts with radiolabeled -57/-38 probe from the hCYP17 promoter showed the formation of three DNA-protein complexes. The fastest complex contained steroidogenic factor (SF-1) and p54(nrb)/NonO, the intermediate complex contained p54(nrb)/NonO and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF), and the slowest complex contained an SF-1/PSF/p54(nrb)/NonO complex. (Bu)(2)cAMP treatment resulted in a cAMP-inducible increase in the binding intensity of only the upper complex and also activated hCYP17 gene transcription. SF-1 coimmunoprecipitated with p54(nrb)/NonO, indicating direct interaction between these proteins. Functional assays revealed that PSF represses basal transcription. Further, the repression of hCYP17 promoter-reporter construct luciferase activity resulted from PSF interacting with the corepressor mSin3A. Trichostatin A attenuated the inhibition of basal transcription, suggesting that a histone deacetylase interacts with the SF-1/PSF/p54(nrb)/NonO/mSin3A complex. Our studies lend support to the idea that the balance between transcriptional activation and repression is essential in the control of adrenocortical steroid hormone biosynthesis.

  13. Blockade of T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels by benidipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, inhibits aldosterone production in human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R.

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Osamu; Inayoshi, Atsushi; Kitayama, Tetsuya; Yao, Kozo; Shirakura, Shiro; Sasaki, Katsutoshi; Kusaka, Hideaki; Matsubara, Masahiro

    2008-04-28

    Benidipine, a long-lasting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is used for treatment of hypertension and angina. Benidipine exerts pleiotropic pharmacological features, such as renoprotective and cardioprotective effects. In pathophysiological conditions, the antidiuretic hormone aldosterone causes development of renal and cardiovascular diseases. In adrenal glomerulosa cells, aldosterone is produced in response to extracellular potassium, which is mainly mediated by T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. More recently, it has been demonstrated that benidipine inhibits T-type Ca2+ channels in addition to L-type Ca2+ channels. Therefore, effect of calcium channel blockers, including benidipine, on aldosterone production and T-type Ca2+ channels using human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R was investigated. Benidipine efficiently inhibited KCl-induced aldosterone production at low concentration (3 and 10 nM), with inhibitory activity more potent than other calcium channel blockers. Patch clamp analysis indicated that benidipine concentration-dependently inhibited T-type Ca2+ currents at 10, 100 and 1000 nM. As for examined calcium channel blockers, inhibitory activity for T-type Ca2+ currents was well correlated with aldosterone production. L-type specific calcium channel blockers calciseptine and nifedipine showed no effect in both assays. These results indicate that inhibition of T-type Ca2+ channels is responsible for inhibition of aldosterone production in NCI-H295R cells. Benidipine efficiently inhibited KCl-induced upregulation of 11-beta-hydroxylase mRNA and aldosterone synthase mRNA as well as KCl-induced Ca2+ influx, indicating it as the most likely inhibition mechanism. Benidipine partially inhibited angiotensin II-induced aldosterone production, plus showed additive effects when used in combination with the angiotensin II type I receptor blocker valsartan. Benidipine also partially inhibited angiotensin II-induced upregulation of the above m

  14. Effects of single pesticides and binary pesticide mixtures on estrone production in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Prutner, Wiebke; Nicken, Petra; Haunhorst, Eberhard; Hamscher, Gerd; Steinberg, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used as an in vitro test system to investigate the effects of binary pesticide combinations on estrone production as biological endpoint. In the first step ten pesticides selected according to a tiered approach were tested individually. The anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and pyrimethanil as well as the dicarboximides iprodione and procymidone increased estrone concentration, while the triazoles myclobutanil and tebuconazole as well as the strobilurins azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl decreased estrone concentration in the supernatant of H295R cells. The N-methylcarbamate methomyl did not show any effects, and the phthalimide captan reduced estrone concentration unspecifically due to its detrimental impact on cellular viability. When cyprodinil and pyrimethanil, which belong to the same chemical group and increase estrone production, were combined, in most of the cases the overall effect was solely determined by the most potent compound in the mixture (i.e., cyprodinil). When cyprodinil and procymidone, which belong to different chemical groups but increase estrone production, were combined, in most cases an additive effect was observed. When cyprodinil, which increased estrone production, was combined with either myclobutanil or azoxystrobin, which decreased estrone production, the overall effect of the mixture was in most cases either entirely determined by myclobutanil or at least partially modulated by azoxystrobin. In conclusion, H295R cells appear to be an adequate in vitro test system to study the effect of combining two pesticides affecting estrone production.

  15. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, Robert J. . E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P.; Berg, Martin van den

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  16. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Sanderson, J Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P; van den Berg, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 microM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2, 1 microM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 microM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 microM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 microM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 microM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 microM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 microM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 microM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 microM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  17. Role of intramitochondrial arachidonic acid and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 in angiotensin II-regulated aldosterone synthesis in NCI-H295R adrenocortical cell line.

    PubMed

    Mele, Pablo G; Duarte, Alejandra; Paz, Cristina; Capponi, Alessandro; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2012-07-01

    Although the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in angiotensin II (ANG II)- and potassium-stimulated steroid production in zona glomerulosa cells is well documented, the mechanism responsible for AA release is not fully described. In this study we evaluated the mechanism involved in the release of intramitochondrial AA and its role in the regulation of aldosterone synthesis by ANG II in glomerulosa cells. We show that ANG II and potassium induce the expression of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesterase 2 and acyl-CoA synthetase 4, two enzymes involved in intramitochondrial AA generation/export system well characterized in other steroidogenic systems. We demonstrate that mitochondrial ATP is required for AA generation/export system, steroid production, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction. We also demonstrate the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases regulating acyl-CoA synthetase 4 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction, and hence ANG II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis.

  18. Effects of bisphenol analogues on steroidogenic gene expression and hormone synthesis in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yixing; Jiao, Zhihao; Shi, Jiachen; Li, Ming; Guo, Qiaozhen; Shao, Bing

    2016-03-01

    The use of Bisphenol A (BPA) has been regulated in many countries because of its potential adverse effects on human health. As a result of the restriction, structural anologues such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) have already been used for industrial applications as alternatives to BPA. Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is mainly used as a crosslinker in the synthesis of specialty fluoroelastomers. These compounds have been detected in various environmental matrices and human samples. Previous studies have shown that these compounds have potential endocrine disrupting effects on wildlife and mammals in general. However, the effects on adrenocortical function and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, the H295R cell line was used as a model to compare the cell toxicity and to investigate the potential endocrine disrupting action of four BPs (including BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF). The half lethal concentration (LC50) values at 72 h exposure indicated that the rank order of toxicities of the chemicals was BPAF > BPA > BPS > BPF. The hormone results demonstrated that BPA analogues, such as BPF, BPS and BPAF were capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells. BPA and BPS exhibited inhibition of hormone production, BPF predominantly led to increased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels and BPAF showed induction of progesterone and reduction of testosterone. Inhibition effects of BPA and BPAF on hormone production were probably mediated by down-regulation of steroidogenic genes in H295R cells. However, the mechanisms of the endocrine interrupting action of BPF and BPS are still unclear, which may have additional mechanisms that have not been detected with BPA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanistic Computational Model of Steroidgenesis in H295R Cells: Role of (Oxysterols and Cell Proliferation to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Response to Endocrine Active Chemical-Metyrapone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R is being used as an in vitro steroidogenesis screening assay to assess the impact of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis. To enhance the interpretation and quantitative application of measur...

  20. Mechanistic Computational Model of Steroidgenesis in H295R Cells: Role of (Oxysterols and Cell Proliferation to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Response to Endocrine Active Chemical-Metyrapone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R is being used as an in vitro steroidogenesis screening assay to assess the impact of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis. To enhance the interpretation and quantitative application of measur...

  1. Orexin-stimulated MAP kinase cascades are activated through multiple G-protein signalling pathways in human H295R adrenocortical cells: diverse roles for orexins A and B.

    PubMed

    Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Conner, Alex C; Chen, Jing; Kumar, Prashanth; Brown, James E P; Jöhren, Olaf; Lehnert, Hendrik; Stanfield, Peter R; Randeva, Harpal S

    2009-08-01

    Orexins A and B (ORA and ORB) are neuropeptide hormones found throughout the central nervous system and periphery. They are required for a host of physiological processes including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation, steroidogenesis, appetite control and energy regulation. While some signalling mechanisms have been proposed for individual recombinant orexin receptors in generic mammalian cell types, it is clear that the peripheral effects of orexin are spatially and temporally complex. This study dissects the different G-protein signalling and MAPK pathways activated in a pluripotent human adrenal H295R cell line capable of all the physiological steps involved in steroidogenesis. Both extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 were phosphorylated rapidly with a subsequent decline, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in response to both ORA and ORB. Conversely, there was little or no direct activation of the ERK5 or JNK pathway. Analysis using signalling and MAPK inhibitors as well as receptor-specific antagonists determined the precise mediators of the orexin response in these cells. Both ERK1/2 and p38 activation were predominantly G(q)- and to a lesser extent G(s)-mediated; p38 activation even had a small G(i)-component. Effects were broadly comparable for both orexin sub-types ORA and ORB and although most of the effects were transmitted through the orexin receptor-1 subtype, we did observe a role for orexin receptor-2-mediated activation of both ERK1/2 and p38. Cortisol secretion also differed in response to ORA and ORB. These data suggest multiple roles for orexin-mediated MAPK activation in an adrenal cell-line, this complexity may help to explain the diverse biological actions of orexins with wide-ranging consequences for our understanding of the mechanisms initiated by these steroidogenic molecules.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS ON STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN H295R CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    H295R cells constitute a pluripotent cell line that has retained the enzymatic ability to produce steroids along the entire steroidogenic pathway, including C19 androgens and C18 estrogens. For this reason, they have been a valued research tool, and have been employed in an ever...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL COMPOUNDS ON STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN H295R CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    H295R cells constitute a pluripotent cell line that has retained the enzymatic ability to produce steroids along the entire steroidogenic pathway, including C19 androgens and C18 estrogens. For this reason, they have been a valued research tool, and have been employed in an ever...

  4. Computational Model of Steroidogenesis in Human H295R Cells to Predict Biochemical Response to Endocrine Active Chemicals: Model Development for Metyrapone

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using the human adrenocortical carcinoma cells H295R is being evaluated as a possible toxicity screening approach to detect and assess the impact of endocrine active chemicals (EAC) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis. Interpreta...

  5. Computational Model of Steroidogenesis in Human H295R Cells to Predict Biochemical Response to Endocrine Active Chemicals: Model Development for Metyrapone

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using the human adrenocortical carcinoma cells H295R is being evaluated as a possible toxicity screening approach to detect and assess the impact of endocrine active chemicals (EAC) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis. Interpreta...

  6. Human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cells for rapid in vitro determination of effects on steroidogenesis: Hormone production

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Markus . E-mail: heckerm@msu.edu; Newsted, John L.; Murphy, Margaret B.; Higley, Eric B.; Jones, Paul D.; Wu, Rudolf; Giesy, John P.

    2006-11-15

    To identify and prioritize chemicals that may alter steroidogenesis, an in vitro screening assay based on measuring alterations in hormone production was developed using the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Previous studies indicated that this cell line was useful to screen for effects on gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes. This study extended that work to measure the integrated response on production of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and progesterone/pregnenolone (P) using an ELISA. Under optimized culture and experimental conditions, the basal release of P, T and E2 into the medium was 7.0 {+-} 1.2 ng/ml, 1.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml, and 0.51 {+-} 0.13 ng/ml, respectively. Model chemicals with different modes of action on steroidogenic systems were tested. Exposure to forskolin resulted in dose-dependent increases in all three hormones with the greatest relative increase being observed for E2. This differed from cells exposed to prochloraz or ketoconazole where P concentrations increased while T and E2 concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In cells exposed to fadrozole, E2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner while T and P only decreased at the greatest dose tested. Aminoglutethimide decreased P and E2 concentrations but increased T concentrations. Vinclozolin reduced both P and T but resulted in a slight increase in E2. The alteration in the patterns of hormone production in the H295R assay was consistent with the modes of action of the chemicals and was also consistent with observed effects of these chemicals in animal models. Based on these results, the H295R in vitro system has potential for high throughput screening to not only characterize the effects of chemicals on endocrine systems but also to prioritize chemicals for additional testing.

  7. Human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cells for rapid in vitro determination of effects on steroidogenesis: hormone production.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Markus; Newsted, John L; Murphy, Margaret B; Higley, Eric B; Jones, Paul D; Wu, Rudolf; Giesy, John P

    2006-11-15

    To identify and prioritize chemicals that may alter steroidogenesis, an in vitro screening assay based on measuring alterations in hormone production was developed using the H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Previous studies indicated that this cell line was useful to screen for effects on gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes. This study extended that work to measure the integrated response on production of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and progesterone/pregnenolone (P) using an ELISA. Under optimized culture and experimental conditions, the basal release of P, T and E2 into the medium was 7.0+/-1.2 ng/ml, 1.6+/-0.4 ng/ml, and 0.51+/-0.13 ng/ml, respectively. Model chemicals with different modes of action on steroidogenic systems were tested. Exposure to forskolin resulted in dose-dependent increases in all three hormones with the greatest relative increase being observed for E2. This differed from cells exposed to prochloraz or ketoconazole where P concentrations increased while T and E2 concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In cells exposed to fadrozole, E2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner while T and P only decreased at the greatest dose tested. Aminoglutethimide decreased P and E2 concentrations but increased T concentrations. Vinclozolin reduced both P and T but resulted in a slight increase in E2. The alteration in the patterns of hormone production in the H295R assay was consistent with the modes of action of the chemicals and was also consistent with observed effects of these chemicals in animal models. Based on these results, the H295R in vitro system has potential for high throughput screening to not only characterize the effects of chemicals on endocrine systems but also to prioritize chemicals for additional testing.

  8. Resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277 inhibits the growth of the human adrenal cancer cell line H295R in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lawnicka, H; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, M; Sicinska, P; Altmann, K H; Hofmann, T; Stepien, H

    2009-01-01

    The resorcylic acid lactone L-783,277, isolated from a Phoma sp. (ATCC 74403), is a potent and specific inhibitor of MEK (Map kinase kinase) that exerts very interesting pharmacological activities including anti-neoplastic properties. However, the role of this compound in the regulation of endocrine-related cancer cell growth and tumor progression remains unknown. In the present study we have evaluated the effect of L-783,277 on the viability, proliferation and cell cycle of the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. L-783,277 inhibited viability (IC50 of 22 microM) and cell proliferation (IC50 of 21 microM) of H295R. At concentrations of 10(-6)-10(-8)M this effect was associated with the accumulation of H295R cells in S-phase, whereas at concentrations of 10(-9)-10(-10)M a prolonged G1-phase and reduced transition into S-phase were observed. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the anti-proliferative action of L-783,277 on the human adrenocortical H295R cell line.

  9. Development of a combined method to assess the complex effect of atrazine on sex steroid synthesis in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Háhn, Judit; Szoboszlay, Sándor; Krifaton, Csilla; Kovács, Krisztina J; Ferenczi, Szilamér; Kriszt, Balázs

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a rapid, cost-effective combined testing method to assess the indirect effect of compounds interfering with sex steroid synthesis and to determine complex effects of atrazine on estrogen and androgen synthesis in vitro on H295R human cell line. Steroidogenic assay was performed on H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line. Instead of standard analytical methods, bioluminescence bioreporter assays (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES and BLYAS) were used to measure estrogenic and androgenic effects of sex steroid hormones released by human cells in response to atrazine. Atrazine resulted in elevated estrogen production presumably due to its well documented inductive effect on aromatase on H295R cell line, detected by BLYES. Interestingly, results of BLYAS test showed concentration-dependent increase of androgen production in H295R cells. That indicates that atrazine can not only increase estrogen level via aromatase induction, but may interfere in androgen synthesis as well. The combined method allows us to assess the androgenic and estrogenic effect of sex steroids produced by human cells in increased or decreased quantity as a result of the different chemicals, without determining specific analytical measurement endpoints, by using the yeast based bioluminescent bioreporter test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of fluorotelomer alcohol 8:2 FTOH on steroidogenesis in H295R cells: Targeting the cAMP signalling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chunsheng; Zhang Xiaowei; Chang Hong; Jones, Paul; Wiseman, Steve; Naile, Jonathan; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P.; Zhou Bingsheng

    2010-09-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can affect reproduction by disruption of steroidogenesis in experimental animals. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of this disruption remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluoro-decan-1-ol (8:2 FTOH) on steroidogenesis using a human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) as a model. H295R cells were exposed to 0, 7.4, 22.2 or 66.6 {mu}M 8:2 FTOH for 24 h and productions of progesterone, 17{alpha}-OH-progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone and cortisol were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. With the exception of progesterone, 8:2 FTOH treatment significantly decreased production of all hormones in the high dose group. Exposure to 8:2 FTOH significantly down-regulated cAMP-dependent mRNA expression and protein abundance of several key steroidogenic enzymes, including StAR, CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17 and CYP21. Furthermore, a dose-dependent decrease of cellular cAMP levels was observed in H295R cells exposed to 8:2 FTOH. The observed responses are consistent with reduced cellular cAMP levels. Exposure to 8:2 FTOH resulted in significantly less basal (+ GTP) and isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities, but affected neither total cellular ATP level nor basal (-GTP) or NaF-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities, suggesting that inhibition of steroidogenesis may be due to an alteration in membrane properties. Metabolites of 8:2 FTOH were not detected by HPLC-MS/MS, suggesting that 8:2 FTOH was not metabolized by H295R cells. Overall, the results show that 8:2 FTOH may inhibit steroidogenesis by disrupting the cAMP signalling cascade.

  11. Steroid profiling in H295R cells to identify chemicals potentially disrupting the production of adrenal steroids.

    PubMed

    Strajhar, Petra; Tonoli, David; Jeanneret, Fabienne; Imhof, Raphaella M; Malagnino, Vanessa; Patt, Melanie; Kratschmar, Denise V; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge; Odermatt, Alex

    2017-04-15

    The validated OECD test guideline 456 based on human adrenal H295R cells promotes measurement of testosterone and estradiol production as read-out to identify potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for using H295R cells to detect chemicals interfering with the production of key adrenal steroids. H295R cells' supernatants were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based steroid profiling, and the influence of experimental conditions including time and serum content was assessed. Steroid profiles were determined before and after incubation with reference compounds and chemicals to be tested for potential disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis. The H295R cells cultivated according to the OECD test guideline produced progestins, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens but only very low amounts of testosterone. However, testosterone contained in Nu-serum was metabolized during the 48h incubation. Thus, inclusion of positive and negative controls and a steroid profile of the complete medium prior to the experiment (t=0h) was necessary to characterize H295R cells' steroid production and indicate alterations caused by exposure to chemicals. Among the tested chemicals, octyl methoxycinnamate and acetyl tributylcitrate resembled the corticosteroid induction pattern of the positive control torcetrapib. Gene expression analysis revealed that octyl methoxycinnamate and acetyl tributylcitrate enhanced CYP11B2 expression, although less pronounced than torcetrapib. Further experiments need to assess the toxicological relevance of octyl methoxycinnamate- and acetyl tributylcitrate-induced corticosteroid production. In conclusion, the extended profiling and appropriate controls allow detecting chemicals that act on steroidogenesis and provide initial mechanistic evidence for prioritizing chemicals for further investigations.

  12. Estimation of the Mechanism of Adrenal Action of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Using a Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis in NCI-H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Ryuta; Terasaki, Natsuko; Yamazaki, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1. It was reconstructed in an experimental dynamics of cholesterol and 14 steroids from an in vitro steroidogenesis assay using NCI-H295R cells. Results of dynamic sensitivity analysis suggested that HSD3B2 plays the most important role in the metabolic balance of adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on differential metabolic profiling of 12 steroid hormones and 11 adrenal toxic compounds, we could estimate which steroidogenic enzymes were affected in this mathematical model. In terms of adrenal steroidogenic inhibitors, the predicted action sites were approximately matched to reported target enzymes. Thus, our computer-aided system based on systems biological approach may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of endocrine-active compounds and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:27057163

  13. Simultaneous profiling of 17 steroid hormones for the evaluation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Jumhawan, Udi; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Kazuya; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    There is urgent need to develop a new protocol for the evaluation of chemical substances to potentially interact with the endocrine system and induce numerous pathological issues. The recently validated in vitro screening assay is limited on monitoring two steroid hormones. Methodology & results: The H295R model cell was exposed to seven endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The levels of 17 steroid hormones in cell extracts were subsequently determined by a quantitative targeted GC/MS/MS method. Through wide coverage, this system managed to capture the effects of exposure to increasing EDCs concentrations in the entire steroidogenic pathways. The developed approach could be beneficial for the mechanistic investigation of EDCs.

  14. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on the steroidogenesis of human adrenocarcinoma cell line (NCI-H295R).

    PubMed

    Bistakova, Jana; Forgacs, Zsolt; Bartos, Zsuzsa; Szivosne, Maria Racz; Jambor, Tomas; Knazicka, Zuzana; Tvrda, Eva; Libova, Lubica; Goc, Zofia; Massanyi, Peter; Lukac, Norbert

    2017-02-23

    In this study, the human H295R adrenocarcinoma cell line was exposed to different concentrations (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, 2.5 or 5 µg/mL) of nonylphenol (NP) to investigate its impact on the inhibition or induction of the steroid hormones production during 48 h of in vitro culture. The hormone production was measured using ELISA kits. Results of this in vitro study suggest various effect of nonylphenol in relatively low concentrations on the selected steroid hormones production by the human H295R adrenocarcinoma cell line. The inhibiting impact on progesterone and androstenedione production was observed. The amount of progesterone was significantly decreased at 1.0, 2.5 and 5 µg/mL NP. Equally, the androstenedione production significantly decreased at 5 µg/mL NP. On the other hand, the amount of testosterone and 17β-estradiol was induced after nonylphenol exposition. The significant increase of testosterone level was found out at treatment with 5 µg/mL NP. 17β-estradiol production significantly increased at the doses of 2.5 and 5 µg/mL NP.

  15. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on three sex steroids in two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and in the H295R cell assay.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Naja Wessel; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Nellemann, Christine; Styrishave, Bjarne; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2015-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are known to have a range of disorders that are often linked to the endocrine system e.g. hormonal imbalances, breast enlargement, sexual dysfunction, and menstrual cycle disorders. The mechanisms behind most of these disorders are not known in details. In this study we investigated whether the endocrine effect due to SSRI exposure could be detected in well adopted in vitro steroidogenesis assays, two versions of the aromatase enzyme inhibition assay and the H295R cell assay. The five drugs citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline, were shown to inhibit the aromatase enzyme in both types of aromatase assays. The IC50 values ranged from 3 to 600 μM. All five SSRIs, were further investigated in the H295R cell line. All compounds altered the steroid secretion from the cells, the lowest observed effect levels were 0.9 μM and 3.1 μM for sertraline and fluvoxamine, respectively. In general the H295R cell assay was more sensitive to SSRI exposure than the two aromatase assays, up to 20 times more sensitive. This indicates that the H295R cell line is a better tool for screening endocrine disrupting effects. Our findings show that the endocrine effects of SSRIs may, at least in part, be due to interference with the steroidogenesis.

  16. Development of a solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones in H295R cell line using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Björklund, Erland; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-15

    The H295R in vitro cell line produces the majority of the steroidogenesis, for which reason it is commonly used as a screening tool for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Simultaneous determination of the precursor cholesterol and key steroid hormones could give a broad insight into the mechanistic disruption of the steroidogenesis. Steroid hormones have primarily been extracted from H295R incubation medium by means of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and the obtained recoveries and matrix effects have typically not been stated or assessed. In the present study a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of cholesterol and five key steroid hormones pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone from H295R incubation medium, and finally detected by LC-MS/MS. Cholesterol was recovered at a level of 55.7%, while steroid hormone recoveries ranged from 98.2 to 109.4%. Matrix effects varied between -0.6% and 62.8%. Intra-day precision was deemed acceptable, but the inter-day precision for pregnenolone and aldosterone exceeded the precision limit of 15% RSD. Although LLE has been the most frequently used extraction method in H295R studies, however, our investigation has shown that SPE may relatively easily extract and recover steroid hormones, potentially replacing LLE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modulation of steroidogenic gene expression and hormone production of H295R cells by pharmaceuticals and other environmentally active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gracia, Tannia Hilscherova, Klara; Jones, Paul D.; Newsted, John L.; Higley, Eric B.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Murphy, Margaret B.; Yu, Richard M.K.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P.

    2007-12-01

    The H295R cell bioassay was used to evaluate the potential endocrine disrupting effects of 18 of the most commonly used pharmaceuticals in the United States. Exposures for 48 h with single pharmaceuticals and binary mixtures were conducted; the expression of five steroidogenic genes, 3{beta}HSD2, CYP11{beta}1, CYP11{beta}2, CYP17 and CYP19, was quantified by Q-RT-PCR. Production of the steroid hormones estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) was also evaluated. Antibiotics were shown to modulate gene expression and hormone production. Amoxicillin up-regulated the expression of CYP11{beta}2 and CYP19 by more than 2-fold and induced estradiol production up to almost 3-fold. Erythromycin significantly increased CYP11{beta}2 expression and the production of P and E2 by 3.5- and 2.4-fold, respectively, while production of T was significantly decreased. The {beta}-blocker salbutamol caused the greatest induction of CYP17, more than 13-fold, and significantly decreased E2 production. The binary mixture of cyproterone and salbutamol significantly down-regulated expression of CYP19, while a mixture of ethynylestradiol and trenbolone, increased E2 production 3.7-fold. Estradiol production was significantly affected by changes in concentrations of trenbolone, cyproterone, and ethynylestradiol. Exposures with individual pharmaceuticals showed the possible secondary effects that drugs may exert on steroid production. Results from binary mixture exposures suggested the possible type of interactions that may occur between drugs and the joint effects product of such interactions. Dose-response results indicated that although two chemicals may share a common mechanism of action the concentration effects observed may be significantly different.

  18. Rooibos flavonoids inhibit the activity of key adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, modulating steroid hormone levels in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Schloms, Lindie; Swart, Amanda C

    2014-03-24

    Major rooibos flavonoids--dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, flavones--orientin and vitexin, and a flavonol, rutin, were investigated to determine their influence on the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD2) and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), P450 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) and P450 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1). All the flavonoids inhibited 3βHSD2 and CYP17A1 significantly, while the inhibition of downstream enzymes, CYP21A2 and CYP11B1, was both substrate and flavonoid specific. The dihydrochalcones inhibited the activity of CYP21A2, but not that of CYP11B1. Although rutin, orientin and vitexin inhibited deoxycortisol conversion by CYP11B1 significantly, inhibition of deoxycorticosterone was <20%. These three flavonoids were unable to inhibit CYP21A2, with negligible inhibition of deoxycortisol biosynthesis only. Rooibos inhibited substrate conversion by CYP17A1 and CYP21A2, while the inhibition of other enzyme activities was <20%. In H295R cells, rutin had the greatest inhibitory effect on steroid production upon forskolin stimulation, reducing total steroid output 2.3-fold, while no effect was detected under basal conditions. Nothofagin and vitexin had a greater inhibitory effect on overall steroid production compared to aspalathin and orientin, respectively. The latter compounds contain two hydroxyl groups on the B ring, while nothofagin and vitexin contain a single hydroxyl group. In addition, all of the flavonoids are glycosylated, albeit at different positions--dihydrochalcones at C3' and flavones at C8 on ring A, while rutin, a larger molecule, has a rutinosyl moiety at C3 on ring C. Structural differences regarding the number and position of hydroxyl and glucose moieties as well as structural flexibility could indicate different mechanisms by which these flavonoids influence the activity of adrenal steroidogenic enzymes.

  19. Screening Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper endocrine function requires steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis). Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This study is the first to estab...

  20. Screening Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper endocrine function requires steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis). Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. This study is the first to estab...

  1. The influence of Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos) and dihydrochalcones on adrenal steroidogenesis: quantification of steroid intermediates and end products in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Schloms, Lindie; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Swart, Pieter; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A; Swart, Amanda C

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone output of the adrenal gland is crucial in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis, with hormonal imbalances being associated with numerous clinical conditions which include, amongst others, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Aspalathus linearis (Rooibos), which has been reported to aid stress-related symptoms linked to metabolic diseases, contains a wide spectrum of bioactive phenolic compounds of which aspalathin is unique. In this study the inhibitory effects of Rooibos and the dihydrochalcones, aspalathin and nothofagin, were investigated on adrenal steroidogenesis. The activities of both cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and cytochrome P450 21-hydroxylase were significantly inhibited in COS-1 cells. In order to study the effect of these compounds in H295R cells, a human adrenal carcinoma cell line, a novel UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the detection and quantification of twenty-one steroid metabolites using a single chromatographic separation. Under both basal and forskolin-stimulated conditions, the total amount of steroids produced in H295R cells significantly decreased in the presence of Rooibos, aspalathin and nothofagin. Under stimulated conditions, Rooibos decreased the total steroid output 4-fold and resulted in a significant reduction of aldosterone and cortisol precursors. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels were unchanged, while the levels of androstenedione (A4) and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11βOH-A4) were inhibited 5.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively. Quantification of 11βOH-A4 showed this metabolite to be a major product of steroidogenesis in H295R cells and we confirm, for the first time, that this steroid metabolite is the product of the hydroxylation of A4 by human cytochrome P450 11β-hydroxylase. Taken together our results demonstrate that Rooibos, aspalathin and nothofagin influence steroid hormone biosynthesis and the flux through the

  2. Computational analysis of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric steroid profiling in NCI H295R cells following angiotensin II, forskolin and abiraterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Mangelis, Anastasios; Dieterich, Peter; Peitzsch, Mirko; Richter, Susan; Jühlen, Ramona; Hübner, Angela; Willenberg, Holger S; Deussen, Andreas; Lenders, Jacques W M; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal steroid hormones, which regulate a plethora of physiological functions, are produced via tightly controlled pathways. Investigations of these pathways, based on experimental data, can be facilitated by computational modeling for calculations of metabolic rate alterations. We therefore used a model system, based on mass balance and mass reaction equations, to kinetically evaluate adrenal steroidogenesis in human adrenal cortex-derived NCI H295R cells. For this purpose a panel of 10 steroids was measured by liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry. Time-dependent changes in cell incubate concentrations of steroids - including cortisol, aldosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their precursors - were measured after incubation with angiotensin II, forskolin and abiraterone. Model parameters were estimated based on experimental data using weighted least square fitting. Time-dependent angiotensin II- and forskolin-induced changes were observed for incubate concentrations of precursor steroids with peaks that preceded maximal increases in aldosterone and cortisol. Inhibition of 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase with abiraterone resulted in increases in upstream precursor steroids and decreases in downstream products. Derived model parameters, including rate constants of enzymatic processes, appropriately quantified observed and expected changes in metabolic pathways at multiple conversion steps. Our data demonstrate limitations of single time point measurements and the importance of assessing pathway dynamics in studies of adrenal cortical cell line steroidogenesis. Our analysis provides a framework for evaluation of steroidogenesis in adrenal cortical cell culture systems and demonstrates that computational modeling-derived estimates of kinetic parameters are an effective tool for describing perturbations in associated metabolic pathways.

  3. Effect of chronic exposure to two components of Tritan copolyester on Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Oryzias latipes, and potential mechanisms of endocrine disruption using H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sol; Ji, Kyunghee

    2015-11-01

    Tritan copolyester is a novel plastic form from Eastman Company utilizing three main monomers, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol. Despite Tritan has been widely applied for plastic bottles, the effects of long-term exposure to these compounds have seldom been investigated. We investigated chronic effects and endocrine disruption potential of CHDM and terephthalic acid (TPA), main mammalian metabolite formed from DMT, using crustacean Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and freshwater fish (Oryzias latipes). The effects on sex hormone balance and the associated mechanisms were also investigated by use of H295R cells. In chronic toxicity test, D. magna showed significant decrease in reproduction (number of young per female) after exposure to 10 mg/L TPA. In early life stage exposure using O. latipes, significant decrease of juvenile survival and weight were observed in fish exposed to 10 mg/L and ≥1 mg/L CHDM, respectively. Expressions of vtg2 mRNA in fish exposed to CHDM and those of cyp19b, star, cyp17, and cyp19a mRNAs in fish exposed to TPA were significantly up-regulated. The results of H295R cell assay also showed that both chemicals at high concentrations could alter sex hormone production in steroidogenic pathway. The effective concentrations of the tested compounds were several orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations can be detected in ambient waters. Further in vivo and in vitro studies will be needed to investigate the effect of co-polymer on endocrine disruption.

  4. Regulation of androgen biosynthesis - A short review and preliminary results from the hyperandrogenic starvation NCI-H295R cell model.

    PubMed

    Kempná, Petra; Marti, Nesa; Udhane, Sameer; Flück, Christa E

    2015-06-15

    Regulation of androgen production is poorly understood. Adrenarche is the physiologic event in mid-childhood when the adrenal zona reticularis starts to produce androgens through specific expression of genes for enzymes and cofactors necessary for androgen synthesis. Similarly, expression and activities of same genes and products are deregulated in hyperandrogenic disorders such as the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Numerous studies revealed involvement of several signaling pathways stimulated through G-protein coupled receptors or growth factors transmitting their effects through cAMP- or non-cAMP-dependent signaling. Overall a complex network regulates androgen synthesis targeting involved genes and proteins at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Newest players in the field are the DENND1A gene identified in PCOS patients and the MAPK14 which is the kinase phosphorylating CYP17 for enhanced lyase activity. Next generation sequencing studies of PCOS patients and transcriptome analysis of androgen producing tissues or cell models provide newer tools to identify modulators of androgen synthesis.

  5. Fat cells may be the obesity-hypertension link: human adipogenic factors stimulate aldosterone secretion from adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Arakelyan, Karen; Krug, Alexander W; Scherbaum, Werner A; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2004-11-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic problem in Western societies contributing to several disease processes including metabolic diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with increased plasma levels of aldosterone suggesting a direct link between obesity hypertension and increased mineralocorticoid levels. The adipocyte has long been suggested to be directly involved in the regulation of the body's homeostasis and recent evidence now proves that human fat is a highly active endocrine tissue. We therefore tested the hypothesis that adipocyte secretory products directly stimulate adrenocortical aldosterone secretion. Indeed, secretory products from isolated human adipocytes strongly stimulated steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical cells (NCI-H295R), as well as in bovine adrenocortical cells with a predominant effect on mineralocorticoid secretion. In conclusion, a possible direct link exists between fat tissue metabolism and adrenal mineralocorticoid secretion that may be responsible for obesity-related hypertension.

  6. Endocrine-related effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in zebrafish, H295R steroidogenesis and receptor reporter gene assays.

    PubMed

    Du, Guizhen; Huang, Hongyu; Hu, Jialei; Qin, Yufeng; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent perfluorinated compound, is distributed widely in wildlife and humans. Recent studies showed that PFOA is a suspected endocrine disruptor. But the results are somewhat contradictory and the mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we investigated the endocrine-related effects of PFOA using a series of assays. The lower dose effect of PFOA on development and endocrine-related gene expression were assessed in a short-term zebrafish assay in vivo. To clarify the mechanism of PFOA, in vitro assays were performed. We tested the hormone receptor activities of ER, AR, and TR against PFOA using reporter gene assays. The hormone levels of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T), the expression of major steroidogenic genes and the key steroidogenic gene regulator steroidogenic factors 1 (SF-1) were measured after PFOA exposure in H295R steroidogenesis assay. Exposure of zebrafish embryo to PFOA resulted in higher expression of esr1, hhex and pax. PFOA is able to interfere with hormone receptor ER and TR. In H295R cells, PFOA could increase the E2 production and decrease the T production, altered the expression of major steroidogenic genes and regulator SF-1. The current findings indicated the potential endocrine-related effects of PFOA and provided novel information for human risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell cycle dependent RRM2 may serve as proliferation marker and pharmaceutical target in adrenocortical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grolmusz, Vince Kornél; Karászi, Katalin; Micsik, Tamás; Tóth, Eszter Angéla; Mészáros, Katalin; Karvaly, Gellért; Barna, Gábor; Szabó, Péter Márton; Baghy, Kornélia; Matkó, János; Kovalszky, Ilona; Tóth, Miklós; Rácz, Károly; Igaz, Péter; Patócs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, but agressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Histopathological diagnosis is challenging and pharmacological options for treatment are limited. By the comparative reanalysis of the transcriptional malignancy signature with the cell cycle dependent transcriptional program of ACC, we aimed to identify novel biomarkers which may be used in the histopathological diagnosis and for the prediction of therapeutical response of ACC. Comparative reanalysis of publicly available microarray datasets included three earlier studies comparing transcriptional differences between ACC and benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and one study presenting the cell cycle dependent gene expressional program of human ACC cell line NCI-H295R. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on ACC samples. In vitro effects of antineoplastic drugs including gemcitabine, mitotane and 9-cis-retinoic acid alone and in combination were tested in the NCI-H295R adrenocortical cell line. Upon the comparative reanalysis, ribonucleotide reductase subunit 2 (RRM2), responsible for the ribonucleotide dezoxyribonucleotide conversion during the S phase of the cell cycle has been validated as cell cycle dependently expressed. Moreover, its expression was associated with the malignancy signature, as well. Immunohistochemical analysis of RRM2 revealed a strong correlation with Ki67 index in ACC. Among the antiproliferative effects of the investigated compounds, gemcitabine showed a strong inhibition of proliferation and an increase of apoptotic events. Additionally, RRM2 has been upregulated upon gemcitabine treatment. Upon our results, RRM2 might be used as a proliferation marker in ACC. RRM2 upregulation upon gemcitabine treatment might contribute to an emerging chemoresistance against gemcitabine, which is in line with its limited therapeutical efficacy in ACC, and which should be overcome for successful clinical applications. PMID:27725909

  8. GPER agonist G-1 decreases adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zolea, Fabiana; Rizza, Pietro; Avena, Paola; Malivindi, Rocco; De Luca, Arianna; Campana, Carmela; Martire, Emilia; Domanico, Francesco; Fallo, Francesco; Carpinelli, Giulia; Cerquetti, Lidia; Amendola, Donatella; Stigliano, Antonio; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) increases proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through both an estrogen-dependent and -independent (induced by IGF-II/IGF1R pathways) manner. Then, the use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears effective in reducing ACC growth in vitro and in vivo. However, tamoxifen not only exerts antiestrogenic activity, but also acts as full agonist on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a non-steroidal GPER agonist G-1 in modulating ACC cell growth. We found that G-1 is able to exert a growth inhibitory effect on H295R cells both in vitro and, as xenograft model, in vivo. Treatment of H295R cells with G-1 induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cell death by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. These events required sustained extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Silencing of GPER by a specific shRNA partially reversed G-1-mediated cell growth inhibition without affecting ERK activation. These data suggest the existence of G-1 activated but GPER-independent effects that remain to be clarified. In conclusion, this study provides a rational to further study G-1 mechanism of action in order to include this drug as a treatment option to the limited therapy of ACC. PMID:26131713

  9. Mitotane alters mitochondrial respiratory chain activity by inducing cytochrome c oxidase defect in human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Hescot, Ségolène; Slama, Abdelhamid; Lombès, Anne; Paci, Angelo; Remy, Hervé; Leboulleux, Sophie; Chadarevian, Rita; Trabado, Séverine; Amazit, Larbi; Young, Jacques; Baudin, Eric; Lombès, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Mitotane, 1,1-dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane is the most effective medical therapy for adrenocortical carcinoma, but its molecular mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Although mitotane is known to have mitochondrial (mt) effects, a direct link to mt dysfunction has never been established. We examined the functional consequences of mitotane exposure on proliferation, steroidogenesis, and mt respiratory chain, biogenesis and morphology, in two human adrenocortical cell lines, the steroid-secreting H295R line and the non-secreting SW13 line. Mitotane inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. At the concentration of 50 μM (14 mg/l), which corresponds to the threshold for therapeutic efficacy, mitotane drastically reduced cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone secretions by 70%. This was accompanied by significant decreases in the expression of genes encoding mt proteins involved in steroidogenesis (STAR, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2). In both H295R and SW13 cells, 50 μM mitotane significantly inhibited (50%) the maximum velocity of the activity of the respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase (COX)). This effect was associated with a drastic reduction in steady-state levels of the whole COX complex as revealed by blue native PAGE and reduced mRNA expression of both mtDNA-encoded COX2 (MT-CO2) and nuclear DNA-encoded COX4 (COX4I1) subunits. In contrast, the activity and expression of respiratory chain complexes II and III were unaffected by mitotane treatment. Lastly, mitotane exposure enhanced mt biogenesis (increase in mtDNA content and PGC1α (PPARGC1A) expression) and triggered fragmentation of the mt network. Altogether, our results provide first evidence that mitotane induced a mt respiratory chain defect in human adrenocortical cells.

  10. Lack of long-lasting effects of mitotane adjuvant therapy in a mouse xenograft model of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Doghman, Mabrouka; Lalli, Enzo

    2013-12-05

    Mitotane is a widely used drug in the therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). It is important to set up preclinical protocols to study the possible synergistic effects of its association with new drugs for ACC therapy. We assessed the efficacy of different routes of administration of mitotane (i.p. and oral) in inhibiting growth of H295R ACC cell xenografts in an adjuvant setting. Both formulations of mitotane could inhibit H295R xenografts growth only at short times after carcinoma cells inoculation, even though plasma mitotane levels approached or fell within the therapeutic range in humans. Our results show that mitotane adjuvant therapy is inadequate to antagonize long-term growth of H295R cancer cells xenografts and that care should then be taken in the design of preclinical protocols to evaluate the performance of new drugs in association with mitotane.

  11. New evidences on the regulation of SF-1 expression by POD1/TCF21 in adrenocortical tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    França, Monica Malheiros; Lerario, Antonio M.; Fragoso, Maria Candida B.V.; Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transcription Factor 21 represses steroidogenic factor 1, a nuclear receptor required for gonadal development, sex determination and the regulation of adrenogonadal steroidogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether silencing or overexpression of the gene Transcription Factor 21 could modulate the gene and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in adrenocortical tumors. METHODS: We analyzed the gene expression of steroidogenic factor 1 using qPCR after silencing endogenous Transcription Factor 21 in pediatric adrenal adenoma-T7 cells through small interfering RNA. In addition, using overexpression of Transcription Factor 21 in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, we analyzed the protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 using Western blotting. RESULTS: Transcription Factor 21 knockdown increased the mRNA expression of steroidogenic factor 1 by 5.97-fold in pediatric adrenal adenoma-T7 cells. Additionally, Transcription Factor 21 overexpression inhibited the protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 by 0.41-fold and 0.64-fold in two different adult adrenocortical carcinoma cell cultures, H295R and T36, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Transcription Factor 21 is downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that Transcription Factor 21 is a regulator of steroidogenic factor 1 and is a tumor suppressor gene in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors. PMID:28658440

  12. New evidences on the regulation of SF-1 expression by POD1/TCF21 in adrenocortical tumor cells.

    PubMed

    França, Monica Malheiros; Lerario, Antonio M; Fragoso, Maria Candida B V; Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco

    2017-06-01

    Transcription Factor 21 represses steroidogenic factor 1, a nuclear receptor required for gonadal development, sex determination and the regulation of adrenogonadal steroidogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether silencing or overexpression of the gene Transcription Factor 21 could modulate the gene and protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in adrenocortical tumors. We analyzed the gene expression of steroidogenic factor 1 using qPCR after silencing endogenous Transcription Factor 21 in pediatric adrenal adenoma-T7 cells through small interfering RNA. In addition, using overexpression of Transcription Factor 21 in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, we analyzed the protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 using Western blotting. Transcription Factor 21 knockdown increased the mRNA expression of steroidogenic factor 1 by 5.97-fold in pediatric adrenal adenoma-T7 cells. Additionally, Transcription Factor 21 overexpression inhibited the protein expression of steroidogenic factor 1 by 0.41-fold and 0.64-fold in two different adult adrenocortical carcinoma cell cultures, H295R and T36, respectively. Transcription Factor 21 is downregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that Transcription Factor 21 is a regulator of steroidogenic factor 1 and is a tumor suppressor gene in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors.

  13. Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Montaño, M; Zimmer, K E; Dahl, E; Berg, V; Olsaker, I; Skaare, J U; Murk, A J; Ropstad, E; Verhaegen, S

    2011-09-01

    Crude cod liver oil and liver oil supplements are consumed as a source of vitamin A, D and polyunsaturated fatty acids; during winter and early pregnancy. Crude cod liver oil however constitutes a considerable source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This paper aimed at characterizing and quantifying the influence of POP mixtures extracted from three different steps in the cod liver oil industrial process on hormone production and the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in H295R cells. Exposure to extracts from crude cod liver oil and from its industrial waste increased progesterone (P4), cortisol (Cort), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) production; and among others, the expression of MC2R, CYP11B1 and HSD3B2 genes. Observed effects after exposure to pharmaceutical cod liver oil extract were considerably lower. The type of effects on gene expression and hormone production were similar to those induced by forskolin and PCBs, the latter being the major contaminants within the extracts. Additional research is required to further unveil the mechanisms behind the observed steroidogenic effects and to assess whether the potential risk might outweigh the potential benefits of crude and processed cod liver oil consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    in vivo ACTH challenge test to prove adrenocortical competency, and the H295R cell line to examine molecular mechanisms of steroidogenic pathway toxicity, are discussed. Finally, because of the central role of the adrenal in the physiologically adaptive stress response, the distinguishing features of stress, compared with adrenocortical toxicity, are discussed with reference to the evidence required to claim that adrenal hypertrophy results from stress rather than adrenocortical enzyme inhibition which is a serious adverse toxicological finding. This article is part of a special issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors and steroids'.

  15. Morphofunctional effects of mitotane on mitochondria in human adrenocortical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Poli, Giada; Guasti, Daniele; Rapizzi, Elena; Fucci, Rossella; Canu, Letizia; Bandini, Alessandra; Cini, Nicoletta; Bani, Daniele; Mannelli, Massimo; Luconi, Michaela

    2013-08-01

    At present, mitotane (MTT) represents the first-line pharmacological approach for the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Despite clear evidence that the drug can reduce the clinical signs of steroid excess in secreting ACC, the mechanism mediating the possible toxic effect of MTT on tumor cells still remains obscure. This study investigated the intracellular events underlying the toxic effect of MTT by studying qualitative and quantitative alterations in mitochondrial morphology and functions in human adrenocortical cancer cell lines, H295R and SW13. Increasing concentrations of MTT resulted in rapid intracellular accumulation and conversion of the drug. Cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were evident at doses corresponding to the therapeutic window (30-50 μM) through an apoptotic mechanism involving caspase 3/7. Electron microscopic analysis of cell mitochondria displayed MTT-induced dose- and time-dependent alterations in the morphology of the organelle. These alterations were characterized by a marked swelling and a decrease in the number of respiratory cristae, accompanied by a significant depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, finally leading to the disruption of the organelle. A drastic reduction of oxygen consumption was observed due to mitochondrial membrane damage, which was accompanied by a decrease in the levels of VDAC1 integral membrane channel. These findings contribute to better understand the intracellular mechanism of action of MTT in ACC cells, showing that its cytotoxic effect seems to be mainly mediated by an apoptotic process activated by the disruption of mitochondria.

  16. Cytotoxic activity of gemcitabine, alone or in combination with mitotane, in adrenocortical carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Germano, Antonina; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; Lo Buono, Nicola; Carturan, Sonia; Berruti, Alfredo; Terzolo, Massimo; Papotti, Mauro

    2014-01-25

    We aimed at investigating in vitro the cytotoxic activity (determined using WST-1, apoptosis and cell cycle assays) of gemcitabine, alone or in combination with mitotane, in mitotane-sensitive H295R and mitotane-insensitive SW-13 cells. Results of these experiments were compared with drug-induced modulation of RRM1 gene, the specific target of gemcitabine. In H295R cells, mitotane and gemcitabine combinations showed antagonistic effects and interfered with the gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of the S phase of the cell cycle. By contrast, in SW-13 cells, except when mitotane was sequentially administered prior to gemcitabine, the combination of the two drugs was synergistic. Such opposite effects were associated with opposite expression profiles of the target gene, with significant up-modulation in H295R but not in SW-13 under gemcitabine and mitotane combination treatment.

  17. Role of ALADIN in Human Adrenocortical Cells for Oxidative Stress Response and Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jühlen, Ramona; Idkowiak, Jan; Taylor, Angela E.; Kind, Barbara; Arlt, Wiebke; Huebner, Angela; Koehler, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Triple A syndrome is caused by mutations in AAAS encoding the protein ALADIN. We investigated the role of ALADIN in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R1 by either over-expression or down-regulation of ALADIN. Our findings indicate that AAAS knock-down induces a down-regulation of genes coding for type II microsomal cytochrome P450 hydroxylases CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 and their electron donor enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, thereby decreasing biosynthesis of precursor metabolites required for glucocorticoid and androgen production. Furthermore we demonstrate that ALADIN deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and alteration in redox homeostasis after paraquat treatment. Finally, we show significantly impaired nuclear import of DNA ligase 1, aprataxin and ferritin heavy chain 1 in ALADIN knock-down cells. We conclude that down-regulating ALADIN results in decreased oxidative stress response leading to alteration in steroidogenesis, highlighting our knock-down cell model as an important in-vitro tool for studying the adrenal phenotype in triple A syndrome. PMID:25867024

  18. Upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in the human adrenocortical cells differentially modulates adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Tymoszuk, Piotr; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Janitzky, Volker; Weirich, Torsten; Zacharowski, Kai; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Bornstein, Stefan R

    2011-04-10

    Rapid activation of adrenal steroid release plays a pivotal role in an organism's first line of defense during sepsis. Adrenal gland function is often suppressed in critically ill patients and negatively impacts the overall survival rate. Increasingly, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), components of the innate immune system, play a key role in the mediation of systemic responses to invading pathogens during sepsis. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 upregulation on adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis. We found that TLR4 and CD14 but not TLR2 overexpression in NCI-H295R cells inhibited basal and acute cortisol and aldosterone production. This effect could be partially explained by reduced expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of latter steroids--CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. Together, these data suggest that TLR upregulation in the steroid producing cells may be involved in the adrenal gland dysfunction during sepsis.

  19. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  20. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ-and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. PMID:24666275

  1. Comparison of the Effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B Depletion on Signaling Pathways, Cell Growth, and Cell Cycle Control of Adrenocortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Basso, F.; Rocchetti, F.; Rodriguez, S.; Nesterova, M.; Cormier, F.; Stratakis, C.; Ragazzon, B.; Bertherat, J.; Rizk-Rabin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling cascade is one of the main pathways involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. The PKA R1A and R2B proteins are the most abundant regulatory subunits in endocrine tissues. Inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A are associated with Carney complex and a subset of sporadic tumors and the abundance of R2B protein is low in a subset of secreting adrenocortical adenomas. We previously showed that PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B inactivation have anti-apoptotic effects on the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. We found that PRKAR2B depletion is compensated by an upregulation in the abundance of R1A protein, whereas PRKAR1A depletion has no effect on the production of R2B. The depletion of either PRKAR1A or PRKAR2B promotes the expression of Bcl-xL and resistance to apoptosis; and is associated with a high percentage of cells in S and G2 phase, activates PKA and MEK/ERK pathways, and impairs the expression of IkB leading to activate the NF-κB pathway. Nonetheless, we observed differences in the regulation of cyclins. The depletion of PRKAR1A leads to the accumulation of cyclin D1 and p27kip, whereas the depletion of PRKAR2B promotes the accumulation of cyclin A, B, cdk1, cdc2, and p21Cip. In conclusion, although the depletion of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B in adrenocortical cells has similar effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis; loss of these PKA subunits differentially affects cyclin expression. PMID:25268545

  2. Comparison of the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on signaling pathways, cell growth, and cell cycle control of adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Basso, F; Rocchetti, F; Rodriguez, S; Nesterova, M; Cormier, F; Stratakis, C A; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J; Rizk-Rabin, M

    2014-11-01

    The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling cascade is one of the main pathways involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. The PKA R1A and R2B proteins are the most abundant regulatory subunits in endocrine tissues. Inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A are associated with Carney complex and a subset of sporadic tumors and the abundance of R2B protein is low in a subset of secreting adrenocortical adenomas. We previously showed that PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B inactivation have anti-apoptotic effects on the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. We found that PRKAR2B depletion is compensated by an upregulation of R1A protein, whereas PRKAR1A depletion has no effect on the production of R2B. The depletion of either PRKAR1A or PRKAR2B promotes the expression of Bcl-xL and resistance to apoptosis; and is associated with a high percentage of cells in S and G2 phase, activates PKA and MEK/ERK pathways, and impairs the expression of IkB leading to activate the NF-κB pathway. However, we observed differences in the regulation of cyclins. The depletion of PRKAR1A leads to the accumulation of cyclin D1 and p27kip, whereas the depletion of PRKAR2B promotes the accumulation of cyclin A, B, cdk1, cdc2, and p21Cip. In conclusion, although the depletion of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B in adrenocortical cells has similar effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis; loss of these PKA subunits differentially affects cyclin expression. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Inhibition of Human Adrenocortical Cancer Cell Growth by Temozolomide in Vitro and the Role of the MGMT Gene

    PubMed Central

    Creemers, S. G.; van Koetsveld, P. M.; van den Dungen, E. S. R.; Korpershoek, E.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Franssen, G. J. H.; de Herder, W. W.; Feelders, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Treatment of patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) with mitotane and/or chemotherapy is often associated with toxicity and poor tumor response. New therapeutic options are urgently needed. Objective: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the therapeutic possibilities of temozolomide (TMZ) in ACC cells and to assess the potential predictive role of the DNA repair gene O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in adrenocortical tumors. Methods: Three human ACC cell lines and eight primary ACC cultures were used to assess effects of TMZ in vitro. In the cell lines, 11 normal adrenals, 16 adrenocortical adenomas, and 29 ACC, MGMT promoter methylation and expression were determined. Results: IC50 values of TMZ on cell growth were 39 μM, 38 μM, and 44 μM for H295R, HAC15, and SW13, respectively. TMZ induced apoptosis and provoked cytotoxic and cytostatic effects by reducing the surviving fraction of ACC colonies and the colony size. TMZ thereby induced cell cycle arrests in ACC cell lines. TMZ and mitotane both inhibited growth of ACC cells cultured as three-dimensional spheroids. TMZ inhibited cell amount in five of eight primary ACC cultures and induced apoptosis in seven of eight primary ACC cultures. In ACC cell lines and adrenal tissues, MGMT promoter methylation was low. In ACCs, methylation was inversely correlated with MGMT mRNA expression. MGMT protein expression was not correlated with MGMT methylation. Conclusions: For the first time, we show the therapeutic potential of temozolomide for ACC, offering an urgently needed potential alternative for patients not responding to mitotane alone or with etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. (Pre-)clinical studies are warranted to assess efficacy in vivo. PMID:27603910

  4. Metformin as a new anti-cancer drug in adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fucci, Rossella; Santi, Raffaella; Canu, Letizia; Nesi, Gabriella; Mannelli, Massimo; Luconi, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare heterogeneous malignancy with poor prognosis. Since radical surgery is the only available treatment, more specific and effective drugs are urgently required. The anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with a decreased cancer prevalence and mortality in several solid tumors, prompting its possible use for ACC treatment. This paper evaluates the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects of metformin using the ACC cell model H295R. Metformin treatment significantly reduces cell viability and proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and associates with a significant inhibition of ERK1/2 and mTOR phosphorylation/activation, as well as with stimulation of AMPK activity. Metformin also triggers the apoptotic pathway, shown by the decreased expression of Bcl-2 and HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70, and enhanced membrane exposure of annexin V, resulting in activation of caspase-3 apoptotic effector. Metformin interferes with the proliferative autocrine loop of IGF2/IGF-1R, which supports adrenal cancer growth. Finally, in the ACC xenograft mouse model, obtained by subcutaneous injection of H295R cells, metformin intraperitoneal administration inhibits tumor growth, confirmed by the significant reduction of Ki67%. Our data suggest that metformin inhibits H295R cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Further preclinical studies are necessary to validate the potential anti-cancer effect of metformin in patients affected by ACC. PMID:27391065

  5. Livin/BIRC7 expression as malignancy marker in adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Barbara; Sbiera, Silviu; Casa, Silvia Della; Weigand, Isabel; Wild, Vanessa; Steinhauer, Sonja; Fadda, Guido; Kocot, Arkadius; Bekteshi, Michaela; Mambretti, Egle M; Rosenwald, Andreas; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Fassnacht, Martin; Ronchi, Cristina L

    2017-01-01

    Livin/BIRC7 is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins family, which are involved in tumor development through the inhibition of caspases. Aim was to investigate the expression of livin and other members of its pathway in adrenocortical tumors and in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell line NCI-H295R. The mRNA expression of livin, its isoforms α and β, XIAP, CASP3 and DIABLO was evaluated by qRT-PCR in 82 fresh-frozen adrenal tissues (34 ACC, 25 adenomas = ACA, 23 normal adrenal glands = NAG). Livin protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 270 paraffin-embedded tissues (192 ACC, 58 ACA, 20 NAG). Livin, CASP3 and cleaved caspase-3 were evaluated in NCI-H295R after induction of livin overexpression. Relative livin mRNA expression was significantly higher in ACC than in ACA and NAG (0.060 ± 0.116 vs 0.004 ± 0.014 and 0.002 ± 0.009, respectively, p < 0.01), being consistently higher in tumors than in adjacent NAG and isoform β more expressed than α. No significant differences in CASP3, XIAP and DIABLO levels were found among these groups. In immunohistochemistry, livin was localized in both cytoplasm and nuclei. The ratio between cytoplasmic and nuclear staining was significantly higher in ACC (1.51 ± 0.66) than in ACA (0.80 ± 0.35) and NAG (0.88 ± 0.27; p < 0.0001). No significant correlations were observed between livin expression and histopathological parameters or clinical outcome. In NCI-H295R cells, the livin overexpression slightly reduced the activation of CASP3, but did not correlate with cell viability. In conclusion, livin is specifically over-expressed in ACC, suggesting that it might be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis and represent a new molecular marker of malignancy. PMID:28030838

  6. Adiponectin (15-36) stimulates steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and cortisol production in human adrenocortical cells: role of AMPK and MAPK kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Ramanjaneya, Manjunath; Conner, Alex C; Brown, James E P; Chen, Jing; Digby, Janet E; Barber, Thomas M; Lehnert, Hendrik; Randeva, Harpal S

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin is an abundantly circulating adipokine, orchestrating its effects through two 7-transmembrane receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Steroidogenesis is regulated by a variety of neuropeptides and adipokines. Earlier studies have reported adipokine mediated steroid production. A key rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis is cholesterol transportation across the mitochondrial membrane by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Several signalling pathways regulate StAR expression. The actions of adiponectin and its role in human adrenocortical steroid biosynthesis are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adiponectin on StAR protein expression, steroidogenic genes, and cortisol production and to dissect the signalling cascades involved in the activation of StAR expression. Using qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and ELISA, we have demonstrated that stimulation of human adrenocortical H295R cells with adiponectin results in increased cortisol secretion. This effect is accompanied by increased expression of key steroidogenic pathway genes including StAR protein expression via ERK1/2 and AMPK-dependent pathways. This has implications for our understanding of adiponectin receptor activation and peripheral steroidogenesis. Finally, our study aims to emphasise the key role of adipokines in the integration of metabolic activity and energy balance partly via the regulation of adrenal steroid production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium.

  7. Mitotane sensitizes adrenocortical cancer cells to ionizing radiations by involvement of the cyclin B1/CDK complex in G2 arrest and mismatch repair enzymes modulation.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Misiti, Silvia; Raza, Giorgio; De Paula, Ugo; Marchese, Rodolfo; Brunetti, Ercole; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Mitotane inhibits steroid synthesis by an action on steroidogenic enzymes, as 11beta-hydroxylase and cholesterol side chain cleavage. It also has a cytotoxic effect on the adrenocortical cells and represents a primary drug used in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). H295R and SW13 cell lines were treated with mitotane 10(-5) M and ionizing radiations (IR) in combination therapy, inducing an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells. As shown in a previous report, mitotane/IR combination treatment induced a cell accumulation in the G2 phase. Here, we report the radiosensitizing properties of mitotane in two different ACC cell lines. The drug reveals the effectiveness to enhance the cytotoxic effects of IR by attenuating DNA repair and interfering on the activation of mitosis promoting factor (MPF), mainly regulated by the degradation of cyclin B1 in the mitotic process. These events may explain the inappropriate activation of cdc2, implicated in G2/M phase arrest and probably induced by the mitotane and IR in the combined treatment. Indeed, treatment with purvalanol, a cdc2-inhibitor prevents cell cycle arrest, triggering the G2/M transition. The observation that mitotane and IR in combination treatment amplifies the activation level of cyclin B/cdc2 complexes contributing to cell cycle arrest, suggests that the MPF could function as a master signal for controlling the temporal order of different mitotic events. Moreover, we report that mitotane interferes in modulation of mismatch repair (MMR) enzymes, revealing radiosensitizing drug ability.

  8. A sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS analysis coupled with an online sample enrichment technique for H295R steroidogenesis assay and its application in the investigation of the effect of sildenafil on steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Park, Sol; Kim, Mi Jie; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2013-11-01

    An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using H295R human adenocarcinoma cells is a useful tool for the fast identification of compounds that affect the production of testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Selective and sensitive hormone measurement by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can make this assay more reliable. Therefore, in the present study, a sensitive and selective method for the quantification of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in the H295R steroidogenesis assay was developed and fully validated using LC-MS/MS coupled with an online sample enrichment technique. To prove its usefulness, the method developed was applied to investigate the effect of sildenafil on steroidogenesis. Cell medium samples were diluted and prepared using solid-phase extraction. The samples were prepared on ice and were not kept for more than 30 min to prevent degradation of hormones. The extracts were dried, reconstituted, filtered, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with polarity switching electrospray ionization. The validation results for selectivity, matrix effect, recovery, linearity, precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. The limits of detection for testosterone and 17β-estradiol were 5 and 10 pg/mL, respectively, and the limit of quantification for both testosterone and 17β-estradiol was 10 pg/mL, which was in accordance with the OECD guideline. No degradation was observed under the storage conditions for 7 and 14 days at -80 °C as well as after three freeze-thaw cycles, whereas 17β-estradiol was degraded after 1 h on ice during sample processing. The method developed was successfully used for the investigation of the effect of sildenafil on steroidogenesis. This method can be very useful for the initial selection of drugs with androgenic and/or estrogenic effects for specific purposes, e.g., in the selection of drugs that are used to reverse the effects of chemical castration.

  9. The aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 shows anti-cancer effects in primary metastatic cells and the SW13 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pezzani, Raffaele; Rubin, Beatrice; Bertazza, Loris; Redaelli, Marco; Barollo, Susi; Monticelli, Halenya; Baldini, Enke; Mian, Caterina; Mucignat, Carla; Scaroni, Carla; Mantero, Franco; Ulisse, Salvatore; Iacobone, Maurizio; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-10-01

    New therapeutic targets are needed to fight cancer. Aurora kinases (AK) were recently identified as vital key regulators of cell mitosis and have consequently been investigated as therapeutic targets in preclinical and clinical studies. Aurora kinase inhibitors (AKI) have been studied in many cancer types, but their potential capacity to limit or delay metastases has rarely been considered, and never in adrenal tissue. Given the lack of an effective pharmacological therapy for adrenal metastasis and adrenocortical carcinoma, we assessed AKI (VX-680, SNS314, ZM447439) in 2 cell lines (H295R and SW13 cells), 3 cell cultures of primary adrenocortical metastases (from lung cancer), and 4 primary adrenocortical tumor cell cultures. We also tested reversan, which is a P-gp inhibitor (a fundamental efflux pump that can extrude drugs), and we measured AK expression levels in 66 adrenocortical tumor tissue samples. Biomolecular and cellular tests were performed (such as MTT, thymidine assay, Wright's staining, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, Western blot, qRT-PCR, and mutation analysis). Our results are the first to document AK overexpression in adrenocortical carcinoma as well as in H295R and SW13 cell lines, thus proving the efficacy of AKI against adrenal metastases and in the SW13 cancer cell model. We also demonstrated that reversan and AKI Vx-680 are useless in the H295R cell model, and therefore should not be considered as potential treatments for ACC. Serine/threonine AK inhibition, essentially with VX-680, could be a promising, specific therapeutic tool for eradicating metastases in adrenocortical tissue.

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON STEROIDOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN H295R AND RAT GRANULOSA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of environmental chemicals on the catalytic activity of steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase, have been well documented. However, specific effects of environmental chemicals on steroidogenesis and the physiological impact on local and systemic concentrations of ...

  11. Understanding the Effects of Atrazine on Steroidogenesis in rat granulosa and H295R adrenal cortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) was introduced in the 1950s as a broad spectrum herbicide, and remains one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Several studies have suggested that atrazine modifies steroidogenesis and may disrupt r...

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON STEROIDOGENESIS IN THE HUMAN H295R AND RAT GRANULOSA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of environmental chemicals on the catalytic activity of steroidogenic enzymes, including aromatase, have been well documented. However, specific effects of environmental chemicals on steroidogenesis and the physiological impact on local and systemic concentrations of ...

  13. Understanding the Effects of Atrazine on Steroidogenesis in rat granulosa and H295R adrenal cortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) was introduced in the 1950s as a broad spectrum herbicide, and remains one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Several studies have suggested that atrazine modifies steroidogenesis and may disrupt r...

  14. In Search of Adrenocortical Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Barlaskar, Ferdous M.; Heaton, Joanne H.; Else, Tobias; Kelly, Victoria R.; Krill, Kenneth T.; Scheys, Joshua O.; Simon, Derek P.; Trovato, Alessia; Yang, Wei-Hsiung; Hammer, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists have long hypothesized the existence of tissue-specific (somatic) stem cells and have searched for their location in different organs. The theory that adrenocortical organ homeostasis is maintained by undifferentiated stem or progenitor cells can be traced back nearly a century. Similar to other organ systems, it is widely believed that these rare cells of the adrenal cortex remain relatively undifferentiated and quiescent until needed to replenish the organ, at which time they undergo proliferation and terminal differentiation. Historical studies examining cell cycle activation by label retention assays and regenerative potential by organ transplantation experiments suggested that the adrenocortical progenitors reside in the outer periphery of the adrenal gland. Over the past decade, the Hammer laboratory, building on this hypothesis and these observations, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical development and organ maintenance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of adrenal organogenesis. We present evidence for the existence and location of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells and their potential contribution to adrenocortical carcinomas. Data described herein come primarily from studies conducted in the Hammer laboratory with incorporation of important related studies from other investigators. Together, the work provides a framework for the emerging somatic stem cell field as it relates to the adrenal gland. PMID:19403887

  15. Lipoprotein-Free Mitotane Exerts High Cytotoxic Activity in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hescot, Ségolène; Seck, Atmane; Guerin, Maryse; Cockenpot, Florence; Huby, Thierry; Broutin, Sophie; Young, Jacques; Paci, Angelo; Baudin, Eric; Lombès, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Mitotane (o,p'-DDD), the only approved drug for advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), is a lipophilic agent that accumulates into circulating lipoprotein fractions and high-lipid-containing tissues. The aim of our study was to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro biological implication of serum lipoproteins on pharmacological action of mitotane. Distribution and concentration of mitotane were studied in plasma and adrenal tissue samples from mitotane-treated patients. The effect of lipoprotein-bound or lipoprotein-free (LP-F) mitotane was analyzed on proliferation and apoptosis of human adrenocortical H295R cells. A retrospective study of patients with ACC treated or not with statins was also performed. o,p'-DDD distribution among very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and LP-F fractions obtained after plasma ultracentrifugation of 23 of mitotane-treated patients was widely distributed in each subfraction. A positive correlation was observed between mitotane levels in plasma and in LDL, HDL, but also LP-F compartment. Intratumor o,p'-DDD concentrations in five ACC samples of mitotane-treated patients were found to be independent of cholesterol transporter expression, scavenger receptors, and LDL receptors. In vitro studies showed significant higher antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects and higher cell and mitochondrial uptake of mitotane when H295R cells were grown in LP-F medium. Finally, retrospective study of an ACC cohort of 26 mitotane-treated patients revealed that statin therapy was significantly associated with a higher rate of tumor control. Altogether, our in vitro and in vivo studies provided compelling evidence for a greater efficacy of LP-F mitotane. Patients with ACC may thus benefit from therapeutic strategies that aim to increase LP-F mitotane fraction.

  16. Acute self-suppression of corticosteroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Malamed, S

    1979-10-01

    The relation between steroidogenesis induced by ACTH and that induced by exogenous concentrations of glucocorticoids was studied in isolated adrenocortical cells. Exogenous corticosterone and cortisol, in concentrations within the production capacity of the adrenal gland, suppressed steroidogenesis induced by ACTH in rat and beef cells, respectively. The precursors pregnenolone and progesterone enhanced steroidogenesis in both rat and beef cells. Aldosterone in rat cells and 17 beta-estradiol in rat and beef cells had little if any effect on steroidogenesis. Either suppression or stimulation by exogenous steroids was acute, that is, after 2-h incubation for rat cells and 1-h incubation for beef cells. A direct suppressive action of end product glucocorticoids is indicated. This observed self-suppression of adrenocortical cells suggests the existence of a mechanism for the find adjustment of steroidogenesis that operates in addition to the classical control exerted by the anterior pituitary.

  17. Evaluation of 9-cis retinoic acid and mitotane as antitumoral agents in an adrenocortical xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zoltán; Baghy, Kornélia; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Micsik, Tamás; Nyírő, Gábor; Rácz, Gergely; Butz, Henriett; Perge, Pál; Kovalszky, Ilona; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila; Igaz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The available drug treatment options for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are limited. In our previous studies, the in vitro activity of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cisRA) on adrenocortical NCI-H295R cells was shown along with its antitumoral effects in a small pilot xenograft study. Our aim was to dissect the antitumoral effects of 9-cisRA on ACC in a large-scale xenograft study involving mitotane, 9-cisRA and their combination. 43 male SCID mice inoculated with NCI-H295R cells were treated in four groups (i. control, ii. 9-cisRA, iii. mitotane, iv. 9-cisRA + mitotane) for 28 days. Tumor size follow-up, histological and immunohistochemical (Ki-67) analysis, tissue gene expression microarray, quantitative real-time-PCR for the validation of microarray results and to detect circulating microRNAs were performed. Protein expression was studied by proteomics and Western-blot validation. Only mitotane alone and the combination of 9-cisRA and mitotane resulted in significant tumor size reduction. The Ki-67 index was significantly reduced in both 9-cisRA and 9-cisRA+mitotane groups. Only modest changes at the mRNA level were found: the 9-cisRA-induced overexpression of apolipoprotein A4 and down-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4A was validated. The expression of circulating hsa-miR-483-5p was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group. The SET protein was validated as being significantly down-regulated in the combined mitotane+9-cisRA group. 9-cisRA might be a helpful additive agent in the treatment of ACC in combination with mitotane. Circulating hsa-miR-483-5p could be utilized for monitoring the treatment efficacy in ACC patients, and the treatment-induced reduction in protein SET expression might raise its relevance in ACC biology.

  18. Evaluation of 9-cis retinoic acid and mitotane as antitumoral agents in an adrenocortical xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zoltán; Baghy, Kornélia; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Micsik, Tamás; Nyírő, Gábor; Rácz, Gergely; Butz, Henriett; Perge, Pál; Kovalszky, Ilona; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila; Igaz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The available drug treatment options for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) are limited. In our previous studies, the in vitro activity of 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cisRA) on adrenocortical NCI-H295R cells was shown along with its antitumoral effects in a small pilot xenograft study. Our aim was to dissect the antitumoral effects of 9-cisRA on ACC in a large-scale xenograft study involving mitotane, 9-cisRA and their combination. 43 male SCID mice inoculated with NCI-H295R cells were treated in four groups (i. control, ii. 9-cisRA, iii. mitotane, iv. 9-cisRA + mitotane) for 28 days. Tumor size follow-up, histological and immunohistochemical (Ki-67) analysis, tissue gene expression microarray, quantitative real-time-PCR for the validation of microarray results and to detect circulating microRNAs were performed. Protein expression was studied by proteomics and Western-blot validation. Only mitotane alone and the combination of 9-cisRA and mitotane resulted in significant tumor size reduction. The Ki-67 index was significantly reduced in both 9-cisRA and 9-cisRA+mitotane groups. Only modest changes at the mRNA level were found: the 9-cisRA-induced overexpression of apolipoprotein A4 and down-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4A was validated. The expression of circulating hsa-miR-483-5p was significantly reduced in the combined treatment group. The SET protein was validated as being significantly down-regulated in the combined mitotane+9-cisRA group. 9-cisRA might be a helpful additive agent in the treatment of ACC in combination with mitotane. Circulating hsa-miR-483-5p could be utilized for monitoring the treatment efficacy in ACC patients, and the treatment-induced reduction in protein SET expression might raise its relevance in ACC biology. PMID:26885453

  19. Deficiency of ALADIN Impairs Redox Homeostasis in Human Adrenal Cells and Inhibits Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, R.; Metherell, L. A.; Clark, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Triple A syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive cause of adrenal failure. Additional features include alacrima, achalasia of the esophageal cardia, and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The AAAS gene product is the nuclear pore complex protein alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurological disorder (ALADIN), of unknown function. Triple A syndrome patient dermal fibroblasts appear to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild-type fibroblasts. To provide an adrenal and neuronal-specific disease model, we established AAAS-gene knockdown in H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by lentiviral short hairpin RNA transduction. AAAS-knockdown significantly reduced cell viability in H295R cells. This effect was exacerbated by hydrogen peroxide treatment and improved by application of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. An imbalance in redox homeostasis after AAAS knockdown was further suggested in the H295R cells by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. AAAS-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells were also hypersensitive to oxidative stress and responded to antioxidant treatment. A further impact on function was observed in the AAAS-knockdown H295R cells with reduced expression of key components of the steroidogenic pathway, including steroidogenic acute regulatory and P450c11β protein expression. Importantly a significant reduction in cortisol production was demonstrated with AAAS knockdown, which was partially reversed with N-acetylcysteine treatment. Conclusion: Our in vitro data in AAAS-knockdown adrenal and neuronal cells not only corroborates previous studies implicating oxidative stress in this disorder but also provides further insights into the pathogenic mechanisms in triple A syndrome. PMID:23825130

  20. Deficiency of ALADIN impairs redox homeostasis in human adrenal cells and inhibits steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R; Metherell, L A; Clark, A J; Storr, H L

    2013-09-01

    Triple A syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive cause of adrenal failure. Additional features include alacrima, achalasia of the esophageal cardia, and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The AAAS gene product is the nuclear pore complex protein alacrima-achalasia-adrenal insufficiency neurological disorder (ALADIN), of unknown function. Triple A syndrome patient dermal fibroblasts appear to be more sensitive to oxidative stress than wild-type fibroblasts. To provide an adrenal and neuronal-specific disease model, we established AAAS-gene knockdown in H295R human adrenocortical tumor cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells by lentiviral short hairpin RNA transduction. AAAS-knockdown significantly reduced cell viability in H295R cells. This effect was exacerbated by hydrogen peroxide treatment and improved by application of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. An imbalance in redox homeostasis after AAAS knockdown was further suggested in the H295R cells by a decrease in the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione. AAAS-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells were also hypersensitive to oxidative stress and responded to antioxidant treatment. A further impact on function was observed in the AAAS-knockdown H295R cells with reduced expression of key components of the steroidogenic pathway, including steroidogenic acute regulatory and P450c11β protein expression. Importantly a significant reduction in cortisol production was demonstrated with AAAS knockdown, which was partially reversed with N-acetylcysteine treatment. Our in vitro data in AAAS-knockdown adrenal and neuronal cells not only corroborates previous studies implicating oxidative stress in this disorder but also provides further insights into the pathogenic mechanisms in triple A syndrome.

  1. The lack of antitumor effects of o,p'DDA excludes its role as an active metabolite of mitotane for adrenocortical carcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Hescot, Ségolène; Paci, Angelo; Seck, Atmane; Slama, Abdelhamid; Viengchareun, Say; Trabado, Séverine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Young, Jacques; Baudin, Eric; Lombès, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is the most effective treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that o,p'DDA may represent the active metabolite of mitotane. We aimed at reevaluating the potential role and pharmacological effects of o,p'DDA. Functional consequences of o,p'DDA exposure were studied on proliferation, steroidogenesis, and mitochondrial respiratory chain in human H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cells. Mitotane and its metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined to an ultraviolet detection in these cells treated with o,p'DDD or o,p'DDA and in human adrenal tissues. Dose-response curves up to 300 μM showed that, as opposed to o,p'DDD, o,p'DDA did not inhibit cell proliferation nor alter respiratory chain complex IV activity, gene expression nor induce mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative stress, or apoptosis. However, whereas mitotane drastically decreased expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, o,p'DDA slightly reduced expression of some steroidogenic enzymes and exerts weak anti-secretory effects only at high doses. While o,p'DDD concentration was significantly reduced by 40 % in H295R cell supernatants after 48 h incubation, o,p'DDA levels remained unchanged suggesting that o,p'DDA was not efficiently transported into the cells. o,p'DDA was not detected in cell homogenates or supernatants after 48 h exposure to o,p'DDD, consistent with the absence of o,p'DDA production in these models. Finally, unlike o'p'DDD, we found that o,p'DDA content was undetectable in two ACC and one normal adrenal gland of mitotane-treated patients, suggesting a lack of cellular uptake and in situ production. Our results demonstrate that o,p'DDD, but not o,p'DDA, induces functional alterations in adrenal cells.

  2. The Lack of Antitumor Effects of o,p'DDA Excludes Its Role as an Active Metabolite of Mitotane for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hescot, Ségolène; Paci, Angelo; Seck, Atmane; Slama, Abdelhamid; Viengchareun, Say; Trabado, Séverine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Young, Jacques; Baudin, Eric; Lombès, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Mitotane (o,p’DDD) is the most effective treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Previous studies suggested that o,p’DDA may represent the active metabolite of mitotane. We aimed at re-evaluating the potential role and pharmacological effects of o,p’DDA. Functional consequences of o,p’DDA exposure were studied on proliferation, steroidogenesis and mitochondrial respiratory chain in human H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cells. Mitotane and its metabolites were quantified using HPLC-UV in these cells treated with o,p’DDD or o,p’DDA and in human adrenal tissues. Dose-response curves up to 300 μM showed that, as opposed to o,p’DDD, o,p’DDA did not inhibit cell proliferation, noralter respiratory chain complex IV activity, gene expression nor induce mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative stress or apoptosis. However, whereas mitotanedrastically decreased expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, o,p’DDA slightly reduced expression of some steroidogenicenzymes yet exertsweak anti-secretory effects only at high doses.While o,p’DDD concentration was significantly reduced by 40% in H295R cell supernatants after 48 h incubation, o,p’DDA levels remained unchanged suggesting that o,p’DDA was not efficiently transported into the cells. O,p’DDA was not detected in cell homogenates or supernatants after 48h exposure to o,p’DDD, consistent with the absence of o,p’DDA production in these models.Finally, unlike o’p’DDD, we found that o,p’DDA content was undetectable in two ACC and one normal adrenal gland of mitotane-treated patients, suggesting a lack of cellular uptake and in situ production. Our results demonstrate that o,p’DDD, but not o,p’DDA, induces functional alterations in adrenal cells. PMID:25026941

  3. Glucocorticoid control of steroidogenesis in isolated rat adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Malamed, S

    1983-08-17

    The role of end-product glucocorticoids in the regulation of corticosteroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells was investigated. Trypsin-isolated cells from male rat adrenal glands were incubated with or without corticotropin (ACTH) and with or without corticosterone. Endogenous corticosterone production was determined by radioimmunoassay at the end of incubation. Cessation of ACTH-induced corticosterone production was apparent after 2-4 h of incubation. The suppression occurred later with lower cell concentrations. Corticosterone production was partially restored after washing the suppressed cells. Supernatant fluid from suppressed cell suspensions also suppressed steroidogenesis of a fresh population of cells. However, the suppressing property of the supernatant fluid was abolished after the removal of corticosterone by charcoal-dextran treatment, suggesting that corticosterone or other steroids caused the suppression. Exogenous corticosterone induced suppression over a wide range of ACTH concentrations, but did not change the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration of ACTH, indicating that the suppression does not change the sensitivity of the cells to ACTH. Suppression occurred within 30-60 min after corticosterone had been added to the incubation medium either at the start of incubation or while steroidogenesis was in progress. Suppression varied directly with the concentration of exogenous corticosterone. These data indicate that glucocorticoids can directly and acutely suppress corticosteroidogenesis and thus control adrenocortical function in concert with other regulators such as ACTH and Ca2+.

  4. Global gene expression response to telomerase in bovine adrenocortical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, Steven D.; Hornsby, Peter J.; Betts, Dean H. . E-mail: bettsd@uoguelph.ca

    2005-09-30

    The infinite proliferative capability of most immortalized cells is dependent upon the presence of the enzyme telomerase and its ability to maintain telomere length and structure. However, telomerase may be involved in a greater system than telomere length regulation, as recent evidence has shown it capable of increasing wound healing in vivo, and improving cellular proliferation rate and survival from apoptosis in vitro. Here, we describe the global gene expression response to ectopic telomerase expression in an in vitro bovine adrenocortical cell model. Telomerase-immortalized cells showed an increased ability for proliferation and survival in minimal essential medium above cells transgenic for GFP. cDNA microarray analyses revealed an altered cell state indicative of increased adrenocortical cell proliferation regulated by the IGF2 pathway and alterations in members of the TGF-B family. As well, we identified alterations in genes associated with development and wound healing that support a model that high telomerase expression induces a highly adaptable, progenitor-like state.

  5. Targeting heterogeneity of adrenocortical carcinoma: Evaluation and extension of preclinical tumor models to improve clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Hantel, Constanze; Shapiro, Igor; Poli, Giada; Chiapponi, Costanza; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Reincke, Martin; Luconi, Michaela; Jung, Sara; Beuschlein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has been recognized that clinical translation of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) often fails. These disappointing results indicate that the currently utilized tumor models only poorly reflect relevant pathophysiology and, thereby, do not predict clinical applicability of novel pharmacological approaches. However, also the development of new preclinical ACC models has remained a challenge with only one human cell line (NCI-H295R) and one recently established human pediatric xenograft model (SJ-ACC3) being available for this highly heterogeneous malignancy. Our current study furthermore reveals a poor reproducibility of therapeutic action between different clones of the most commonly used tumor model NCI-H295R. In an attempt to broaden the current preclinical armamentarium, we aimed at the development of patient-individual tumor models. During these studies, one xenograft (MUC-1) displayed marked engraftment and sustained tumor growth. MUC-1 tumor analysis revealed highly vascularized, proliferating and SF-1 positive xenografts. In a next step, we characterized all currently available human tumor models for ACC for Ki67, SF-1 and EGF-receptor status in comparison with MUC-1-xenografts. In addition, we established a primary culture, which is now viable over 31 passages with sustained nuclear SF-1 and cytoplasmic 3βHSD immuno-positivity. Subsequent investigation of therapeutic responsiveness upon treatment with the current systemic gold standard EDP-M (etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitotane) demonstrated maintenance of the clinically observed drug resistance for MUC-1 exclusively. In summary, we provide evidence for a novel patient-derived tumor model with the potential to improve clinical prediction of novel therapeutic strategies for patients with ACC. PMID:27764813

  6. The Role of Oxysterols in a Computational Steroidogenesis Model of Human H295R Cells to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine disruptors (...

  7. The Role of Oxysterols in a Computational Steroidogenesis Model of Human H295R Cells to Improve Predictability of Biochemical Responses to Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroids, which have an important role in a wide range of physiological processes, are synthesized primarily in the gonads and adrenal glands through a series of enzyme mediated reactions. The activity of steroidogenic enzymes can be altered by a variety of endocrine disruptors (...

  8. Transcriptional changes in steroidogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFOA and PFOS) regulate the synthesis of sex hormones in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Soon; Choi, Jin-Soo; Park, June-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two of the most widely used perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Because of their strong persistence, they have become widely distributed throughout the environment and human bodies. PFOA and PFOS are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system based upon many in vivo studies, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the endocrine-related effects of PFOA and PFOS using in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivation assays and steroidogenesis assay. The results showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited weak antagonistic ER transactivation but did not exhibit agonistic ER or AR transactivation. In the steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS induced 17β-estradiol (E2) level and reduced testosterone level, which would be caused by the induction of aromatase activity. The qPCR analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis indicates that PFOA and PFOS associate with sex hormone synthesis by the transcriptional induction of two genes, cyp19 and 3β-hsd2. Moreover, the transcriptional induction of cyp11b2 by PFOS suggests that this chemical may underlie the disruption of several physiological functions related to aldosterone. The results of the current study suggest that PFOA and PFOS are potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and provide information for further studies on the molecular events that initiate the adverse endocrine effects.

  9. Regulation of the adrenocortical stem cell niche: implications for disease

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Elisabeth M.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are endowed with the potential for self-renewal and multipotency. Pluripotent embryonic stem cells have an early role in the formation of the three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm), whereas adult tissue stem cells and progenitor cells are critical mediators of organ homeostasis. The adrenal cortex is an exceptionally dynamic endocrine organ that is homeostatically maintained by paracrine and endocrine signals throughout postnatal life. In the past decade, much has been learned about the stem and progenitor cells of the adrenal cortex and the multiple roles that these cell populations have in normal development and homeostasis of the adrenal gland and in adrenal diseases. In this Review, we discuss the evidence for the presence of adrenocortical stem cells, as well as the various signalling molecules and transcriptional networks that are critical for the embryological establishment and postnatal maintenance of this vital population of cells. The implications of these pathways and cells in the pathophysiology of disease are also addressed. PMID:25287283

  10. RRM1 modulates mitotane activity in adrenal cancer cells interfering with its metabolization.

    PubMed

    Germano, Antonina; Rapa, Ida; Volante, Marco; De Francia, Silvia; Migliore, Cristina; Berruti, Alfredo; Papotti, Mauro; Terzolo, Massimo

    2015-02-05

    The anti-proliferative activity of mitotane (o,p'DDD) in adrenocortical cancer is mediated by its metabolites o,p'DDE and o,p'DDA. We previously demonstrated a functional link between ribonucleotide reductase M1(RRM1) expression and o,p'DDD activity, but the mechanism is unknown. In this study we assessed the impact of RRM1 on the bioavailability and cytotoxic activity of o,p'DDD, o,p'DDE and o,p'DDA in SW13 and H295R cells. In H295R cells, mitotane and its metabolites showed a similar cytotoxicity and RRM1 expression was not influenced by any drug. In SW13 cells, o,p'DDA only showed a cytotoxic activity and did not modify RRM1 expression, whereas the lack of sensitivity to o,p'DDE was associated to RRM1 gene up-modulation, as already demonstrated for o,p'DDD. RRM1 silencing in SW13 cells increased the intracellular transformation of mitotane into o,p'DDE and o,p'DDA. These data demonstrate that RRM1 gene interferes with mitotane metabolism in adrenocortical cancer cells, as a possible mechanisms of drug resistance.

  11. PCP4: a regulator of aldosterone synthesis in human adrenocortical tissues

    PubMed Central

    Felizola, Saulo J. A.; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ono, Yoshikiyo; Kitamura, Kanako; Kikuchi, Kumi; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Ise, Kazue; Takase, Kei; Sugawara, Akira; Hattangady, Namita; Rainey, William E.; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) is a calmodulin (CaM) binding protein that accelerates calcium association and dissociation with CaM. It has been previously detected in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) but details on its expression and function in adrenocortical tissues have remained unknown. Therefore, we performed the immunohistochemical analysis of PCP4 in the following tissues: normal adrenal (NA; n=15), APA (n=15), cortisol producing adenomas (CPA; n=15) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism cases (IHA; n=5). APA samples (n=45) were also submitted to quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) of PCP4, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2, as well as DNA sequencing for KCNJ5 mutations. Transient transfection analysis using PCP4 siRNA was also performed in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells, following ELISA analysis, and CYP11B2 luciferase assays were also performed after PCP4 vector transfection in order to study the regulation of PCP4 protein expression. In our findings, PCP4 immunoreactivity was predominantly detected in APA and in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) of NA and IHA. In APA, the mRNA levels of PCP4 were significantly correlated with those of CYP11B2 (P<0.0001) and were significantly higher in cases with KCNJ5 mutation than wild-type (P=0.005). Following PCP4 vector transfection, CYP11B2 luciferase reporter activity was significantly higher than controls in the presence of angiotensin-II. Knockdown of PCP4 resulted in a significant decrease in CYP11B2 mRNA levels (P=0.012) and aldosterone production (P=0.011). Our results indicate that PCP4 is a regulator of aldosterone production in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic human adrenocortical cells. PMID:24403568

  12. Clinical and functional impact of TARBP2 over-expression in adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caramuta, Stefano; Lee, Linkiat; Özata, Deniz M; Akçakaya, Pinar; Xie, Hong; Höög, Anders; Zedenius, Jan; Bäckdahl, Martin; Larsson, Catharina; Lui, Weng-Onn

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression in adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) has been documented to have diagnostic, prognostic, as well as functional implications. Here, we evaluated the mRNA expression of DROSHA, DGCR8, DICER (DICER1), TARBP2, and PRKRA, the core components in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in a cohort of 73 adrenocortical tumors (including 43 adenomas and 30 carcinomas) and nine normal adrenal cortices using a RT-qPCR approach. Our results show a significant over-expression of TARBP2, DICER, and DROSHA in the carcinomas compared with adenomas or adrenal cortices (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses, we confirmed the higher expression of TARBP2, DICER, and DROSHA at the protein level in carcinoma cases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mRNA expression of TARBP2, but not DICER or DROSHA, is a strong molecular predictor to discriminate between adenomas and carcinomas. Functionally, we showed that inhibition of TARBP2 expression in human NCI-H295R ACC cells resulted in a decreased cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. TARBP2 over-expression was not related to gene mutations; however, copy number gain of the TARBP2 gene was observed in 57% of the carcinomas analyzed. In addition, we identified that miR-195 and miR-497 could directly regulate TARBP2 and DICER expression in ACC cells. This is the first study to demonstrate the deregulation of miRNA-processing factors in adrenocortical tumors and to show the clinical and biological impact of TARBP2 over-expression in this tumor type. PMID:23671264

  13. Upregulated JAG1 Enhances Cell Proliferation in Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Derek P.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the expression and molecular significance of JAG1, a ligand for the Notch developmental signaling pathway, in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Experimental Design Human microarray data were analyzed for genes expressing ligands for the Notch pathway and validated with QPCR and immunoblots of RNA and protein, respectively. ACC cells lines were assessed for Notch pathway member expression by immunoblot, QPCR, and immunofluorescence. Notch pathway activity was also determined utilizing a reporter gene (luciferase) activation. Proliferation experiments employing a Jag1 knockdown strategy (Jag1KD) and a inhibitor of Notch-dependent transcription (DNMaml), utilized a co-culture system with FACS analysis. Tumor stage and mitotic rate of human ACC samples were correlated to JAG1 expression. Results The Notch ligand JAG1 mRNA and protein are upregulated in ACC. JAG1 upregulation can be modeled in the Y1 mouse ACC cell line that expresses Jag1, Notch receptors, downstream signaling molecules, and exhibits density-dependent Notch activation. Jag1 enhances cell proliferation through activation of canonical Notch signaling as shown through Jag1 knockdown (Jag1KD) and co-culture experiments. Inhibition of Notch signaling at the level of post receptor signaling (DNMaml), results in similar inhibition of cell proliferation. Analysis of clinical data indicates Jag1 expression correlates with both Grade and Stage of ACC supporting a role of JAG1-dependent Notch activation in late-stage ACC. Conclusions JAG1 is the primary upregulated Notch ligand in ACC and enhances ACC cell proliferation and tumor aggressiveness in a non-cell-autonomous manner through activation of Notch signaling in adjacent cells. PMID:22427350

  14. PEROXISOMES IN INNER ADRENOCORTICAL CELLS OF FETAL AND ADULT GUINEA PIGS

    PubMed Central

    Black, Virginia H.; Bogart, Bruce I.

    1973-01-01

    Abundant membrane-bounded granules, 0.1–0.45 µm in diameter, occur among the elements of the smooth-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in zona fasciculata and zona reticularis adrenocortical cells of guinea pigs. Acid phosphatase cannot be cytochemically demonstrated in them, and they are therefore distinct from lysosomes. Incubation in medium containing 3,3'-diaminobenzidine results in dense staining of the granules, identifying them as peroxisomes. These small peroxisomes increase in number as fetal adrenocortical cells differentiate, and they appear to arise from dilated regions of endoplasmic reticulum. They maintain interconnections with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and with one another. PMID:4633170

  15. Loss of sensitivity to ACTH of adrenocortical cells isolated from maturing domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-07-01

    Maturation of domestic fowl corticosteroidogenesis was evaluated using purified adrenocortical cells. Basal corticosterone production decreased steadily from 2 days to 26 weeks after hatching. However, maximally stimulated corticosterone production was not changed. In contrast, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations (ED50 values or effective doses for 50% maximal effect) of ACTH analogs increased approximately 40 times by 26 weeks, but the ED50 values of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and pregnenolone were not changed. This suggests that adrenocortical cell sensitivity to ACTH decreases with maturation of the domestic fowl.

  16. Properties of calcium and potassium currents of clonal adrenocortical cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The ionic currents of clonal Y-1 adrenocortical cells were studied using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. These cells had two major current components: a large outward current carried by K ions, and a small inward Ca current. The Ca current depended on the activity of two populations of Ca channels, slow (SD) and fast (FD) deactivating, that could be separated by their different closing time constants (at -80 mV, SD, 3.8 ms, and FD, 0.13 ms). These two kinds of channels also differed in (a) activation threshold (SD, approximately - 50 mV; FD, approximately -20 mV), (b) half-maximal activation (SD, between -15 and -10 mV; FD between +10 and +15 mV), and (c) inactivation time course (SD, fast; FD, slow). The total amplitude of the Ca current and the proportion of SD and FD channels varied from cell to cell. The amplitude of the K current was strongly dependent on the internal [Ca2+] and was almost abolished when internal [Ca2+] was less than 0.001 microM. The K current appeared to be independent, or only slightly dependent, of Ca influx. With an internal [Ca2+] of 0.1 microM, the activation threshold was -20 mV, and at +40 mV the half- time of activation was 9 ms. With 73 mM external K the closing time constant at -70 mV was approximately 3 ms. The outward current was also modulated by internal pH and Mg. At a constant pCa gamma a decrease of pH reduced the current amplitude, whereas the activation kinetics were not much altered. Removal of internal Mg produced a drastic decrease in the amplitude of the Ca-activated K current. It was also found that with internal [Ca2+] over 0.1 microM the K current underwent a time- dependent transformation characterized by a large increase in amplitude and in activation kinetics. PMID:2539432

  17. Sphingosine kinase 1 is overexpressed and promotes adrenocortical carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiwei; Kong, Wen; Xue, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yiran

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine tumor with a very poor prognosis. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an oncogenic kinase, has previously been found to be upregulated in various cancers. However, the role of the SphK1 in ACC has not been investigated. In this study, SphK1 mRNA and protein expression levels as well as clinicopathological significance were evaluated in ACC samples. In vitro siRNA knockdown of SphK1 in two ACC cell lines (H295R and SW13) was used to determine its effect on cellular proliferation and invasion. In addition, we further evaluated the effect of SphK1 antagonist fingolimod (FTY720) in ACC in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with mitotane, and attempted to explore its anticarcinogenic mechanisms. Our results show a significant over-expression of SphK1 mRNA and protein expression in the carcinomas compared with adenomas (P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Functionally, konckdown of SphK1 gene expression in ACC cell lines significantly decreased cell proliferation and invasion. FTY720 could result in a decreased cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, and the combination of mitotane and FTY720 resulted in a greater anti-proliferative effect over single agent treatment in SW13 cells. Furthermore, FTY720 could markedly inhibit tumor growth in ACC xenografts. SphK1 expression is functionally associated to cellular proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and mitotane sensitivity of ACC. Our data suggest that SphK1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ACC. PMID:26673009

  18. The role of ARMC5 in human cell cultures from nodules of primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH).

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Isadora P; Nishi, Mirian; Zerbini, Maria Claudia N; Almeida, Madson Q; Brondani, Vania B; Botelho, Maria Luiza Anhaia de Arruda; Tanno, Fabio Y; Srougi, Victor; Chambo, José Luis; Mendonca, Berenice B; Bertherat, Jérôme; Lotfi, Claudimara F P; Fragoso, Maria Candida B V

    2017-07-01

    The participation of aberrant receptors and intra-adrenal ACTH in hyperplastic tissue are considered mechanisms that regulate hypercortisolism in PMAH. Additionally, germline ARMC5 mutations have been described as the most frequent genetic abnormality found in patients diagnosed with PMAH. Previous functional studies analyzed ARMC5 role using H295R cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARMC5 in cell cultures obtained from PMAH nodules containing steroidogenic cells, aberrant receptors and intra-adrenal ACTH. ARMC5 silencing in non-mutated PMAH cell cultures decreased steroidogenesis-related genes and increased CCNE1 mRNA expression and proliferative capacity without affecting cell viability. Additionally, ARMC5 overexpression induced cell death in PMAH mutated cell cultures, thereby decreasing cell viability. We confirmed the role of ARMC5 as an important pro-apoptotic protein involved in PMAH-related steroidogenesis. We also report for the first time the involvement of ARMC5 in controlling proliferation and regulating cell cycle in PMAH cell cultures; these effects need to be explored further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF1R synergistically impacts therapeutically on adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jianpo; Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Weiqing; Zhu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with very poor prognosis and no effective treatment. The aim of this study was to explore a novel therapy co-targeting EGFR and IGF1R in vitro and vivo. Methods The expression of EGFR and IGF1R were evaluated in a series of adrenocortical tumors by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability of ACC cell lines H295R and SW13 were determined by MTT assay after treatment with the combination of EGFR inhibitor Erlotinib and IGF1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The mechanism within intracellular signaling pathways was analyzed by Western blot. Mice bearing human ACC xenografts were treated with Erlotinib and NVP-AEW541, and the effects on tumour growth were assessed. Results Our results show a significant over-expression of EGFR (66.67%) and IGF1R (80.0%) in ACC. Besides, the co-overexpression of EGFR and IGF1R was seen in 8/15 ACCs, as compared with ACAs (P<0.05). Erlotinib and NVP-AEW541 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis by blocking phosphorylation of MEK/ERK and AKT, respectively. Meanwhile, we found that single inhibition of IGF1R induced compensatory activation of MEK/ERK, leading to sustained activation of mTOR, which represent as aggregation of EGFR and IGF1R downstream components. More importantly, the combination of Erlotinib and NVP-AEW541 enhances anti-tumour efficacy compared to treatment with either agent alone or to untreated control in vitro and vivo. Conclusions In conclusion, coinhibition therapy targeting EGFR and IGF1R may be considerable for treatment of ACC in the future. PMID:27105537

  20. Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

  1. Fetal adrenal capsular cells serve as progenitor cells for steroidogenic and stromal adrenocortical cell lineages in M. musculus

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Michelle A.; Acharya, Asha; Finco, Isabella; Swonger, Jessica M.; Elston, Marlee J.; Tallquist, Michelle D.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    The lineage relationships of fetal adrenal cells and adrenal capsular cells to the differentiated adrenal cortex are not fully understood. Existing data support a role for each cell type as a progenitor for cells of the adult cortex. This report reveals that subsets of capsular cells are descendants of fetal adrenocortical cells that once expressed Nr5a1. These fetal adrenocortical cell descendants within the adrenal capsule express Gli1, a known marker of progenitors of steroidogenic adrenal cells. The capsule is also populated by cells that express Tcf21, a known inhibitor of Nr5a1 gene expression. We demonstrate that Tcf21-expressing cells give rise to Nr5a1-expressing cells but only before capsular formation. After the capsule has formed, capsular Tcf21-expressing cells give rise only to non-steroidogenic stromal adrenocortical cells, which also express collagen 1a1, desmin and platelet-derived growth factor (alpha polypeptide) but not Nr5a1. These observations integrate prior observations that define two separate origins of adult adrenocortical steroidogenic cells (fetal adrenal cortex and/or the adrenal capsule). Thus, these observations predict a unique temporal and/or spatial role of adult cortical cells that arise directly from either fetal cortical cells or from fetal cortex-derived capsular cells. Last, the data uncover the mechanism by which two populations of fetal cells (fetal cortex derived Gli1-expressing cells and mesenchymal Tcf21-expressing mesenchymal cells) participate in the establishment of the homeostatic capsular progenitor cell niche of the adult cortex. PMID:24131628

  2. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001663.htm Adrenocortical carcinoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a cancer of the adrenal glands . ...

  3. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2015-06-15

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epigenetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epi-genetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. PMID:25498963

  5. Aging of the rat adrenocortical cell: response to ACTH and cyclic AMP in vitro.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Carsia, R V

    1983-03-01

    To study intrinsic age-related changes in adrenocortical steroid production, cells isolated from rats of different ages (3 to 24 months) were used. Acute (2 hour) corticosterone production in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) was measured by radioimmunoassay. With age, adrenocortical cells lose much of their ability to produce corticosterone in the absence or presence of ACTH or cAMP. The loss is progressive from 6 to 24 months of age. Analysis of the data suggests that from 6 to 12 months, an intracellular steroidogenic lesion develops; in addition there may be a loss in ACTH receptors on the plasma membrane. After 12 months these defects increase and are accompanied by a decrease in receptor sensitivity to ACTH.

  6. Endothelial cells regulate β-catenin activity in adrenocortical cells via secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Schwafertz, Carolin; Schinner, Sven; Kühn, Markus C; Haase, Matthias; Asmus, Amelie; Mülders-Opgenoorth, Birgit; Ansurudeen, Ishrath; Hornsby, Peter J; Morawietz, Henning; Oetjen, Elke; Schott, Matthias; Willenberg, Holger S

    2017-02-05

    Endothelial cell-derived products influence the synthesis of aldosterone and cortisol in human adrenocortical cells by modulating proteins such as steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) protein, steroidogenic factor (SF)-1 and CITED2. However, the potential endothelial cell-derived factors that mediate this effect are still unknown. The current study was perfomed to look into the control of β-catenin activity by endothelial cell-derived factors and to identify a mechanism by which they affect β-catenin activity in adrenocortical NCIH295R cells. Using reporter gene assays and Western blotting, we found that endothelial cell-conditioned medium (ECCM) led to nuclear translocation of β-catenin and an increase in β-catenin-dependent transcription that could be blocked by U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Furthermore, we found that a receptor tyrosin kinase (RTK) was involved in ECCM-induced β-catenin-dependent transcription. Through selective inhibition of RTK using Su5402, it was shown that receptors responding to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mediate the action of ECCM. Adrenocortical cells treated with bFGF showed a significant greater level of bFGF mRNA. In addition, HUVECs secrete bFGF in a density-dependent manner. In conclusion, the data suggest that endothelial cells regulate β-catenin activity in adrenocortical cells also via secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor.

  7. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  8. Biphasic hormonal responses to the adrenocorticolytic DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Asp, Vendela; Ulleras, Erik; Lindstroem, Veronica; Bergstroem, Ulrika; Oskarsson, Agneta; Brandt, Ingvar

    2010-02-01

    The DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE) has been proposed as a lead compound for an improved adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) treatment. ACC is a rare malignant disorder with poor prognosis, and the current pharmacological therapy o,p'-DDD (mitotane) has limited efficacy and causes severe adverse effects. 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 11B1 in mice and causes formation of irreversibly bound protein adducts, reduced glucocorticoid secretion, and cell death in the adrenal cortex of several animal species. The present study was carried out to assess similarities and differences between mice and humans concerning the adrenocorticolytic effects of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE. The results support previous indications that humans are sensitive to the adrenocorticolytic actions of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE by demonstrating protein adduct formation and cytotoxicity in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R. However, neither the irreversible binding nor the cytotoxicity of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in H295R cells was inhibited by the CYP11B1 inhibitor etomidate. We also report biphasic responses to 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in cortisol and aldosterone secretion as well as in mRNA levels of the steroidogenic genes StAR, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. Hormone levels and mRNA levels were increased at lower concentrations of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE, while higher concentrations decreased hormone levels. These biphasic responses were not observed with o,p'-DDD or with the precursor DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE. Based on these results, 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE remains a viable lead compound for drug design, although the adrenocorticolytic effects of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in human cells seem more complex than in murine cells.

  9. Acute effects of ACTH on dissociated adrenocortical cells: quantitative changes in mitochondria and lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Zoller, L C; Malamed, S

    1975-08-01

    To study the role of certain organelles in steroidogenesis, dissociated rat adrenocortical cells were incubated for two hours with ACTH at a concentration that induces a high level of steroid production. Sections of ACTH treated and untreated cells were photographed in the electron microscope, and morphometric analysis was undertaken to assess possible ACTH-induced changes in total cell volume, volume density and numerical denisty of lipid droplets and mitochondria. There was no change in total cell volume. Lipid droplet volume density and numerical density decreased. Mitochondrial volume density did not change, but numerical density increased. The decrease in lipid droplet volume density indicates a rapid depletion of cholesterol for steroid production. This depletion is almost entirely due to the disappearance of lipid droplets, rather than to an overall diminution in their size, as shown by the decrease in lipid droplet numerical density. The mitochondrial data suggest that the adrenocortical cell has an adedquate mitochondrial apparatus to respond to acute ACTH stimulation with increased steroid output without an increase inmitochondrial volume.

  10. Mitotane enhances doxorubicin cytotoxic activity by inhibiting P-gp in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Teresa; Gentilin, Erica; Benfini, Katiuscia; Di Pasquale, Carmelina; Tassinari, Martina; Falletta, Simona; Feo, Carlo; Tagliati, Federico; Uberti, Ettore Degli; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2014-12-01

    Mitotane is currently employed as adjuvant therapy as well as in the medical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. It was previously demonstrated that mitotane potentiates chemotherapeutic drugs cytotoxicity in cancer cells displaying chemoresistance due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump involved in cancer multidrug resistance. The majority of ACC expresses high levels of P-gp and is highly chemoresistent. The aim of our study was to explore in vitro whether mitotane, at concentrations lower than those currently reached in vivo, may sensitize ACC cells to the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and whether this effect is due to a direct action on P-gp. NCI-H295 and SW13 cell lines as well as 4 adrenocortical neoplasia primary cultures were treated with mitotane and doxorubicin, and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. P-gp activity was measured by calcein and P-gp-Glo assays. P-gp expression was evaluated by Western blot. We found that very low mitotane concentrations sensitize ACC cells to the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin, depending on P-gp expression. In addition, mitotane directly inhibits P-gp detoxifying function, allowing doxorubicin cytotoxic activity. These data provide the basis for the greater efficacy of combination therapy (mitotane plus chemotherapeutic drugs) on ACC patients. Shedding light on mitotane mechanisms of action could result in an improved design of drug therapy for patients with ACC.

  11. Steroid control of steroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells: molecular and species specificity.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Macdonald, G J; Malamed, S

    1983-06-01

    The molecular and species specificity of glucocorticoid suppression of corticosteroidogenesis was investigated in isolated adrenocortical cells. Trypsin-isolated cells from male rat, domestic fowl and bovine adrenal glands were incubated with or without steroidogenic agents and with or without steroids. Glucocorticoids were measured by radioimmunoassay or fluorometric assay after 1-2 h incubation. Glucocorticoids suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis of isolated rat cells with the following relative potencies: corticosterone greater than cortisol = cortisone greater than dexamethasone. The mineralocorticoid, aldosterone did not affect steroidogenesis. Suppression by glucocorticoids was acute (within 1-2 h), and varied directly with the glucocorticoid concentration. Testosterone also suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. Glucocorticoid-type steroids have equivalent suppressive potencies, thus suggesting that these steroids may induce suppression at least partly by a common mechanism. Although corticosterone caused the greatest suppression, testosterone was more potent. The steroid specificity of suppression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced and ACTH-induced steroidogenesis were similar, suggesting that suppression is not solely the result of interference with ACTH receptor function or the induction of adenylate cyclase activity. Exogenous glucocorticoids also suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis of cells isolated from domestic fowl and beef adrenal glands, thus suggesting that this observed suppression may be a general mechanism of adrenocortical cell autoregulation.

  12. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-01-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes. PMID:9601084

  13. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-06-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes.

  14. Diminished expression of ACTH signaling proteins and steroidogenic limiting factors in adrenocortical cells isolated from halothane nn pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Liu-An; Xia, Dong; Wei, Shi; Li, Xiao; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhao, Ru-Qian

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated significantly lower plasma cortisol level in homozygous halothane-positive (Hal nn) pigs, as compared with homozygous halothane-negative (Hal NN) pigs. To determine whether such difference is attributed to the fundamental alterations in adrenocortical function, F1 offsprings from Pietrain (Hal nn)xErhualian (Hal NN) were intercrossed to produce F2 sibling pigs with segregated genotypes. Adrenocortical cells were isolated from the Hal nn and Hal NN F2 pigs, respectively, and cultured with or without ACTH challenge. Cortisol levels in culture medium, as well as the content of MC2R, cAMP, CREB, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), StAR and P450scc in adrenocortical cell lysates, were determined. Cortisol, cAMP, StAR and P450scc levels were significantly lower in Hal nn adrenocortical cells under basal condition without ACTH challenge. ACTH significantly increased cortisol level in the medium and the protein content of MC2R, StAR, P450scc in adrenocortical cell lysates, regardless of genotypes. Total CREB protein content was not different between genotypes and treatments, whereas pCREB content exhibited significant effects of genotype and treatment, being higher in Hal NN than in Hal nn under basal condition and in response to ACTH challenge. These results indicate that the compromised cAMP/PKA/pCREB signaling pathway of ACTH and diminished expression of limiting factors in adrenocortical steroidogenesis (StAR and P450scc) may contribute to the significantly lower plasma cortisol levels in Hal nn pigs.

  15. The peripheral cytoplasm of adrenocortical cells: zone-specific responses to ACTH.

    PubMed

    Loesser, K E; Cain, L D; Malamed, S

    1994-05-01

    Differences in the cytoskeletal protein actin in cells from the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata would be of considerable interest because there is persuasive evidence that rat corticosteroids are secreted by mechanisms that are somewhat zone-specific. We have previously shown evidence that actin may be involved in steroid secretion, possibly in connection with changes in adrenocortical microvilli. However, the cells upon which the data were based were not separated according to zone of origin. Immunogold electron microscopy and morphometric procedures were used to determine whether ACTH-induced changes in the peripheral cytoplasm of isolated adrenocortical cells occur in both zona fasciculata and zona glomerulosa cells. Actin immunoreactivity was more concentrated in the cytoplasm adjacent to the plasma membrane (including the cytoplasm within the microvilli) than it was in the internal cytoplasm in cells from both zones (4-6 times more concentrated in zona glomerulosa cells and 3-6 times more concentrated in zona fasciculata cells). However, the mean aggregate microvillar surface length (microvillar index) of untreated zona fasciculata cells (previously reported (Loesser and Malamed, 1987)) was 23% greater than that of untreated zona glomerulosa cells. Although ACTH (at a maximal steroidogenic concentration) had no effect on the peripheral cytoplasmic actin concentration of zona glomerulosa cells, there was a 24% increase in the aggregate microvillar length. In contrast, in zona fasciculata cells, ACTH treatment was accompanied by an increase in peripheral cytoplasmic actin concentration of 58-64% and an increase in aggregate microvillar surface length of 40% (previously reported (Loesser and Malamed, 1987)), almost twice that for zona glomerulosa cells. The results suggest that ACTH-induced hormone release from zona fasciculata cells is mediated by increases in peripheral cytoplasmic actin and aggregate microvillar length; in zona glomerulosa cells such

  16. Overproduction of nitric oxide by endothelial cells and macrophages contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in adrenocortical cells and adrenal insufficiency during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Nan; Duan, Guo-Li; Liu, Yu-Jian; Yu, Qing; Tang, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Han; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Ni, Xin

    2015-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adrenal glands, thereby leading to adrenocortical insufficiency. Since nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) leads to mitochondrial damage in various tissues, the present study aims to investigate whether NO contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in adrenal cortex and adrenocortical insufficiency during endotoxemia. Systemic administration of LPS increased iNOS expression and NO production in adrenal glands of mice. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400 W significantly attenuated the LPS-induced mitochondrial superoxide production and dysfunction in adrenal glands, and reversed the LPS-induced adrenocortical hyporesponsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In contrast, administration of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) led to mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adrenal glands, which resulted in a blunted corticosterone response to ACTH. Using double immunofluorescence staining for iNOS with the vascular endothelial cell marker CD31 or the macrophage marker CD68, we found that increased iNOS expression was found in vascular endothelial cells and macrophages, but not adrenocortical cells in the adrenal gland during endotoxemia. Administration of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor GYY4137 inhibited NO production and reversed LPS-induced adrenocortical hyporesponsiveness. Our data suggest that overproduction of NO, which is mainly generated by endothelial cells and macrophages during endotoxemia, contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in adrenocortical cells and subsequently leads to adrenal insufficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adrenocortical hemorrhagic necrosis: the role of catecholamines and retrograde medullary-cell embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; McComb, D.J.; Kovacs, K.; Huettner, I.

    1981-10-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of adrenal necrosis using animal models of the disease (induced by administration of acrylonitrile, cysteamine, or pyrazole) and human cases. Results of electron-microscopic and histochemical time-response studies with rat models revealed an early, retrograde embolization of medullary cells and cell fragments in the cortical capillaries that showed prominent endothelial injury. The experimental adrenal lesions were prevented by surgical removal of the medulla one month before administration of adrenocorticolytic chemicals, or by the administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride. Histochemical staining for medullary (argyrophil) granules in human cases of adrenal necrosis demonstrated tissue fragments that stained positively for silver in vascular cortical spaces in nine of ten autopsy specimens and in all four surgical cases we reviewed. Thus, catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla and from the retrograde medullary emboli in the cortex may have a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical necrosis.

  18. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPARγ antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2α (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2α. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention.

  19. Chloroquine alleviates etoposide-induced centrosome amplification by inhibiting CDK2 in adrenocortical tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T-Y; Syu, J-S; Lin, T-C; Cheng, H-l; Lu, F-l; Wang, C-Y

    2015-01-01

    The antitumor drug etoposide (ETO) is widely used in treating several cancers, including adrenocortical tumor (ACT). However, when used at sublethal doses, tumor cells still survive and are more susceptible to the recurring tumor due to centrosome amplification. Here, we checked the effect of sublethal dose of ETO in ACT cells. Sublethal dose of ETO treatment did not induce cell death but arrested the ACT cells in G2/M phase. This resulted in centrosome amplification and aberrant mitotic spindle formation leading to genomic instability and cellular senescence. Under such conditions, Chk2, cyclin A/CDK2 and ERK1/2 were aberrantly activated. Pharmacological inactivation of Chk2, CDK2 or ERK1/2 or depletion of CDK2 or Chk2 inhibited the centrosome amplification in ETO-treated ACT cells. In addition, autophagy was activated by ETO and was required for ACT cell survival. Chloroquine, the autophagy inhibitor, reduced ACT cell growth and inhibited ETO-induced centrosome amplification. Chloroquine alleviated CDK2 and ERK, but not Chk2, activation and thus inhibited centrosome amplification in either ETO- or hydroxyurea-treated ACT cells. In addition, chloroquine also inhibited centrosome amplification in osteosarcoma U2OS cell lines when treated with ETO or hydroxyurea. In summary, we have demonstrated that chloroquine inhibited ACT cell growth and alleviated DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification by inhibiting CDK2 and ERK activity, thus preventing genomic instability and recurrence of ACT. PMID:26690546

  20. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors: Relationship with cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovani, G.; Lania, A.G.; Bondioni, S.; Peverelli, E.; Pedroni, C.; Ferrero, S.; Pellegrini, C.; Vicentini, L.; Arnaldi, G.; Bosari, S.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Spada, A.

    2008-01-01

    The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in growth control. Mutations of the R1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PKA regulatory subunits in non-PPNAD adrenocortical tumors causing ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and to test the impact of differential expression of these subunits on cell growth. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a defective expression of R2B in all cortisol-secreting adenomas (n = 16) compared with the normal counterpart, while both R1A and R2A were expressed at high levels in the same tissues. Conversely, carcinomas (n = 5) showed high levels of all subunits. Sequencing of R1A and R2B genes revealed a wild type sequence in all tissues. The effect of R1/R2 ratio on proliferation was assessed in mouse adrenocortical Y-1 cells. The R2-selective cAMP analogue 8-Cl-cAMP dose-dependently inhibited Y-1 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, while the R1-selective cAMP analogue 8-HA-cAMP stimulated cell proliferation. Finally, R2B gene silencing induced up-regulation of R1A protein, associated with an increase in cell proliferation. In conclusion, we propose that a high R1/R2 ratio favors the proliferation of well differentiated and hormone producing adrenocortical cells, while unbalanced expression of these subunits is not required for malignant transformation.

  1. Differential effects of transforming growth factor type beta on the growth and function of adrenocortical cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, M; Baird, A

    1986-01-01

    Transforming growth factor type beta (TGF-beta) suppresses basal as well as corticotropin (ACTH)-stimulated steroid formation by bovine adrenocortical cells in culture. The effect is dose dependent and is not accompanied by any change in adrenocortical cell growth. The minimum effective dose of TGF-beta is 4 X 10(-13) M (10 pg/ml), and maximal inhibition is observed at a concentration of 4 X 10(-11) M (1 ng/ml). A 16- to 20-hr incubation with TGF-beta is required to decrease steroidogenesis, and 12-18 hr are required before cells treated with TGF-beta recover complete responsiveness to corticotropin. Increases in cAMP mediated by corticotropin, forskolin, and isobutylmethylxanthine are not modified by the addition of TGF-beta; thus adenylate cyclase activity is unaffected by TGF-beta. Although TGF-beta inhibits the formation of all of the delta 4-steroids measured (including cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, and androstenedione), its effect can be completely reversed by the addition of 25-hydroxycholesterol, pregnenolone, or progesterone to the cells. In contrast, the addition of low density lipoprotein has no effect suggesting that TGF-beta targets the conversion of cholesterol precursors to cholesterol. The results demonstrate a highly potent effect of TGF-beta on the differentiated function of the adrenocortical cell. The inhibition of steroidogenesis can be dissociated from any effect on cell proliferation, and it occurs distal to the formation of cAMP but proximal to the formation of cholesterol. The results suggest that in the adrenal, TGF-beta or TGF-beta-like proteins may be playing an important role in modifying the differentiated state of the adrenocortical cell. PMID:3020557

  2. Two different P2Y receptors linked to steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, H

    1999-10-01

    Both extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) induced corticoid production (steroidogenesis) concentration-dependently in bovine adrenocortical cells (BA cells). Pertussis toxin (PTX, approx. 2 microg/ml) partially inhibited (approx. 55% inhibition) extracellular ATP (100 microM)-induced steroidogenesis in BA cells. However, PTX did not inhibit extracellular UTP (100 microM)-induced steroidogenesis. Both ATP- and UTP-induced steroidogeneses were significantly inhibited by suramin (50-200 microM). These effects were inhibited significantly by reactive blue-2 (more than 100 microM) and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (more than 100 microM). Both nucleotides (1-100 microM) induced inositol phosphates accumulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, but PTX did not inhibit them. The RT-PCR procedure identified only P2Y2-receptor mRNA in BA cells. These results suggest that extracellular ATP induces steroidogenesis via a unique P2 receptor linked to PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein), while extracellular UTP induces steroidogenesis via P2 receptor linked to PTX-insensitive G-protein. Thus, it was concluded that at least two different P2Y-like receptors linking to steroidogenesis exist in BA cells.

  3. Effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on several eukaryotic cell lines: elucidating cytotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reactive oxygen species generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Anne; Maletz, Sibylle X.; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas; Maes, Hanna M.

    2014-08-01

    To date, only a few reports about studies on toxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are available, and their results are often controversial. Three different cell lines (rainbow trout liver cells (RTL-W1), human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (T47Dluc), and human adrenocarcinoma cells (H295R)) were exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the antimicrobial agent triclocarban (TCC) as well as the mixture of both substances in a concentration range of 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L, 31.25 to 500 μg TCC/L, and 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L + 1% TCC (percentage relative to carbon nanotubes concentration), respectively. Triclocarban is a high-production volume chemical that is widely used as an antimicrobial compound and is known for its toxicity, hydrophobicity, endocrine disruption, bioaccumulation potential, and environmental persistence. Carbon nanotubes are known to interact with hydrophobic organic compounds. Therefore, triclocarban was selected as a model substance to examine mixture toxicity in this study. The influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on various toxicological endpoints was specified: neither cytotoxicity nor endocrine disruption could be observed after exposure of the three cell lines to carbon nanotubes, but the nanomaterial caused intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in all cell types. For TCC on the other hand, cell vitality of 80% could be observed at a concentration of 2.1 mg/L for treated RTL-W1 cells. A decrease of luciferase activity in the ER Calux assay at a triclocarban concentration of 125 μg/L and higher was observed. This effect was less pronounced when multiwalled carbon nanotubes were present in the medium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiwalled carbon nanotubes induce the production of reactive oxygen species in RTL-W1, T47Dluc, and H295R cells, reveal no cytotoxicity, and reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of the biocide triclocarban.

  4. Effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on several eukaryotic cell lines: elucidating cytotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reactive oxygen species generation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To date, only a few reports about studies on toxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are available, and their results are often controversial. Three different cell lines (rainbow trout liver cells (RTL-W1), human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (T47Dluc), and human adrenocarcinoma cells (H295R)) were exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the antimicrobial agent triclocarban (TCC) as well as the mixture of both substances in a concentration range of 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L, 31.25 to 500 μg TCC/L, and 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L + 1% TCC (percentage relative to carbon nanotubes concentration), respectively. Triclocarban is a high-production volume chemical that is widely used as an antimicrobial compound and is known for its toxicity, hydrophobicity, endocrine disruption, bioaccumulation potential, and environmental persistence. Carbon nanotubes are known to interact with hydrophobic organic compounds. Therefore, triclocarban was selected as a model substance to examine mixture toxicity in this study. The influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on various toxicological endpoints was specified: neither cytotoxicity nor endocrine disruption could be observed after exposure of the three cell lines to carbon nanotubes, but the nanomaterial caused intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in all cell types. For TCC on the other hand, cell vitality of 80% could be observed at a concentration of 2.1 mg/L for treated RTL-W1 cells. A decrease of luciferase activity in the ER Calux assay at a triclocarban concentration of 125 μg/L and higher was observed. This effect was less pronounced when multiwalled carbon nanotubes were present in the medium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiwalled carbon nanotubes induce the production of reactive oxygen species in RTL-W1, T47Dluc, and H295R cells, reveal no cytotoxicity, and reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of the biocide triclocarban. PMID:25170332

  5. Effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on several eukaryotic cell lines: elucidating cytotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anne; Maletz, Sibylle X; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas; Maes, Hanna M

    2014-01-01

    To date, only a few reports about studies on toxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are available, and their results are often controversial. Three different cell lines (rainbow trout liver cells (RTL-W1), human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (T47Dluc), and human adrenocarcinoma cells (H295R)) were exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the antimicrobial agent triclocarban (TCC) as well as the mixture of both substances in a concentration range of 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L, 31.25 to 500 μg TCC/L, and 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L + 1% TCC (percentage relative to carbon nanotubes concentration), respectively. Triclocarban is a high-production volume chemical that is widely used as an antimicrobial compound and is known for its toxicity, hydrophobicity, endocrine disruption, bioaccumulation potential, and environmental persistence. Carbon nanotubes are known to interact with hydrophobic organic compounds. Therefore, triclocarban was selected as a model substance to examine mixture toxicity in this study. The influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on various toxicological endpoints was specified: neither cytotoxicity nor endocrine disruption could be observed after exposure of the three cell lines to carbon nanotubes, but the nanomaterial caused intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in all cell types. For TCC on the other hand, cell vitality of 80% could be observed at a concentration of 2.1 mg/L for treated RTL-W1 cells. A decrease of luciferase activity in the ER Calux assay at a triclocarban concentration of 125 μg/L and higher was observed. This effect was less pronounced when multiwalled carbon nanotubes were present in the medium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiwalled carbon nanotubes induce the production of reactive oxygen species in RTL-W1, T47Dluc, and H295R cells, reveal no cytotoxicity, and reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of the biocide triclocarban.

  6. StAR Protein Stability in Y1 and Kin-8 Mouse Adrenocortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Barbara J.; Hudson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) protein expression is required for cholesterol transport into mitochondria to initiate steroidogenesis in the adrenal and gonads. STAR is synthesized as a 37 kDa precursor protein which is targeted to the mitochondria and imported and processed to an intra-mitochondrial 30 kDa protein. Tropic hormone stimulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is the major contributor to the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of STAR synthesis. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of cAMP-PKA mediated control of STAR synthesis while there are few reports on STAR degradation pathways. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling on STAR protein stability. We have used the cAMP-PKA responsive Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells and the PKA-deficient Kin-8 cells to measure STAR phosphorylation and protein half-life. Western blot analysis and standard radiolabeled pulse-chase experiments were used to determine STAR phosphorylation status and protein half-life, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PKA-dependent STAR phosphorylation does not contribute to 30 kDa STAR protein stability in the mitochondria. We further show that inhibition of the 26S proteasome does not block precursor STAR phosphorylation or steroid production in Y1 cells. These data suggest STAR can maintain function and promote steroidogenesis under conditions of proteasome inhibition. PMID:25749137

  7. StAR Protein Stability in Y1 and Kin-8 Mouse Adrenocortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Barbara J; Hudson, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-04

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) protein expression is required for cholesterol transport into mitochondria to initiate steroidogenesis in the adrenal and gonads. STAR is synthesized as a 37 kDa precursor protein which is targeted to the mitochondria and imported and processed to an intra-mitochondrial 30 kDa protein. Tropic hormone stimulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is the major contributor to the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of STAR synthesis. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of cAMP-PKA mediated control of STAR synthesis while there are few reports on STAR degradation pathways. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling on STAR protein stability. We have used the cAMP-PKA responsive Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells and the PKA-deficient Kin-8 cells to measure STAR phosphorylation and protein half-life. Western blot analysis and standard radiolabeled pulse-chase experiments were used to determine STAR phosphorylation status and protein half-life, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PKA-dependent STAR phosphorylation does not contribute to 30 kDa STAR protein stability in the mitochondria. We further show that inhibition of the 26S proteasome does not block precursor STAR phosphorylation or steroid production in Y1 cells. These data suggest STAR can maintain function and promote steroidogenesis under conditions of proteasome inhibition.

  8. The application of high density microarray for analysis of mitogenic signaling and cell-cycle in the adrenal.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Francis, R; Harirchian, S; Batlle, D; Mayhew, B; Bassett, M; Rainey, W E; Pestell, R G

    2000-11-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) binds to specific G-protein coupled receptors and is mitogenic in adrenal, liver epithelial, and vascular smooth muscle cells. The H295R human adrenocortical cell line, which expresses AII receptors predominantly of the AT1 subclass, proliferates in response to treatment with AII. The induction and maintenance of cellular proliferation involves a precisely coordinated induction of a variety of genes. As the human genome sequencing projects near completion a variety of high throughput technologies have been developed in order to create dynamic displays of genomic responses. One high throughput method, the gridded cDNA microarray has been developed in which immobilised DNA samples are hybridized on glass slides for the identification of global genomic responses. For this purpose high precision robotic microarrayers have been developed at AECOM. The cyclin D1 gene, which encodes the regulatory subunit of the cyclin D1-dependent kinase (CD1K) required for phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), was induced by AII in H295R cells. Abundance of the cyclin D1 gene is rate-limiting in G1 phase progression of the cell-cycle in a variety of cell types. AII induced cyclin D1 promoter activity through a c-Fos and c-Jun binding sequence at -954 bp. Theabundance of c-Fos within this complex was increased by AII treatment. Analysis of AII signaling in adrenal cells by cDNA microarray demonstrated an induction of the human homologue of Xenopus XPMC2 (HXPMC2). The cDNA for XPMC2 was previously shown to rescue mitotic catastrophe in mutant S. Pombe defective in cdc2 kinase function. Further studies are required to determine the requirement for cyclin D1 and XPMC2H in AII-induced cell-cycle progression and cellular proliferation in the adrenal.

  9. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  10. Deconstructing the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in a mouse adrenocortical cell line: roles of ACTH.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Kátia M; Forti, Fábio L; Lepique, Ana P; Armelin, Hugo A

    2003-06-15

    This is a progress report of an attempt to deconstruct the signaling network underlying cell cycle control in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line, aiming to uncover ACTH growth regulatory pathways. Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells possess amplified and overexpressed c-Ki-ras proto-oncogene. Despite this oncogenic lesion, Y1 cells retain tight regulatory mechanisms of cell cycle control typified by the sequential events comprising the mitogenic response triggered by FGF2 in G0/G1-arrested Y1 cells: 1) activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K, by 5 minutes; 2) induction of c-Fos and c-Myc proteins by 2 hours; 3) induction of cyclin D1 protein by 5 hours; 4) phosphorylation of Rb protein between 6 and 8 hours; 5) onset of DNA synthesis by 8-9 hours. In this cell line, ACTH-receptor (ACTH-R) activates contradictory pathways of growth regulation. First, ACTH coordinately induces fos and jun gene families via activation of both ERK1/2 and cAMP/PKA pathways, resembling a mitogen. Second, ACTH-R triggers cAMP/PKA-mediated antimitogenic mechanisms comprised of Akt/PKB dephosphorylation/deactivation, c-Myc protein degradation, and p27(Kip1) protein induction. Induction of cyclin D1 depends on activation of both ERK1/2 and PI3K, but is not affected by ACTH action. As a consequence, ACTH antagonizes FGF2 mitogenic activity but ectopic expression of the c-Myc protein (via MycER fusion protein) is sufficient to abrogate this ACTH antagonistic effect over FGF2 mitogenic activity. Ectopic expression of both c-Myc and cyclin D1 is not sufficient to drive G0/G1-arrested Y1 cells into S phase, but when the sustained expression of these two proteins is complemented by ACTH treatment it promotes G1 phase progression and DNA synthesis initiation. In conclusion, ACTH-receptor lacks signaling potential sufficient to initiate a mitogenic response in Y1 adrenocortical cells and, therefore, cannot substitute for bona fide mitogens like FGF2. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Human Adrenocortical Remodeling Leading to Aldosterone-Producing Cell Cluster Generation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuichiro; Al-Eyd, Ghaith; Nakagawa, Ken; Morita, Shinya; Kosaka, Takeo; Oya, Mototsugu; Mitani, Fumiko; Suematsu, Makoto; Kabe, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background. The immunohistochemical detection of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) has enabled the identification of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in the subcapsular portion of the human adult adrenal cortex. We hypothesized that adrenals have layered zonation in early postnatal stages and are remodeled to possess APCCs over time. Purposes. To investigate changes in human adrenocortical zonation with age. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed adrenal tissues prepared from 33 autopsied patients aged between 0 and 50 years. They were immunostained for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1. The percentage of APCC areas over the whole adrenal area (AA/WAA, %) and the number of APCCs (NOA, APCCs/mm2) were calculated by four examiners. Average values were used in statistical analyses. Results. Adrenals under 11 years old had layered zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) without apparent APCCs. Some adrenals had an unstained (CYP11B2/CYP11B1-negative) layer between ZG and ZF, resembling the rat undifferentiated cell zone. Average AA/WAA and NOA correlated with age, suggesting that APCC development is associated with aging. Possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions were incidentally identified in two adult adrenals. Conclusions. The adrenal cortex with layered zonation remodels to possess APCCs over time. APCC generation may be associated with hypertension in adults. PMID:27721827

  12. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in bovine adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Nicol, M R; Wang, H; Ivell, R; Morley, S D; Walker, S W; Mason, J I

    1998-01-01

    StAR protein may facilitate rapid transfer of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the site at which cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the cholesterol side chain cleavage complex. We have studied the effect of ACTH treatment on StAR mRNA and protein levels in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary culture. Cells were initially cultured for 3 days after isolation, and then treated with ACTH (10(-8) M) for various times up to 24 hours. Northern analysis of total BAC mRNA, using a [alpha32P]-labelled cDNA probe encoding a 5' region of bovine StAR mRNA, revealed two principal hybridising species of 1.6 and 3.0 kb. Western immunoblot analysis revealed a principal band at 30 kDa. Levels of both StAR mRNA and protein showed an increase at 1 hour, reached a maximum at around 6 hours and declined to basal levels at 24 hours. Cortisol secretion (measured by RIA) showed a similar change over the same period. From these results it appears that StAR mRNA and protein levels in BAC are acutely regulated in concert with ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion.

  13. Cell-free synthesis and characterization of human adrenocortical pro-adrenodoxin.

    PubMed

    Pascal, O; Monnier, N; Chambaz, E M

    1986-04-14

    Poly(A+)-RNAs were extracted from human hyperplasic adrenocortical tissue and translated in a wheat germ cell-free system in the presence of [35S]-methionine. Labeled immuno-reactive adrenodoxin (ADX)-like material was immunoisolated and examined following mono and bi-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. Bovine mRNA translation products were analysed under similar conditions. While it was confirmed that bovine ADX was synthesized as a precursor of Mr 21 kDa, human pro-ADX was characterized for the first time as a somewhat larger moiety (24 kDa). On the other hand, both human and bovine mature mitochondrial ADX showed a Mr of 12 kDa. Electrophoretic study disclosed that the human, as well as the bovine pro-ADX could be resolved into several components differing by their pHi (6.5 and 6.9 for h-proADX and 5.9, 6.1 and 6.2 for b-proADX, respectively). This molecular heterogeneity might be explained by discrete disparity in the pro-adrenodoxin amino acid contents.

  14. Contributions of Steroidogenic Factor 1 to the Transcription Landscape of Y1 Mouse Adrenocortical Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schimmer, Bernard P.; Tsao, Jennivine; Cordova, Martha; Mostafavi, Sara; Morris, Quaid; Scheys, Joshua O.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The contribution of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF–1) to the gene expression profile of Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells was evaluated using short hairpin RNAs to knockdown SF–1. The reduced level of SF–1 RNA was associated with global changes that affected the accumulation of more than 2,000 transcripts. Among the down-regulated transcripts were several with functions in steroidogenesis that were affected to different degrees—i.e., Mc2r >Scarb1 > Star ≥ Hsd3b1 > Cyp11b1. For Star and Cyp11b1, the different levels of expression correlated with the amount of residual SF-1 bound to the proximal promoter regions. The knockdown of SF–1 did not affect the accumulation of Cyp11a1 transcripts even though the amount of SF–1 bound to the proximal promoter of the gene was reduced to background levels. Our results indicate that transcripts with functions in steroidogenesis vary in their dependence on SF–1 for constitutive expression. On a more global scale, SF–1 knockdown affects the accumulation of a large number of transcripts, most of which are not recognizably involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis. PMID:21111771

  15. Chiral effects in adrenocorticolytic action of o,p'-DDD (mitotane) in human adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Asp, V; Cantillana, T; Bergman, A; Brandt, I

    2010-03-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant disease with poor prognosis. The main pharmacological choice, o,p'-DDD (mitotane), produces severe adverse effects. Since o,p'-DDD is a chiral molecule and stereoisomers frequently possess different pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic properties, we isolated the two o,p'-DDD enantiomers, (R)-(+)-o,p'-DDD and (S)-(-)-o,p'-DDD, and determined their absolute structures. The effects of each enantiomer on cell viability and on cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R were assessed. We also assayed the o,p'-DDD racemate and the m,p'- and p,p'-isomers. The results show small but statistically significant differences in activity of the o,p'-DDD enantiomers for all parameters tested. The three DDD isomers were equally potent in decreasing cell viability, but p,p'-DDD affected hormone secretion slightly less than the o,p'- and m,p'-isomers. The small chiral differences in direct effects on target cells alone do not warrant single enantiomer administration, but might reach importance in conjunction with possible stereochemical effects on pharmacokinetic processes in vivo.

  16. Inheritable stimulatory effects of caffeine on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and cortisol production in human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jie; Lei, You-Ying; Liu, Lian; Wang, Ting-ting; Feng, Ying-hong; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-05

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It can elevate the level of glucocorticoid which is involved in metabolism regulation, stress response, and immune function. However, the specific mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Glucocorticoid is steroid hormone synthesized in adrenal cortex and the key rate-limiting step in its biosynthesis is mediated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). This study was designed to investigate the direct effects and inheritable epigenetic mechanisms of caffeine on cortisol production and StAR expression in human adrenocortical cells. The human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295A was cultured with 0.4-40μM caffeine. There was a significant increase of the cortisol production in cells. In both acutely and chronically caffeine-treated cell groups, mRNA and protein expressions of StAR were stimulated in a dose-dependent manner. DNA methylation detection via bisulfite-sequencing PCR (BSP) uncovered a single site CpG demethylation at nt -682 within the StAR promoter region. Then we investigated how long the increased StAR expression and the single CpG demethylation could last. The caffeine was withdrawn after 48h of treatment and then the cells were continually subcultured for up to 5 and 10 passages, respectively. The results showed that the StAR expression at post-caffeine passage 10 still increased, as compared with that in the control. The caffeine-induced demethylation at nt -682 in StAR promoter underwent a similar time course as StAR expression does. The present study reveals the direct effect and possible inheritable epigenetic mechanism of caffeine on steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical cells and has implications for our understanding of the consumption of caffeine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of 3,3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN) on corticosteroidogenesis of isolated adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Schwarz, L A; Weber, H

    1987-04-01

    The neurotoxic agent, 3,3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN), is a disrupter of neurofilament- and intermediate filament-organelle association. In the present study, the effect of IDPN on corticosteroidogenesis was investigated using isolated rat (having few intermediate filaments) and domestic fowl (having abundant intermediate filaments) adrenocortical cells. Cells were incubated with or without steroidogenic agents and precursors and with or without various concentrations of IDPN for 2 hr. IDPN had similar inhibitory potencies (as indicated by the half-maximal inhibitor concentrations (ID50 values] with both rat and domestic fowl cells despite their grossly different intermediate filament content. However, the average ID50 values of IDPN varied with the different steroidogenic agents and precursors used. The average IDPN ID50 values for maximal ACTH- and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP)-induced corticosterone production were equivalent (49.7 and 45.7 mM, respectively). However, the IDPN ID50 values for maximal ACTH-induced cAMP production, maximal 25-hydroxycholesterol- and pregnenolone-supported corticosterone production, and maximal ACTH- and 8-Br-cAMP-induced protein synthesis varied from 3.7 to 5.4 times the average ID50 values for maximal ACTH- and 8-Br-cAMP-induced corticosterone production. Thus, the inhibitory action of IDPN was not closely linked to the inhibition of ACTH-transmembrane signaling via cAMP, protein synthesis, and steroidogenic enzyme activity. The data suggest that IDPN inhibited corticosteroidogenesis at at a step after cAMP but before cholesterol side-chain cleavage and that the inhibition was not dependent on the presence of intermediate filaments.

  18. Combined steroidogenic characters of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in childhood adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Kimiyoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Rie; Kato, Fumiko; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2016-05-01

    Although childhood adrenocortical carcinomas (c-ACCs) with a TP53 mutation are known to produce androgens, detailed steroidogenic characters have not been clarified. Here, we examined steroid metabolite profiles and expression patterns of steroidogenic genes in a c-ACC removed from the left adrenal position of a 2-year-old Brazilian boy with precocious puberty, using an atrophic left adrenal gland removed at the time of tumorectomy as a control. The c-ACC produced not only abundant dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but also a large amount of testosterone via the Δ5 pathway with Δ5-androstenediol rather than Δ4-androstenedione as the primary intermediate metabolite. Furthermore, the c-ACC was associated with elevated expressions of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, POR, HSD17B3, and SULT2A1, a low but similar expression of CYB5A, and reduced expressions of AKR1C3 (HSD17B5) and HSD3B2. Notably, a Leydig cell marker INSL3 was expressed at a low but detectable level in the c-ACC. Furthermore, molecular studies revealed a maternally inherited heterozygous germline TP53 mutation, and several post-zygotic genetic aberrations in the c-ACC including loss of paternally derived chromosome 17 with a wildtype TP53 and loss of maternally inherited chromosome 11 and resultant marked hyperexpression of paternally expressed growth promoting gene IGF2 and drastic hypoexpression of maternally expressed growth suppressing gene CDKN1C. These results imply the presence of combined steroidogenic properties of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in this patient's c-ACC with a germline TP53 mutation and several postzygotic carcinogenic events.

  19. Short communication: effect of vitamins E and C on cortisol production by bovine adrenocortical cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, C P; Díaz, N H; Galdames, L A; Andrés, M E; Larraín, R E

    2011-07-01

    The aim was to determine if vitamins E and C inhibit the release of cortisol from bovine adrenocortical cells when stimulated with ACTH in vitro. A factorial arrangement of treatments was used to culture bovine adrenocortical cells with different concentrations of vitamins E and C [(+)-α-tocopherol at 0, 2.3, and 16 μM and l-ascorbic acid at 0, 15, and 50 μM]. After 3 and 7 d of vitamin treatments, cell cultures were stimulated with ACTH (1 nM) for 24h and the culture medium extracted to measure cortisol released by the cells using HPLC with UV detection. Vitamin E, vitamin C, or their combination did not affect the amount of cortisol released by the adrenal cultures to the media. Cortisol released by the adrenal cultures ranged from 33.6±6.85 to 49.7±8.01 nmol per 10(7) cells. The modulation effect of vitamins E and C on the stress response does not take place at the cortex of the adrenal gland. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Sun, Fei; Cao, Huang-Ming; Ma, Qin-Yun; Pan, Chun-Ming; Ma, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Jiang, He; Song, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ming-Dao

    2009-12-25

    Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed. A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species. Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional. We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells. However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells. Furthermore, adiponectin acutely reduced basal levels of corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. ACTH-induced steroid secretion was also inhibited by adiponectin, and this was accompanied by a parallel change in the expression of the key genes involved in steroidogenesis. These findings indicate that adiponectin may take part in the modulation of steroidogenesis. Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.

  1. A polymorphic form of steroidogenic factor-1 is associated with adrenocorticotropin resistance in y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Claudia; Tsao, Jennivine; Cordova, Martha; Schimmer, Bernard P

    2002-10-01

    ACTH resistance in mutant derivatives of the Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cell line results from a defect that affects the activity of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1), thereby preventing the expression of the melanocortin-2 receptor. In this report, we show that the SF1 genes in ACTH-resistant mutants differ from the gene in ACTH-responsive Y1 cells by two base changes-one that changes an Ala to Ser at codon 172, and one in the third position of codon 3 that does not affect the protein sequence. Furthermore, several of the mutants contain multiple copies of this alternate SF1 gene (SF1(S172)) on acentric chromosome fragments. The SF1(S172) allele represents a polymorphism rather than a spontaneous mutation because the two SF1 alleles can be traced to the hybrid mouse strain (C57L/J x A/HeJ) from which the original adrenal tumor was derived. The SF1(A172) allele also is found in C57Bl/6J and C57Bl/10J mice, whereas the SF1(S172) allele also is found in C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J mice. The two forms of SF1 had only modest differences in activity suggesting that the SF1 polymorphism per se is not directly responsible for ACTH resistance. Our results indicate that the SF1(S172) allele is a marker of ACTH resistance in this family of adrenocortical tumor cells.

  2. A "tumour trifecta:" myelolipomata arising within an adrenocortical adenoma ipsilateral to a synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahe, Etienne; El-Shinnawy, Ihab

    2010-12-01

    We present an intriguing case of adrenal myelolipomata occurring within an adrenocortical adenoma in concert with an ipsilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A 50-year-old female presented with dull right flank pain and hematuria. Computed tomography indicated a 2.5 cm right renal mass as well as a 5 cm right adrenal mass. Both masses were surgically resected concurrently. Histology of the renal mass was consistent with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade III. There was no extra-renal extension or lymphovascular invasion. The adrenal mass was a cortical adenoma with solid and nested patterns, with discrete zones consisting of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic cells intermixed with mature adipocytes. Mitoses were inconspicuous. The solid tumour component was strongly positive for vimentin, inhibin and CD56, focally positive for low-molecular-weight cytokeratin (Cam 5.2), calretinin and CD10 (chiefly in the myelolipomatous zones), and negative for chromogranin, S100, HMB-45, melan-A (A103), Mart-1, synaptophysin, SMA, CK7, CK20, ER, PR, TTF-1, CD99 and GCDFP (BRST-2). Ki67 (MIB1) staining indicated a low tumour proliferation index. Although well-described individually, a search of the English language literature suggests that this is the first such documented case of synchrony of these three lesions. We also present a relevant review of the literature pertaining to adrenal lesions. In particular, we emphasize the epidemiological, histological and immunohistochemical features that are helpful in determining the origin and malignant potential of adrenal lesions.

  3. Inhibition of the Tcf/beta-catenin complex increases apoptosis and impairs adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and adrenal steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Letícia F.; Bueno, Ana Carolina; Gomes, Débora C.; Abduch, Rafael; de Castro, Margaret; Antonini, Sonir R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there is no effective therapy for patients with advanced/metastatic adrenocortical cancer (ACC). The activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is frequent in ACC and this pathway is a promising therapeutic target. Aim To investigate the effects of the inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin in ACC cells. Methods Adrenal (NCI-H295 and Y1) and non-adrenal (HeLa) cell lines were treated with PNU-74654 (5–200 μM) for 24–96 h to assess cell viability (MTS-based assay), apoptosis (Annexin V), expression/localization of beta-catenin (qPCR, immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and western blot), expression of beta-catenin target genes (qPCR and western blot), and adrenal steroidogenesis (radioimmunoassay, qPCR and western blot). Results In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 significantly decreased cell proliferation 96 h after treatment, increased early and late apoptosis, decreased nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, impaired CTNNB1/beta-catenin expression and increased beta-catenin target genes 48 h after treatment. No effects were observed on HeLa cells. In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreased cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione secretion 24 and 48 h after treatment. Additionally, in NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreased SF1 and CYP21A2 mRNA expression as well as the protein levels of STAR and aldosterone synthase 48 h after treatment. In Y1 cells, PNU-74654 impaired corticosterone secretion 24 h after treatment but did not decrease cell viability. Conclusions Blocking the Tcf/beta-catenin complex inhibits the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in adrenocortical tumor cells triggering increased apoptosis, decreased cell viability and impairment of adrenal steroidogenesis. These promising findings pave the way for further experiments inhibiting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in pre-clinical models of ACC. The inhibition of this pathway may become a promising adjuvant therapy for patients with ACC. PMID:26515592

  4. c-Ki-ras oncogene amplification and FGF2 signaling pathways in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line.

    PubMed

    Forti, Fábio L; Costa, Erico T; Rocha, Kátia M; Moraes, Miriam S; Armelin, Hugo A

    2006-06-01

    The mouse Y1 adrenocortical tumor cell line is highly responsive to FGF2-(Fibroblast Growth Factor 2) and possesses amplified and over-expressed c-Ki-ras proto-oncogene. We previously reported that this genetic lesion leads to high constitutive levels of activation of the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt signaling pathway (Forti et al. 2002). On the other hand, activation levels of another important pathway downstream of c-Ki-Ras-GTP, namely, Raf-->MEK-->ERK, remain strictly dependent on FGF2 stimulation (Rocha et al. 2003). Here we show that, first, FGF2 transiently up-regulates the c-Ki-Ras-GTP-->PI3K-->Akt pathway, in spite of its high basal levels. Second, c-Ki-Ras-GTP transient up-regulation likely underlies activation of the ERK1/2 pathway by FGF2. Third, c-Ki-Ras-GTP high basal levels suppress activation of the c-H-Ras onco-protein. But, Y1 cells, expressing dominant negative mutant RasN17, display a rapid and transient up-regulation of c-H-Ras-GTP upon FGF2 treatment. Elucidation of FGF2-signaling pathways in Y1 tumor cells can uncover new targets for drug development of interest in cancer therapy.

  5. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite

  6. Drug Synergism of Proteasome Inhibitors and Mitotane by Complementary Activation of ER Stress in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kroiss, Matthias; Sbiera, Silviu; Kendl, Sabine; Kurlbaum, Max; Fassnacht, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Mitotane is the only drug approved for treatment of the orphan disease adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and was recently shown to be the first clinically used drug acting through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induced by toxic lipids. Since mitotane has limited clinical activity as monotherapy, we here study the potential of activating ER-stress through alternative pathways. The single reliable NCI-H295 cell culture model for ACC was used to study the impact MG132, bortezomib (BTZ) and carfilzomib (CFZ) on mRNA and protein expression of ER-stress markers, cell viability and steroid hormone secretion. We found all proteasome inhibitors alone to trigger expression of mRNA (spliced X-box protein 1, XBP1) and protein markers indicative of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) dependent pathway of ER-stress but not phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a marker of the PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-dependent pathway. Whereas mitotane alone activated both pathways, combination of BTZ and CFZ with low-dose mitotane blocked mitotane-induced eIF2α phosphorylation but increased XBP1-mRNA splicing indicating that proteasome inhibitors can commit signalling towards a single ER-stress pathway in ACC cells. By applying the median effect model of drug combinations using cell viability as a read out, we determined significant drug synergism between mitotane and both BTZ and CFZ. In conclusion, combination of mitotane with activators of ER-stress through the unfolded protein response is synergistic in an ACC cell culture model. Since proteasome inhibitors are readily available clinically, they are attractive candidates to study for ACC treatment in clinical trials in combination with mitotane.

  7. Adrenocortical Zonation, Renewal, and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Dörner, Julia; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is divided into concentric zones. In humans the major cortical zones are the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The adrenal cortex is a dynamic organ in which senescent cells are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This constant renewal facilitates organ remodeling in response to physiological demand for steroids. Cortical zones can reversibly expand, contract, or alter their biochemical profiles to accommodate needs. Pools of stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal capsule, subcapsular region, and juxtamedullary region can differentiate to repopulate or expand zones. Some of these pools appear to be activated only during specific developmental windows or in response to extreme physiological demand. Senescent cells can also be replenished through direct lineage conversion; for example, cells in the zona glomerulosa can transform into cells of the zona fasciculata. Adrenocortical cell differentiation, renewal, and function are regulated by a variety of endocrine/paracrine factors including adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, insulin-related growth hormones, luteinizing hormone, activin, and inhibin. Additionally, zonation and regeneration of the adrenal cortex are controlled by developmental signaling pathways, such as the sonic hedgehog, delta-like homolog 1, fibroblast growth factor, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The mechanisms involved in adrenocortical remodeling are complex and redundant so as to fulfill the offsetting goals of organ homeostasis and stress adaptation. PMID:25798129

  8. The Impact of ACTH Receptor Knockdown on Fetal and Adult Ovine Adrenocortical Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yixin; Rose, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Preparing the mammalian fetus for birth requires an increase in fetal plasma glucocorticoid levels. The mechanisms facilitating this increase are not fully known. It has been shown in sheep that the prepartum elevation in fetal plasma cortisol is accompanied by increases in adrenocorticotropin receptor (ACTH-R) expression in the fetal adrenal and in the adrenal responsiveness to stimulation. To determine the significance of the upregulation in ACTH-R expression on fetal adrenal function, the authors used small interfering RNA targeted to the ovine ACTH-R to reduce receptor expression and studied responses to stimulation in ovine adrenal cells. They studied fetal cells from late gestation after responsiveness had increased. They also studied adult cells to determine if maturation would influence the impact of receptor expression suppression on responsiveness. Fetal and adult cells were obtained, dispersed, transfected with receptor-targeted small interfering RNA or scrambled small interfering RNA, and subsequently stimulated with ACTH. Cells and media were harvested for measurements of gene and protein expression and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cortisol levels. The ability of ACTH to upregulate its receptor or steroid acute regulatory protein was attenuated in fetal (P < .01) and adult cells (P < .01) by small interfering RNA treatment; the blockade was more pronounced in the adult cells (P < .01). The small interfering RNA treatment also blocked the cAMP response to ACTH in fetal (P < .001) and adult (P < .05) cells. This was accompanied by marked reductions in cortisol responses in both (P < .001 and P < .01, respectively). These data suggest that upregulation of the ACTH-R expression in late gestation is essential for the increase in adrenal steroidogenic capacity occurring then. The data also indicate that a reduction in the ACTH-R expression blocks the ability of the peptide to stimulate early steps in the steroidogenic pathway event after

  9. Corticotropin (ACTH) regulates alternative RNA splicing in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Bernard P; Cordova, Martha

    2015-06-15

    The stimulatory effect of ACTH on gene expression is well documented and is thought to be a major mechanism by which ACTH maintains the functional and structural integrity of the gland. Previously, we showed that ACTH regulates the accumulation of over 1200 transcripts in Y1 adrenal cells, including a cluster with functions in alternative splicing of RNA. On this basis, we postulated that some of the effects of ACTH on the transcription landscape of Y1 cells are mediated by alternative splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that ACTH regulates the alternative splicing of four transcripts - Gnas, Cd151, Dab2 and Tia1. Inasmuch as alternative splicing potentially affects transcripts from more than two-thirds of the mouse genome, we suggest that these findings are representative of a genome-wide effect of ACTH that impacts on the mRNA and protein composition of the adrenal cortex.

  10. Endogenous biotin as a marker of adrenocortical cells with steroidogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed

    2011-04-10

    Interpretation of adrenal cortex phenotypes is greatly facilitated by simultaneous examination of multiple markers at single cell resolution. However, the availability of multiple appropriate antibodies can be rate limiting, while their cognate antigens are often subject to variable accessibility. Specific markers not subject to these constraints thus have obvious utility. Here we report that endogenous biotin, when detected in fixed, frozen tissue sections using fluorescent streptavidin, is a specific marker of apparently all cells with steroidogenic potential in the murine adrenal cortex. While streptavidin stains presteroidogenic and mature cortical cells, it does not label the adrenal capsule, medulla or vascular endothelium. Developmental profiles reveal adrenal endogenous biotin labeling from E13.5 through adulthood. Comparisons with zonal markers, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-remodeled tissue, transgenic Shh-nLacZ or Gli1-nLacZ animals, and Shh mutant embryos further demonstrate the utility of this approach. Fluorescent streptavidin applied using a simple one-step staining protocol thus provides a potent counterstain for use in adrenal analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous biotin as a marker of adrenocortical cells with steroidogenic potential

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Alex; Laufer, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of adrenal cortex phenotypes is greatly facilitated by simultaneous examination of multiple markers at single cell resolution. However the availability of multiple appropriate antibodies can be rate limiting, while their cognate antigens are often subject to variable accessibility. Specific markers not subject to these constraints thus have obvious utility. Here we report that endogenous biotin, when detected in fixed, frozen tissue sections using fluorescent streptavidin, is a specific marker of apparently all cells with steroidogenic potential in the murine adrenal cortex. While streptavidin stains presteroidogenic and mature cortical cells, it does not label the adrenal capsule, medulla or vascular endothelium. Developmental profiles reveal adrenal endogenous biotin labeling from E13.5 through adulthood. Comparisons with zonal markers, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-remodeled tissue, transgenic Shhn-LacZ or Gli1-nLacZ animals, and Shh mutant embryos further demonstrate the utility of this approach. Fluorescent streptavidin applied using a simple one-step staining protocol thus provides a potent counterstain for use in adrenal analyses. PMID:21256921

  12. Comparative CYP-dependent binding of the adrenocortical toxicants 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD in Y-1 adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Veronica; Asp, Vendela; Bergman, Ake; Bergström, Ulrika; Brandt, Ingvar

    2007-11-01

    The environmental pollutant 3-MeSO(2)-DDE [2-(3-methylsulfonyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] is an adrenocortical toxicant in mice, specifically in the glucocorticoid-producing zona fasciculata, due to a cytochrome P450 11B1 (CYP11B1)-catalysed bioactivation and formation of covalently bound protein adducts. o,p'-DDD [2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] is toxic and inhibits steroidogenesis in the human adrenal cortex after bioactivation by unidentified CYPs, but does not exert any toxic effects on the mouse adrenal. As a step towards determining in vitro/in vivo relationships for the CYP-catalysed binding and toxicity of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD, we have investigated the irreversible protein binding of these two toxicants in the murine adrenocortical cell line Y-1. The irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE previously demonstrated in vivo was successfully reproduced and could be inhibited by the CYP-inhibitors etomidate, ketoconazole and metyrapone. Surprisingly, o,p'-DDD reached similar levels of binding as 3-MeSO(2)-DDE. The binding of o,p'-DDD was sensitive to etomidate and ketoconazole, but not to metyrapone. Moreover, GSH depletion increased the binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, but not of o,p'-DDD, indicating an important role of GSH conjugation in the detoxification of the 3-MeSO(2)-DDE-derived reactive metabolite. In addition, the specificity of CYP11B1 in activating 3-MeSO(2)-DDE was investigated using structurally analogous compounds. None of the analogues produced histopathological lesions in the mouse adrenal in vivo following a single i.p. injection of 100 mg/kg body weight, but two of the compounds were able to decrease the irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE to Y-1 cells. These results indicate that the bioactivation of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE by CYP11B1 is highly structure-dependent. In conclusion, both 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD bind irreversibly to Y-1 cells despite differences in binding and adrenotoxicity in mice

  13. Animal models of adrenocortical tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beuschlein, Felix; Galac, Sara; Wilson, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on human adrenocortical neoplasia has been dominated by gene expression profiling of tumor specimens and by analysis of genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to these tumors. Although these studies have identified key genes and associated signaling pathways that are dysregulated in adrenocortical neoplasms, the molecular events accounting for the frequent occurrence of benign tumors and low rate of malignant transformation remain unknown. Moreover, the prognosis for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma remains poor, so new medical treatments are needed. Naturally occurring and genetically engineered animal models afford a means to investigate adrenocortical tumorigenesis and to develop novel therapeutics. This comparative review highlights adrenocortical tumor models useful for either mechanistic studies or preclinical testing. Three model species – mouse, ferret, and dog – are reviewed, and their relevance to adrenocortical tumors in humans is discussed. PMID:22100615

  14. Thrombospondins selectively activate one of the two latent forms of transforming growth factor-beta present in adrenocortical cell-conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Souchelnitskiy, S; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1995-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown previously to be a potent inhibitor of bovine adrenocortical cell steroidogenic functions. However, it is present in the culture medium of these cells in a latent form. In this study, we analyzed in detail the biochemical composition of this latent TGF beta. Two distinct complexes could be separated chromatographically by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300, and their composition was studied using immunochemical methods. The results indicate that one form (peak I) is a complex between alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and either the unprocessed TGF beta precursor or the mature form of TGF beta. In a major fraction of this complex, TGF beta is covalently linked to alpha 2 M, whereas in a minor fraction, it is noncovalently bound and, therefore, activatable. The second form of latent TGF beta (peak II) is a complex among latent TGF beta-binding protein (LTBP), latency-associated protein, and mature TGF beta and a complex between LTBP and unprocessed TGF beta. We investigated the ability of thrombospondins (TSP1 and TSP2) to activate these latent forms of TGF beta. TSP1 and TSP2 were equally potent at activating the LTBP-latency-associated protein-TGF beta complex in the absence of cell contact, but were ineffective on the alpha 2M-TGF beta complex. Therefore, TGF beta may act as an autocrine regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenic functions. Its activity appears to be controlled by TSPs, the local production of which is regulated by systemic ACTH.

  15. Involvement of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK in the induction of COX-2 expression by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in murine adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Mercau, M E; Astort, F; Giordanino, E F; Martinez Calejman, C; Sanchez, R; Caldareri, L; Repetto, E M; Coso, O A; Cymeryng, C B

    2014-03-25

    Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated the involvement of COX-2 in the stimulation of steroid production by LPS in murine adrenocortical Y1 cells, as well as in the adrenal cortex of male Wistar rats. In this paper we analyzed signaling pathways involved in the induction of this key regulatory enzyme in adrenocortical cells and demonstrated that LPS triggers an increase in COX-2 mRNA levels by mechanisms involving the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the activation of p38 MAPK and Akt, in addition to the previously demonstrated increase in NFκB activity. In this sense we showed that: (1) inhibition of p38 MAPK or PI3K/Akt (pharmacological or molecular) prevented the increase in COX-2 protein levels by LPS, (2) LPS induced p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation, (3) antioxidant treatment blocked the effect of LPS on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and in COX-2 protein levels, (4) PI3K inhibition with LY294002 prevented p38 MAPK phosphorylation and, (5) the activity of an NFκB reporter was decreased by p38 MAPK or PI3K inhibition. These results suggest that activation of both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways promote the stimulation of NFκB activity and that PI3K/Akt activity might regulate both p38 MAPK and NFκB signaling pathways. In summary, in this study we showed that in adrenal cells, LPS induces COX-2 expression by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and that both pathways converge in the modulation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Important action of improving adrenocortical function for certain diseases recovery].

    PubMed

    Shen, Zi-yin; Dong, Jing-cheng; Cai, Ding-fang

    2007-04-01

    It has been found that the hypofunction status of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exists in patients with Shen-yang deficiency syndrome of TCM, also presents in most asthma patients. Seasonal attack of asthma can be prevented with Shen-tonifying drugs by improving adrenocortical function. Since patients subject to long-term glucocorticoids display hypofunction condition of HPA axis, Shen-tonifying drugs should be helpful to gluocorticoid withdrawal for getting higher success rate. Basic researches also indicated that the activating of adrenocortical stem cells and promoting regeneration of adrenal cortex is one of the mechanisms underlying improvement of adrenocortical function. Series of research showed that hypofunction of adrenocortex is the general pathological change in some diseases, so, Shen-tonifying drugs act a part in unitarily modulating the adrenocortical function, to get the therapeutic effect of both regulating the whole and improving the local.

  17. Cerebellin in the rat adrenal gland: gene expression and effects of CER and [des-Ser1]CER on the secretion and growth of cultured adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Albertin, Giovanna; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Malendowicz, Ludwick K

    2005-03-01

    Cerebellin (CER) is a regulatory peptide, originally isolated from rat cerebellum, which derives from the cleavage of precerebellin (Cbln), three types of which (Cbln1-3) have been identified in humans and rats. CER is also expressed in several extra-cerebellar tissues, including adrenal gland, and evidence has been provided that CER exerts a modulatory action on human and rat adrenal gland. Hence, we have investigated the expression of Cbln1-3 mRNAs and CER protein-immunoreactivity (IR) in the various zones of rat adrenal glands, and the effects of CER and its metabolite [des-Ser(1)]CER (des-CER) on the secretion and growth of cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed high and low expression of Cbln2 mRNA in zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata-reticularis, respectively. Cbln1 was not expressed, and Cbln3 mRNA was detected only in ZG. No Cbln expression was found in adrenal medulla. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of CER-IR exclusively in the adrenal cortex, the reaction being more intense in ZG. As expected, ACTH (10(-8) M) markedly enhanced corticosterone secretion and lowered proliferation rate of cultured adrenocortical cells. CER was ineffective, while des-CER exerted an ACTH-like effect, but only at the lowest concentration (10(-10) M). Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that CER is expressed in rat adrenal cortex, and to suggest that CER conversion to des-CER by endopeptidases is needed for CER to exert its autocrine-paracrine regulatory functions.

  18. Interferon-β is a potent inhibitor of cell growth and cortisol production in vitro and sensitizes human adrenocortical carcinoma cells to mitotane.

    PubMed

    van Koetsveld, Peter M; Vitale, Giovanni; Feelders, Richard A; Waaijers, Marlijn; Sprij-Mooij, Diana M; de Krijger, Ronald R; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Hofland, Johannes; Lamberts, Steven W J; de Herder, Wouter W; Hofland, Leo J

    2013-06-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive tumor with very poor prognosis. Novel medical treatment opportunities are required. We investigated the effects of interferon-β (IFN-β), alone or in combination with mitotane, on cell growth and cortisol secretion in primary cultures of 13 human ACCs, three adrenal hyperplasias, three adrenal adenomas, and in two ACC cell lines. Moreover, the interrelationship between the effects of IGF2 and IFN-β was evaluated. Mitotane inhibited cell total DNA content/well (representing cell number) in 7/11 (IC50: 38±9.2 μM) and cortisol secretion in 5/5 ACC cultures (IC50: 4.5±0.1 μM). IFN-β reduced cell number in 10/11 (IC50: 83±18 IU/ml) and cortisol secretion in 5/5 ACC cultures (IC50: 7.3±1.5 IU/ml). The effect of IFN-β on cell number included the induction of apoptosis. IFN-β strongly inhibited mRNA expression of STAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and CYP11B1. Mitotane and IFN-β induced an additive inhibitory effect on cell number and cortisol secretion. IGF2 (10 nM) inhibited apoptosis and increased cell number and cortisol secretion. These effects were counteracted by IFN-β treatment. Finally, IFN-β inhibited IGF2 secretion and mRNA expression. In conclusion, IFN-β is a potent inhibitor of ACC cell growth in human primary ACC cultures, partially mediated by an inhibition of the effects of IGF2, as well as its production. The increased sensitivity of ACC cells to mitotane induced by treatment with IFN-β may open the opportunity for combined treatment regimens with lower mitotane doses. The inhibition of the expression of steroidogenic enzymes by IFN-β is a novel mechanism that may explain its inhibitory effect on cortisol production.

  19. Update in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias; Allolio, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an orphan malignancy that has attracted increasing attention during the last decade. Here we provide an update on advances in the field since our last review published in this journal in 2006. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and IGF-2 signaling have been confirmed as frequently altered signaling pathways in ACC, but recent data suggest that they are probably not sufficient for malignant transformation. Thus, major players in the pathogenesis are still unknown. For diagnostic workup, comprehensive hormonal assessment and detailed imaging are required because in most ACCs, evidence for autonomous steroid secretion can be found and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (if necessary, combined with functional imaging) can differentiate benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. Surgery is potentially curative in localized tumors. Thus, we recommend a complete resection including lymphadenectomy by an expert surgeon. The pathology report should demonstrate the adrenocortical origin of the lesion (eg, by steroidogenic factor 1 staining) and provide Weiss score, resection status, and quantitation of the proliferation marker Ki67 to guide further treatment. Even after complete surgery, recurrence is frequent and adjuvant mitotane treatment improves outcome, but uncertainty exists as to whether all patients benefit from this therapy. In advanced ACC, mitotane is still the standard of care. Based on the FIRM-ACT trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy. However, most patients will experience progress and require salvage therapies. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing international efforts including comprehensive "-omic approaches" and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully lead to better therapies.

  20. Degranulation of mast cells located in median eminence in response to compound 48/80 evokes adrenocortical secretion via histamine and CRF in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Itsuro; Inoue, Yasuhisa; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Shimada, Toshio; Aikawa, Tadaomi

    2004-10-01

    The effect of intracerebroventricular infusion of compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell secretagogue, on adrenal cortisol secretion was investigated in dogs under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia. A marked increase in adrenal cortisol secretion was elicited by C48/80 along with a concomitant increase in the plasma levels of cortisol and immunoreactive ACTH, but neither arterial blood pressure and heart rate nor the plasma histamine level altered significantly. Pretreatment with either anti-CRF antiserum or pyrilamine maleate (H(1) histamine-receptor antagonist) significantly attenuated the C48/80-evoked increase in cortisol secretion, but pretreatment with metiamide (H(2)-receptor antagonist) significantly potentiated it. Significant attenuation of the C48/80-evoked increase in cortisol also occurred in dogs given ketotifen, a mast cell stabilizing drug, before pharmacologic challenge. In the pars tuberalis and median eminence (ME), mast cells were highly concentrated in close association with the primary plexus of the hypophysial portal system. Degranulated mast cells were extensively found in the ME of C48/80-treated animals. These results suggest that mast cells located in these regions liberated histamine within the brain as a result of degranulation induced by C48/80 and that this led to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.

  1. Cytotoxic and endocrine-disrupting potential of atrazine, diazinon, endosulfan, and mancozeb in adrenocortical steroidogenic cells of rainbow trout exposed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Marjolaine; Hontela, Alice

    2002-04-15

    An in vitro bioassay for detection and quantitative assessment of chemicals with the capacity to disrupt adrenal steroidogenesis has been developed and used to compare the cytotoxic and endocrine-disrupting potential of four pesticides. Enzymatically dispersed adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed in vitro to atrazine, diazinon, endosulfan, and mancozeb, and cortisol secretion in response to ACTH or dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and cell viability were determined. The effective concentration, EC50 (concentration that inhibits cortisol secretion by 50%), the median lethal concentration, LC50 (concentration that kills 50% of the cells), and the LC50/EC50 ratio were established for the test pesticides. The pesticides were ranked as follows: EC50, endosulfan < diazinon < mancozeb < atrazine; LC50, diazinon < endosulfan < mancozeb < atrazine, with diazinon as the most cytotoxic. Endosulfan and mancozeb disrupted sites downstream of the cAMP-generating step of the cortisol synthetic pathway while atrazine seemed to act upstream from the cAMP step. The in vitro adrenal bioassay can be used for screening of adrenotoxicants and for mechanistic studies of adrenotoxicity.

  2. Alterations of Phosphodiesterases in Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Faucz, Fabio R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the cyclic (c)AMP-dependent signaling pathway have been implicated in the majority of benign adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing syndrome (CS). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that regulate cyclic nucleotide levels, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Inactivating mutations and other functional variants in PDE11A and PDE8B, two cAMP-binding PDEs, predispose to ACTs. The involvement of these two genes in ACTs was initially revealed by a genome-wide association study in patients with micronodular bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. Thereafter, PDE11A or PDE8B genetic variants have been found in other ACTs, including macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasias and cortisol-producing adenomas. In addition, downregulation of PDE11A expression and inactivating variants of the gene have been found in hereditary and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors, as well as in prostatic cancer. PDEs confer an increased risk of ACT formation probably through, primarily, their action on cAMP levels, but other actions might be possible. In this report, we review what is known to date about PDE11A and PDE8B and their involvement in the predisposition to ACTs. PMID:27625633

  3. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Hontela, A

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na(2)SO(3)) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC(50)>2000mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC(50)=8.7mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC(50)=90.4mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mouse models of adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Basham, Kaitlin J.; Hung, Holly A.; Lerario, Antonio M.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of the organogenesis, homeostasis, and tumorigenesis of the adrenal cortex has been the subject of intense study for many decades. Specifically, characterization of tumor predisposition syndromes with adrenocortical manifestations and molecular profiling of sporadic adrenocortical tumors have led to the discovery of key molecular pathways that promote pathological adrenal growth. However, given the observational nature of such studies, several important questions regarding the molecular pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors have remained. This review will summarize naturally occurring and genetically engineered mouse models that have provided novel tools to explore the molecular and cellular underpinnings of adrenocortical tumors. New paradigms of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression that have emerged from this work will be discussed. PMID:26678830

  5. General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... that forms in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma and is not discussed in this summary. See the PDQ summary on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma for more information. Adrenocortical carcinoma and ...

  6. Mitotane Inhibits Sterol-O-Acyl Transferase 1 Triggering Lipid-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Liebisch, Gerhard; Sbiera, Iuliu; Schirbel, Andreas; Wiemer, Laura; Matysik, Silke; Eckhardt, Carolin; Gardill, Felix; Gehl, Annemarie; Kendl, Sabine; Weigand, Isabel; Bala, Margarita; Ronchi, Cristina L; Deutschbein, Timo; Schmitz, Gerd; Rosenwald, Andreas; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that harbors a dismal prognosis in advanced stages. Mitotane is approved as an orphan drug for treatment of ACC and counteracts tumor growth and steroid hormone production. Despite serious adverse effects, mitotane has been clinically used for decades. Elucidation of its unknown molecular mechanism of action seems essential to develop better ACC therapies. Here, we set out to identify the molecular target of mitotane and altered downstream mechanisms by combining expression genomics and mass spectrometry technology in the NCI-H295 ACC model cell line. Pathway analyses of expression genomics data demonstrated activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and profound alteration of lipid-related genes caused by mitotane treatment. ER stress marker CHOP was strongly induced and the two upstream ER stress signalling events XBP1-mRNA splicing and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 A (eIF2α) phosphorylation were activated by mitotane in NCI-H295 cells but to a much lesser extent in four nonsteroidogenic cell lines. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed mitotane-induced increase of free cholesterol, oxysterols, and fatty acids specifically in NCI-H295 cells as cause of ER stress. We demonstrate that mitotane is an inhibitor of sterol-O-acyl-transferase 1 (SOAT1) leading to accumulation of these toxic lipids. In ACC tissue samples we show variable SOAT1 expression correlating with the response to mitotane treatment. In conclusion, mitotane confers adrenal-specific cytotoxicity and down-regulates steroidogenesis by inhibition of SOAT1 leading to lipid-induced ER stress. Targeting of cancer-specific lipid metabolism opens new avenues for treatment of ACC and potentially other types of cancer.

  7. Preproorexin and orexin receptors are expressed in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and orexins stimulate in vitro cortisol secretion and growth of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Spinazzi, R; Rucinski, M; Neri, G; Malendowicz, L K; Nussdorfer, G G

    2005-06-01

    Orexins A and B are hypothalamic peptides that originate from the proteolytic cleavage of preproorexin and act through two subtypes of receptors, named OX1-R and OX2-R. OX1-R almost exclusively binds orexin-A, whereas OX2-R is nonselective for both orexins. We previously found that orexin-A, via the OX1-R, stimulates cortisol secretion from dispersed human adrenocortical cells. In this study, we demonstrate that six of eight cortisol-secreting adenomas expressed preproorexin mRNA, and seven of 10 adenomas contained measurable amounts of orexin-A but not orexin-B. Normal adrenal cortexes neither expressed preproorexin nor contained orexins. All adenomas expressed OX1-R and OX2-R mRNAs, and real-time PCR showed that the expression of both receptors was up-regulated in adenomas, compared with normal adrenal cortex. Orexin-A concentration-dependently raised basal cortisol secretion from freshly dispersed normal and adenomatous cells, minimal and maximal effective concentrations being 10(-10) and 10(-8) m, and the peptide efficacy (percent increase elicited by 10(-8) m orexin-A) was significantly higher in adenomas than in the normal adrenal cortex. Orexin-B was ineffective, thereby indicating that orexin secretagogue action is mediated by the OX1-R. In contrast, both orexins (10(-8) m) raised the proliferative activity of cultured normal and adenomatous cells, suggesting that this effect is mediated by OX2-R or both receptor subtypes. Collectively, our findings allow us to conclude that the orexin system is overexpressed in cortisol-secreting adenomas and suggest that orexin-A may act as an autocrine-paracrine regulator of the secretory activity and growth of some of these adrenal tumors.

  8. [Adrenocortical tumors--new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Latronico, Ana Claudia; Mendonça, Berenice B de

    2004-10-01

    A high frequency of adrenocortical tumors has been observed in Brazilian children and adults from South and Southwestern regions. The valuable national experience in the management of these tumors have resulted in several and relevant basic and clinical reports. However, the creation of an adrenocortical tumor national registry, the uniformity of approaches and collaborative studies are target to pursue. In this review article, we briefly described the fundamental points which were discussed in two scientific events on adrenocortical tumors: "International Consensus Conference on Treatment of Adrenal Cancer" and "I Simposio de Diagnóstico e Tratamento dos Tumores Adrenocorticais". The task force involving several Brazilian centers will increase the progress in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of this devastating disorder.

  9. Cerebellin and des-cerebellin exert ACTH-like effects on corticosterone secretion and the intracellular signaling pathway gene expression in cultured rat adrenocortical cells--DNA microarray and QPCR studies.

    PubMed

    Rucinski, Marcin; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Szyszka, Marta; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2009-04-01

    Precerebellins (Cbln) belong to the C1q/TNF superfamily of secreted proteins which have diverse functions. They are abundantly expressed in the cerebellum, however, three of them are also expressed in the rat adrenal gland. All members of the Cbln family form homomeric and heteromeric complexes with each other in vitro and it was suggested that such complexes play a crucial role in normal development of the cerebellum. The aim of our study was to investigate whether Cbln1-derived peptides, cerebellin (CER) and des-Ser1-cerebellin (desCER) are involved in regulating biological functions of rat adrenocortical cells. In the primary culture of rat adrenocortical cells, 24 h exposure to CER or desCER notably stimulated corticosterone output and inhibited proliferative activity and similar effects were evoked by ACTH. To study gene transcript regulation by CER, desCER and ACTH, we applied Oligo GEArray DNA Microarray: Rat Signal Transduction Pathway Finder. In relation to the control culture, 13 of the 113 transcripts present on the array were differentially expressed. These transcripts were either up- or down-regulated by ACTH and/or CER or desCER treatment. Validation of DNA Microarray data by QPCR revealed that only 5 of 13 genes studied were differentially expressed. Of those genes, Fos and Icam1 were up-regulated and Egr1 was down-regulated by ACTH, CER and desCER. The remaining two genes, Fasn (insulin signaling pathway) and Hspb1 (HSP27) (stress signaling pathway), were regulated only by CER and desCER, but not by ACTH. Thus, both CER and desCER have effects similar to and different from corticotrophin on the intracellular signaling pathway gene expression in cultured rat adrenocortical cells.

  10. Adrenocortical reserves in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Agbaht, Kemal; Gullu, Sevim

    2014-02-01

    Explicit data regarding the changes in adrenocortical reserves during hyperthyroidism do not exist. We aimed to document the capability (response) of adrenal gland to secrete cortisol and DHEA-S during hyperthyroidism compared to euthyroidism, and to describe factors associated with these responses. A standard-dose (0.25 mg/i.v.) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the same patients before hyperthyroidism treatment, and after attainment of euthyroidism. Baseline cortisol (Cor(0)), DHEA-S (DHEA-S(0)), cortisol binding globulin (CBG), ACTH, calculated free cortisol (by Coolen's equation = CFC), free cortisol index (FCI), 60-min cortisol (Cor(60)), and DHEA-S (DHEA-S(60)), delta cortisol (ΔCor), delta DHEA-S (ΔDHEA-S) responses were evaluated. Forty-one patients [22 females, 49.5 ± 15.2 years old, 32 Graves disease, nine toxic nodular goiter] had similar Cor(0), DHEA-S(0), CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S(60) in hyperthyroid and euthyroid states. Cor(60), ΔCor, and ΔDHEA-S were lower in hyperthyroidism. In four (10 %) patients the peak ACTH-stimulated cortisol values were lower than 18 μg/dL. When the test repeated after attainment of euthyroidism, all of the patients had normal cortisol response. Regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of Cor(60) with free T3 in hyperthyroidism. However, the predictors of CFC, FCI, and DHEA-S levels were serum creatinine levels in hyperthyroidism, and both creatinine and transaminase levels in euthyroidism. ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol, delta cortisol, and delta DHEA-S levels are decreased during hyperthyroidism, probably due to increased turnover. Since about 10 % of the subjects with hyperthyroidism are at risk for adrenal insufficiency, clinicians dealing with Graves' disease should be alert to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency during hyperthyroid stage.

  11. Adrenocortical Gap Junctions and Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Cheryl L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortical steroidogenesis and proliferation are thought to be modulated by gap junction-mediated direct cell–cell communication of regulatory molecules between cells. Such communication is regulated by the number of gap junction channels between contacting cells, the rate at which information flows between these channels, and the rate of channel turnover. Knowledge of the factors regulating gap junction-mediated communication and the turnover process are critical to an understanding of adrenal cortical cell functions, including development, hormonal response to adrenocorticotropin, and neoplastic dedifferentiation. Here, we review what is known about gap junctions in the adrenal gland, with particular attention to their role in adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. Information and insight gained from electrophysiological, molecular biological, and imaging (immunocytochemical, freeze fracture, transmission electron microscopic, and live cell) techniques will be provided. PMID:27445985

  12. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  13. Integrated genome-wide analysis of genomic changes and gene regulation in human adrenocortical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Wang, Yonghong; Patel, Dhaval; Liu-Chittenden, Yi; Jain, Meenu; Boufraqech, Myriem; Zhang, Lisa; Meltzer, Paul S; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-10-30

    To gain insight into the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and whether there is progression from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma, we performed genome-wide gene expression, gene methylation, microRNA expression and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis in human adrenocortical tissue (normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC) samples. A pairwise comparison of normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC gene expression profiles with more than four-fold expression differences and an adjusted P-value < 0.05 revealed no major differences in normal versus adrenocortical adenoma whereas there are 808 and 1085, respectively, dysregulated genes between ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma and ACC versus normal. The majority of the dysregulated genes in ACC were downregulated. By integrating the CGH, gene methylation and expression profiles of potential miRNAs with the gene expression of dysregulated genes, we found that there are higher alterations in ACC versus normal compared to ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma. Importantly, we identified several novel molecular pathways that are associated with dysregulated genes and further experimentally validated that oncostatin m signaling induces caspase 3 dependent apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation. Finally, we propose that there is higher number of genomic changes from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma and identified oncostatin m signaling as a plausible druggable pathway for therapeutics.

  14. Mutational analysis of PRKAR1A and Gs(alpha) in sporadic adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Libé, R; Mantovani, G; Bondioni, S; Lania, A G; Pedroni, C; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    2005-05-01

    Little is known about the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. The cAMP-dependent pathway is physiologically activated by ACTH in adrenocortical cells and different components of this cascade may be altered in some functioning adrenocortical tumors. Recently, mutations of the gene encoding the PKA type 1 A regulatory subunit (R1 A), PRKAR1A, associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at PRKAR1A locus, have been demonstrated in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), either isolated or associated with Carney complex. Moreover, activating mutations of the Gs(alpha) gene (the gsp oncogene) have also been found in a small number of adrenocortical cortisol-secreting adenomas. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of such genetic alterations on a series of 10 ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome due to non-PPNAD adrenocortical adenomas. The coding sequence of PRKAR1A, evaluated by PCR and direct sequencing analysis, revealed the absence of mutations while heterozygosity for at least 1 polymorphism excluded LOH in most tumors. In one single adenoma gsp mutation was detected. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence that the only mutational changes able to activate the cAMP pathway so far identified, i.e. PRKAR1A mutations and gsp oncogene, are a rare event in adrenocortical tumors.

  15. Novel Targeted Therapies in Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Bhavana; Kirschner, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare cancer, but one that carries a poor prognosis due to its aggressive nature and unresponsiveness to conventional chemotherapeutic strategies. Over the past 12 years, there has been renewed interest in developing new therapies for this cancer, including identifying key signaling nodes responsible for cell proliferation. Recent findings Clinical trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as monotherapy have generally been disappointing, although the identification of exceptional responders may lead to the identification of targeted therapies that may produce responses in subsets of patients. Agents targeted to the Wnt signaling pathway, a known player in adrenal carcinogenesis, have been developed although have not yet been used specifically for adrenal cancer. There is current excitement about inhibitors of acetyl-coA cholesterol acetyl transferase 1 (ACAT1), an enzyme required for intracellular cholesterol handling, although trials are still underway. Tools to target other proteins such as SF1 and mTOR have been developed and are moving towards clinical application. Summary Progress is being made in the fight against adrenocortical carcinoma with the identification of new therapeutic targets and new means by which to attack them. Continued improvement in the prognosis for patients with adrenal cancer is expected as this research continues. PMID:27119750

  16. Gene expression and regulation in adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Annabelle L; Healy, James; Kunstman, John W; Korah, Reju; Carling, Tobias

    2012-12-27

    Adrenocortical tumors are frequently found in the general population, and may be benign adrenocortical adenomas or malignant adrenocortical carcinomas. Unfortunately the clinical, biochemical and histopathological distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors may be difficult in the absence of widely invasive or metastatic disease, and hence attention has turned towards a search for molecular markers. The study of rare genetic diseases that are associated with the development of adrenocortical carcinomas has contributed to our understanding of adrenocortical tumorigenesis. In addition, comprehensive genomic hybridization, methylation profiling, and genome wide mRNA and miRNA profiling have led to improvements in our understanding, as well as demonstrated several genes and pathways that may serve as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  17. Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Distinct Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Masako; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ikuo; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hisanobu; Awata, Takuya; Katayama, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a 60-year-old man with adrenocortical carcinoma who had gynecomastia. An endocrinological examination revealed increased levels of serum estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and reduced levels of free testosterone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an adrenal tumor with heterogeneous intensity. Iodine-131 adosterol scintigraphy showed an increased uptake at the same site. Because feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma was suspected, right adrenalectomy was performed; the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma. The results of immunostaining indicated a virilizing tumor. Aromatase activity was identified on RT-PCR. As disorganized steroidogenesis is pathologically present in adrenocortical carcinoma, this diagnosis should be made with caution. PMID:27853073

  18. Adrenocortical hypertrophy: establishing cause and toxicological significance.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Sutcliffe, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    The primary cause of adrenocortical hypertrophy is increased adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. In toxicology studies, such a condition can arise as a result of the stress response, but it may also occur due to deficient glucocorticoid feedback regulation of ACTH due to toxicity to the adrenal cortex. This latter condition is defined as adrenocortical insufficiency and represents a serious adverse toxic effect on the function of the adrenal cortex. Adrenocortical hypertrophy may occur in the absence of other adrenocortical lesions such that a toxicopathological mechanism is not obvious, for example by pharmacological inhibition of steroidogenesis at the biochemical level. This review discusses the different aetiological factors and mechanisms producing adrenocortical hypertrophy. The need for further evidence in ascribing findings to stress is discussed, as is a protocol for establishing differential diagnoses between stress-induced and toxicity-induced adrenocortical hypertrophy, which is useful in cases where there are no other histopathological lesions in the adrenal cortex. It is concluded that all cases of adrenocortical hypertrophy require further investigation or evidence to ascribe such findings to either stress or adrenocortical inhibition/insufficiency, and that all cases of adrenocortical insufficiency (whether due to a histopathological lesion or reversible pharmacological enzyme inhibition) represent a serious adverse effect that must be properly considered in toxicological risk assessment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hepatocyte Growth Factor/cMET Pathway Activation Enhances Cancer Hallmarks in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Phan, Liem M; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Wu, Weixin; Velazquez-Torres, Guermarie; Sircar, Kanishka; Wood, Christopher G; Hai, Tao; Jimenez, Camilo; Cote, Gilbert J; Ozsari, Levent; Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Zheng, Siyuan; Verhaak, Roeland; Pagliaro, Lance; Cortez, Maria Angelica; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Habra, Mouhammed Amir

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis and limited response to chemotherapy. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor cMET augment cancer growth and resistance to chemotherapy, but their role in adrenocortical carcinoma has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the association between HGF/cMET expression and cancer hallmarks of adrenocortical carcinoma. Transcriptomic and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that increased HGF/cMET expression in human adrenocortical carcinoma samples was positively associated with cancer-related biologic processes, including proliferation and angiogenesis, and negatively correlated with apoptosis. Accordingly, treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma cells with exogenous HGF resulted in increased cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo while short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of cMET suppressed cell proliferation and tumor growth. Moreover, exposure of cells to mitotane, cisplatin, or radiation rapidly induced pro-cMET expression and was associated with an enrichment of genes (e.g., CYP450 family) related to therapy resistance, further implicating cMET in the anticancer drug response. Together, these data suggest an important role for HGF/cMET signaling in adrenocortical carcinoma growth and resistance to commonly used treatments. Targeting cMET, alone or in combination with other drugs, could provide a breakthrough in the management of this aggressive cancer.

  20. Analysis of histological and immunohistochemical patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors by computerized morphometry.

    PubMed

    Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Vertemati, Maurizio; Petrella, Duccio; Bonacina, Edgardo; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Duregon, Eleonora; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Loli, Paola

    2017-07-01

    Diagnosis of benign and purely localized malignant adrenocortical lesions is still a complex issue. Moreover, histology-based diagnosis may suffer of a moment of subjectivity due to inter- and intra-individual variations. The aim of the present study was to assess, by computerized morphometry, the morphological features in benign and malignant adrenocortical neoplasms. Eleven adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) were compared with 18 adrenocortical cancers (ACC). All specimens were stained with H&E, cellular proliferation marker Ki-67 and reticulin. We generated a morphometric model based on the analysis of volume fractions occupied by Ki-67 positive and negative cells (nuclei and cytoplasm), vascular and inflammatory compartment; we also analyzed the surface fraction occupied by reticulin. We compared the quantitative data of Ki-67 obtained by morphometry with the quantification resulting from pathologist's visual reading. The volume fraction of Ki-67 positive cells in ACCs was higher than in ACAs. The volume fraction of nuclei in unit volume and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in both Ki-67 negative cells and Ki-67 positive cells were prominent in ACCs. The surface fraction of reticulin was considerably lower in ACCs. Our computerized morphometric model is simple, reproducible and can be used by the pathologist in the histological workup of adrenocortical tumors to achieve precise and reader-independent quantification of several morphological characteristics of adrenocortical tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  2. Cholesterol and steroid synthesizing smooth endoplasmic reticulum of adrenocortical cells contains high levels of proteins associated with the translocation channel.

    PubMed

    Black, Virginia H; Sanjay, Archana; van Leyen, Klaus; Lauring, Brett; Kreibich, Gert

    2005-10-01

    Steroid-secreting cells are characterized by abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum whose membranes contain many enzymes involved in sterol and steroid synthesis. Yet they have relatively little morphologically identifiable rough endoplasmic reticulum, presumably required for synthesis and maintenance of the smooth membranes. In this study, we demonstrate that adrenal smooth microsomal subfractions enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum membranes contain high levels of translocation apparatus and oligosaccharyltransferase complex proteins, previously thought confined to rough endoplasmic reticulum. We further demonstrate that these smooth microsomal subfractions are capable of effecting cotranslational translocation, signal peptide cleavage, and N-glycosylation of newly synthesized polypeptides. This shifts the paradigm for distinction between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Confocal microscopy revealed the proteins to be distributed throughout the abundant tubular endoplasmic reticulum in these cells, which is predominantly smooth surfaced. We hypothesize that the broadly distributed translocon and oligosaccharyltransferase proteins participate in local synthesis and/or quality control of membrane proteins involved in cholesterol and steroid metabolism in a sterol-dependent and hormonally regulated manner.

  3. Occult Adrenocortical Carcinoma and Unexpected Early Childhood Death.

    PubMed

    Pilla, Mark; Gilbert, John; Moore, Lynette; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A four-year-old previously well boy collapsed unexpectedly and was taken immediately to hospital, where he developed seizures and cardiogenic shock with lethal, rapidly progressing multi-organ failure. At autopsy, the height was >90th percentile and there were indications of early virilization. Internally, a friable tumor of the left adrenal gland was identified that had invaded the left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Histology revealed typical features of an adrenocortical carcinoma with aggregated trabeculae of cells containing abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large pleomorphic nuclei. There was strong positive cytoplasmic staining for inhibin; mitochondria were shown on electron microscopy to contain prominent electron-dense granules. Death was due to massive pulmonary tumor embolism. Although adrenocortical carcinomas are very rare and are more commonly found in adults, the current case demonstrates that they may also occur in childhood and be responsible for unexpected death by the very unusual mechanism of tumor embolism.

  4. Adrenocortical tumors and insulin resistance: What is the first step?

    PubMed

    Altieri, Barbara; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Della Casa, Silvia; Ronchi, Cristina L; Balercia, Giancarlo; Orio, Francesco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Colao, Annamaria; Muscogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-06-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the onset of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are still largely unknown. Recently, more attention has been paid to the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system on general tumor development and progression. Increased levels of insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-2 are associated with tumor cell growth and increased risk of cancer promotion and progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia may play a role in adrenal tumor growth through the activation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors. Interestingly, apparently non-functioning ACTs are often associated with a high prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, it is unclear if ACT develops from a primary insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia or if insulin resistance is only secondary to the slight cortisol hypersecretion by ACT. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and adrenocortical tumors. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Bekkaye, Ilyes; Azzoug, Said

    2015-01-01

    Feminizing adrenal tumors (FAT) are extremely rare tumors prevailing in males. Clinical manifestations are gynecomastia and/or other hypogonadism features in adults. They are rarer in pediatric population and their main manifestation is peripheral sexual precocity. In women genital bleeding, uterus hypertrophy, high blood pressure and/or abdomen mass may be the only manifestations. On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (≥10 cm), an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane), ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed. PMID:25932386

  6. Phytoestrogens in menopausal supplements induce ER-dependent cell proliferation and overcome breast cancer treatment in an in vitro breast cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Duursen, Majorie B.M. van; Smeets, Evelien E.J.W.; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Nijmeijer, Sandra M.; Berg, Martin van den

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer treatment by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (LET) or Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) can result in the onset of menopausal symptoms. Women often try to relieve these symptoms by taking menopausal supplements containing high levels of phytoestrogens. However, little is known about the potential interaction between these supplements and breast cancer treatment, especially aromatase inhibitors. In this study, interaction of phytoestrogens with the estrogen receptor alpha and TAM action was determined in an ER-reporter gene assay (BG1Luc4E2 cells) and human breast epithelial tumor cells (MCF-7). Potential interactions with aromatase activity and LET were determined in human adrenocorticocarcinoma H295R cells. We also used the previously described H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model to study interactions with steroidogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. In this model, genistein (GEN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8PN) and four commercially available menopausal supplements all induced ER-dependent tumor cell proliferation, which could not be prevented by physiologically relevant LET and 4OH-TAM concentrations. Differences in relative effect potencies between the H295R/MCF-7 co-culture model and ER-activation in BG1Luc4E2 cells, were due to the effects of the phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis. All tested supplements and GEN induced aromatase activity, while 8PN was a strong aromatase inhibitor. Steroidogenic profiles upon GEN and 8PN exposure indicated a strong inhibitory effect on steroidogenesis in H295R cells and H295R/MCF-7 co-cultures. Based on our in vitro data we suggest that menopausal supplement intake during breast cancer treatment should better be avoided, at least until more certainty regarding the safety of supplemental use in breast cancer patients can be provided. - Highlights: • Supplements containing phytoestrogens are commonly used by women with breast cancer. • Phytoestrogens alter steroidogenesis in a co-culture breast

  7. p53 Mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Travis, W.H.; Linehan, H.M.; Karl, M.; Mastorakos, G.; Chrousos, G.P.

    1994-03-01

    p53 is a recessive tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p. Mutations in the p53 gene play an important role in the tumorigenesis of diverse types of human neoplasms including breast and colon cancers. More than 90% of all mutations discovered in such tumors have been detected in 4 hot spot areas that lie between exons 5 and 8. In contrast to wild-type p53, mutant p53 accumulates intracellularly and can be easily detected by immunohistochemistry. The authors therefore investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms using molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Five patients with adrenocortical adenomas (5 female; ages 39-72 yr), 11 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (8 female, 3 male; ages 15-50 yr), and two adrenocortical tumor cell lines were studied. After DNA extraction from frozen tumor tissue or paraffin-embedded material, exons 5 through 8 were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens obtained during adrenalectomy using a monoclonal antibody reacting with both wild-type and mutant p53. Prevalence of mutations was adenomas, 0/5, carcinomas, 3/11, and adrenocortical cell lines, 2/2. Single point mutations were detected in 3 cases (exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively), and rearrangements of exon 7/8 and 8 were found in 2 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic p53 immunoreactivity in all adrenocortical carcinomas with point mutations of the p53 gene but not in adenomas and carcinomas with the wild-type sequence or with deletion/rearrangement of the p53 gene. They conclude that p53 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinomas but is of less importance to benign adenomas. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Hereditary adrenocortical unresponsiveness to adrenocorticotropin with a postreceptor defect.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, T; Kudo, T; Takuwa, Y; Kawakami, Y; Itakura, M; Yamashita, K

    1992-07-01

    We report two cases in one pedigree with hereditary adrenocortical unresponsiveness to ACTH (HACUA) where it is suggested that the pathogenic defect occurs after cAMP generation. Although the patients showed increased plasma ACTH, decreased plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone, and no steroidogenic response to exogenous ACTH, they responded normally to both furosemide administration and to a low sodium diet by showing increases in plasma aldosterone. The peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (MNLs) from these patients possessed ACTH receptors similar to adrenocortical ones, which was in contrast to a previously reported case with a deficiency of ACTH receptors in the MNLs. Furthermore, ACTH receptors in the patients' MNLs were functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion did not, however, increase plasma cortisol nor aldosterone in these patients in a sharp contrast to its remarkable increase in a normal control subject. These results suggest that these patients represent a new subtype of HACUA with a failure of intracellular reception of the cAMP message in adrenocortical cells. We propose to classify our patients with a postreceptor defect as HACUA type II using an analogy to pseudohypoparathyroidism type II.

  9. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  10. GATA4 Is a Critical Regulator of Gonadectomy-Induced Adrenocortical Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krachulec, Justyna; Vetter, Melanie; Schrade, Anja; Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Cochran, Rebecca; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Parviainen, Helka; Jay, Patrick Y.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2012-01-01

    In response to gonadectomy certain inbred mouse strains develop sex steroidogenic adrenocortical neoplasms. One of the hallmarks of neoplastic transformation is expression of GATA4, a transcription factor normally present in gonadal but not adrenal steroidogenic cells of the adult mouse. To show that GATA4 directly modulates adrenocortical tumorigenesis and is not merely a marker of gonadal-like differentiation in the neoplasms, we studied mice with germline or conditional loss-of-function mutations in the Gata4 gene. Germline Gata4 haploinsufficiency was associated with attenuated tumor growth and reduced expression of sex steroidogenic genes in the adrenal glands of ovariectomized B6D2F1 and B6AF1 mice. At 12 months after ovariectomy, wild-type B6D2F1 mice had biochemical and histological evidence of adrenocortical estrogen production, whereas Gata4+/− B6D2F1 mice did not. Germline Gata4 haploinsufficiency exacerbated the secondary phenotype of postovariectomy obesity in B6D2F1 mice, presumably by limiting ectopic estrogen production in the adrenal glands. Amhr2-cre-mediated deletion of floxed Gata4 (Gata4F) in nascent adrenocortical neoplasms of ovariectomized B6.129 mice reduced tumor growth and the expression of gonadal-like markers in a Gata4F dose-dependent manner. We conclude that GATA4 is a key modifier of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia, postovariectomy obesity, and sex steroidogenic cell differentiation. PMID:22461617

  11. Retinoic acid receptor beta and angiopoietin-like protein 1 are involved in the regulation of human androgen biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Udhane, Sameer S.; Pandey, Amit V.; Hofer, Gaby; Mullis, Primus E.; Flück, Christa E.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for sexual development and reproduction. However, androgen regulation in health and disease is poorly understood. We showed that human adrenocortical H295R cells grown under starvation conditions acquire a hyperandrogenic steroid profile with changes in steroid metabolizing enzymes HSD3B2 and CYP17A1 essential for androgen production. Here we studied the regulatory mechanisms underlying androgen production in starved H295R cells. Microarray expression profiling of normal versus starved H295R cells revealed fourteen differentially expressed genes; HSD3B2, HSD3B1, CYP21A2, RARB, ASS1, CFI, ASCL1 and ENC1 play a role in steroid and energy metabolism and ANGPTL1, PLK2, DUSP6, DUSP10 and FREM2 are involved in signal transduction. We discovered two new gene networks around RARB and ANGPTL1, and show how they regulate androgen biosynthesis. Transcription factor RARB stimulated the promoters of genes involved in androgen production (StAR, CYP17A1 and HSD3B2) and enhanced androstenedione production. For HSD3B2 regulation RARB worked in cooperation with Nur77. Secretory protein ANGPTL1 modulated CYP17A1 and DUSP6 expression by inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. By contrast, our studies revealed no evidence for hormones or cell cycle involvement in regulating androgen biosynthesis. In summary, these studies establish a firm role for RARB and ANGPTL1 in the regulation of androgen production in H295R cells. PMID:25970467

  12. Ectopic adrenocortical adenoma in the renal hilum: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yue-Feng; Wang, Ye-Lin; Cao, Hong-Yi; Wang, Liang; Xu, Hong-Tao; Li, Qing-Chang; Qiu, Xue-Shan; Wang, En-Hua

    2016-04-19

    Ectopic (accessory) adrenocortical tissue, also known as adrenal rests, is a developmental abnormality of the adrenal gland. The most common ectopic site is in close proximity to the adrenal glands and along the path of descent or migration of the gonads because of the close spatial relationship between the adrenocortical primordium and gonadal blastema during embryogenesis. Ectopic rests may undergo marked hyperplasia, and occasionally induce ectopic adrenocortical adenomas or carcinomas. A 27-year-old Chinese female patient who presented with amenorrhea of 3 months duration underwent computed tomography urography after ultrasound revealed a solitary mass in the left renal hilum. Histologically, the prominent eosinophilic tumor cells formed an alveolar- or acinar-like configuration. The immunohistochemical profile (alpha-inhibin+, Melan-A+, synaptophysin+) indicated the adrenocortical origin of the tumor, diagnosed as ectopic adrenocortical adenoma. The patient was alive with no tumor recurrence or metastasis at the 3-month follow-up examination. The unusual histological appearance of ectopic adrenocortical adenoma may result in its misdiagnosis as oncocytoma or clear cell renal cell carcinoma, especially if the specimen is limited. This case provides a reminder to pathologists to be aware of atypical cases of this benign tumor. Although uncommon, an ectopic adrenal lesion should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors involving the renal hilum. A misdiagnosis of this benign condition as a malignant renal tumor may have severe consequences for the patient, including unnecessary radical nephrectomy. Preoperative biopsy and appropriate immunohistochemical staining will assist in determining the origin and nature of the tumor and in avoiding intraoperative uncertainty.

  13. Adenoviral vectors can impair adrenocortical steroidogenesis: Clinical implications for natural infections and gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alesci, Salvatore; Ramsey, Walter J.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Chrousos, George P.; Hornsby, Peter J.; Benvenga, Salvatore; Trimarchi, Francesco; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors are effective in transferring foreign genes to a variety of cells and tissue types, both in vitro and in vivo. However, during the gene transfer, they may alter the principal function and local environment of transfected cells. Increasing evidence exists for a selective adrenotropism of adenovirus during infections and gene transfer. Therefore, using bovine adrenocortical cells in primary culture, we analyzed the influence of different adenoviral deletion mutants on cell morphology and physiology. Transfection of cells with an E1/E3-deleted adenoviral vector, engineered to express a modified form of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein, was highly efficient, as documented by fluorescent microscopy. Ultrastructural analysis, however, demonstrated nuclear fragmentation and mitochondrial alterations in addition to intranuclear viral particles. Basal secretion of 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and cortisol was significantly increased by E1/E3-deleted vectors; yet, the corticotropin-stimulated release of these steroids was decreased. Interestingly, neither purified viral capsids nor E3/E4-deleted adenoviral mutants altered basal and stimulated steroidogenesis of adrenocortical cells. An intact adrenal response is crucial for adaptation to stress and survival. Therefore, the implications of our findings need to be considered in patients with adenoviral infections and those undergoing clinical studies using adenoviral gene transfer. At the same time, the high level of transfection in adrenocortical cells might make appropriately modified adenoviral vectors suitable for gene therapy of adrenocortical carcinomas with poor prognosis. PMID:12032309

  14. Genetics and epigenetics of adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Lerario, Antonio M; Moraitis, Andreas; Hammer, Gary D

    2014-04-05

    Adrenocortical tumors are common neoplasms. Most are benign, nonfunctional and clinically irrelevant. However, adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis and no effective treatment apart from surgical resection. The molecular genetics of adrenocortical tumors remain poorly understood. For decades, molecular studies relied on a small number of samples and were directed to candidate-genes. This approach, based on the elucidation of the genetics of rare genetic syndromes in which adrenocortical tumors are a manifestation, has led to the discovery of major dysfunctional molecular pathways in adrenocortical tumors, such as the IGF pathway, the Wnt pathway and TP53. However, with the advent of high-throughput methodologies and the organization of international consortiums to obtain a larger number of samples and high-quality clinical data, this paradigm is rapidly changing. In the last decade, genome-wide expression profile studies, microRNA profiling and methylation profiling allowed the identification of subgroups of tumors with distinct genetic markers, molecular pathways activation patterns and clinical behavior. As a consequence, molecular classification of tumors has proven to be superior to traditional histological and clinical methods in prognosis prediction. In addition, this knowledge has also allowed the proposal of molecular-targeted approaches to provide better treatment options for advanced disease. This review aims to summarize the most relevant data on the rapidly evolving field of genetics of adrenal disorders.

  15. GENETICS AND EPIGENETICS OF ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Lerario, Antonio M.; Moraitis, Andreas; Hammer, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are common neoplasms. Most are benign, nonfunctional and clinically irrelevant. However, adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis and no effective treatment apart from surgical resection. The molecular genetics of adrenocortical tumors remain poorly understood. For decades, molecular studies relied on a small number of samples and were directed to candidate-genes. This approach, based on the elucidation of the genetics of rare genetic syndromes in which adrenocortical tumors are a manifestation, has led to the discovery of major dysfunctional molecular pathways in adrenocortical tumors, such as the IGF pathway, the Wnt pathway and TP53. However, with the advent of high-throughput methodologies and the organization of international consortiums to obtain a larger number of samples and high-quality clinical data, this paradigm is rapidly changing. In the last decade, genome-wide expression profile studies, microRNA profiling and methylation profiling allowed the identification of subgroups of tumors with distinct genetic markers, molecular pathways activation patterns and clinical behavior. As a consequence, molecular classification of tumors has proven to be superior to traditional histological and clinical methods in prognosis prediction. In addition, this knowledge has also allowed the proposal of molecular-targeted approaches aiming better treatment options for advanced disease. This review aims to summarize the most relevant data on the rapidly evolving field of genetics of adrenal disorders. PMID:24220673

  16. Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

  17. Adrenocortical carcinoma in two female children.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, G; Chen, M

    2001-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor in children. This tumor is more likely to be hormonally active in children than in adults and tends to cause a variety of symptoms, which may mimic other benign endocrinopathies. These tumors are usually diagnosed at advanced stages and portend a dismal prognosis. We describe two cases of adrenocortical carcinoma. One child presented with Cushingoid symptoms secondary to hypercortisolism, including amenorrhea, hirsutism and weight gain. The other child presented with precocious puberty. Both children underwent resection of the tumors. We describe their presenting symptoms, postoperative course, adjuvant therapy and clinical course. Pertinent literature regarding the anatomy of the adrenal gland, pathology of adrenocortical carcinoma, factors influencing outcome, diagnostic modalities and treatment, are discussed.

  18. Death of adrenocortical cells during murine acute T. cruzi infection is not associated with TNF-R1 signaling but mostly with the type II pathway of Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ana R; Lambertucci, Flavia; González, Florencia B; Roggero, Eduardo A; Bottasso, Oscar A; de Meis, Juliana; Ronco, Maria T; Villar, Silvina R

    2017-10-01

    Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrated that acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection promotes an intense inflammation along with a sepsis-like dysregulated adrenal response characterized by normal levels of ACTH with raised glucocorticoid secretion. Inflammation was also known to result in adrenal cell apoptosis, which in turn may influence HPA axis uncoupling. To explore factors and pathways which may be involved in the apoptosis of adrenal cells, together with its impact on the functionality of the gland, we carried out a series of studies in mice lacking death receptors, such as TNF-R1 (C57BL/6-(Tnfrsf1a tm1Imx) or TNF-R1(-/-)) or Fas ligand (C57BL/6 Fas-deficient lpr mice), undergoing acute T. cruzi infection. Here we demonstrate that the late hypercorticosterolism seen in C57BL/6 mice during acute T. cruzi infection coexists with and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of zona fasciculata, paralleled by increased number of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis seems to be mediated mainly by the type II pathway of Fas-mediated apoptosis, which engages the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis triggering the cytochrome c release to increase caspase-3 activation. Fas-induced apoptosis of adrenocortical cells is also related with an exacerbated production of intra-adrenal cytokines that probably maintain the late supply of adrenal hormones during host response. Present results shed light on the molecular mechanisms dealing with these phenomena which are crucial not only for the development of interventions attempting to avoid adrenal dysfunction, but also for its wide occurrence in other infectious-based critical illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel markers of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in the mouse and ferret

    PubMed Central

    Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Gretzinger, Elisabeth; Yang, Wei; Thol, Franziska; Hiller, Theresa; Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Röhrig, Theresa; Schrade, Anja; Cochran, Rebecca; Jay, Patrick Y.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Mitra, Robi D.; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Gonadectomy (GDX) induces sex steroid-producing adrenocortical tumors in certain mouse strains and in the domestic ferret. Transcriptome analysis and DNA methylation mapping were used to identify novel genetic and epigenetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia in female DBA/2J mice. Markers were validated using a combination of laser capture microdissection, quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Microarray expression profiling of whole adrenal mRNA from ovariectomized vs. intact mice demonstrated selective upregulation of gonadal-like genes including Spinlw1 and Insl3 in GDX-induced adrenocortical tumors of the mouse. A complementary candidate gene approach identified Foxl2 as another gonadal-like marker expressed in GDX-induced neoplasms of the mouse and ferret. That both “male-specific” (Spinlw1) and “female-specific” (Foxl2) markers were identified is noteworthy and implies that the neoplasms exhibit mixed characteristics of male and female gonadal somatic cells. Genome-wide methylation analysis showed that two genes with hypomethylated promoters, Igfbp6 and Foxs1, are upregulated in GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasms. These new genetic and epigenetic markers may prove useful for studies of steroidogenic cell development and for diagnostic testing. PMID:25289806

  20. Transforming growth factor beta 1: an autocrine regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feige, J J; Cochet, C; Savona, C; Shi, D L; Keramidas, M; Defaye, G; Chambaz, E M

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is a member of a large family of structurally related regulatory polypeptides which comprises both functionally similar (TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, TGF beta 3, TGF beta 4 and TGF beta 5) and functionally distinct proteins. In the past few years, TGF beta 1 has emerged as a multifunctional protein. One of its remarkable properties is its capacity to negatively modulate the differentiated, steroidogenic adrenocortical functions. We present here a review of the results from our recent work related to the effects of TGF beta 1 on bovine adrenocortical cell (zona fasciculata-reticularis) functions. We identified the steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P-450 17 alpha) biosynthetic enzyme and the angiotensin II receptor as major targets whose expression are negatively regulated by TGF beta 1 in these cells. We characterized TGF beta 1 receptors at the surface of adrenocortical cells (mainly type I and type III receptors) and observed that their number is increased under ACTH treatment. Furthermore, we could detect the presence of immunoreactive TGF beta 1 in the bovine adrenal cortex whereas it was undetectable in the adrenal medulla and in the capsule. We also observed that adrenocortical cells secrete TGF beta 1 under a latent form together with large amounts of alpha 2-macroglobulin, a protease inhibitor known to be implied in the latency of TGF beta in serum. Taken together, these observations led us to a working hypothesis, proposing TGF beta 1 as an autocrine and/or paracrine regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenic functions. This concept points out the physiological activation of the latent TGF beta 1 complex as the important limiting step controlling its action in the adrenal cortex.

  1. A morphometric analysis of adrenocortical actin localized by immunoelectron microscopy: the effect of adrenocorticotropin.

    PubMed

    Loesser, K E; Malamed, S

    1987-10-01

    The localization of actin and the effect of ACTH on its concentration was examined in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. Lowicryl K4M-embedded cells were used for the immunoelectron localization of actin; gold was used as a label for immunoreactive sites. Actin was at least 4 times as concentrated at the cortical cytoplasm as in the lipid droplets and at least 5 times as concentrated in the microvilli as in the lipid droplets. ACTH stimulation approximately doubled the concentration of actin in the cortical cytoplasm and increased by 50% the concentration of actin in the microvilli. The microvillar contribution to the cell surface area was 40% higher in ACTH-stimulated cells than it was in unstimulated cells. These results provide quantitative evidence suggesting that actin and the microvilli participate in steroid secretion by the adrenocortical cell.

  2. Prognostic Significance of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression in Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumors: A St. Jude and Children's Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Emilia Modolo; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Choi, John Kim; Pounds, Stanley; Liu, Zhifa; Neale, Geoffrey; Finkelstein, David; Hicks, John M; Pappo, Alberto S; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2016-12-15

    Histologic markers that differentiate benign and malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors are lacking. Previous studies have implicated an association of MHC class II expression with adrenocortical tumor prognosis. Here, we determined the expression of MHC class II as well as the cell of origin of these immunologic markers in pediatric adrenocortical tumor. The impact of MHC class II gene expression on outcome was determined in a cohort of uniformly treated children with adrenocortical carcinomas. We analyzed the expression of MHC class II and a selected cluster of differentiation genes in 63 pediatric adrenocortical tumors by Affymetrix Human U133 Plus 2.0 or HT HG-U133+PM gene chip analyses. Cells expressing MHC class II were identified by morphologic and immunohistochemical assays. MHC class II expression was significantly greater in adrenocortical adenomas than in carcinomas (P = 4.8 ×10(-6)) and was associated with a higher progression-free survival (PFS) estimate (P = 0.003). Specifically, HLA-DPA1 expression was most significantly associated with PFS after adjustment for tumor weight and stage. HLA-DPA1 was predominantly expressed by hematopoietic infiltrating cells and undetectable in tumor cells in 23 of 26 cases (88%). MHC class II expression, which is produced by tumor-infiltrating immune cells, is an indicator of disease aggressiveness in pediatric adrenocortical tumor. Our results suggest that immune responses modulate adrenocortical tumorigenesis and may allow the refinement of risk stratification and treatment for this disease. Clin Cancer Res; 22(24); 6247-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Cytochrome b5 Expression in Gonadectomy-induced Adrenocortical Neoplasms of the Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, S.; Kiupel, M.; Peterson, R.A.; Heikinheimo, M.; Wilson, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the adrenal glands of healthy ferrets produce only limited amounts of androgenic steroids, adrenocortical neoplasms that arise in neutered ferrets typically secrete androgens or their derivative, estrogen. The 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) must increase to permit androgen biosynthesis in neoplastic adrenal tissue. We screened ferret adrenocortical tumor specimens for expression of cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), an allosteric regulator that selectively enhances the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17. Cyt b5 immunoreactivity was evident in 24 of 25 (96 %) adrenocortical adenomas/carcinomas from ferrets with signs of ectopic sex steroid production. Normal adrenocortical cells lacked cyt b5, which may account for the low production of adrenal androgens in healthy ferrets. Other markers characteristic of gonadal somatic cells, such as luteinizing hormone receptor, aromatase, and GATA4, were co-expressed with cyt b5 in some of the tumors. We conclude that cyt b5 is upregulated during gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia and is a marker of androgen synthetic potential in these tumors. PMID:18587089

  4. Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terzolo, Massimo; Angeli, Alberto; Fassnacht, Martin; Daffara, Fulvia; Tauchmanova, Libuse; Conton, Pier Antonio; Rossetto, Ruth; Buci, Lisa; Sperone, Paola; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Bollito, Enrico; Papotti, Mauro; Saeger, Wolfgang; Hahner, Stefanie; Koschker, Ann-Cathrin; Arvat, Emanuela; Ambrosi, Bruno; Loli, Paola; Lombardi, Gaetano; Mannelli, Massimo; Bruzzi, Paolo; Mantero, Franco; Allolio, Bruno; Dogliotti, Luigi; Berruti, Alfredo

    2007-06-07

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection. Whether the use of mitotane is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment has been controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant mitotane in prolonging recurrence-free survival. We performed a retrospective analysis involving 177 patients with adrenocortical cancer who had undergone radical surgery at 8 centers in Italy and 47 centers in Germany between 1985 and 2005. Adjuvant mitotane was administered to 47 Italian patients after radical surgery (mitotane group), whereas 55 Italian patients and 75 German patients (control groups 1 and 2, respectively) did not receive adjuvant treatment after surgery. Baseline features in the mitotane group and the control group from Italy were similar; the German patients were significantly older (P=0.03) and had more stage I or II adrenocortical carcinomas (P=0.02) than did patients in the mitotane group. Recurrence-free survival was significantly prolonged in the mitotane group, as compared with the two control groups (median recurrence-free survival, 42 months, as compared with 10 months in control group 1 and 25 months in control group 2). Hazard ratios for recurrence were 2.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77 to 4.78; P<0.001) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.21 to 3.20; P=0.005), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that mitotane treatment had a significant advantage for recurrence-free survival. Adverse events associated with mitotane were mainly of grade 1 or 2, but temporary dose reduction was needed in 13% of patients. Adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  5. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  6. Genomic landscape of pediatric adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Emilia M.; Chen, Xiang; Easton, John; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Zhifa; Pounds, Stanley; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Lund, Troy C.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Boggs, Kristy; Yergeau, Donald; Cheng, Jinjun; Mulder, Heather L.; Manne, Jayanthi; Jenkins, Jesse; Mastellaro, Maria J.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.; Dyer, Michael A.; Pappo, Alberto; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Zambetti, Gerard P.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. Here we analyze 37 adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) by whole genome, whole exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. Most cases (91%) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 11p, with uniform selection against the maternal chromosome. IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the tumors. TP53 mutations and chromosome 17 LOH with selection against wild-type TP53 are observed in 28 ACTs (76%). Chromosomes 11p and 17 undergo copy-neutral LOH early during tumorigenesis, suggesting tumor-driver events. Additional genetic alterations include recurrent somatic mutations in ATRX and CTNNB1 and integration of human herpesvirus-6 in chromosome 11p. A dismal outcome is predicted by concomitant TP53 and ATRX mutations and associated genomic abnormalities, including massive structural variations and frequent background mutations. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the nature, timing and potential prognostic significance of key genetic alterations in pediatric ACT and outline a hypothetical model of pediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis. PMID:25743702

  7. Genomic landscape of paediatric adrenocortical tumours.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Emilia M; Chen, Xiang; Easton, John; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Zhifa; Pounds, Stanley; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Lund, Troy C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Boggs, Kristy; Yergeau, Donald; Cheng, Jinjun; Mulder, Heather L; Manne, Jayanthi; Jenkins, Jesse; Mastellaro, Maria J; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Dyer, Michael A; Pappo, Alberto; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2015-03-06

    Paediatric adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. Here we analyse 37 adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. Most cases (91%) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 11p, with uniform selection against the maternal chromosome. IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the tumours. TP53 mutations and chromosome 17 LOH with selection against wild-type TP53 are observed in 28 ACTs (76%). Chromosomes 11p and 17 undergo copy-neutral LOH early during tumorigenesis, suggesting tumour-driver events. Additional genetic alterations include recurrent somatic mutations in ATRX and CTNNB1 and integration of human herpesvirus-6 in chromosome 11p. A dismal outcome is predicted by concomitant TP53 and ATRX mutations and associated genomic abnormalities, including massive structural variations and frequent background mutations. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the nature, timing and potential prognostic significance of key genetic alterations in paediatric ACT and outline a hypothetical model of paediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis.

  8. Autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms in adrenocortical neoplasms responsible for primary adrenal hypercorticism.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, H; Prévost, G; Louiset, E

    2013-11-01

    A wide variety of autocrine/paracrine bioactive signals are able to modulate corticosteroid secretion in the human adrenal gland. These regulatory factors, released in the vicinity of adrenocortical cells by diverse cell types comprising chromaffin cells, nerve terminals, cells of the immune system, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, include neuropeptides, biogenic amines, and cytokines. A growing body of evidence now suggests that paracrine mechanisms may also play an important role in the physiopathology of adrenocortical hyperplasias and tumors responsible for primary adrenal steroid excess. These intra-adrenal regulatory systems, although globally involving the same actors as those observed in the normal gland, display alterations at different levels, which reinforce the capacity of paracrine factors to stimulate the activity of adrenocortical cells. The main modifications in the adrenal local control systems reported by now include hyperplasia of cells producing the paracrine factors and abnormal expression of the latter and their receptors. Because steroid-secreting adrenal neoplasms are independent of the classical endocrine regulatory factors angiotensin II and ACTH, which are respectively suppressed by hyperaldosteronism and hypercortisolism, these lesions have long been considered as autonomous tissues. However, the presence of stimulatory substances within the neoplastic tissues suggests that steroid hypersecretion is driven by autocrine/paracrine loops that should be regarded as promising targets for pharmacological treatments of primary adrenal disorders. This new potential therapeutic approach may constitute an alternative to surgical removal of the lesions that is classically recommended in order to cure steroid excess.

  9. Persistent fever and weight loss due to an interleukin-6-producing adrenocortical oncocytoma in a girl--review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yuta; Morimoto, Akira; Onoue, Akinori; Kashii, Yoshifumi; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Gunji, Yuji

    2014-08-01

    Adrenocortical oncocytomas are rarely reported, occur almost exclusively in adults, and are mostly nonfunctional. Here, we report an interleukin-6 (IL-6)-producing adrenocortical oncocytoma in an 11-year-old girl presenting with fever, body weight loss, and increased levels of inflammatory markers and serum IL-6. Imaging studies revealed a 4-cm mass in the left adrenal gland. After complete resection, laboratory findings returned to normal. Histology was consistent with adrenocortical oncocytoma, and the tumor cells stained positive for IL-6. IL-6-producing adrenocortical oncocytoma should be included in the differential diagnosis and imaging studies should be performed in patients presenting with persistent fever of unknown origin and high levels of inflammatory markers.

  10. [Adrenocortical tumors: mitotic index and nuclear size as criteria for differential diagnosis and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Poliakova, G A; Kazantseva, I A; Kalinin, A P; Perov, A I; Bokova, E V

    1999-01-01

    A comparative study of the mitotic index (MI) and karyometric indices in 15 adrenocortical tumors with clinical syndrome of hypercorticism allowed to distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas with hypercorticoidism symptoms have common features with inactive carcinomas but are different by lower expression of malignancy criteria (polymorphism, atypia, necrotic foci, capsule and vessel invasion), higher MI, increasing deficiency of cell division and larger nuclear size of tumor cells. Such tumors may be included into the prognostic group of risk.

  11. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F.; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R.; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - independent Cushing’s syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1α) of cAMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with Celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1,500 mg/kg Celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, Celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, Celecoxib caused histological changes that reversed, at least in part, BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  12. Regulation of IGF - mTOR signalling by miRNA in childhood adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Doghman, Mabrouka; Wakil, Abeer EL; Cardinaud, Bruno; Thomas, Emilie; Wang, Jinling; Zhao, Wei; Peralta-Del Valle, Maria Helena C.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Lalli, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act at the post-transcriptional level to control gene expression in virtually every biological process, including oncogenesis. Here we report the identification of a set of miRNAs that are differentially regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors, including miR-99a and miR-100. Functional analysis of these miRNAs in adrenocortical tumor cell lines showed that they coordinately regulate expression of the IGF-mTOR-raptor signalling pathway through binding sites in their 3′ UTRs. In these cells, the active Ser2448-phosphorylated form of mTOR is present only in mitotic cells in association with the mitotic spindle and midbody in the G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Pharmacological inhibition of mTOR signalling by everolimus greatly reduces tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of regulation of mTOR signalling by miRNAs, and they lay the groundwork for clinical evaluation of mTOR pathway drugs for treatment of adrenocortical cancer. PMID:20484036

  13. Comprehensive Pan-Genomic Characterization of Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Siyuan; Cherniack, Andrew D; Dewal, Ninad; Moffitt, Richard A; Danilova, Ludmila; Murray, Bradley A; Lerario, Antonio M; Else, Tobias; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Ciriello, Giovanni; Kim, Seungchan; Assie, Guillaume; Morozova, Olena; Akbani, Rehan; Shih, Juliann; Hoadley, Katherine A; Choueiri, Toni K; Waldmann, Jens; Mete, Ozgur; Robertson, A Gordon; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Raphael, Benjamin J; Shao, Lina; Meyerson, Matthew; Demeure, Michael J; Beuschlein, Felix; Gill, Anthony J; Sidhu, Stan B; Almeida, Madson Q; Fragoso, Maria C B V; Cope, Leslie M; Kebebew, Electron; Habra, Mouhammed A; Whitsett, Timothy G; Bussey, Kimberly J; Rainey, William E; Asa, Sylvia L; Bertherat, Jérôme; Fassnacht, Martin; Wheeler, David A; Hammer, Gary D; Giordano, Thomas J; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2016-05-09

    We describe a comprehensive genomic characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Using this dataset, we expand the catalogue of known ACC driver genes to include PRKAR1A, RPL22, TERF2, CCNE1, and NF1. Genome wide DNA copy-number analysis revealed frequent occurrence of massive DNA loss followed by whole-genome doubling (WGD), which was associated with aggressive clinical course, suggesting WGD is a hallmark of disease progression. Corroborating this hypothesis were increased TERT expression, decreased telomere length, and activation of cell-cycle programs. Integrated subtype analysis identified three ACC subtypes with distinct clinical outcome and molecular alterations which could be captured by a 68-CpG probe DNA-methylation signature, proposing a strategy for clinical stratification of patients based on molecular markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahaibi, Khalifa; Rizvi, Syed G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare disease that is difficult to treat. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is performed, even for large adrenocortical carcinomas. However, the oncological effectiveness of LA remains unclear. This review presents the current knowledge of the feasibility and oncological effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery for ACC, with an analysis of data for outcomes and other parameters. Database: A systematic review of the literature was performed by searching the PubMed and Medline databases for all relevant articles in English, published between January 1992 and August 2014 on LA for adrenocortical carcinoma. Discussion: The search resulted in retrieval of 29 studies, of which 10 addressed the outcome of LA versus open adrenalectomy (OA) and included 844 patients eligible for this review. Among these, 206 patients had undergone LA approaches, and 638 patients had undergone OA. Among the 10 studies that compared the outcomes obtained with LA and OA for ACC, 5 noted no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in the oncological outcomes of recurrence and disease-free survival, whereas the remaining 5 reported inferior outcomes in the LA group. Using a paired t test for statistical analysis, except for tumor size, we found no significant difference in local recurrence, peritoneal carcinomatosis, positive resection margin, and time to recurrence between the LA and OA groups. The overall mean tumor size in patients undergoing LA and OA was 7.1 and 11.2 cm, respectively (P = .0003), and the mean overall recurrence was 61.5 and 57.9%, respectively. The outcome of LA is believed to depend to a large extent on the size and stage of the lesion (I and II being favorable) and the surgical expertise in the center where the patient undergoes the operation. However, the present review shows no difference in the outcome between the 2 approaches across all stages. A poor outcome is likely to result from inadequate surgery

  15. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cAMP inhibit noninactivating K+ current in adrenocortical cells by an A-kinase-independent mechanism requiring ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express a noninactivating K+ current (IAC) that is inhibited by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) at picomolar concentrations. Inhibition of IAC may be a critical step in depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry leading to cortisol secretion. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from AZF cells, we have characterized properties of IAC and the signalling pathway by which ACTH inhibits this current. IAC was identified as a voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying, K(+)-selective current whose inhibition by ACTH required activation of a pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP binding protein. IAC was selectively inhibited by the cAMP analogue 8-(4- chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-pcpt-cAMP) with an IC50 of 160 microM. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (2.5 microM) also reduced IAC by 92 +/- 4.7%. Inhibition of IAC by ACTH, 8-pcpt-cAMP and forskolin was not prevented by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors H-89 (5 microM), cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI[5-24]) (2 microM), (Rp)-cAMPS (500 microM), or by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine (100 nM) applied externally or intracellularly through the patch pipette. At the same concentrations, these kinase inhibitors abolished 8-pcpt-cAMP-stimulated A-kinase activity in AZF cell extracts. In intact AZF cells, 8-pcpt-cAMP activated A-kinase with an EC50 of 77 nM, a concentration 2,000-fold lower than that inhibiting IAC half maximally. The active catalytic subunit of A-kinase applied intracellularly through the recording pipette failed to alter functional expression of IAC. The inhibition of IAC by ACTH and 8-pcpt- cAMP was eliminated by substituting the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PNP for ATP in the pipette solution. Penfluridol, an antagonist of T-type Ca2+ channels inhibited 8-pcpt-cAMP-induced cortisol secretion with an IC50 of 0.33 microM, a concentration that effectively blocks Ca2+ channel in these cells

  16. Adrenocortical carcinoma: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Aparna, C; Renuka, I V; Saila Bala, G; Annapurna, P

    2011-07-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm with a slight predilection for female patients. We report two cases of ACC. The first case was of a 7-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly. The second case was of a 22-Year-old female who presented with a lump in the abdomen and features of Cushing's syndrome with virilization.The clinical, biochemical, histological features along with differential diagnosis are discussed. These cases are presented because of their rarity, and also to highlight the importance of differentiating ACC from an adenoma particularly in pediatric patients.

  17. Adrenocortical carcinoma: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Aparna, C.; Renuka, I. V.; Saila Bala, G.; Annapurna, P.

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm with a slight predilection for female patients. We report two cases of ACC. The first case was of a 7-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly. The second case was of a 22-Year-old female who presented with a lump in the abdomen and features of Cushing's syndrome with virilization.The clinical, biochemical, histological features along with differential diagnosis are discussed. These cases are presented because of their rarity, and also to highlight the importance of differentiating ACC from an adenoma particularly in pediatric patients. PMID:21897902

  18. The effects of ACTH on steroid metabolomic profiles in human adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yewei; Edwards, Michael A; Ahlem, Clarence; Kennedy, Mike; Cohen, Anthony; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Rainey, William E

    2011-06-01

    The adrenal glands are the primary source of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and the so-called adrenal androgens. Under physiological conditions, cortisol and adrenal androgen synthesis are controlled primarily by ACTH. Although it is well established that ACTH can stimulate steroidogenesis in the human adrenal gland, the effect of ACTH on overall production of different classes of steroid hormones has not been defined. In this study, we examined the effect of ACTH on the production of 23 steroid hormones in adult adrenal primary cultures and 20 steroids in the adrenal cell line, H295R. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that, in primary adrenal cell cultures, cortisol and corticosterone were the two most abundant steroid hormones produced with or without ACTH treatment (48  h). Cortisol production responded the most to ACTH treatment, with a 64-fold increase. Interestingly, the production of two androgens, androstenedione and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA), that were also produced in large amounts under basal conditions significantly increased after ACTH incubation. In H295R cells, 11-deoxycortisol and androstenedione were the major products under basal conditions. Treatment with forskolin increased the percentage of 11β-hydroxylated products, including cortisol and 11OHA. This study illustrates that adrenal cells respond to ACTH through the secretion of a variety of steroid hormones, thus supporting the role of adrenal cells as a source of both corticosteroids and androgens.

  19. Adrenocortical involvement during diverse stress in soft-shelled turtle Lissemys p. punctata Bonnoterre.

    PubMed

    Ray, Prajna Paramita; Chaudhuri-Sengupta, Santasri; Maiti, B R

    2004-06-01

    Adrenocortical responses to diverse stressful situations (dehydration, formaldehyde treatment and salt loading) were studied in the adult female soft-shelled turtle, Lissenmys p. punctata. Dehydration, formaldehyde treatment (formalin, 1%: 0.1 ml/100 g body weight daily) or salt loading (NaCl, 1%: 0.1 ml/100 g body weight daily) treatments consecutively for 7 days caused hypertrophy of the adrenocortical cells with their nuclear diameter increased, and depletions of adrenal cholesterol and ascorbic acid concentrations followed by decreased acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities in turtles. Corticosterone levels were elevated in both the adrenal gland and serum of turtles after dehydration and formalin stress, but the hormone level remained unaltered after salt loading in turtles. The results suggest active involvement of adrenal cortex in stress for homeostasis in Lissemys turtles.

  20. ACTH-Independent Cushing’s Syndrome with Bilateral Micronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia and Ectopic Adrenocortical Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Louiset, Estelle; Gobet, Françoise; Libé, Rossella; Horvath, Anelia; Renouf, Sylvie; Cariou, Juliette; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Bertherat, Jérôme; Clauser, Eric; Grise, Philippe; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Lefebvre, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Context: Bilateral micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma are two rare causes of ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate a 35-yr-old woman with ACTH-independent hypercortisolism associated with both micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic pararenal adrenocortical adenoma. Design and Setting: In vivo and in vitro studies were performed in a University Hospital Department and academic research laboratories. Intervention: Mutations of the PRKAR1A, PDE8B, and PDE11A genes were searched for in leukocytes and adrenocortical tissues. The ability of adrenal and adenoma tissues to synthesize cortisol was investigated by immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR, and/or cell culture studies. Main Outcome Measure: Detection of 17α-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase immunoreactivities, quantification of CYP11B1 mRNA in adrenal and adenoma tissues, and measurement of cortisol levels in supernatants by radioimmunological assays were the main outcomes. Results: Histological examination of the adrenals revealed nonpigmented micronodular cortical hyperplasia associated with relative atrophy of internodular cortex. No genomic and/or somatic adrenal mutations of the PRKAR1A, PDE8B, and PDE11A genes were detected. 17α-Hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase immunoreactivities as well as CYP11B1 mRNA were detected in adrenal and adenoma tissues. ACTH and dexamethasone activated cortisol secretion from adenoma cells. The stimulatory action of dexamethasone was mediated by a nongenomic effect involving the protein kinase A pathway. Conclusion: This case suggests that unknown molecular defects can favor both micronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic adrenocortical adenoma associated with Cushing’s syndrome. PMID:19915020

  1. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by Cav1.3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Catherine B.; Haris Shaikh, Lalarukh; Garg, Sumedha; Tanriver, Gizem; Teo, Ada E. D.; Zhou, Junhua; Maniero, Carmela; Zhao, Wanfeng; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B.; Azizan, Elena A. B.; Brown, Morris J.

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) vary in phenotype and genotype. Zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs frequently have mutations of an L-type calcium channel (LTCC) CaV1.3. Using a novel antagonist of CaV1.3, compound 8, we investigated the role of CaV1.3 on steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R, and in primary human adrenal cells. This investigational drug was compared with the common antihypertensive drug nifedipine, which has 4.5-fold selectivity for the vascular LTCC, CaV1.2, over CaV1.3. In H295R cells transfected with wild-type or mutant CaV1.3 channels, the latter produced more aldosterone than wild-type, which was ameliorated by 100 μM of compound 8. In primary adrenal and non-transfected H295R cells, compound 8 decreased aldosterone production similar to high concentration of nifedipine (100 μM). Selective CaV1.3 blockade may offer a novel way of treating primary hyperaldosteronism, which avoids the vascular side effects of CaV1.2-blockade, and provides targeted treatment for ZG-like APAs with mutations of CaV1.3. PMID:27098837

  2. Low DICER1 expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Gabriela Resende Vieira; Ribeiro, Tamaya C; Faria, Andre M; Mariani, Beatriz M P; Lerario, Antonio M; Zerbini, Maria Claudia N; Soares, Iberê C; Wakamatsu, Alda; Alves, Venancio A F; Mendonca, Berenice B; Fragoso, Maria Candida B V; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Almeida, Madson Q

    2015-09-08

    Low DICER1 expression was associated with poor outcome in several cancers. Recently, hot-spot DICER1 mutations were found in ovarian tumors, and TARBP2 truncating mutations in tumor cell lines with microsatellite instability. In this study, we assessed DICER1 e TRBP protein expression in 154 adult adrenocortical tumors (75 adenomas and 79 carcinomas). Expression of DICER1 and TARBP2 gene was assessed in a subgroup of 61 tumors. Additionally, we investigated mutations in metal biding sites located at the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 and in the exon 5 of TARBP2 in 61 tumors. A strong DICER1 expression was demonstrated in 32% of adenomas and in 51% of carcinomas (p = 0.028). Similarly, DICER1 gene overexpression was more frequent in carcinomas (60%) than in adenomas (23%, p = 0.006). But, among adrenocortical carcinomas, a weak DICER1 expression was significantly more frequent in metastatic than in non-metastatic adrenocortical carcinomas (66% vs. 31%; p = 0.002). Additionally, a weak DICER1 expression was significantly correlated with a reduced overall (p = 0.004) and disease-free (p = 0.005) survival. In the multivariate analysis, a weak DICER1 expression (p = 0.048) remained as independent predictor of recurrence. Regarding TARBP2 gene, its protein and gene expression did not correlate with histopathological and clinical parameters. No variant was identified in hot spot areas of DICER1 and TARBP2. In conclusion, a weak DICER1 protein expression was associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival and was a predictor of recurrence in adrenocortical carcinomas.

  3. Morphological changes in the pituitary-adrenocortical axis in natives of La Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosney, John; Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Dalenz, Jaime

    1991-03-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is part of the response to the stress of initial exposure to hypoxia, but there is evidence to suggest that it persists after homeostatic stability has been regained and acclimatization achieved. The adrenal glands of five lifelong residents of La Paz, Bolivia, who had lived at altitudes in the range 3600 3800 m, were significantly larger than those in age-matched controls from sea level (15.3g vs 10.4g; P<0.001) and appeared hyperplastic. The pituitary glands of the highlanders were not significantly different in size from those of the controls (0.67 g vs 0.51 g), but contained larger populations of corticotrophs expressed in terms of the total cell population of their anterior lobes (25.6% vs 19.4%; P<0.001). In conjunction with other studies of this endocrine axis in man and animals exposed to a hypoxic environment, these data suggest that greater amounts of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) are required to maintain normal adrenocortical function under such circumstances, probably as a result of hypoxic inhibition of adrenocortical sensitivity to stimulation. Physiological hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex may be common in people living at high altitude.

  4. HLA antigens in patients with adrenocortical hyperfunction.

    PubMed

    Lada, G; Gyódi, E; Gláz, E

    1977-01-01

    The HLA antigen frequencies in 100 Caucasian patients with adrenocortical hyperfunction were compared with those found in 352 healthy unrelated subjects. Fourteen antigens on the HLA--A locus, seventeen antigens on the HLA--B locus and three antigens on the HLA--C locus were determined using the standard NIH microlymphocytotoxicity test. The frequency of HLA--A1 antigen in the patient group was 49% as compared with 28% in the controls (pcorr less than 0.01). An increased frequency of HLA--B8 and HLA-BW35 antigens was also found, but the difference was not significant. Increased A1--B8 and A1--BW35 haplotype frequencies were observed. The relationship between the HLA system and various endogenous and exogenous factors eliciting hypercorticism, together with complementary family studies indicate that the HLA system may be a useful genetic marker of the disease susceptibility gene.

  5. Human adrenal cells that express both 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) contribute to adrenal androstenedione production

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Xing, Yewei; Hui, Xiao-Gang; Kurotaki, Yumi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Cohen, Tony; Sasano, Hironobu; Rainey, William E

    2014-01-01

    Androstenedione is one of several weak androgens produced in the human adrenal gland. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) are both required for androstenedione production. However, previous studies demonstrated the expression of HSD3B2 within the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculata (ZF) but low levels in the zona reticularis. In contrast, CYB5A expression increases in the zona reticularis (ZR) in human adrenal glands. Although their colocalization has been reported in gonadal theca and Leydig cells this has not been studied in the human adrenal. Therefore, we immonolocalized HSD3B2 and CYB5A in normal human adrenal glands and first demonstrated their co-expression in the cortical cells located at the border between the ZF and ZR in normal human adrenal. Results of in vitro studies using the human adrenal H295R cells treated with the HSD3B2 inhibitor, trilostane, also demonstrated a markedly decreased androstenedione production. Decreasing CYB5A mRNA using its corresponding siRNA also resulted in significant inhibition of androstenedione production in the H295R cells. These findings together indicate that there are a group of cells co-expressing HSD3B2 and CYB5A with hybrid features of both ZF and ZR in human adrenal cortex, and these hybrid cortical cells may play an important role in androstenedione production in human adrenal gland. PMID:21185375

  6. Network analysis reveals potential markers for pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Anurag; Suman, Shikha; Ranjan, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with a poor outcome. Molecular mechanisms of pediatric ACC oncogenesis and advancement are not well understood. Accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease requires identification of new markers for pediatric ACC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the gene expression profile of pediatric ACC and obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology functional and pathway enrichment analysis was implemented to recognize the functions of DEGs. A protein–protein interaction (PPI) and gene–gene functional interaction (GGI) network of DEGs was constructed. Hub gene detection and enrichment analysis of functional modules were performed. Furthermore, a gene regulatory network incorporating DEGs–microRNAs–transcription factors was constructed and analyzed. A total of 431 DEGs including 228 upregulated and 203 downregulated DEGs were screened. These genes were largely involved in cell cycle, steroid biosynthesis, and p53 signaling pathways. Upregulated genes, CDK1, CCNB1, CDC20, and BUB1B, were identified as the common hubs of PPI and GGI networks. All the four common hub genes were also part of modules of the PPI network. Moreover, all the four genes were also present in the largest module of GGI network. A gene regulatory network consisting of 82 microRNAs and 100 transcription factors was also constructed. CDK1, CCNB1, CDC20, and BUB1B may serve as potential biomarker of pediatric ACC and as potential targets for therapeutic approach, although experimental studies are required to authenticate our findings. PMID:27555782

  7. Lower expression of ATM and gene deletion is more frequent in adrenocortical carcinomas than adrenocortical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junna; Qi, Yan; Wang, Weiqing; Sun, Fukang; Wei, Qin; Su, Tingwei; Zhou, Weiwei; Jiang, Yiran; Yuan, Wenqi; Cai, Jianfei; Cui, Bin; Ning, Guang

    2012-06-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for approximately 0.02-0.2% of all cancer deaths. The molecular pathogenesis of ACC has been the hot topic of recent reviews but it is still poorly understood. It is imperative to have a better understanding on the pathophysiology of ACC so as to establish precise diagnosis and effective treatment. This study aims to identify the molecular markers between ACCs and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs). With MLPA, we checked on 10 ACA and 9 ACC tissue samples. The MLPA results showed deletion on chromosomes 18q, 11q, 11p, and 13q and duplication on chromosomes 3q, 4q, 6p, and 19p. There was a significant difference in the number of aberration copies of the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene located on chromosome 11q22-q23 between ACCs and ACAs. Five out of 9 (56%) ACC specimens had deletion of ATM (P = 0.011). RT-PCR result then demonstrated that ATM mRNA level is lower in ACCs than in ACAs (P < 0.001). In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) study of the 19 ACA and 18 ACC samples confirmed lower expression of ATM protein in ACCs than in ACAs (P < 0.001). The study demonstrated that ATM expression was diminished in ACC than in ACA, suggesting an important role of ATM in the tumorigenesis of ACC.

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis: neuropsychiatric aspects.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lauren

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity in many psychiatric disorders, although not universal, has sparked long-standing interest in HPA hormones as biomarkers of disease or treatment response. HPA activity may be chronically elevated in melancholic depression, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. The HPA axis may be more reactive to stress in social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorders. In contrast, HPA activity is more likely to be low in PTSD and atypical depression. Antidepressants are widely considered to inhibit HPA activity, although inhibition is not unanimously reported in the literature. There is evidence, also uneven, that the mood stabilizers lithium and carbamazepine have the potential to augment HPA measures, while benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and to some extent, typical antipsychotics have the potential to inhibit HPA activity. Currently, the most reliable use of HPA measures in most disorders is to predict the likelihood of relapse, although changes in HPA activity have also been proposed to play a role in the clinical benefits of psychiatric treatments. Greater attention to patient heterogeneity and more consistent approaches to assessing treatment effects on HPA function may solidify the value of HPA measures in predicting treatment response or developing novel strategies to manage psychiatric disease. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  9. Mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma: an overview.

    PubMed

    De Francia, S; Ardito, A; Daffara, F; Zaggia, B; Germano, A; Berruti, A; Di Carlo, F

    2012-03-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare aggressive endocrine neoplasm characterized by a 5-year survival of less than 50%. Due to the widespread use of imaging techniques in clinics, ACC is increasingly recognized as an incidentally discovered tumor. Mostly characterized by poor prognosis, ACC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease. Early diagnosis is uncommon; when diagnosed, ACCs are usually large and have invaded adjacent organs, even if metastatic spread to distant sites can be absent. Complete surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment for patients with localized disease; however, due to a recurrence rate of 50-70% after apparent radical surgery, there is a strong rationale for a concomitant systemic treatment. Adrenolytic therapy with mitotane (o,p›-DDD), administered alone or in combination with others antineoplastic agents, is the primary treatment for patients with advanced ACC and is increasingly used also in an adjuvant setting, even if controversy exists on this issue due to the limitations of the available literature. Despite being in use for many years, the rarity of ACC precluded the organization of randomized trials; thus, many areas of uncertainty and controversy remain regarding the role of this old drug in the clinical management of patients with ACC. The purpose of this paper is to review the current evidence on mitotane treatment in patients with advanced disease and in ACC patients after complete surgical resection as adjuvant treatment.

  10. Aging effects on oxidative phosphorylation in rat adrenocortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L

    2014-06-01

    Does aging in itself lead to alteration in adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation? Mitochondria from Fischer 344 (F344) rats (6 and 24 months old), Brown Norway rats (6 and 32 months old) and F344-Brown Norway hybrid rats (6 and 30 months old) were compared. Mitochondria were isolated from extirpated adrenal cortex. The yields of mitochondria were quantitatively similar in all rat strains irrespective of age. In order to assess the activity of each mitochondrial complex, several different substrates were tested and the rate of oxidative phosphorylation measured. Aging does not affect mitochondrial activity except in the F344 rat adrenal cortex where the maximal ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation decreased with age. We hypothesize that impaired synthesis of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex with age in F344 rats might be due to decreased adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We conclude that aging results in adrenocortical mitochondria effects that are non-uniform across different rat strains.

  11. How is Adrenocortical Cancer being Managed in the UK?

    PubMed Central

    Aspinall, Sebastian R; Imisairi, AH; Bliss, RD; Scott-Coombes, D; Harrison, BJ; Lennard, TWJ

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare. This case series is reported to give an overview of how adrenocortical carcinoma is currently managed in the UK. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective review was made of case notes from patients with adrenocortical carcinomas presenting to the authors (TWJL, RDB, BJH, and DS-C) over the past 10 years in Newcastle, Sheffield and Cardiff. RESULTS Newcastle treated twelve, Sheffield eleven and Cardiff seven cases. The median follow-up was 25.5 months (range, 1–102 months). All tumours were greater than 5 cm in diameter. The majority presented with symptoms of hormone excess. Adrenalectomy was performed in 83% – this was radical in 30% and followed by excision of recurrence in 13%. Adjuvant mitotane was given in 64% of patients, in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy in 20%. One-third of patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy. There was no significant difference in survival between the three centres. The majority of patients (57%) died during the period of follow-up of this study. The median survival was 37 months (range, 2–102 months). CONCLUSIONS The size of tumour, stage and mode of presentation, age and overall survival of patients in this study are comparable to published series of adrenocortical carcinomas from major endocrine surgical centres world-wide. Despite controversies about benefits, adjuvant mitotane was used in the majority of cases, whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy was only used in the minority. The exact role of adjuvant therapy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma is not as well established as for other more common malignancies. Establishing a database for adrenocortical carcinomas in the UK would contribute to our understanding of the management of this disease. PMID:19558758

  12. Mother-child adrenocortical synchrony; Moderation by dyadic relational behavior.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Maayan; Apter-Levi, Yael; Vakart, Adam; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    Mother-child adrenocortical synchrony, the coupling of cortisol (CT) secretion in mother and child, has been associated with shared parent-child experiences and maladaptive familial contexts. Yet, few studies tested adrenocortical synchrony in diurnal CT patterns. Guided by the bio-behavioral synchrony model, we examined whether mother-child relational behavior and maternal psychopathology may moderate the degree of concordance between mother and child's diurnal CT. Ninety-seven mothers and their six-year old children participated in two groups; mothers diagnosed with major depression disorder (N=28) and non-depressed controls (N=69). Mother-child interactions were observed and coded for dyadic reciprocity and dyadic tension and diurnal cortisol was collected from mother and child over two consecutive weekend days. Concordance between maternal and child's diurnal CT was found, significant above and beyond time of measurement. Maternal depression, while associated with attenuated child diurnal CT variability, was unrelated to adrenocortical synchrony. Higher child diurnal CT production predicted a stronger linkage between maternal and child's diurnal CT, suggesting that greater child physiological stress is associated with increased susceptibility to the influences of maternal stress physiology. Mother-child reciprocity was related to lower adrenocortical synchrony. Findings suggest that higher adrenocortical synchrony is associated with greater physiological stress and less adaptive dyadic relational patterns. Results raise the possibility that diurnal adrenocortical synchrony taps a unique aspect of HPA-axis functioning whose role in the cross-generational transfer of stress physiology requires further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infantile adrenocortical tumor with an activating GNAS1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Alpa; Debelenko, Larisa; Misra, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are rare and are frequently associated with tumor predisposition syndromes. Somatic GNAS1 mutations are associated with adrenocortical hyperplasia, but have not typically been reported in ACTs. We report on genetic and histopathological findings in a 3-month-old infant presenting with a unilateral cortisol-producing ACT with malignant features. We performed a detailed clinical evaluation of the patient along with molecular genetic testing of genes associated with ACTs in both tumor tissue and peripheral lymphocytes. We also performed a histopathological analysis of the tumor tissue. The patient was found to have a p.R201C-activating mutation in exon 8 of the GNAS1 gene in adrenocortical tumor tissue but not peripheral lymphocytes. This mutation is the characteristic genetic change in McCune-Albright syndrome. In contrast to previously reported GNAS1-positive tumors characterized by bimodal diffuse and nodular adrenocortical hypertrophy, our patient had a single adrenocortical mass that showed features of malignancy, including areas of necrosis, microcystic degeneration, and venous and capsular microinvasion-changes that have been seen previously in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. However, our patient did not have clinical features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Further analysis revealed abnormal allele-specific hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1 gene in the tumor sample but not peripheral lymphocytes. This is a novel case of an activating GNAS1 mutation associated with an epigenetic alteration that may be related to adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Our findings may have implications in the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric ACTs.

  14. ACAT-selective and nonselective DGAT1 inhibition: adrenocortical effects--a cross-species comparison.

    PubMed

    Floettmann, Jan Eike; Buckett, Linda K; Turnbull, Andrew V; Smith, Tim; Hallberg, Carina; Birch, Alan; Lees, David; Jones, Huw B

    2013-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol O-Acyltransferase (ACAT) and Acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes play important roles in synthesizing neutral lipids, and inhibitors of these enzymes have been investigated as potential treatments for diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Administration of a Acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitor with very limited cellular selectivity over ACAT resulted in significant adrenocortical degenerative changes in dogs. These changes included macrosteatotic vacuolation associated with adrenocyte cell death in the zonae glomerulosa and fasciculata and minimal to substantial mixed inflammatory cell infiltration and were similar to those described previously for some ACAT inhibitors in dogs. In the mouse, similar but only transient adrenocortical degenerative changes were seen as well as a distinctive nondegenerative reduction in cortical fine vacuolation. In the marmoset, only the distinctive nondegenerative reduction in cortical fine vacuolation was observed, suggesting that the dog, followed by the mouse, is the most sensitive species for cortical degeneration. Biochemical analysis of adrenal cholesterol and cholesteryl ester indicated that the distinctive reduction in cortical fine vacuolation correlated with a significant reduction in cholesteryl ester in the mouse and marmoset, whereas no significant reduction in cholestryl ester, but an increase in free cholesterol was observed in dogs. Administration of a DGAT1 inhibitor with markedly improved selectivity over ACAT to the marmoset and the mouse resulted in no adrenal pathology at exposures sufficient to cause substantial DGAT1 but not ACAT inhibition, thereby implicating ACAT rather than DGAT1 inhibition as the probable cause of the observed adrenal changes. Recognizing that the distinctive nondegenerative reduction in cortical fine vacuolation in the mouse could be used as a histopathological biomarker for an in vivo model of

  15. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. )

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  16. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC): diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Libé, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carticnoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with an incidence of 0.7–2.0 cases/million habitants/year. The diagnosis of malignancy relies on careful investigations of clinical, biological, and imaging features before surgery and pathological examination after tumor removal. Most patients present with steroid hormone excess or abdominal mass effects, but 15% of patients with ACC is initially diagnosed incidentally. After the diagnosis, in order to assess the ACC prognosis and establish an adequate basis for treatment decisions different tools are proposed. The stage classification proposed by the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) is recommended. Pathology reports define the Weiss score, the resection status and the proliferative index, including the mitotic count and the Ki67 index. As far as the treatment is concerned, in case of tumor limited to the adrenal gland, the complete resection of the tumor is the first option. Most patients benefit from adjuvant mitotane treatment. In metastatic disease, mitotane is the cornerstone of initial treatment, and cytotoxic drugs should be added in case of progression. Recently, the First International Randomized (FIRM-ACT) Trial in metastatic ACC reported the association between mitotane and etoposide/doxorubicin/cisplatin (EDP) as the new standard in first line treatment of ACC. In last years, new targeted therapies, including the IGF-1 receptor inhibitors, have been investigated, but their efficacy remains limited. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing “omic approaches” and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully will lead to better therapies. PMID:26191527

  17. Adrenocortical adenoma and carcinoma: histopathological and molecular comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Hoos, Axel; Omeroglu, Atilla; Leung, Denis H Y; Dudas, Maria E; Nissan, Aviram; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2003-08-01

    We compared histomorphological features and molecular expression profiles of adrenocortical adenomas (ACAd) and carcinomas (ACCa). A critical histopathological review (mean, 11 slides per patient) was conducted of 37 ACAd and 67 ACCa. Paraffin-embedded tissue cores of ACAd (n = 33) and ACCa (n = 38) were arrayed in triplicate on tissue microarrays. Expression profiles of p53, mdm-2, p21, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, p27, and Ki-67 were investigated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with histopathology and patient outcome using standard statistical methodology. Median follow-up period was 5 years. Tumor necrosis, atypical mitoses, and >1 mitosis per 50 high-power fields were factors that were highly specific for ACCa (P <.001). Number (0 to 4) of unfavorable markers [Ki-67 (+), p21 (+), p27 (+), mdm-2(-)] expressed was significantly associated with mitotic activity and morphologic index (i.e., number of adverse morphologic features) and highly predictive of malignancy (P <.001). Ki-67 overexpression occurred in 0 ACAd and 36% ACCa (P <.001) and was significantly associated with mitotic rate and unfavorable morphologic index (P <.001). Tumor necrosis, atypical mitoses, >5 mitoses per 50 high-power fields, sinusoidal invasion, histologic index of >5, and presence of more than two unfavorable molecular markers were associated significantly with metastasis in ACCa. Well-established histopathologic criteria and Ki-67 can specifically distinguish ACCAd from ACCa. Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) correlates with mitotic activity and morphologic index. Tumor morphology is a better predictor of metastatic risk in ACCa than current immunohistochemistry-detected cell cycle regulatory and proliferation-associated proteins.

  18. Adrenal toxicology: a strategy for assessment of functional toxicity to the adrenal cortex and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J; Springall, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The adrenal is the most common toxicological target organ in the endocrine system in vivo and yet it is neglected in regulatory endocrine disruption screening and testing. There has been a recent marked increase in interest in adrenal toxicity, but there are no standardised approaches for assessment. Consequently, a strategy is proposed to evaluate adrenocortical toxicity. Human adrenal conditions are reviewed and adrenocortical suppression, known to have been iatrogenically induced leading to Addisonian crisis and death, is identified as the toxicological hazard of most concern. The consequences of inhibition of key steroidogenic enzymes and the possible toxicological modulation of other adrenal conditions are also highlighted. The proposed strategy involves an in vivo rodent adrenal competency test based on ACTH challenge to specifically examine adrenocortical suppression. The H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line is also proposed to identify molecular targets, and is useful for measuring steroids, enzymes or gene expression. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal endocrinology relevant to rodent and human toxicology is reviewed (with an emphasis on multi-endocrine axis effects on the adrenal and also how the adrenal affects a variety of other hormones) and the endocrinology of the H295R cell line is also described. Chemicals known to induce adrenocortical toxicity are reviewed and over 60 examples of compounds and their confirmed steroidogenic targets are presented, with much of this work published very recently using H295R cell systems. In proposing a strategy for adrenocortical toxicity assessment, the outlined techniques will provide hazard assessment data but it will be regulatory agencies that must consider the significance of such data in risk extrapolation models. The cases of etomindate and aminoglutethimide induced adrenal suppression are clearly documented examples of iatrogenic adrenal toxicity in humans. Environmentally, sentinel species, such as

  19. Metabolic reprogramming: a new relevant pathway in adult adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Faria, André M.; Fragoso, Maria C. B. V.; Lovisolo, Silvana M.; Lerário, Antonio M.; Almeida, Madson Q.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are complex neoplasias that may present unexpected clinical behavior, being imperative to identify new biological markers that can predict patient prognosis and provide new therapeutic options. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolism-related key proteins in adrenocortical carcinoma. The immunohistochemical expression of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, CD147, CD44, GLUT1 and CAIX was evaluated in a series of 154 adult patients with adrenocortical neoplasia and associated with patients' clinicopathological parameters. A significant increase in was found for membranous expression of MCT4, GLUT1 and CAIX in carcinomas, when compared to adenomas. Importantly MCT1, GLUT1 and CAIX expressions were significantly associated with poor prognostic variables, including high nuclear grade, high mitotic index, advanced tumor staging, presence of metastasis, as well as shorter overall and disease free survival. In opposition, MCT2 membranous expression was associated with favorable prognostic parameters. Importantly, cytoplasmic expression of CD147 was identified as an independent predictor of longer overall survival and cytoplasmic expression of CAIX as an independent predictor of longer disease-free survival. We provide evidence for a metabolic reprogramming in adrenocortical malignant tumors towards the hyperglycolytic and acid-resistant phenotype, which was associated with poor prognosis. PMID:26587828

  20. Multi-column chromatography of urinary steriods and adrenocortical dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, J F; Vestergaard, P

    1978-01-01

    The potential of the multi-column assay for urinary neutral steroids in work with samples from patients with adrenocortical pathology is demonstrated through analyses performed on urine samples from Cushing and congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases, after modification of the routine methodology to include the quantitation of additional steroids of particular importance for pathological samples.

  1. Stress, reproduction, and adrenocortical modulation in amphibians and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ignacio T; Jessop, Tim S

    2003-01-01

    While the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) response to stress appears to be conserved in vertebrates, the manner in which it is activated and its actions vary. We examine two trends in the stress biology literature that have been addressed in amphibian and reptilian species: (1). variable interactions among stress, corticosterone, and reproduction and (2). adrenocortical modulation. In the first topic we examine context-dependent interactions among stress, corticosterone, and reproduction. An increasing number of studies report positive associations between reproduction and corticosterone that contradict the generalization that stress inhibits reproduction. Moderately elevated levels of stress hormones appear to facilitate reproduction by mobilizing energy stores. In contrast, pronounced activation of the HPA axis and extremely elevated levels of stress hormones appear to inhibit reproduction. Much of these contrasting effects of stress and reproduction can be explained by expanding the Energetics-Hormone Vocalization Model, proposed for anuran calling behavior, to other taxa. In the second topic, a number of amphibians and reptiles modulate their HPA stress response. Adrenocortical modulation can occur at multiple levels and due to a variety of factors. However, we have little information as to the physiological basis for the variability. We suggest that several ecologically based ideas, such as variability in the length of the breeding season and lifetime reproductive opportunities, can be used to explain the utility of adrenocortical modulation in these taxa.

  2. The Role of gsp Mutations on the Development of Adrenocortical Tumors and Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson; Wanichi, Ingrid Quevedo; Cavalcante, Isadora Pontes; Mariani, Beatriz Marinho de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Somatic GNAS point mutations, commonly known as gsp mutations, are involved in the pathogenesis of McCune–Albright syndrome (MAS) and have also been described in autonomous hormone-producing tumors, such as somatotropinoma, corticotrophoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors, and primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH) (1–3). The involvement of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors was first described by Lyons et al. Since then, several studies have detected the presence of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors, but none of them could explain its presence along or the mechanism that leads to tumor formation and hormone hypersecretion. As a result, the molecular pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic adrenocortical tumors remains unclear (3). PMAH has also been reported with gsp somatic mutations in a few cases. Fragoso et al. identified two distinct gsp somatic mutations affecting arginine residues on codon 201 of GNAS in a few patients with PMAH who lacked any features or manifestations of MAS. Followed by this discovery, other studies have continued looking for gsp mutations based on strong prior evidence demonstrating that increased cAMP signaling is sufficient for cell proliferation and cortisol production (2, 4). With consideration for the previously reported findings, we conjecture that although somatic activating mutations in GNAS are a rare molecular event, these mutations could probably be sufficient to induce the development of macronodule hyperplasia and variable cortisol secretion. In this manuscript, we revised the presence of gsp mutations associated with adrenal cortical tumors and hyperplasia. PMID:27512387

  3. The Role of gsp Mutations on the Development of Adrenocortical Tumors and Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson; Wanichi, Ingrid Quevedo; Cavalcante, Isadora Pontes; Mariani, Beatriz Marinho de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Somatic GNAS point mutations, commonly known as gsp mutations, are involved in the pathogenesis of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) and have also been described in autonomous hormone-producing tumors, such as somatotropinoma, corticotrophoma, thyroid cancer, ovarian and testicular Leydig cell tumors, and primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PMAH) (1-3). The involvement of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors was first described by Lyons et al. Since then, several studies have detected the presence of gsp mutations in adrenal tumors, but none of them could explain its presence along or the mechanism that leads to tumor formation and hormone hypersecretion. As a result, the molecular pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic adrenocortical tumors remains unclear (3). PMAH has also been reported with gsp somatic mutations in a few cases. Fragoso et al. identified two distinct gsp somatic mutations affecting arginine residues on codon 201 of GNAS in a few patients with PMAH who lacked any features or manifestations of MAS. Followed by this discovery, other studies have continued looking for gsp mutations based on strong prior evidence demonstrating that increased cAMP signaling is sufficient for cell proliferation and cortisol production (2, 4). With consideration for the previously reported findings, we conjecture that although somatic activating mutations in GNAS are a rare molecular event, these mutations could probably be sufficient to induce the development of macronodule hyperplasia and variable cortisol secretion. In this manuscript, we revised the presence of gsp mutations associated with adrenal cortical tumors and hyperplasia.

  4. Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) - literature overview and own experience.

    PubMed

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Drabarek, Agata; Wenzel, Ingrid; Babińska, Anna; Świątkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant endocrine tumour. The rarity of the disease has stymied therapeutic development. Age distribution shows two peaks: the first and fifth decades of life, with children and women more frequently affected. Although 60-70% of ACCs are biochemically found to overproduce hormones, it is not clinically apparent in many cases. If present, endocrine symptoms include signs of hypercortisolaemia, virilisation or gynaecomastia. ACC carries a poor prognosis, and a cure can be achieved only by complete surgical resection. Mitotane is used both as an adjuvant treatment and also in non-operative patients. The role of radio- and chemotherapy is still controversial. The post-operative disease free survival is low and oscillates around 30% due to high tumour recurrence rate. The diagnosis is based on tumour histological assessment with the use of the Weiss score, however urinary steroid profiling (if available) can serve to differentiate between ACC and other adrenal tumours. Conventional prognostic markers in ACC include stage and grade of disease, and, as currently reported, the presence of hypercortisolaemia. Molecular analysis has had a significant impact on the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism of ACC development and the evaluation of prognostic and predictive markers, among which alterations of the IGF system, the Wnt pathway, p53 and molecules involved in cancer cell invasion properties and angiogenesis seem to be very promising. We here summarise our own experience related to the management of ACC and present a literature overview. We have not aimed to include a detailed summary of the molecular alterations biology described in ACC, as this has already been addressed in other papers.

  5. Combined Use of Etomidate and Dexmedetomidine Produces an Additive Effect in Inhibiting the Secretion of Human Adrenocortical Hormones.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongbin; Zhang, Mazhong; Cai, Meihua; Liu, Jinfen

    2015-11-16

    BACKGROUND The direct effects of etomidate were investigated on the secretion of cortisol and its precursors by dispersed cells from the adrenal cortex of human of animals. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an anesthetic agent that may interfere with cortisol secretion via an unknown mechanism, such as involving inhibition of 11b-hydroxylase and the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system. The aim of this study was to determine whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a similar inhibitory effect on adrenocortical function, and whether combined use of etomidate (ETO) and DEX could produce a synergistic action in inhibiting the secretion of human adrenocortical hormones. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human adrenocortical cells were exposed to different concentrations of ETO and DEX. The dose-effect model between the ETO concentration and the mean secretion of cortisone (CORT) and aldosterone (ALDO) per hour was estimated. RESULTS Hill's equation well-described the dose-effect correlation between the ETO concentration and the amount of ALDO and CORT secretion. When the DEX concentration was introduced into the model by using E0 (basal secretion) as the covariate, the goodness of fit of the ETO-CORT dose-effect model was improved significantly and the objective function value was reduced by 4.55 points (P<0.05). The parameters of the final ETO-ALDO pharmacodynamics model were EC50=9.74, Emax=1.20, E0=1.33, and γ=18.5; the parameters of the final ETO-CORT pharmacodynamics model were EC50=9.49, Emax=8.16, E0=8.57, and γ=37.0. In the presence of DEX, E0 was 8.57-0.0247×(CDEX-4.6), and the other parameters remained unchanged. All parameters but γ were natural logarithm conversion values. CONCLUSIONS Combined use of DEX and ETO reduced ETO's inhibitory E0 (basal secretion) of CORT from human adrenocortical cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that combined use of ETO and DEX produced an additive effect in inhibiting the secretion of human adrenocortical hormones.

  6. Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hui-Pin; Chao, Mei-Chyn; Lin, Chao-Yu; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Chen, Shiu-Lin; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2005-01-01

    We report on a case of a 2 2/12-year-old boy with heterosexual precocious puberty secondary to a feminizing adrenocortical adenoma. The boy, with no previous history of disease or treatment, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and pubic hair development (Tanner III breasts and Tanner II pubic hair). Plasma estradiol and testosterone were 410.9 pg/ml and 126.2 ng/dl respectively. Basal plasma LH and FSH levels were within the normal range. Bolus i.v. injection of GnRH showed unresponsiveness of LH and FSH. Abdominal echography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined mass at the left suprarenal region (measuring 4.0 x 2.7 x 3.6 cm in size). After removal of the adrenal tumor, the estradiol and testosterone levels fell to normal in 2 weeks. The gynecomastia and pubic hair regressed with time. The pathology of the tumor showed compact pattern with polygonal cells containing moderate eosinophilic cytoplasm without mitotic figure. These findings were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma secreting estradiol and testosterone as the cause of the patient's heterosexual precocious puberty.

  7. Gallium-67 uptake by a benign adrenocortical adenoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Naul, L.G.; Montgomery, J.L.; Carpentier, W.R.; Roberts, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    A 55-yr-old man presented with an atypical relapsing meningitis and was found to have intense unilateral adrenal uptake by /sup 67/Ga imaging. Computed tomography showed a 4-cm right adrenal mass which was hypointense on the T1-weighted images and mildly hyperintense on the T2-weighted images of a magnetic resonance (MR) scan. At surgery, a coincidental benign adrenocortical adenoma was found. Because /sup 67/Ga uptake is usually associated with inflammatory or malignant lesions and malignant adrenal lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted MR images, these findings contributed to diagnostic uncertainty in this patient. Thus, a nonhyperfunctional adrenocortical adenoma may be associated with abnormal /sup 67/Ga uptake and atypical MR findings.

  8. Pubertal outcome in a female with virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Breidbart, Emily; Cameo, Tamara; Garvin, James H.; Hibshoosh, Hanina

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are neoplasms that rarely occur in pediatric patients. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is even more uncommon, and is an aggressive malignancy with 5-year survival of 55% in a registry series. There is a lack of information on long-term endocrine outcome in survivors. We describe a 10-year follow-up in a patient who presented at 3 years 5 months with a 1-year history of axillary odor and 6 months’ history of pubic hair development with an increased clitoral size. Androgen levels were increased and a pelvic sonogram revealed a suprarenal mass of the left kidney. The tumor was successfully removed. At 6 years 11 months, androgen levels increased again. Workup for tumor recurrence was negative and the findings likely represented early adrenarche. The patient had menarche at an appropriate time and attained a height appropriate for her family. PMID:26812773

  9. [Irreversible coma following hypoglycemia in Sheehan syndrome with adrenocortical insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Sas, A M; Meynaar, I A; Laven, J S; Bakker, S L; Feelders, R A

    2003-08-23

    A 24-year-old woman of Somali origin delivered at term after an uncomplicated pregnancy. Post-partum haemorrhage resulted in hypovolaemic shock which was treated by hysterectomy. Five days later she became comatose due to unrecognised hypoglycaemia which caused severe irreversible brain damage and status epilepticus. Treatment in the intensive care unit with artificial respiration, prednisolone, desmopressin, inotropic support, barbiturates and an anaesthetic under EEG guidance was unsuccessful. The patient died 28 days post-partum. The hypoglycaemia was due to a combination of (a) inadequate glucose intake and (b) lack of counter-regulatory mechanisms due to a deficiency of steroids and growth hormone as a result of loss of pituitary function (Sheehan syndrome) together with adrenocortical insufficiency. The combination of Sheehan syndrome and primary adrenocortical insufficiency has not been described previously in the literature.

  10. Functioning adrenocortical tumors in children-secretory behavior.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Ali A; Mofid, Djafar; Salehian, Mohamad Taghi; Amirbaigloo, Alireza; Zare, Khandan; Jafari, Bahar; Rahimi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are rare childhood neoplasms. More than 95% are functional and present with virilization, Cushing's syndrome, hypertension, or hyperestrogenism. The objective of this paper is to present the clinical, laboratory and pathological findings of this rare disease and to highlight the secretory behavior of these tumors. Clinical and laboratory data of seven Iranian children and adolescents aged between 2 and 16 years with functioning adrenocortical tumors are presented. Five patients had virilization and two had Cushing's syndrome at the time of diagnosis. In all subjects, the tumors were removed successfully by open surgery, during which a blood sample was drawn from the corresponding adrenal vein for hormonal evaluation. Peripheral blood evaluation revealed that in addition to the dominant hormone (testosterone in the cases presenting with virilization and cortisol in those with Cushing's syndrome), significant amounts of other hormones were secreted from these tumors. Adrenal vein evaluation revealed that testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estradiol, 17(OH) progesterone, and cortisol were directly released from the tumor. The tumors weighed between 36-103 grams. The patients have since been followed for 5 to 20 years, and there have been no signs or symptoms of relapse in any of the patients. The study shows that functioning adrenocortical tumors should be considered in children and adolescents presenting with hyperandrogenism, Cushing's syndrome, or hyperestrogenism. A diagnosis of a functioning adrenocortical tumor requires surgical removal as early as possible to prevent the untoward effects of virilization or corticosteroid excess. Evaluation of adrenal vein hormones showed that the steroids are secreted directly from the tumor and peripheral conversion has little contribution to the serum levels.

  11. Chylous ascites after resection of giant adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karakoyun, Rojbin; Demirci, Erkan; Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgin

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative chylous ascites (PCA) is a rare clinical state that occurs during abdominal surgery. Despite its rarity, the need to diagnose and treat PCA is increasing in importance with the increased number of wide resections and lymph node dissections being performed and the serious consequences of treatment. Here we describe the PCA complications we observed after resection for treating a case of giant adrenocortical carcinoma and we have the brief review of the PCA complication. PMID:28149812

  12. Adrenocortical carcinoma: modern management and evolving treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Lucas A; Aufforth, Rachel D

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. Unlike many other cancers, there has been little improvement in patient outcome over the past several decades. However, as scientific advancements are made and our understanding of the molecular genetics involved in ACC improve then progress may be achieved in this devastating disease. This review focuses on recent literature published in the field of ACC from 2010 to 2015 with an emphasis on improving diagnosis, staging and treatment for ACC. PMID:27213037

  13. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, J. J.; Robles-Lázaro, C.; Sánchez-Marcos, A. I.; González-Sánchez, M. C.; Antúnez-Plaza, P.; Miralles, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas) are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS), a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing's syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline) according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria. PMID:27413559

  14. Primary bimorphic adrenocortical disease: cause of hypercortisolism in McCune-Albright syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carney, J Aidan; Young, William F; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-09-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, café-au-lait skin spots, and precocious puberty) is a genetically mosaic disorder with populations of mutant and normal cells in affected organs. Cushing syndrome, a rare feature of the condition, usually affects infants and is the result of corticotropin-independent primary bilateral adrenal disease, usually interpreted as nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. In this study of 9 patients with Cushing syndrome and McCune-Albright syndrome, light microscopy revealed a characteristic bimorphic pattern of diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and a distinctive form of cortical atrophy with apparent zona glomerulosa hyperplasia in 8 patients, all very young. The pattern could be explained by the presence of a mosaic distribution of mutant and normal cells in the adrenal glands. The findings are different from those in inherited or other forms of genetically caused Cushing syndrome. The ninth patient, aged 17 years, had an adrenal adenoma and diffuse cortical hyperplasia in each adrenal gland.

  15. Supportive behaviors in adolescent romantic relationships moderate adrenocortical attunement.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Yeung, Ellen Wanheung; Rogers, Adam A; Poulsen, Franklin O; Kornienko, Olga; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated dyadic adrenocortical attunement within adolescent romantic relationships. An ethnically diverse sample (42% Latino) of adolescent heterosexual dating couples (N=91 dyads, Mage=16.5 years, SD=0.99) donated eight saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol) over the course of a 3-h laboratory session. Supportive behaviors were coded during a conflict and jealousy interaction task from video recordings, and participants completed pre-and-post task questionnaires. Parallel process latent growth models revealed a strong positive association between the couples' cortisol intercept, indicating that couples show attunement in initial levels of cortisol. Further, observed supportive behavior moderated the strength of the association between dyadic cortisol slopes. The results imply that low levels of supportive behavior predicted stronger adrenocortical attunement in the change in cortisol levels over time between adolescent romantic partners. These findings indicate that even early romantic relationships exhibit coordination of physiological activity. Findings raise the possibility that adrenocortical attunement may be a dyadic pathway through which the proximal social context of early romantic relationships is translated into risk or resilience in health and behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouse Models Recapitulating Human Adrenocortical Tumors: What Is Lacking?

    PubMed Central

    Leccia, Felicia; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Val, Pierre; Lefrançois-Martinez, A-Marie; Martinez, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms, such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs), and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs). Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of adrenocorticotropin hormone-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely “functional,” i.e., producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders, such as Cushing’s syndrome (hypercortisolism) or Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism). By contrast, ACCs are extremely rare but highly aggressive tumors that may also lead to hypersecreting syndromes. Genetic analyses of patients with sporadic or familial forms of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) led to the identification of potentially causative genes, most of them being involved in protein kinase A (PKA), Wnt/β-catenin, and P53 signaling pathways. Development of mouse models is a crucial step to firmly establish the functional significance of candidate genes, to dissect mechanisms leading to tumors and endocrine disorders, and in fine to provide in vivo tools for therapeutic screens. In this article, we will provide an overview on the existing mouse models (xenografted and genetically engineered) of ACTs by focusing on the role of PKA and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in this context. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of models that have been developed heretofore and we will point out necessary improvements in the development of next generation mouse models of adrenal diseases. PMID:27471492

  17. Outcomes of Adjuvant Mitotane after Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A 13-Institution Study by the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group

    PubMed Central

    Postlewait, Lauren M; Ethun, Cecilia G; Tran, Thuy B; Prescott, Jason D; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wang, Tracy S; Glenn, Jason; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Phay, John E; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C; Jin, Linda X; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C; Mansour, John C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C; Kiernan, Colleen M; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Levine, Edward A; Staley, Charles A; Poultsides, George A; Maithel, Shishir K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant mitotane after resection of adrenocortical carcinoma with high-risk features (eg, tumor rupture, positive margins, positive lymph nodes, high grade, elevated mitotic index, and advanced stage). Limited data exist on the outcomes associated with these practice guidelines. STUDY DESIGN Patients who underwent resection of adrenocortical carcinoma from 1993 to 2014 at the 13 academic institutions of the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group were included. Factors associated with mitotane administration were determined. Primary end points were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS Of 207 patients, 88 (43%) received adjuvant mitotane. Receipt of mitotane was associated with hormonal secretion (58% vs 32%; p = 0.001), advanced TNM stage (stage IV: 42% vs 23%; p = 0.021), adjuvant chemotherapy (37% vs 5%; p < 0.001), and adjuvant radiation (17% vs 5%; p = 0.01), but was not associated with tumor rupture, margin status, or N-stage. Median follow-up was 44 months. Adjuvant mitotane was associated with decreased RFS (10.0 vs 27.9 months; p = 0.007) and OS (31.7 vs 58.9 months; p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, mitotane was not independently associated with RFS or OS, and margin status, advanced TNM stage, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with survival. After excluding all patients who received chemotherapy, adjuvant mitotane remained associated with decreased RFS and similar OS; multivariable analyses again showed no association with recurrence or survival. Stage-specific analyses in both cohorts revealed no association between adjuvant mitotane and improved RFS or OS. CONCLUSIONS When accounting for stage and adverse tumor and treatment-related factors, adjuvant mitotane after resection of adrenocortical carcinoma is not associated with improved RFS or OS. Current guidelines should be revisited and prospective trials are needed. PMID:26775162

  18. Pregnancy in a patient with adrenocortical carcinoma during treatment with Mitotane - a case report.

    PubMed

    Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Ochmańska, Katarzyna; Waśko, Ryszard; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient with virilising adrenocortical carcinoma treated surgically who conceived during adjuvant treatment with mitotane. We discuss the frequently erroneous routine treatment with oral hormonal contraception without thorough differential diagnosis in female patients with oligo-/amenorrhea and subsequent delay in the proper diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma.

  19. PRKACA: the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Berthon, Annabel S.; Szarek, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic-AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is the main effector of cAMP signaling in all tissues. Inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A gene, coding for the type 1A regulatory subunit of PKA, are responsible for Carney complex and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A inactivation and PKA dysregulation have been implicated in various types of adrenocortical pathologies associated with ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (AICS) from PPNAD to adrenocortical adenomas and cancer, and other forms of bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias (BAH). More recently, mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit C alpha (Cα), were also identified in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. PRKACA copy number gain was found in the germline of several patients with cortisol-producing BAH, whereas the somatic Leu206Arg (c.617A>C) recurrent PRKACA mutation was found in as many as half of all adrenocortical adenomas associated with AICS. In vitro analysis demonstrated that this mutation led to constitutive Cα activity, unregulated by its main partners, the PKA regulatory subunits. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the involvement of PRKACA in adrenocortical tumorigenesis, and our understanding of PKA's role in adrenocortical lesions. We also discuss potential therapeutic advances that can be made through targeting of PRKACA and the PKA pathway. PMID:26042218

  20. Adrenocortical carcinoma: An extremely uncommon entity and the role of Immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, G.; Baruah, Manash P; Borah, P.; Borgohain, M.

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocortcal carcinoma is an extremely uncommon entity with an incidence of two in one millionth population. Here we present a 60 year gentleman with pain in abdomen, nausea, and backache, and weight loss. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) abdomen revealed a heterogenous well defined mass measuring (15 × 10.3 × 13) cm3 on the left suprarenal region with central necrosis which extended medially up to the midline. Locally, the growth infiltrated the upper pole of left kidney. Initially, the differential diagnosis included that of renal cell carcinoma arising from upper pole of left kidney involving adrenal gland. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and left adrenalectomy. Histological evaluation could not differentiate it from of malignant pheochromocytoma, but immunohistochemistry confirmed it as adrenocortical carcinoma. This case highlights the crucial role of immunohistochemistry in establishing the diagnosis like tumors. PMID:23565434

  1. Exposure to an Extremely-Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Stimulates Adrenal Steroidogenesis via Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase Activity in a Mouse Adrenal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Kawata, Shiyori; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Kadoriku, Fumiya; Kitamura, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) are generated by power lines and household electrical devices. In the last several decades, some evidence has shown an association between ELF-MF exposure and depression and/or anxiety in epidemiological and animal studies. The mechanism underlying ELF-MF-induced depression is considered to involve adrenal steroidogenesis, which is triggered by ELF-MF exposure. However, how ELF-MFs stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis is controversial. In the current study, we investigated the effect of ELF-MF exposure on the mouse adrenal cortex-derived Y-1 cell line and the human adrenal cortex-derived H295R cell line to clarify whether the ELF-MF stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis directly. ELF-MF exposure was found to significantly stimulate adrenal steroidogenesis (p < 0.01–0.05) and the expression of adrenal steroid synthetic enzymes (p < 0.05) in Y-1 cells, but the effect was weak in H295R cells. Y-1 cells exposed to an ELF-MF showed significant decreases in phosphodiesterase activity (p < 0.05) and intracellular Ca2+ concentration (p < 0.01) and significant increases in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration (p < 0.001–0.05) and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (p < 0.05). The increase in cAMP was not inhibited by treatment with NF449, an inhibitor of the Gs alpha subunit of G protein. Our results suggest that ELF-MF exposure stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis via an increase in intracellular cAMP caused by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity in Y-1 cells. The same mechanism may trigger the increase in adrenal steroid secretion in mice observed in our previous study. PMID:27100201

  2. The use of a unique co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis as a screening tool for endocrine disruptors: The effects of neonicotinoids on aromatase activity and hormone production.

    PubMed

    Caron-Beaudoin, Elyse; Viau, Rachel; Hudon-Thibeault, Andrée-Anne; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy is dependent on the collaboration between the fetus producing the androgen precursors, and the placenta expressing the enzyme aromatase (CYP19). Disruption of estrogen production by contaminants may result in serious pregnancy outcomes. We used our recently developed in vitro co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis to screen the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides on the catalytic activity of aromatase and the production of steroid hormones. A co-culture of H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells with fetal characteristics and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells which display characteristics of the villous cytotrophoblast was exposed for 24h to various concentrations of three neonicotinoids: thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid. Aromatase catalytic activity was determined in both cell lines using the tritiated water-release assay. Hormone production was measured by ELISA. The three neonicotinoids induced aromatase activity in our fetoplacental co-culture and concordingly, estradiol and estrone production were increased. In contrast, estriol production was strongly inhibited by the neonicotinoids. All three pesticides induced the expression of CYP3A7 in H295R cells, and this induction was reversed by co-treatment of H295R cells with exogenous estriol. CYP3A7 is normally expressed in fetal liver and is a key enzyme involved in estriol synthesis. We suggest that neonicotinoids are metabolized by CYP3A7, thus impeding the 16α-hydroxylation of fetal DHEA(-sulfate), which is normally converted to estriol by placental aromatase. We successfully used the fetoplacental co-culture as a physiologically relevant tool to highlight the potential effects of neonicotinoids on estrogen production, aromatase activity and CYP3A7 expression during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocrine activity of persistent organic pollutants accumulated in human silicone implants--Dosing in vitro assays by partitioning from silicone.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Mayer, Philipp; Pedersen, Mikael; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulated in human tissues may pose a risk for human health by interfering with the endocrine system. This study establishes a new link between actual human internal POP levels and the endocrine active dose in vitro, applying partitioning-controlled dosing from silicone to the H295R steroidogenesis assay: (1) Measured concentrations of POPs in silicone breast implants were taken from a recent study and silicone disks were loaded according to these measurements. (2) Silicone disks were transferred into H295R cell culture plates in order to control exposure of the adrenal cells by equilibrium partitioning. (3) Hormone production of the adrenal cells was measured as toxicity endpoint. 4-Nonylphenol was used for method development, and the new dosing method was compared to conventional solvent-dosing. The two dosing modes yielded similar dose-dependent hormonal responses of H295R cells. However, with the partitioning-controlled freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) as dose metrics, dose-response curves were left-shifted by two orders of magnitude relative to spiked concentrations. Partitioning-controlled dosing of POPs resulted in up to 2-fold increases in progestagen and corticosteroid levels at Cfree of individual POPs in or below the femtomolar range. Silicone acted not only as source of the POPs but also as a sorption sink for lipophilic hormones, stimulating the cellular hormone production. Methodologically, the study showed that silicone can be used as reference partitioning phase to transfer in vivo exposure in humans (silicone implants) to in vitro assays (partition-controlled dosing). The main finding was that POPs at the levels at which they are found in humans can interfere with steroidogenesis in a human adrenocortical cell line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DACH1, a zona glomerulosa selective gene in the human adrenal, activates transforming growth factor-β signaling and suppresses aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhua; Shaikh, Lalarukh Haris; Neogi, Sudeshna G; McFarlane, Ian; Zhao, Wanfeng; Figg, Nichola; Brighton, Cheryl A; Maniero, Carmela; Teo, Ada E D; Azizan, Elena A B; Brown, Morris J

    2015-05-01

    Common somatic mutations in CACNAID and ATP1A1 may define a subgroup of smaller, zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. We have therefore sought signature ZG genes, which may provide insight into the frequency and pathogenesis of ZG-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. Twenty-one pairs of zona fasciculata and ZG and 14 paired aldosterone-producing adenomas from 14 patients with Conn's syndrome and 7 patients with pheochromocytoma were assayed by the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on genes >10-fold upregulated in ZG (compared with zona fasciculata) and >10-fold upregulated in aldosterone-producing adenomas (compared with ZG). DACH1, a gene associated with tumor progression, was further analyzed. The role of DACH1 on steroidogenesis, transforming growth factor-β, and Wnt signaling activity was assessed in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of DACH1 in human ZG. Silencing of DACH1 in H295R cells increased CYP11B2 mRNA levels and aldosterone production, whereas overexpression of DACH1 decreased aldosterone production. Overexpression of DACH1 in H295R cells activated the transforming growth factor-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways but inhibited the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway. Stimulation of primary human adrenal cells with angiotensin II decreased DACH1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, there was little overlap between our top ZG genes and those in rodent ZG. In conclusion, (1) the transcriptome profile of human ZG differs from rodent ZG, (2) DACH1 inhibits aldosterone secretion in human adrenals, and (3) transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway is activated in DACH1 overexpressed cells and may mediate inhibition of aldosterone secretion in human adrenals.

  5. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  6. DAX1 Overexpression in Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumors: A Synergic Role with SF1 in Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, G R V; Soares, I C; Faria, A M; Domingues, V B; Wakamatsu, A; Lerario, A M; Alves, V A F; Zerbini, M C N; Mendonca, B B; Fragoso, M C B V; Latronico, A C; Almeida, M Q

    2015-08-01

    DAX1 transcription factor is a key determinant of adrenogonadal development, acting as a repressor of SF1 targets in steroidogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that DAX1 regulates pluripotency and differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells. In this study, we investigated DAX1 expression in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) and correlated it with SF1 expression and clinical parameters. DAX1 and SF1 protein expression were assessed in 104 ACTs from 34 children (25 clinically benign and 9 malignant) and 70 adults (40 adenomas and 30 carcinomas). DAX1 gene expression was studied in 49 ACTs by quantitative real-time PCR. A strong DAX1 protein expression was demonstrated in 74% (25 out of 34) and 24% (17 out of 70) of pediatric and adult ACTs, respectively (χ(2)=10.1, p=0.002). In the pediatric group, ACTs with a strong DAX1 expression were diagnosed at earlier ages than ACTs with weak expression [median 1.2 (range, 0.5-4.5) vs. 2.2 (0.9-9.4), p=0.038]. DAX1 expression was not associated with functional status in ACTs. Interestingly, a positive correlation was observed between DAX1 and SF1 protein expression in both pediatric and adult ACTs (r=0.55 for each group separately; p<0.0001). In addition, DAX1 gene expression was significantly correlated with SF1 gene expression (p<0.0001, r=0.54). In conclusion, DAX1 strong protein expression was more frequent in pediatric than in adult ACTs. Additionally, DAX1 and SF1 expression positively correlated in ACTs, suggesting that these transcription factors might cooperate in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. First Case Report of a Sporadic Adrenocortical Carcinoma With Gastric Metastasis and a Synchronous Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Kovecsi, Attila; Jung, Ioan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar; Azamfirei, Leonard; Kovacs, Zsolt; Gurzu, Simona

    2015-09-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with high aggresivity that can associate systemic metastases. A 71-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer. The abdominal computed tomography also revealed a tumor above the right kidney. Total gastrectomy and right adrenalectomy were performed. The encapsulated tumor of the adrenal gland weighed 560 grams and presented diffuse tumor architecture under microscope, with capsular, sinusoidal, and vascular invasion. The large tumor cells had a polygonal shape, with slight basophilic, eosinophilic, or vacuolated cytoplasm, pleomorphic nuclei, and a high mitotic rate. In the stomach, the protruded tumor was covered by normal mucosa; under microscope, the tumor cells were observed only in the submucosal layer. In primary adrenal tumor and gastric metastasis the tumor cells were marked by vimentin, inhibin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and calretinin. Based on these criteria, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) with gastric metastasis and no lymph node metastases was established. A synchronous 10 × 10-mm-sized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach, without mitoses, was also identified. So far, as we know, this is the 15th case of ever reported synchronous/metachronous sporadic ACCs; the ACC-related gastric metastases either synchronous ACC and GIST, has not been reported in the literature previously.

  8. First Case Report of a Sporadic Adrenocortical Carcinoma With Gastric Metastasis and a Synchronous Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Kovecsi, Attila; Jung, Ioan; Bara, Tivadar; Bara, Tivadar jr.; Azamfirei, Leonard; Kovacs, Zsolt; Gurzu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with high aggresivity that can associate systemic metastases. A 71-year-old man was hospitalized for gastric cancer. The abdominal computed tomography also revealed a tumor above the right kidney. Total gastrectomy and right adrenalectomy were performed. The encapsulated tumor of the adrenal gland weighed 560 grams and presented diffuse tumor architecture under microscope, with capsular, sinusoidal, and vascular invasion. The large tumor cells had a polygonal shape, with slight basophilic, eosinophilic, or vacuolated cytoplasm, pleomorphic nuclei, and a high mitotic rate. In the stomach, the protruded tumor was covered by normal mucosa; under microscope, the tumor cells were observed only in the submucosal layer. In primary adrenal tumor and gastric metastasis the tumor cells were marked by vimentin, inhibin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and calretinin. Based on these criteria, the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) with gastric metastasis and no lymph node metastases was established. A synchronous 10 × 10-mm-sized gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach, without mitoses, was also identified. So far, as we know, this is the 15th case of ever reported synchronous/metachronous sporadic ACCs; the ACC-related gastric metastases either synchronous ACC and GIST, has not been reported in the literature previously. PMID:26376405

  9. Postnatal foraging demands alter adrenocortical activity and psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Kim, S; Schatzberg, A F; Levine, S

    1998-05-01

    Mother squirrel monkeys stop carrying infants at earlier ages in high-demand (HD) conditions where food is difficult to find relative to low-demand (LD) conditions. To characterize these transitions in psychosocial development, from 10- to 21-weeks postpartum we collected measures of behavior, adrenocortical activity, and social transactions coded for initiator (mother or infant), goal (make-contact or break-contact), and outcome (success or failure). Make-contact attempts were most often initiated by HD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and less than 50% were successful. Break-contact attempts were most often initiated by LD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and fewer LD than HD infant break-contact attempts were successful. Plasma levels of cortisol were significantly higher in HD than LD mothers, but differences in adrenocortical activity were less consistent in their infants. HD and LD infants also spent similar amounts of time nursing on their mothers and feeding on solid foods. By rescheduling some transitions in development (carry-->self-transport), and not others (nursing-->self-feeding), mothers may have partially protected infants from the immediate impact of an otherwise stressful foraging task.

  10. Adrenal incidentalomas: risk of adrenocortical carcinoma and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Christine J; Spence, Andrew; Logan, Barney; Suliburk, James W; Soon, Patsy S; Learoyd, Diana L; Sidhu, Stan B; Sywak, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    The number of incidentally discovered adrenal lesions is increasing due to the widespread use of abdominal imaging. Although most incidentalomas are benign, larger suspicious lesions will require adrenalectomy. The aim of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in patients undergoing surgery for adrenal incidentaloma; and to compare clinical outcomes in those with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on the mode of presentation. A retrospective study of consecutive patients who underwent adrenalectomy between 1995 and 2008 was performed. Data were retrieved from a prospectively maintained adrenal tumor database. Those with adrenal incidentaloma were selected and histopathology reviewed. All patients with ACC (presenting with symptoms or incidentally) during the same time period were identified and clinical outcomes compared. Adrenalectomy was performed in 274 patients of whom 73 (27%) were characterized pre-operatively as incidentaloma. Benign, non-functioning adrenocortical adenoma was the most common histopathological finding (46 patients, 63%). There was a trend (P = 0.08) towards increased survival amongst the seven patients with ACC presenting incidentally compared to the nine patients with symptomatic ACC. Adrenal incidentalomas have a small but important risk of malignancy. ACC presenting as incidentaloma appear to have a more favorable prognosis than symptomatic or functioning ACC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:450-453. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Bilateral Adrenocortical Masses Producing Aldosterone and Cortisol Independently

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Seok, Hyeri; Shin, In Seub; Eun, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jung-Han; Oh, Young Lyun

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with symptoms of hypertension and bilateral adrenocortical masses with no feature of Cushing syndrome. The serum aldosterone/renin ratio was elevated and the saline loading test showed no suppression of the plasma aldosterone level, consistent with a diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. Overnight and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests showed no suppression of serum cortisol, indicating a secondary diagnosis of subclinical Cushing syndrome. Adrenal vein sampling during the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test demonstrated excess secretion of cortisol from the left adrenal mass. A partial right adrenalectomy was performed, resulting in normalization of blood pressure, hypokalemia, and high aldosterone level, implying that the right adrenal mass was the main cause of the hyperaldosteronism. A total adrenalectomy for the left adrenal mass was later performed, resulting in a normalization of cortisol level. The final diagnosis was bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, which were secreting aldosterone and cortisol independently. This case is the first report of a concurrent cortisol-producing left adrenal adenoma and an aldosterone-producing right adrenal adenoma in Korea, as demonstrated by adrenal vein sampling and sequential removal of adrenal masses. PMID:26248855

  12. A Unique Co-culture Model for Fundamental and Applied Studies of Human Fetoplacental Steroidogenesis and Interference by Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Thibeault, Andrée-Anne Hudon; Deroy, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Experimental tools for studying the complex steroidogenic interactions that occur between placenta and fetus during human pregnancy are extremely limited. Objectives: We aimed to develop a co-culture model to study steroidogenesis by the human fetoplacental unit and its disruption by exposure to environmental contaminants. Methods: We cultured BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells, representing the villous cytotrophoblast, and H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, representing the fetal unit, in a carefully adapted co-culture medium. We placed H295R cells in 24-well plates and BeWo cells on transwell inserts with or without pesticide treatment (atrazine or prochloraz) and assessed CYP19 activity and hormonal production after 24 hr of co-culture. Results: The co-culture exhibited the steroidogenic profile of the fetoplacental unit, allowing a synergistic production of estradiol and estriol (but not of estrone) of 133.3 ± 11.3 pg/mL and 440.8 ± 44.0 pg/mL, respectively. Atrazine and prochloraz had cell-type specific effects on CYP19 activity and estrogen production in co-culture. Atrazine induced CYP19 activity and estrogen production in H295R cells only, but did not affect overall estrogen production in co-culture, whereas prochloraz inhibited CYP19 activity exclusively in BeWo cells and reduced estrogen production in co-culture by almost 90%. In contrast, prochloraz did not affect estradiol or estrone production in BeWo cells in monoculture. These differential effects underline the relevance of our co-culture approach to model fetoplacental steroidogenesis. Conclusions: The co-culture of H295R and BeWo cells creates a unique in vitro model to reproduce the steroidogenic cooperation between fetus and placenta during pregnancy and can be used to study the endocrine-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals. Citation: Hudon Thibeault AA, Deroy K, Vaillancourt C, Sanderson JT. 2014. A unique co-culture model for fundamental and applied studies of

  13. Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Diana Rita; Luconi, Michaela; Szabó, Peter M; Tóth, Miklós; Szücs, Nikolette; Horányi, János; Nagy, Zoltán; Mannelli, Massimo; Patócs, Attila; Rácz, Károly; Igaz, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Differential diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and carcinoma is of pivotal clinical relevance, as the prognosis and clinical management of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is entirely different. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarker candidates of malignancy in several tumors; however, there are still numerous technical problems associated with their analysis. The objective of our study was to investigate circulating miRNAs in ACTs and to evaluate their potential applicability as biomarkers of malignancy. We have also addressed technical questions including the choice of profiling and reference gene used. A total of 25 preoperative plasma samples obtained from patients with ACAs and carcinomas were studied by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. None of the three miRNAs (hsa-miR-192, hsa-mir-197 and hsa-miR-1281) found as differentially expressed in plasma samples in our microarray screening could be validated by quantitative real-time PCR. In contrast, of the selected eight miRNAs reported in the literature as differentially expressed in ACT tissues, five (hsa-miR-100, hsa-miR-181b, hsa-miR-184, hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-483-5p) showed a statistically significant overexpression in adrenocortical cancer vs adenoma when normalized on hsa-miR-16 as a reference gene. Receiver operator characteristic analysis of data revealed that the combination of dCThsa-miR-210 - dCThsa-miR-181b and dCThsa-miR-100/dCThsa-miR-181b showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (area under curve 0.87 and 0.85, respectively). In conclusion, we have found significant differences in expression of circulating miRNAs between ACAs and carcinomas, but their diagnostic accuracy is not yet high enough for clinical application. Further studies on larger cohorts of patients are needed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic potential application of circulating miRNA markers.

  14. DNA topoisomerase II alpha and Ki-67 in human adrenocortical neoplasms: a possible marker of differentiation between adenomas and carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Iino, K; Sasano, H; Yabuki, N; Oki, Y; Kikuchi, A; Yoshimi, T; Nagura, H

    1997-09-01

    Cell kinetic information is valuable in evaluating the diagnosis and/or biologic behavior of various human neoplasms. Monoclonal antibody Ki-67 recognizes the cells other than G0 of the cell cycle. A cell cycle-related intranuclear protein, topoisomerase II alpha (topoII alpha), separates chromosomes at the end of mitosis. Its expression is mostly limited to the S to G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We studied cell proliferative activity in adrenocortical adenomas (n = 28), carcinomas (n = 17), and normal adrenal glands (n = 6) by immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 and topoII alpha to evaluate their value in the diagnosis of adrenocortical malignancy. We detected Ki-67 and topoII alpha immunohistoreactivity in the nuclei of each case we examined. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.927) between the Ki-67 and topoII alpha labeling indexes (LIs), the percentage of positive cells. In normal adrenal cortex and adenoma, the LIs for Ki-67 and topoII alpha were 0.48 +/- 0.16 and 0.44 +/- 0.15 for normal and 0.64 +/- 0.11 and 0.72 +/- 0.12 for adenoma, respectively, with no significant differences in the LIs of adenomas and normal adrenals. The Ki-67 and topoII alpha LIs in the carcinomas were 5.84 +/- 1.33 and 6.13 +/0 1.65, respectively; these LIs were significantly higher than the LIs of adenomas. Eleven of 17 carcinomas demonstrated topoII alpha and Ki-67 LIs of more than 2.5, whereas none of the adenomas did. The topoII alpha and Ki-67 LIs in carcinomas with metastasis (11.21 +/- 3.15 and 9.75 +/- 2.31 respectively; n = 7) were significantly higher than in those without metastasis (2.58 +/- 0.61 and 3.12 +/- 0.90, respectively; n = 10). This indicates that immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 and topoII alpha could help to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma in resected adrenocortical neoplasms and might predict aggressive biologic behavior in carcinomas.

  15. Drug interactions with mitotane by induction of CYP3A4 metabolism in the clinical management of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kroiss, Matthias; Quinkler, Marcus; Lutz, Werner K; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Mitotane [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane, (o,p'-DDD)] is the only drug approved for the treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and has also been used for various forms of glucocorticoid excess. Through still largely unknown mechanisms, mitotane inhibits adrenal steroid synthesis and adrenocortical cell proliferation. Mitotane increases hepatic metabolism of cortisol, and an increased replacement dose of glucocorticoids is standard of care during mitotane treatment. Recently, sunitinib, a multityrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has been found to be rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4 during mitotane treatment, indicating clinically relevant drug interactions with mitotane. We here summarize the current evidence concerning mitotane-induced changes in hepatic monooxygenase expression, list drugs potentially affected by mitotane-related CYP3A4 induction and suggest alternatives. For example, using standard doses of macrolide antibiotics is unlikely to reach sufficient plasma levels, making fluoroquinolones in many cases a superior choice. Similarly, statins such as simvastatin are metabolized by CYP3A4, whereas others like pravastatin are not. Importantly, in the past, several clinical trials using cytotoxic drugs but also targeted therapies in ACC yielded disappointing results. This lack of antineoplastic activity may be explained in part by insufficient drug exposure owing to enhanced drug metabolism induced by mitotane. Thus, induction of CYP3A4 by mitotane needs to be considered in the design of future clinical trials in ACC.

  16. [11C]metomidate positron emission tomography of adrenocortical tumors in correlation with histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Hennings, Joakim; Lindhe, Orjan; Bergström, Mats; Långström, Bengt; Sundin, Anders; Hellman, Per

    2006-04-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are common findings necessitating extensive laboratory work-up and repetitive radiological examinations. Positron emission tomography (PET) using (11)C-labeled metomidate (MTO) has previously been described as a tool for specific adrenocortical imaging. We evaluated 212 MTO-PET examinations in 173 patients to identify its role in the management of adrenal tumors. Seventy-five histopathological examinations from 73 patients were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at a referral center. Patients who were operated or biopsied due to adrenal tumors had histopathological diagnoses of adrenocortical adenoma (n = 26), adrenocortical cancer (ACC; n = 13), adrenocortical hyperplasia (n = 8), pheochromocytoma (n = 6), metastasis (n = 3), and tumors of nonadrenal origin (n = 19). The main outcome measures were statistical analyses and findings while scrutinizing images. The hypothesis that MTO-PET is of value in the management of adrenal tumors, especially incidentaloma, was stated before data collection. Sensitivity was 0.89 and specificity was 0.96 for MTO-PET in proving adrenocortical origin of the lesions. Pheochromocytomas, metastases to the adrenal gland, and nonadrenal masses were all MTO negative. PET measurements using standardized uptake values (SUV) in pathological adrenocortical tissue could differentiate lesions larger than 1-1.5 cm from normal adrenocortical tissue. SUV was higher in aldosterone-hypersecreting adenomas, and the SUV ratio between the tumor and the contralateral gland was significantly higher in all hormonally hypersecreting adenomas as well as in ACC. MTO-PET is a specific and sensitive method for diagnosing adrenocortical tumors. MTO-PET is useful in the imaging work-up of adrenal incidentalomas and may be beneficial for the examination of patients with primary aldosteronism or ACC.

  17. Suppression of adrenal βarrestin1-dependent aldosterone production by ARBs: head-to-head comparison

    PubMed Central

    Dabul, Samalia; Bathgate-Siryk, Ashley; Valero, Thairy Reyes; Jafferjee, Malika; Sturchler, Emmanuel; McDonald, Patricia; Koch, Walter J.; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    The known angiotensin II (AngII) physiological effect of aldosterone synthesis and secretion is mediated by either Gq/11 proteins or βarrestin1 (βarr1), both of which can couple to its type 1 receptors (AT1Rs), present in adrenocortical zona glomerulosa (AZG) cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relative potencies of all the currently used in the clinic AT1R antagonist drugs (angiotensin receptor blockers, ARBs, or sartans) at preventing activation of these two signaling mediators (G proteins and βarrs) at the AngII-bound AT1R and, consequently, at suppression of aldosterone in vitro. All ARBs were found to be potent inhibitors of G protein activation at the AT1R. However, candesartan and valsartan were the most potent at blocking AngII-induced βarr activation at this receptor, among the tetrazolo-biphenyl-methyl derivatives, translating into excellent efficacies at aldosterone suppression in H295R cells. Conversely, irbesartan and losartan were largely G protein-selective inhibitors at the AT1R, with very low potency towards βarr inhibition. As a result, they were very weak suppressors of βarr1-dependent aldosterone production in H295R cells. These findings provide important pharmacological insights into the drug class of ARBs and medicinal chemistry insights for future drug development in the field of AngII antagonism. PMID:25631300

  18. A comparative proteomic study identified calreticulin and prohibitin up-regulated in adrenocortical carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying novel tumor biomarkers to develop more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with ACC is urgently needed. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiles between adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) and normal adrenocortical tissues in order to identify novel potential biomarkers for ACC. Methods The protein samples from 12 ACC tissues and their paired adjacent normal adrenocortical tissues were profiled with two-dimensional electrophoresis; and differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Expression patterns of three differently expressed proteins calreticulin, prohibitin and HSP60 in ACC, adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and normal adrenocortical tissues were further validated by immunohistochemistry. Results In our proteomic study, we identified 20 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated proteins in ACC tissues compared with paired normal controls. Most of the up-regulated proteins were focused in protein binding and oxidoreductase activity in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function classification. By immunohistochemistry, two biomarkers calreticulin and prohibitin were validated to be overexpressed in ACC compared with adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and normal tissues, but also calreticulin overexpression was significantly associated with tumor stages of ACC. Conclusion For the first time, calreticulin and prohibitin were identified to be novel candidate biomarkers for ACC, and their roles during ACC carcinogenesis and clinical significance deserves further investigation. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1897372598927465 PMID:23587357

  19. GLUT1 expression in pediatric adrenocortical tumors: a promising candidate to predict clinical behavior.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Céline; Granja, Sara; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Faria, André M; Fragoso, Maria C B V; Lovisolo, Silvana M; Bonatelli, Murilo; Costa, Ricardo F A; Lerário, Antonio M; Almeida, Madson Q; Baltazar, Fátima; Zerbini, Maria C N

    2017-09-08

    Discrimination between benign and malignant tumors is a challenging process in pediatric adrenocortical tumors. New insights in the metabolic profile of pediatric adrenocortical tumors may contribute to this distinction, predict prognosis, as well as identify new molecular targets for therapy. The aim of this work is to characterize the expression of the metabolism-related proteins MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, CD147, CD44, GLUT1 and CAIX in a series of pediatric adrenocortical tumors. A total of 50 pediatric patients presenting adrenocortical tumors, including 41 clinically benign and 9 clinically malignant tumors, were included. Protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in samples arranged in tissue microarrays. The immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in plasma membrane expression of GLUT1 in malignant lesions, when compared to benign lesions (p=0.004), being the expression of this protein associated with shorter overall and disease-free survival (p=0.004 and p=0.001, respectively). Although significant differences were not observed for proteins other than GLUT1, MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were highly expressed in pediatric adrenocortical neoplasias (around 90%). GLUT1 expression was differentially expressed in pediatric adrenocortical tumors, with higher expression in clinically malignant tumors, and associated with shorter survival, suggesting a metabolic remodeling towards a hyperglycolytic phenotype in this malignancy.

  20. Pathway Implications of Aberrant Global Methylation in Adrenocortical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Legendre, Christophe R.; Demeure, Michael J.; Whitsett, Timothy G.; Gooden, Gerald C.; Bussey, Kimberly J.; Jung, Sungwon; Waibhav, Tembe; Kim, Seungchan; Salhia, Bodour

    2016-01-01

    Context Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are a rare tumor type with a poor five-year survival rate and limited treatment options. Objective Understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease has been aided by genomic analyses highlighting alterations in TP53, WNT, and IGF signaling pathways. Further elucidation is needed to reveal therapeutically actionable targets in ACC. Design In this study, global DNA methylation levels were assessed by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Array on 18 ACC tumors and 6 normal adrenal tissues. A new, non-linear correlation approach, the discretization method, assessed the relationship between DNA methylation/gene expression across ACC tumors. Results This correlation analysis revealed epigenetic regulation of genes known to modulate TP53, WNT, and IGF signaling, as well as silencing of the tumor suppressor MARCKS, previously unreported in ACC. Conclusions DNA methylation may regulate genes known to play a role in ACC pathogenesis as well as known tumor suppressors. PMID:26963385

  1. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Advancing to Central Precocious Puberty after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery. PMID:26019766

  2. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  3. Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency and Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Two Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Sabriye; Baştuğ, Osman; Raygada, Margarita; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Contiguous gene deletions of chromosome Xp21 can lead to glycerol kinase deficiency and severe adrenocortical insufficiency (AI) in a male newborn among other problems. We describe our experience with two such patients who presented with dysmorphic facies, AI, and pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Both infants had normal serum 17-hidroxyprogesterone levels, and adrenal glands could not be observed with ultrasonography. Creatine kinase and triglyceride levels were measured to elucidate the etiology of adrenal hypoplasia and were above normal limits in both cases. Both patients required steroid and salt supplementation. They were both found to have Xp21.2 deletions (DMD, NR0B1, GK, IL1RAPL1). We conclude that AI in the context of other genetic abnormalities should prompt chromosomal investigations in the absence of another unifying explanation. PMID:27087023

  4. Complex Glycerol Kinase Deficiency and Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Two Neonates.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Sabriye; Baştuğ, Osman; Raygada, Margarita; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-12-01

    Contiguous gene deletions of chromosome Xp21 can lead to glycerol kinase deficiency and severe adrenocortical insufficiency (AI) in a male newborn among other problems. We describe our experience with two such patients who presented with dysmorphic facies, AI, and pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia. Both infants had normal serum 17-hidroxyprogesterone levels, and adrenal glands could not be observed with ultrasonography. Creatine kinase and triglyceride levels were measured to elucidate the etiology of adrenal hypoplasia and were above normal limits in both cases. Both patients required steroid and salt supplementation. They were both found to have Xp21.2 deletions (DMD, NR0B1, GK, IL1RAPL1). We conclude that AI in the context of other genetic abnormalities should prompt chromosomal investigations in the absence of another unifying explanation.

  5. Surgical treatment of adrenocortical tumors: 21 cases (1990-1996).

    PubMed

    Anderson, C R; Birchard, S J; Powers, B E; Belandria, G A; Kuntz, C A; Withrow, S J

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-four adrenocortical tumors were surgically removed from 21 dogs. Histopathological examination confirmed 18 carcinomas and six adenomas. Four dogs died in the perioperative period. Fifteen of the 17 dogs that survived the perioperative period had long-term resolution of their clinical signs. Two dogs with incompletely resected tumors were treated with mitotane to control their clinical signs. Overall median Kaplan-Meier life-table survival for dogs with carcinomas was 778 days (range, one to 1,593 days). Median survival for dogs with adenomas was not reached (range, 11 to 730 days). Histopathological diagnosis, histopathological cellular features, age of the dog, and tumor size were not prognostic of outcome.

  6. Current and Emerging Therapeutic Options in Adrenocortical Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stigliano, Antonio; Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Bucci, Barbara; Toscano, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, with variable prognosis, depending on tumour stage and time of diagnosis. The overall survival is five years from detection. Radical surgery is considered the therapy of choice in the first stages of ACC. However postoperative disease-free survival at 5 years is only around 30% and recurrence rates are frequent. o,p'DDD (ortho-, para'-, dichloro-, diphenyl-, dichloroethane, or mitotane), an adrenolytic drug with significant toxicity and unpredictable therapeutic response, is used in the treatment of ACC. Unfortunately, treatment for this aggressive cancer is still ineffective. Over the past years, the growing interest in ACC has contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies in order to contrast the neoplastic spread. In this paper we discuss the most promising therapies which can be used in this endocrine neoplasia. PMID:22934112

  7. An endocrinologist's view on relative adrenocortical insufficiency in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Imrich, Richard; Vlcek, Miroslav; Aldag, Jean C; Kerlik, Jana; Radikova, Zofia; Rovensky, Jozef; Vigas, Milan; Masi, Alfonse T

    2010-04-01

    The concept of relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) has been originally introduced to describe a situation in which critically ill patients, without any prior risk or evidence for adrenal insufficiency, have total serum cortisol levels inadequate for the severity of patients' illness. The concept provided a framework for other disease states, in which higher than normal adrenal function could be expected, such as in chronic inflammation. An intense research in RAI field highlighted some new methodological aspects that significantly improved assessment of adrenal function in chronic illness. Measurement of salivary cortisol may provide additional information on locally available cortisol in target tissues. Low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) for given age and gender were confirmed as a simple and reliable indicator of decreased adrenal function, even in subjects with normal baseline cortisol or normal corticotropin-stimulated cortisol response. Combined lower DHEAS and lower baseline cortisol levels could be an example of hypocompetence of adrenocortical function, yet clinically not apparent.

  8. Actual 10-year survivors following resection of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Postlewait, Lauren M; Maithel, Shishir K; Prescott, Jason D; Wang, Tracy S; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C; Jin, Linda X; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C; Mansour, John C; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C; Kiernan, Colleen M; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Levine, Edward A; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M; Norton, Jeffrey A; Poultsides, George A

    2016-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2-5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:971-976. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  10. Lymphadenectomy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Is There a Therapeutic Benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Gerry, Jon M.; Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason A.; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis is an established predictor of poor outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC); however, routine lymphadenectomy during surgical resection of ACC is not widely performed and its therapeutic role remains unclear. Methods Patients undergoing margin-negative resection for localized ACC were identified from a multi-institutional database. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the surgeon’s effort or not to perform a lymphadenectomy as documented in the operative note. Clinical, pathologic, and outcome data were compared between the 2 groups. Results Of 120 patients who met inclusion criteria from 1993 to 2014, 32 (27 %) underwent lymphadenectomy. Factors associated with lymphadenectomy were tumor size (12 vs. 9.5 cm; p = .007), palpable mass at presentation (26 vs. 12 %; p = .07), suspicious lymph nodes on preoperative imaging (44 vs. 7 %; p < .001), and need for multivisceral resection (78 vs. 36 %; p <.001). Median number of lymph nodes harvested was higher in the lymphadenectomy group (5.5 vs. 0; p < .001). In-hospital mortality (0 vs. 1.3 %; p =.72) and grade 3/4 complication rates (0 vs. 12 %; p = .061) were not significantly different. Patients who underwent lymphadenectomy had improved overall survival (5-year 76 vs. 59 %; p = .041). The benefit of lymphadenectomy on overall survival persisted on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.17; p = .006) controlling for adverse preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with lymphadenectomy, such as tumor size, palpable mass, irregular tumor edges, suspicious nodes on imaging, and multivisceral resection. Conclusions In this multicenter study of adrenocortical carcinoma patients undergoing R0 resection, the surgeon’s effort to dissect peritumoral lymph nodes was independently associated with improved overall survival. PMID:27590329

  11. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adrenocortical influence on histokinetics and lipid components of uropygial gland of immature chick.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, A; Deadhikari, H; Ranjit, M; Bhattacharyya, S P

    1990-10-01

    Adrenocortical influence on uropygial gland of 10-day old male white leghorn chicken was assessed by suppressing glucocorticoid level with metyrapone and following corticosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOC) treatments (im), 100 micrograms each on alternate day for a period of 15 days. Metyrapone treatment resulted in significant atrophy of the uropygial gland with a severe regression of the glandular alveoli due to cytopycnosis, cellular disintegration and drastic cell loss. Concomitantly, there was a depletion of glandular lipid and its diester wax fraction. Corticosterone, administered simultaneously with metyrapone, counteracted severe adverse effects of the latter on the uropygial gland. In the normal chicken also corticosterone alone caused glandular hypertrophy with increased rate of cell renewal and cell growth within the alveoli and, to a lesser extent, augmented output of the glandular lipids. Simultaneous administration of corticosterone and testosterone propionate (TP), on the other hand, caused a moderate suppressive influence on this gland. DOC treatment alone or with metyrapone and TP failed to exert any noteworthy change in the uropygial gland excepting a moderate reduction of gland weight and a rise of glandular lipids observed after combined injections of DOC with TP and with metyrapone respectively.

  13. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 1- and 2-substituted-1,2,3-triazole letrozole-based analogues as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Jérémie; Soultan, Al Haliffa; Richard, Ryan; Touré, Mamadou Mansour; Picot, Nadia; Richard, Rémi; Cuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Robichaud, Gilles A; Touaibia, Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    A series of bis- and mono-benzonitrile or phenyl analogues of letrozole 1, bearing (1,2,3 and 1,2,5)-triazole or imidazole, were synthesized and screened for their anti-aromatase activities. The unsubstituted 1,2,3-triazole 10a derivative displayed inhibitory activity comparable with that of the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole 1. Compound 10a, bearing a 1,2,3-triazole, is also 10000-times more tightly binding than the corresponding analogue 25 bearing a 1,2,5-triazole, which confirms the importance of a nitrogen atom at position 3 or 4 of the 5-membered ring needed for high activity. The effect on human epithelial adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) proliferation was also evaluated. The compound 10j (IC(50) = 4.64 μM), a letrozole 1 analogue bearing para-cyanophenoxymethylene-1,2,3-triazole decreased proliferation rates of H295R cells by 76 and 99% in 24 and 72 h respectively. Computer calculations, using quantum ab initio structures, suggest a possible correlation between anti-aromatase activity and the distance between the nitrogen in position 3 or 4 of triazole nitrogen and the cyano group nitrogen.

  14. Chloroquine enhances the efficacy of cisplatin by suppressing autophagy in human adrenocortical carcinoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Liang; Xu, Tianyuan; Xia, Leilei; Wang, Xianjin; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhong, Shan; Wang, Chuandong; Shen, Zhoujun

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that chloroquine (CQ) enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy. However, little is known about whether CQ could enhance the efficacy of cisplatin (DDP) in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). In this study, we explore the efficacy and mechanism by which CQ affects DDP sensitivity in human ACC in vitro and in vivo. Methods The autophagic gene Beclin-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the protein levels were analyzed using immunoblotting assays of ACC tissues and normal adrenal cortex tissues. The ACC SW13 cells were treated with DDP and/or CQ. The cell viability assay was performed using the MTT method. Qualitative autophagy detection was performed by monodansylcadaverine staining of autophagic vacuoles. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was used to count cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The autophagy-related protein (Beclin-1, LC3, and p62) and apoptosis relative protein (Bax and Bcl-2) levels were evaluated with Western blot analysis. Furthermore, a murine model of nude BALB/c mice bearing SW13 cell xenografts was established to evaluate the efficacy of concomitant therapy. Results The expression of the autophagic gene Beclin-1 was significantly downregulated in ACC tissues compared to normal adrenal cortex tissues. The Beclin-1 protein level in ACC tissues was lower than that in normal adrenal cortex tissues (P<0.05). In vitro concomitant therapy (DDP and CQ) was more effective in restraining SW13 cell proliferation. DDP could promote cell apoptosis and induce autophagy in SW13 cells. Concomitant therapy further promoted cell apoptosis by inhibiting autophagy. In vivo, we found that concomitant therapy was more potent than DDP monotherapy in inhibiting the growth of xenografted tumors and prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion The antitumor ability of DDP was related to autophagy activity, and the concomitant therapy (DDP and CQ) could be an

  15. Germline PRKACA amplification leads to Cushing syndrome caused by 3 adrenocortical pathologic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Carney, J Aidan; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the pathology of 5 patients with germline PRKACA copy number gain and Cushing syndrome: 4 males and 1 female, aged 2 to 43 years, including a mother and son. Imaging showed normal or slightly enlarged adrenal glands in 4 patients and a unilateral mass in the fifth. Biochemically, the patients had corticotropin-independent hypercortisolism. Four underwent bilateral adrenalectomy; unilateral adrenalectomy was performed in the patient with the adrenal mass. Pathologically, 3 patients, including the 1 with the tumor (adenoma), had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease with extranodular cortical atrophy and mild intracapsular and extracapsular extension of cortical cells. The other 2 patients had cortical hyperplasia and prominent capsular and extracapsular micronodular cortical hyperplasia. Immunoperoxidase staining revealed differences for synaptophysin, inhibin-A, and Ki-67 (nuclei) in the atrophic cortices (patients 1, 2, and 3) and hyperplastic cortices (patients 4 and 5) and for Ki-67 (nuclei) and vimentin in the extracortical nodules in the 2 groups of patients. β-Catenin stained the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nuclei of the adenoma. The patients were well at follow-up (1-23 years); 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion was elevated in the patient who had unilateral adrenalectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling Steroidogenesis Disruption Using High-Throughput ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental chemicals can elicit endocrine disruption by altering steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism (steroidogenesis) causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Historically, a lack of assays resulted in few chemicals having been evaluated for effects on steroidogenesis. The steroidogenic pathway is a series of hydroxylation and dehydrogenation steps carried out by CYP450 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, yet the only enzyme in the pathway for which a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay has been developed is aromatase (CYP19A1), responsible for the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. Recently, the ToxCast HTS program adapted the OECD validated H295R steroidogenesis assay using human adrenocortical carcinoma cells into a high-throughput model to quantitatively assess the concentration-dependent (0.003-100 µM) effects of chemicals on 10 steroid hormones including progestagens, androgens, estrogens and glucocorticoids. These results, in combination with two CYP19A1 inhibition assays, comprise a large dataset amenable to clustering approaches supporting the identification and characterization of putative mechanisms of action (pMOA) for steroidogenesis disruption. In total, 514 chemicals were tested in all CYP19A1 and steroidogenesis assays. 216 chemicals were identified as CYP19A1 inhibitors in at least one CYP19A1 assay. 208 of these chemicals also altered hormone levels in the H295R assay, suggesting 96% sensitivity in the

  17. Excitatory influence of the locus coeruleus in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, D R; Cass, W A; Herman, J P

    1999-05-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) is a key brainstem region involved in arousal and is highly responsive to alerting/stressful stimuli, including those that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. It is currently unclear whether the LC exerts any regulatory influence on the HPA axis and, consequently, on neuroendocrine responses to stress. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the LC promotes HPA axis responses to acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral (6-hydroxydopamine) lesions of the LC that produced severe cell loss in the LC and 80% depletion of noradrenaline in medial prefrontal cortex. Notably, lesions did not affect dopamine-beta-hydroxylase protein content in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN), indicating a lack of collateral damage to other ascending noradrenergic pathways. LC lesions significantly reduced peak adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to 30 min acute restraint stress. However, LC lesions did not significantly attenuate neuroendocrine or other physiological responses to a 4-week chronic variable stress regimen. LC lesions did not substantially affect basal concentrations of plasma corticosterone or corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus following chronic stress. We conclude that the LC is a HPA-excitatory brain region, promoting neuroendocrine and physiological responses primarily to acute stress. However, a potential role for the LC in the induction of HPA axis hyperactivity following chronic stress can not be ruled out.

  18. [Molecular basics of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, Jacek; Cholewa, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Urszula; Cierpka, Lech

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present genes encoding enzymatic proteins of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis pathway, methods of their transcriptional activity measurement, mRNA expression of the genes in normal adrenal cortex, in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients with Conn and Cushing syndromes, as well as in adrenocortical adenomas excised from patients, in which hormonal activity of the tumour was not confirmed. According to presented papers mRNA expression of analyzed genes is best known in tissue obtained from tumours excised from patients with Conn syndrome. On the other hand transcriptional activity of the genes within the other adrenocortical adenomas is documented in lesser degree. It concerns particularly analyses of tissue material obtained from patients, in which hormonal activity of adrenal tumours was not confirmed with biochemical tests. It should be also considered, that the frame of reference for the majority of molecular analyses of adrenocortical tumour tissues was material obtained from little number of normal adrenals, what decreases in some degree credibility of obtained results. Mentioned above remarks may be the basis for conduction of further investigations based on larger material, obtained both from normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas.

  19. Reciprocal influences among adrenocortical activation, psychosocial processes, and the behavioral adjustment of clinic-referred children.

    PubMed

    Granger, D A; Weisz, J R; McCracken, J T; Ikeda, S C; Douglas, P

    1996-12-01

    The reciprocal effects among cognitive-behavioral, environmental, and biological influences on clinic-referred children's (N = 64; 34 boys; M age 12.71 years) short-term psychological and psychiatric adjustment were studied. At clinic intake and 6 months later, standardized measures of adjustment and control-related beliefs were assessed. Before and after conflict-oriented parent-child interaction tasks the children's saliva was sampled. Adrenocortical responses (i.e., increases in salivary cortisol) to the social conflict task predicted children's internalizing problem behaviors and anxiety disorders at follow-up. Consistently high adrenocortical reactivity at intake and follow-up was associated with deflated social competence over the 6-month period. Also, specific patterns of discontinuity in children's internalizing behavior problems predicted individual differences in their subsequent adrenocortical responsiveness. Specifically, rising behavior problem levels across time predicted higher and declining behavior problem levels predicted lower adrenocortical reactivity at follow-up. Findings are among the first to suggest links among internalizing behavior problems, adrenocortical responsiveness to social challenge, and clinic-referred children's short-term cognitive-behavioral and emotional adjustment.

  20. Partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: A disguised familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome as a sporadic adrenocortical tumor

    PubMed Central

    H'mida Ben-Brahim, Dorra; Hammami, Sabeur; Haddaji Mastouri, Marwa; Trabelsi, Saoussen; Chourabi, Maroua; Sassi, Sihem; Mougou, Soumaya; Gribaa, Moez; Zakhama, Abdelfattah; Guédiche, Mohamed Neji; Saad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome has a wide spectrum of complications such as embryonal tumors, namely adrenocortical tumor. Tumor predisposition is one of the most challenging manifestations of this syndrome. A 45-day old female with a family history of adrenocortical tumor presented with adrenocortical tumor. The case raised suspicion of a hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, therefore molecular analysis was undertaken. The results revealed partial KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation in the infant's blood DNA which was associated with a complete loss of methylation in the infant's adrenocortical tumor tissue. It is unique for familial Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome caused by KCNQ1OT1 partial hypomethylation to manifest solely through adrenocortical tumor. Incomplete penetrance and specific tissue mosaicism could provide explanations to this novel hereditary Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome presentation. PMID:26937341

  1. Outcomes after resection of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Margonis, Georgios Antonios; Kim, Yuhree; Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Poultsides, George A.; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We sought to define the impact of cortisol-secreting status on outcomes after surgical resection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). METHODS The U.S ACC group database was queried to identify patients who underwent ACC resection between 1993 and 2014. The short-term and long-term outcomes were assessed. RESULTS The incidence of all functional and cortisol-secreting tumors was 40.6% and 22.6%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, cortisol secretion remained associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications (odds ratio = 2.25, 95 % confidence interval = 1.04 to 4.88; P = .04). At a median follow-up of 17.6 months, 118 patients (50.4%) had developed a recurrence. On multivariable analysis, after adjusting for patient and disease-related factors cortisol secretion independently predicted shorter recurrence-free survival (Hazard ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.16 to 3.60; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS Cortisol secretion was associated with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity. Recurrence remains high among patients with ACC after surgery; cortisol secretion was independently associated with a shorter recurrence-free survival. Tailoring postoperative surveillance of ACC patients based on their cortisol secreting status may be important. PMID:26810939

  2. Temperature and adrenocortical responses in rhesus monkeys exposed to microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Podgorski, R.P.

    1982-12-01

    To determine if the endocrine response to microwave exposure was similar in a primate to that reported for other animals, rectal temperature and plasma levels of cortisol, thyroxine (T4), and growth hormone (GH) were measured in rhesus monkeys exposed to 1.29-GHz microwave radiation. Exposures were carried out under far-field conditions with the monkey restrained in a chair. Incident power densities of 0, 20, 28, and 38 mW/sq cm were used, with corresponding specific absorption rates of 0, 2.1, 3.0, and 4.1 W/kg. Blood samples were taken hourly via an indwelling jugular venous catheter over a 24-h period before, during, and after an 8-h exposure. Rectal temperature increased an average of 0.5, 0.7, and 1.7 C for the three intensities used. No changes in T4 or GH were observed. Cortisol levels were increased during exposure to 38 mW/sq cm. It was concluded that the temperature and adrenocortical responses to microwave exposure of the rhesus monkey are similar to the corresponding responses of other animals.

  3. Familial Adrenocortical Carcinoma in Association With Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Benjamin G.; Kandasamy, Narayanan; Powlson, Andrew S.; Koulouri, Olympia; Annamalai, Anand Kumar; Happerfield, Lisa; Marker, Alison J.; Arends, Mark J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although the majority of childhood ACC arises in the context of inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes, it remains less clear whether a hereditary tumor predisposition exists for the development of ACC in adults. Here, we report the first occurrence of familial ACC in a kindred with Lynch syndrome resulting from a pathogenic germline MSH2 mutation. Case: A 54-year-old female with a history of ovarian and colorectal malignancy was found to have an ACC. A detailed family history revealed her mother had died of ACC and her sister had previously been diagnosed with endometrial and colorectal cancers. A unifying diagnosis of Lynch syndrome was considered, and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated loss of MSH2 and MSH6 expression in both AACs (proband and her mother) and in the endometrial carcinoma of her sister. Subsequent genetic screening confirmed the presence of a germline MSH2 mutation (resulting in deletions of exons 1–3) in the proband and her sister. Conclusion: Our findings provide strong support for the recent proposal that ACC should be considered a Lynch syndrome-associated tumor and included in the Amsterdam II clinical diagnostic criteria. We also suggest that screening for ACC should be considered in cancer surveillance strategies directed at individuals with germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. PMID:27144940

  4. Adrenocortical Expression Profiling of Cattle with Distinct Juvenile Temperament Types.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Graunke, Katharina Luise; Langbein, Jan; Schwerin, Manfred; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2017-01-01

    Temperament affects ease of handling, animal welfare, and economically important production traits in cattle. The use of gene expression profiles as molecular traits provides a novel means of gaining insight into behavioural genetics. In this study, differences in adrenocortical expression profiles between 60 F2 cows (Charolais × German Holstein) of distinct temperament types were analysed. The cows were assessed in a novel-human test at an age of 90 days. Most of the adrenal cortex transcripts which were differentially expressed (FDR <0.05) were found between temperament types of 'fearful/neophobic-alert' and all other temperament types. These transcripts belong to several biological functions like NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, Glucocorticoid Receptor Signalling and Complement System. Overall, the present study provides new insight into transcriptional differences in the adrenal cortex between cows of distinct temperament types. Genetic regulations of such molecular traits facilitate uncovering positional and functional gene candidates for temperament type in cattle.

  5. The challenge of developmental therapeutics for adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ricardo; Carneiro, Benedito A.; Tavora, Fabio; Pai, Sachin G.; Kaplan, Jason B.; Chae, Young Kwang; Chandra, Sunandana; Kopp, Peter A.; Giles, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with an estimated incidence of only 0.7 new cases per million per year. Approximately 30-70% of the patients present with advanced disease with very poor prognosis and without effective therapeutic options. In the recent years, unprecedented progresses in cancer biology and genomics have fostered the development of numerous targeted therapies for various malignancies. Immunotherapy has also transformed the treatment landscape of malignancies such as melanoma, among others. However, these advances have not brought meaningful benefits for patients with ACC. Extensive genomic analyses of ACC have revealed numerous signal transduction pathway aberrations (e.g., insulin growth factor receptor and Wnt/β-catenin pathways) that play a central role in pathophysiology. These molecular alterations have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug development. This manuscript summarizes recent discoveries in ACC biology, reviews the results of early clinical studies with targeted therapies, and provides the rationale for emerging treatment strategies such as immunotherapy. PMID:27102148

  6. Brain Metastasis in Patients With Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Tageja, Nishant; Rosenberg, Avi; Mahalingam, Sowmya; Quezado, Martha; Velarde, Margarita; Edgerly, Maureen; Fojo, Tito

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a heterogeneous and rare disease. At presentation or at the time of a recurrence, the disease commonly spreads to the liver, lungs, lymph nodes, and bones. The brain has only rarely been reported as a site of metastases. Objective: The aims of this report were to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with ACC who developed brain metastasis and were evaluated at the National Cancer Institute. Methods: We describe the history and clinical presentation of six patients with ACC and metastatic disease in the brain. Images of the six patients and pathology slides were reviewed when available. Results: The median age at the time of the diagnosis of ACC was 42 years. The median time from the initial diagnosis until the presentation of brain metastasis was 43 months. As a group the patients had previously received multiples lines of chemotherapy (median of three), and they presented with one to three metastatic brain lesions. Four patients underwent metastasectomy, one had radiosurgery, and one had both modalities. Two patients are still alive, three died, between 2 and 14 months after the diagnosis of brain metastases, and one was lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Patients with advanced ACC can rarely present with metastasis to the brain, most often long after the initial diagnosis. Timely diagnosis of brain metastasis with appropriate intervention after discussion in a multidisciplinary meeting can improve the prognosis in this particular scenario. PMID:25412413

  7. Molecular epidemiology of adrenocortical tumors in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Gislaine; Komechen, Heloisa; Figueiredo, Francisco R O; Fachin, Natasha D; Pianovski, Mara A D; Figueiredo, Bonald C

    2012-03-31

    The high frequency of TP53 R337H carriers in southern Brazil is responsible for the highest known incidence of childhood adrenocortical tumor (ACT). Our aims were to examine other contributing mutations, age-related risk factors, epidemiological differences in ACT and to shed light on a method for increasing the survival rate of children. The fetal zone of the adrenal cortex is believed to be one of the tissues most susceptible to adenoma or carcinoma formation due to loss of p53 function. The founder germline R337H mutation is found in 95% of ACTs of young children, a much greater proportion than in adults. Despite intense educational campaigns about the high incidence of ACT in Paraná State, advanced cases remain common. Four advanced ACT cases (4/5) were admitted to a single institution in the first 6months of 2011 in Paraná State, none of the families knew about ACT, and 2 reported no familial cancer syndrome. Curative resection is possible when a small ACT is detected early. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. sHDL Nanoparticles: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Adrenocortical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Chitra; Kuai, Rui; Zhu, Qing; White, Peter; Moon, James; Schwendeman, Anna; Cohen, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic strategies for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) carry significant toxicities. Cholesterol is critical for ACC cell growth and steroidogenesis and ACC cells over-express scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) that uptakes cholesterol from circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We hypothesize that cholesterol-free synthetic-HDL nanoparticles (sHDL) will deplete cholesterol and synergize with chemotherapeutics to achieve enhanced anticancer effects at lower (less toxic) drug levels. Methods Anti proliferative efficacy of ACC cells for the combinations of sHDL with chemotherapeutics was tested by cell-Titer Glo. Cortisol levels were measured from the culture media. Effect on steroidogenesis was measured by RT-PCR. Induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Results Combination-Index (CI) for sHDL and either etoposide(E), cisplatin(P) or mitotane(M) demonstrated synergy (CI<1) for anti-proliferation. sHDL alone or in combination with chemo drugs was able to reduce cortisol production by 70-90% compared to cisplatin alone or controls (p<0.01). RT-PCR indicated significant inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes for sHDL (p<0.01 vs. no sHDL). Combination therapy with sHDL increased apoptosis by 30-50% compared to drug or sHDL alone (p<0.03) confirmed by mitochondrial potential decrease. Conclusion sHDL can act synergistically and lower the amount of M/E/P needed for anticancer efficacy in ACC in part due to cholesterol starvation. This novel treatment strategy warrants further investigation translationally. PMID:26582501

  9. Interparental Aggression and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Insecurity and Adrenocortical Activity.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Kathleen N; Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents exposed to interparental aggression are at increased risk for developing adjustment problems. The present study explored intervening variables in these pathways in a community sample that included 266 adolescents between 12 and 16 years old (M = 13.82; 52.5% boys, 47.5% girls). A moderated mediation model examined the moderating role of adrenocortical reactivity on the meditational capacity of their emotional insecurity in this context. Information from multiple reporters and adolescents' adrenocortical response to conflict were obtained during laboratory sessions attended by mothers, fathers and their adolescent child. A direct relationship was found between marital aggression and adolescents' internalizing behavior problems. Adolescents' emotional insecurity mediated the relationship between marital aggression and adolescents' depression and anxiety. Adrenocortical reactivity moderated the pathway between emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment. The implications for further understanding the psychological and physiological effects of adolescents' exposure to interparental aggression and violence are discussed.

  10. The role of mothers’ and fathers’ adrenocortical reactivity in spillover between interparental conflict and parenting practices

    PubMed Central

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the affective spillover hypothesis, the present study examined the mediational role of parental adrenocortical reactivity to interparental conflict in explaining associations between interparental conflict and subsequent changes in mothers’ and fathers’ parenting practices over a 2 year period in a sample of 202 parents and their six year old children. Results of autoregressive, path models indicated that marital withdrawal was associated with increases in adrenocortical reactivity to conflict for mothers but not fathers. Furthermore, elevated adrenocortical reactivity in turn predicted greater psychologically controlling parenting practices and inconsistent discipline over time for mothers, but was not associated with changes in maternal warmth. Implications for clinicians and therapists working with maritally distressed parents and families are discussed. PMID:19364215

  11. Adrenocortical Tumors and Hyperplasias in Childhood - Etiology, Genetics, Clinical Presentation and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Jennifer A.; Grimberg, Adda

    2007-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are rare in children and are associated with a poor prognosis when malignant. The fund of knowledge regarding etiology, presentation and clinical outcomes remains limited. Evaluation of genetic disorders associated with the development of adrenocortical disorders has allowed researchers to identify a number of mutations that may be involved in tumorigenesis, including alterations in the GNAS1, PRKAR1A, TP53 and IGF2 genes. Clinical presentation in children is associated most commonly with young age, female gender and symptoms of virilization. Most children have localized disease at presentation which may be associated with a better prognosis when compared to adults. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment and mitotane, the most frequently used chemotherapeutic agent, has a poor response rate and is highly toxic. Broader participation in multi-center research, such as the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry, is needed to collect sufficient data to better guide our clinical management. PMID:17021581

  12. Helsinki score-a novel model for prediction of metastases in adrenocortical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, Mirkka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sane, Timo; Remes, Satu; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors is based on adverse features that indicate malignant potential. Proliferation index has served as a supplemental tool in assessing the malignant potential of adrenocortical tumors. None of the current histologic classification systems can sufficiently accurately predict tumors' metastatic potential. We studied 177 consecutive adult patients with primary adrenocortical tumors operated on at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1990 and 2003, all patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. We determined for each tumor the Weiss score and the Weiss revisited score by Aubert. Proliferation index was measured by computer-assisted image analysis. Each of the 9 Weiss criteria and the proliferation index were then used to establish a scoring system to predict the metastatic potential of adrenocortical tumors. Use of stepwise regression analysis led us to propose a calculation: 3 × mitotic rate (>5/50 high-power fields) + 5 × presence of necrosis + proliferation index in the most proliferative area of the tumor. Using a cutoff value of 8.5, the new scoring system was able to diagnose metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma with 100% sensitivity (confidence interval [CI], 76.8%-100%) and 99.4% specificity (CI, 96.6%-100%). The corresponding sensitivity of the Weiss system was 100% (CI, 76.8%-100%), and specificity, 90.2% (CI, 84.6%-94.3%), with sensitivity of the Weiss revisited system at 100% (CI, 76.8%-100%) and specificity at 96.9% (CI, 93.0%-99.0%). The new Helsinki score thus was accurate in predicting the metastatic potential of adrenocortical tumors.

  13. Ectopic Adrenocortical Tissue in the Spermatic Cord in a 44-Year-old Man☆

    PubMed Central

    Müllhaupt, Gautier; Mordasini, Livio; Gramann, Tobias; Ertel, Vera; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Abt, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 44-year-old man who underwent microsurgical inguinal repair for symptomatic varicocele. As an incidental finding during surgery, a yellowish tumor (9 × 5 × 4 mm) was found in the spermatic cord. Histologic examination revealed ectopic adrenocortical tissue. Ectopic adrenocortical tissue in the spermatic cord is known to appear in children and adolescents but is extremely rare in adults. Surgical removal of the tissue is recommended, although malignant transformation or functional hormonal disorders are very unlikely. PMID:26958477

  14. The use of immunohistochemical expression of SF-1 and EMA in distinguishing adrenocortical tumors from renal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Miriam L; Lal, Priti; Ziober, Amy; Wang, Liping; Tomaszewski, John E; Bing, Zhanyong

    2012-03-01

    Steroidogenic factor -1 (SF-1) is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and is considered to play an important role in the differentiation of steroidogenic tissues. In this study, we compared the immunohistochemical stains of SF-1 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in non-neoplastic adrenal tissue, and adrenal and renal tumors using tissue microarrays (TMAs). The adrenal tissue array included 19 cases of normal adrenal cortex, 22 cases of adrenal adenoma, and 20 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma. The renal tissue array included 20 cases of each of the following types of renal cell carcinoma: clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe. In addition, 20 cases of renal oncocytoma were also included in the study. SF-1 showed positive staining in all cases (100%) of normal adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical adenoma, and in 18 (90%) cases of adrenocortical carcinoma. In renal tumors, SF-1 showed negative stains in all of oncocytoma, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Only 3 out of 20 cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma showed weak positivity in approximately 10% of tumor cells. EMA stained positively in 85%, 95%, 100%, and 95% of clear cell, papillary, chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, and oncocytomas, respectively. EMA was completely negative in the adrenal TMAs. In conclusion, SF-1 and EMA may be helpful in the differentiation of adrenal tumors from renal tumors in difficult cases.

  15. Hair cortisol measurement in mitotane-treated adrenocortical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Manenschijn, L; Quinkler, M; van Rossum, E F C

    2014-04-01

    The only approved drug for the treatment of adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is mitotane. Mitotane is adrenolytic and therefore, hydrocortisone replacement therapy is necessary. Since mitotane increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG) and induces CYP3A4 activity, high doses of hydrocortisone are thought to be required. Evaluation of hydrocortisone therapy in mitotane-treated patients has been difficult since there is no good marker to evaluate hydrocortisone therapy. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that offers the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol levels. Our aim was to evaluate whether hair cortisol measurements could be useful in evaluating recent hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients. Hair cortisol levels were measured in 15 mitotane-treated ACC patients on hydrocortisone substitution and 96 healthy individuals. Cortisol levels were measured in 3 cm hair segments, corresponding to a period of 3 months. Hair cortisol levels were higher in ACC patients compared to healthy individuals (p<0.0001). Seven ACC patients (47%) had hair cortisol levels above the reference range. None of the patients had hair cortisol levels below normal. In contrast to hydrocortisone doses (β=0.03, p=0.93), hair cortisol levels were associated with BMI (β=0.53, p=0.042). There was no correlation between hair cortisol levels and hydrocortisone doses (β=0.41, p=0.13). Almost half of the ACC patients had high hair cortisol levels, suggesting long-term over-substitution of hydrocortisone in some of the patients, whereas none of the patients was under-substituted. Hair cortisol measurements might be useful in long-term monitoring hydrocortisone treatment in mitotane-treated ACC patients.

  16. (18)F-labelled metomidate analogues as adrenocortical imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Erlandsson, Maria; Karimi, Farhad; Lindhe, Orjan; Långström, Bengt

    2009-05-01

    Two- and one-step syntheses of (18)F-labelled analogues of metomidate, such as 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (1), 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (3), 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (4) and 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (5) are presented. Analogues 1-5 were prepared by a two-step reaction sequence that started with the synthesis of either 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate or 3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. These were used as (18)F-alkylating agents in the second step, in which they reacted with the ammonium salt of a 1-[(1R)-1-phenylethyl]-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid. One-step-labelling syntheses of 1, 2 and 5 were also explored. Analogues 1-4 were biologically validated by frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution. Metabolite analysis was performed for 2 and 3. The radiochemical yield of the two-step synthesis was in the range of 10-29% and that of the one-step synthesis was 25-37%. Using microwave irradiation in the one-step synthesis of 1 and 2 increased the radiochemical yield to 46+/-3% and 79+/-30%, respectively. Both the frozen-section autoradiography and organ distribution results indicated that analogue 2 has a potential as an adrenocortical imaging agent, having the highest degree of specific adrenal binding and best ratio of adrenal to organ uptake among the compounds studied.

  17. Role of pituitary-adrenocortical system in body adaptation abilities.

    PubMed

    Filaretov, A A; Bogdanova, T S; Podvigina, T T; Bodganov, A I

    1988-12-01

    The role of the pituitary-adrenocortical system (PACS) in body adaptation abilities was studied on rats. The adaptation abilities were tested by a body working capacity (the running time in a treadmill till fatigue). The single administration of ginseng results in the increase of a working capacity up to 132%, the seven-day one up to 179%. This makes it possible to speak about two levels of adaptation, each being characterized by a specific PACS status and a degree of PACS involvement in adaptation abilities. The single administration of ginseng is accompanied by an increase in the basal level of ACTH and corticosteroids. At a 7-day administration the basal level of ACTH and corticosteroids does not change but PACS reactivity to the immobilising stress increases. The preliminary administration of 15 mg/100 g b. w. hydrocortisone, 7 days before testing of the working capacity and PACS status, causes the block in PACS function. It results in the decrease of the basal corticosteroid content in plasma and the inability of stress factor to cause the rise in the corticosteroid level. The PACS blocking results in the decrease of a working capacity in normal rats not treated with ginseng and in animals singly treated with ginseng. The PACS blocking effected the increment in a working capacity caused by a 7-day ginseng administration to a lesser extent, however, the decrease in a working capacity took place even in this case. The conclusion is made that PACS status changes with the transition of a body to a higher level of adaptation: PACS excitation occurs or the system excitability increases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical stress response

    PubMed Central

    Herman, James P.; McKlveen, Jessica M.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Kopp, Brittany; Wulsin, Aynara; Makinson, Ryan; Scheimann, Jessie; Myers, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis) is required for stress adaptation. Activation of the HPA axis causes secretion of glucocorticoids, which act on multiple organ systems to redirect energy resources to meet real or anticipated demand. The HPA stress response is driven primarily by neural mechanisms, invoking corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) release from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons. Pathways activating CRH release are stressor dependent: reactive responses to homeostatic disruption frequently involve direct noradrenergic or peptidergic drive of PVN neurons by sensory relays, whereas anticipatory responses use oligosynaptic pathways originating in upstream limbic structures. Anticipatory responses are driven largely by disinhibition, mediated by trans-synaptic silencing of tonic PVN inhibition via GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Stress responses are inhibited by negative feedback mechanisms, whereby glucocorticoids act to diminish drive (brainstem), promote trans-synaptic inhibition by limbic structures (e.g, hippocampus). Glucocorticoids also act at the PVN to rapidly inhibit CRH neuronal activity via membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Chronic stress-induced activation of the HPA axis takes many forms (chronic basal hypersecretion, sensitized stress responses, even adrenal exhaustion), with manifestation dependent upon factors such as stressor chronicity, intensity, frequency and modality. Neural mechanisms driving chronic stress responses can be distinct from those controlling acute reactions, including recruitment of novel limbic, hypothalamic and brainstem circuits. Importantly, an individual’s response to acute or chronic stress is determined by numerous factors, including genetics, early life experience, environmental conditions, sex and age. The context in which stressors occur will determine whether an individual’s acute or chronic stress responses are adaptive or maladaptive (pathological). PMID:27065163

  19. Steroidogenic enzyme profile in an androgen-secreting adrenocortical oncocytoma associated with hirsustism

    PubMed Central

    Tetsi Nomigni, Milène; Ouzounian, Sophie; Benoit, Alice; Vadrot, Jacqueline; Tissier, Frédérique; Renouf, Sylvie; Lefebvre, Hervé; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Louiset, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism induced by hyperandrogenism can be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, 21-hydroxylase (OH) deficiency or androgen-secreting tumors, including ovarian and adrenal tumors. Adrenal androgen-secreting tumors are frequently malignant. Adrenal oncocytomas represent rare causes of hyperandrogenism. The aim of the study was to investigate steroidogenic enzyme expression and steroid secretion in an androgen-secreting adrenal oncocytoma in a young woman presenting with hirsutism. Hyperandrogenism was diagnosed on the basis of elevated plasma Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone levels. Pelvic ultrasound was normal, CT scanning revealed a right adrenal mass. Androgens were assessed in adrenal and ovarian vein samples and proved a right adrenal origin. Adrenalectomy normalized androgen levels and the adrenal tumor was diagnosed as an oncocytoma. Real time-PCR, immunohistochemistry and cell culture studies were performed on tumor explants to investigate the steroid secretion profile. Among enzymes required for cortisol synthesis, 17α-OH and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3β-HSD2) were highly expressed whereas 21-OH and 11β-OH were weakly produced at the mRNA and/or protein levels. Enzymes involved in testosterone production, 17β-HSD5 and 17β-HSD3, were also detected. ACTH receptor was present in the tissue. Cortisol, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone secretions by cultured cells were increased by ACTH. These results provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of abnormal expression profile of steroidogenic enzymes in an adrenocortical oncocytoma. Our results also indicate that Δ4-androstenedione hypersecretion resulted from high 17α-OH and 3β-HSD2 expression in combination with low expression of 21-OH and 11β-OH. Testosterone production was ascribed to occurrence of 17β-HSD5 and 17β-HSD3. Finally, our results indicate that androgen secretion was stimulated by ACTH. PMID:26034121

  20. Steroidogenic enzyme profile in an androgen-secreting adrenocortical oncocytoma associated with hirsustism.

    PubMed

    Tetsi Nomigni, Milène; Ouzounian, Sophie; Benoit, Alice; Vadrot, Jacqueline; Tissier, Frédérique; Renouf, Sylvie; Lefebvre, Hervé; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Louiset, Estelle

    2015-06-01

    Hirsutism induced by hyperandrogenism can be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, 21-hydroxylase (OH) deficiency or androgen-secreting tumors, including ovarian and adrenal tumors. Adrenal androgen-secreting tumors are frequently malignant. Adrenal oncocytomas represent rare causes of hyperandrogenism. The aim of the study was to investigate steroidogenic enzyme expression and steroid secretion in an androgen-secreting adrenal oncocytoma in a young woman presenting with hirsutism. Hyperandrogenism was diagnosed on the basis of elevated plasma Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone levels. Pelvic ultrasound was normal, CT scanning revealed a right adrenal mass. Androgens were assessed in adrenal and ovarian vein samples and proved a right adrenal origin. Adrenalectomy normalized androgen levels and the adrenal tumor was diagnosed as an oncocytoma. Real time-PCR, immunohistochemistry and cell culture studies were performed on tumor explants to investigate the steroid secretion profile. Among enzymes required for cortisol synthesis, 17α-OH and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (3β-HSD2) were highly expressed whereas 21-OH and 11β-OH were weakly produced at the mRNA and/or protein levels. Enzymes involved in testosterone production, 17β-HSD5 and 17β-HSD3, were also detected. ACTH receptor was present in the tissue. Cortisol, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone secretions by cultured cells were increased by ACTH. These results provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of abnormal expression profile of steroidogenic enzymes in an adrenocortical oncocytoma. Our results also indicate that Δ4-androstenedione hypersecretion resulted from high 17α-OH and 3β-HSD2 expression in combination with low expression of 21-OH and 11β-OH. Testosterone production was ascribed to occurrence of 17β-HSD5 and 17β-HSD3. Finally, our results indicate that androgen secretion was stimulated by ACTH.

  1. The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

  2. The Relations between Bullying Exposures in Middle Childhood, Anxiety, and Adrenocortical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo; Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how exposure to bullying at school in middle childhood is associated with student anxiety levels and adrenocortical activity at a time preceding lunch when anxiety about potential bullying would potentially be higher. Ninety-one sixth-grade students (55 female and 36 male) reported being exposed one or more…

  3. Evening Activities as a Potential Confound in Research on the Adrenocortical System in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2004-01-01

    The relation among children's evening activities, behavioral characteristics, and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was assessed in normally developing children ages 7 to 10 years. Salivary cortisol at bedtime was compared on evenings when children had structured activities outside of the home with unstructured evenings at…

  4. Adrenocortical responses to repeated parachute jumping and subsequent h-CRH challenge in inexperienced healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Deinzer, R; Kirschbaum, C; Gresele, C; Hellhammer, D H

    1997-04-01

    The present study examined the adrenocortical response to 3 consecutive parachute jumps and a poststress h-CRH challenge. Fifteen participants in a parachute-jumping course took saliva samples for later cortisol analysis every 20 min throughout the day, when they accomplished their very first 3 parachute jumps and throughout a control day. The effects of an h-CRH challenge on salivary cortisol were assessed in the evening of the jumping day and on a control day. Parachute jumping induced 3 distinct highly significant adrenocortical responses. The respective cortisol increases for the first, second, and third jump were 39.4 +/- 26.5 nmol/1, 31.4 +/- 21.4 nmol/l, and 16.5 +/- 11.9 nmol/l. Cortisol responses to the first and second jump did not differ but the response to the third jump was significantly reduced [t(13) = 3.11; p = 0.008]. Two groups of subjects were identified, "decreasers," whose response decreased from one to the other jump, and "increasers," whose response remained unchanged or increased. The magnitude of the preceding cortisol response of decreasers exceeded that of increasers significantly by about 30 nmol. The mean adrenocortical effects of the poststress h-CRH challenge and the time-matched challenge on a control day did not differ although, in 4 subjects, the poststress adrenocortical response to h-CRH was completely suppressed.

  5. Maternal-Child Adrenocortical Attunement in Early Childhood: Continuity and Change

    PubMed Central

    Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Finegood, Eric D.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated continuity and change in maternal-child hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis attunement in early childhood. Participants were drawn from a prospective study of 1,292 mother–child dyads, which were racially diverse, predominantly low-income, and non-urban. Child focused stress tasks designed to elicit anger, fear, and frustration were administered during early infancy, later infancy, and toddlerhood. Mothers’ and children’s saliva samples (later assayed for cortisol) were collected before and after the tasks. The strength of mother–child adrenocortical attunement was conserved across infancy and toddlerhood. The magnitude of maternal-child adrenocortical attunement decreased in response to the child-focused stress tasks. Maternal sensitivity and the child’s task-related emotional reactivity moderated adrenocortical attunement across the task, with greater maternal sensitivity during a free-play, and lower levels of child emotional reactivity during the stress tasks, stabilizing attunement from pre- to post-task levels. The findings advance our understanding of individual differences in the social regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. PMID:25417896

  6. The Relations between Bullying Exposures in Middle Childhood, Anxiety, and Adrenocortical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo; Hibel, Leah C.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how exposure to bullying at school in middle childhood is associated with student anxiety levels and adrenocortical activity at a time preceding lunch when anxiety about potential bullying would potentially be higher. Ninety-one sixth-grade students (55 female and 36 male) reported being exposed one or more…

  7. Effects of melatonin administration on the clinical course of adrenocortical disease in domestic ferrets.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Jan C; Benson, Keith G; Morrisey, James K; O'Brien, Robert T; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of melatonin on clinical signs, tumor size, and serum steroid hormone concentrations in ferrets with adrenocortical disease. Noncontrolled clinical trial. 10 adult ferrets with clinical signs of adrenocortical disease (confirmed via serum steroid hormone concentration assessments). Melatonin (0.5 mg) was administered orally to ferrets once daily for 1 year. At 4-month intervals, a complete physical examination; abdominal ultrasonographic examination (including adrenal gland measurement); CBC; serum biochemical analyses; and assessment of serum estradiol, androstenedione, and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were performed. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were evaluated at the first, second, and last examinations, and serum cortisol concentration was evaluated at the first and last examinations. Daily oral administration of melatonin greatly affected clinical signs of adrenocortical disease in ferrets; changes included hair regrowth, decreased pruritus, increased activity level and appetite, and decreased vulva or prostate size. Mean width of the abnormally large adrenal glands was significantly increased after the 12-month treatment period. Recurrence of clinical signs was detected in 6 ferrets at the 8-month evaluation. Compared with pretreatment values, serum 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and prolactin concentrations were significantly increased and decreased after 12 months, respectively. Results suggest that melatonin is a useful, easily administered, palliative treatment to decrease clinical signs associated with adrenocortical disease in ferrets, and positive effects of daily treatment were evident for at least an 8-month period. Oral administration of melatonin did not decrease adrenal gland tumor growth in treated ferrets.

  8. The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

  9. Adrenocortical stress responses influence an invasive vertebrate's fitness in an extreme environment

    PubMed Central

    Jessop, Tim S.; Letnic, Mike; Webb, Jonathan K.; Dempster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Continued range expansion into physiologically challenging environments requires invasive species to maintain adaptive phenotypic performance. The adrenocortical stress response, governed in part by glucocorticoid hormones, influences physiological and behavioural responses of vertebrates to environmental stressors. However, any adaptive role of this response in invasive populations that are expanding into extreme environments is currently unclear. We experimentally manipulated the adrenocortical stress response of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to investigate its effect on phenotypic performance and fitness at the species' range front in the Tanami Desert, Australia. Here, toads are vulnerable to overheating and dehydration during the annual hot–dry season and display elevated plasma corticosterone levels indicative of severe environmental stress. By comparing unmanipulated control toads with toads whose adrenocortical stress response was manipulated to increase acute physiological stress responsiveness, we found that control toads had significantly reduced daily evaporative water loss and higher survival relative to the experimental animals. The adrenocortical stress response hence appears essential in facilitating complex phenotypic performance and setting fitness trajectories of individuals from invasive species during range expansion. PMID:23945686

  10. Reciprocal Influences among Adrenocortical Activation, Psychosocial Processes, and the Behavioral Adjustment of Clinic-Referred Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Douglas A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed children's adjustment at clinic intake and six months later, and sampled children's saliva before and after a conflict-oriented parent-child interaction. Increases in salivary cortisol predicted children's internalizing problem behaviors and anxiety disorders at follow-up. High adrenocortical reactivity at intake and follow-up was…

  11. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  12. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  13. Drinking-induced changes in fowl adrenocortical activity: effect of visual and non-visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Klandorf, H; Lam, S K

    1985-02-01

    The deprivation of drinking water for 30 h resulted in increased corticosterone concentrations in the plasma of 8- to 10-week-old chickens. When water-deprived birds were allowed to drink ad libitum the corticosterone concentration declined within 45 min, to the level in hydrated controls, and remained suppressed thereafter. Similar reductions in the corticosterone concentrations were also observed in water-deprived chicks which were allowed to drink for only 5 min, 1 min or 5 s. The involvement of visual stimuli in mediating this adrenocortical response was demonstrated by a comparable decline in the corticosterone concentration in water-deprived birds which were presented with water but not allowed access to it. Non-visual stimuli also appeared to be causally involved in the adrenocortical suppression after drinking, since the intraperitoneal injection of tap water (40 ml per bird) also resulted in a lowering of the corticosterone level. However, in the absence of appropriate reinforcement from metabolic stimuli, a rebound in the corticosterone concentration was observed in birds prevented from drinking, in birds unable to satiate their thirst and in birds rehydrated (orally or intraperitoneally) without feeding. These results demonstrate adrenocortical suppression in water-deprived chickens after free access to food and water and the involvement of visual and non-visual stimuli in mediating this response. The maintenance of adrenocortical suppression is dependent upon metabolic stimuli associated with food and water intake.

  14. PKA regulatory subunit 1A inactivating mutation induces serotonin signaling in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

    PubMed

    Bram, Zakariae; Louiset, Estelle; Ragazzon, Bruno; Renouf, Sylvie; Wils, Julien; Duparc, Céline; Boutelet, Isabelle; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; Libé, Rossella; Young, Jacques; Carson, Dennis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Szarek, Eva; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bertherat, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Hervé

    2016-09-22

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare cause of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. The disease is primarily caused by germline mutations of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit 1A (PRKAR1A) gene, which induces constitutive activation of PKA in adrenocortical cells. Hypercortisolism is thought to result from PKA hyperactivity, but PPNAD tissues exhibit features of neuroendocrine differentiation, which may lead to stimulation of steroidogenesis by abnormally expressed neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT) may participate in the pathophysiology of PPNAD-associated hypercortisolism. We show that PPNAD tissues overexpress the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (Tph2) and the serotonin receptors types 4, 6, and 7, leading to formation of an illicit stimulatory serotonergic loop whose pharmacological inhibition in vitro decreases cortisol production. In the human PPNAD cell line CAR47, the PKA inhibitor H-89 decreases 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor expression. Moreover, in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R, inhibition of PRKAR1A expression increases the expression of Tph2 and 5-HT4/6/7 receptors, an effect that is blocked by H-89. These findings show that the serotonergic process observed in PPNAD tissues results from PKA activation by PRKAR1A mutations. They also suggest that Tph inhibitors may represent efficient treatments of hypercortisolism in patients with PPNAD.

  15. PKA regulatory subunit 1A inactivating mutation induces serotonin signaling in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Zakariae; Louiset, Estelle; Renouf, Sylvie; Duparc, Céline; Boutelet, Isabelle; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; Libé, Rossella; Young, Jacques; Carson, Dennis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Szarek, Eva; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare cause of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. The disease is primarily caused by germline mutations of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit 1A (PRKAR1A) gene, which induces constitutive activation of PKA in adrenocortical cells. Hypercortisolism is thought to result from PKA hyperactivity, but PPNAD tissues exhibit features of neuroendocrine differentiation, which may lead to stimulation of steroidogenesis by abnormally expressed neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT) may participate in the pathophysiology of PPNAD-associated hypercortisolism. We show that PPNAD tissues overexpress the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (Tph2) and the serotonin receptors types 4, 6, and 7, leading to formation of an illicit stimulatory serotonergic loop whose pharmacological inhibition in vitro decreases cortisol production. In the human PPNAD cell line CAR47, the PKA inhibitor H-89 decreases 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor expression. Moreover, in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R, inhibition of PRKAR1A expression increases the expression of Tph2 and 5-HT4/6/7 receptors, an effect that is blocked by H-89. These findings show that the serotonergic process observed in PPNAD tissues results from PKA activation by PRKAR1A mutations. They also suggest that Tph inhibitors may represent efficient treatments of hypercortisolism in patients with PPNAD. PMID:27699247

  16. Expression of LIN28 and its regulatory microRNAs in adult adrenocortical cancer.

    PubMed

    Faria, André M; Sbiera, Silviu; Ribeiro, Tamaya C; Soares, Iberê C; Mariani, Beatriz M P; Freire, Daniel S; de Sousa, Gabriela R V; Lerario, Antônio M; Ronchi, Cristina L; Deutschbein, Timo; Wakamatsu, Alda; Alves, Venancio A F; Zerbini, Maria Claudia N; Mendonca, Berenice B; Fragoso, Maria Candida B V; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Fassnacht, Martin; Almeida, Madson Q

    2015-04-01

    LIN28 control cells reprogramming and pluripotency mainly through miRNA regulation and has been overexpressed in many advanced cancers. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic role of LIN28 and its regulatory miRNAs in a large cohort of adrenocortical tumours (ACTs). LIN28 protein expression was assessed in 266 adults ACTs (78 adenomas and 188 carcinomas) from Brazil and Germany. LIN28A and LIN28B gene expression was analysed in 59 ACTs (31 adenomas and 28 carcinomas) and copy number variation in 39 ACTs. In addition, we determined the expression of let-7 family, mir-9, mir-30 and mir-125 in 28 carcinomas. LIN28A gene was overexpressed in aggressive ACCs when compared with adenomas and nonaggressive ACCs, but no LIN28A copy number variation was found in ACTs. Unexpectedly, weak LIN28 protein expression was significantly associated with reduced disease-free survival in ACC patients (P = 0·01), but for overall survival only a trend was detectable (P = 0·117). In the multivariate analysis, only Ki67 index ≥10% (HR 4·6, P = 0·000) and weak LIN28 protein expression (HR 2·0, P = 0·03) were independent predictors of recurrence in ACC patients. Interestingly, mir-9 expression, a negative LIN28A/B regulator, was significantly higher in aggressive than in nonaggressive ACCs [2076 (from 36 to 9307) vs 133·4 (from 2·4 to 5193); P = 0·011] and was highly associated with reduced overall (P = 0·01) and disease-free survival (P = 0·01). However, mir-9 prognostic role should be further evaluated in a larger cohort. Weak LIN28 protein expression was associated with recurrence in ACCs. Additionally, overexpression of mir-9, a negative LIN28A regulator, was associated with poor outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Molecular Profiling of Refractory Adrenocortical Cancers and Predictive Biomarkers to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Millis, Sherri Z.; Ejadi, Samuel; Demeure, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Current first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic adrenocortical cancer (ACC) includes doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin, and mitotane with a reported response rate of only 23.2%. New therapeutic leads for patients with refractory tumors are needed; there is no standard second-line treatment. METHODS Samples from 135 ACC tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (FISH or CISH), and/or gene sequencing at a single commercial reference laboratory (Caris Life Sciences) to identify markers associated with drug sensitivity and resistance. RESULTS Overexpression of proteins related to demonstrated chemotherapy sensitivity or resistance included topoisomerase 1, progesterone receptor, and topoisomerase 2-alpha in 46%, 63%, and 42% of cases, respectively. Loss of excision repair cross-complementary group 1 (ERCC1), phosophatase and tensin homolog, O(6)-methylguanine-methyltransferase, and ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) was identified in 56%, 59%, 71%, and 58% of cases, respectively. Other aberrations included overexpression of programmed death-ligand 1 or programmed cell death protein 1 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in >40% of cases. In all, 35% of cases had a mutation in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (either CTNNB1 or APC) and 48% had a mutation in TP53. No other genomic alterations were identified. CONCLUSION Biomarker alterations in ACC may be used to direct therapies, including recommendations for and potential resistance of some patients to traditional chemotherapies, which may explain the low response rate in the unselected population. Limited outcomes data support the use of mitotane and platinum therapies for patients with low levels of the proteins RRM1 and ERCC1. PMID:26715866

  18. High (18)F-FDG uptake by the remaining adrenal gland four months after surgery and initiation of mitotane treatment in two patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mpanaka, Ioanna; Lyra, Vassiliki D; Kaltsas, Gregory; Chatziioannou, Sofia N

    2011-01-01

    Two men, one 42 and the other 35 years old were both subjected to adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Adjuvant treatment with mitotane [o,p΄-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane, (o,p΄-DDD)], was initiated following surgery. Mitotane is the only agent available at present for treatment in ACC because of a late-onset specific adrenocortical cell toxicity. Both patients underwent a (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan, which revealed 4 months after starting treatment with mitotane significantly high (18)F-FDG uptake in the contralateral adrenal gland. Both patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, while one had a laparotomy, because of an abcess at the site of previous adrenalectomy. No metastasis or size increase of the remaining adrenal glands were found suggesting that their hypermetabolic state could be attributed to mitotane treatment. Beside its cytotoxic delayed-effect, mitotane has an early -onset effect on steroid metabolism. In conclusion, an abnormal high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed in the contralateral adrenal gland in both our adrenalectomized ACC patients, 4 months after starting mitotane treatment, probably related to mitotane's effect on steroid metabolism, not yet fully understood.

  19. 5th International ACC Symposium: Classification of Adrenocortical Cancers from Pathology to Integrated Genomics: Real Advances or Lost in Translation?

    PubMed

    de Krijger, Ronald E; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2016-02-01

    For the clinician, despite its rarity, adrenocortical cancer is a heterogeneous tumor both in term of steroid excess and tumor evolution. For patient management, it is crucial to have an accurate vision of this heterogeneity, in order to use a correct tumor classification. Pathology is the best way to classify operated adrenocortical tumors: to recognize their adrenocortical nature and to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. Among malignant tumors pathology also aims at prognosis assessment. Although progress has being made for prognosis assessment, there is still a need for improvement. Recent studies have established the value of Ki67 for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) prognostication, aiming also at standardization to reduce variability. The use of genomics to study adrenocortical tumors gives a very new insight in their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Genomics studies of ACC give now a clear description of the mRNA (transcriptome) and miRNA expression profile, as well as chromosomal and methylation alterations. Exome sequencing also established firmly the list of the main ACC driver genes. Interestingly, genomics study of ACC also revealed subtypes of malignant tumors with different pattern of molecular alterations, associated with different outcome. This leads to a new vision of adrenocortical tumors classification based on molecular analysis. Interestingly, these molecular classifications meet also the results of pathological analysis. This opens new perspectives on the development and use of various molecular tools to classify, along with pathological analysis, ACC, and guides patient management at the area of precision medicine.

  20. A genetic and molecular update on adrenocortical causes of Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-05-01

    Primary adrenal Cushing syndrome is the result of cortisol hypersecretion mainly by adenomas and, rarely, by bilateral micronodular or macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signalling is the major activator of cortisol secretion in the adrenal cortex. Many adenomas and hyperplasias associated with primary hypercortisolism carry somatic or germline mutations in genes that encode constituents of the cAMP-PKA pathway. In this Review, we discuss Cushing syndrome and its linkage to dysregulated cAMP-PKA signalling, with a focus on genetic findings in the past few years. In addition, we discuss the presence of germline inactivating mutations in ARMC5 in patients with primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. This finding has implications for genetic counselling of affected patients; hitherto, most patients with this form of adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing syndrome were thought to have a sporadic and not a familial disorder.

  1. A Case of Oncocytic Adrenocortical Neoplasm of Borderline (Uncertain) Malignant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Linda G; Denning, Krista L; Pacioles, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Oncocytic neoplasms are tumors composed predominantly or exclusively of oncocytes (large polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm due to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation). These tumors are frequently reported in the thyroid, kidneys, and salivary glands. However, they are distinctly rare in the adrenal cortex. Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms (OAN) are classified regarding their biological behavior by their histological features according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia system (LWB). Here, we report a case of OAN of borderline or uncertain malignant potential (BMP) with subsequently identified papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 34-year-old female with a nine-month history of fatigue presented with chest pain. A right adrenal mass was incidentally found while ruling out pulmonary embolism. A CT-guided adrenal biopsy, although not routinely indicated, was performed and interpreted as malignant with no definitive origin. Hormonal workup was unremarkable. PET-scan showed hypermetabolic adrenal mass with peak standardized uptake value of 15, suspicious of malignancy. A hypermetabolic thyroid nodule was also identified, but there was no evidence of metastatic disease. The patient underwent adrenalectomy, and the initial pathology report was interpreted as atypical pink cell tumor. A second pathology report from another laboratory favored OAN based on the morphology and immunohistochemical staining. While the histologic criteria of malignancy were not met, the large tumor size makes it compatible with BMP according to LWB criteria. A follow-up thyroid ultrasound revealed a complex thyroid nodule. A total thyroidectomy was performed, and pathology was consistent with PTC. Of interest, PTC frequently shows an increase in mitochondrial content, which is characteristic of oncocytic tumors. This case illustrates that OAN, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses. When OAN is identified, it should be classified

  2. A Case of Oncocytic Adrenocortical Neoplasm of Borderline (Uncertain) Malignant Potential.

    PubMed

    Shenouda, Mina; Brown, Linda G; Denning, Krista L; Pacioles, Toni

    2016-06-13

    Oncocytic neoplasms are tumors composed predominantly or exclusively of oncocytes (large polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm due to abnormal mitochondrial accumulation). These tumors are frequently reported in the thyroid, kidneys, and salivary glands. However, they are distinctly rare in the adrenal cortex. Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasms (OAN) are classified regarding their biological behavior by their histological features according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia system (LWB). Here, we report a case of OAN of borderline or uncertain malignant potential (BMP) with subsequently identified papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 34-year-old female with a nine-month history of fatigue presented with chest pain. A right adrenal mass was incidentally found while ruling out pulmonary embolism. A CT-guided adrenal biopsy, although not routinely indicated, was performed and interpreted as malignant with no definitive origin. Hormonal workup was unremarkable. PET-scan showed hypermetabolic adrenal mass with peak standardized uptake value of 15, suspicious of malignancy. A hypermetabolic thyroid nodule was also identified, but there was no evidence of metastatic disease. The patient underwent adrenalectomy, and the initial pathology report was interpreted as atypical pink cell tumor. A second pathology report from another laboratory favored OAN based on the morphology and immunohistochemical staining. While the histologic criteria of malignancy were not met, the large tumor size makes it compatible with BMP according to LWB criteria. A follow-up thyroid ultrasound revealed a complex thyroid nodule. A total thyroidectomy was performed, and pathology was consistent with PTC. Of interest, PTC frequently shows an increase in mitochondrial content, which is characteristic of oncocytic tumors. This case illustrates that OAN, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adrenal masses. When OAN is identified, it should be classified

  3. Association of mitotane with chylomicrons and serum lipoproteins: practical implications for treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kroiss, Matthias; Plonné, Dietmar; Kendl, Sabine; Schirmer, Diana; Ronchi, Cristina L; Schirbel, Andreas; Zink, Martina; Lapa, Constantin; Klinker, Hartwig; Fassnacht, Martin; Heinz, Werner; Sbiera, Silviu

    2016-03-01

    Oral mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is a cornerstone of medical treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Serum mitotane concentrations >14  mg/l are targeted for improved efficacy but not achieved in about half of patients. Here we aimed at a better understanding of intestinal absorption and lipoprotein association of mitotane and metabolites o,p'-dichlorodiphenylacetic acid (o,p'-DDA) and o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-DDE). Lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation from the chyle of a 29-year-old patient and serum from additional 14 ACC patients treated with mitotane. HPLC was applied for quantification of mitotane and metabolites. We assessed NCI-H295 cell viability, cortisol production, and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker genes to study the functional consequences of mitotane binding to lipoproteins. Chyle of the index patient contained 197  mg/ml mitotane, 53  mg/ml o,p'-DDA, and 51  mg/l o,p'-DDE. Of the total mitotane in serum, lipoprotein fractions contained 21.7±21.4% (VLDL), 1.9±0.8% (IDL), 8.9±5.5% (LDL1), 18.9±9.6% (LDL2), 10.1±4.0% (LDL3), and 26.3±13.0% (HDL2). Only 12.3±5.5% were in the lipoprotein-depleted fraction. Mitotane content of lipoproteins directly correlated with their triglyceride and cholesterol content. O,p'-DDE was similarly distributed, but 87.9±4.2% of o,p'-DDA found in the HDL2 and lipoprotein-depleted fractions. Binding of mitotane to human lipoproteins blunted its anti-proliferative and anti-hormonal effects on NCI-H295 cells and reduced ER stress marker gene expression. Mitotane absorption involves chylomicron binding. High concentrations of o,p'-DDA and o,p'-DDE in chyle suggest intestinal mitotane metabolism. In serum, the majority of mitotane is bound to lipoproteins. In vitro, lipoprotein binding inhibits activity of mitotane suggesting that lipoprotein-free mitotane is the therapeutically active fraction. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Paediatric Nonfunctioning Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Extension up to Right-Side Heart: Cardiac Surgery Approach.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Federica; Quarti, Andrea; Surace, Chiara; Pozzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy. Due to late diagnosis and no adequate effective adjuvant treatment, prognosis remains poor. Only approximately 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland when they are diagnosed, as these tumors tend to be found years after their genesis. Cardiac involvement of adrenal carcinoma is very rare. We report a rare case of a 7-year-old female with right adrenal cortical carcinoma, involving the right-side heart.

  5. Paediatric Nonfunctioning Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Extension up to Right-Side Heart: Cardiac Surgery Approach

    PubMed Central

    Quarti, Andrea; Surace, Chiara; Pozzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy. Due to late diagnosis and no adequate effective adjuvant treatment, prognosis remains poor. Only approximately 30% of these malignancies are confined to the adrenal gland when they are diagnosed, as these tumors tend to be found years after their genesis. Cardiac involvement of adrenal carcinoma is very rare. We report a rare case of a 7-year-old female with right adrenal cortical carcinoma, involving the right-side heart. PMID:27493811

  6. Classification and surgical treatment for 180 cases of adrenocortical hyperplastic disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yushi; Li, Hanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review and discuss the diagnostic and surgical therapeutic methods of adrenocortical hyperplastic disease. Methods: A retrospective analysis was done to 180 adrenocortical hyperplasia patients (74 males, 109 females, aged 6~76 (average 40.1). Studies were done to the relationship between patients’ clinical characteristics, biochemical, endocrinological and imaging examination results, the therapeutic effects. Results: Among all 180 cases, there are 107 Cushing disease (CD), 19 ectopic adrenocorticotropin adrenal hyperplasia (EAAH), 28 adrenocorticotropin independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH), 4 primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PPNAH), and 28 Idiopathic Hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) excretion of CD, EAAH, AIMAH and PPNAH patients were 95.2~535.7 µg (average 287.6 µg), 24.8~808.2 µg (average 307.9 µg), 102.5~3127.0 µg (average 852.5 µg), and 243.8~1124.6 µg (average 564.3 µg). Both low and high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests (DDST) were not suppressed in AIMAH, PPNAH and EAAH groups, but HDDST was suppressed in CD group. CT thin scanning results of 180 patients all showed enlargements in the affected side adrenal gland. Unilateral adrenalectomies were performed in 102 hypercortisolism cases. Local lesion excisions were done to 21 IHA patients. 57 patients had surgeries in both sides of the adrenal glands (39 bilateral total adrenalectomies, 16 total adrenalectomy in one side andsubtotal adrenalectomy in the other, 2 bilateral subtotal adrenalectomies). 106 (59%) patients were followed up for 4~158 (average 32) months. Conclusion: Unilateral adrenalectomy was the first choice for operable adrenocortical hyperplasia patients. The operation mode for the other adrenal gland should be based on the type of hyperplasia and clinical observation. PMID:26770569

  7. [Effect of adaptogens on the activity of the pituitary-adrenocortical system in rats].

    PubMed

    Filaretov, A A; Bogdanova, T S; Mitiushov, M I; Podvigina, T T; Srailova, G T

    1986-05-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey tincture, Polyscias filicifolia Bailey tincture, Panax ginseng tincture or Eleutherococcus Maxim extract to rats produced a rise in plasma corticosterone 1 hour after the treatment. Immobilization-induced rise in plasma corticosterone was increased by 7-day pretreatment with any agent. Thus, the adaptation effect of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey and Polyscias filicifolia Bailey is probably realized through the pituitary-adrenocortical system.

  8. Acanthosis Nigricans Associated with an Adrenocortical Tumor in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadi, Filippina Filia; Barrows, Frank; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol

    2013-01-01

    Malignant acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen primarily in adults with an underlying diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Malignant AN is characterized by hyperpigmentation and velvety hyperplasia of the epidermis. This condition is generally not associated with tumors in pediatric populations or in the adrenal gland. We present a case of malignant AN in a pediatric patient with a nonmalignant, functional adrenocortical tumor. PMID:23819073

  9. Acanthosis nigricans associated with an adrenocortical tumor in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Isaacoff, Elizabeth; Dimitriadi, Filippina Filia; Barrows, Frank; Pawel, Bruce; Mattei, Peter; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol

    2013-01-01

    Malignant acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen primarily in adults with an underlying diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Malignant AN is characterized by hyperpigmentation and velvety hyperplasia of the epidermis. This condition is generally not associated with tumors in pediatric populations or in the adrenal gland. We present a case of malignant AN in a pediatric patient with a nonmalignant, functional adrenocortical tumor.

  10. The 10 Hounsfield units unenhanced computed tomography attenuation threshold does not apply to cortisol secreting adrenocortical adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chambre, Claire; McMurray, Emily; Baudry, Camille; Lataud, Marine; Guignat, Laurence; Gaujoux, Sébastien; Lahlou, Najiba; Guibourdenche, Jean; Tissier, Frédérique; Sibony, Mathilde; Dousset, Bertrand; Bertagna, Xavier; Bertherat, Jérôme; Legmann, Paul; Groussin, Lionel

    2015-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) unenhanced attenuation value of <10 Hounsfield units (HU) has an excellent specificity (98%) to diagnose lipid-rich adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) with a weaker sensitivity (71%). To determine from a routine clinical perspective if unenhanced attenuation value is influenced by cortisol secretion in ACAs. This was a retrospective study of cases collected between 2009 and 2012. This study was conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital. Seventy-two patients operated on for an ACA (Weiss score ≤ 2) were analysed. Thirty-four patients had an ACA oversecreting cortisol (Cush-ACA). Thirty-eight patients had an ACA without cortisol oversecretion (Non Hyper-ACA). CT unenhanced attenuation value was correlated with the functional status. The Weiss score items were analysed. Among the 34 patients with a Cush-ACA a minority (n = 7) had an unenhanced attenuation value under 10 HU. Among the high precontrast density (> 10 HU) Cush-ACAs, washout analysis after contrast administration was consistent with the benign nature of the tumor in ∼ 60% of the cases. Less than 25% clear cells (lipid-rich cells), a Weiss score item, was present in 50% of the Cush-ACAs in favour of a lipid-poor content. Unenhanced attenuation value has a poor sensitivity to diagnose an ACA in case of cortisol oversecretion due to poor lipid content. Nevertheless, the accuracy of washout analysis was preserved in the group of Cush-ACAs. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos E; Villena, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos E; Giussani, Dino A

    2011-01-01

    By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po(2). Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical blunting, but an increase in adrenal catecholamine content. These effects were similar whether the fertilized eggs were laid by sea-level or high altitude hens. The effects of high altitude on the stress axes were completely prevented by incubation at high altitude with oxygen supplementation. When chick embryos from high altitude hens were incubated at sea level, plasma hormones and adrenal catecholamine content were partially restored toward levels measured in sea-level chick embryos. There was a significant correlation between adrenocortical blunting and elevated adrenal catecholamine content with both asymmetric growth restriction and fetal hypoxia. The data support the hypothesis tested and provide evidence to isolate the direct contribution of developmental hypoxia to alterations in the stress system.

  12. Marked transient hypercholesterolemia caused by low-dose mitotane as adjuvant chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hayato; Nohara, Atsushi; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Inazu, Akihiro; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of marked transient hypercholesterolemia in a man receiving low-dose mitotane as adjuvant chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma.A 58-year-old man without any clinical symptoms or history of hypercholesterolemia was admitted to our hospital to treat an adrenocortical carcinoma detected on general screening using computed tomography. He reported no chest symptom and did not exhibit any established risk factors for coronary artery disease, such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension or relevant family history, with the exception of current smoking, on admission. A stress electrocardiogram showed negative findings. The left adrenal tumor as well as left kidney, spleen and distal portion of the pancreas were subsequently resected using radical surgery. The histopathological findings confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma. After the operation, treatment with low-dose mitotane (1g/day) was introduced as adjuvant chemotherapy. Interestingly, the patient developed marked hyper-LDL cholesterolemia at a level equivalent to that of familial hypercholesterolemia (LDL cholesterol level ~ 300 mg/dL) following the introduction of mitotane, without evidence of primary or secondary hypercholesterolemia due to other causes. A coronary angiogram performed to assess the new-onset angina revealed three-vessel disease, which was later revascularized via percutaneous coronary intervention eight months after the start of mitotane therapy. The cholesterol level normalized with the suspension of mitotane. This case suggests that mitotane can cause severe hypercholesterolemia, potentially resulting in coronary atherosclerosis.

  13. Usefulness of Wieneke criteria in assessing morphologic characteristics of adrenocortical tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Gaurav; DasGupta, Shatavisha; Mukherjee, Gautam; Sengupta, Moumita; Roy, Paromita; Arun, Indu; Datta, Chhanda; Mishra, Prafulla Kumar; Banerjee, Sugato; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2015-06-01

    Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) occur rarely in pediatric age group. Pediatric ACTs behave differently from their histologically similar adult counterparts and standard adult criteria often cannot accurately predict their clinical behavior. The aim of the present study was to document the clinicopathologic spectrum of pediatric ACTs and to assess the utility of Wieneke scoring system in predicting clinical behavior of these tumors. This multi-institutional study comprised of 13 cases of pediatric ACTs from January 2005 to May 2014. Clinical features and gross pathologic characteristics were obtained from records. Comprehensive analyses of microscopic features were performed. Each tumor was assessed according to criteria proposed by Wieneke et al. and was assigned to benign, intermediate for malignancy or malignant group. The standard adult Weiss criteria were also applied for comparison. There were total 6 cases of adrenocortical adenomas and 7 cases of adrenocortical carcinomas. Most of the children (76.9%) presented with endocrine dysfunction. Lower age of presentation was significantly associated with better prognosis. Applying Wieneke criteria, there were 6 benign and 6 malignant cases and one case was assigned to intermediate for malignancy group. The clinical behavior of all the cases was consistent with Wieneke criteria categorization. Applying Weiss criteria, 3 cases with benign clinical behavior were assigned to malignant group. Our study validates the reliability of Wieneke scoring system in predicting malignancy in pediatric ACTs. It is simple and easy to use and therefore useful in day-to-day practice.

  14. Visual and metabolic stimuli cause adrenocortical suppression in fasted chickens during refeeding.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S; Klandorf, H; Pinchasov, Y

    1983-07-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were determined in the plasma of fasted domestic fowl before and at intervals after refeeding. The deprivation of food markedly increased (p less than 0.001) the level of plasma corticosterone. When refed ad libitum the corticosterone concentration declined (by 70%) within 45 min to the level in fed birds and remained at this concentration thereafter. A similar depression in the corticosterone concentration was observed when fasted birds were merely given the sight of the same diet, although the concentration returned to the fasting level within 60 min of food presentation. Refeeding diets with different metabolic energy contents demonstrated that the duration of the feeding-induced adrenocortical suppression was energy related. In fasted birds the presentation of an inert cellulose diet caused a temporary decline in the corticosterone level. In the absence of visual stimuli the administration (by force feeding) of the inert diet had no effect on the corticosterone concentration, whereas force feeding of metabolizable diets still induced adrenocortical suppression. These results demonstrate that adrenocortical suppression occurs in fasted refed birds and both visual and metabolic stimuli are involved in this response.

  15. Does somatostatin have a role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (ppnad)? a clinical and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Bram, Zakariae; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Louiset, Estelle; Keil, Meg F; Avgeropoulos, Dimitrios; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Nesterova, Maria; Sinaii, Ninet; Hofland, Leo J; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Lefebvre, Hervé; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-05-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) are expressed in a number of tissues, including the adrenal cortex, but their role in cortisol secretion has not been well characterized. The objective of the study was to investigate the expression of SSTRs in the adrenal cortex and cultured adrenocortical cells from primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) tissues and to test the effect of a single injection of 100 μg of the SST analog octreotide on cortisol secretion in patients with PPNAD. The study was conducted at an academic research laboratory and clinical research center. Expression of SSTRs was examined in 26 PPNAD tissues and the immortalized PPNAD cell line CAR47. Ten subjects with PPNAD underwent a randomized, single-blind, crossover study of their cortisol secretion every 30 minutes over 12 hours (6:00 pm to 6:00 am) before and after the midnight administration of octreotide 100 μg sc. SSTRs expression was investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The CAR47 and primary cell lines were studied in vitro. The data of the 10 patients were analyzed before and after the administration of octreotide. All SSTRs, especially SSTR1-3, were expressed in PPNAD at significantly higher levels than in normal adrenal. SST was found to differentially regulate expression of its own receptors in the CAR47 cell line. However, the administration of octreotide to patients with PPNAD did not significantly affect cortisol secretion. SSTRs are overexpressed in PPNAD tissues in comparison with normal adrenal cortex. Octreotide did not exert any significant effect on cortisol secretion in a short clinical pilot study in a small number of patients with PPNAD, but long-acting SST analogs targeting multiple SSTRs may be worth investigating in this condition.

  16. Does Somatostatin Have a Role in the Regulation of Cortisol Secretion in Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD)? A Clinical and in Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Zakariae; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Louiset, Estelle; Keil, Meg F.; Avgeropoulos, Dimitrios; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Nesterova, Maria; Sinaii, Ninet; Hofland, Leo J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Lefebvre, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Context: Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) are expressed in a number of tissues, including the adrenal cortex, but their role in cortisol secretion has not been well characterized. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the expression of SSTRs in the adrenal cortex and cultured adrenocortical cells from primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) tissues and to test the effect of a single injection of 100 μg of the SST analog octreotide on cortisol secretion in patients with PPNAD. Setting and Design: The study was conducted at an academic research laboratory and clinical research center. Expression of SSTRs was examined in 26 PPNAD tissues and the immortalized PPNAD cell line CAR47. Ten subjects with PPNAD underwent a randomized, single-blind, crossover study of their cortisol secretion every 30 minutes over 12 hours (6:00 pm to 6:00 am) before and after the midnight administration of octreotide 100 μg sc. Methods: SSTRs expression was investigated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The CAR47 and primary cell lines were studied in vitro. The data of the 10 patients were analyzed before and after the administration of octreotide. Results: All SSTRs, especially SSTR1–3, were expressed in PPNAD at significantly higher levels than in normal adrenal. SST was found to differentially regulate expression of its own receptors in the CAR47 cell line. However, the administration of octreotide to patients with PPNAD did not significantly affect cortisol secretion. Conclusions: SSTRs are overexpressed in PPNAD tissues in comparison with normal adrenal cortex. Octreotide did not exert any significant effect on cortisol secretion in a short clinical pilot study in a small number of patients with PPNAD, but long-acting SST analogs targeting multiple SSTRs may be worth investigating in this condition. PMID:24512486

  17. Cell signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex: Links to stem/progenitor biology and neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Penny, Morgan K; Finco, Isabella; Hammer, Gary D

    2017-04-15

    The adrenal cortex is a dynamic tissue responsible for the synthesis of steroid hormones, including mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens in humans. Advances have been made in understanding the role of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cell populations in cortex homeostasis and self-renewal. Recently, large molecular profiling studies of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) have given insights into proteins and signaling pathways involved in normal tissue homeostasis that become dysregulated in cancer. These data provide an impetus to examine the cellular pathways implicated in adrenocortical disease and study connections, or lack thereof, between adrenal homeostasis and tumorigenesis, with a particular focus on stem and progenitor cell pathways. In this review, we discuss evidence for stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal cortex, proteins and signaling pathways that may regulate these cells, and the role these proteins play in pathologic and neoplastic conditions. In turn, we also examine common perturbations in adrenocortical tumors (ACT) and how these proteins and pathways may be involved in adrenal homeostasis.

  18. An unusual presentation of Carney complex with diffuse primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on one adrenal gland and a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma and focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on the other.

    PubMed

    Tung, Shih-Chen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yang, Joseph W; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chien-Te

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with cushingoid appearance was admitted in May 2000. The endocrine studies showed ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. A 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) revealed paradoxical increase of 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a left adrenal nodule (3 x 2 cm in diameter). An adrenal scintigram with ¹³¹I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol showed uptake of the isotope in the left adrenal gland and non-visualization in the right adrenal gland throughout the examination course. A retroperitoneoscopic left total adrenalectomy was performed in July 2000. The cut surface of the left adrenal was yellow-tan grossly. Microscopically, the left adrenal nodule contained a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma (NP) and another focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, FP) mixed lesion. The immunohistochemical studies of CYP17 demonstrate positive in NP and FP of the left adrenal gland. Very low baseline morning plasma cortisol (0.97 μg/dL) and subnormal ACTH (8.16 pg/mL) levels were measured 1.5 months after left adrenalectomy. Right adrenal gland recovered its function 6 months after left adrenalectomy. Plasma cortisol could be suppressed to 3.47 μg/dL by overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 65 months after left adrenalectomy. Cushingoid features still did not appear 122 months after left adrenalectomy. In May 2011, this patient was readmitted due to cushingoid characteristics. Paradoxical rise of 24-h UFC to 2-day HDDST was demonstrated. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed bilateral thyroid cysts. Subtotal right adrenalectomy about 80% of right adrenal was performed. Diffuse PPNAD of the right adrenal was proved pathologically. Immunohischemical stain for CYP17 is positive in the right adrenal gland but weaker positive than that in the left adrenal gland. The genetic study of the peripheral blood, left adrenocortical nodule, and right PPNAD all showed p.R16X

  19. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in carnivores by fecal glucocorticoid analyses.

    PubMed

    Young, K M; Walker, S L; Lanthier, C; Waddell, W T; Monfort, S L; Brown, J L

    2004-06-01

    Measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has become an accepted method for the noninvasive evaluation of adrenocortical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if a simple cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was suitable for monitoring adrenocortical activity in a variety of carnivore species. Performance of the cortisol EIA was gauged by comparison to a corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) that has been used for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in feces of numerous species. Tests for parallelism and extraction efficiency were used to compare the cortisol EIA and corticosterone RIA across eight species of carnivores (Himalayan black bear, sloth bear, domestic cat, cheetah, clouded leopard, black-footed ferret, slender-tailed meerkat, and red wolf). The biological relevance of immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites in feces was established for at least one species of each Carnivora family studied with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of fecal extracts for each species revealed (1) the presence of multiple immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites in feces, but (2) the two immunoassays measured different metabolites, and (3) there were differences across species in the number and polarities of metabolites identified between assay systems. ACTH challenge studies revealed increases in fecal metabolite concentrations measured by the cortisol EIA and corticosterone RIA of approximately 228-1145% and approximately 231-4150% above pre-treatment baseline, respectively, within 1-2 days of injection. Concentrations of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites measured by the cortisol EIA and corticosterone RIA during longitudinal evaluation (i.e., >50 days) of several species were significantly correlated (P<0.0025, correlation coefficient range 0.383-0.975). Adrenocortical responses to physical and psychological stressors during longitudinal evaluations varied with the type of

  20. Angiotensin II-regulated transcription regulatory genes in adrenal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Damian G; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E

    2010-11-29

    Transcription regulatory genes are crucial modulators of cell physiology and metabolism whose intracellular levels are tightly controlled in response to extracellular stimuli. We previously reported a set of 29 transcription regulatory genes modulated by angiotensin II in H295R human adrenocortical cells and their roles in regulating the expression of the last and unique enzymes of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid biosynthetic pathways, 11β-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase, respectively, using gene expression reporter assays. To study the effect of this set of transcription regulatory genes on adrenal steroidogenesis, H295R cells were transfected by high-efficiency nucleofection and aldosterone and cortisol were measured in cell culture supernatants under basal and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. BCL11B, BHLHB2, CITED2, ELL2, HMGA1, MAFF, NFIL3, PER1, SERTAD1, and VDR significantly stimulated aldosterone secretion, while EGR1, FOSB, and ZFP295 decreased aldosterone secretion. BTG2, HMGA1, MITF, NR4A1, and ZFP295 significantly increased cortisol secretion, while BCL11B, NFIL3, PER1, and SIX2 decreased cortisol secretion. We also report the effect of some of these regulators on the expression of endogenous aldosterone synthase and 11β-hydroxylase under basal and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. In summary, this study reports for the first time the effects of a set of angiotensin II-modulated transcription regulatory genes on aldosterone and cortisol secretion and the expression levels of the last and unique enzymes of the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid biosynthetic pathways. Abnormal regulation of mineralocorticoid or glucocorticoid secretion is involved in several pathophysiological conditions. These transcription regulatory genes may be involved in adrenal steroidogenesis pathologies; thus they merit additional study as potential candidates for therapeutic intervention.

  1. A case of pediatric virilizing adrenocortical tumor resulting in hypothalamic-pituitary activation and central precocious puberty following surgical removal.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Oue, Takaharu; Oowari, Mitsugu; Soh, Hideki; Tachibana, Makiko; Kimura, Sadami; Kiyohara, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bessyo, Kazuhiko; Mushiake, Sotaro; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old boy with a virilizing adrenocortical tumor who initially presented with peripheral precocious puberty. Development of facial acne, pubic hair and a growth spurt were noted at the age of five. A low-pitched voice as well as maturation of external genitalia was noted at the age of six. Both serum and urinary levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right suprarenal mass and he underwent surgical resection without any complications. The histological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma according to the criteria of Weiss. Following surgical removal of the androgen-producing tumor, the patient subsequently developed hypothalamic-pituitary activation and demonstrated central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in order to delay further pubertal progression. Clinical follow-up of potential secondary effects of excess hormone secretion after removal is important in some pediatric patients with virilizing adrenocortical tumor.

  2. Low SGK1 Expression in Human Adrenocortical Tumors Is Associated with ACTH-Independent Glucocorticoid Secretion and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Tissier, Frédérique; Steinhauer, Sonja; Deutschbein, Timo; Fassnacht, Martin; Allolio, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Context: Using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, we observed allelic loss of the gene for serum glucocorticoid (GC) kinase 1 (SGK1), a GC-responsive kinase involved in multiple cellular functions, in a subset of cortisol-secreting adenomas. Objective: Our objective was to analyze SGK1 expression in adrenocortical tumors and to further characterize its role in ACTH-independent cortisol secretion, tumor progression, and prognosis. Design and Setting: Gene expression levels of SGK1, SGK3, and CTNNB1 (coding for β-catenin) and protein expression levels of SGK1, nuclear β-catenin, and phosphorylated AKT were determined in adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands. Patients: A total of 227 adrenocortical tumors (40 adenomas and 187 carcinomas) and 25 normal adrenal tissues were included. Among them, 62 frozen tumor samples were used for mRNA analysis and 203 tumors were investigated on tissue microarrays or full standard slides by immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the relationship between SGK1 mRNA and/or protein levels and clinical parameters. Results: SGK1 mRNA levels were lower in cortisol-secreting than in nonsecreting tumors (P < 0.005). Nonsecreting neoplasias showed a significant correlation between SGK1 and CTNNB1 mRNA levels (P < 0.001; r = 0.57). Low SGK1 protein levels, but not nuclear β-catenin and phosphorylated AKT, were associated with poor overall survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (P < 0.005; hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.24–3.24), independent of tumor stage and GC secretion. Conclusion: Low SGK1 expression is related to ACTH-independent cortisol secretion in adrenocortical tumors and is a new prognostic factor in adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:23055545

  3. Mutational signature analysis identifies MUTYH deficiency in colorectal cancers and adrenocortical carcinomas [Mutational signature analysis identifies deficiency in colorectal cancers and adrenocortical carcinomas

    DOE PAGES

    Pilati, Camilla; Shinde, Jayendra; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; ...

    2017-01-27

    Germline alterations in DNA repair genes are implicated in cancer predisposition and can result in characteristic mutational signatures. However, specific mutational signatures associated with base excision repair (BER) defects remain to be characterized. Here, by analysing a series of colorectal cancers (CRCs) using exome sequencing, we identified a particular spectrum of somatic mutations characterized by an enrichment of C > A transversions in NpCpA or NpCpT contexts in three tumours from a MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) patient and in two cases harbouring pathogenic germline MUTYH mutations. In two series of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs), we identified four tumours with a similar signaturemore » also presenting germline MUTYH mutations. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that MUTYH inactivation results in a particular mutational signature, which may serve as a useful marker of BER-related genomic instability in new cancer types.« less

  4. microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers in Adrenocortical Cancer: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cherradi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the last decade, pan-genomic analyses of genetic and epigenetic alterations and genome-wide expression profile studies allowed major advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics of ACC. Besides the well-known dysfunctional molecular pathways in adrenocortical tumors, such as the IGF2 pathway, the Wnt pathway, and TP53, high-throughput technologies enabled a more comprehensive genomic characterization of adrenocortical cancer. Integration of expression profile data with exome sequencing, SNP array analysis, methylation, and microRNA (miRNA) profiling led to the identification of subgroups of malignant tumors with distinct molecular alterations and clinical outcomes. miRNAs post-transcriptionally silence their target gene expression either by degrading mRNA or by inhibiting translation. Although our knowledge of the contribution of deregulated miRNAs to the pathogenesis of ACC is still in its infancy, recent studies support their relevance in gene expression alterations in these tumors. Some miRNAs have been shown to carry potential diagnostic and prognostic values, while others may be good candidates for therapeutic interventions. With the emergence of disease-specific blood-borne miRNAs signatures, analyses of small cohorts of patients with ACC suggest that circulating miRNAs represent promising non-invasive biomarkers of malignancy or recurrence. However, some technical challenges still remain, and most of the miRNAs reported in the literature have not yet been validated in sufficiently powered and longitudinal studies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the deregulation of tumor-associated and circulating miRNAs in ACC patients, while emphasizing their potential significance in pathogenic pathways in light of recent insights into the role of miRNAs in shaping the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26834703

  5. The reticulin algorithm for adrenocortical tumor diagnosis: a multicentric validation study on 245 unpublished cases.

    PubMed

    Duregon, Eleonora; Fassina, Ambrogio; Volante, Marco; Nesi, Gabriella; Santi, Raffaella; Gatti, Gaia; Cappellesso, Rocco; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Ventura, Laura; Gambacorta, Marcello; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Loli, Paola; Mannelli, Massimo; Mantero, Franco; Berruti, Alfredo; Terzolo, Massimo; Papotti, Mauro

    2013-09-01

    The pathologic diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) still needs to be improved, because the renowned Weiss Score (WS) system has a poor reproducibility of some parameters and is difficult to apply in borderline cases and in ACC variants. The "reticulin algorithm" (RA) defines malignancy through an altered reticulin framework associated with 1 of the 3 following parameter: necrosis, high mitotic rate, and vascular invasion. This study aimed at validating the interobserver reproducibility of reticulin stain evaluation in an unpublished series of 245 adrenocortical tumors (61 adenomas and 184 carcinomas) from 5 Italian centers, classified according to the WS. Eight pathologists reviewed all reticulin-stained slides. After training, a second round of evaluation on discordant cases was performed 10 weeks later. The RA reclassified 67 cases (27%) as adenomas, including 44 with no reticulin alterations and 23 with an altered reticulin framework but lacking the subsequent parameters of the triad. The other 178 cases (73%) were carcinomas according to the above-mentioned criteria. A complete (8/8 pathologists) interobserver agreement was reached in 75% of cases (κ=0.702), irrespective of case derivation, pathologists' experience, and histologic variants, and was further improved when only those cases with high WS and clinically malignant behavior were considered. After the training, the overall agreement increased to 86%. We conclude that reticulin staining is a reliable technique and an easy-to-interpret system in adrenocortical tumors; moreover, it has a high interobserver reproducibility, which supports the notion of using such a method in the proposed 2-step RA approach for ACC diagnosis.

  6. P53/Rb inhibition induces metastatic adrenocortical carcinomas in a preclinical transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Batisse-Lignier, M; Sahut-Barnola, I; Tissier, F; Dumontet, T; Mathieu, M; Drelon, C; Pointud, J-C; Damon-Soubeyrand, C; Marceau, G; Kemeny, J-L; Bertherat, J; Tauveron, I; Val, P; Martinez, A; Lefrançois-Martinez, A-M

    2017-04-03

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis. Pan-genomic analyses identified p53/Rb and WNT/β-catenin signaling pathways as main contributors to the disease. However, isolated β-catenin constitutive activation failed to induce malignant progression in mouse adrenocortical tumors. Therefore, there still was a need for a relevant animal model to study ACC pathogenesis and to test new therapeutic approaches. Here, we have developed a transgenic mice model with adrenocortical specific expression of SV40 large T-antigen (AdTAg mice), to test the oncogenic potential of p53/Rb inhibition in the adrenal gland. All AdTAg mice develop large adrenal carcinomas that eventually metastasize to the liver and lungs, resulting in decreased overall survival. Consistent with ACC in patients, adrenal tumors in AdTAg mice autonomously produce large amounts of glucocorticoids and spontaneously activate WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway during malignant progression. We show that this activation is associated with downregulation of secreted frizzled related proteins (Sfrp) and Znrf3 that act as inhibitors of the WNT signaling. We also show that mTORC1 pathway activation is an early event during neoplasia expansion and further demonstrate that mTORC1 pathway is activated in ACC patients. Preclinical inhibition of mTORC1 activity induces a marked reduction in tumor size, associated with induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation that results in normalization of corticosterone plasma levels in AdTAg mice. Altogether, these data establish AdTAg mice as the first preclinical model for metastatic ACC.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.54.

  7. The ARMC5 gene shows extensive genetic variance in primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo; Zilbermint, Mihail; Berthon, Annabel; Espiard, Stephanie; Batsis, Maria; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Lodish, Maya B.; Bertherat, Jerome; Faucz, Fabio R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) is a rare type of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) that results in increased cortisol production and bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Recent work showed that the disease may be caused by germline and somatic mutations in the ARMC5 gene, a likely tumor-suppressor gene (TSG). We investigated 20 different adrenal nodules from one patient with PMAH for ARMC5 somatic sequence changes. Design All of the nodules where obtained from a single patient who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. DNA was extracted by standard protocols and the ARMC5 sequence was determined by the Sanger method. Results Sixteen of 20 adrenocortical nodules harbored, in addition to what appeared to be the germline mutation, a second somatic variant. The p.Trp476* sequence change was present in all 20 nodules, as well as in normal tissue from the adrenal capsule, identifying it as the germline defect; each of the 16 other variants were found in different nodules: 6 were frame shift, 4 were missense, 3 were nonsense, and 1 was a splice site variation. Allelic losses were confirmed in 2 of the nodules. Conclusion This is the most genetic variance of the ARMC5 gene ever described in a single patient with PMAH: each of 16 adrenocortical nodules had a second new, “private”, and -in most cases- completely inactivating ARMC5 defect, in addition to the germline mutation. The data support the notion that ARMC5 is a TSG that needs a second, somatic hit, to mediate tumorigenesis leading to polyclonal nodularity; however, the driver of this extensive genetic variance of the second ARMC5 allele in adrenocortical tissue in the context of a germline defect and PMAH remains a mystery. PMID:26162405

  8. Investigation of N-cadherin/β-catenin expression in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Beatrice; Regazzo, Daniela; Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat, Carla; Citton, Marilisa; Iacobone, Maurizio; Scaroni, Carla; Betterle, Corrado; Mantero, Franco; Fassina, Ambrogio; Pezzani, Raffaele; Boscaro, Marco

    2016-10-01

    β-catenin is a multifunctional protein; it is a key component of the Wnt signaling, and it plays a central role in cadherin-based adhesions. Cadherin loss promotes tumorigenesis by releasing membrane-bound β-catenin, hence stimulating Wnt signaling. Cadherins seem to be involved in tumor development, but these findings are limited in adrenocortical tumors (ACTs). The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in key components of cadherin/catenin adhesion system and of Wnt pathway. This study included eight normal adrenal samples (NA) and 95 ACT: 24 adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) and 71 adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs). β-catenin mutations were evaluated by sequencing, and β-catenin and cadherin (E-cadherin and N-cadherin) expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identified 18 genetic alterations in β-catenin gene. qRT-PCR showed overexpression of β-catenin in 50 % of ACC (12/24) and in 48 % of ACA (21/44). IHC data were in accordance with qRT-PCR results: 47 % of ACC (7/15) and 33 % of ACA (11/33) showed increased cytoplasmic or nuclear β-catenin accumulation. N-cadherin downregulation has been found in 83 % of ACC (20/24) and in 59 % of ACA (26/44). Similar results were obtained by IHC: N-cadherin downregulation was observed in 100 % (15/15) of ACC and in 55 % (18/33) of ACA. β-catenin overexpression together with the aberrant expression of N-cadherin may play important role in ACT tumorigenesis. The study of differentially expressed genes (such as N-cadherin and β-catenin) may enhance our understanding of the biology of ACT and may contribute to the discovery of new diagnostic and prognostic tools.

  9. Multi-organ resection for locally advanced adrenocortical cancer: surgical strategy and literature review

    PubMed Central

    GUIDA, F.; CLEMENTE, M.; VALVANO, L.; NAPOLITANO, C.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive endocrine malignancy with an estimated worldwide incidence of 0.5–2 per million/year. Complete surgical removal of ACC represents the current treatment of choice for this tumor. A disease-free resection margin (R0) is an important predictor of long-term survival: surgery is demanding and must be performed by a highly experienced surgical team. We report the surgical strategy adopted in a patient with locally advanced ACC and virilization to obtain a R0 resection. PMID:26712261

  10. Characterizing adrenocortical activity in zoo-housed southern three-banded armadillos (Tolypeutes matacus).

    PubMed

    Howell-Stephens, Jennifer A; Brown, Joel S; Bernier, David; Mulkerin, Diane; Santymire, Rachel M

    2012-08-01

    Improving the husbandry in the southern three-banded armadillo (Tolypeutes matacus) through gaining knowledge of its stress physiology is imperative to maintaining a healthy, zoo-housed population. Our objectives were to: 1) validate the use of fecal hormone analysis for monitoring adrenocortical activity using both an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge and biological events; and 2) characterize longitudinal adrenocortical activity in male and female southern three-banded armadillos. An ACTH injection was given intra-muscularly to one male (4IU/kg; 5.6IU total) and one female (5.5IU/kg; 8IU total) southern three-banded armadillo. Fecal samples were collected 1 day pre- and continued 5 days post-ACTH to capture the physiological response measured by elevated fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) to validate these techniques. Additionally, natural and routine events, including pairing individuals for breeding and veterinary procedures/handling, were used to biologically validate these techniques. To characterize adrenocortical activity, fecal samples (∼3025 total; n=275/animal/yr) were collected from 11 (5 males; 6 females) southern three-banded armadillos 5-7 times a week for 1 year at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL). A cortisol enzyme immunoassay was used for FGM analysis. The ACTH challenge in the male resulted in a twofold increase of FGM (1123.2±36.2 ng/g dry feces) above baseline (675.7±10.0 ng/g dry feces) at approximately 54-94h post- injection. The female exhibited a twofold increase (1635.4 ng/g dry feces) over baseline FGMs (608.5±12.3 ng/g dry feces) approximately 30h post-injection. Reproductive behaviors and veterinary procedures resulted in elevated FGM concentrations from all individuals except for one male. The longitudinal characterization demonstrated that sex and season did not influence (P<0.05) FGM concentrations. Individuals were highly variable with mean FGM concentration of 2010.1±862.4 ng/g dry feces (range, 816.3-7889.1 ng

  11. 5th International ACC Symposium: Future and Current Therapeutic Trials in Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Ana O; Berruti, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and complex disease associated with a high mortality rate. Despite intensive translational and clinical research, prognosis remains poor. Over the past decade, a significant effort has been made to develop multinational, collaborative studies to better understand the pathogenesis and clinical features of this rare disease in attempt to improve the therapeutic strategies and patient outcome. The results of both standard and newer treatments are discussed in this review as well as the recent discovery of pathways involved in ACC pathogenesis that provide the rationale to introduce new molecular target therapies. Finally, remaining issues regarding how to improve available therapies in adjuvant setting are raised and addressed.

  12. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of delta 4-3-ketosteroids in adrenocortical extracts.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, R; Chinol, M; Ghelardoni, M

    1980-05-30

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of seven steroids in adrenocortical extracts showing a delta 4-3-ketonic conjugated system. The seven steroids (cortisol, cortisone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, aldosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone) were separated with a chloroform-methanol gradient on a 5-micron silica column and with a water-acetonitrile gradient on a 10-micron RP-8 column. Effluents were monitored by UV absorption at 242 nm. Quantitative analysis was performed by comparing peak areas, which are proportional to the amounts of the individual substances (external standard method). The method is rapid, sensitive, easy to perform and reproducible.

  13. Adrenocortical response to open-field test in rats with anterodorsal thalami nuclei lesion.

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Perassi, N; Dal Zotto, S

    1996-01-01

    The influence of limbic anterodorsal thalami nuclei (ADTN) on adrenocortical activity and on emotional reactivity were investigated in male and female rats. The emotional reactivity was evaluated by means of the open-field test and the corticoadrenal function by means of plasma and adrenal corticosterone concentration. The results demonstrate that ADTN lesion does not affect the behavioural patterns in the open-field test on the 29th and 30th day after lesion nor adrenal response when animals are exposed to a novel situation.

  14. Comparison of the methods for measuring the Ki-67 labeling index in adrenocortical carcinoma: manual versus digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuto; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Shibahara, Yukiko; Konosu-Fukaya, Sachiko; Sato, Naomi; Kubota-Nakayama, Fumie; Oki, Yutaka; Baba, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-07-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, highly malignant neoplasm harboring marked histologic heterogeneity. The Ki-67 labeling index (LI) is one of the most effective diagnostic and prognostic markers in ACC. However, its assessment has by no means been standardized. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the Ki-67 LI in 18 ACC cases both by seven pathologists using microscopes (MA; manual analysis) and with digital image analysis (DIA) and also compared the Ki-67 LI obtained by selecting "hot spots" and formulating the "average" reading of the whole tumor specimen. In addition, we performed statistical analysis of the association between Ki-67 LI and the clinical and pathologic features of individual cases. The DIA was significantly correlated with MA in hot spots but not in the average fields. The Ki-67 LI in hot spots was significantly and consistently higher than that in average areas by both MA and DIA, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity. The Ki-67 LI was significantly correlated with the Weiss criteria (eosinophilic cytoplasm, nuclear atypia, atypical mitoses, and sinusoidal invasion) by any mode of evaluation. The clinical outcome was significantly better in the patients with a Ki-67 < 10% than in those with a Ki-67 > 10% by MA in hot spots. The Ki-67 LI in hot spots measured by MA best reflected the clinical and pathologic features of ACC. Employment of DIA to obtain the Ki-67 LI in ACC requires further improvement, including correction of its overestimation of the value by counting non-tumorous cells and nuclear segmentation in areas of high cell density. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary data concerning association of porphyria cutanea tarda and adrenocortical insufficiency. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pereţianu, D; Giurcăneanu, C; Deleanu, A

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents two cases in which clinical and laboratory investigations have revealed the simultaneous presence of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) and adrenocortical insufficiency (ACI). Whether this association is a coincidence, whether there is a common cause, or a "cause to effect" type relationship between the two entities is a question of debate. Without ignoring other possible causes (tuberculosis, hemochromatosis, autoimmunity, drugs) it is suggested that heme deficit consequent to inefficient protoporphyrin synthesis results in impaired steroidogenesis, due to decreased levels of adrenocortical hemoprotein enzymes, especially cytochrome P-450 dependent hydroxylases. Cytochrome P-450 has a well known sine-qua-non activity in steroid hydroxylations within steroid tissues, and a decrease in the levels of this heme-enzyme might be expected to result in impaired steroidogenesis. However, the association between PCT and ACI (whether pathogenic or not) is pathophysiologically characterized by the coexistence of a disease (PCT) in which the anatomo-clinical manifestations are determined by oxygen derived free radicals ( ODFR ), and a disease (ACI) which, among other consequences, presents a marked reduction in ODFR -scavenge capacity. The authors consider this supposition an attractive working hypothesis, suitable to further clinical laboratory direct testing.

  16. Adrenocortical function of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Nanette; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Evans, Neil P

    2010-03-01

    Unpredictable changes in the environment stimulate the avian hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce corticosterone, which induces behavioural and metabolic changes that enhance survival in the face of adverse environmental conditions. In addition to profound environmental perturbations, such as severe weather conditions and unpredictable food shortages, many Arctic-breeding birds are also confronted with chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which are known to disrupt endocrine processes. This study investigated the adrenocortical function of a top predator in the Arctic marine environment, the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). High concentrations of organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and metabolically-derived products in blood plasma of incubating glaucous gulls were associated with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes and a reduced stress response in males. Contaminant-related changes in corticosterone concentration occurred over and above differences in body condition and seasonal variation. Chronically high corticosterone concentrations and/or a compromised adrenocortical response to stress can have negative effects on the health of an individual. The results of the present study suggest that exposure to POPs may increase the vulnerability of glaucous gulls to environmental stressors and thus could potentially compromise their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions associated with climate change that are currently seen in the Arctic.

  17. Species differences in 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE bioactivation by adrenocortical tissue.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Veronica; Brandt, Ingvar; Lindhe, Orjan

    2008-03-01

    The CYP11B1-activated adrenocortical toxicant 3-methylsulphonyl-DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) is proposed as a lead compound for an improved chemotherapy for adrenocortical carcinoma. We compared the binding of 3-MeSO2-[14C]DDE in the adrenal cortex of four rodent species; hamster, guinea pig, mouse and rat, using a precision-cut adrenal slice culture system ex vivo. Localization and quantification of the bound radioactivity were carried out using light microscopy autoradiography and radioluminography. The results revealed major species differences since 3-MeSO2-[14C]DDE was extensively bound to the hamster adrenal tissue while the guinea pig adrenals were devoid of binding. A high binding in mouse adrenal cortex was confirmed while binding in rat adrenal cortex was very weak. The results support previous observations that metabolic activation of 3-MeSO2-DDE is highly species dependent. Since CYP11B1 could be expressed in tissues other than the adrenal cortex, final toxicological characterization should be carried out in a species that can bioactivate this compound.

  18. Aldosterone and progesterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma in a cat with a concurrent meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Leshinsky, Jana; Beatty, Julia A; Fawcett, Anne; Voss, Katja; Makara, Mariano; Krockenberger, Mark B; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2016-01-01

    Case summary A 12-year-old, male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of suspected hyperaldosteronism due to persistent hypokalaemia, hindlimb ataxia, weakness of 1 month’s duration and a left adrenal mass that was detected on abdominal ultrasound. Neurological examination findings at referral were suggestive of a concurrent left forebrain lesion. Hyperaldosteronism and concurrent hyperprogesteronism were confirmed on endocrine testing. On computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and thorax there was no evidence of local vascular invasion by the adrenal mass or of metastatic disease. CT and magnetic resonance imaging featured a large, focal rim-enhancing extra-axial left forebrain lesion consistent with a meningioma. Surgical excision of the forebrain mass was followed by adrenalectomy 2 weeks later. The tumours were classified on histopathology as a psammomatous meningioma and an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of the meningioma confirmed the presence of progesterone receptors. The cat remains well 2 years later. Relevance and novel information In humans, elevated serum progesterone levels have been associated with rapid growth of meningiomas due to the presence of progesterone receptors on the tumour. This is the first report of a cat with a progesterone and aldosterone-secreting adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and a concurrent meningioma. Clinicians should be aware of the potential effect of elevated progesterone on meningiomas in cats. PMID:28491405

  19. An unusual case of adrenocortical carcinoma with liver metastasis that occurred at 23 years after surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rayar, Michel; Beuzit, Luc; Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Dagher, Julien; Merdrignac, Aude; Tanguy, Laetitia; Boudjema, Karim; Sulpice, Laurent; Meunier, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon and aggressive cancer occurring more frequently in women; local or distant recurrences occur in 80% of cases, typically within 1 year after curative resection. Liver is the preferred metastatic site. Herein, we report the case of a unique liver metastasis from ACC occurring 23 years after the curative prior tumor surgery. A 45-year-old woman was operated in 1991 for adrenocortical stage II without microvascular involvement or capsular infiltration. At that time, no adjuvant treatment was indicated. The initial surgery consisted on a left adrenalectomy with contemporaneous left nephrectomy and regional lymphadenectomy. Five years after surgery, the patient was considered cured. However, 23 years later, the patient presented an atypical right subcostal pain. A 4 cm liver ACC metastasis involving the segment 4 and initially diagnosed as a hemangioma was discovered. A curative resection of the segment 4 was performed. Final pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of ACC metastasis with a complete R0 resection; no lymph node metastases were observed. This case is the latest metachronous ACC metastasis ever reported in literature. To date, the patient is alive with no signs of recurrence after a post-surgical follow-up of 13 months. PMID:27275470

  20. Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Sreelatha; Vats, Hemender Singh; Banerjee, Tarit K; McKenzie, Alan K

    2009-06-01

    A 57-year-old white woman with metastases to lungs and liver from virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was treated with radical nephroadrenalectomy followed by oral mitotane 3 to 6 g/day for 5 months. She developed complete response and remained free of disease for more than 25 years. Here we present the case and review the literature. ACC is a rare tumor and may occur at any age. About 60% are functional tumors with hormonal secretions and clinical manifestations due to specific hormone secretions: Cushing's syndrome due to cortisone, virilizing tumor due to androgens, feminizing tumor due to estrogens, or hypertension due to aldosterone. Stage I and II disease is curable with surgery. Stage III and IV disease may benefit from mitotane orally with gradual adjustment of the dosage to a tolerable level. Plasma mitotane level at 14 to 20 g/L results in optimal response both in hormonal secretion and symptom control, as well as tumor regression. Addition of chemotherapy (streptozotocin or a combination of etoposide, cisplatin and doxorubicin) to mitotane also produced responses along with increased survival among responders. An international study has been started by randomizing between two of the above combinations by the Collaborative Group for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment.

  1. Virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma associated with idiopathic-acquired generalized anhidrosis in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Gumus, Pinar; Luquette, Mark; Haymon, Marie Louise; Valerie, Evans; Morales, Jaime; Vargas, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence. Virilization, alone or in combination with signs of overproduction of other adrenal hormones, is the most common clinical presentation. Here we report an unusual case of an African-American female adolescent presenting with idiopathic acquired generalized anhidrosis, dysregulation of body temperature, absence of adult body odor and dry skin in the face of a virilizing para-adrenocortical adenoma. Virilization signs regressed soon after removal of the tumor, but normalization of the 3alpha-androstenediol glucuronide (3alpha-AG) took longer compared to other measurable androgens; accompanied by anhidrosis. The association of remitting anhidrosis with normalized levels of 3alpha-AG suggests it might be a possible mechanism for anhidrosis. High 3alpha-AG levels might implicate the increased peripheral conversion of weak pro-androgens with different biochemical structure. We recommend obtaining 3alpha-AG beside other androgens in virilized patients with atypical dermatological symptoms in the face of hyperandrogenism.

  2. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, S.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Santymire, R.M.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Glucocorticoid- and androgen-secreting black adrenocortical adenomas: unique cause of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanabe, Akiyo; Aiba, Motohiko; Hizuka, Naomi; Takano, Kazue; Zhang, Jun; Young, William F

    2011-01-01

    To describe the unique association of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome caused by cortisol- and androgen-secreting black adrenal cortical adenomas with myelolipomatous change. We report the clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings from 2 patients who presented with androgen excess and typical signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome. Endocrine investigations showed high serum cortisol concentrations that lacked diurnal rhythm, undetectable plasma corticotropin concentrations, and absence of serum cortisol suppression after overnight dexamethasone suppression tests. Serum levels of adrenal androgens were elevated. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed unilateral adrenal masses (largest lesional diameters 4.0 and 3.1 cm). On the basis of the plurihormonal hypersecretion and the imaging characteristics, adrenocortical carcinoma was considered as a possible diagnosis. However, histopathologic analysis in both patients revealed black adrenal cortical adenomas with myelolipomatous change. After surgery, adrenal androgens normalized, and the signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome and androgen excess resolved. There was no evidence of recurrent disease at last follow-up. A unique form of corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome is described: cortisol- and androgen-secreting black adrenal cortical adenomas with myelolipomatous change. Although most patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome associated with androgen excess prove to have adrenocortical carcinoma, the clinician should be aware of the possibility of benign, black adrenal adenomas in this clinical setting.

  4. Neuropeptides and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system: review of recent research strategies in depression.

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M

    2000-04-01

    Depressed patients show a variety of alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system regulation which is reflected by increased pituitary-adrenocortical hormone secretion at baseline and a number of aberrant neuroendocrine function tests. The latter include the combined dexamethasone (DEX) suppression/corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge test, in which CRH was able to override DEX induced suppression of ACTH and cortisol secretion. Whereas the abnormal HPA activation in these patients improved in parallel with clinical remission, persistent HPA dysregulation was associated with an increased risk of relapse. Moreover, healthy subjects at high genetic risk for depression also showed this phenomenon as a trait marker. In consequence, it has been concluded that HPA alteration and development as well as course of depression may be causally related. As evidenced from clinical and preclinical studies, underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities involve impairment of central corticosteroid receptor function which leads to enhanced activity of hypothalamic neurons synthesising and releasing vasopressin and CRH. These neuropeptides mediate not only neuroendocrine but also behavioural effects. Recent research provided evidence that CRH can induce depression-like symptoms in animals and that these signs are mediated through the CRH1 receptor subtype. Hence, therapeutical application of new compounds acting more specifically on the HPA system such as CRH1 receptor antagonists appear to be a promising approach for future treatment options of depression. In conclusion, research in neuroendocrinology provided new insights into the underlying pathophysiology of depression and, in consequence, may lead to the development of new therapeutic tools.

  5. Progression to Adrenocortical Tumorigenesis in Mice and Humans through Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 and β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Joanne H.; Wood, Michelle A.; Kim, Alex C.; Lima, Lorena O.; Barlaskar, Ferdous M.; Almeida, Madson Q.; Fragoso, Maria C.B.V.; Kuick, Rork; Lerario, Antonio M.; Simon, Derek P.; Soares, Ibere C.; Starnes, Elisabeth; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Latronico, Ana C.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of the WNT and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathways has been implicated in sporadic and syndromic forms of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Abnormal β-catenin staining and CTNNB1 mutations are reported to be common in both adrenocortical adenoma and ACC, whereas elevated IGF2 expression is associated primarily with ACC. To better understand the contribution of these pathways in the tumorigenesis of ACC, we examined clinicopathological and molecular data and used mouse models. Evaluation of adrenal tumors from 118 adult patients demonstrated an increase in CTNNB1 mutations and abnormal β-catenin accumulation in both adrenocortical adenoma and ACC. In ACC, these features were adversely associated with survival. Mice with stabilized β-catenin exhibited a temporal progression of increased adrenocortical hyperplasia, with subsequent microscopic and macroscopic adenoma formation. Elevated Igf2 expression alone did not cause hyperplasia. With the combination of stabilized β-catenin and elevated Igf2 expression, adrenal glands were larger, displayed earlier onset of hyperplasia, and developed more frequent macroscopic adenomas (as well as one carcinoma). Our results are consistent with a model in which dysregulation of one pathway may result in adrenal hyperplasia, but accumulation of a second or multiple alterations is necessary for tumorigenesis. PMID:22800756

  6. If It Goes up, Must It Come Down? Chronic Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenocortical Axis in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Zhou, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    The notion that chronic stress fosters disease by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is featured prominently in many theories. The research linking chronic stress and HPA function is contradictory, however, with some studies reporting increased activation, and others reporting the opposite. This meta-analysis showed…

  7. Combined comparative genomic hybridization and genomic microarray for detection of gene amplifications in pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas and adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianming; Roth, Jürgen; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Pfaltz, Madeleine; Heitz, Philipp U; Komminoth, Paul

    2002-05-01

    Identification of gene amplifications in human tumors is important for the understanding of tumorigenesis and may lead to discovery of diagnostic and prognostic markers. In this study, we used a microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique, combined with conventional CGH, to identify gene amplifications in 43 tumors including eight pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas and 35 adrenocortical tumors. Conventional CGH revealed gains or amplifications of 12q13-q15 in six sarcomas and in two adrenocortical carcinomas. Using microarrays, we demonstrated that, among genes located on 12q13-q15, SAS/CDK4 were amplified in six sarcomas, and MDM2 and GLI in five and four sarcomas, respectively. The two adrenocortical tumors showed coamplifications of SAS/CDK4 and MDM2. Furthermore, PDGFRA (located on 4q12) amplification was identified in five sarcomas. Our data demonstrate: (1) amplifications of SAS/CDK4, MDM2, GLI, and PDGFRA are strongly associated with the tumorigenesis of pulmonary artery intimal sarcomas, whereas SAS/CDK4 and MDM2 coamplification may contribute to the progression of adrenocortical tumors; (2) microarray-based CGH is a useful tool for simultaneous detection of multiple gene amplifications, with a high sensitivity and resolution compared to that of conventional CGH.

  8. Pediatric adrenocortical tumors: morphological diagnostic criteria and immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase type 2 and human leucocyte-associated antigen (HLA) class II antigens. Results from the Italian Pediatric Rare Tumor (TREP) Study project.

    PubMed

    Magro, Gaetano; Esposito, Giovanni; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Dall'Igna, Patrizia; Marcato, Raffaella; Gambini, Claudio; Boldrini, Renata; Collini, Paola; D'Onofrio, Vittoria; Salfi, Nunzio; d'Amore, Emanuele; Ferrari, Andrea; Bisogno, Gianni; Alaggio, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical tumors are neoplasms that only rarely occur in pediatric patients. Their clinical behavior is often unpredictable, and the histologic criteria of malignancy used in adults are not always useful in children. The aim of this study was to validate the prognostic value of the pathologic criteria of Wieneke et al and to evaluate the potential prognostic expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and human leucocyte-associated antigen (HLA) class II antigens in a series of 20 pediatric patients affected by adrenocortical tumors, who were enrolled in the Italian Pediatric Rare Tumor (TREP) Study between 2000 and 2007. The age range was 0 to 17.5 years (mean, 7.28 years) with a male-female ratio of 1:2. The mean follow-up was 64.4 months. The histologic diagnoses were reviewed, and the cases were classified using the criteria for malignancy proposed by Wieneke et al. The immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and HLA class II antigens was scored by semiquantitative analysis and compared with the clinicopathologic parameters and outcome. Based on the scoring system of Wieneke et al, 7 tumors were classified as malignant; 12 tumors, as benign; and only 1 tumor, with "unpredictable behavior." In all cases, the clinical behavior was consistent with the pathologic criteria of Wieneke et al. Notably, areas of regressive myxoid changes, not included among the criteria of Wieneke et al, were observed in all but 1 case of malignant tumors and only in 2 cases of benign tumors. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 was focally to diffusely expressed in all malignant and in most benign tumors. HLA class II antigens immunoreactivity was absent in all benign tumors and restricted to rare isolated cells in most malignant tumors. Our findings confirm that the pathologic scoring system of Wieneke et al is a simple and reproducible diagnostic tool to predict prognosis in pediatric adrenocortical tumors. Unlike in their adult counterpart, the expression of

  9. ChIP-on-chip analysis reveals angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) as a novel target of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) in the human adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-de-Souza, Bruno; Lin, Lin; Shah, Sonia; Jina, Nipurna; Hubank, Mike; Dattani, Mehul T; Achermann, John C

    2011-04-01

    The nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, NR5A1) is a key regulator of adrenal and gonadal biology. Disruption of SF-1 can lead to disorders of adrenal development, while increased SF-1 dosage has been associated with adrenocortical tumorigenesis. We aimed to identify a novel subset of SF-1 target genes in the adrenal by using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) microarrays (ChIP-on-chip) combined with systems analysis. SF-1 ChIP-on-chip was performed in NCI-H295R human adrenocortical cells using promoter tiling arrays, leading to the identification of 445 gene loci where SF-1-binding regions were located from 10 kb upstream to 3 kb downstream of a transcriptional start. Network analysis of genes identified as putative SF-1 targets revealed enrichment for angiogenic process networks. A 1.1-kb SF-1-binding region was identified in the angiopoietin 2 (Ang2, ANGPT2) promoter in a highly repetitive region, and SF-1-dependent activation was confirmed in luciferase assays. Angiogenesis is paramount in adrenal development and tumorigenesis, but until now a direct link between SF-1 and vascular remodeling has not been established. We have identified Ang2 as a potentially important novel target of SF-1 in the adrenal gland, indicating that regulation of angiogenesis might be an important additional mechanism by which SF-1 exerts its actions in the adrenal gland.

  10. Adrenocortical response in cows after intramuscular injection of long-acting adrenocorticotropic hormone (tetracosactide acetate zinc suspension).

    PubMed

    Thinh, N C; Yoshida, C; Long, S T; Yusuf, M; Nakao, T

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were first to show adrenocortical response to a long-acting adrenocorticotropic hormone preparation (tetracosactide acetate zinc suspension) (ACTH-Z) and its effect on adrenocortical function in beef cows (Experiment 1) and second to apply the ACTH-Z challenge in dairy cows based on cortisol concentrations in milk collected at routine milking (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, four beef cows in luteal phase were challenged with ACTH-Z, and plasma cortisol concentrations were determined for 48 h after the injection at 30-min to 2-h intervals. A rapid ACTH test was conducted 3 days before and 2 h after the completion of ACTH-Z injection for 48 h to investigate the effect on adrenocortical function. Plasma cortisol concentrations increased significantly 30 min after ACTH-Z injection (p < 0.001), and the high cortisol levels were maintained for approximately 10 h after the injection. In Experiment 2, eight dairy cows were subjected to ACTH-Z challenge 1-2 weeks and 4-5 weeks post-partum. Blood and milk samples were taken at morning and afternoon milking. All the cows showed a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in plasma as well as in skim milk 8 h after ACTH-Z injection 1-2 weeks and 4-5 weeks post-partum (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between plasma and skim milk cortisol concentrations 8 h after ACTH-Z challenge (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). The results obtained in this study suggest that elevated levels of plasma cortisol are maintained for approximately 10 h after ACTH-Z treatment without adverse effect on adrenocortical function and a long-acting ACTH-Z challenge based on cortisol concentrations in milk, which were collected at the morning and the afternoon milking, can be a useful tool to monitor adrenocortical function in cows. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Amplification of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Gene Is a Rare Event in Adrenocortical Adenocarcinomas: Searching for Potential Mechanisms of Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Tamaya Castro; Jorge, Alexander Augusto; Almeida, Madson Q.; Mariani, Beatriz Marinho de Paula; Nishi, Mirian Yumi; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares

    2014-01-01

    Context. IGF1R overexpression appears to be a prognostic biomarker of metastatic pediatric adrenocortical tumors. However, the molecular mechanisms that are implicated in its upregulation remain unknown. Aim. To investigate the potential mechanisms involved in IGF1R overexpression. Patients and Methods. We studied 64 adrenocortical tumors. IGF1R copy number variation was determined in all patients using MLPA and confirmed using real time PCR. In a subgroup of 32 patients, automatic sequencing was used to identify IGF1R allelic variants and the expression of microRNAs involved in IGF1R regulation by real time PCR. Results. IGF1R amplification was detected in an adrenocortical carcinoma that was diagnosed in a 46-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome and virilization. IGF1R overexpression was demonstrated in this case. In addition, gene amplification of other loci was identified in this adrenocortical malignant tumor, but no IGF1R copy number variation was evidenced in the remaining cases. Automatic sequencing revealed three known polymorphisms but they did not correlate with its expression. Expression of miR-100, miR-145, miR-375, and miR-126 did not correlate with IGF1R expression. Conclusion. We demonstrated amplification and overexpression of IGF1R gene in only one adrenocortical carcinoma, suggesting that these combined events are uncommon. In addition, IGF1R polymorphisms and abnormal microRNA expression did not correlate with IGF1R upregulation in adrenocortical tumors. PMID:25110710

  12. Synchronous adrenocortical neoplasms, paragangliomas, and pheochromocytomas: syndromic considerations regarding an unusual constellation of endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Melissa; Tabrizi, Mohsen; Kapsner, Patricia; Hanson, Joshua Anspach

    2014-12-01

    The most common clinical syndromes presenting with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas as their endocrine components are multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Carney-Stratakis syndrome, Carney triad, and the recently described hereditary paraganglioma syndrome. Only Carney triad is known to also present with adrenocortical adenomas, currently representing the only described syndrome in which all 3 of the aforementioned tumors are found together. In most cases, prototypical lesions of the triad such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor and pulmonary chondromas are also seen. We present a case of a young woman with synchronous paragangliomas, adrenal/extra-adrenal cortical neoplasms, and pheochromocytoma without genetic mutations for multiple endocrine neoplasia 2, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis, and succinate dehydrogenase. We speculate that this represents a previously undescribed presentation of Carney triad and, at the very least, indicates the need for monitoring for the development of other tumors of the triad.

  13. Structure-activity relations between alkyl nucleophilic chemicals causing duodenal ulcer and adrenocortical necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Reynolds, E.S.; Unger, S.H.

    1982-10-01

    Structure-activity relationships were qualitatively and quantitatively examined for 56 chemicals (e.g., derivatives of propionitrile, acrylonitrile and cysteamine) which caused duodenal ulcer and/or adrenocortical necrosis in rats. For the first time the duodenal ulcerogenic property of numerous chemicals has been studied in a rational and predictive manner. Ulcerogenic activity was most intense in the carbonitriles attached to two or three carbon backbones and diminished by shortening, lengthening, branching, unsaturating, halogenating or hydroxylating the carbon chains. Different modes of action are implied. Adrenocorticolytic potency was associated with unsaturation of the carbon chain and substitution of the nitrile by thiol or amine radicals. An action of these chemicals on the central nervous system has been suggested.

  14. Interparental Aggression and Infant Patterns of Adrenocortical and Behavioral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on emotional security theory, this study examined linkages between interparental aggression, infant self-regulatory behaviors, and patterns of physiological and behavioral stress responses in a diverse sample of 735 infants residing in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of adrenocortical and behavioral stress response patterns at 7-months of age, using assessments of behavioral and cortisol reactivity to an emotion eliciting challenge, as well as global ratings of the child’s negative affect and basal cortisol levels. The addition of covariates within the latent profile model suggested that children with more violence in the home and who used less caregiver-oriented regulation strategies were more likely to exhibit a pattern of high cortisol reactivity with moderate signs of distress rather than the average stress response, suggesting possible patterns of adaptation in violent households. PMID:22127795

  15. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical function in rats with inherited diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, J C; Leach, J H

    1980-01-01

    1. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical activity in male homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats was compared with that in normal (Long Evans) controls in an attempt to elucidate the role of vasopressin the control of the secretion of corticotrophin. 2. The concentrations of corticosterone and corticotrophin in the plasma, corticotrophin in the adenohypophyses and corticotrophin releasing factor in the hypothalami were lower in the heterozygotes than in the controls and lower still in the homozygotes. 3. The capacities of adenohypophyses and hypothalami to secrete in vitro corticotrophin and corticotrophin releasing factor respectively in response to trophic stimuli were also reduced in the heterozygotes and, to an even greater extent, in the homozygotes. 4. The results suggest that vasopressin is not the corticotrophin releasing factor but they do not exclude the possibility that it may be involved in the sequence of events which leads to the secretion of corticotrophin in the rat. PMID:6255146

  16. A case report of adrenocortical carcinosarcoma with oncocytic and primitive neuroectodermal-like features.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Sui; Grignon, David J; Ulbright, Thomas M; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2013-09-01

    Adrenocortical carcinosarcomas are rare aggressive neoplasms; only a few have been reported to date, all with dismal prognosis. These were reported as having varying morphology. We have encountered a case of adrenal carcinosarcoma with an undifferentiated component bearing similarities to primitive neuroectodermal tumors and other areas of oncocytic differentiation. The 48-year-old woman patient presented with abdominal pain and unintended, excessive weight loss. Computed tomographic imaging revealed a tumor located adjacent to the liver and kidney necessitating a partial nephrectomy and hepatectomy. Histologically, the tumor exhibited malignant features. Melan-A, inhibin, calretinin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase were positive immunohistochemically. The patient developed metastasis within 2 months of surgery and is currently alive with disease after chemotherapy. Adrenal carcinosarcoma is a rare highly aggressive malignancy with a wide morphologic spectrum. Recognition of variant morphology and applying correct immunohistochemical studies will aid in reaching an accurate diagnosis.

  17. Adrenocortical suppression and recovery after continuous hypnotic infusion: etomidate versus its soft analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate.

    PubMed

    Ge, Rile; Pejo, Ervin; Cotten, Joseph F; Raines, Douglas E

    2013-01-30

    Etomidate is no longer administered as a continuous infusion for anesthetic maintenance or sedation, because it results in profound and persistent suppression of adrenocortical steroid synthesis with potentially lethal consequences in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that rapidly metabolized soft analogues of etomidate could be developed that do not produce persistent adrenocortical dysfunction even after prolonged continuous infusion. We hope that such agents might also provide more rapid and predictable anesthetic emergence. We have developed the soft etomidate analogue cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl etomidate (CPMM). Upon termination of 120-minute continuous infusions, hypnotic and encephalographic recoveries occur in four minutes. The aims of this study were to assess adrenocortical function during and following 120-minute continuous infusion of CPMM and to compare the results with those obtained using etomidate. Dexamethasone-suppressed rats were randomized into an etomidate group, CPMM group, or control group. Rats in the etomidate and CPMM groups received 120-minute continuous infusions of etomidate and CPMM, respectively. Rats in the control group received neither hypnotic. In the first study, adrenocortical function during hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 90 minutes after the start of the hypnotic infusion and measuring plasma corticosterone concentrations at the end of the infusion 30 minutes later. In the second study, adrenocortical recovery following hypnotic infusion was assessed by administering ACTH every 30 minutes after infusion termination and measuring plasma corticosterone concentrations 30 minutes after each ACTH dose. During hypnotic infusion, ACTH-stimulated serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower in the CPMM and etomidate groups than in the control group (100 ± 64 ng/ml and 33 ± 32 ng/ml versus 615 ± 265 ng/ml, respectively). After hypnotic infusion, ACTH

  18. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  19. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, José C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  20. Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia of the Zona Reticularis: A New Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghayee, Hans K.; Rege, Juilee; Watumull, Lori M.; Nwariaku, Fiemu E.; Carrick, Kelley S.; Rainey, William E.; Miller, Walter L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia classically presents with progressive hypercortisolemia and Cushing syndrome. We describe a 29-yr-old man with massive macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia without hypercortisolemia but rather markedly elevated and nonsuppressible production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Objective: To characterize the clinical and molecular features of this case and to determine whether the tissue biochemically resembles the zona reticularis or fetal adrenal. Setting: University clinic, hospital, and laboratories. Design: Static and dynamic blood and urine testing were performed preoperatively. Tissue was studied by light microscopy, immunoblot, RNA microarray, and enzyme assay. Participant: A 29-yr-old man with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal enlargement. Intervention: Bilateral adrenalectomy. Main Outcome Measures: Molecular studies compared with control samples. Results: Hypercortisolism and 21-hydroxylase deficiency were excluded. DHEA, DHEAS, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were markedly elevated and did not suppress with dexamethasone 2 mg/d for 4 d. Homogenates of the adrenals demonstrated high 17-hydroxylase, good 17,20-lyase, and low or absent 21-hydroxylase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Immunoblots confirmed robust expression of cytochrome P450c17 and AKR1C3 but not P450c21. Microarray analysis demonstrated high CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 expression but low or absent HSD3B1, HSD3B2, and CYP21A2 expression. Expression of mRNA for cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) and AKR1C3, markers of the zona reticularis, were markedly elevated. Conclusion: This is the first case of macronodular hyperplasia of the adrenal zona reticularis confirmed with studies of enzyme activity, mRNA expression, and protein identification. We speculate that this condition can be clinically silent in men but might cause severe hyperandrogenemia in women. PMID:21084398

  1. Adrenocortical activity and the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale: moderating effects of the newborn's biomedical status.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, M R; Isensee, J; Fust, L S

    1987-12-01

    The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale with Kansas Supplement (NBAS-K) was administered midway between feedings to 60 newborns who were between 32 and 122 hours old. 35 of the newborns were classified as extremely healthy and normal (Subgroup I), whereas 25 (Subgroup II) were characterized by slight perinatal problems including gestational age 36-37 weeks or 42+ weeks, and fetal distress during labor. All of the newborns were healthy enough to be cared for in a healthy newborn, Level I nursery. Immediately following administration of the NBAS-K, a blood sample was obtained for plasma cortisol determination. Correlations between behavioral responding on the NBAS-K and levels of plasma cortisol revealed few significant relations for the sample as a whole. When the 2 subgroups were examined separately, a number of significant relations emerged. Newborns in Subgroup I who were more competent in their motor control and state regulation capacities as assessed by Lester's Cluster Scores for the NBAS-K exhibited higher levels of plasma cortisol. In contrast, newborns in Subgroup II who exhibited a greater adrenocortical response to the examination showed more behaviors indicative of high behavioral arousal and distress. This pattern of relations for Subgroup II appeared to be mediated by the number of hours that had elapsed since delivery. As postpartum time increased, the strength of the association between adrenocortical activity and behavioral arousal/distress decreased for Subgroup II. A systems theory approach is used to interpret the difference in patterns of correlations found for the 2 subgroups.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, Stefanie B; Myburgh, Jan G; Cameron, Elissa Z; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of stress-inducing factors in captive crocodilians is a concern, since chronic stress can negatively affect animal health and reproduction, and hence production. Monitoring stress in wild crocodiles could also be beneficial for assessing the state of health in populations which are potentially threatened by environmental pollution. In both cases, a non-invasive approach to assess adrenocortical function as a measure of stress would be preferable, as animals are not disturbed during sample collection, and therefore sampling is feedback-free. So far, however, such a non-invasive method has not been established for any crocodilian species. As an initial step, we therefore examined the suitability of two enzyme-immunoassays, detecting faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) with a 11β,21-diol-20-one and 5β-3α-ol-11-one structure, respectively, for monitoring stress-related physiological responses in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was performed on 10 sub-adult crocodiles, resulting in an overall increase in serum corticosterone levels of 272% above the pre-injection levels 5h post-injection. Saline-treated control animals (n=8) showed an overall increase of 156% in serum corticosterone levels 5h post-administration. Faecal samples pre- and post-injection could be obtained from three of the six individually housed crocodiles, resulting in FGM concentrations 136-380% above pre-injection levels, always detected in the first sample collected post-treatment (7-15 days post-injection). FGM concentrations seem comparatively stable at ambient temperatures for up to 72 h post-defaecation. In conclusion, non-invasive hormone monitoring can be used for assessing adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles based on FGM analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adrenocortical response to low-dose ACTH test in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Zofia; Rovensky, Jozef; Vlcek, Miroslav; Penesova, Adela; Kerlik, Jana; Vigas, Milan; Imrich, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Alterations in adrenal steroid production have been suggested in females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to assess adrenocortical function in RA females. We examined 11 female RA patients (RA: age 30 +/- 2 years, BMI 21.0 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)) and 10 matched healthy controls (C: age 31 +/- 1 years, BMI 21.6 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2)). Low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test (i.v. bolus of 1 microg synthetic ACTH) was performed at 10.00 h with blood sampling every 15 min for 90 min. Cortisol, 17-OH-progesterone (17OHP), androstenedione (ASD), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were assayed in plasma. Baseline cortisol levels were higher in RA patients (RA: 385 +/- 38 versus C: 229 +/- 28 nmol/L, P= 0.007). In both study groups, ACTH administration increased all the four steroids measured (P < 0.001). Cortisol response to ACTH administration was diminished in RA patients when compared to controls (Delta(max): 284 +/- 24 in RA versus 424 +/- 31 nmol/L in C, P= 0.002). ACTH-induced maximal rise in plasma DHEA was significantly lower in RA patients when compared to controls (Delta(max): 2.59 +/- 0.68 in RA versus 5.57 +/- 1.25 ng/mL in C, P= 0.015). No significant between-groups differences were found in responses of ASD or 17OHP. The molar ratio of ASD:cortisol was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in RA patients at base line, but did not differ during ACTH test. After ACTH bolus, the cortisol:17OHP ratio decreased significantly in the RA group (P < 0.001), whereas there was no change in the control group. The present results show decreased secretion of cortisol and DHEA in RA patients in response to ACTH, suggesting a subtle HPA hypofunction at the adrenocortical level.

  4. [Effect of fetal adrenal hormones on the reactivity of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical system in the adult rat].

    PubMed

    Dygalo, N N; Naumenko, E V

    1984-01-01

    It was found in the experiments on adult males, descendants of the intact or adrenalectomized (prior to mating) female rats which were injected during the pregnancy with adrenaline, hydrocortisone or saline solution, that the reaction of their hypophysial-adrenocortical system to emotional stress or injection of noradrenaline into brain were inversely proportional to the content of corticosteroids, rather than of adrenaline, in the blood of their mothers during the pregnancy. On the other hand, the coupled changes of the levels of corticosteroids and adrenaline in the blood of pregnant mothers only was accompanied by the marked decrease in the sensitivity of brain cholinergic mechanisms in descendants. Hence, the changes of the levels of both adrenaline and corticosterids in the blood of pregnant females modify the reactivity of hypophysial-adrenocortical system of adult descendants, apparently, via the development of brain neurochemical mechanisms in the foetuses. But the role of these hormones is different.

  5. Abnormal regulation of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate and corticosterone formation in an adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ney, R. L.; Hochella, N. J.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.; Dexter, R. N.; Butcher, R. W.

    1969-01-01

    A spontaneously occurring rat adrenocortical carcinoma which produces corticosterone was maintained by transplantation. The carcinoma appeared to utilize corticosterone biosynthetic steps similar to those of the normal adrenal, but the tumor produced only about 1-10% as much corticosterone per unit tissue weight as nontumorous adrenal glands. The tumor demonstrated little or no increase in corticosterone production in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) either in vivo or in vitro. In normal adrenals, ACTH increases the activity of adenyl cyclase which catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), the latter then serving as an intracellular regulator of steroidogenesis. ACTH failed to increase cyclic AMP levels in the tumor in vivo or in slices in vitro, conditions under which there were 50- and 20-fold increases in nontumorous adrenals. However, in homogenates fortified with exogenous ATP, adenyl cyclase activity was comparable in the tumor and adrenals, and cyclic AMP formation was increased 3-fold by ACTH in each. As measured in homogenates, the tumor did not possess a greater ability to destroy cyclic AMP than did normal adrenals. Although ATP levels in the carcinoma were found to be considerably lower than those in normal adrenals, it was not clear that this finding can explain the inability of ACTH to increase cyclic AMP levels in intact tumor cells. While the failure to normally influence cyclic AMP levels in the carcinoma cells could be an important factor in the lack of a steroid response to ACTH, several lines of evidence suggest that the tumor possesses one or more additional abnormalities in the regulation of steroidogenesis. First, in the absence of ACTH stimulation, the tissue concentrations of cyclic AMP were comparable in the tumor and in nontumorous adrenals, but these cyclic AMP levels were associated with a lower level of steroidogenesis in the tumor. Second, tumor slices

  6. The adrenocortical response of greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to capture, ACTH injection, and confinement, as measured in fecal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jankowski, M.D.; Wittwer, D.J.; Heisey, D.M.; Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assesments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4??C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (-20??C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG. ?? 2009 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. Adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and evidence for deoxyribonucleic acid binding and stimulation by adrenocorticotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, T.; Driscoll, W.J.; Lee, Y.C.; Strott, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei of the guinea pig adrenal cortex contain a protein that specifically binds progesterone and that, biochemically, is clearly distinct from the classical progesterone receptor. The adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein has now been purified more than 2000-fold by steroid-affinity chromatography with a 75% yield. The purified protein preparation demonstrated three major bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel of 79K, 74K, and 50K. To determine which of the three might represent the progesterone-binding protein, steroid photoaffinity labeling was performed which resulted in the specific and exclusive labeling of a 50K band. Thus, the adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein appears to be distinct from the classical progesterone receptor not only biochemically, but also on the basis of molecular size. To test whether the adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein can be hormonally stimulated, guinea pigs were treated with ACTH. The chronic administration of ACTH caused a 4- to 6-fold increase in the specific progesterone binding capacity without a change in the binding affinity. There appeared to be no significant difference in nuclear progesterone binding between the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. This finding suggests a mediating role for the progesterone-binding protein in ACTH action. In addition, the nuclear progesterone-binding protein bound to nonspecific DNA sequences, further suggesting a possible transcriptional regulatory role.

  8. The Adrenocortical Response of Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to Capture, ACTH Injection, and Confinement, as Measured in Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, M. D.; Wittwer, D. J.; Heisey, D. M.; Franson, J. C.; Hofmeister, E. K.

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assesments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4°C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (−20°C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG. PMID:19199814

  9. The adrenocortical response of greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to capture, ACTH injection, and confinement, as measured in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M D; Wittwer, D J; Heisey, D M; Franson, J C; Hofmeister, E K

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assessments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4 degrees C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (-20 degrees C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG.

  10. Tissue mercury concentrations and adrenocortical responses of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near a contaminated river.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Yates, David E; Evers, David C; Taylor, Robert J; Hopkins, William A

    2010-10-01

    Much of the research on mercury (Hg) in wild vertebrates has focused on piscivores and other animals at high trophic levels. However, recent studies indicated that insectivorous terrestrial vertebrates may also be at risk. In the present study, we examined blood and fur Hg concentrations as well as the adrenocortical responses of insectivorous big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near the Hg-contaminated South River, VA and a nearby reference area. Baseline glucocorticoids and adrenocortical responses to handling have been widely used to assess the influence of environmental stressors because plasma glucocorticoids rise in response to various physical, psychological, and physiological challenges. Female bats captured at the contaminated site had 2.6 times higher blood and fur Hg concentrations than those captured at the reference site (blood: 0.11 vs. 0.04 μg/g wet weight; fur: 28.0 vs. 10.9 μg/g fresh weight). Fur Hg concentrations at the contaminated site were higher than most wild omnivorous and carnivorous mammals reported in the literature. Although fur and blood Hg concentrations were tightly correlated, fur Hg concentrations averaged 260 times higher than concentrations in blood. This suggests that fur may be an important depuration route for bats, just as it is in other mammals. Despite the high Hg concentrations in bat tissue, we did not observe any site difference in adrenocortical responses. Our results suggest that the bats at the contaminated site were exposed to Hg concentrations below those causing adverse effects on their adrenal axis.

  11. Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress with respect to brood value, reproductive success and survival in the Eurasian hoopoe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Baptiste; Tam-Dafond, Laura; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Schaub, Michael; Jenni, Lukas

    2013-09-01

    Reproducing parents face the difficult challenge of trading-off investment in current reproduction against presumed future survival and reproduction. Glucocorticoids are supposed to mediate this trade-off because the adrenocortical response to stress disrupts normal reproductive behaviour in favour of self-maintenance and own survival. According to the brood-value hypothesis, individuals with a low survival probability until the next reproductive season have to invest in current reproduction, a process driven by a down-regulation of their adrenocortical response. If the adrenocortical response to stress effectively mediates the trade-off between current reproduction versus future survival and reproduction, we expect a negative relationship with reproductive success and a positive correlation of the adrenocortical stress response with survival. We studied the relationship between corticosterone secretion in parents and their current brood value, reproductive success and survival in a short-lived multi-brooded bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops. The adrenocortical response to acute handling stress was correlated with the brood value within the individual (first and second broods of the year) and between individuals. Birds breeding late in the season mounted a lower total corticosterone response to acute stress than birds breeding earlier, while females showed lower levels than males. We observed a negative relationship between the adrenocortical stress response and rearing success or fledging success in females, as predicted by the brood-value hypothesis. However, we could not evidence a clear link between the adrenocortical stress response and survival. Future research testing the brood-value hypothesis and trade-offs between current reproduction and future survival should also measure free corticosterone and carefully differentiate between cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) and individual-based experimental studies.

  12. Adrenocortical tumors associated with the TP53 p.R337H germline mutation can be identified during child-care consultations.

    PubMed

    Mastellaro, Maria J; Ribeiro, Raul C; Oliveira-Filho, Antônio G; Seidinger, Ana L; Cardinalli, Izilda A; Miranda, Eliana C M; Aguiar, Simone S; Brandalise, Silvia R; Yunes, José A; Barros-Filho, Antônio A

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the clinical features associated with adrenocortical hormone overexpression and familial cancer profiling as potential markers for early detection of adrenocortical tumors in children from South and Southeast Brazil. The clinical manifestations and anthropometric measurements of 103 children diagnosed with adrenocortical tumors were analyzed. Between 1982 and 2011, 69 girls and 34 boys diagnosed with adrenocortical tumors were followed-up for a median time of 9.0 years (0-34 years). Signs of androgen overproduction alone (n=75) or associated with cortisol (n=18) were present in 90.3%. TP53 p.R337H mutation was found in 90.5% of patients. Stages I, II, III, and IV were observed in 45.6%, 27.2%, 19.4%, and 7.8% of patients, respectively. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences in height (p=0.92) and weight (p=0.22) among children with adrenocortical tumors, but children with virilization alone had significantly higher height-for-age Z-scores (0.92±1.4) than children with hypercortisolism alone or combined (-0.32±1.8; p=0.03). The five-year overall survival was 76.7% (SD±4.2). Patients with advanced-stage disease had a significantly worse prognosis than those with limited disease (p<0.001). During follow-up, ten of 55 p.R337H carrier parents developed cancer, whereas none of the 55 non-carriers did. Signs of adrenocortical hormone overproduction appear early, even in cases with early-stage. These signs can be identified at the physical