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Sample records for h35 hepatoma cells

  1. Reculation of folylpolyglutamate synthetase in extracts of H35 hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.B.; Galivan, J.; Nair, M.G. )

    1987-05-01

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) in extracts of H35 hepatoma cells was assayed using 250 {mu}M methotrexate (MTX) as the substrate under conditions where ({sup 3}H)glutamate incorporation was linear with respect to time and rotein concentration. Extracts from confluent cultures with reduced cellular folates exhibited nearly 1.7-fold higher FPGS specific activity than extracts of control cultures (600 pmol/hr/mg). Extracts of rapidly dividing cells (72 hrs) showed nearly a 2.3-fold increase. The addition of reduced exogenous folates such as folinic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (20 {mu}M, 24 hrs) to confluent cultures of folate-depleted cells typically lowered the FPGS activity in the resultant extracts by 40%, while a 42-hour exclusion of methionine from the media reduced the activity by half. The combination of methionine exclusion and folate addition for 42 hrs resulted in 75% lower FPGS activity vs extracts of control cultures of folate-depleted cells. These data suggest that the change sin the glutamylation rate of MTX in whole cells due to culture conditions such as folate restriction, reduced folate addition, methionine exclusion, and growth state are at least in part a consequence of alterations in FPGS activity. Using MTX or N{sup 10}-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717) as the starting substrate under appropriate assay conditions, FPGS from extracts catalyzed the formation of similar polyglutamate products as seen in analogous whole cell experiments.

  2. Insulin and phorbol myristic acetate induce ornithine decarboxylase in Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S A; Esau, B; Koontz, J W

    1988-11-01

    Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells respond to insulin or to tumor promoting phorbol esters with an increase in ornithine decarboxylase enzyme activity. This occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner with both types of agonist. We report here that the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity with optimal concentrations of both agonists is additive. Furthermore, the initial increase is dependent on continued RNA and protein synthesis. We also find that both of these agonists cause an increase in mRNA coding for ornithine decarboxylase in a time- and dose-dependent manner which suggests that the increase in enzyme activity can be accounted for by the increase in transcript levels. The difference in the time course of induction by the agonists, the additivity of induction by the two agonists, the differential sensitivity of induction to cycloheximide and RNA synthesis inhibitors, and the observation that phorbol myristic acetate causes a further increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity and transcript levels in cells already maximally induced by insulin suggest that these two agonists act through separate mechanisms.

  3. Solamargine triggers hepatoma cell death through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    XIE, XIAODONG; ZHU, HAITAO; YANG, HUIJIAN; HUANG, WENSI; WU, YINGYING; WANG, YING; LUO, YANLING; WANG, DONGQING; SHAO, GENBAO

    2015-01-01

    Solamargine (SM), a steroidal alkaloid glycoside extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Solanum incanum, has been evidenced to inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis in a number of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, the anticancer effect of SM and underlying molecular mechanism of SM-induced apoptosis were investigated on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, SMMC7721 and HepG2. The proliferation effects of SM on the SMMC7721 and HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, the percentage of apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V/propidium iodide staining method and the cell cycle distribution mediated by SM was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, caspase-9, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and Ki67 proteins were examined to further demonstrate the proliferate and apoptosis effects of SM on the hepatoma cells. The results indicated that SM effectively inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. SM resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in the two cell lines. In addition, SM downregulated the levels of proliferation-associated (Ki67 and pcna) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, and promoted the activity of apoptosis-associated proteins (Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9). Therefore, the activation of the Bcl-2/Bax and caspase signaling pathways may be involved in the SM-induced apoptosis of hepatoma cells. PMID:26170994

  4. Regulatory aspects of the glutamylation of methotrexate in cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nimec, Z.; Galivan, J.

    1983-10-15

    The glutamylation of methotrexate has been evaluated in H35 hepatoma cells in vitro as a function of the conditions of culture. Glutamylation yields methotrexate polyglutamate with two to five additional glutamate residues and is a saturable process. The rate of glutamylation increases little above 10 microM extracellular methotrexate which corresponds to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 microM. The rate of glutamylation measured over a 6-h period was stimulated by a reduction in cellular folates and prior incubation of the cells with insulin. Glutamylation was also more rapid in dividing cultures than in confluent cells. The combination of insulin inclusion and folate reduction, which was additive, caused approximately a fourfold increase in the rate of glutamylation over control cells under the conditions tested. The maximal rate of methotrexate glutamylation, which was 100 nmol/g/h, occurred in folate-depleted, insulin-supplemented cells. Supplementing folate-depleted cells with reduced folate coenzymes caused the glutamylation to be reduced by more than 90%. In addition to showing that folates can modify the rates of methotrexate polyglutamate formation, data are presented suggesting that methotrexate polyglutamates can regulate their own synthesis. The consequences of the formation of these retained forms of methotrexate in H35 hepatoma cells and the effects of potential regulators of this process are discussed in terms of the glutamylation of folates in the cells and the chemotherapeutic effects of antifolates.

  5. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J.

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  6. Alterations of rat hepatoma cell genomes induced by copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Renault, E; Deschatrette, J

    1997-01-01

    Copper deficiency imposed on a variant rat hepatoma cell line inhibits cell growth and results in genesis of stable well-differentiated, tumorigenic revertants. The treatment caused a substantial increase in DNA content (up to 20%) of G1 and G2/M cells and inhibition of cell proliferation. This phenomenon was correlated with an enhancement of DNA replication. The excess DNA was unstable and rapidly lost with reinitiation of cell growth and mitosis. Minute and double-minute extrachromosomal material was detected by metaphase analysis, suggesting widespread DNA amplification in copper-deficient conditions. Although transitory, these genetic events were associated with genesis of drug-resistant cells and induction of tumorigenicity of the variant hepatoma cells. The data reveal a novel aspect of the consequences of trace element deficiency.

  7. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-03-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin (/sup 32/P)cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements.

  8. [Experimental study on electrical impedance properties of human hepatoma cells].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yun; Tang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Xin; Ma, Qing

    2014-10-01

    The AC impedance of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were measured in our laboratory by Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer in the frequency range of 0.01-100 MHz. And then the effect of hematocrit on electrical impedance characteristics of hepatoma cells was observed by electrical impedance spectroscopy, Bode diagram, Nyquist diagram and Nichols diagram. The results showed that firstly, there is a frequency dependence, i.e., the increment of real part and the imaginary part of complex electrical impedance (δZ', δZ"), the increment of the amplitude modulus of complex electrical impedance (δ[Z *]) and phase angle (δθ) were all changed with the increasing frequency. Secondly, it showed cell volume fraction (CVF) dependence, i. e. , the increment of low-frequency limit (δZ'0, δ[Z*] 0), peak (δZ"(p), δθ(p)), area and radius (Nyquist diagram, Nichols diagram) were all increased along with the electric field frequency. Thirdly, there was the presence of two characteristic frequencies: the first characteristic frequency (f(c1)) and the second characteristic frequency (f(c2)), which were originated respectively in the polarization effects of two interfaces that the cell membrane and extracellular fluid, cell membrane and cytoplasm. A conclusion can be drawn that the electrical impedance spectroscopy is able to be used to observe the electrical characteristics of human hepatoma cells, and therefore this method can be used to investigate the electrophysiological mechanisms of liver cancer cells, and provide research tools and observation parameters, and it also has important theoretical value and potential applications for screening anticancer drugs. PMID:25764724

  9. Expression patterns of cytokines and chemokines genes in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ji Su; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han

    2002-10-01

    Various cytokines and chemokines play a role in carcinogenesis. However, no study has previously been undertaken to investigate comprehensively the expressions of cytokines and chemokines in hepatoma cells. In this study, we determined which cytokines and chemokines are expressed in hepatoma cells. Recently, it was reported that the expressions of several chemokines could be increased by Fas stimulus in many normal and cancer cells. Therefore, we also investigated whether chemokines expression is regulated by Fas ligation. To address this issue, we performed RNase protection assays upon 13 cytokines and 8 chemokines genes in 10 human hepatoma cell lines, comprising 8 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatoma cell lines. Transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) was found to be expressed in 8 HBV-associated hepatoma cell lines, and to be potently expressed in 5 cell lines; however, the mRNA expressions of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12, interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) were not detected in any cell lines examined. Among the chemokines investigated in this study, IL-8 was expressed by 8 HBV- associated hepatoma cell lines, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by 7 HBV-associated hepatoma cell lines. However, the mRNA expressions of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha(MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), RANTES, lymphotactin and I-309 were either very weak or undetectable. Fas ligation did not increase chemokines expression in hepatoma cells. Conclusively, TGF-beta2, IL-8 and MCP-1 were overexpressed in HBV-associated hepatoma cells, and the expressions of chemokines were not increased by Fas ligation in human hepatoma cells.

  10. Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, J.E.; Colman, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera to human plasma fibronectin. By double immunodiffusion, a component in the conditioned culture medium was shown to form a line of identity with fibronectin in human plasma and to migrate as an alpha 2- to beta-globulin during immunoelectrophoresis. Human fibronectin was quantified in conditioned medium by electroimmunodiffusion, and was found to increase for at least three days at about 0.1 micrograms/10(6) cells/day. Adherent cultures of SK-HEP-1 cells were incubated with L-(/sup 35/S)methionine to label newly synthesized proteins. Labeled fibronectin in conditioned medium or in cell extracts comigrated with fibronectin in human plasma as shown by autoradiography following crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Fibronectin was demonstrated in the extra-cellular matrix of adherent SK-HEP-1 cultures by immunofluorescence. It was shown previously that SK-HEP-1 cells synthesize alpha 1-protease inhibitor, one of the products of normal hepatocytes. The finding that these hepatoma cells also synthesize fibronectin supports the concept that the hepatocyte may be one source of circulating fibronectin, a possibility consistent with the established role of this cell type in blood plasma protein synthesis.

  11. Regulated expression of erythropoietin by two human hepatoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.A.; Glass, G.A.; Cunningham, J.M.; Bunn, H.F.

    1987-11-01

    The development of a cell culture system that produces erythropoietin (Epo) in a regulated manner has been the focus of much effort. The authors have screened multiple renal and hepatic cell lines for either constitutive or regulated expression of Epo. Only the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, made significant amounts of Epo as measured both by radioimmunoassay and in vitro bioassay (as much as 330 milliunits per 10/sup 6/ cells in 24 hr). The constitutive production of Epo increased dramatically as a function of cell density in both cell lines. At cell densities < 3.3 x 10/sup 5/ cells per cm/sup 2/, there was little constitutive release of Epo in the medium. With Hep3B cells grown at low cell densities, a mean 18-fold increase in Epo expression was seen in response to hypoxia and a 6-fold increase was observed in response to incubation in medium containing 50 ..mu..M cobalt(II) chloride. At similar low cell densities, Epo production in HepG2 cells could be enhanced an average of about 3-fold by stimulation with either hypoxia or cobalt(II) chloride. Upon such stimulation, both cell lines demonstrated markedly elevated levels of Epo mRNA. Hence, both Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines provide an excellent in vitro system in which to study the physiological regulation of Epo expression.

  12. Cytokeratin gene expression in hepatoma hybrid cells: evidence for regulation in cis.

    PubMed

    Gourdeau, H; Fournier, R E

    1989-07-01

    The genes encoding intermediate filament (IF) proteins are expressed in a cell-lineage restricted fashion. To analyze the regulation of such genes, we studied cytokeratin and vimentin expression in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. These hybrids continued to express both hepatoma cell-derived cytokeratins and fibroblast-specific vimentin. Furthermore, the cytokeratin subunits that were produced were exclusively of rat hepatoma origin. Thus, IF protein genes were neither extinguished nor activated in cell hybrids, providing evidence for regulation in cis. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of most tissue-specific genes, which tend to be regulated in trans in hybrid cells.

  13. Permissivity of primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines to support hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Garrick K; Farquhar, Michelle J; Meredith, Luke; Dhawan, Anil; Mitry, Ragai; Balfe, Peter; McKeating, Jane A

    2015-06-01

    The major cell type supporting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the hepatocyte; however, most reports studying viral entry and replication utilize transformed hepatoma cell lines. We demonstrate that HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) infect primary hepatocytes with comparable rates to hepatoma cells, demonstrating the limited variability in donor hepatocytes to support HCV receptor-glycoprotein-dependent entry. In contrast, we observed a 2-log range in viral replication between the same donor hepatocytes. We noted that cell proliferation augments pseudoparticle reporter activity and arresting hepatoma cells yields comparable levels of infection to hepatocytes. This study demonstrates comparable rates of HCVpp entry into primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cells, validating the use of transformed cells as a model system to study HCV entry. PMID:25667327

  14. Recycling of 5'-nucleotidase in a rat hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, R A; du Maine, A P; Geuze, H J; van der Ende, A; Strous, G J

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular movement of cell surface 5'-nucleotidase was studied in H4S cells, a rat hepatoma cell line. Surface labelled cells were incubated for various periods at 37 degrees C and treated with neuraminidase at 0 degrees C. Removal of sialic acid residues from glycoproteins results in a change of their isoelectric points. Analysis with isoelectric focusing was then used to distinguish between cell surface and intracellular 5'-nucleotidase. Incubation of 125I-surface-labelled cells at 37 degrees C resulted in a gradual decrease of labelled 5'-nucleotidase at the plasma membrane until, at 60 to 90 min, a steady state was reached with 52% of the label on the cell surface and 48% intracellular. Pretreatment of the cells with the weak base primaquine had no influence on this distribution while at the same time uptake of iron via the transferrin receptor was inhibited. Using immunoelectron microscopy 5'-nucleotidase was found on the cell surface, in multivesicular endosomes and the Golgi complex. Preincubation of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide caused a reduction of labelling in the Golgi complex, whereas the label in the other compartments was retained. These results lead to the conclusion that 5'-nucleotidase does not recycle through the Golgi complex and that in contrast to the transferrin receptor the recycling of 5'-nucleotidase is not inhibited by primaquine. Images PMID:2850162

  15. Screening and identification of a specific peptide for targeting hypoxic hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiming; Xia, Xiangwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Xin; Zhou, Guofeng; Liang, Huiming; Feng, Gansheng; Zheng, Chuansheng

    2016-08-01

    The biological behaviors of residual hepatoma cells after transarterial embolization therapy, which exist in a hypoxic or even anaerobic tumor microenvironment, differ from the tumor cells under normoxic conditions. This study aimed to use a phage display peptide library for in vivo and in vitro screening to obtain a peptide which could specifically bind to hypoxic hepatoma cells, allowing further targeted diagnosis and treatment for liver cancer. In this study, hypoxic hepatoma cells HepG2 (targeted cells), and normal liver cells HL-7702 (control cells), were utilized to perform three rounds of in vitro screening using a phage-displayed 7-mer peptide library. In addition, hypoxic HepG2 were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to establish a hepatocarcinoma model, followed by performing three rounds of in vivo screening on the phages identified from the in vitro screening. The products from the screening were further identified using ELISA and immunofluorescence staining on cells and tissues. The results indicated that the P11 positive clone had the highest binding effect with hypoxic hepatoma cells. The sequence of the exogenous insert fragment of P11 positive clone was obtained by sequencing: GSTSFSK. The binding assay indicated that GSTSFSK could specifically bind to hypoxic hepatoma cells and hepatocarcinoma tissues. This 7-mer peptide has the potential to be developed as an useful molecular to the targeting diagnosis and treatment of residual hepatoma cells after transarterial chemoembolization. PMID:27381416

  16. Glycogen metabolism in novikoff ascites-hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, V. N.

    1967-01-01

    A study of the enzymes of the glycogen pathway in Novikoff ascites hepatoma shows that glycogen synthetase has the lowest activity and that the tumour contains no high-Km soluble glucokinase. However, incubation of tumour cells with metabolizable sugars in vitro, or intraperitoneal administration of glucose into the tumour-bearing rat, results in glycogen accumulation by the tumour cells. Glycogen synthesis in the tumour is supported by aerobically produced ATP but is decreased anaerobically and by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Absence of Pi from the incubation medium increases glycogen synthesis and decreases glycolysis. The optimum temperature for glycogen synthesis is 37°. The capacity of the intact tumour cell to degrade deposited glycogen is low, but is accelerated by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Tumour homogenates prepared after osmotic shock do not incorporate [14C]glucose into glycogen. The glucose moiety of glucose 1-phosphate and of UDP-glucose is incorporated into glycogen by the homogenates and the incorporation of glucose 1-phosphate is greatly enhanced by AMP. Glucose 6-phosphate is a poor precursor of glycogen in the homogenate system, probably because it inhibits activation of phosphorylase b by AMP. PMID:4291492

  17. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest of Mice H22 Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yiye; Ni, Yanbo; Yang, Jing; Lin, Xutao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that astaxanthin (ASX), a member of the carotenoid family, has strong biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and immune-modulation activities. Previous studies have confirmed that ASX can effectively inhibit hepatoma cells in vitro. Material/Methods MTT was used to assay proliferation of mice H22 cells, and flow cytometry was used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of H22 cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, anti-tumor activity of ASX was observed in mice. Results ASX inhibited the proliferation of H22 cells, promoted cell necrosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phase in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions This study indicated that ASX can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mice H22 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27333866

  18. Berberine Inhibits Human Hepatoma Cell Invasion without Cytotoxicity in Healthy Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xuediao; Yang, Zhicheng; Zang, Linquan

    2011-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy fails to cure metastatic hepatoma mainly due to its high hepatotoxicity. Many plant-derived agents have been accepted to effectively inhibit hepatoma cell invasion. However, the investigation that whether effectual plant-derived agents against invasive hepatoma cells exert unexpected cytotoxicity in healthy hepatocytes has been ignored. This study demonstrated that berberine exhibited significant cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells mainly through upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but was ineffective in normal Chang liver cells. Berberine exerted anti-invasive effect on HepG2 cells through suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. Moreover, berberine could significantly inhibit the activity of PI3K-AKT and ERK pathways. Combination treatment of ERK pathway inhibitor PD98059 or AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and berberine could result in a synergistic reduction on MMP-9 expression along with an inhibition of cell invasion. Enhancement of ROS production by berberine had no influence on its suppressive effects on the activity of PI3K-AKT and ERK pathways, as well as MMP-9 expression and HepG2 cell invasion. In conclusion, our results suggest that berberine may be a potential alternative against invasive hepatoma cells through PI3K-AKT and ERK pathways-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression. This study also provides a previously neglected insight into the investigation of plant-derived agents-based therapy against tumor invasion with the consideration of damage to healthy cells. PMID:21738655

  19. Baicalein inhibits the migration and invasive properties of human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Huang, Wen-Shih; Teng, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Yi-Sheng; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Huang, Hai-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Huang, Chih-Yang; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jin-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exert health benefits in humans. We investigated whether the flavonoid baicalein would inhibit the adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth of human hepatoma cell lines, and we also investigated its mechanism of action. The separate effects of baicalein and baicalin on the viability of HA22T/VGH and SK-Hep1 cells were investigated for 24 h. To evaluate their invasive properties, cells were incubated on matrigel-coated transwell membranes in the presence or absence of baicalein. We examined the effect of baicalein on the adhesion of cells, on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that baicalein suppresses hepatoma cell growth by 55%, baicalein-treated cells showed lower levels of migration than untreated cells, and cell invasion was significantly reduced to 28%. Incubation of hepatoma cells with baicalein also significantly inhibited cell adhesion to matrigel, collagen I, and gelatin-coated substrate. Baicalein also decreased the gelatinolytic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA, decreased p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, and decreased phosphorylated I-kappa-B (IKB)-{beta}. In addition, baicalein reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKC{alpha} and p38 proteins, which regulate invasion in poorly differentiated hepatoma cells. Finally, when SK-Hep1 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of baicalein induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the anticancer properties of baicalein, which include the inhibition of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vivo. - Highlight: > Baicalein inhibits several essential steps in the onset of metastasis.

  20. A Long Noncoding RNA Perturbs the Circadian Rhythm of Hepatoma Cells to Facilitate Hepatocarcinogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Zheng, Minying; Sun, Baodi; Wang, Yue; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK)/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC. PMID:25622901

  1. A long noncoding RNA perturbs the circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells to facilitate hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Zheng, Minying; Sun, Baodi; Wang, Yue; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK)/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC), contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC.

  2. Culture and Functional Characterization of Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Donato, María Teresa; Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, María José

    2015-01-01

    Hepatoma cell lines are frequently used as in vitro alternatives to primary human hepatocytes. Cell lines are characterized by their unlimited life span, stable phenotype, high availability, and easy handling. However, their major limitation is the lower expression of some metabolic activities compared with hepatocytes. HepG2 is a human hepatoma that is most commonly used in drug metabolism and hepatotoxicity studies. HepG2 cells are nontumorigenic cells with high proliferation rates and an epithelial-like morphology that perform many differentiated hepatic functions. In this chapter, freezing, thawing, and subculturing procedures for HepG2 cells are described. We further provide protocols for evaluating lipid accumulation, glycogen storage, urea synthesis, and phase I and phase II drug metabolizing activities in HepG2 cells. PMID:26272135

  3. The mechanism of antiproliferative effect of desferrioxamine on human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, W H; Kang, J K; Park, S; Kwon, O H

    1994-03-01

    We investigated the effect of desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, on the DNA synthesis and the cell cycle of cultured hepatoma cells. Using Hep 3B cells as the hepatoma cell lines, DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, and the cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry including bivariate DNA/BrdU analysis. [3H] thymidine uptake was decreased by DFO in a dose dependent manner. The proportion of S phase cells increased and that of G0/G1 phase cells decreased after the addition of DFO in the culture media in a dose dependent manner up to 20 micrograms/ml of DFO. The S phase duration of the exponentially proliferating Hep 3B cells was 9.9 hours when cultured without DFO, but it was markedly prolonged (54.1 hours) after the addition of 20 micrograms/ml of DFO. After removal of DFO from the culture media following 24 hours of incubation with 20 micrograms/ml of DFO, a sequential increase from early through mid and late-S to G2/M phase was observed. In conclusion, the antiproliferative effect of DFO on cultured human hepatoma cell lines was caused by the inhibition of DNA synthesis which was related to a block in the early-mid S interface or mid S phase of the cell cycle. PMID:8009898

  4. Glucocorticoid hormones increase the activity of plasma membrane alkaline phosphodiesterase I in rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, G G; Amar-Costesec, A; Verhaegen, M; Granner, D K

    1980-01-01

    In rat hepatoma cells the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone causes a 3-fold increase in the activity of the plasma membrane enzyme alkaline phosphodiesterase I (oligonucleat 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.1). The data are consistent with an induction phenomenon mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor involved in tyrosine aminotransferase induction. The effect on alkaline phosphodiesterase I is not a reflection of a general membrane effect of dexamethasone, because the activity of three other enzymes of the plasma membrane is unaffected. On the other hand, nucleoside diphosphatase (nucleoside diphosphate phosphohydrolase acting on ADP) activity is inhibited. Thus, two more enzymes sensitive to glucocorticoids have been identified in a cell line in which these hormones influence only very few gene products. This paper describes enzymatic changes in the plasma membrane of rat hepatoma cells in which glucocorticoids normalize a number of membrane-associated processes that are considered to be characteristic of transformed cells. PMID:6102383

  5. Detection of PIVKA II produced by human hepatoma cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kohda, H; Ono, M; Sekiya, C; Ohta, H; Ohhira, M; Ohhira, M; Yoshida, Y; Ikeda, N; Namiki, M

    1991-03-01

    A novel experimental nude mouse model, which is useful for investigation of the mechanisms of PIVKA II synthesis, was established by inoculation with PIVKA II-producing human hepatoma cells (huH-1). We have found markedly elevated levels of PIVKA II in the plasma of nude mice transplanted with huH-1 cells and increased PIVKA II content in huH-1 tumor tissues. Whereas we have not found detectable level of PIVKA II neither in the plasma nor in tumor tissues of nude mice transplanted different human hepatoma cells (HLF) which is not producing PIVKA II. Histology of the tumor tissues produced by huH-1 cells revealed a thick trabecular pattern with blood spaces.

  6. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-02-01

    Isoliquiritigenin (4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone, ISL) is a natural pigment with a simple chalcone structure. In this study, we report the ISL-induced inhibition on the growth of human hepatoma cells (Hep G2) for the first time. The cell growth inhibition achieved by ISL treatment resulted in programmed cell death in a caspase activation-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 10.51 microg/mL. Outcomes of ISL treatment included the up-regulation of IkappaBalpha expression in the cytoplasm, and the decrease of NF-kappaB level as well as its activity in the nucleus. In addition, ISL also suppressed the expression of Bcl-XL and c-IAP1/2 protein, the downstream target molecule of NF-kappaB. These results demonstrated that ISL treatment inhibited the NF-kappaB cell survival-signaling pathway and induced apoptotic cell death in Hep G2 cells.

  7. In vitro infectivity of irradiated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites to cultured hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, C.I.; Leland, P.; Hollingdale, M.R.

    1984-07-01

    The invasion of gamma-irradiated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites into cultured hepatoma cells and their transformation into trophozoites was similar to invasion and transformation of non-irradiated sporozoites. However, trophozoites from irradiated sporozoites did not further develop into schizonts, but persisted within the cells for up to 3 days. Sporozoite surface protective antigen was present in trophozoites from irradiated and non-irradiated sporozoites, suggesting that hepatocyte antigen processing may contribute to the induction of anti-malarial immunity.

  8. PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander) hepatoma cell line: further characterization and studies of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Alexander, J J; Tully, J G; London, W T; Wong, D C; Purcell, R H

    1980-01-01

    The Alexander hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, was studied for evidence of hepatitis B virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein. Only hepatitis B surface antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were detected. Induction experiments with 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and inoculation of chimpanzees with whole cells or tissue culture fluid did not reveal evidence of synthesis of additional hepatitis B virus markers or of production of infectious virus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6160110

  9. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  10. Dual role of acetaminophen in promoting hepatoma cell apoptosis and kidney fibroblast proliferation

    PubMed Central

    YU, YUNG-LUEN; YIANG, GIOU-TENG; CHOU, PEI-LUN; TSENG, HSU-HUNG; WU, TSAI-KUN; HUNG, YU-TING; LIN, PEI-SHIUAN; LIN, SHU-YU; LIU, HSIAO-CHUN; CHANG, WEI-JUNG; WEI, CHYOU-WEI

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), is a safe analgesic and antipyretic drug at therapeutic dose, and is widely used in the clinic. However, high doses of APAP can induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Most studies have focused on high-dose APAP-induced acute liver and kidney injury. So far, few studies have investigated the effects of the therapeutic dose (1/10 of the high dose) or of the low dose (1/100 of the high dose) of APAP on the cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular effects of therapeutic- or low-dose APAP treatment on hepatoma cells and kidney fibroblasts. As expected, high-dose APAP treatment inhibited while therapeutic and low-dose treatment did not inhibit cell survival of kidney tubular epithelial cells. In addition, therapeutic-dose treatment induced an increase in the H2O2 level, activated the caspase-9/-3 cascade, and induced cell apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Notably, APAP promoted fibroblast proliferation, even at low doses. This study demonstrates that different cellular effects are exerted upon treatment with different APAP concentrations. Our results indicate that treatment with the therapeutic dose of APAP may exert an antitumor activity on hepatoma, while low-dose treatment may be harmful for patients with fibrosis, since it may cause proliferation of fibroblasts. PMID:24682227

  11. R-ETODOLAC DECREASES BETA-CATENIN LEVELS ALONG WITH SURVIVAL AND PROLIFERATION OF HEPATOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Behari, Jaideep; Zeng, Gang; Otruba, Wade; Thompson, Michael; Muller, Peggy; Micsenyi, Amanda; Sekhon, Sandeep S.; Leoni, Lorenzo; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Inhibition of hepatoma cells by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 dependent and independent mechanisms has been shown previously. Here, we examine the effect of Celecoxib, a COX-2-inhibitor and R-Etodolac, an enantiomer of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Etodolac, which lacks COX-inhibitory activity, on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and human hepatoma cells. Methods Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines were treated with Celecoxib or R-Etodolac, and examined for viability, DNA synthesis, Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, and downstream target gene expression. Results Celecoxib at high doses affected β-catenin protein by inducing its degradation via GSK3β and APC along with diminished tumor cell proliferation and survival. R-Etodolac at physiological doses caused decrease in total and activated β-catenin protein secondary to decrease in its gene expression and post-translationally through GSK3β activation. In addition, increased β-catenin-E-cadherin was also observed at the membrane. An associated inhibition of β-catenin-dependent Tcf reporter activity, decreased levels of downstream target gene products glutamine synthetase and cyclin-D1, and decreased proliferation and survival of hepatoma cells was evident. Conclusion The antitumor effects of Celecoxib (at high concentrations) and R-Etodolac (at physiological doses) on HCC cells were accompanied by the down-regulation of β-catenin demonstrating a useful therapeutic strategy in hepatocellular cancer. PMID:17275129

  12. The combinational effect of vincristine and berberine on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wei, Dandan; Han, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Chengzhong; Zhang, Jie; Mo, Chunfen; Yang, Ming; Li, Junhong; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Qin; Xiao, Hengyi

    2014-04-01

    The use of vincristine, a known antitumor agent, in hepatoma therapy is limited particularly because of its toxic effect. Meanwhile, berberine has drawn increasing attention to its antineoplastic effect in recent years. In view of the advantages of combinational drug treatment reported in anti-cancer chemotherapy, we evaluated the effects of co-treatment of vincristine and berberine on hepatic carcinoma cell lines in this study. We find that combinational usage of these two drugs can significantly induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis even under a concentration of vincristine barely showing cytotoxicity in the same cells when used alone. The underlying mechanism about this combinational effect was addressed in this study by monitoring the signals related to mitochondrial function, apoptotic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our results suggest a new value of berberine as a potential adjuvant agent in cancer chemotherapy and provide a hopeful approach for developing hepatoma therapy by utilizing the combinational effect of vincristine and berberine.

  13. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Leyuan; Wang Zhiming; Gao Yabo; Wang Lingyan; Zeng Zhaochong

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  14. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed to 12C6+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, X.; Yang, J.; Li, W.; Guo, C.; Dang, B.; Wang, J.; Zhou, L.; Wei, W.; Gao, Q.

    AIM To investigate the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines METHODS Accelerated carbon ions by heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou HIRFL have high LET We employed it to study the radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and human normal liver cell lines L02 using premature chromosome condensation technique PCC Cell survive was documented by a colony assay Chromatid breaks were measured by counting the number of chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks immediately after prematurely chromosome condensed by Calyculin-A RESULTS The survival curve of the two cell lines presented a good linear relationship and the survival fraction of L02 is higher than that of SMMC-7721 Additionally the two types of G 2 phase chromosome breaks chromatid breaks and isochromatid breaks of L02 are lower than that of SMMC-7721 CONCLUSION Human normal liver cell line have high radioresistance than that of hepatoma cell line It imply that it is less damage to normal organs when radiotherapy to hepatoma

  15. Isolation and characterization of cAMP-resistant mutants of the H-4 rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.Y.; Lin, Z.

    1987-05-01

    H-4 rat hepatoma cells were mutagenized with ethyl methane-sulfonate and the frequency of emergence of cAMP resistant mutant cells were evaluated by cloning the EMS-treated cells in a semi-solid agar medium that contained either 1-3 mM 8-bromo-cAMP plus 1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine or 5 ..mu..g/ml cholera toxin plus 1 mM IBMX. cAMP resistant mutants emerged at a frequency of 8 x 10/sup -5/. 15 colonies were isolated, recloned, grown in mass culture, and cell extracts were prepared. Analysis of cAMP-dependent protein kinase demonstrated that: (1) the type II enzyme is the only cAMP-dependent protein kinase detected in extracts of the hepatoma cells; (2) of the 15 cAMP resistant clonal cell lines examined, only one (H/sub 4/M/sub 18/) was found to be devoid of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity. In another cell line (H/sub 4/M/sub 10/) the activity was 30% of that of the parental H-4 cells; (3) there was an increase (130-300%) in cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in 13/15 of the mutant cell lines over that of the parental H-4 cells. Analysis of cAMP-phosphodiesterase demonstrated significant increases (150-370%) in the enzyme activity in extracts of the mutants over that of the H-4 parental line. Their results suggest that while a deficiency in cAMP-dependent protein kinase may confer resistance to the hepatoma cells against the cytostatic effects of 8-bromo-cAMP and cholera toxin, other events such as overexpression of phosphodiesterase may contribute to this phenotype.

  16. Osmoregulated taurine transport in H4IIE hepatoma cells and perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Warskulat, U; Wettstein, M; Häussinger, D

    1997-01-01

    The effects of aniso-osmotic exposure on taurine transport were studied in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Hyperosmotic (405 mosmol/l) exposure of H4IIE cells stimulated Na+-dependent taurine uptake and led to an increase in taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA levels, whereas hypo-osmotic (205 mosmol/l) exposure diminished both taurine uptake and TAUT mRNA levels when compared with normo-osmotic (305 mosmol/l) control incubations. Taurine uptake increased 30-40-fold upon raising the ambient osmolarity from 205 to 405 mosmol/l. When H4IIE cells and perfused livers were preloaded with taurine, hypo-osmotic cell swelling led to a rapid release of taurine from the cells. The taurine efflux, but not taurine uptake, was sensitive to 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), suggestive of an involvement of DIDS-sensitive channels in mediating volume-regulatory taurine efflux. Whereas in both H4IIE rat hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes TAUT mRNA levels were strongly dependent upon ambient osmolarity, mRNAs for other osmolyte transporters, i.e. the betaine transporter BGT-1 and the Na+/myo-inositol transporter SMIT, were not detectable. In line with this, myo-inositol uptake by H4IIE hepatoma cells was low and was not stimulated by hyperosmolarity. However, despite the absence of BGT-1 mRNA, a slight osmosensitive uptake of betaine was observed, but the rate was less than 10% of that of taurine transport. This study identifies a constitutively expressed and osmosensitive TAUT in H4IIE cells and the use of taurine as a main osmolyte, whereas betaine and myo-inositol play little or no role in the osmolyte strategy in these cells. This is in contrast with rat liver macrophages, in which betaine has been shown to be a major osmolyte. PMID:9032454

  17. Effects of glycyl-histidyl-lysine on Morris hepatoma 7777 cells.

    PubMed

    Barra, R

    1987-01-01

    Glycyl-histidyl-lysine (GHL) has been shown to have growth stimulatory effects on a number of different cell types including hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. In this study, the effects of GHL on Morris hepatoma 7777 cells were investigated. The greatest stimulatory effects on 3H-thymidine and 3H-leucine incorporation were observed at a GHL concentration of 2 ng/ml. In randomly proliferating cells, the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA increased by 50% and that of 3H-leucine into protein by 29%. In addition, synergistic effects were observed when insulin and glucagon were included with GHL in the incubation mixture. Experiments with cells rendered quiescent by serum starvation indicated that cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle are more sensitive to GHL stimulation. In these experiments, 3H-thymidine incorporation increased earlier and peaked at a higher value than in the control cells. This finding suggests that GHL may play a role in stimulating quiescent cells to re-enter the cell cycle. PMID:3319436

  18. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; Lyn, Rodney K.; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  19. Role of apolipoprotein A-I in HDL binding to a rat hepatoma cell in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of HDL to rat Fu5AH hepatoma cells at 4/sup 0/, and uptake and degradation at 37/sup 0/, was investigated in monolayer cultures. HDL, free of apo E and apo A-IV, was obtained from the plasma of nephrotic rats (HDLne). /sup 125/I-labeled HDLne bound to the cells in a specific, saturable manner. By Scatchard analysis, two classes of binding sites were obtained: a high affinity binding site (Kd = 1.25 +/- 0.023 ..mu..g/ml, or 5 x 10/sup -9/ M), and a lower affinity site (Kd = 45 +/- 15 ..mu..g/ml, or 1.8 x 10/sup -7/ M). In competitive binding experiments, normal rat HDL was nearly as effective as HDLne, but rat VLDL and human lipoproteins were ineffective. Rat apo A-I/phospholipid complexes also did not complete effectively for HDLne binding, although they were capable of binding to the cells. However, LDL (1.02 < d < 1.063) from nephrotic rat plasma, containing 20% of apo A-I, was as effective as rat HDL in competing for HDLne binding when the competition was expressed as a function of apo A-I content. Control experiments indicated that labeled apo A-I from HDLne did not exchange appreciably with unlabeled apo A-I on the LDLne. When the hepatoma cells were allowed to internalize and degrade HDLne at 37/sup 0/, the acid-soluble products (iodotyrosine and iodide) were derived almost entirely from the breakdown of apo A-I. We conclude that the rat hepatoma cell (Fu5AH) has high affinity HDL binding sites which recognize apo A-I-lipid complexes in which apo A-I an appropriate conformation.

  20. Blocking autophagic flux enhances matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Gao, Chun; Yao, Shukun; Xie, Bushan

    2013-11-25

    Autophagy, a self-defense mechanism, has been found to be associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study was designed to investigate the role and related mechanisms of autophagy in matrine-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Bel7402. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis (Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay), the activity and activating cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9. MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to assess the effect of matrine on growth and proliferation of HCC cells. Autophagic flux in HCC cells was analyzed using the expression of LC3BI/II and p62/SQSTM1, GFP-LC3 transfection, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, regarding to the associated mechanisms, the effects of matrine on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and beclin-1 were studied. Our results showed that: (1) both autophagy and apoptosis could be induced by treatment with matrine; (2) using the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine and beclin-1 small-interfering RNA, cell apoptosis induced by matrine could be enhanced in a caspase-dependent manner; and (3) autophagy was induced via inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and up-regulation of beclin-1. In conclusion, inhibition of autophagy could enhance matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

  1. Toxic equivalency factors for tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzofurans in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Tysklind, M.; Rappe, C.; Tillift, D.E.; Eriksson, L.

    1995-12-31

    Planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs) elicit dioxin-like effects in fish at extremely low doses. However, the relative potencies of PHHs in fish differ from mammals in both absolute magnitude and relative rank order. Therefore, the relative potencies of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were examined in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. The response of PHHs in this cell line correlates with their toxicity to cause early life stage toxicity in fish. Twenty PCDFs were selected by means of a multivariate chemical characterization in combination with a 2{sup 4}-factorial design and separated into a 10 congener training set and 10 congener validation set. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were determined for all 20 PCDF congeners based on ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in the PLHC-1 cells. A quantitative structure-activity relation-ship (QSAR) model was constructed by partial least square modelling (PLS) of the physiochemical descriptor variables for the PCDFs in the training set and their EROD responses in the PLHC-1 cells. A predictive model was developed which accurately assessed the TEFs of the validation set of PCDFs. The model accounted for 87% (R{sup 2}) of the variance in TEFs and a cross-validated variance (Q{sup 2}) of 79%. From this QSAR, TEF values were predicted for all of the tetra through octa-chlorinated PCDFs in fish. Interestingly, there was a high degree of correlation among TEF values calculated in the PLHC-1 cells and the TEF values calculated in H411 E rat hepatoma cells.

  2. Establishment of a human hepatoma multidrug resistant cell line in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Ling, Xian-Long; Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Xin-Qiang; Yan, Bin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish a multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell line (SK-Hep-1), and to investigate its biological characteristics. METHODS: A highly invasive SK-Hep-1 cell line of human hepatocellular carcinoma, also known as malignant hepatoma was incubated with a high concentration of cisplatin (CDDP) to establish a CDDP-resistant cell subline (SK-Hep-1/CDDP). The 50% inhibitory dose (IC50) values and the resistance indexes [(IC50 SK-Hep-1/CDDP)/(IC50 SK-Hep-1)] for other chemotherapeutic agents and the growth curve of cells were all evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assays. The distribution of the cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. Expression of acquired multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) was compared with that in parent cells by Western blotting and immunofluorescence combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The SK-Hep-1/CDDP cells (IC50 = 70.61 ± 1.06 μg/mL) was 13.76 times more resistant to CDDP than the SK-Hep-1 cells (IC50 = 5.13 ± 0.09 μg/mL), and CDDP-resistant cells also demonstrated cross-resistance to many anti-tumor agents such as doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and vincristine. Similar morphologies were determined in both SK-Hep-1 and SK-Hep-1/CDDP groups. The cell cycle distribution of the SK-Hep-1/CDDP cell line exhibited a significantly increased percentage of cells in S (42.2% ± 2.65% vs 27.91% ± 2.16%, P < 0.01) and G2/M (20.67% ± 5.69% vs 12.14% ± 3.36%, P < 0.01) phases in comparison with SK-Hep-1 cells, while the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased (37.5% ± 5.05% vs 59.83% ± 3.28%, P < 0.01). The levels of MDR1 and MRP1 were overexpressed in the SK-Hep-1/CDDP cells exhibiting the MDR phenotype. CONCLUSION: Multiple drug resistance of multiple drugs in the human hepatoma cell line SK-Hep-1/CDDP was closely related to the overexpression of MDR1 and MRP1. PMID:20458768

  3. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P < 0.01, which means that the effect is significant. It can be explained that the water activated by the ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis. PMID:24734643

  4. Use of human hepatoma cells for in vitro metabolic activation of chemical mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, A T; Darroudi, F

    1991-09-01

    An established human hepatoma cell strain (Hep G2) was used in micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays to evaluate the clastogenic potential of several indirectly-acting mutagenic carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide, dimethyl nitrosamine, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyrene and safrole were selected for this study based on the positive and negative results reported with conventional in vitro assays employing rat liver S9 fraction for metabolic activation. Two directly-acting mutagens, methyl methanesulphonate and mitomycin C, were also included in this study. In this system, the human hepatoma cells act as the metabolic activation source as well as the target cell for DNA damage. The results obtained demonstrate that the Hep G2 cells are metabolically competent to activate different classes of mutagens into biologically active metabolites. The non-carcinogen pyrene did not induce any increase in the frequencies of MN and SCE in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, a good correlation was found between positive and negative data obtained for the tested chemicals in this in vitro assay with literature data obtained in in vivo tests using rodents.

  5. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P < 0.01, which means that the effect is significant. It can be explained that the water activated by the ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis.

  6. Extinction and expression of the ribose-positive phenotype in hybrid Novikoff hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Silnutzer, J; Jargiello, P

    1981-03-01

    Expression of the ribose-positive phenotype was examined in hybrids obtained from the fusion of parental pentose-negative Novikoff hepatoma cells and ribose-positive variants. The two ribose-positive variants used differed phenotypically in their ability to use pentoses other than ribose for growth. One variant used D-ribose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose for growth, while the other variant used only D-ribose. Each variant was fused to pentose-negative parental hepatoma cells, and resultant hybrids were tested for the ability to use ribose. In both instances extinction of ribose utilization was the primary event, suggesting the existence of a trans-acting negative control element in the parental cells. In addition, hybrids from both fusion experiments eventually reexpressed the ribose phenotype. The rate of reexpression, however, was different for the two fusion experiments. Reexpression of ribose utilization in hybrids derived from the nonspecific variant occurred at approximately 10(-3) segregants/cell/day. Reexpressing segregants arose from the specific-derived hybrids at a rate of 0.5 segregants/cell/day. Possible reasons for this difference include a differential rate in chromosomal segregation or a difference in the regulation of ribose metabolism. PMID:6794162

  7. Dynamics and Control of the Central Carbon Metabolism in Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The liver plays a major role in metabolism and performs a number of vital functions in the body. Therefore, the determination of hepatic metabolite dynamics and the analysis of the control of the respective biochemical pathways are of great pharmacological and medical importance. Extra- and intracellular time-series data from stimulus-response experiments are gaining in importance in the identification of in vivo metabolite dynamics, while dynamic network models are excellent tools for analyzing complex metabolic control patterns. This is the first study that has been undertaken on the data-driven identification of a dynamic liver central carbon metabolism model and its application in the analysis of the distribution of metabolic control in hepatoma cells. Results Dynamic metabolite data were collected from HepG2 cells after they had been deprived of extracellular glucose. The concentration of 25 extra- and intracellular intermediates was quantified using HPLC, LC-MS-MS, and GC-MS. The in silico metabolite dynamics were in accordance with the experimental data. The central carbon metabolism of hepatomas was further analyzed with a particular focus on the control of metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes. It was observed that the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase exerted substantial negative control over the glycolytic flux, whereas oxidative phosphorylation had a significant positive control. The control over the rate of NADPH consumption was found to be shared between the NADPH-demand itself (0.65) and the NADPH supply (0.38). Conclusions Based on time-series data, a dynamic central carbon metabolism model was developed for the investigation of new and complex metabolic control patterns in hepatoma cells. The control patterns found support the hypotheses that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the Warburg effect are promising targets for tumor treatment. The systems-oriented identification of metabolite dynamics is a first step

  8. Peroxisomal oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) by human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, P.A.; Ferrell, E.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Beta-oxidation of VLCFA was studied in a human hepatoma cell line (HEP-G2). These cells, disrupted by exposure to low concentrations of digitonin, oxidize (1-/sup 14/C)palmitate (C16:0) and (1-/sup 14/C)lignocerate (C24:0) to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and water-soluble products. It was recently reported that in rat liver the beta-oxidation of VLCFA takes place primarily in the peroxisome rather than the mitochondrion. The precise site of VLCFA oxidation in human tissues has not been clearly elucidated. The peroxisome has been implicated since there is impaired VLCFA oxidation in fibroblasts from Zellweger syndrome patients, in which this organelle is deficient. In order to define the subcellular localization of human VLCFA oxidation, homogenates of HEP-G2 cells were fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Fractions enriched in the peroxisomal marker catalase oxidized C24:0 at significantly greater rates than fractions enriched in the mitochondrial marker succinate:cytochrome c reductase. C16:0 oxidation was catalyzed by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial fractions. These results suggest that the subcellular site of VLCFA oxidation in human hepatoma cells and rat liver is similar.

  9. Development of hepatitis C virus production reporter-assay systems using two different hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Midori; Ikeda, Masanori; Ariumi, Yasuo; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    A hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection system was developed previously using the HCV JFH-1 strain (genotype 2a) and HuH-7 cells, and this cell culture is so far the only robust production system for HCV. In patients with chronic hepatitis C, the virological effects of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy differ depending on the HCV strain and the genetic background of the host. Recently, we reported the hepatoma-derived Li23 cell line, in which the JFH-1 life cycle is reproduced at a level almost equal to that in HuH-7-derived RSc cells. To monitor the HCV life cycle more easily, we here developed JFH-1 reporter-assay systems using both HuH-7- and Li23-derived cell lines. To identify any genetic mutations by long-term cell culture, HCV RNAs in HuH-7 cells were amplified 130 days after infection and subjected to sequence analysis to find adaptive mutation(s) for robust virus replication. We identified two mutations, H2505Q and V2995L, in the NS5B region. V2995L but not H2505Q enhanced JFH-1 RNA replication. However, we found that H2505Q but not V2995L enhanced HCV RNA replication of strain O (genotype 1b). We also selected highly permissive D7 cells by serial subcloning of Li23 cells. The expression levels of claudin-1 and Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 in D7 cells are higher than those in parental Li23 cells. In this study, we developed HCV JFH-1 reporter-assay systems using two distinct hepatoma cell lines, HuH-7 and Li23. The mutations in NS5B resulted in different effects on strains O and JFH-1 HCV RNA replication. PMID:22456614

  10. Unique structural properties of apolipoprotein B in low-density lipoproteins produced by several human hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    La Belle, M; McCall, M R; Krauss, R M; Forte, T M

    1990-10-01

    Previous work has shown that low-density lipoproteins (LDL) secreted by hepatoma-derived cell lines have an unusual composition compared to plasma LDL; rather than cholesteryl ester, the hepatoma cell-secreted LDL have a triacylglycerol core. We have found that they also have an increased negative charge, as judged by agarose electrophoresis. Since apolipoprotein B is a glycoprotein containing carbohydrate chains terminated with negatively charged sialic acid residues, we examined whether increased glycosylation of the apolipoprotein B from three hepatoma cell lines (Hep G2, Hep 3B and Huh 7) might account for the differences in LDL charge. The weight percent carbohydrate for Hep G2, Hep 3B and Huh 7 LDL-protein (1.1 +/- 0.2; 1.7 +/- 0.8; 0.4 +/- 0.1) was found to be extremely low compared with the 2.8-9% range we found for plasma LDL-protein, while the amount of LDL-lipid associated carbohydrate from hepatoma LDL was similar to that we found in plasma LDL. Furthermore, desialation of hepatoma cell-secreted LDL with neuraminidase did not normalize the negative charge to that of neuraminidase-treated plasma LDL. Western blots of thrombin proteolytic fragments indicated that, in addition to the T1-T4 fragments seen in plasma apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B of hepatoma-derived LDL produced four to five new fragments (T5-T9), suggesting increased exposure of proteolytic sites. Western blotting of the new fragments with antibodies specific for known apolipoprotein B sequences suggests that many of the new cleavage sites cluster in or near the putative LDL receptor recognition site.

  11. Glucocorticoid Modulation of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatoma Cells Requires the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Paz, José C.; Sebastián, David; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Liesa, Marc; Segalés, Jessica; Palacín, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone, enhance hepatic energy metabolism and gluconeogenesis partly through changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial function is influenced by the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events. However, whether glucocorticoids modulate mitochondrial function through the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics is currently unknown. Results: Here, we report that the effects of dexamethasone on mitochondrial function and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells are dependent on the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Dexamethasone increased routine oxygen consumption, maximal respiratory capacity, superoxide anion, proton leak, and gluconeogenesis in hepatoma cells. Under these conditions, dexamethasone altered mitochondrial morphology, which was paralleled by a large increase in Drp1 expression, and reduced mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2. In vivo dexamethasone treatment also enhanced Drp1 expression in mouse liver. On the basis of these observations, we analyzed the dependence on the Drp1 function of dexamethasone effects on mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis. We show that the increase in mitochondrial respiration and gluconeogenesis induced by dexamethasone are hampered by the inhibition of Drp1 function. Innovation: Our findings provide the first evidence that the effects of glucocorticoids on hepatic metabolism require the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Conclusion: In summary, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial effects of dexamethasone both on mitochondrial respiration and on the gluconeogenic pathway depend on Drp1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 366–378. PMID:22703557

  12. Suppression of adhesion and invasion of hepatoma cells in culture by tea compounds through antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Miura, Y; Yagasaki, K

    2000-10-31

    To determine the actions of tea components on the invasion of a rat ascites hepatoma cell line of AH109A and to understand their modes of action, the cancer cells were co-cultured with a rat mesentery-derived mesothelial cell monolayer in the presence of tea components. The synergistic effects of (-)-epicatechin (EC) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on AH109A invasion were demonstrated. Further study showed that 10 microM of EGCG or theaflavins, or 2.5 microM of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic (EDTA) entirely abolished the increase in AH109A adhesion and invasion stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Our results suggest that (.)OH(-)- and other ROS-scavenging activity of EGCG and theaflavins may be responsible for the inhibition of (.)OH(-)- and related ROS-potentiated AH109A adhesion and invasion to the cultured rat mesothelial cell monolayer. PMID:10996728

  13. Coexistence of hepatoma with mantle cell lymphoma in a hepatitis B carrier

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ching; Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Huang, Hsin-Chih; Kao, Hsiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in the liver is rare. Reports show that these patients have cirrhotic livers or hepatitis virus infections before they develop HCC and NHL. We present a patient with hepatitis B virus infection who was transferred to our hospital with a newly detected liver mass; abdominal computed tomography examination showed one hypodense mass of 7 cm in diameter and multiple mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes. A liver tumor biopsy showed a hepatoma, and the pathologic findings from an inguinal lymph node excision showed mantle cell lymphoma. An immunohistochemical stain confirmed that the atypical lymphoid cells within the HCC were positive for the CD20, CD5 and cyclin D1 antigens. Taking these findings into account, the hepatic tumor was determined to be a HCC infiltrated by mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:26668520

  14. Differential regulation of IRP1 and IRP2 by nitric oxide in rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J D; Kinikini, D V; Yu, Y; Guo, B; Leibold, E A

    1996-04-01

    Iron-regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) are RNA-binding proteins that bind to stem-loop structures known as iron-responsive elements (IREs). IREs are located in the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of specific mRNAs that encode proteins involved in iron homeostasis. The binding of IRPs to 5' IREs represses translation of the mRNA, whereas the binding of IRPs to 3' IREs stabilizes the mRNA. IRP1 and IRP2 binding activities are regulated by intracellular iron levels. In addition, nitric oxide (NO.) increases the affinity of IRP1 for IREs. The role of NO. in the regulation of IRP1 and IRP2 in rat hepatoma cells was investigated by using the NO.-generating compound S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), or by stimulating cells with multiple cytokines and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce NO. production. Mitochondrial and IRP1 aconitase activities were decreased in cells producing NO(.). NO. increased IRE binding activity of IRP1, but had no effect on IRE binding activity of IRP2. The increase in IRE binding activity of IRP1 was coincident with the translational repression of ferritin synthesis. Transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA levels were increased in cells treated with NO.-generating compounds, but not in cytokine- and LPS-treated cells. Our data indicate that IRP1 and IRP2 are differentially regulated by NO. in rat hepatoma cells, suggesting a role for IRP1 in the regulation of iron homeostasis in vivo during hepatic inflammation. PMID:8639920

  15. Human lung cancer-derived microparticles enhanced angiogenesis and growth of hepatoma cells in rodent lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Meng-Shen TongYen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human lung cancer-derived microparticles (LcD-MPs) played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Fischer 344 rats (F344, n=18) were equally categorized into group 1 [Sham Control (3.0 mL normal saline intravenous injection (IV))], group 2 [hepatoma cell line (2.0 x 10(6) cells, IV)], and group 3 [hepatoma cell line + LcD-MPs (3.0 x 10(6), IV)]. Animals were euthanized by day 28 after hepatoma cells transfusion. Our result showed that the gross pathology confirmed growth of hepatoma cell line in lung parenchyma. The size and weight of the lungs were significantly increased in group 2 and further elevated in group 3 than in group 1 (all p<0.001). Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the lung crowded score and number of small vessel exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the number of alveolar sacs showed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among the three groups (all p<0.0001). The cellular expressions of CD34(+), CXCR4(+), c-Kit(+), CK19(+), VEGF(+) and vimentin+ cells in lung parenchyma exhibited an identical pattern compared to those of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and c-PARP), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), and tumor suppression (PTEN) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas that of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers were displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The MPs could enhance angiogenesis and accelerated hepatoma cell growth in rodent lung parenchyma.

  16. Human lung cancer-derived microparticles enhanced angiogenesis and growth of hepatoma cells in rodent lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Meng-Shen TongYen-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Chia-Lo; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that human lung cancer-derived microparticles (LcD-MPs) played an important role in tumor angiogenesis and growth. Fischer 344 rats (F344, n=18) were equally categorized into group 1 [Sham Control (3.0 mL normal saline intravenous injection (IV))], group 2 [hepatoma cell line (2.0 x 106 cells, IV)], and group 3 [hepatoma cell line + LcD-MPs (3.0 x 106, IV)]. Animals were euthanized by day 28 after hepatoma cells transfusion. Our result showed that the gross pathology confirmed growth of hepatoma cell line in lung parenchyma. The size and weight of the lungs were significantly increased in group 2 and further elevated in group 3 than in group 1 (all p<0.001). Histopathological analysis demonstrated that the lung crowded score and number of small vessel exhibited an identical pattern, whereas the number of alveolar sacs showed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among the three groups (all p<0.0001). The cellular expressions of CD34+, CXCR4+, c-Kit+, CK19+, VEGF+ and vimentin+ cells in lung parenchyma exhibited an identical pattern compared to those of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The protein expressions of apoptotic (Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and c-PARP), fibrotic (Smad3, TGF-β), and tumor suppression (PTEN) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas that of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and anti-fibrotic (Smad1/5, BMP-2) biomarkers were displayed an opposite pattern compared to that of total lung weight among all groups (all p<0.001). The MPs could enhance angiogenesis and accelerated hepatoma cell growth in rodent lung parenchyma. PMID:27186261

  17. Long Noncoding RNA MEG3 Interacts with p53 Protein and Regulates Partial p53 Target Genes in Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Juanjuan; Liu, Shanshan; Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Yuan; Tie, Yi; Zhu, Jie; Wei, Lixin; Jin, Yinghua; Fu, Hanjiang; Wu, Yongge; Zheng, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Maternally Expressed Gene 3 (MEG3) encodes a lncRNA which is suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. Previous studies suggested that MEG3 functioned through activation of p53, however, the functional properties of MEG3 remain obscure and their relevance to human diseases is under continuous investigation. Here, we try to illuminate the relationship of MEG3 and p53, and the consequence in hepatoma cells. We find that transfection of expression construct of MEG3 enhances stability and transcriptional activity of p53. Deletion analysis of MEG3 confirms that full length and intact structure of MEG3 are critical for it to activate p53-mediated transactivation. Interestingly, our results demonstrate for the first time that MEG3 can interact with p53 DNA binding domain and various p53 target genes are deregulated after overexpression of MEG3 in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, results of qRT-PCR have shown that MEG3 RNA is lost or reduced in the majority of HCC samples compared with adjacent non-tumorous samples. Ectopic expression of MEG3 in hepatoma cells significantly inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that MEG3 functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells through interacting with p53 protein to activate p53-mediated transcriptional activity and influence the expression of partial p53 target genes.

  18. Comparison of regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in hepatoma cells grown in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, O R; Watson, J A

    1976-01-01

    Unlike the normal liver, numerous transplantable rodent and human hepatomas are unable to alter their rate of sterol synthesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-GoA) reductase [mevalonate: NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acylating), EC 1.1.1.34] activity in response to a dietary cholesterol challenge. It has been suggested that this metabolic defect is linked to the process of malignant transformation. Hepatoma 7288C "lacks" feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis when grown in vivo but expresses this regulatory property when grown in vitro (then called HTC). Therefore, it was used as a model system to answer whether an established hepatoma cell line that modulates its rate of cholesterol synthesis in vitro can express this property when grown in vivo, and whether cells reisolated from the tumor mass have the same regulatory phenotype as before transplantation. Our results show that long-term growth of hepatoma 7288C in tissue culture has not caused a biotransformation that permits feedback regulation of HMG-CoA reductase when the cells are transplanted back into host animals. In addition, HTC cells reisolated from the tumor mass and established in tissue culture continue to have the ability to regulate HMG-CoA reductase activity. Therefore, malignant transformation is not categorically linked to the loss of the cellular components necessary to regulate sterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Images PMID:183207

  19. Cathepsin H regulated by the thyroid hormone receptors associate with tumor invasion in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, S-M; Huang, Y-H; Yeh, C-T; Tsai, M-M; Liao, C-H; Cheng, W-L; Chen, W-J; Lin, K-H

    2011-04-28

    Thyroid hormone, 3, 3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)), mediates cell growth, development and differentiation by binding to its nuclear receptors (TRs). The role of TRs in cancer is still undefined. Notably, hyperthyroxinemia has been reported to influence the rate of colon cancer in an experimental model of carcinogenesis in rats. Previous microarray analysis revealed that cathepsin H (CTSH) is upregulated by T(3) in HepG2-TR cells. We verified that mRNA and protein expression of CTSH are induced by T(3) in HepG2-TR cells and in thyroidectomized rats following administration of T(3). The possible thyroid hormone-responsive elements of the CTSH promoter localized to the nucleotides -2038 to -1966 and -1565 to -1501 regions. An in vitro functional assay showed that CTSH can increase metastasis. J7 cells overexpressing CTSH were inoculated into severe combined immune-deficient mice and these J7-CTSH mice displayed a greater metastatic potential than did J7-control mice. The clinicopathologic significance of CTSH expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was also investigated. The CTSH overexpressing in HCC was associated with the presence of microvascular invasion (P=0.037). The microvascular invasion characteristic is closely related to our in vitro characterization of CTSH function. Our results show that T(3)-mediated upregulation of CTSH led to matrix metallopeptidase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and increased cell migration. This study demonstrated that CTSH overexpression in a subset hepatoma may be TR dependent and suggests that this overexpression has an important role in hepatoma progression. PMID:21217776

  20. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Y; Kar, S; Wiest, L; Pegg, A E; Carr, B I

    1997-01-01

    We screened genes responsive to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) protein in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) using a PCR-mediated differential display technique, in order to investigate the mechanisms involved in TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. We found a gene that was down-regulated by TGF-beta 1 to be completely identical in an approx. 620 bp segment to the gene for the enzyme spermidine synthase, which mediates the conversion of putrescine into spermidine. Both spermidine synthase mRNA expression and its enzyme activity were decreased after TGF-beta 1 treatment of Hep3B cells. The inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by TGF-beta 1 protein was also observed in other hepatoma cell lines. The expression of genes for other biosynthetic enzymes in polyamine metabolism (ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) was also inhibited to the same extent as for spermidine synthase, while the gene expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a catabolic enzyme, was relatively resistant to TGF-beta 1. Spermine levels in Hep3B cells were decreased by TGF-beta 1 treatment, although the levels of spermidine and putrescine were unchanged, probably due to compensation by remaining spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. Exogenously added spermidine or spermine, but not putrescine, partially antagonized the growth-inhibitor effects of TGF-beta 1 on Hep3B cells. Our data suggest that down-regulation of gene expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism, including spermidine synthase, may be associated with the mechanism of TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. PMID:9020892

  1. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregates inhibited proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted apoptosis, especially for hepatoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinqian; Sun, Qiang; Bo, Jian; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Mengran; Xia, Zhenglin; Ju, Lili; Xiang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) may be useful as carriers for anticancer drugs due to their particular structure. However, the interactions between the material itself and cancerous or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, the effects of raw SWNH material on the biological functions of human liver cell lines were studied. Our results showed that unmodified SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human liver cell lines and promoted their apoptosis, especially in hepatoma cell lines. Individual spherical SWNH particles were found inside the nuclei of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and the lysosomes of normal human liver L02 cells, implying that SWNH particles could penetrate into human liver cells_and the different interacted mechanisms on human normal cell lines compared to hepatoma cell lines. Further research on the mechanisms and application in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with SWNHs is needed. PMID:24523586

  2. Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a Peroxisomal Enzyme in Human Fibroblast and Hepatoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gilbert-Andre; Warner, Thomas G.; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Hallewell, Robert A.

    1991-08-01

    The intracellular localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) has been examined by immunofluorescence using four monoclonal anti-Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase antibodies raised against a recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase derivative produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Colocalization with catalase, a peroxisomal matrix enzyme, was used to demonstrate the peroxisomal localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. In the fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome patients, the enzyme is not transported to the peroxisomal ghosts but, like catalase, remains in the cytoplasm. In addition, immunocryoelectron microscopy of yeast cells expressing human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase showed that the enzyme is translocated to the peroxisomes.

  3. Castanospermine inhibits glucosidase I and glycoprotein secretion in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sasak, V W; Ordovas, J M; Elbein, A D; Berninger, R W

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effect of the plant alkaloid castanospermine on the biosynthesis and secretion of human hepatoma glycoproteins. The HepG-2 cells, grown in the presence or absence of the alkaloid, were labelled with [2-3H]mannose and then the labelled glycopeptides were prepared by Pronase digestion. This material was analysed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-4 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. Castanospermine caused an accumulation of high-mannose oligosaccharides, by 70-75% over control. The major accumulated product, which could also be labelled with [3H]galactose and was only partially susceptible to alpha-mannosidase digestion, was identified by h.p.l.c. as a Glc3Man9GlcNAc. Thus the alkaloid inhibits glucosidase I in the human hepatoma cells. Analysis of total glycoproteins secreted by the cells into the medium revealed the presence of only complex oligosaccharides in both control and treated cultures, and the amount of the oligosaccharides labelled with radioactive mannose, galactose or N-acetylmannosamine, secreted by treated cells, was decreased by about 60%. The rate of secretion of total protein labelled with [35S]methionine and precipitated from the medium with trichloroacetic acid was inhibited by up to 40% in the presence of castanospermine. Pulse-chase studies utilizing [35S]methionine labelling were performed to study the effect of the alkaloid on secretion of individual plasma proteins. Immunoprecipitation at different chase times with monospecific antisera showed that castanospermine markedly decreased the secretion rates of alpha 1-antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin and, to a lesser extent, that of antithrombin-III. Secretions of apolipoprotein E, a glycoprotein containing only O-linked oligosaccharide(s), and albumin, a non-glycosylated protein, were not affected by the drug. It is suggested that castanospermine inhibits secretion of at least some glycoproteins containing N-linked oligosaccharides, owing to the inhibition

  4. Expression of Differentiated Functions in Hepatoma Cell Hybrids: High Frequency of Induction of Mouse Albumin Production in Rat Hepatoma-Mouse Lymphoblast Hybrids*

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; Weiss, Mary C.

    1974-01-01

    We have studied the production of serum albumin by somatic hybrids between well-differentiated 2s and 1s rat hepatoma cells (Faza), which produce serum albumin, and sub-diploid mouse leukemic lymphoblasts (Lc), which do not produce albumin. We determined the rat or mouse origin of the albumin by double immunodiffusion, using immuno-adsorbed noncrossreacting antisera. Each of 12 karyologically identified 2s hybrid clones (Lc2F) produces both rat and mouse albumin. Moreover, unlike 1s hybrids reported previously, eight of nine 1s hybrids (LcF) also produce mouse albumin; six of them produce rat albumin as well. One clone from the 1s cross produces only rat albumin. Images PMID:4362639

  5. Role of Apoptotic Proteins in REC-2006 Mediated Radiation Protection in Hepatoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of apoptotic proteins in REC-2006-mediated radiation protection in hepatoma cell lines. REC-2006 treatment 2 h before irradiation strongly inhibited the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1 in HepG2 cells. The expression of nuclear apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) was found to be more inhibited (~17%) in HepG2 cells in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. More inhibition (~33%) of cytochrome c was observed in HepG2 cells upon REC-2006 treatment 2 h prior irradiation. Similarly, significantly more (P<.05) inhibition of Apaf-1, caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in REC-2006 + radition-treated group in HepG2 cells. REC-2006 treatment restored the expression of ICAD in HepG2 cells; however, no restoration was observed in Hep3B cells. Lower nuclear to cytoplasmic CAD ratio was observed in HepG2 cells (~0.6) as compared with Hep3B cells (~1.2) in REC-2006 + radiation-treated group. In conclusion, REC-2006 rendered higher protection in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the expression and translocation of AIF, inhibiting the cleavage of ATM and PARP-1, restoring the expression of ICAD, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and thus modulating the expression of Apaf-1 caspase-9 and activity of caspase-3.

  6. Dihydromyricetin inhibits migration and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulation of MMP-9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Li, Ran; Zeng, Guo-Fang; Liu, Bin; Liu, Jie; Shu, Yang; Liu, Zhong-Kao; Qiu, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Dong-Jun; Miao, Hui-Lai; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on the migration and invasion of human hepatic cancer cells. METHODS: The hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 and MHCC97L were used in this study. The cells were cultured in RPIM-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator. DHM was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted to various concentrations in medium before applying to cells. MTT assays were performed to measure the viability of the cells after DHM treatment. Wound healing and Boyden transwell assays were used to assess cancer cell motility. The invasive capacity of cancer cells was measured using Matrigel-coated transwell chambers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activity was examined by fluorescence analysis. Western blot was carried out to analyze the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-38, JNK, ERK1/2 and PKC-δ proteins. All data were analyzed by Student’s t tests in GraphPad prism 5.0 software and are presented as mean ± SD. RESULTS: DHM was found to strongly inhibit the migration of the hepatoma cell lines SK-Hep-1 (without DHM, 24 h: 120 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 65 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001) and MHCC97L (without DHM, 24 h: 126 ± 7 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 74 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001). The invasive capacity of the cells was reduced by DHM treatment (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 67 ± 4 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 9 ± 3 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 117 ± 8 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 45 ± 2 μmol/L, P < 0.001). MMP2/9 activity was also inhibited by DHM exposure (SK-Hep-1 cells without DHM, 24 h: 600 ± 26 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM, 24 h: 100 ± 6 μmol/L, P < 0.001; MHCC97L cells without DHM, 24 h: 504 ± 32 μmol/L vs 100 μmol/L DHM 24 h: 156 ± 10 μmol/L, P < 0.001). Western blot analysis showed that DHM decreased the expression level of MMP-9 but had little effect on MMP-2. Further investigation indicated that DHM markedly

  7. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests.

  8. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André; Pijanowska, Dorota Genowefa; Pluta, Krzysztof Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests. PMID:25816103

  9. Glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid transport in anucleate rat hepatoma (HTC) cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The transport of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) by rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells is rapidly and reversibly inhibited by dexamethasone and other glucocorticoids. To investigate the role of the nucleus in the regulation of transport and to determine whether steroid hormones or steroid-receptor complexes may have direct effects on cytoplasmic or membrane functions, we have examined the regulation of transport by dexamethasone in anucleate HTC cells. Cytoplasts prepared from suspension cultures of HTC cells fully retain active transport of AIB with the same kinetic properties as intact cells. However, the uptake of AIB is not inhibited by dexamethasone or other corticosteroids. Neither is the inhibited rate of transport, manifested by cytoplasts prepared from dexamethasone-treated cells, restored to normal upon removal of the hormone. Anucleate cells exhibit specific, saturable binding of [3H]dexamethasone; however, the binding is reduced compared with that of intact cells. The nucleus is thus required for the glucocorticoid regulation of amino acid transport in HTC cells. PMID:7217203

  10. Pokemon silencing leads to Bim-mediated anoikis of human hepatoma cell QGY7703.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shiying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer. PMID:22754333

  11. Pomegranate peel extract polyphenols induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells by mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Bingbing; Li, Jia; Li, Jianke

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of pomegranate peel polyphenols (PPPs) on the proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells (a kind of human hepatoma cells) and the related mechanism. The inverted fluorescence microscope and the flow cytometer (FCM) were used to test the changes of the cellular morphology, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm). The kit was used to measure the activities of caspase-3/9, and Western Blot was used to detect the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins including p53, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyt-c and PARP. The results showed that the cells cycle of HepG2 arrested at the S-phase by PPPs and the amount of the early apoptotic cells and ROS level were increased obviously, the level of Cyt-c and the activity of Caspase-3/9 markedly were also increased by PPPs, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the protein expressions of P53. It was concluded that PPPs could inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells by blocking the cell cycle and inducing the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27120393

  12. GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED ALTERATION OF THE SURFACE MEMBRANE OF CULTURED HEPATOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Philip L.; Tomkins, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Glucocorticoids induce an alteration of the surface of hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells as expressed by changes in cell electrophoretic, antigenic, and adhesive properties. The alteration is assayed by the increased adhesiveness of induced cells for a glass surface. The induction process has a lag period of about 3 hr and attains a plateau level after 24–30 hr when 50–80% of the steroid-treated cells are firmly adhered. Less than 10% of untreated cells adhere under the same conditions. Induction is inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, demonstrates both pH and temperature dependence, and responds to changes in steroid concentration and structure. By contrast, the attachment per se of preinduced cells is not affected by inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis, fluctuations of temperature and pH, and the presence or absence of the hormone. When the induction process is reversed by removal of steroid or addition of actinomycin D, preinduced adhesiveness is lost with a half-life of 13–24 hr, but in the presence of cycloheximide the loss is accelerated (t1/2 3–5.5 hr). These results suggest that glucocorticoids induce the biosynthesis of a protein which either modifies the cell surface (an enzyme) or is incorporated into surface structures (structural protein). PMID:4327515

  13. Pokemon silencing leads to Bim-mediated anoikis of human hepatoma cell QGY7703.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shiying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.

  14. Inhibition of gamma-secretase affects proliferation of leukemia and hepatoma cell lines through Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Suwanjunee, Saipin; Wongchana, Wipawee; Palaga, Tanapat

    2008-06-01

    Notch signaling is a well-conserved pathway playing crucial roles in regulating cell fate decision, proliferation, and apoptosis during the development of multiple cell lineages. Aberration in Notch signaling is associated with tumorigenesis of tissues from various origins. To investigate the role Notch signaling plays in the proliferation of cancer cell lines, the expression profiles of Notch1 in six human cancer cell lines (Jurkat, HepG2, SW620, KATOIII, A375, BT474) were examined. All cell lines differentially expressed Notch1, and only Jurkat and SW620 expressed cleaved Notch1 (Val1744). Among the six cell lines tested, only Jurkat and HepG2 showed a decrease in cell proliferation during 4 days of treatment with a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI). This is the first report on the anti-proliferative effects of GSI on a human hepatoma cell line. These two cell lines expressed Notch1-3, Jagged1, Jagged2, Dlk1 and Hes1. GSI treatment led to a decrease in Hes1 expression in both cell lines. Surprisingly, GSI treatment resulted in the accumulation of Notch1 protein upon treatment. During this period, GSI treatment did not induce apoptosis, but caused cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. This was also correlated with decreased c-myc expression. Forced expression of activated intracellular Notch1 completely abrogated GSI sensitivity in both cell lines. These results clearly demonstrate that Notch signaling positively regulates cell proliferation in Jurkat and HepG2 cell lines and that GSI treatment inhibits tumor cell proliferation through the suppression of Notch signaling. PMID:18418214

  15. MicroRNA-520b Inhibits Growth of Hepatoma Cells by Targeting MEKK2 and Cyclin D1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junping; Wang, Tao; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) contributes to the tumorigenesis. We previously revealed that microRNA-520b (miR-520b) was involved in the complement attack and migration of breast cancer cells. In this report, we show that miR-520b is an important miRNA in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our data showed that the expression levels of miR-520b were significantly reduced in clinical HCC tissues and hepatoma cell lines. We observed that the introduction of miR-520b dramatically suppressed the growth of hepatoma cells by colony formation assays, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays and 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-520b was able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Further studies revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 (MEKK2) and cyclin D1 were two of direct target genes of miR-520b. Silencing of MEKK2 or cyclin D1 was able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo, which is consistent with the effect of miR-520b overexpression on the growth of hepatoma cells. In addition, miR-520b significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, a downstream effector of MEKK2) or retinoblastoma (p-Rb, a downstream effector of cyclin D1). In conclusion, miR-520b is able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells by targeting MEKK2 or cyclin D1 in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide new insights into the role of miR-520b in the development of HCC, and implicate the potential application of miR-520b in cancer therapy. PMID:22319632

  16. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and induction of hepatoma cell apoptosis by ASGPR-directed delivery of shRNAs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingwei; Huang, Chunmei; Yao, Xinxin; Shi, Chuan; Sun, Lifang; Yuan, Lu; Lei, Ping; Zhu, Huifen; Liu, Hongbo; Wu, Xiongwen; Ning, Qin; Zhou, Chun; Shen, Guanxin

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide liver disease and nearly 25% of chronic HBV infections terminate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Currently, there is no effective therapy to inhibit HBV replication and to eliminate hepatoma cells, making it highly desired to develop novel therapies for these two stages of the HBV-caused detrimental disease. Recently, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has emerged as a potential therapy for virus-infected disease and cancer. Here, we have generated a shRNA, pGenesil-siHBV4, which effectively inhibits HBV replication in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15. The inhibitory effects of pGenesil-siHBV4 are manifested by the decrease of both the HBV mRNA level and the protein levels of the secreted HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and by the reduction of secreted HBV DNA. Using mouse hydrodynamic tail vein injection, we demonstrate that pGenesil-siHBV4 is effective in inhibiting HBV replication in vivo. Because survivin plays a key role in cancer cell escape from apoptosis, we further generated pGenesil-siSurvivin, a survivin-silencing shRNA, and showed its effect of triggering apoptosis of HBV-containing hepatoma cells. To develop targeted shRNA therapy, we have identified that as a specific binder of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), jetPEI-Hepatocyte delivers pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin specifically to hepatocytes, not other types of cells. Finally, co-transfection of pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin exerts synergistic effects in inducing hepatoma cell apoptosis, a novel approach to eliminate hepatoma by downregulating survivin via multiple mechanisms. The application of these novel shRNAs with the jetPEI-Hepatocyte targeting strategy demonstrates the proof-of-principle for a promising approach to inhibit HBV replication and eliminate hepatoma cells with high specificity.

  17. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutants exhibit distinct biological activities in hepatoma Huh7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaohong; Zhang Shuhui; Lin Jing; Zhang Shunmin; Feitelson, Mark A.; Gao Hengjun; Zhu Minghua

    2008-09-05

    The role of the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. To investigate the biological impact of hepatitis B virus x gene (HBx) mutation on hepatoma cells, plasmids expressing the full-length HBx or HBx deletion mutants were constructed. The biological activities in these transfectants were analyzed by a series of assays. Results showed that HBx3'-20 and HBx3'-40 amino acid deletion mutants exhibited an increase in cellular proliferation, focus formation, tumorigenicity, and invasive growth and metastasis through promotion of the cell cycle from G0/G1 to the S phase, when compared with the full-length HBx. In contrast, HBx3'-30 amino acid deletion mutant repressed cell proliferation by blocking in G1 phase. The expression of P53, p21{sup WAF1}, p14{sup ARF}, and MDM2 proteins was regulated by expression of HBx mutants. In conclusions, HBx variants showed different effects and functions on cell proliferation and invasion by regulation of the cell cycle progression and its associated proteins expression.

  18. Osmotic regulation of betaine homocysteine-S-methyltransferase expression in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christine; Hoffmann, Lars; Heldt, Katrin; Lornejad-Schäfer, Mohammad Reza; Brauers, Gernot; Gehrmann, Thor; Garrow, Timothy A; Häussinger, Dieter; Mayatepek, Ertan; Schwahn, Bernd C; Schliess, Freimut

    2007-04-01

    Cell hydration changes critically affect liver metabolism and gene expression. In the course of gene expression studies using nylon cDNA-arrays we found that hyperosmolarity (405 mosmol/l) suppressed the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (Bhmt) mRNA expression in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. This was confirmed by Northern blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, which in addition unraveled a pronounced induction of Bhmt mRNA expression by hypoosmotic (205 mosmol/l) swelling. Osmotic regulation of Bhmt mRNA expression was largely paralleled at the levels of Bhmt protein and enzymatic activity. Like hyperosmotic NaCl, hyperosmotic raffinose but not hyperosmotic urea suppressed Bhmt mRNA expression, suggesting that cell shrinkage rather than increased ionic strength or hyperosmolarity per se is the trigger. Hypoosmolarity increased the expression of a reporter gene driven by the entire human BHMT promoter, whereas destabilization of BHMT mRNA was observed under hyperosmotic conditions. Osmosensitivity of Bhmt mRNA expression was impaired by inhibitors of tyrosine kinases and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases. The osmotic regulation of BHMT may be part of a cell volume-regulatory response and additionally lead to metabolic alterations that depend on the availability of betaine-derived methyl groups. PMID:17218476

  19. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by quercetin in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhikui; Sun, Ge; Guo, Wei; Huang, Yayun; Sun, Weihua; Zhao, Fei; Hu, Kanghong

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most serious and prevalent viral diseases in the world. Although several anti-HBV drugs have been used clinically, their side and adverse effects limit treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is necessary to identify novel potential anti-HBV agents. The flavonol quercetin has shown activity against some retroviruses, but its effect on HBV remains unclear. In the present study, quercetin was incubated with HepG2.2.15 cells, as well as HuH-7 cells transfected with an HBV plasmid. Quercetin was shown to significantly reduce Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), secretion and HBV genomic DNA levels in both cell lines. In addition, co-incubation with lamivudine (3TC), entecavir (ETV), or adefovir (Ade) further enhanced the quercetin-induced inhibition of HBV replication. This inhibition was partially associated with decreased heat shock proteins and HBV transcription levels. The results indicate that quercetin inhibited HBV antigen secretion and genome replication in human hepatoma cell lines, which suggests that quercetin may be a potentially effective anti-HBV agent.

  20. Novel cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing recombinant human proteins. Transgenic hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Perraud, F; Dalemans, W; Ali-Hadji, D; Pavirani, A

    1992-01-01

    We have used transgenic mouse technology to establish immortalized hepatoma cell lines stably secreting heterologous proteins, such as human alpha 1-antitrypsin and human factor IX. Hepatocyte-specific regulatory DNA sequences were used to target both the expression of an onc gene and the gene coding for the human protein to the liver of transgenic mice which eventually developed hepatocellular carcinomas. Tumour cells were subsequently established as permanent cell lines, which maintained a differentiated phenotype under specific culture conditions, being capable of producing biologically active and correctly processed human alpha 1-antitrypsin and factor IX. Moreover, a preliminary analysis has shown that certain cell lines express elevated total cytochrome P450 activity. These cells could therefore represent a useful alternative to the use of animals or primary cultures in drug safety testing. PMID:1369183

  1. Zinc protoporphyrin IX enhances chemotherapeutic response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Sui; Li, Huan-Song; Qi, Dun-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Xin-Chun; Shi, Kui; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of zinc protoporphyrin IX on the response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by a flow cytometric assay. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity was measured by determining the level of bilirubin generated in isolated microsomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured with a colorimetric assay kit. Mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 tumor cells subcutaneously into the right flanks. All mice were sacrificed 6 wk after the first treatment and tumors were weighed and measured. RESULTS: Overexpression of HO-1 in HepG2 cell line was associated with increased chemoresistance to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin; CDDP) compared to other cell lines in vitro. Inhibition of HO-1 expression or activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) markedly augmented CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity towards all liver cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, induction of HO-1 with hemin increased resistance of tumor cells to CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cells treated with ZnPP IX plus CDDP exhibited marked production of intracellular ROS and caspase-3 activity, which paralleled the incidence of cell apoptosis, whereas hemin decreased cellular ROS and caspase-3 activity induced by CDDP. CONCLUSION: ZnPP IX increases cellular sensitivity and susceptibility of liver cancer cell lines to CDDP and this may represent a mechanism of increasing ROS. PMID:25024611

  2. Reconstitution of bile acid transport in the rat hepatoma McArdle RH-7777 cell line.

    PubMed

    Torchia, E C; Shapiro, R J; Agellon, L B

    1996-07-01

    The liver recovers bile acids from the portal circulation primarily via an active process that is dependent on sodium ions. Hepatocytes lose the ability to transport bile acids in culture, and, in liver-derived permanent cell lines, this ability is severely reduced or absent. To study the importance of bile acids in regulating liver-specific functions (e.g., cellular bile acid and cholesterol metabolism), we have re-established active bile acid transport in cultured cells. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the rat sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) was placed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter and transfected into the rat hepatoma cell line, McArdle RH-7777. Transfected cells were screened for the ability to take up [3H]-taurocholate. Clones that displayed the ability to take up taurocholate were expanded (designated McNtcp) and further characterized. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for taurocholate uptake was similar among the different clones. The observed maximum velocity (Vmax), however, differed and was positively correlated with the abundance of recombinant ntcp messenger RNA (mRNA). The highest level of taurocholate uptake activity observed in McNtcp cells was comparable with that of freshly isolated hepatocytes. Efflux of accumulated taurocholate from McNtcp cells proceeded in a manner similar to primary hepatocytes, indicating that McArdle RH-7777 cells have retained the ability to secrete bile acids. Moreover, taurocholate uptake in McNtcp cells was inhibited by other bile acid species. Based on the observed kinetic parameters, the reconstituted McArdle RH-7777 cells mimic the ability of primary hepatocytes to transport bile acids.

  3. In Vitro Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus by Antisense Oligonucleotides in PBMC Compared to Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Fahmy, Ahmed Mohamed; Omran, Moataza Hassan; Mohamed, Amr Saad; El Desouki, Mohamed Ali; El-Awady, Mostafa K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the efficiency of phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotide 1 (S-ODN1) on HCV translation inhibition in PBMC compared to hepatoma cells in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods. The study included 34 treatment naive HCV patients. IRES domain III and IV sequence variations were tested in 45 clones from 9 HCV patients. PBMC of HCV positive patients were subjected to S-ODN in vitro. Concomitantly HepG2 cells infected by the same patient's serum were also treated with S-ODN1 for 24 and 48 hours. Cellular RNA was tested for HCV plus and minus strands by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. Sequence variations were seen in HCV IRES domain III only while domain IV was conserved among all the tested patient's clones. S-ODN1 successfully inhibited HCV translation in HepG2 cells, while in PBMC inhibition was partial. Conclusion. HCV IRES domain IV is more conserved than domain IIId in genotype 4 HCV patients. S-ODN against HCV IRES domain IV was not efficient to inhibit HCV translation in PBMC under the study conditions. Further studies testing other S-ODN targeting other HCV IRES domains in PBMC should be done. PMID:24991538

  4. DNA triplex-mediated inhibition of MET leads to cell death and tumor regression in hepatoma

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, G; Akhter, MZ; Stern, DF; Gupta, SD; Ahuja, A; Sharma, U; Jagannathan, NR; Rajeswari, MR

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (MET) is one of the critical cell signaling molecules whose aberrant expression is reported in several human cancers. The aim of the study is to investigate the antigene and antiproliferative effect of short triplex forming oligonucleotides, TFO-1 (part of the positive regulatory element) and TFO-2 (away from the transcription start site) on MET expression. HepG2 cells transfected only with TFO-1 (but not with TFO-2 and non-specific TFO) significantly decreased MET levels, which is accompanied by decrease in antiapoptotic proteins and increase in pro-apoptotic proteins. Phosphoproteome-array analysis of 46 intracellular kinases revealed hypophosphorylation of about 15 kinases including ERK, AKT, Src and MEK, suggesting the growth inhibitory effect of TFO-1. Further, the efficacy of TFO-1 was tested on diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumors in wistar rats. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed decrease in liver tumor volume up to 90% after treatment with TFO-1. Decreased MET expression and elevated apoptotic activity further indicate that TFO-1 targeted to c-met leads to cell death and tumor regression in hepatoma. Formation of stable DNA triplex between TFO-1 and targeted gene sequence was confirmed by circular dichroic spectroscopy and gel retardation assay. Therefore, it can be concluded that DNA triplex-based therapeutic approaches hold promise in the treatment of malignancies associated with MET overexpression. PMID:21660063

  5. DNA binding properties of dioxin receptors in wild-type and mutant mouse hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cuthill, S.; Poellinger, L.

    1988-04-19

    The current model of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) entails stimulation of target gene transcription via the formation of dioxin-receptor complexes and subsequent accumulation of the complexes within the cell nucleus. Here, the authors have analyzed the DNA binding properties of the dioxin receptor in wild-type mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells and a class of nonresponsive mutant cells which fail to accumulate dioxin-receptor complexes within the nucleus in vivo. In vitro, both the wild-type and mutant (/sup 3/H)dioxin-receptor complexes exhibited low affinity for DNA-cellulose (5-8% and around 4% retention, respectively) in the absence of prior biochemical manipulations. However, following chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, the wild-type but not the mutant dioxin receptor was transformed to a species with an increased affinity for DNA (40-50% retention on DNA-cellulose). The gross molecular structure of the mutant, non DNA binding dioxin receptor did not appear to be altered as compared to that of the wild-type receptor. These results imply that the primary deficiency in the mutant dioxin receptor form may reside at the DNA binding level and that, in analogy to steroid hormone receptors, DNA binding of the receptor may be an essential step in the regulation of target gene transcription by dioxin.

  6. Enhancement of esculetin on Taxol-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-C.; Lee, H.-J.; Hu, C.-C.; Shun, H.-I; Tseng, T.-H. . E-mail: tht@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-01-15

    The potential use of low dose chemotherapy has been appealing since lower dosages are more attainable during cancer therapy and cause less toxicity in patients. Combination therapy of Taxol, a promising frontline chemotherapy agent, with natural anti-tumor agents that are considerably less toxic with a capability of activating additional apoptotic signals or inhibiting survival signals may provide a rational molecular basis for novel chemotherapeutic strategies. Esculetin, a well-known lipoxygenase inhibitor, showed an inhibitory effect on the cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells in our previous study. In this report, the effects of a concomitant administration of esculetin and Taxol were investigated in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Firstly, esculetin alone could exert an antiproliferation effect together with an inhibitory effect on the activation of ERKs and p38 MAPK. As compared to the treatment with Taxol only, a co-administration with esculetin and Taxol could result in a further enhancement of apoptosis as revealed by DNA fragmentation assay and Annexin-V-based assay. Meanwhile, immunoblotting analysis also showed that the co-administration of esculetin and Taxol could increase the expression of Bax and the cytosolic release of cytochrome C and enhance the expression of Fas and Fas ligand while the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 was also increased. Finally, the ERK cascade was proven to be involved in the enhancement of esculetin on the Taxol-induced apoptosis.

  7. Aberrant caspase-activated DNase (CAD) transcripts in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S Y; Liaw, S F; Lee, S N; Hsieh, P S; Lin, K H; Chu, C M; Liaw, Y F

    2003-01-27

    The gene of caspase-activated DNase (CAD), the key enzyme for nucleosome cleavage during apoptosis, is mapped at chromosome 1p36, a region usually associated with hemizygous deletions in human cancers, particularly in hepatoma (HCC). It is tempting to speculate that CAD plays a tumour-suppressive role in hepatocarcinogenesis. To address this, we examined the CAD transcripts in six human HCC cell lines, one liver tissue from a non-HCC subject, and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from three healthy individuals. Alternatively spliced CAD transcripts with fusion of exon 1 to exon 7 were isolated in most of the examined samples including HCC cells and normal controls. However, relatively abundant alternatively spliced CAD transcripts with fusion of exon 2 to exon 6 or 7, in which the corresponding domain directing CAD interaction with ICAD was preserved, were found only in poorly differentiated Mahlavu and SK-Hep1 cells. Interestingly, an abnormal CAD transcript with its exon 3 replaced by a truncated transposable Alu repeat was isolated in Hep3B cells, indicative of the implication of an Alu-mediated genomic mutation. Moreover, mis-sense mutations in the CAD genes were identified in all six HCC cell lines. Upon UV-induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation efficiency was found to be intact, partially reduced and remarkably reduced in Huh7 and J328, Hep3B and HepG2, and Mahlavu cells, respectively. That mutations and aberrantly spliced transcripts for the CAD gene are frequently present in human HCC cells, especially in poorly differentiated HCC cells, suggests a significant role of CAD in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. [In vitro targeting effect of lactoferrin modified PEGylated liposomes for hepatoma cells].

    PubMed

    Wei, Min-yan; Zou, Qi; Wu, Chuan-bin; Xu, Yue-hong

    2015-10-01

    A lactoferrin-containing PEGylated liposome system (Lf-PLS) was developed and tested in vitro as a hepatoma-targeting drug delivery system. PEGylated liposomes (PLS) were successfully prepared using the thin film hydration method with peglipid post insertion. Lf was covalently conjugated onto the carboxyl terminal of DSPE-PEG2000-COOH on liposomes. Coumarin-6 was used to trace Lf-PLS with fluorescence. The cellular uptake of this system was carried out in asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) positive HepG2 cells via confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The Lf-PLS liposome was observed as spherical or oval vesicles with the particle size around 130 nm, zeta potential about -30 mV and encapsulation efficiency more than 80%. The confocal microscopy images and flow cytometry data demonstrated that Lf-PLS resulted in significantly higher cell association by ASGPR positive HepG2 cells compared to PLS. The association between Lf-PLS and cells were dependent on the concentration, time and temperature, which was inhibited by pre-incubation with excessive free Lf. The results suggest that Lf-PLS has a good targeting effect on HepG2 cells in vitro. The targeting mechanism may be related to the specific binding of Lf and ASGPR on HepG2 cells, which guides Lf-PLS to the cell surface to induce an active endocytosis process. All these results demonstrated that Lf-PLS might be a potential drug delivery system in targeting hepatocellular carcinoma, which deserves more research on its targeting ability, antitumor efficiency, and metabolism in vivo for treatment of hepatomacellular carcinoma.

  9. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Yarmush, Gabriel; Santos, Lucas; Yarmush, Joshua; Koundinyan, Srivathsan; Saleem, Mubasher; Nativ, Nir I; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Martin L; Maguire, Timothy J; Berthiaume, Francois

    2016-01-04

    Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  10. Measurement of Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; De Kock, Joery; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a diverse group of catalytic enzymes in the liver that are mainly responsible for the biotransformation of organic substances. Cytochrome P450 activity as well as both its induction and inhibition are key factors in drug biotransformation and can be involved in deactivation, activation, detoxification and toxification processes. Thus, the modulation of cytochrome P450 activity is an important parameter when evaluating the potential toxicity of chemical compounds using an in vitro system. The cytochrome P450 3A subfamily proteins are among the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in human liver and are responsible for about half of all cytochrome P450-dependent drug oxidations. In vitro, these enzymes are active not only in primary human hepatocyte cultures, but also in differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells. The present protocol describes the culture of cryopreserved differentiated HepaRG cells and the evaluation of its cytochrome P450 activity upon exposure to a chemical compound using a commercially available luminogenic cytochrome P450 assay. This in vitro model can be used to monitor the induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A following exposure to a particular test compound.

  11. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yarmush, Gabriel; Santos, Lucas; Yarmush, Joshua; Koundinyan, Srivathsan; Saleem, Mubasher; Nativ, Nir I.; Schloss, Rene S.; Yarmush, Martin L.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Berthiaume, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26742084

  12. Thyroid hormone receptor inhibits hepatoma cell migration through transcriptional activation of Dickkopf 4

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Liao, Chen-Hsin; Huang, Ya-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Liao, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chung, I-Hsiao; Wu, Tzu-I; Chen, Wei-Jan; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •T{sub 3} affects DKK4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2-TR cells. •Regulation of DKK4 by T{sub 3} is at transcriptional level. •DKK4 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cell metastasis. -- Abstract: Triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T{sub 3}/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T{sub 3} at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T{sub 3}-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5′ promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T{sub 3} response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides −1645 and −1629 conferring T{sub 3} responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T{sub 3}/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC.

  13. Selenium regulation of glutathione peroxidase in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B.

    PubMed

    Baker, R D; Baker, S S; LaRosa, K; Whitney, C; Newburger, P E

    1993-07-01

    Glutathione peroxidase is an important enzyme in cellular antioxidant defense systems, detoxifying peroxides and hydroperoxides. As a component of the glutathione cycle, it protects the liver from reactive oxygen metabolites. Selenocysteine is present at the catalytic site of glutathione peroxidase, and selenium availability regulates glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity. Hep3B cells, a well-differentiated human hepatoma-derived cell line, exhibited time-dependent decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity (nmol NADPH oxidized/min/mg protein, mean +/- SE) when incubated in selenium-free medium for 10 days (Day 0, 21.8 +/- 7.3; Day 2, 10.9 +/- 1.2; Day 4, 7.9 +/- 0.8; Day 6, 4.0 +/- 0.7; Day 8, 4.5 +/- 0.6; Day 10, 1.6 +/- 0.4). With the reintroduction of selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity returned. A second human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, demonstrated a similar pattern when depleted of and then repleted with selenium. To assess protein synthesis, glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in deficient and replete Hep3B cells incubated with and without selenium and with and without cycloheximide. Deficient cells (mean +/- SE) (4.9 +/- 0.2) showed an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity after 24 h in selenium-containing medium (11.6 +/- 0.2), but not when cycloheximide was included in the medium (6.9 +/- 0.5) or when cycloheximide and no selenium was included (5.3 +/- 0.8). Replete Hep3B cells (40.1 +/- 1.1) demonstrated decreased glutathione peroxidase after 24 h in medium without selenium (34.0 +/- 1.4), medium with both cycloheximide and selenium (34.0 +/- 2.6), and medium without selenium and containing cycloheximide (37.6 +/- 1.3). These data suggest that protein synthesis is needed for selenium repletion to exert control on glutathione peroxidase activity. Using a cDNA for human glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), selenium-deficient and replete Hep3B cell RNA was analyzed by Northern blot. mRNA for GPx was quantified by densitometry. The steady

  14. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 μg mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 μg mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 μg mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 μg mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis

  15. CD18/ICAM-1-dependent oxidative NF-kappaB activation leading to nitric oxide production in rat Kupffer cells cocultured with syngeneic hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, I; Saito, H; Miura, S; Ebinuma, H; Higuchi, H; Watanabe, N; Zeki, S; Nakamura, T; Takaishi, M; Ishii, H

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide (NO) released from Kupffer cells modulates biological viability of cocultured hepatoma cells. This study was designed to evaluate the mechanisms by which Kupffer cells synthesize and release NO in reponse to cocultured hepatoma cells. Kupffer cells isolated from male Wistar rats were cocultured with rat hepatoma cell line, AH70 cells. The sum of nitrite and nitrate levels increased in the culture medium of Kupffer cells with AH70 cells as compared with those of Kupffer cells or AH70 cells alone. Increased expressions of iNOS and iNOS mRNA in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells were detected by an immunofluorescence staining and a fluorescence in situ hybridization study, respectively. A fluorescence in situ DNA-protein binding assay revealed that NF-kappaB activation occurs in Kupffer cells and activated NF-kappaB moved into the nuclei preceding to an increased production of NO. Oxidative stress indicated by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was observed in Kupffer cells cocultured with AH70 cells. An increased calcium mobilization indicated as increased fluo-3-associated fluorescence was also induced in Kupffer cells after coculture with AH70 cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against rat CD18 and ICAM-1, as well as TMB-8, a calcium inhibitor, prevented the calcium mobilization, active oxygen production, and NF-kappaB activation in addition to the increased production of NO. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of oxidative NF-kappaB activation, diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, NF-kappaB activation, and NO production. Therefore, this study suggests that CD18/ICAM-1-dependent cell-to-cell interaction with hepatoma cells causes calcium mobilization and oxidative activation of NF-kappaB, which may lead to the increased production of NO in Kupffer cells. PMID:9062344

  16. Interleukin-6 downregulates factor XII production by human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Citarella, F; Felici, A; Brouwer, M; Wagstaff, J; Fantoni, A; Hack, C E

    1997-08-15

    Involvement of the contact system of coagulation in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases is suggested by reduced plasma levels of factor XII (Hageman factor) and prekallikrein generally considered to result from activation of the contact system. However, in many of these diseases patients develop an acute-phase response and, therefore, an alternative explanation for the decreased levels of factor XII could be the downregulation of factor XII gene expression in the liver as described for negative acute-phase proteins. We report here that interleukin-6 (IL-6), the principal cytokine mediating the synthesis of most acute-phase proteins in the liver, downregulates the production of factor XII by the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 by up to 75%. The decrease in protein secretion correlated with an equivalent decrease of factor XII mRNA likely indicating a pretranslational control of factor XII gene expression by IL-6. Downregulation of factor XII production by IL-6 in vitro parallelled that of transthyretin, a known negative acute-phase protein. Moreover, we show that, in patients developing an acute-phase response after immunotherapy with IL-2, plasma levels of factor XII correlate (r = .76, P < .0001) with those of transthyretin. Taken together, these results suggest that factor XII behaves as a negative acute-phase protein.

  17. Isotopomer spectral analysis of cholesterol synthesis: applications in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, J K; Kharroubi, A T; Aldaghlas, T A; Shambat, I B; Kennedy, K A; Holleran, A L; Masterson, T M

    1994-03-01

    Cholesterol synthesis from 13C-labeled precursors produces a discrete spectrum of mass isotopomers detectable using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) method matches the observed spectrum of cholesterol isotopomers with a mathematical model to obtain the best fit of model spectrum to data spectrum. The model was based on multinomial probability expressions that simulate cholesterol synthesis as a condensation of mevalonate fragments. As many as four unknown parameters, representing fluxes between compartments, were included in the model. Models were developed to assess cholesterol synthesis from 13C-enriched precursors including mevalonate, acetate, acetoacetate or octanoate. Models were tested in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2, which readily incorporated the 13C substrates into cholesterol. The ISA approach was used to estimate the fractional amount of the cholesterol precursors derived from the 13C substrate and the fraction of total cellular cholesterol synthesized in the presence of the 13C substrate. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the ISA approach for a condensation biosynthesis that is not a simple polymerization and for models with more than two unknown parameters. PMID:8166258

  18. A distinct glucocorticoid hormone response regulates phosphoprotein maturation in rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, K; Vallerga, A K; Hone, J; Firestone, G L

    1986-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormone-dependent maturation of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) phosphorylated polyprotein (Pr74) allows experimental access to certain posttranslational regulatory circuits under steroid control in M1.54 cells, an MMTV-infected rat hepatoma cell line. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that [35S]methionine-labeled Pr74 synthesized in uninduced cells could be converted posttranslationally into p24, a stable phosphorylated maturation product, only after 4 h of exposure to 1 microM dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid. This regulated processing could be prevented by prior exposure, during the chase period, to inhibitors of RNA (actinomycin D) or protein (cycloheximide or puromycin) synthesis. Moreover, half-maximal production of p24 occurred at 10 nM dexamethasone, a concentration that approximated half-maximal receptor binding and stimulation of MMTV transcript synthesis. Kinetic, hormonal, and genetic evidence suggest that p24 expression did not require or result from the overall glucocorticoid-dependent increase in polyprotein concentration. First, 20 h after dexamethasone withdrawal, Pr74 maturation was completely deinduced, whereas the absolute level of this MMTV precursor remained 10-fold over its basal level. Second, progesterone, which competes with dexamethasone for receptor binding, facilitated the regulated production of p24 but prevented the steroid-mediated accumulation of functional MMTV mRNA. Lastly, certain glucocorticoid-responsive variants, derived from M1.54 cells by resistance to complement cytolysis, expressed p24 in the presence or absence of glucocorticoid-induced levels of Pr74. Taken together, our results suggest that the glucocorticoid-regulated maturation of MMTV phosphopolyproteins resulted from an independent hormone response that required normal receptor function and de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Images PMID:3023857

  19. Autophagy of metallothioneins prevents TNF-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ullio, Chiara; Brunk, Ulf T; Urani, Chiara; Melchioretto, Pasquale; Bonelli, Gabriella; Baccino, Francesco M; Autelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) induced by oxidative stress has recently emerged as a prominent mechanism behind TNF cytotoxicity. This pathway relies on diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into lysosomes containing redox-active iron, accumulated by breakdown of iron-containing proteins and subcellular organelles. Upon oxidative lysosomal damage, LMP allows relocation to the cytoplasm of low mass iron and acidic hydrolases that contribute to DNA and mitochondrial damage, resulting in death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here we investigate the role of lysosomes and free iron in death of HTC cells, a rat hepatoma line, exposed to TNF following metallothionein (MT) upregulation. Iron-binding MT does not normally occur in HTC cells in significant amounts. Intracellular iron chelation attenuates TNF and cycloheximide (CHX)-induced LMP and cell death, demonstrating the critical role of this transition metal in mediating cytokine lethality. MT upregulation, combined with starvation-activated MT autophagy almost completely suppresses TNF and CHX toxicity, while impairment of both autophagy and MT upregulation by silencing of Atg7, and Mt1a and/or Mt2a, respectively, abrogates protection. Interestingly, MT upregulation by itself has little effect, while stimulated autophagy alone depresses cytokine toxicity to some degree. These results provide evidence that intralysosomal iron-catalyzed redox reactions play a key role in TNF and CHX-induced LMP and toxicity. The finding that chelation of intralysosomal iron achieved by autophagic delivery of MT, and to some degree probably of other iron-binding proteins as well, into the lysosomal compartment is highly protective provides a putative mechanism to explain autophagy-related suppression of death by TNF and CHX.

  20. Glucose regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in hepatoma and islet cells.

    PubMed

    Louis, N A; Witters, L A

    1992-02-01

    The regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by glucose and other fuel molecules has been examined in Fao Reuber hepatoma cells and Syrian hamster insulin tumor (HIT) cells in order to determine whether lipogenic substrates acutely alter ACC activity and to examine the mechanism of such regulation. In Fao cells, preincubated in simple medium without substrates, glucose addition results in a rapid activation of ACC. This effect, mimicked by other fuels such as lactate, is characterized by an increase in enzyme Vmax and a decrease in the activation constant for citrate. Several lines of evidence indicate that this activation of ACC is due to enzyme dephosphorylation, including the kinetic changes observed, the persistence of enzyme activation through ACC isolation, the necessity of inclusion of sodium fluoride/EDTA in the cell lysis buffer for preservation of the glucose-induced change, and the direct demonstration of diminished 32P-labeling of ACC after glucose exposure. Identical effects of glucose are also observed in HIT cells, although the ACC activation is smaller in magnitude and less sensitive than that observed in Fao cells. Other insulin secretagogues such as glutamine, lactate, and isobutylmethylxanthine are also found to activate HIT ACC. Others have suggested that glucose-induced changes in malonyl-CoA in beta-cells may be linked to glucose-induced insulin secretion. However, studies conducted in late passage HIT cells, which fail to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation, reveal the same glucose-induced activation seen in early passages, secretion-competent HIT cells, suggesting that glucose-induced ACC activation is not by itself sufficient to provoke insulin secretion. Taken together, these findings indicate that glucose and other fuel molecules can play a major role in the rapid regulation of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. The activation of fatty acid synthesis by substrate-induced ACC dephosphorylation insures ultimate fuel storage

  1. CD81 is dispensable for hepatitis C virus cell-to-cell transmission in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Witteveldt, Jeroen; Evans, Matthew J; Bitzegeio, Julia; Koutsoudakis, George; Owsianka, Ania M; Angus, Allan G N; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K H; Pietschmann, Thomas; Rice, Charles M; Patel, Arvind H

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects cells by the direct uptake of cell-free virus following virus engagement with specific cell receptors such as CD81. Recent data have shown that HCV is also capable of direct cell-to-cell transmission, although the role of CD81 in this process is disputed. Here, we generated cell culture infectious strain JFH1 HCV (HCVcc) genomes carrying an alanine substitution of E2 residues W529 or D535 that are critical for binding to CD81 and infectivity. Co-cultivation of these cells with naïve cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) resulted in a small number of cells co-expressing both EGFP and HCV NS5A, showing that the HCVcc mutants are capable of cell-to-cell spread. In contrast, no cell-to-cell transmission from JFH1(DeltaE1E2)-transfected cells occurred, indicating that the HCV glycoproteins are essential for this process. The frequency of cell-to-cell transmission of JFH1(W529A) was unaffected by the presence of neutralizing antibodies that inhibit E2-CD81 interactions. By using cell lines that expressed little or no CD81 and that were refractive to infection with cell-free virus, we showed that the occurrence of viral cell-to-cell transmission is not influenced by the levels of CD81 on either donor or recipient cells. Thus, our results show that CD81 plays no role in the cell-to-cell spread of HCVcc and that this mode of transmission is shielded from neutralizing antibodies. These data suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting the entry of cell-free HCV may not be sufficient in controlling an ongoing chronic infection, but need to be complemented by additional strategies aimed at disrupting direct cell-to-cell viral transmission. PMID:19088272

  2. Hypoxia on the Expression of Hepatoma Upregulated Protein in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Sakiyama, Marcelo J.; Ma, Tangeng; Fair, Logan; Zhou, Xinchun; Hassan, Mohamed; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Gomez, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a multifunctional protein with clinical promise. This protein has been demonstrated to be a predictive marker for the outcome in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients, besides being a resistance factor in PCa. Although changes in oxygen tension (pO2) are associated with PCa aggressiveness, the role of hypoxia in the regulation of tumor progression genes such as HURP has not yet been described. We hypothesized that pO2 alteration is involved in the regulation of HURP expression in PCa cells. In the present study, PCa cells were incubated at 2% O2 (hypoxia) and 20% O2 (normoxia) conditions. Hypoxia reduced cell growth rate of PCa cells, when compared to the growth rate of cells cultured under normoxia (p < 0.05). The decrease in cell viability was accompanied by fivefold (p < 0.05) elevated rate of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release. The expression of VEGF and the hypoxia-inducible metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 9 were elevated maximally nearly 61-fold and 200-fold, respectively (p < 0.05). Noted in two cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) and independent of the oxygen levels, HURP expression assessed at both mRNA and protein levels was reduced. However, the decrease was more pronounced in cells cultured under hypoxia (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the analysis of patients’ specimens by Western blot revealed a marked increase of HURP protein (fivefold), when compared to control (cystoprostatectomy) tissue (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis showed an increase in the immunostaining intensity of HURP and the hypoxia-sensitive molecules, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), VEGF, and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) in association with tumor grade. The data also suggested a redistribution of subcellular localization for HURP and HIF-1α from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic compartment in relation to increasing tumor grade. Analysis of HURP Promoter for HIF-1-binding sites revealed presence

  3. Genetic analysis of a transcriptional activation pathway by using hepatoma cell variants.

    PubMed Central

    Bulla, G A; Fournier, R E

    1994-01-01

    A hierarchy of liver-enriched transcription factors plays an important role in activating expression of many hepatic genes. In particular, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a major activator of the gene encoding HNF-1, and HNF-1 itself activates expression of more than 20 liver genes. To dissect this activation pathway genetically, we prepared somatic cell variants that were deficient in expression of the liver-specific alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) gene, which requires both HNF-1 and HNF-4 for high-level gene activity. This was accomplished in two steps. First, hepatoma transfectants that stably expressed two selectable markers under alpha 1AT promoter control were prepared; second, variant sublines that could no longer express either transgene were isolated by direct selection. In this report, we demonstrate that the variants contain defects in the HNF-4/HNF-1 activation pathway. These defects functioned in trans, as expression of many liver genes was affected, but the variant phenotypes were recessive to wild type in somatic cell hybrids. Three different variant classes could be discriminated by their phenotypic responses to ectopic expression of either HNF-4 or HNF-1. Two variant clones appeared specifically deficient in HNF-4 expression, as transfection with an HNF-4 expression cassette fully restored their hepatic phenotypes. Another line activated HNF-1 in response to forced HNF-4 expression, but activation of downstream genes failed to occur. One clone was unresponsive to either HNF-1 or HNF-4. Using the variants, we demonstrate further that the chromosomal genes encoding alpha 1AT, aldolase B, and alpha-fibrinogen display strict requirements for HNF-1 activation in vivo, while other liver genes were unaffected by the presence or absence of HNF-1 or HNF-4. We also provide evidence for the existence of an autoregulatory loop in which HNF-1 regulates its own expression through activation of HNF-4. Images PMID:7935424

  4. Effects of laver extracts on adhesion, invasion, and migration in SK-Hep1 human hepatoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Do Thi, Nhuan; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2014-01-01

    The laver (Porphyra tenera), red seaweed, has been reported to have anticancer activity, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of laver extract on cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis in SK-Hep1 cells using migration and invasion assays. We also investigated the relationship of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 expression at both the protein and gene level in SK-Hep1 human hepatoma carcinoma cells after laver extract treatment. Laver extract inhibited cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In an invasion assay conducted in Transwell chambers, laver extract showed 19.6 and 27.2% inhibition of cancer cell at 200 and 400 μg/mL, respectively, compared to the control. The mRNA levels of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were down-regulated by laver extract treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Laver extract, at 400 μg/mL, was inhibited by MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions by 70.1 and 77.0%, respectively. An inverse relationship in the mRNA contents of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1/-2 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells was found by laver extract treatment. Our results demonstrate antimetastatic properties of laver extract in inhibiting the adhesion, invasion, and migration of SK-Hep1 human hepatoma cancer cells. PMID:25036133

  5. Targeting human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) to mitochondria enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Mizumachi, Takatsugu; Carcel-Trullols, Jaime; Li, Liwen; Naito, Akihiro; Spencer, Horace J; Spring, Paul M; Smoller, Bruce R; Watson, Amanda J; Margison, Geoffrey P; Higuchi, Masahiro; Fan, Chun-Yang

    2007-08-01

    Many chemoradiation therapies cause DNA damage through oxidative stress. An important cellular mechanism that protects cells against oxidative stress involves DNA repair. One of the primary DNA repair mechanisms for oxidative DNA damage is base excision repair (BER). BER involves the tightly coordinated function of four enzymes (glycosylase, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, polymerase and ligase), in which 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 initiates the cycle. An imbalance in the production of any one of these enzymes may result in the generation of more DNA damage and increased cell killing. In this study, we targeted mitochondrial DNA to enhance cancer chemotherapy by over-expressing a human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) gene in the mitochondria of human hepatoma cells. Increased hOGG1 transgene expression was achieved at RNA, protein and enzyme activity levels. In parallel, we observed enhanced mitochondrial DNA damage, increased mitochondrial respiration rate, increased membrane potential and elevated free radical production. A greater proportion of the hOGG1-over-expressing hepatoma cells experienced apoptosis. Following exposure to a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin, cancer cells over-expressing hOGG1 displayed much shortened long-term survival when compared with control cells. Our results suggest that over-expression of hOGG1 in mitochondria may promote mitochondrial DNA damage by creating an imbalance in the BER pathway and sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin. These findings support further evaluation of hOGG1 over-expression strategies for cancer therapy.

  6. Inhibitory effect of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells with Apoptin on hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingsi; Hou, Lingling; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Diandian; Wang, Ziling; Hu, Honggang; Fu, Yuanhui; He, Jinsheng

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor and has become one of the most frequent causes of cancer death in the world. The rate of post-operative recurrence and metastasis are still high even though after surgical resection. It is a difficult problem with extraordinary importance for the clinical treatment. So stem cell therapy becomes one of the anti-tumor biotherapy methods which is exploring. Due to the feature of homing to tumor site and immunosuppressive, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity of gene treatment to tumor as a vehicle. Apoptin derived from chicken anemia virus is one kind of protein with an inherent ability to lyse cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. Adenovirus (Ad) vectors can be modified to deliver therapeutic genes with the advantages of low toxicity and high transfer capacity. Now it has not been reported that combining MSCs and Adenovirus with Apoptin are used in HCC treatment. This study intends to construct recombinant adenovirus which expresses Apoptin and then infects human bone marrow MSCs, and explore the migration of MSCs to the hepatoma cells and inhibitory effect of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells with Apoptin on hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Our research successfully established the recombinant Ad which was constructed by Ad system, and obtained MSCs which could secrete Apoptin. We found that both the modified MSCs with Apoptin and their conditional medium significantly inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cells HepG2, which provided a novel means and experimental basis for stem cell treatment for HCC. This study tries to search for a stem cell therapy for cancers, which will provide a new approach and experimental basis for the clinical treatment of cancer. At the same time, this research will also provide experimental basis for a novel in vivo drug delivery system through stem cells as vehicle, which will resolve immune rejection induced by repeated applications of

  7. Downregulation of miR-210 expression inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wei; Sun, Ting; Cao, Jianping; Liu, Fenju; Tian, Ye; Zhu, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique was employed to downregulate miR-210 expression in hypoxic human hepatoma SMMC-7721, HepG2 and HuH7 cells, and phenotypic changes of which were analyzed. Hypoxia led to an increased hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and miR-210 expression and cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase in all cell lines. miR-210 downregulation significantly suppressed cell viability, induced cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, increased apoptotic rate and enhanced radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Moreover, apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3 (AIFM3) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. AIFM3 downregulation by siRNA attenuated radiation induced apoptosis in miR-210 downregulated hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target and specific inhibition of miR-210 expression in combination with radiotherapy might be expected to exert strong anti-tumor effect on hypoxic human hepatoma cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 downregulation radiosensitized hypoxic hepatoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIFM3 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 might be a therapeutic target to hypoxic hepatoma.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of human paraoxonase 1 by PXR and GR in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Ruiz, N; Rojas-García, A E; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Elizondo, G; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Mejía-García, A; Medina-Díaz, I M

    2015-12-25

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is A-esterase synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma, where it associates with HDL. PON1 acts as an antioxidant preventing lipid oxidation and detoxifies a wide range of substrates, including organophosphate compounds. The variability of PON1 (enzyme activity/serum levels) has been attributed to internal and external factors. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of PON1 have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the transcriptional activation of PON1 by nuclear receptors (NR) in human hepatoma cells. In silico analysis was performed on the promoter region of PON1 to determine the response elements of NR. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the effect of specific NR ligands on the mRNA levels of genes regulated by NR and PON1. The results indicated that NR response elements had 95% homology to pregnenolone (PXR), glucocorticoids (GR), retinoic acid (RXR) and peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Treatments with Dexamethasone (GR ligand), Rifampicin (PXR ligand) and TCDD (AhR ligand) increased the mRNA levels of PON1 at 24 and 48 h. We showed that the activation of GR by Dexamethasone results in PON1 gene induction accompanied by an increase in activity levels. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that GR regulates PON1 gene transcription through directly binding to NR response elements at -95 to -628 bp of the PON1 promoter. This study suggests new molecular mechanisms for the transcriptional regulation of PON1 through a process involving the activation of PXR.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of human paraoxonase 1 by PXR and GR in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Ruiz, N; Rojas-García, A E; Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Elizondo, G; Bernal-Hernández, Y Y; Mejía-García, A; Medina-Díaz, I M

    2015-12-25

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is A-esterase synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma, where it associates with HDL. PON1 acts as an antioxidant preventing lipid oxidation and detoxifies a wide range of substrates, including organophosphate compounds. The variability of PON1 (enzyme activity/serum levels) has been attributed to internal and external factors. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transcriptional regulation of PON1 have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the transcriptional activation of PON1 by nuclear receptors (NR) in human hepatoma cells. In silico analysis was performed on the promoter region of PON1 to determine the response elements of NR. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the effect of specific NR ligands on the mRNA levels of genes regulated by NR and PON1. The results indicated that NR response elements had 95% homology to pregnenolone (PXR), glucocorticoids (GR), retinoic acid (RXR) and peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Treatments with Dexamethasone (GR ligand), Rifampicin (PXR ligand) and TCDD (AhR ligand) increased the mRNA levels of PON1 at 24 and 48 h. We showed that the activation of GR by Dexamethasone results in PON1 gene induction accompanied by an increase in activity levels. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that GR regulates PON1 gene transcription through directly binding to NR response elements at -95 to -628 bp of the PON1 promoter. This study suggests new molecular mechanisms for the transcriptional regulation of PON1 through a process involving the activation of PXR. PMID:26434531

  10. Carvacrol and rosemary oil at higher concentrations induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Melušová, Martina; Jantová, Soňa; Horváthová, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Natural essential oils are volatile herbal complex compounds which manifest cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on their type and concentration but usually they are not genotoxic. Our previous studies showed that carvacrol (CA) and rosemary essential oil (RO) induced growth inhibition of both human cell lines HepG2 and BHNF-1, with hepatoma HepG2 cells being more sensitive to either compound tested. Cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO induced the formation of DNA strand breaks. Further ex vivo studies showed that extracts prepared from hepatocytes of CA- and RO-supplemented rats did not increase incision repair activity compared to extracts from liver cells of control animals. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO on the cell cycle and the ability of both natural volatiles to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. These effects were measured after 24 h incubation of HepG2 cells with CA and RO using three independent methods - flow cytometry, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (electrophoresis) and micronucleus assay. Evaluation of morphological changes and formation of micronuclei in HepG2 cells showed no increase in the number of micronuclei in cells treated by CA and RO compared to control cells. On the other hand, CA and RO induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. The presence of necrosis was negligible. Both natural compounds caused shrinking of cytoplasmic membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the highest concentrations of CA and RO induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (formation of DNA ladder) in HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in the S phase after 24 h exposure to the substances tested. The cell division was thus slowed down or stopped and this process resulted in cell

  11. Celecoxib induces apoptosis via a mitochondria‑dependent pathway in the H22 mouse hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dan; Kan, Mujie; Qiao, Ping; Pan, Yue; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Xuanang; Li, Jing; Chen, Li

    2014-10-01

    Celecoxib is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has demonstrated promise in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. The present study was conducted to gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which celecoxib induces apoptosis in the H22 mouse hepatoma cell line. The effect of celecoxib on the viability of H22 mouse hepatoma cells was assessed with sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by a flow cytometric assay. The protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl‑2, cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-9, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were determined by western blot analysis. The data demonstrated that celecoxib reduced the percentage of viable H22 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with cell apoptosis. Furthermore, celecoxib induced apoptosis via the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), the release of cytochrome c and AIF, and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Celecoxib also increased the abundance of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and reduced the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The data demonstrated that celecoxib induced apoptosis in mouse liver cancer cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway rather than the PPARγ/NF-κB signaling pathway, which indicates that celecoxib may be an effective agent in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25109418

  12. Activation of AMPK/MnSOD signaling mediates anti-apoptotic effect of hepatitis B virus in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Hong, Hong-Hai; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ma, Cai-Qi; Liu, Han-Yan; Yao, Ya-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-apoptotic capability of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Targeted knockdown of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) genes as well as AMPK agonist AICAR and antagonist compound C were employed to determine the correlations of expression of these genes. RESULTS: HBV markedly protected the hepatoma cells from growth suppression and cell death in the condition of serum deprivation. A decrease of superoxide anion production accompanied with an increase of MnSOD expression and activity was found in HepG2.215 cells. Moreover, AMPK activation contributed to the up-regulation of MnSOD. HBx protein was identified to induce the expression of AMPK and MnSOD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that HBV suppresses mitochondrial superoxide level and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by activating AMPK/MnSOD signaling pathway, which may provide a novel pharmacological strategy to prevent HCC. PMID:27158203

  13. Cytotoxicity of amino alcohols to rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells.

    PubMed

    Scheers, Ellen M; Forsby, Anna; Dierickx, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    Amino alcohols are used as emulsifying agents in dry-cleaning soaps, wax removers, cosmetics, paints and insecticides. The cytotoxicities of 12 amino alcohols, which differed in chain length, position of the amino and alcohol groups, and the presence of an additional phenyl group, were determined by the neutral red uptake inhibition assay with normally cultured, glutathione-depleted or antioxidant-enriched Fa32 rat hepatoma-derived cells. Glutathione depletion and antioxidant enrichment were achieved by including 50(M L-buthionine-S,R-sulphoximine (BSO) or 100(M (-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) in the culture medium for 24 hours before and during the assay. The cytotoxicity of the amino alcohols observed after treatment for 24 hours was expressed as the concentration of compound needed to induce a 50% reduction in neutral red uptake (NI50). The observed NI50 values ranged from 3mM to 30mM. The individual stereoisomers and a racemic mixture of 1-amino-2-propanol exhibited similar cytotoxicities (with normally cultured Fa32 cells, and vitamin E- and BSO-treated cultures). Similar NI50 values for D-(+)-2-amino-1-propanol, 3-amino-1-propanol and the L-, D- or DL- forms of 1-amino-2-propanol, indicated that the position of the amino group had little influence on the cytotoxicities of the amino alcohols. In contrast, the position of the hydroxyl group appeared to play an important role for the toxicity of the compound, as indicated by the significantly different NI50 values for 4-amino-1-butanol and 4-amino-2-butanol. An additional phenyl group greatly increased the cytotoxicity of 2-amino-1,3-propanediol. For most of the compounds, cytotoxicity increased when GSH was depleted, and decreased when the cells were enriched with vitamin E. This indicated that most of the tested chemicals interact with GSH, either directly or indirectly, by processes which generate oxygen free-radicals. Decreased toxicity was found for most of the chemicals administered to vitamin E

  14. Antiproliferative and Anti-Invasive Effect of Piceatannol, a Polyphenol Present in Grapes and Wine, against Hepatoma AH109A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Yuichiro; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    Piceatannol is a stilbenoid, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine. Piceatannol and sera from rats orally given piceatannol were found to dose-dependently suppress both the proliferation and invasion of AH109A hepatoma cells in culture. Its antiproliferative effect was based on cell cycle arrest at lower concentration (25~50 μM) and on apoptosis induction at higher concentration (100 μM). Piceatannol suppressed reactive oxygen species-potentiated invasive capacity by scavenging the intracellular reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that piceatannol, unlike resveratrol, has a potential to suppress the hepatoma proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. They also suggest that the antioxidative property of piceatannol, like resveratrol, may be involved in its anti-invasive action. Subsequently, piceatannol was found to suppress the growth of solid tumor and metastasis in hepatoma-bearing rats. Thus, piceatannol may be a useful anticancer natural product. PMID:22496613

  15. On-line monitoring of adhesion and proliferation of cultured hepatoma cells using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS).

    PubMed

    Hug, T S; Prenosil, J E; Maier, P; Morbidelli, M

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring of cell adhesion, cell spreading, and cell proliferation opens attractive perspectives in the on-line control of monolayer cell cultures in toxicity tests, in bioreactors as used for the serial production of skin grafts, or in extracorporeal liver devices. In this study the hepatoma Hep G2 cell adhesion and proliferation was monitored using an integrated optical method, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). This method is based upon refractive index measurements within a 100-nm thin layer above a Si(Ti)O(2) surface on which the cells were cultured and exposed to cytotoxic and cytostatic agents. The OWLS signal was proportional to cell density during the spreading period (4 h), and in long-term experiments (46 h) the OWLS signal correlated on a logarithmic scale with cell density. After administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (4 microg/mL) to fully spread hepatoma cells, cell growth was arrested and change of the OWLS signal became noticeable within 6 h after drug administration. For exposure to increasing concentrations of the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (2.5-20 mM) a concentration-dependent reduction of the OWLS signal was found. For cycloheximide and cyclophospamide the OWLS signal was also confirmed by cell viability measurements using the neutral red assay, the thiazolylblue tetrazoliumbromide assay, total protein measurements, and cell morphology. It was demonstrated that the OWLS signal detects minor changes in cell adhesion, which serve as indicators of metabolic state and growth behavior. OWLS is thus a quantitative tool to characterize impaired cell growth mediated by culture medium, by extracellular matrix, or after exposure to a toxin. PMID:12467478

  16. MiR-1188 at the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 domain acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei; Huang, Zhijun; He, Hongjuan; Gu, Ning; Qin, Geng; Lv, Jie; Zheng, Tao; Sugimoto, Kenkichi; Wu, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has frequently been reported in cancer studies; miRNAs play roles in development, progression, metastasis, and prognosis. Recent studies indicate that the miRNAs within the Dlk1-Dio3 genomic region are involved in the development of liver cancer, but the role of miR-1188 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the pathway by which it exerts its function remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that miR-1188 is significantly down-regulated in mouse hepatoma cells compared with normal liver tissues. Enhanced miR-1188 suppresses cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibits the tumor growth of HCC cells in vivo. Moreover, overexpressed miR-1188 promotes apoptosis, enhances caspase-3 activity, and also up-regulates the expression of Bax and p53. MiR-1188 directly targets and negatively regulates Bcl-2 and Sp1. Silencing of Bcl-2 and Sp1 exactly copies the proapoptotic and anti-invasive effects of miR-1188, respectively. The expression of apoptosis- and invasion-related genes, such as Vegfa, Fgfr1, and Rprd1b, decreases after enhancement of miR-1188, as determined by gene expression profiling analysis. Taken together, our results highlight an important role for miR-1188 as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells and imply its potential role in cancer therapy. PMID:25694452

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation in dexamethasone-resistant and hypersensitive rat hepatoma cell variants.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, P W; Swanson, K T; Edwards, C P; Firestone, G L

    1988-01-01

    Exposure of the Fu5 rat hepatoma cell line to glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone and hydrocortisone, suppressed the growth rate and final density of cells grown in the presence of serum. This hormonal effect was proportional to receptor occupancy and affinity and, in addition, the glucocorticoid antagonist RU38486 prevented this response. Two classes of dexamethasone-resistant variants that failed to be growth inhibited were recovered from ethyl methylsulfonate-mutagenized populations by continuous culture in the presence of 1 microM dexamethasone. The first class, represented by the EDR3 subclone, was completely glucocorticoid unresponsive and failed to express receptor transcripts. The second class, represented by the EDR1, EDR5, and EDR7 subclones, possessed significant levels of glucocorticoid receptor but were only partially glucocorticoid responsive when stimulated with saturating levels of hormone. Introduction of functional glucocorticoid receptor genes into both classes of dexamethasone-resistant variants by a recombinant retrovirus expression vector restored glucocorticoid responsiveness and suppression of cell growth. A hypersensitive variant (BDS1), recovered by bromodeoxyuridine selection, was fully glucocorticoid responsive, and its inhibition of proliferation was more acutely regulated by dexamethasone. Taken together, our results established that the inhibition of proliferation in Fu5 rat hepatoma cells represents a new glucocorticoid response that requires the expression of a functional glucocorticoid receptor. Images PMID:3380086

  18. Induction by phenobarbital in McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells of a polycyclic hydrocarbon inducible cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    McManus, M.E.; Minchin, R.F.; Schwartz, D.M.; Wirth, P.J.; Huber, B.E.

    1986-05-29

    The metabolism of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) to its six oxidative metabolites has been used to study cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase activity in two rat hepatoma cell lines, McA-RH7777 and Reuber H4-II-E. McA-RH7777 cells exhibited considerably higher basal activities than H4-II-E cells for all metabolic pathways studied. Phenobarbital induced AAF metabolite formation in McA-RH7777 cells to a similar extent as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), but was only a weak inducer of these activities in H4-II-E cells. Northern blot analysis utilizing specific phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene inducible cytochrome P-450 cDNA probes indicated that there was at least a 10-fold increase in a 3-methylcholanthrene inducible cytochrome P-450 transcript in phenobarbital treated McA-RH7777 cells.

  19. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 prevents silencing of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 expression in hepatoma x fibroblast cell hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Bulla, G A

    1997-01-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factors-1alpha (HNF1alpha) and -4 (HNF4) are components of a liver-enriched transcription activation pathway which is thought to play a critical role in hepatocyte-specific gene expression, including activation of alpha1-antitrypsin gene expression. HNF1alpha, HNF4 and alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) genes are extinguished in hepatoma/fibroblast somatic cell hybrids, suggesting that fibroblasts contain a repressor-like activity. To determine the molecular basis for silencing of these genes in cell hybrids, ectopic expression of HNF1alpha and HNF4 was used. Results show that constitutive expression of HNF4 prevents extinction of HNF1alpha gene expression in hepatoma/fibroblast hybrids. In contrast, forced HNF1alpha expression failed to prevent extinction of the HNF4 locus in cell hybrids. Likewise, the alpha1AT gene remained silent in the presence of both HNF1alpha and HNF4. These results suggest that extinction of HNF1alpha is a simple lack-of-activation phenotype, whereas extinction of HNF4 andalpha1AT loci is more complex, perhaps involving negative regulation. PMID:9171105

  20. INDUCTION OF AN ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE REPORTER GENE IN RAINBOW TROUT HEPATOMA CELLS (RTH 149) AT 11 OR 18 DEGREES C

    EPA Science Inventory

    A reporter gene assay in a cultured rainbow trout cell line was used to determine the influence of temperature on the expression of an estrogen-responsive gene. Rainbow trout hepatoma cells (RTH 149) incubated at 11 or 18 degrees C were co-transfected with an estrogen-responsive ...

  1. Metabolic chiral inversion of 2-arylpropionates in rat H4IIE and human Hep G2 hepatoma cells. Relationship to in vivo metabolism.

    PubMed

    Menzel-Soglowek, S; Geisslinger, G; Mollenhauer, J; Brune, K

    1992-04-01

    The inversion of 2-arylpropionic acids (2-APAs) has been investigated in vitro using rat H4IIE and human Hep G2 hepatoma cells in continuous culture. The effect of substrate concentration (15-150 micrograms/mL), cell density (1.5-12 x 10(6) cells/dish) and serum content of the culture medium (0-20%) on inversion was examined in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells using R-ibuprofen as model compound. Increasing R-ibuprofen concentrations and decreasing serum content of the medium resulted in increased inversion whereas variation of cell density had no effect. Furthermore, rat H4IIE and human Hep G2 hepatoma cells were incubated with the individual enantiomers of ibuprofen, ketoprofen and flurbiprofen under optimized culture conditions (serum-free culture medium). The elimination rate constants (kel) and fractions inverted (Fi) were determined. Although inversion occurred slowly in the tumor cells and thus long incubation periods (120 hr) were required, the hepatoma cells were nevertheless able to mimic qualitatively the species and substance specificity of inversion of 2-APAs as observed in vivo.

  2. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fabao; You, Xiaona; Chi, Xiumei; Wang, Tao; Ye, Lihong; Niu, Junqi; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  3. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Jianguo

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  4. Metabolic activation of chemicals to mutagenic carcinogens by human hepatoma microsomal extracts in Chinese hamster ovary cells (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Darroudi, F; Natarajan, A T

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of human hepatoma (Hep G2) S9 microsomal fractions to activate indirectly acting genotoxic carcinogens was evaluated. The extract was prepared from Hep G2 epithelial cells, following sonication and centrifugation. The mutagenic activity of cyclophosphamide, benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, hexamethylphosphoramide and safrole was assessed by the ability of their activated metabolites to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) (treated in vitro). All promutagenic carcinogens tested were found to be effective only following metabolic activation by Hep G2 cell extracts. Non-carcinogen pyrene was not able to induce an increase in the frequencies of SCE or MN in CHO cells even in the presence of Hep G2 S9 microsomal fractions. Parallel experiments were carried out using rat liver homogenate (S9 fraction) as an exogenous activation system, and comparisons were made between these two in vitro systems and in vivo assays using the rodent.

  5. Transfer of retinol-binding protein from HepG2 human hepatoma cells to cocultured rat stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Senoo, H; Smeland, S; Malaba, L; Bjerknes, T; Stang, E; Roos, N; Berg, T; Norum, K R; Blomhoff, R

    1993-01-01

    Rat liver stellate cells were cocultured with HepG2 human hepatoma cells, which are known to synthesize and secrete retinol-binding protein (RBP). Transfer of human RBP from HepG2 cells to stellate cells was studied by cryoimmunoelectron microscopy. In stellate cells, human RBP was found on the cell surface and within endosomes. The transfer of human RBP from HepG2 cells to stellate cells was blocked by addition of RBP antibodies to the culture medium. Very little uptake of RBP was observed when fibroblasts were cocultured with HepG2 cells. In a series of experiments, RBP was bound to its putative cell surface receptor at 4 degrees C, and the stellate cells were washed and then incubated at 37 degrees C in order to allow them to internalize a pulse of RBP. About 50% of the RBP was internalized after 6 min of incubation. The RBP-positive vesicles were initially (after 1-2 min) located close to the cell surface and later were found deeper in the cytoplasm. During the first 10 min, RBP was mainly observed in close association with membranes. After 2 hr, however, most RBP was localized in intracellular vesicles at a distance from the vesicular membranes, suggesting that RBP had been released from its receptor. Saturable binding of RBP to liver cells was demonstrated when cells were incubated with 125I-RBP at 4 degrees C and cell-associated radioactivity was determined. The calculated dissociation constant for the specific binding was 12.7 +/- 3.2 nM. A binding assay was also developed for determination of solubilized RBP receptor. Solubilized proteins from the nonparenchymal liver cells bound about 30 times more 125I-labeled RBP than did parenchymal cells (based on mass of cell protein). These data suggest that RBP mediates the paracrine transfer of retinol from hepatocytes to perisinusoidal stellate cells in liver and that stellate cells bind and internalize RBP by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8386378

  6. Effect of IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 blockade of Notch signaling pathway on the invasive capability of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, H Ch; Zhang, Y X; Liu, Y; Wang, Q Sh

    2016-07-14

    We investigated the effect of the IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 in the blockade of the Notch signaling pathway on the invasive capability of hepatoma cells. We examined the effects of IL-17 antibody or IL-35 treatment alone or in combination on cell invasion and migration capabilities with Transwell chambers. The mRNA levels of Hes1, Hes5, and Hey1 were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of N1ICD, Snail, and E-cadherin protein expressions were measured with western blot. The expression of Hes1, Hes5, Hey1 and N1ICD were all very high in hepatoma cell lines, and were positively correlated with the invasive migration capabilities of the cells. The combination of IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab with IL-35 could effectively inhibit the Notch signaling pathway, as well as the invasive migration of the cells. Snail and E-cadherin are involved in the migration of hepatoma cells, and it has been established that Snail can regulate the expression of E-cadherin. IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 can increase E-cadherin and decrease Snail expression, which are positively correlated with cell invasive migration capabilities. Overall, treatment with both IL-17 antibody and IL-35 is more effective than each treatment alone. Notch signaling is activated in hepatoma cell lines and increases with the enhancement of cell invasive migration capabilities. IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 can block the Notch signaling pathway, simultaneously reducing the invasive migration capability of hepatoma cells.

  7. Down-modulation of heat shock protein 70 and up-modulation of Caspase-3 during schisandrin B-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Feng; Cao, Ming-Fu; Gao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Fei; Wang, Tao; Zumbika, Edward P.; Qian, Kai-Xian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of schisandrin B (Sch B) on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and regulation of Hsp70 and Caspases-3, 7, 9 expression by Sch B. METHODS: Human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 was cultured and treated with Sch B at various concentrations. Growth suppression was detected with MTT colorimetric assay. Cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA ladder detection and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of Hsp70, Caspases-3, 7, 9 were analyzed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Sch B inhibited the growth of hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a 50% decrease in cell number (LC50) value of 23.50 mg/L. Treatment with Sch B resulted in degradation of chromosomal DNA into small internucleosomal fragments, evidenced by the formation of a 180-200 bp DNA ladder on agarose gels. FCM analysis showed the peak areas of subdiploid at the increased concentration of Sch B. The results of Western bolt analysis showed that Hsp70 was down-regulated and Caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the activity of Caspases-7, -9 had no significant change. CONCLUSION: Sch B is able to inhibit the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and induce apoptosis, which goes through Caspase-3-dependent and Caspase-9-independent pathway accompanied with the down-regulation of Hsp70 protein expression at an early event. PMID:15378770

  8. Endotoxin-stimulated macrophages decrease bile acid uptake in WIF-B cells, a rat hepatoma hybrid cell line.

    PubMed

    Sturm, E; Zimmerman, T L; Crawford, A R; Svetlov, S I; Sundaram, P; Ferrara, J L; Karpen, S J; Crawford, J M

    2000-01-01

    Endotoxemia leads to cytokine-mediated alterations of the hepatocellular sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp). We hypothesized that stimulated macrophages are essential transducers for down-regulating hepatocellular bile salt uptake in response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) exposure. Using an in vitro model, we exposed mouse macrophages (IC-21 cell line) to LPS for 24 hours. Concentrations of cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 increased 10.6-fold, 12.5-fold, and 444-fold, respectively, in LPS-conditioned IC-21 medium (CM) versus unconditioned IC-21 medium (UM). WIF-B rat hepatoma hybrid cells were incubated with either CM or UM or treated directly with medium containing recombinant TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. [(3)H]Taurocholate ([(3)H]TC) uptake decreased in WIF-B cells exposed to either TNF-alpha (54% of control), IL-1beta (78%), IL-6 (55%) as single additives, or in triple combination (TCC) (43%). A virtually identical decrease was observed after exposing WIF-B cells to CM (52%, P <.001). LPS had no direct effect on [(3)H]TC uptake. CM treatment did not decrease L-alanine transport in WIF-B cells. Blocking antibodies against TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 restored the diminished [(3)H]TC uptake in cells exposed to TCC and CM to 87% and 107% of controls, respectively. Northern blotting revealed that ntcp messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was significantly reduced in WIF-B cells after exposure to CM, and in primary rat hepatocytes exposed to CM or TNF-alpha (68%, 14%, and 29% of control, respectively). We conclude that macrophages and their ability to secrete the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 may be essential in mediating the endotoxin-induced cholestatic effect of decreased hepatocellular bile salt uptake. PMID:10613737

  9. Targeted delivery of macromolecular drugs: asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expression by selected hepatoma cell lines used in antiviral drug development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Huang, Guifang; Diakur, James; Wiebe, Leonard I

    2008-10-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), an endocytotic cell surface receptor expressed by hepatocytes, is triggered by triantennary binding to galactose residues of macromolecules such as asialoorosomucoid (ASOR). The capacity of this receptor to import large molecules across the cellular plasma membrane makes it an enticing target for receptor-mediated drug delivery to hepatocytes and hepatoma cells via ASGPR-mediated endocytosis. This study describes the preparation and characterization of (125)I-ASOR, and its utility in the assessment of ASGPR expression by HepG2, HepAD38 and Huh5-2 human hepatoma cell lines. ASOR was prepared from human orosomucoid, using acid hydrolysis to remove sialic acid residues, then radioiodinated using iodogen. (125)I-ASOR was purified by gel column chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The ASOR yield by acid hydrolysis was 75%, with approximately 87 % of the sialic acid residues removed. Electrophoresis and gel chromatography demonstrated substantial differences in (125)I-ASOR quality depending on the method of radioiodination. ASGPR densities per cell were estimated at 76,000 (HepG2), 17,000 (HepAD38) and 3,000 (Huh-5-2). (125)I-ASOR binding to ASGPR on HepG2 cells was confirmed through galactose- and EDTA- challenge studies. It is concluded that (125)I-ASOR is a facilely-prepared, stable assay reagent for ASGPR expression if appropriately prepared, and that HepG2 cells, but not HepAD38 or Huh-5-2 cells, are suitable for studies exploiting the endocytotic ASGPR.

  10. Lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX is able to upregulate expression of NF-{kappa}B p65. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX enhances nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 via increasing p-I{kappa}B-{alpha} level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5-LOX stimulates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LTB4 activates transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. -- Abstract: The issue that lipid metabolism enzyme and its metabolites regulate transcription factors in cancer cell is not fully understood. In this study, we first report that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are capable of activating nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) in hepatoma cells. We found that the treatment of MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) or knockdown of 5-LOX was able to downregulate the expression of NF-{kappa}B p65 at the mRNA level and decreased the phosphorylation level of inhibitor {kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}) in the cytoplasm of hepatoma HepG2 or H7402 cells, which resulted in the decrease of the level of nuclear NF-{kappa}B p65. These were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 cell. Moreover, the above treatments were able to decrease the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in the cells. The LTB4, one of metabolites of 5-LOX, is responsible for 5-LOX-activated NF-{kappa}B in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in hepatoma cells. Our finding provides new insight into the significance of lipid metabolism in activation of transcription factors in cancer.

  11. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  12. Mitochondrial Respiratory Dysfunction Induces Claudin-1 Expression via Reactive Oxygen Species-mediated Heat Shock Factor 1 Activation, Leading to Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Lim, Jin J.; Byun, Hae-Ok; Park, Imkyong; Kim, Gyeong-Hyeon; Xu, Wei Guang; Wang, Hee-Jung; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2015-01-01

    Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in tumor metastasis, it is unclear how it regulates tumor cell aggressiveness. We have reported previously that human hepatoma cells harboring mitochondrial defects have high tumor cell invasion activity via increased claudin-1 (Cln-1) expression. In this study, we demonstrated that mitochondrial respiratory defects induced Cln-1 transcription via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation, which contributed to hepatoma invasiveness. We first confirmed the inverse relationship between mitochondrial defects and Cln-1 induction in SNU hepatoma cells and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. We then examined five different respiratory complex inhibitors, and complex I inhibition by rotenone most effectively induced Cln-1 at the transcriptional level. Rotenone increased both mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS. In addition, rotenone-induced Cln-1 expression was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and exogenous H2O2 treatment was enough to increase Cln-1 transcription, implying the involvement of ROS. Next we found that ROS-mediated HSF1 activation via hyperphosphorylation was the key event for Cln-1 transcription. Moreover, the Cln-1 promoter region (from −529 to +53) possesses several HSF1 binding elements, and this region showed increased promoter activity and HSF1 binding affinity in response to rotenone treatment. Finally, we demonstrated that the invasion activity of SNU449 cells, which harbor mitochondrial defects, was blocked by siRNA-mediated HSF1 knockdown. Taken together, these results indicate that mitochondrial respiratory defects enhance Cln-1-mediated hepatoma cell invasiveness via mitochondrial ROS-mediated HSF1 activation, presenting a potential role for HSF1 as a novel mitochondrial retrograde signal-responsive transcription factor to control hepatoma cell invasiveness. PMID:26157141

  13. The Limonoids TS3 and Rubescin E Induce Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma Cell Lines and Interfere with NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicole; Tontsa, Armelle Tsamo; Wegscheid, Claudia; Mkounga, Pierre; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Sass, Gabriele; Tiegs, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely resistant towards pharmacological therapy. To date, the multi-kinase inhibitor Sorafenib is the only available therapeutic agent with the potential to prolong patient survival. Using the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, we analyzed anti-cancer activities of 6 purified havanensin type limonoids isolated from the traditional African medicinal plant Trichilia rubescens Oliv. Our results show that two of the compounds, TR4 (TS3) and TR9 (Rubescin E) reduced hepatoma cell viability, but not primary hepatocyte viability, at TC50s of 5 to 10 μM. These were significantly lower than the TC50s for Sorafenib, the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA or 5-Fluoruracil. In comparison, TR3 (Rubescin D), a limonoid isolated in parallel and structurally highly similar to TR4 and TR9, did not interfere with hepatoma cell viability. Both, TR4 and TR9, but not TR3, induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells and interfered with NF-κB activation. TR4 as well as TR9 significantly supported anti-cancer activities of Sorafenib. In summary, the limonoids TR4 and TR9 exhibit anti-cancer activities and support Sorafenib effects in vitro, having the potential to support future HCC therapy. PMID:27518192

  14. The Limonoids TS3 and Rubescin E Induce Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma Cell Lines and Interfere with NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicole; Tontsa, Armelle Tsamo; Wegscheid, Claudia; Mkounga, Pierre; Nkengfack, Augustin Ephrem; Loscher, Christine; Sass, Gabriele; Tiegs, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely resistant towards pharmacological therapy. To date, the multi-kinase inhibitor Sorafenib is the only available therapeutic agent with the potential to prolong patient survival. Using the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, we analyzed anti-cancer activities of 6 purified havanensin type limonoids isolated from the traditional African medicinal plant Trichilia rubescens Oliv. Our results show that two of the compounds, TR4 (TS3) and TR9 (Rubescin E) reduced hepatoma cell viability, but not primary hepatocyte viability, at TC50s of 5 to 10 μM. These were significantly lower than the TC50s for Sorafenib, the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA or 5-Fluoruracil. In comparison, TR3 (Rubescin D), a limonoid isolated in parallel and structurally highly similar to TR4 and TR9, did not interfere with hepatoma cell viability. Both, TR4 and TR9, but not TR3, induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells and interfered with NF-κB activation. TR4 as well as TR9 significantly supported anti-cancer activities of Sorafenib. In summary, the limonoids TR4 and TR9 exhibit anti-cancer activities and support Sorafenib effects in vitro, having the potential to support future HCC therapy. PMID:27518192

  15. Carvacrol and rosemary oil at higher concentrations induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Melušová, Martina; Jantová, Soňa

    2014-01-01

    Natural essential oils are volatile herbal complex compounds which manifest cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on their type and concentration but usually they are not genotoxic. Our previous studies showed that carvacrol (CA) and rosemary essential oil (RO) induced growth inhibition of both human cell lines HepG2 and BHNF-1, with hepatoma HepG2 cells being more sensitive to either compound tested. Cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO induced the formation of DNA strand breaks. Further ex vivo studies showed that extracts prepared from hepatocytes of CA- and RO-supplemented rats did not increase incision repair activity compared to extracts from liver cells of control animals. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO on the cell cycle and the ability of both natural volatiles to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. These effects were measured after 24 h incubation of HepG2 cells with CA and RO using three independent methods – flow cytometry, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (electrophoresis) and micronucleus assay. Evaluation of morphological changes and formation of micronuclei in HepG2 cells showed no increase in the number of micronuclei in cells treated by CA and RO compared to control cells. On the other hand, CA and RO induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. The presence of necrosis was negligible. Both natural compounds caused shrinking of cytoplasmic membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the highest concentrations of CA and RO induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (formation of DNA ladder) in HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in the S phase after 24 h exposure to the substances tested. The cell division was thus slowed down or stopped and this process resulted in

  16. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J.; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Ferguson, Martine S.

    2016-01-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 >> HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC50 within 2.5 fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity. PMID:26377104

  17. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation/anti-apoptosis/angiogenesis/migration effects via amplifying the activation of NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yulan; Pan, Wanying; Hu, Fen; Wu, Hongfu; Feng, Jianqiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jingfu

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) takes part in a diverse range of intracellular pathways and hss physical and pathological properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of H2S on cancer are controversial and remain unclear. The present study investigates the effects of H2S on liver cancer progression via activating NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells. PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were pretreated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of CSE, CBS, phosphosphorylate (p)-NF-κB p65, caspase-3, COX-2, p-IκB and MMP-2 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by cell counter kit 8 (CCK-8). Apoptotic cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining assay. The production level of H2S in cell culture medium was measured by using the sulfur-sensitive electrode method. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the production of H2S was dramatically increased in the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, compared with human LO2 hepatocyte cells group, along with the overexpression levels of CSE and CBS. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h markedly increased the expression levels of CSE, CBS, p-IκB and NF-κB activation, leading to COX-2 and MMP-2 overexpression, and decreased caspase-3 production, as well as increased cell viability and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Otherwise, the production level of H2S and VEGF were also significantly increased. Furthermore, co-treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 200 µmol/l PDTC for 24 h significantly overturned these indexes. The findings of the present study provide evidence that the NF-κB is involved in the NaHS-induced cell proliferation, anti-apoptisis, angiogenesis, and migration in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, and that the PDTC against the NaHS-induced effects were by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

  18. Evaluation of CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity using DMSO-treated human hepatoma HuH-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Flynn, Thomas J; Xia, Menghang; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Ferguson, Martine S

    2015-10-01

    A human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) was evaluated as a metabolically competent cell model to investigate cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition, induction, and hepatotoxicity. First, CYP3A4 gene expression and activity were determined in HuH-7 cells under three culture conditions: 1-week culture, 3-week culture, or 1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. HuH-7 cells treated with DMSO for 2 weeks after confluence expressed the highest CYP3A4 gene expression and activity compared to the other two culture conditions. Furthermore, CYP3A4 activity in DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells was compared to that in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2/C3A) and human bipotent progenitor cell line (HepaRG), which yielded the following ranking: HepaRG > DMSO-treated HuH-7 > HepG2/C3A cells. The effects of three known CYP3A4 inhibitors were evaluated using DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells. CYP3A4 enzyme inhibition in HuH-7 cells was further compared to human recombinant CYP3A4, indicating similar potency for reversible inhibitors (IC 50 within 2.5-fold), but different potency for the irreversible inhibitor. Next, induction of CYP3A4 activity was compared between DMSO-treated HuH-7 and HepaRG cells using two known inducers. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells yielded minimal CYP3A4 induction compared to that in the HepaRG cells after 48-h treatments. Finally, the cytotoxicity of five known hepatotoxicants was evaluated in DMSO-treated HuH-7, HepG2/C3A, and HepaRG cells, and significant differences in cytotoxic sensitivity were observed. Overall, DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells are a valuable model for medium- or high-throughput screening of chemicals for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity.

  19. Hsa-miR-520d induces hepatoma cells to form normal liver tissues via a stemness-mediated process

    PubMed Central

    Tsuno, Satoshi; Wang, Xinhui; Shomori, Kohei; Hasegawa, Junichi; Miura, Norimasa

    2014-01-01

    The human ncRNA gene RGM249 regulates the extent of differentiation of cancer cells and the conversion of 293FT cells to hiPSCs. To identify the factors underlying this process, we investigated the effects of lentivirally inducing miR-520d expression in 293FT and HLF cells in vitro. Subsequently, we evaluated tumor formation in a xenograft model. Transformed HLF cells were Oct4 and Nanog positive within 24 h, showed p53 upregulation and hTERT downregulation, and mostly lost their migration abilities. After lentiviral infection, the cells were intraperitoneally injected into mice, resulting in benign teratomas (6%), the absence of tumors (87%) or differentiation into benign liver tissues (7%) at the injection site after 1 month. We are the first to demonstrate the loss of malignant properties in cancer cells in vivo through the expression of a single microRNA (miRNA). This miRNA successfully converted 293FT and hepatoma cells to hiPSC-like cells. The regulation of malignancy by miR-520d appears to be through the conversion of cancer cells to normal stem cells, maintaining p53 upregulation. PMID:24458129

  20. Upregulated MicroRNA-29a by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Enhances Hepatoma Cell Migration by Targeting PTEN in Cell Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Guangyao; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Shuai; Shan, Changliang; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays important roles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to cancer development by acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Previously, we reported that HBx was able to promote the migration of hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the regulation of miRNAs in the development of HBV-related HCC is poorly understood. In the present study, we reported that miR-29a was a novel regulator of migration of hepatoma cells mediated by HBx. Our data showed that the expression of miR-29a was dramatically increased in p21-HBx transgenic mice, HBx-transfected hepatoma HepG2-X (or H7402-X) cells and HepG2.2.15 cells that constitutively replicate HBV. However, our data showed that miR-29a was upregulated in 4 of the 11 clinical HCC samples. We found that the overexpression of miR-29a promoted the migration of HepG2 cells, while a specific miR-29a inhibitor could partially abolish the enhanced migration of HepG2-X cells. Moreover, we identified PTEN was one of the target genes of miR-29a in HepG2 cells. The deletion of the miR-29a-binding site was able to abolish the role of miR-29a in suppression of luciferase activity of the PTEN 3′UTR reporter. Meanwhile, the overexpression of PTEN was able to reverse the promoted migration of HepG2 cells mediated by miR-29a. Moreover, our data showed that the modulation of Akt phosphorylation, a downstream factor of PTEN, was involved in the cell migration enhanced by miR-29a, suggesting that miR-29a is responsible for the cell migration through its target gene PTEN. Thus, we conclude that miR-29a is involved in the regulation of migration of hepatoma cells mediated by HBx through PTEN in cell culture model. PMID:21573166

  1. Anti-hepatoma cells function of luteolin through inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shixiong; Hu, Airong; Hu, Yaoren; Ma, Jianbo; Weng, Pengjian; Dai, Jinhua

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest function of luteolin on the liver cancer cells and the related mechanism. The liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721, BEL-7402, and normal liver cells HL-7702 were treated with different concentrations of luteolin. Cell proliferation ability was tested. Morphological changes of the apoptotic cells were observed under inverted fluorescence microscope after Hoechst33342 staining. We investigated the effect of luteolin on cell cycling and apoptosis with flow cytometry. The mitochondrial membrane potential changes were analyzed after JC-1 staining. Caspases-3 and Bcl-2 family proteins expression were analyzed by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation of SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 were inhibited by luteolin, and the inhibition was dose-time-dependent. Luteolin could arrest the cells at G1/S stage, reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, and induce higher apoptosis rate and the typical apoptotic morphological changes of the liver carcinoma cells. Q-RT-PCR results also showed that luteolin increased Bax and caspase-3 expression significantly and upregulated Bcl-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner in liver carcinoma cells. However, the normal liver cells HL-7702 was almost not affected by luteolin treatment. Luteolin can inhibit SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. And the mechanism maybe through arresting cell cycle at phase G1/S, enhancing Bax level, reducing anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 level, resulting in activating caspase-3 enzyme and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, and finally leading to cell apoptosis.

  2. Oxidative and chemical stress mimic insulin by selectively inhibiting the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, C; Tebbey, P W; Granner, D K

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucagon (via the second messenger cAMP), retinoic acid, and glucocorticoids stimulate transcription of the PEPCK gene, whereas insulin and phorbol esters have a dominant inhibitory effect. We now show that oxidative and chemical stress (hydrogen peroxide and sodium meta-arsenite, respectively) also produce a dominant inhibitory effect, both on the endogenous PEPCK gene and on a stably transfected PEPCK-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) fusion gene. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), blocks the inhibition of glucocorticoid and cAMP-induced PEPCK gene transcription by insulin; however, it has no effect on the inhibition elicited by oxidative or chemical stress. Thus, the mechanism(s) used by hydrogen peroxide and sodium meta-arsenite to regulate PEPCK gene expression are PI 3-kinase independent. This suggests that these agents operate by a pathway distinct from that used by insulin or that the pathways converge at a point downstream of PI 3-kinase. The reactivating kinase (RK, also known as p38 mitogen activated protein kinase) is induced by insulin, hydrogen peroxide, or sodium meta-arsenite in hepatoma cells, and these effects are blocked by SB203580, a selective inhibitor of RK. However, SB203580 has no effect on the ability of any of these agents to regulate PEPCK-CAT fusion gene expression. Thus, although RK has a role in the regulation of lymphokine gene expression in monocytes, it is not required for the regulation of PEPCK expression by either insulin or oxidative and chemical stress in hepatoma cells.

  3. Cytochrome P450 induction by nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, azaarenes, and binary mixtures in fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1.

    PubMed

    Jung, D K; Klaus, T; Fent, K

    2001-01-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and N-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (azaarenes) are as ubiquitous in the environment as their parent PAH compounds, although occurring at lower concentrations. The toxicological importance of NPAHs and azaarenes is based on their mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Azaarenes possess a higher solubility and mobility in the environment than PAHs. However, very little is known about the toxicity and cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A induction potencies of NPAHs and azaarenes in fish. Here we report on the cytotoxicities and relative CYP1A induction potencies of 12 NPAHs, 12 azaarenes, and 11 PAHs, determined as neutral red uptake and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, respectively, in fish hepatoma PLHC-1 cells. Additionally, CYP1A enzyme protein was determined by ELISA for two NPAHs, azaarenes, PAHs, and binary mixtures. Compared with the structurally analogous PAHs, 2-nitronaphthalene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 2-aza- and 7-azafluoranthene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, benzo[a]acridine and benzo[h]quinoline revealed higher induction potencies, whereas the other compounds showed similar or less activity. The induction potency was highly dependent on the compounds structural properties, reflected by significant correlations between the half-maximal EROD induction (-log EC50) and the molecular descriptors lipophilicity (log Kow) and maximal molecular length (Lmax). Binary mixtures of 6-nitrochrysene + benzo[a]anthracene, 6-nitrochrysene + benzo[a]acridine, and benzo[a]acridine + benzo[a]anthracene showed an additive interaction. The CYP1A induction potencies of NPAHs and azaarenes, demonstrated here for the first time in fish hepatoma cells, suggest that their contribution to the overall CYP1A induction potencies in PAH-contaminated environmental samples have to be taken into account. PMID:11351403

  4. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang

    2011-06-01

    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  5. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Fat-Moon; Lien, Gi-Shih; Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Chia-Nan; Lu, Shao-Yu; Yan, Ming-De

    2013-01-01

    Activating transcription factor-(ATF-) 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002) is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG) derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK), and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug. PMID:24222778

  6. Silencing clusterin gene transcription on effects of multidrug resistance reversing of human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Sai, Wenli; Yao, Min; Gu, Hongbin; Yao, Yao; Qian, Qi; Yao, Dengfu

    2015-05-01

    Abnormal clusterin (CLU) expression is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the CLU expression was analyzed in human hepatoma cells and chemoresistant counterpart HepG2/ADM cells. Compared with L02 cells, the overexpression of cellular CLU was identified in HepG2, HepG2/ADM, SMMC7721, Hep3B ,and PLC cells and relatively lower expression in Bel-7404, SNU-739, and MHCC97H cells. Specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to silence CLU gene transcription were designed, and the most effective sequences were screened. After the HepG2/ADM cells transfected with shRNA-1, the inhibition of CLU expression was 73.68 % at messenger RNA (mRNA) level by real-time quantitative RT-PCR with obvious enhancement in cell chemosensitivity, increasing apoptosis induced by doxorubicin using fluorescence kit, and Rh-123 retention qualified with flow cytometry. Knockdown CLU also significantly decreased the drug efflux pump activity through the depression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (q = 11.739, P < 0.001). Moreover, silencing CLU led to downregulation of β-catenin (q = 13.544, P = 0.001), suggesting that downregulation of CLU might be a key point to reverse multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADM cells. PMID:25600802

  7. Procyanidins from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Seedpod induce autophagy mediated by reactive oxygen species generation in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuqing; Xu, Hui; Luo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Haihui; He, Yuanqing; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, autophagic effect of procyanidins from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedpod (LSPCs) on human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells, and the inherent correlation between autophagic levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were investigated. The results showed that LSPCs increased monodansylcadaverine (MDC) fluorescence intensity and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion in HepG2 cells. In addition, the typically autophagic characteristics (autophagosomes and autolysosomes) were observed in LSPCs-treated cells, but not found in the cells treated with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Furthermore, the elevated ROS level was in line with the increasing of autophagy activation caused by LSPCs, however, both 3-MA and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcyteine (NAC) inhibitors effectively suppressed the autophagy and ROS generation triggered by LSPCs. As a result, these results indicated that LSPCs induced HepG2 cell autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on HepG2 cells. Moreover, we found that LSPCs caused DNA damage, S phase arrest and the decrement of mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) which were associated with ROS generation. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the LSPCs-induced autophagy and autophagic cell death were triggered by the ROS generation in HepG2 cells, which might be associated with ROS generation through the mitochondria-dependent signaling way. PMID:27044822

  8. Screening of α-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Sensitive Genes in Human Hepatoma Cells (HepG2)

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yang-Hua; Fu, Jun-Cai; Liu, Kun; Zuo, Zhao-Yun; Jia, Hui-Na; Ma, Yong; Luo, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    α-Tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a ~32 kDa protein expressed mainly in hepatocytes. The major function of the protein is to bind specifically to α-tocopherol and, together, the complex transfers from late lysosomes to the cell membrane. A previous study indicated that some factors might be required in the transferring process. However, there is little information available about the potential transferring factors. In addition, there remains much to learn about other physiological processes which α-TTP might participate in. Thus, in this study a human α-TTP eukaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed and expressed in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). The sensitive genes related to α-TTP were then screened by microarray technology. Results showed that expression of the vector in HepG2 cells led to the identification of 323 genes showing differential expression. The differentially expressed transcripts were divided into four main categories, including (1) cell inflammation; (2) cell cycle and cell apoptosis; (3) cell signaling and gene regulation; and (4) cellular movement. A few cellular movement related transcripts were selected and verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expressions of some were significantly increased in α-TTP-expressed group, which indicated that these factors were likely to play a role in the transferring process. PMID:27355945

  9. AMF/PGI transactivates the MMP-3 gene through the activation of Src-RhoA-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling to induce hepatoma cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wen-Ling; Liao, Ming-Huei; Yu, Feng-Ling; Lin, Ping-Yuan; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Chiu, Shu-Jun

    2008-11-01

    We have previously shown that AMF/PGI induces hepatoma cell migration through the induction of MMP-3. This work investigates how AMF/PGI activates the MMP-3 gene. We demonstrated that AMF/PGI transactivates the MMP-3 gene promoter through AP-1. The transactivation and induction of cell migration effect of AMF/PGI directly correlates with its enzymatic activity. Various analyses showed that AMF/PGI stimulated the Src-RhoA-PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and these three signaling molecules could form a complex. Our results demonstrate a new mechanism of AMF/PGI-induced cell migration and a link between Src-RhoA-PI3-kinase, AP-1, MMP-3 and hepatoma cell migration.

  10. Differential Expression of CX3CL1 in Hepatitis B Virus-Replicating Hepatoma Cells Can Affect the Migration Activity of CX3CR1+ Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Osamu; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Ninomiya, Masashi; Iwata, Tomoaki; Kogure, Takayuki; Inoue, Jun; Sugiyama, Masaya; Morosawa, Tatsuki; Fujisaka, Yasuyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In addition to stellate cells and immune cells, inflamed hepatocytes and hepatoma cells express various kinds of chemokines that attract various kinds of immune cells. Previously, we reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication can induce physiological stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of chemokines produced by HBV-infected hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. A real-time PCR array targeting genes related to chemokines and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were carried out to detect the specific chemokines produced by Huh7 cells and HepG2 cells infected with various HBV genotypes. A migration assay, flow cytometry analysis, and immunohistochemistry were carried out to analyze the candidate immune cells that can affect the immunopathogenesis of HBV infection. The expressions of CX3CL1 mRNA and protein were significantly different among HBV genotypes A, B, and C and control cells (mock) (P < 0.05). CD56+ NK cells and CD8+ T cells migrated to the hepatoma cells with HBV replication. Moreover, the migration activity of both immune cells was partially cancelled after the treatment of CX3CL1 neutralizing antibody. The expression level of NKG2D on CX3CR1+ NK cells in HCC with HBV infection was significantly lower than that in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with HCV infection and chronic hepatitis B and C patients (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the frequency of PD-1high CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells in HCC with HBV infection was significantly higher than that in HCC with HCV infection and chronic hepatitis B and C (P < 0.05). The expression of CX3CL1 in HBV-replicating hepatocytes and hepatoma cells could contribute to the immunopathogenesis of HBV infection. IMPORTANCE The progressions of the disease are significantly different among HBV genotypes. However, it has not been clear that how different HBV genotypes could induce different inflammatory responses. Here, we first report that the levels of expression of CX3CL1 mRNA and protein were

  11. Altered regulation of Src tyrosine kinase by transforming growth factor beta1 in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Kawata, S; Tamura, S; Matsuda, Y; Inui, Y; Igura, T; Inoue, S; Kudara, T; Matsuzawa, Y

    1998-09-01

    Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) are the potent growth inhibitors for various cell types. Certain transformed cells, however, show poor response to TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition, which contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation. Recently, we have reported that TGF-beta1 induces degradation of activated Src tyrosine kinase in rat fibroblasts. To elucidate the alteration in TGF-beta signaling pathway in tumor cells that cannot respond to the cytokine, we compared the effects of TGF-beta1 on Src kinase in two human hepatoma cell lines, TGF-beta1-insensitive Mahlavu cells and TGF-beta1-sensitive HepG2 cells. TGF-beta1 decreased Src kinase activity in HepG2 cells, but increased cellular Src levels and Src kinase activity in Mahlavu cells. Co-incubation of Mahlavu cells with TGF-beta1 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) decreased Src protein levels and Src kinase activity, inducing TGF-beta1 sensitivity. TGF-beta1 induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of Ras guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) and Ras inactivation in HepG2 cells, but induced Ras-GAP phosphorylation and Ras activation in Mahlavu cells. The Src kinase inhibitor abolished the increase of Src kinase activity in TGF-beta1-treated Mahlavu cells, and induced TGF-beta1 sensitivity. These findings suggest that regulation of Src kinase by TGF-beta1 is altered in Mahlavu cells. The altered regulation of Src may contribute to TGF-beta1 insensitivity in this cell line, at least in part through activation of Ras.

  12. Forced expression of PDX-1 gene makes hepatoma cells to acquire glucose-responsive insulin secretion while maintaining hepatic characteristic.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, H; Higuchi, Y; Kawai, K

    2015-02-28

    Evidence shows that forced expression of the PDX1 gene converts hepatoma cells, mouse liver epithelial cells (MLECs) and HepaRG cells, into insulin—producing cells, β—cells, or islets of Langerhans. However, no reports have investigated the characteristics of mouse or human hepatocytes introduced with the PDX1 gene over prolonged observation periods. In this study, we immunohistologically and molecularly investigated the alternative processes induced by PDX1 gene introduction in mouse and human hepatocytes over prolonged observation periods using immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting, and flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescent observations showed that MLECs and HepaRG cells on 2 and 21 days after introduction of the PDX1 gene comprised cells double—positive for insulin and albumin. Additionally, they showed MAFA expression and glucose—responsive insulin secretion with glucokinase expression. However mouse embryonic fibroblasts introduced with PDX1—GFP could not acquire glucose—responsive insulin secretion and glucokinase expression. Subsequently, we hypothesized that the number of albumin—positive MLECs and HepaRG cells would decrease after introduction of PDX1 due to the conversion of MLECs and HepaRG cells into insulin—producing cells. However, FCM analysis indicated that the number of albumin—positive MLECs and HepaRG cells was not altered by the introduction of PDX1. We thought that MLECs and HepaRG cells introduced with the PDX1 gene could acquire a functional insulin secretory capacity without conversion to β—cells, or islets of Langerhans, and the acquisition could need glucokinase expression.

  13. Nano-cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide induces apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long; Mao, Jian; Zhang, Gao-Hua; Tu, Ming-Jing

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effect of photoexcited titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of visible light on human hepatoma cell line (Bel 7402) and to study the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by impregnation method. Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator with 50 mL/L CO2 at 37°C. A 15 W fluorescent lamp with continuous wavelength light was used as light source in the photocatalytic test. Fluorescence morphology and agarose gel eletrophoresis pattern were performed to analyze apoptotic cells. RESULTS: The Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed their superiority. The adsorption edge shifted to the 400-450 nm region. With visible light illuminated for 10 min, 10 μg/cm3 Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 induced micronuclei and significant apoptosis in 4 and 24 h, respectively. Hochest 33 258 staining of the fixed cells revealed typical apoptotic structures (apoptotic bodies), agarose gel electrophoresis showed typical DNA ladder pattern in treated cells but not in untreated ones. CONCLUSION: Ce (IV) doped TiO2 nanoparticles can induce apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light. PMID:17663520

  14. Matrine-induced autophagy regulated by p53 through AMP-activated protein kinase in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shan-Bu; He, Xing-Xing; Yao, Shu-Kun

    2015-08-01

    Matrine, one of the main extract components of Sophora flavescens, has been shown to exhibit inhibitory effects on some tumors through autophagy. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of matrine remains unclear. The cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and SMMC‑7721 were treated with matrine. Signal transduction and gene expression profile were determined. Matrine stimulated autophagy in SMMC‑7721 cells in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner, but in an mTOR-independent manner in HepG2 cells. Next, in HepG2 cells, autophagy induced by matrine was regulated by p53 inactivation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling transduction, then AMPK suppression switched autophagy to apoptosis. Furthermore, the interferon (IFN)-inducible genes, including interferon α-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) and interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), which are downstream effector of p53, might be modulated by matrine-induced autophagy. In addition, we found that the p53 protein isoforms, p53β, p53γ, ∆133p53, and ∆133p53γ, due to alternative splicing of intron 9, might be regulated by the p53-mediated autophagy. These results show that matrine induces autophagy in human hepatoma cells through a novel mechanism, which is p53/AMPK signaling pathway involvement in matrine-promoted autophagy.

  15. Human hepatoma cell lines on gas foaming templated alginate scaffolds for in vitro drug-drug interaction and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Stampella, A; Rizzitelli, G; Donati, F; Mazzarino, M; de la Torre, X; Botrè, F; Giardi, M F; Dentini, M; Barbetta, A; Massimi, M

    2015-12-25

    Liver in vitro systems that allow reliable prediction of major human in vivo metabolic pathways have a significant impact in drug screening and drug metabolism research. In the present study, a novel porous scaffold composed of alginate was prepared by employing a gas-in-liquid foaming approach. Galactose residues were introduced on scaffold surfaces to promote cell adhesion and to enhance liver specific functions of the entrapped HepG2/C3A cells. Hepatoma cells in the gal-alginate scaffold showed higher levels of liver specific products (albumin and urea) and were more responsive to specific inducers (e.g. dexamethasone) and inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole) of the CYP3A4 system than in conventional monolayer culture. HepG2/C3A cells were also more efficient in terms of rapid elimination of testosterone, used as a model substance, at rates comparable to those of in vivo excretion. In addition, an improvement in metabolism of testosterone, in terms of phase II metabolite formation, was also observed when the more differentiated HepaRG cells were used. Together the data suggest that hepatocyte/gas templated alginate-systems provide an innovative high throughput platform for in vitro drug metabolism and drug-drug interaction studies, with broad fields of application, and might provide a valid tool for minimizing animal use in preclinical testing of human relevance.

  16. Evaluation of the single cell gel electrophoresis assay with human hepatoma (Hep G2) cells.

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Helma, C; Knasmüller, S

    2000-07-10

    Human Hep G2 cells have retained the activities of phase I and phase II enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of environmental genotoxins. The present study describes the results of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays with a panel of different model compounds with these cells. With genotoxic carcinogens such as aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and cyclophosphamide (CP), statistically significant dose dependent induction of DNA migration was measured. With the two heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4, 5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), and also with rodent carcinogens such as safrole, hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) and the pyrrolizidine alkaloid isatidine, which give negative results in other in vitro genotoxicity tests, positive results were obtained in Hep G2/SCGE assays. Nitrosomethylurea (NMU) was the only directly acting compound tested in the study and was by far (ca. 10(3)-fold) more active than the corresponding nitrosamine. The exposure concentrations required to cause significant effects varied over a broad range. The most pronounced effect was seen with AFB(1) (0.008 microM) followed by HMPA (15 microM), B(a)P (25 microM), NMU (100 microM), isatidin (500 microM), CP (900 microM), IQ (1200 microM), safrol (4000 microM), and NDMA (90x10(3) microM). Numbers in parenthesis give the lowest concentrations, which caused a significant increase of DNA migration. With two compounds, namely, the non-carcinogen pyrene and the synthetic hormone tamoxifen (TF), negative results were obtained under all test conditions. These findings are in agreement with the results of recent investigations which indicated that human hepatocytes are unable to convert TF to DNA reactive metabolites, whereas it is activated by rat liver cells and causes DNA adducts in these cells. Comparisons of the present results with data from earlier experiments indicate that the Hep

  17. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes. PMID:27383887

  18. Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 and E7 Genes Integrate into Human Hepatoma Derived Cell Line Hep G2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianzhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Shuyan; Zhu, Ningxia; Wen, Lifeng; Yuan, Yan; Lv, Leili; Chen, Xiancai; Huang, Jianmin; Chen, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Human papillomaviruses have been linked causally to some human cancers such as cervical carcinoma, but there is very little research addressing the effect of HPV infection on human liver cells. We chose the human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2 to investigate whether HPV gene integration took place in liver cells as well. Methods We applied PCR to detect the possible integration of HPV genes in Hep G2 cells. We also investigated the expression of the integrated E6 and E7 genes by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Then, we silenced E6 and E7 expression and checked the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the potential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory pathways. Finally, we used in situ hybridization to detect HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Results Hep G2 cell line contains integrated HPV 18 DNA, leading to the expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Knockdown of the E7 and E6 genes expression reduced cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and increased apoptosis. The human cell cycle and apoptosis real-time PCR arrays analysis demonstrated E6 and E7-mediated regulation of some genes such as Cyclin H, UBA1, E2F4, p53, p107, FASLG, NOL3 and CASP14. HPV16/18 was found in only 9% (9/100) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion Our investigations showed that HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes can be integrated into the Hep G2, and we observed a low prevalence of HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. However, the precise risk of HPV as causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma needs further study. PMID:22655088

  19. Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4. PMID:21801413

  20. Antiproliferation of berberine is mediated by epigenetic modification of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) metabolic pathway in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Miao, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xin; Pan, Hai-Hui; Li, Pu; Ren, Hong; Jia, Yong-Rui; Lu, Chuang; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates hepatic xenobiotic and energy metabolism, as well as promotes cell growth and hepatocarcinogenesis. Berberine is an ancient multipotent alkaloid drug which derived from Coptis chinensis plants. Here we report that berberine is able to be cellular uptake and accessible to chromatin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Berberine induces more apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, but less ROS production in CAR overexpressed mCAR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, berberine inhibits expressions of CAR and its target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Furthermore, berberine enhances DNA methylation level in whole genome but reduces that in promoter regions CpG sites of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes under the presence of CAR condition. These results indicated that the antiproliferation of berberine might be mediated by the unique epigenetic modifying mechanism of CAR metabolic pathway, suggesting that berberine is a promising candidate in anticancer adjuvant chemotherapy, due to its distinct pharmacological properties in clinic. PMID:27311637

  1. Antiproliferation of berberine is mediated by epigenetic modification of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) metabolic pathway in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Miao, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xin; Pan, Hai-Hui; Li, Pu; Ren, Hong; Jia, Yong-Rui; Lu, Chuang; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates hepatic xenobiotic and energy metabolism, as well as promotes cell growth and hepatocarcinogenesis. Berberine is an ancient multipotent alkaloid drug which derived from Coptis chinensis plants. Here we report that berberine is able to be cellular uptake and accessible to chromatin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Berberine induces more apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, but less ROS production in CAR overexpressed mCAR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, berberine inhibits expressions of CAR and its target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Furthermore, berberine enhances DNA methylation level in whole genome but reduces that in promoter regions CpG sites of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes under the presence of CAR condition. These results indicated that the antiproliferation of berberine might be mediated by the unique epigenetic modifying mechanism of CAR metabolic pathway, suggesting that berberine is a promising candidate in anticancer adjuvant chemotherapy, due to its distinct pharmacological properties in clinic. PMID:27311637

  2. The metabolomic profile of gamma-irradiated human hepatoma and muscle cells reveals metabolic changes consistent with the Warburg effect

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Keogh, Adrian; Treves, Susan; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    The two human cell lines HepG2 from hepatoma and HMCL-7304 from striated muscle were γ-irradiated with doses between 0 and 4 Gy. Abundant γH2AX foci were observed at 4 Gy after 4 h of culture post-irradiation. Sham-irradiated cells showed no γH2AX foci and therefore no signs of radiation-induced double-strand DNA breaks. Flow cytometry indicated that 41.5% of HepG2 cells were in G2/M and this rose statistically significantly with increasing radiation dose reaching a plateau at ∼47%. Cell lysates from both cell lines were subjected to metabolomic analysis using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). A total of 46 metabolites could be identified by GCMS in HepG2 cell lysates and 29 in HMCL-7304 lysates, most of which occurred in HepG2 cells. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation of sham, 1, 2 and 4 Gy doses. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed elevations in intracellular lactate, alanine, glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose and 5-oxoproline, which were found by univariate statistics to be highly statistically significantly elevated at both 2 and 4 Gy compared with sham irradiated cells. These findings suggested upregulation of cytosolic aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), with potential shunting of glucose through aldose reductase in the polyol pathway, and consumption of reduced Glutathione (GSH) due to γ-irradiation. In HMCL-7304 myotubes, a putative Warburg effect was also observed only at 2 Gy, albeit a lesser magnitude than in HepG2 cells. It is anticipated that these novel metabolic perturbations following γ-irradiation of cultured cells will lead to a fuller understanding of the mechanisms of tissue damage following ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:26823999

  3. Genotoxicity of nitro musks in the micronucleus test with human lymphocytes in vitro and the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2.

    PubMed

    Kevekordes, S; Zaulig, A; Dunkelberg, H

    1997-03-14

    The nitro musk compounds musk xylene (1-tert.-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), musk ketone (4-tert.-butyl-3,5-dinitro-2,6-dimethylacetophenone), musk ambrette (1-tert.-butyl-4-methyl-6-methoxy-3,5-dinitrobenzene), musk moskene (1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinitroindane) and musk tibetene (1-tert.-butyl-3,4,5-trimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzene) were tested for their genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test (MN) with human lymphocytes in vitro and the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Compound concentrations were employed up to cytotoxic doses. Musk xylene, musk ketone, musk ambrette, musk moskene and musk tibetene revealed no genotoxicity in the micronucleus test with human lymphocytes and with the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2.

  4. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Benedict, Sheela

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, reduce the risk of cancer. The anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Several other mechanisms which contribute to the anti-cancer effect of these drugs in different cancer models both in vivo and in vitro are also presumed to be involved. The precise molecular mechanism, however, is still not clear. We investigated, therefore, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on multiple cellular and functional targets, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, using human hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells in culture. Our results demonstrate that ASA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, aconitase. Apoptosis was triggered by alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibition of ATP synthesis, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and the DNA repairing enzyme, poly (-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings strongly suggest that ASA-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is mediated by increased metabolic and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which result in apoptosis.

  5. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Benedict, Sheela

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, reduce the risk of cancer. The anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Several other mechanisms which contribute to the anti-cancer effect of these drugs in different cancer models both in vivo and in vitro are also presumed to be involved. The precise molecular mechanism, however, is still not clear. We investigated, therefore, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on multiple cellular and functional targets, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, using human hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells in culture. Our results demonstrate that ASA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, aconitase. Apoptosis was triggered by alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibition of ATP synthesis, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and the DNA repairing enzyme, poly (-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings strongly suggest that ASA-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is mediated by increased metabolic and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which result in apoptosis. PMID:21722632

  6. Enhancement of natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity by coexpression of GM-CSF/B70 in hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, K Y; Kang, M A; Nam, M J

    2001-05-10

    On investigating the role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and costimulatory molecule, B70, in antitumor immunity, we have found important effects of GM-CSF/B70 coexpression in the interaction with natural killer (NK) cells. We used the pLSN vector system to contain the neomycin-resistant gene and LTR promoter. The pLSNGM-CSF, pLSNB70 and pLSNB70/GM-CSF, pLSN vectors each containing GM-CSF, B70, and B70/GM-CSF cDNA, respectively, were constructed. They were transfected into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell (SK-HEP1), and stable cells (SK-pLSN, SK-GM, SK-B70 and SK-BG) were selected after neomycin treatment. According to enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis and FACS, we showed that expression of GM-CSF was increased up to 23-fold in SK-GM and SK-BG cells, and also expression of B70 was induced at least 76-97% in SK-B70 and SK-BG cells. Expression of B70 was remarkably increased by autocrine effect of GM-CSF in SK-BG cells. Primary cytolytic ability of GM-CSF and B70 significantly increased almost 4-fold (effector/target ratio, 100:1) in SK-BG cells. In in vivo studies, SK-BG cells showed much less subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice accompanying increased NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Therefore, these results suggest that combining expression of GM-CSF and B70 may enhance NK-mediated cytotoxicity, and then induce the antitumor immunity in hepatoma transplanted into nude mice.

  7. Effects of drugs in subtoxic concentrations on the metabolic fluxes in human hepatoma cell line Hep G2

    SciTech Connect

    Niklas, Jens; Noor, Fozia; Heinzle, Elmar

    2009-11-01

    Commonly used cytotoxicity assays assess the toxicity of a compound by measuring certain parameters which directly or indirectly correlate to the viability of the cells. However, the effects of a given compound at concentrations considerably below EC{sub 50} values are usually not evaluated. These subtoxic effects are difficult to identify but may eventually cause severe and costly long term problems such as idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. We determined the toxicity of three hepatotoxic compounds, namely amiodarone, diclofenac and tacrine on the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 using an online kinetic respiration assay and analysed the effects of subtoxic concentrations of these drugs on the cellular metabolism by using metabolic flux analysis. Several changes in the metabolism could be detected upon exposure to subtoxic concentrations of the test compounds. Upon exposure to diclofenac and tacrine an increase in the TCA-cycle activity was observed which could be a signature of an uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation. The results indicate that metabolic flux analysis could serve as an invaluable novel tool for the investigation of the effects of drugs. The described methodology enables tracking the toxicity of compounds dynamically using the respiration assay in a range of concentrations and the metabolic flux analysis permits interesting insights into the changes in the central metabolism of the cell upon exposure to drugs.

  8. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Simos, George

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; {yields} Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1{alpha} by impairing the MAPK pathway. {yields} Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1{alpha} subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1{alpha} as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 5.16 {mu}M). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1{alpha} protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC{sub 50} = 4.75 {mu}M). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 {mu}{Mu} kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 {mu}M) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  9. The Effect of Zinc and D-Penicillamine in a Stable Human Hepatoma ATP7B Knockout Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chandhok, Gursimran; Schmitt, Nadine; Sauer, Vanessa; Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit; Schmidt, Hartmut H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the copper (Cu) transporter gene ATP7B, the primary cause of Wilson disease (WD), result in high liver Cu and death of hepatocytes. Cu chelators and zinc salts are the two most important drugs used in the treatment of WD patients; however, the molecular mechanisms of the drugs with regard to ATP7B expression have not been determined. A targeted knockout of ATP7B (KO) was established in the most widely used human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 for molecular studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease. KO cells showed similar growth, Cu uptake, release, and gene expression as compared to parental cells. However, in the presence of Cu, morphological changes, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and loss of viability were observed. Induction of metallothionein (MT1X) after Cu exposure was significantly reduced in KO cells. Following zinc treatment, MT1X expression was strongly induced and a high percentage of KO cells could be rescued from Cu induced toxicity. D-penicillamine treatment had a minor effect on the viability of KO cells whereas the parental cell line showed a pronounced improvement. Combined treatment displayed a highly synergistic effect in KO cells. The data suggest that zinc has a previously unrecognized effect on the viability of hepatocytes that lack ATP7B due to a high induction of MT1X expression that compensates low gene expression after Cu exposure. A combination therapy that simultaneously targets at MT1X induction and Cu chelation improves the overall survival of hepatocytes for most efficient therapy of patients having WD. PMID:24892424

  10. P2X4 Activation Modulates Volume-sensitive Outwardly Rectifying Chloride Channels in Rat Hepatoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Diego; Penna, Antonello; Simon, Felipe; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Cerda, Oscar; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl− channels are critical for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response triggered upon cell swelling. Recent evidence indicates that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of these channels and that H2O2 per se activates the channels under isotonic isovolumic conditions. However, a significant difference in the time course for current onset between H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− activation is observed. In several cell types, cell swelling induced by hypotonic challenges triggers the release of ATP to the extracellular medium, which in turn, activates purinergic receptors and modulates cell volume regulation. In this study, we have addressed the effect of purinergic receptor activation on H2O2-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl− current activation. Here we show that rat hepatoma cells (HTC) exposed to a 33% hypotonic solution responded by rapidly activating VSOR Cl− current and releasing ATP to the extracellular medium. In contrast, cells exposed to 200 μm H2O2 VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slower, and ATP release was not detected. In cells exposed to either 11% hypotonicity or 200 μm H2O2, exogenous addition of ATP in the presence of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in a decrease in the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset. Conversely, in cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the ionotropic receptor P2X4 challenged with a 33% hypotonic solution, the half-time for VSOR Cl− current onset was significantly slowed down. Our results indicate that, at high hypotonic imbalances, swelling-induced ATP release activates the purinergic receptor P2X4, which in turn modulates the time course of VSOR Cl− current onset in a extracellular Ca2+-dependent manner. PMID:20056605

  11. P2X4 activation modulates volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channels in rat hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Varela, Diego; Penna, Antonello; Simon, Felipe; Eguiguren, Ana Luisa; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Cerda, Oscar; Sala, Francisco; Stutzin, Andrés

    2010-03-01

    Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channels are critical for the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response triggered upon cell swelling. Recent evidence indicates that H(2)O(2) plays an essential role in the activation of these channels and that H(2)O(2) per se activates the channels under isotonic isovolumic conditions. However, a significant difference in the time course for current onset between H(2)O(2)-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl(-) activation is observed. In several cell types, cell swelling induced by hypotonic challenges triggers the release of ATP to the extracellular medium, which in turn, activates purinergic receptors and modulates cell volume regulation. In this study, we have addressed the effect of purinergic receptor activation on H(2)O(2)-induced and hypotonicity-mediated VSOR Cl(-) current activation. Here we show that rat hepatoma cells (HTC) exposed to a 33% hypotonic solution responded by rapidly activating VSOR Cl(-) current and releasing ATP to the extracellular medium. In contrast, cells exposed to 200 microm H(2)O(2) VSOR Cl(-) current onset was significantly slower, and ATP release was not detected. In cells exposed to either 11% hypotonicity or 200 microm H(2)O(2), exogenous addition of ATP in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) resulted in a decrease in the half-time for VSOR Cl(-) current onset. Conversely, in cells that overexpress a dominant-negative mutant of the ionotropic receptor P2X4 challenged with a 33% hypotonic solution, the half-time for VSOR Cl(-) current onset was significantly slowed down. Our results indicate that, at high hypotonic imbalances, swelling-induced ATP release activates the purinergic receptor P2X4, which in turn modulates the time course of VSOR Cl(-) current onset in a extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner. PMID:20056605

  12. Cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and its metabolites in mouse and human hepatoma cells and primary mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Jen; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Propiconazole is a triazole-containing fungicide that is used agriculturally on grasses, fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. Propiconazole is a mouse liver hepatotoxicant and a hepatocarcinogen that has adverse reproductive and developmental toxicities in experimental animals. The goal of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic responses of propiconazole and its metabolites to determine if metabolism of this agent differentially affected its cytotoxic activities in hepatic tumor cell lines and in primary hepatocytes. To this end the cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and five of its metabolites were examined in three hepatic cell types: The mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cell line, the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, and primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes. We initially compared the responses of propiconazole exposure in both Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cell lines over a concentration range of 0-200 microM using two assay systems: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the neutral red assay. Concentration-related cytotoxic responses were evident in both cell lines using both endpoints with the MTT assay providing enhanced sensitivity. The relative cytotoxic effects of propiconazole and five propiconazole metabolites were further assessed by the MTT assay using Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 tumor cell lines. The cell cultures were exposed to various concentrations of propiconazole and five of its metabolites over a range of 0-400 microM. Propiconazole was cytotoxic in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. All five metabolites were less cytotoxic in both cell lines compared to the parent compound. The most cytotoxic metabolites in Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells among the five were 3-(2-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)propan-1-ol and 1-(2-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)propan-2-ol. Propiconazole was cytotoxic in primary mouse hepatocytes; however

  13. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion. PMID:26456612

  14. Inhibition of Insulin Degradation by Hepatoma Cells after Microinjection of Monoclonal Antibodies to a Specific Cytosolic Protease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shii, Kozui; Roth, Richard A.

    1986-06-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies were identified by their ability to bind to 125I-labeled insulin covalently linked to a cytosolic insulin-degrading enzyme from human erythrocytes. All four antibodies were also found to remove more than 90% of the insulin-degrading activity from erythrocyte extracts. These antibodies were shown to be directed to different sites on the enzyme by mapping studies and by their various properties. Two antibodies recognized the insulin-degrading enzyme from rat liver; one inhibited the erythrocyte enzyme directly; and two recognized the enzyme after gel electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose filters. By this latter procedure and immunoprecipitation from metabolically labeled cells, the enzyme from a variety of tissues was shown to be composed of a single polypeptide chain of apparent Mr 110,000. Finally, these monoclonal antibodies were microinjected into the cytoplasm of a human hepatoma cell line to assess the contribution of this enzyme to insulin degradation in the intact cell. In five separate experiments, preloading of cells with these monoclonal antibodies resulted in an inhibition of insulin degradation of 18-54% (average 39%) and increased the amount of 125I-labeled insulin associated with the cells. In contrast, microinjection of control antibody or an extraneous monoclonal antibody had no effect on insulin degradation or on the amount of insulin associated with the cells. Moreover, the monoclonal antibodies to the insulin-degrading enzyme caused no significant inhibition of degradation of another molecule, low density lipoprotein. Thus, these results support a role for this enzyme in insulin degradation in the intact cell.

  15. Up-regulation of alpha1-microglobulin by hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species in hepatoma and blood cell lines.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Magnus G; Allhorn, Maria; Olofsson, Tor; Akerström, Bo

    2007-03-15

    alpha(1)-Microglobulin is a 26-kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, secreted to the blood, and rapidly distributed to the extravascular compartment of all tissues. Recent results show that alpha(1)-microglobulin has heme-binding and heme-degrading properties and it has been suggested that the protein is involved in the defense against oxidation by heme and reactive oxygen species. In the present study the influence of hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the cellular expression of alpha(1)-microglobulin was investigated. Oxy- and methemoglobin, free heme, and Fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radicals induced a dose-dependent up-regulation of alpha(1)-microglobulin on both mRNA and protein levels in hepatoma cells and an increased secretion of alpha(1)-microglobulin. The up-regulation was reversed by the addition of catalase and ascorbate, and by reacting hemoglobin with cyanide which prevents redox reactions. Furthermore, the blood cell lines U937 and K562 expressed alpha(1)-microglobulin at low levels, and this expression increased up to 11-fold by the addition of hemoglobin. These results suggest that alpha(1)-microglobulin expression is induced by ROS, arising from redox reactions of hemoglobin or from other sources and are consistent with the hypothesis that alpha(1)-microglobulin participates in the defense against oxidation by hemoglobin, heme, and reactive oxygen species.

  16. XPC is essential for nucleotide excision repair of zidovudine-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qiangen; Beland, Frederick A.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Fang Jialong

    2011-03-01

    Zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-dexoythymidine, AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, can be incorporated into DNA and cause DNA damage. The mechanisms underlying the repair of AZT-induced DNA damage are unknown. To investigate the pathways involved in the recognition and repair of AZT-induced DNA damage, human hepatoma HepG2 cells were incubated with AZT for 2 weeks and the expression of DNA damage signaling pathways was determined using a pathway-based real-time PCR array. Compared to control cultures, damaged DNA binding and nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways showed significantly increased gene expression. Further analysis indicated that AZT treatment increased the expression of genes associated with NER, including XPC, XPA, RPA1, GTF2H1, and ERCC1. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels of XPC and GTF2H1 were also significantly up-regulated. To explore further the function of XPC in the repair of AZT-induced DNA damage, XPC expression was stably knocked down by 71% using short hairpin RNA interference. In the XPC knocked-down cells, 100 {mu}M AZT treatment significantly increased [{sup 3}H]AZT incorporation into DNA, decreased the total number of viable cells, increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase, induced apoptosis, and caused a more extensive G2/M cell cycle arrest when compared to non-transfected HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells transfected with a scrambled short hairpin RNA sequence. Overall, these data indicate that XPC plays an essential role in the NER repair of AZT-induced DNA damage.

  17. Streptozotocin-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is an antibiotic often used in the treatment of different types of cancers. It is also highly cytotoxic to the pancreatic beta-cells and therefore is commonly used to induce experimental type 1 diabetes in rodents. Resistance towards STZ-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells has also been reported. Our previous studies have reported organ-specific toxicity and metabolic alterations in STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ induces oxidative stress and metabolic complications. The precise molecular mechanism of STZ-induced toxicity in different tissues and carcinomas is, however, unclear. We have, therefore, investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of STZ in HepG2 hepatoma cells in culture. Cells were treated with different doses of STZ for various time intervals and the cytotoxicity was studied by observing the alterations in oxidative stress, mitochondrial redox and metabolic functions. STZ induced ROS and RNS formation and oxidative stress as measured by an increase in the lipid peroxidation as well as alterations in the GSH-dependent antioxidant metabolism. The mitochondria appear to be a highly sensitive target for STZ toxicity. The mitochondrial membrane potential and enzyme activities were altered in STZ treated cells resulting in the inhibition of ATP synthesis. ROS-sensitive mitochondrial aconitase activity was markedly inhibited suggesting increased oxidative stress in STZ-induced mitochondrial toxicity. These results suggest that STZ-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is mediated, at least in part, by the increase in ROS/RNS production, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study may be significant for better understanding the mechanisms of STZ action in chemotherapy and drug induced toxicity. PMID:22754329

  18. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chang, Po-Min; Chen, I-Li; Hung, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Peng-Chih; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-28

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²⁺]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of external Ca²⁺ abolished methoxychlor's effect. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ influx was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators. Methoxychlor killed cells at concentrations of 10-130 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxychlor's cytotoxicity. Methoxychlor (10 and 50 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently as determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Together, in HA59T cells, methoxychlor induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive Ca²⁺-permeable channels, without causing Ca²⁺ release from stores. Methoxychlor also induced apoptosis that was independent of [Ca²⁺]i rises.

  19. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chang, Po-Min; Chen, I-Li; Hung, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Peng-Chih; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-28

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²⁺]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of external Ca²⁺ abolished methoxychlor's effect. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ influx was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators. Methoxychlor killed cells at concentrations of 10-130 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxychlor's cytotoxicity. Methoxychlor (10 and 50 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently as determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Together, in HA59T cells, methoxychlor induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive Ca²⁺-permeable channels, without causing Ca²⁺ release from stores. Methoxychlor also induced apoptosis that was independent of [Ca²⁺]i rises. PMID:25687486

  20. Effects of methylated derivatives of Luteolin isolated from Cyperus alopecuroides in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells*.

    PubMed

    Michels, Gudrun; Mohamed, Gamal A; Weber, Nadine; Chovolou, Yvonni; Kampkötter, Andreas; Wätjen, Wim; Proksch, Peter

    2006-02-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous substances in human diet. Their antioxidative, antiinflammatory and antiviral effects are of interest for human health, and polyphenols such as luteolin are used at high concentrations in food supplements. Luteolin is metabolized to glucuronides, but also to methylated derivatives. For example, O-methylation of the catechol group mediated by the catechol-O-methyl transferase, is an important step in flavonoid metabolism. The aim of this project was to determine the effect of O-methylation on antioxidative capacity and cytotoxicity of luteolin in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Therefore we analyzed the effects of luteolin 5,3'-dimethylether, isolated from the flowers of foxtail flatsedge (Cyperus alopecuroides) and luteolin 5,7,3',4'-tetramethylether compared to the non-methylated flavonoid luteolin. The antioxidative potential of luteolin was lowered by methylation, an effect that seems to be mediated by masking of the catechol moiety in the B ring. The cytotoxic potential of luteolin 5,3'-dimethylether is comparable to luteolin, but the tetramethylether showed no cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic effect of luteolin but not luteolin 5,3'-dimethylether was mediated via apoptosis (caspase-3 activation). We conclude that the O-methylation of luteolin led to a decreased radical-scavenging activity and to a reduction in the apoptotic potential of the flavonoid.

  1. Gentiopicroside and sweroside from Veratrilla baillonii Franch. induce phosphorylation of Akt and suppress Pck1 expression in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian-Ju; Li, Jun; Mei, Zhi-Yi; Chen, Guoxun

    2016-06-01

    The use of phytochemicals and herbal medicines has accompanied human history. Advances in modern biomedical sciences have allowed us to investigate the functional mechanisms of herbal medicines and phytochemicals. Veratrilla baillonii Franch. has long been used as a medicinal herb in southwestern China. Here, we analyzed the effects of an ethanol extract from V. baillonii (VBFE) on the expression levels of the cytosolic form of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene (Pck1) mRNA and components of the insulin signalling cascade in HL1C hepatoma cells. Compared with the insulin control, VBFE treatment inhibited the expression of Pck1 mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 in a time-dependent manner. Further analysis of the purified components of VBFE indicated that gentiopicroside and sweroside from VBFE, alone and in combination, suppressed Pck1 expression and induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. In conclusion, gentiopicroside and sweroside suppress Pck1 expression and induce phosphorylation of components in the insulin signalling cascade. This is the first study to demonstrate that gentiopicroside and sweroside show insulin-mimicking effects on the regulation of Pck1 expression. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential of gentiopicroside and sweroside in the control of blood glucose in animals. PMID:27248905

  2. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potency of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J.

    1996-11-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some PCDE congeners have been reported to cause toxic responses similar to those caused by some of the non-ortho-substituted PCBs, which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Twenty-nine PCDEs were tested for their potency as AhR agonists relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by measuring their ability to induce the cytochrome P-450 1A1-associated enzyme activity, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. All PCDE congeners tested were found to be inactive as EROD inducers except for PCDE 156, which was a weak EROD inducer with a 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalency factor of about 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. During this study the authors determined that small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that occurred as impurities in the PCDE preparations were the cause of the apparent EROD induction initially measured in their experiments. Once the PCDF impurities were removed by purification on florisil, little or no activity could be attributed to the PCDEs.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the apolipoprotein F (ApoF) gene by ETS and C/EBPα in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xue-Bin; Huang, Ling; Zhang, Shao-Hong; Wang, De-Ping; Wu, Yun-Li; Chen, Wan-Nan; Xu, Shang-Hua; Lin, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Apolipoprotein F (ApoF) inhibits cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. In the present study, the full-length human ApoF promoter was cloned, and the molecular mechanism of the regulation of ApoF was investigated. The ApoF promoter displayed higher activities in hepatoma cell lines, and the -198 nt to +79 nt promoter region contained the maximum promoter activity. In the promoter region of -198 nt to -2 nt there were four putative binding sites for transcription factors ETS-1/ETS-2 (named EBS-1 to EBS-4) and one for C/EBP. Mutation of EBS-2, EBS4 and the C/EBP binding site abolished the promoter activity, and ETS-1/ETS-2 and C/EBPα could interact with corresponding binding sites. In addition, overexpression of ETS-1/2 or C/EBPα enhanced, while dominant-negative mutants of ETS-1/2 and knockdown of C/EBPα decreased, ApoF promoter activities. ETS-1 and C/EBPα associated physically, and acted synergistically to activate ApoF transcription. These results demonstrated combined activation of the ApoF promoter by liver-enriched and ubiquitous transcription factors. Direct interactions between C/EBPα and ETS-1 were important for high liver-specific expression of ApoF.

  4. Silencing MRP1-4 genes by RNA interference enhances sensitivity of human hepatoma cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zheng; Liu, Gaojie; Fang, Tingfeng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Huayao; Yang, Shanglin; Wei, Jinxing; Lv, Zejian; Tan, Langping; Liu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Besides surgical treatment, systematic chemotherapy plays a crucial role in HCC treatment, especially for patients with advanced HCC. However, none of the single-drug-treatment strategies have shown significant survival benefit due to a high incidence rate of chemoresistance. This study was designed to observe the effect of small interfering of RNA (SiRNA) targeting multidrug resistance-related protein 1-4 (MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4) in modulating drug resistance of HepG2/ADM and SMMC7721/ADM cells. Methods: HepG2/Adriamycin (ADM) and SMMC7721/ADM cell lines were developed by exposing parental cells to stepwise increasing concentrations of ADM. MTT assay was used to determine drug sensitivity and half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of drugs was calculated. Flow cytometry was employed to analyze cell cycle distribution. MRP1-4 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blot. The growth curve was draw and the cell apoptosis was also observed. Animal experiment was used to compare the cell growth. Results: MTT assay showed that the values of IC50 and RI of HepG2/ADM and SMMC7721/ADM decreased after siRNA treatment in HepG2/ADM cells and SMMC7721/ADM cells. QRT-PCR analysis demonstrated the MRP1-4 mRNA expression decreased significantly in HepG2/ADM cells and SMMC7721/ADM cells after siRNA transfection. In addition, compared with parental cells, MRP1-4 protein expressions apparently decreased in SMMC7721/ADM and HepG2/ADM cells. Flow cytometry showed significantly elevated apoptosis rate following MRP1-4 siRNA transfection. Animal experiment suggested that silencing MRP1-4 gene in vivo inhibited tumor growth. Conclusion: Inhibition of MRP1-4 by small interfering RNA enhanced and selectively restored sensitivity of hepatoma cells to drugs. MRP1-4 siRNA might represent a new therapeutic option for HCC. PMID:27398162

  5. Effects of lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities on hepatoma, choriocarcinoma, melanoma and osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ng, T B; Ooi, V E; Liu, W K

    2000-03-01

    The effects of lectins with different carbohydrate-binding specificities on human hepatoma (H3B), human choriocarcinoma (JAr), mouse melanoma (B16) and rat osteosarcoma (ROS) cell lines were investigated. Cell viability was estimated by uptake of crystal violet. Wheat germ lectin was the lectin with the most deleterious effect on the viability of H3B, JAr and ROS cell lines. The cytotoxicity of lectins with similar sugar-binding specificity to wheat germ lectin, including Maackia amurensis lectin and Solanum tuberosum lectin, was weaker than that of wheat germ lectin. N-acetylgalactosamine-and galactose-binding Tricholoma mongolicum lectin ranked third, after wheat germ lectin and Maackia amurensis lectin, with regard to its effect on H3B, and ranked, together with Maackia amurensis lectin, as the lectins with the second most pronounced effects on ROS. However, the cytotoxic effects of Tricholoma mongolicum lectin on JAr were much weaker than those of Maackia amurensis lectin, Solanum tuberosum lectin and Anguilla anguilla lectin. Artocarpus integrifolia lectin, Lens culinaris lectin and Anguilla anguilla lectin possessed milder cytotoxicity than the remaining lectins. which were approximately equipotent. The mannose-binding Narcissus pseudonarcissus and Lens culinaris lectins were only weakly cytotoxic, the exception being a stronger effect on H3B. The N-acetylgalactosamine-binding Glycine max lectin and methylgalactose-binding Artocarpus integrifolia lectin similarly exhibited low cytotoxicity. It can thus be concluded that in general the ranking was wheat germ lectin > Maackia amurensis lectin approximately Trichloma mongolicum lectins > other aforementioned lectins in cytotoxicity. A particular lectin may manifest more conspicuous toxicity on certain cell lines and less on others.

  6. Increased hepatic functionality of the human hepatoma cell line HepaRG cultured in the AMC bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nibourg, Geert A A; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M

    2013-08-01

    The clinical application of a bioartificial liver (BAL) depends on the availability of a human cell source with high hepatic functionality, such as the human hepatoma cell line HepaRG. This cell line has demonstrated high hepatic functionality, but the effect of BAL culture on its functionality in time is not known. Therefore, we studied the characteristics of the HepaRG-AMC-BAL over time, and compared the functionality of the HepaRG-AMC-BAL with monolayer cultures of HepaRG cells, normalized for protein (bioactive mass) and DNA (cell number). Histological analysis of 14-day-old BALs demonstrated functional heterogeneity similar to that of monolayer cultures. Hepatic functionality of the HepaRG-AMC-BALs increased during 2-3 weeks of culture. The majority of the measured protein-normalized hepatic functions were already higher in day 14 BAL cultures compared to monolayer cultures, including ammonia elimination (3.2-fold), urea production (1.5-fold), conversion of (15)N-ammonia into (15)N-urea (1.4-fold), and cytochrome P450 3A4 activity (7.9-fold). Lactate production in monolayer cultures switched into lactate consumption in the BAL cultures, a hallmark of primary hepatocytes. When normalized for DNA, only cytochrome P450 3A4 activity was 2.5-fold higher in the BAL cultures compared to monolayer cultures and lactate production switched to consumption, whereas urea production and (15)N-urea production were 1.5- to 2-fold lower. The different outcomes for protein and DNA normalized functions probably relate to a smaller cell volume of HepaRG cells when cultured in the AMC-BAL. Cell damage was 4-fold lower in day 14 BAL cultures compared to monolayer cultures. Transcript levels of cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and 3A7 genes and of regulatory genes hepatic nuclear factor 4α and pregnane X receptor increased in time in BAL cultures and reached higher levels than in monolayer cultures. Lastly, metabolism of amino acids, particularly the alanine consumption and ornithine

  7. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yijun; Lu, Hongjuan; Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  8. The essential oils from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarp induce apoptosis of HepG2 human hepatoma cells through increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Paik, Soon-Young; Koh, Kyung-Hee; Beak, Sung-Mok; Paek, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2005-05-01

    The volatile extract from dried pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium that was obtained by simultaneous distillation with dichloromethane and water was composed of 29.9% geranyl acetate, 15.8% citronella, 15.4% sabinene and the minor volatile components included beta-myrcene, linalool, (-)-isopulegol, citronellyl acetate, 1,4-dimethyl pyrazole, alpha-terpinene, 3-methyl-6-(1-methylethyl)-2-cyclo-hexene-1-o1 and trans-geraniol. The volatile extract decreased the cell viability and induced apoptotic death in HepG2 human hepatoma cells in a concentration- and time-related manner. In addition, the volatile extract increased the production of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of the cells with Trolox, a well-known antioxidant, significantly suppressed the generation of reactive oxygen species and cell death induced by the extract. However, caspase-3 activity was not changed in the extract-treated cells, suggesting that the extract-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells is caspase-3 independent. Furthermore, in nude mice inoculated with Huh-7 human hepatoma cells, the extract significantly inhibited tumor development. These results suggest that the volatile extract from Zanthoxylum schinifolium pericarpium is a good candidate for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy and that reactive oxygen species are the key signaling molecules in the volatile extract-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. PMID:15863882

  9. Induction of hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis through activation of the JNK-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-ROS self-driven death signal circuit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Song, Fang-Jiao; Wang, Ying-Hong; Li, Ning; Yu, Qian; Liao, Li-Xi; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-28

    As an efficient method for inducing tumor cell apoptosis, ROS can be constantly formed and accumulated in NADPH oxidase overactivated-cells, resulting in further mitochondrial membrane damage and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signal also acts as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial death pathway. However, the relationship between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK signal still remains unclear. Here, we discovered a novel self-driven signal circuit between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK, which was induced by a cytotoxic steroidal saponin (ASC) in hepatoma carcinoma cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production was markedly activated by ASC and directly led to JNK MAPK activation. Moreover, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitor and specific knock-out for p47 subunit of NADPH oxidase could effectively block NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent JNK activation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an upstream regulator of JNK MAPK. Conversely, a specific JNK inhibitor could inhibit ASC-induced NADPH oxidase activation and down-regulate ROS levels as well, indicating that JNK might also regulate NADPH oxidase activity to some extent. These observations indicate that NADPH oxidase and JNK MAPK activate each other as a signal circuit. Furthermore, drug pretreatment experiments with ASC showed this signal circuit operated continuously via a self-driven mode and finally induced apoptosis in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Taken together, we provide a proof for inducing hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis by activating the JNK-NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent self-driven signal circuit pathway. PMID:25064608

  10. c-Ha-ras down regulates the alpha-fetoprotein gene but not the albumin gene in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, K; Lawless, D; Ohe, Y; Miyao, Y; Nakabayashi, H; Kamiya, H; Miura, K; Ohtsuka, E; Tamaoki, T

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of transfection of the normal c-Ha-ras gene, rasGly-12, and its oncogenic mutant, rasVal-12, on expression of the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin genes in a human hepatoma cell line, HuH-7. The mutant and, to a lesser extent, the normal ras gene caused reduction of the AFP mRNA but not the albumin mRNA level in transfected HuH-7 cells. Cotransfection experiments with a rasVal-12 expression plasmid and a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene fused to AFP regulatory sequences showed that rasVal-12 suppressed the activity of enhancer and promoter regions containing A + T-rich sequences (AT motif). In contrast, rasVal-12 did not affect the promoter activity of the albumin and human hepatitis B virus pre-S1 genes even though these promoters contain homologous A + T-rich elements. ras transfection appeared to induce phosphorylation of nuclear proteins that interact with the AFP AT motif, since gel mobility analysis revealed the formation of slow-moving complexes which was reversed by phosphatase treatment. However, similar changes in complex formation were observed with the albumin and hepatitis B surface antigen pre-S1 promoters. Therefore, this effect alone cannot explain the specific down regulation of the AFP promoter and enhancer activity. ras-mediated suppression of the AFP gene may reflect the process of developmental gene regulation in which AFP gene transcription is controlled by a G-protein-linked signal transduction cascade triggered by external growth stimuli. Images PMID:1690841

  11. Metabolic profiling reveals that PNPLA3 induces widespread effects on metabolism beyond triacylglycerol remodeling in Huh-7 hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hae-Ki; Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.; Cheng, Jianfeng; Mirshahi, Faridoddin

    2014-01-01

    PNPLA3 was recently associated with the susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a common cause of chronic liver disease characterized by abnormal triglyceride accumulation. Although it is established that PNPLA3 has both triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol O-acyltransferase activities, is still unknown whether the gene has any additional role in the modulation of the human liver metabolome. To uncover the functional role of PNPLA3 on liver metabolism, we performed high-throughput metabolic profiling of PNPLA3 siRNA-silencing and overexpression of wild-type and mutant Ile148Met variants (isoleucine/methionine substitution at codon 148) in Huh-7 cells. Metabolomic analysis was performed by using GC/MS and LC/MS platforms. Silencing of PNPLA3 was associated with a global perturbation of Huh-7 hepatoma cells that resembled a catabolic response associated with protein breakdown. A significant decrease in amino- and γ-glutamyl-amino acids and dipeptides and a significant increase in cysteine sulfinic acid, myo-inositol, lysolipids, sphingolipids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed. Overexpression of the PNPLA3 Met148 variant mirrored many of the metabolic changes observed during gene silencing, but in the opposite direction. These findings were replicated by the exploration of canonical pathways associated with PNPLA3 silencing and Met148 overexpression. Overexpression of the PNPLA3 Met148 variant was associated with a 1.75-fold increase in lactic acid, suggesting a shift to anaerobic metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, these results suggest a critical role of PNPLA3 in the modulation of liver metabolism beyond its classical participation in triacylglycerol remodeling. PMID:24763554

  12. Sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate derived from garlic induces phase II detoxification enzymes in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sook; Ko, Miyan; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi; Yabuki, Akira; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Yamato, Osamu

    2010-06-01

    There is evidence that onions and garlic protect against cancer in humans. It has been suggested that this effect is partly due to the organosulfur compounds in Allium vegetables and that these substances act through induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. Here, we hypothesized that alk(en)yl thiosulfates, sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS), and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS), which were identified in onions and garlic, respectively, may induce phase II enzymes. Therefore, rat hepatoma cells (H4IIE) were cultured with 1 to 100 micromol/L of NPTS or 2PTS for 48 hours at 37 degrees C; and the activities and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of phase II enzymes in H4IIE cells were investigated. The effects of diallyl trisulfide and tert-butylhydroquinone, known as phase II inducers, were also examined as positive controls and compared with the responses of NPTS and 2PTS. Quinone reductase (QR) activity and mRNA expression levels of QR and epoxide hydrolase 1 were significantly increased by 2PTS (P < .05-.005). In particular, QR activity was increased at a relatively low concentration of 2PTS (10 micromol/L). However, glutathione S-transferase activity and mRNA expression levels of glutathione S-transferase A5 and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 were not changed by 2PTS. In contrast, NPTS did not affect the activities and mRNA expression levels of these phase II enzymes. These results show that 2PTS can induce phase II enzymes, and its inductive effect is comparable or superior to that of diallyl trisulfide and tert-butylhydroquinone. PMID:20650352

  13. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  14. Arsenic inhibits induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Li, Lih-Ann; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Eddy Essen; Miao, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Chia-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2006-09-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the arsenic effect on activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in human hepatoma cells. The human hepatoma Huh7 cells were treated with sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) from 0.5 to 20 microM for 24 h. Our data revealed that NaAsO2 < or = 10 microM caused no significant cytotoxic effect on Huh7 cells (p>0.05). We also established a dioxin-responsive element (DRE)-mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase eXpression (CALUX) cell line, Huh7-DRE-Luc, by stable transfection of Huh7 with a DRE-driven firefly luciferase reporter plasmid (4xDRE-TATA-Luc). Treatments of Huh7-DRE-Luc and Huh7 with NaAsO2 attenuated the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced DRE-CALUX and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activations, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. We found that the calculated CALUX-toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels induced by cotreatment of NaAsO2 > or = 3.0 microM and 10 nM 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly lower than that induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD alone (p<0.05). In the present study, we demonstrated that arsenic not only inhibited the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation but also interfered with DRE-CALUX bioassay in human hepatoma cells. Our finding also suggests that extensive cleanup of sample for removal of any possible interfering factor is critical to guarantee the accuracy of dioxin-TEQ levels using DRE-CALUX bioassay. PMID:16713074

  15. Cell bioenergetics in Leghorn male hepatoma cells and immortalized chicken liver cells in response to 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, A L; Kong, B-W; Lassiter, K; Hargis, B M; Bottje, W G

    2014-11-01

    The major objectives of this study were to compare cell bioenergetics in 2 avian liver cell lines under control conditions and in response to oxidative stress imposed by 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (4-HNE). Cells in this study were from a chemically immortalized Leghorn male hepatoma (LMH) cell line and a spontaneously immortalized chicken liver (CELi) cell line. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was monitored in specialized microtiter plates using an XF24 Flux Analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, Billerica, MA). Cell bioenergetics was assessed by sequential additions of oligomycin, carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), and antimycin-A that enables the determination of a) OCR linked to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase activity, b) mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity, c) proton leak, and d) nonmitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Under control (unchallenged) conditions, LMH cells exhibited higher basal OCR and higher OCR attributed to each of the bioenergetic components listed above compared with CELi cells. When expressed as a percentage of maximal OCR (following uncoupling with FCCP), LMH cells exhibited higher OCR due to ATP synthase and proton leak activity, but lower mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity compared with CELi cells; there were no differences in OCR associated with nonmitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Whereas the LMH cells exhibited robust ATP synthase activity up to 50 μM 4-HNE, CELi cells exhibited a progressive decline in ATP synthase activity with 10, 20, and 30 μM 4-HNE. The CELi cells exhibited higher mitochondrial oxygen reserve capacity compared with LMH cells with 0 and 20 μM 4-HNE but not with 30 μM 4-HNE. Both cell lines exhibited inducible proton leak in response to increasing levels of 4-HNE that was evident with 30 μM 4-HNE for CELi cells and with 40 and 50 μM 4-HNE in LMH cells. The results of these studies demonstrate fundamental differences in cell bioenergetics in 2 avian liver-derived cell lines

  16. Different Contribution of Redox-Sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Channels to Acetaminophen-Induced Death of Human Hepatoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Heba; Kozai, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Reiko; Numata, Tomohiro; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe analgesic antipyretic drug at prescribed doses. Its overdose, however, can cause life-threatening liver damage. Though, involvement of oxidative stress is widely acknowledged in APAP-induced hepatocellular death, the mechanism of this increased oxidative stress and the associated alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis are still unclear. Among members of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels activated in response to oxidative stress, we here identify that redox-sensitive TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels underlie Ca2+ entry and downstream cellular damages induced by APAP in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Our data indicate that APAP treatment of HepG2 cells resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, and Ca2+ entry leading to increased apoptotic cell death. These responses were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with the ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (Tiron), and also by preincubation of cells with the glutathione inducer Dimethylfumarate (DMF). TRP subtype-targeted pharmacological blockers and siRNAs strategy revealed that suppression of either TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, or TRPM7 reduced APAP-induced ROS formation, Ca2+ influx, and cell death; the effects of suppression of TRPV1 or TRPC1, known to be activated by oxidative cysteine modifications, were stronger than those of TRPM2 or TRPM7. Interestingly, TRPV1 and TRPC1 were labeled by the cysteine-selective modification reagent, 5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)-2biotin (DTNB-2Bio), and this was attenuated by pretreatment with APAP, suggesting that APAP and/or its oxidized metabolites act directly on the modification target cysteine residues of TRPV1 and TRPC1 proteins. In human liver tissue, TRPV1, TRPC1, TRPM2, and TRPM7 channels transcripts were localized mainly to hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Our findings strongly suggest that APAP

  17. Synergistic effect of cucurbitacin B in combination with curcumin via enhancing apoptosis induction and reversing multidrug resistance in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuqi; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jiaying; Huang, Ziyuan; Hu, Haiyang; Qiao, Mingxi; Zhao, Xiuli; Chen, Dawei

    2015-12-01

    Cucurbitacin B is a plant-derived tetracyclic triterpenoid, which has been used for a variety of cancers, especially human hepatoma. Curcumin, isolated from a plant Curcuma longa also has found the anti-tumor property. In the present study, the synergistic effect of cucurbitacin B and curcumin was studied on BEL7402/5-Fu cells in vitro and BEL7402 tumor-bearing mice in vivo. The synergistic anticancer activity of these two compounds involves the two mechanisms. Firstly, curcumin synergistically enhanced the apoptosis of BEL7402/5-Fu cells induced by cucurbitacin B in the optimal mass ratio of 2:1 (cucurbitacin B:curcumin). The mechanism may result from the cell arresting in different phases of cell cycles and the apoptotic change of ultrastructure in BEL7402/5-Fu cells. Secondly, curcumin reversed the multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by cucurbitacin B in the optimized concentration of 67.9μM (25μg/ml). The mechanism was associated with the P-gp reduction, ΔΨm collapse and mitochondrial colocalization in BEL7402/5-Fu cells. The findings were consistent with the changes of the body weight and tumor volume, caspase3 activation and ATP down-regulation in vivo. In conclusion, cucurbitacin B in the combination with curcumin could serve as a novel, promising approach for human hepatoma.

  18. Diosmetin induces apoptosis by upregulating p53 via the TGF-β signal pathway in HepG2 hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, BIN; SHI, YUFENG; PENG, WENDING; ZHANG, QINGYU; LIU, JIE; CHEN, NIANPING; ZHU, RUNZHI

    2016-01-01

    Diosmetin (Dio) is a major active component of flavonoid compounds. A previous study demonstrated that Dio exhibited anticancer activity and induced apoptosis in HepG2 human hepatoma cells via cytochrome P450, family 1-catalyzed metabolism. The present study observed that cell proliferation of HepG2 cells was inhibited by Dio treatment and tumor protein p53 was significantly increased following Dio treatment. Following addition of recombinant transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) protein to Dio-treated HepG2 cells, cell growth inhibition and cell apoptosis was partially reversed. These findings suggest a novel function for the TGF-β/TGF-β receptor signaling pathway and that it may be a key target of Dio-induced cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:27176768

  19. Comparison of the metabolic activation of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene by a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and low passage hamster embryo cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovanni, J.; Singer, J.M.; Diamond, L.

    1984-07-01

    Under similar conditions of cell-mediated mutagenesis, secondary hamster embryo (HE) cells were much more effective than were cells of the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 , in activating 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to metabolites mutagenic for V79 Chinese hamster cells. At the same dose of DMBA (0.1 microgram/ml), mutation induction (6-thioguanine resistance) with HE cells as activators was about ten times greater than with HepG2 cells as activators. Both cell types rapidly metabolized DMBA. HepG2 cells converted DMBA primarily to water-soluble derivatives that were neither sulfates nor glucuronides, whereas HE cells converted DMBA to a variety of organic solvent-soluble and water-soluble metabolites. The major water-soluble metabolites produced by HE cells were phenol-glucuronides. In HepG2 cells, binding of DMBA to DNA reached a maximum value of 12.1 pmol/mg DNA at 12 hr, whereas in HE cells, binding reached a peak value of 180.7 pmol/mg DNA at 24 hr. Despite this difference in total binding between the two cell types, the pattern of DNA adducts formed was nearly identical. The results indicate that the marked difference in the ability of HepG2 and HE cells to activate DMBA in cell-mediated mutation assays is not due to a lower metabolizing capacity of HepG2 cells for DMBA. Rather, significant differences in the metabolic pathways used by the two cell types lead to a marked reduction in DNA-binding metabolites in one cell type (HepG2) compared to the other (HE).

  20. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the "stemness" markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  1. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the “stemness” markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  2. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gen; Shi, Lixin; Selke, Matthias; Wang, Xuemei

    2011-06-01

    Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs) have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR) on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments.

  3. Hepatitis B virus efficiently infects non-adherent hepatoma cells via human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Atsuya; Yasumoto, Jun; Chen, Wenjia; Okamoto, Toru; Maekawa, Shinya; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Ryo, Akihide; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been reported as a functional receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, HBV could not efficiently infect HepG2 cells expressing NTCP (NTCP-HepG2 cells) under adherent monolayer-cell conditions. In this study, NTCP was mainly detected in the basolateral membrane region, but not the apical site, of monolayer NTCP-HepG2 cells. We hypothesized that non-adherent cell conditions of infection would enhance HBV infectivity. Non-adherent NTCP-HepG2 cells were prepared by treatment with trypsin and EDTA, which did not degrade NTCP in the membrane fraction. HBV successfully infected NTCP-HepG2 cells at a viral dose 10 times lower in non-adherent phase than in adherent phase. Efficient infection of non-adherent NTCP-HepG2 cells with blood-borne or cell-culture-derived HBV was observed and was remarkably impaired in the presence of the myristoylated preS1 peptide. HBV could also efficiently infect HepaRG cells under non-adherent cell conditions. We screened several compounds using our culture system and identified proscillaridin A as a potent anti-HBV agent with an IC50 value of 7.2 nM. In conclusion, non-adherent host cell conditions of infection augmented HBV infectivity in an NTCP-dependent manner, thus providing a novel strategy to identify anti-HBV drugs and investigate the mechanism of HBV infection. PMID:26592202

  4. Hepatitis B virus efficiently infects non-adherent hepatoma cells via human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Atsuya; Yasumoto, Jun; Chen, Wenjia; Okamoto, Toru; Maekawa, Shinya; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Ryo, Akihide; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been reported as a functional receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, HBV could not efficiently infect HepG2 cells expressing NTCP (NTCP-HepG2 cells) under adherent monolayer-cell conditions. In this study, NTCP was mainly detected in the basolateral membrane region, but not the apical site, of monolayer NTCP-HepG2 cells. We hypothesized that non-adherent cell conditions of infection would enhance HBV infectivity. Non-adherent NTCP-HepG2 cells were prepared by treatment with trypsin and EDTA, which did not degrade NTCP in the membrane fraction. HBV successfully infected NTCP-HepG2 cells at a viral dose 10 times lower in non-adherent phase than in adherent phase. Efficient infection of non-adherent NTCP-HepG2 cells with blood-borne or cell-culture-derived HBV was observed and was remarkably impaired in the presence of the myristoylated preS1 peptide. HBV could also efficiently infect HepaRG cells under non-adherent cell conditions. We screened several compounds using our culture system and identified proscillaridin A as a potent anti-HBV agent with an IC50 value of 7.2 nM. In conclusion, non-adherent host cell conditions of infection augmented HBV infectivity in an NTCP-dependent manner, thus providing a novel strategy to identify anti-HBV drugs and investigate the mechanism of HBV infection. PMID:26592202

  5. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins protect human hepatoma cells during acute desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shumin; Chakraborty, Nilay; Borcar, Apurva; Menze, Michael A.; Toner, Mehmet; Hand, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Expression of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins is highly correlated with desiccation tolerance in anhydrobiotic animals, selected land plants, and bacteria. Genes encoding two LEA proteins, one localized to the cytoplasm/nucleus (AfrLEA2) and one targeted to mitochondria (AfrLEA3m), were stably transfected into human HepG2 cells. A trehalose transporter was used for intracellular loading of this disaccharide. Cells were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to low water content (<0.12 g H2O/g dry weight) with a recently developed spin-drying technique. Immediately on rehydration, control cells without LEA proteins or trehalose exhibited 0% membrane integrity, compared with 98% in cells loaded with trehalose and expressing AfrLEA2 or AfrLEA3m; surprisingly, AfrLEA3m without trehalose conferred 94% protection. Cell proliferation across 7 d showed an 18-fold increase for cells dried with AfrLEA3m and trehalose, compared with 27-fold for nondried controls. LEA proteins dramatically enhance desiccation tolerance in mammalian cells and offer the opportunity for engineering biostability in the dried state. PMID:23185012

  6. Spongy polyethersulfone membrane for hepatocyte cultivation: studies on human hepatoma C3A cells.

    PubMed

    Kinasiewicz, Andrzej; Smietanka, Anna; Dudziński, Konrad; Chwojnowski, Andrzej; Gajkowska, Barbara; Weryński, Andrzej

    2008-09-01

    There are different types of membranes used for hepatocyte cultivation. In our studies, spongy polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were examined as a support for hepatic cell cultivation in vitro. The extended surface of the membranes allows to introduce a high cell number especially in three-dimensional gel structure. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that C3A cells used in our experiments grew well on PES membranes forming microvilli characteristic for normal hepatocytes. Analysis of cell viability proved that spongy PES membrane is well tolerated by J774 macrophages and did not stimulate nitric oxide synthesis. Bile canalicular structures were observed in fluorescence microscopy after F-actin staining with tetramethyl rhodamine iso-thiocyanate (TRITC)-phalloidin. The C3A cells showed high affinity to the PES membranes and adhered to almost 90% during the initial 24 h of incubation. Albumin production increased during static culture from the value of 805.2 +/- 284.4 (ng/24 h/initial 10(6) cells) during the first days, to 2017.6 +/- 505.9 (ng/24 h/initial 10(6) cells) after 10 days of culture. In conclusion, the spongy PES membranes can be used as scaffold for hepatocyte cultivation, especially for the creation of three-dimensional environments.

  7. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in estrogen receptor-negative hepatoma and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, E F; Koch, D C; Bisson, W H; Jang, H S; Kolluri, S K

    2014-01-01

    Identification of new molecular targets for the treatment of breast cancer is an important clinical goal, especially for triple-negative breast cancer, which is refractory to existing targeted treatments. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known primarily as the mediator of dioxin toxicity. However, the AhR can also inhibit cellular proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner and act as a tumor suppressor in mice, and thus may be a potential anticancer target. To investigate the AhR as an anticancer target, we conducted a small molecule screen to discover novel AhR ligands with anticancer properties. We identified raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator currently used in the clinic for prevention of ER-positive breast cancer and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, as an AhR activator. Raloxifene directly bound the AhR and induced apoptosis in ER-negative mouse and human hepatoma cells in an AhR-dependent manner, indicating that the AhR is a molecular target of raloxifene and mediates raloxifene-induced apoptosis in the absence of ER. Raloxifene selectively induced apoptosis of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with non-transformed mammary epithelial cells via the AhR. Combined with recent data showing that raloxifene inhibits triple-negative breast cancer xenografts in vivo (Int J Oncol. 43(3):785-92, 2013), our results support the possibility of repurposing of raloxifene as an AhR-targeted therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer patients. To this end, we also evaluated the role of AhR expression on survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. We found that higher expression of the AhR is significantly associated with increased overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival in both hormone-dependent (ER-positive) and hormone-independent (ER and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative) breast cancers. Together, our data strongly support the possibility of using the Ah

  8. Identification of sialylated glycoproteins in Doxorubicin-treated hepatoma cells with glycoproteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kanako; Serada, Satoshi; Takamatsu, Shinji; Terao, Naoko; Takeishi, Shunsaku; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Naka, Tetsuji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2014-11-01

    Sialylation is one of the most important types of glycosylation involved in carcinogenesis and establishment of cancer stemness. We previously showed that increased sialylation is a characteristic glycan change in cancer stem cells (CSCs) from hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the identities of glycoproteins targeted for sialylation remain unknown. In the present study, we identified glycoproteins targeted for sialylation in doxorubicin (DXR)-treated hepatocarcinoma cell line, Huh7, using glycoproteomic analyses. Since CSCs constitute a small subset of cells within carcinoma cell lines, it is difficult to identify sialylated proteins using general glycoproteomic strategies. It is known that treatment with anticancer drug can condense CSCs, we used DXR to concentrate CSCs. In DXR-treated Huh7 cells, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis identified 17 sialylated glycoproteins. Most of the identified glycoproteins were cancer-associated proteins. Furthermore, two proteins of approximately 70 kDa were detected using Sambucus sieboldoana agglutinin (SSA) blot analysis and identified as beta-galactosidase and alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (fetuin-A) by SSA precipitation followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Sialylation levels of fetuin-A were increased in DXR-treated Huh7 cell lysates. These changes in sialylation of glycoproteins might be involved in the establishment of cancer stemness.

  9. Comparison of in vitro toxicity of silver ions and silver nanoparticles on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vrček, Ivana Vinković; Žuntar, Irena; Petlevski, Roberta; Pavičić, Ivan; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Ćurlin, Marija; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Scientific information on the potential harmful effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on human health severely lags behind their exponentially growing applications in consumer products. In assessing the toxic risk of AgNP usage, liver, as a detoxifying organ, is particularly important. The aim of this study was to explore the toxicity mechanisms of nano and ionic forms of silver on human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells. The results showed that silver ions and citrate-coated AgNPs reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of silver ions and citrate-coated AgNPs were 0.5 and 50 mg L(-1) , respectively. The LDH leakage and inhibition of albumin synthesis, along with decreased ALT activity, indicated that treatment with either AgNP or Ag ions resulted in membrane damage and reduced the cell function of human liver cells. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers demonstrating depletion of GSH, increased ROS production, and increased SOD activity, indicated that oxidative stress might contribute to the toxicity effects of nano and ionic forms of silver. The observed toxic effect of AgNP on HepG2 cells was substantially weaker than that caused by ionic silver, while the uptake of nano and ionic forms of silver by HepG2 cells was nearly the same. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 679-692, 2016. PMID:25448069

  10. Hormesis Effects of Silver Nanoparticles at Non-Cytotoxic Doses to Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Zhi-Hao; Li, Ming; Feng, Yi-Xing; Shi, Jia-Chen; Zhang, Jing; Shao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted considerable attentions due to their unique properties and diverse applications. Although it has been reported that AgNPs have acute toxic effects on a variety of cultured mammalian cells and animal models, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the associated risk of AgNPs to human health at non-cytotoxic doses. In this paper, HepG2 cells were exposed to 10 nm and 100 nm AgNPs under non-cytotoxic conditions, and cell viability was assessed. At low doses, AgNPs displayed “hormesis” effects by accelerating cell proliferation. Further studies indicated that the activation states of MAPKs were differentially regulated in this process. Specifically, by increasing the expression of downstream genes, p38 MAPK played a central role in non-cytotoxic AgNP-induced hormesis. Moreover, the treatment of HepG2 cells with silver ions (Ag+) at the same dose levels induced distinct biological effects, suggesting that different intrinsic properties exist for AgNPs and Ag+. PMID:25033410

  11. Potentiation of resveratrol-induced apoptosis by matrine in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiuyuan; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Xinxin; Zhang, Xumeng; He, Qiyang

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has received considerable attention due to its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. In the present study, we first evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Resveratrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induction of p53 expression. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that resveratrol arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 and S phase. We further focused on the combination of matrine, a natural component extracted from the traditional Chinese medical herb Sophora flavescens Ait., as a mechanism to potentiate the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells. Both MTT and colony formation assay results indicated that the combined treatment of resveratrol and matrine exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect. In addition, resveratrol-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced by matrine, which could be attributed to activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, downregulation of survivin, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm). Our findings suggest that the combination treatment of resveratrol and matrine is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer; it also provides new insights into the mechanisms of combined therapy.

  12. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5’,6,6’ tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  13. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber extracts against human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-01-01

    Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume belonging to the family of Araceae, is a perennial herb commonly known as elephant foot yam. Its tuber has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases, abdominal tumors, piles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of Amorphophallus campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) namely petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MeF) on human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and 5,5',6,6' tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME were found to produce considerable cytotoxicity in human liver cancer cell line, PLC/PRF/5. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were substantiated by DAPI, annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MeF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect were observed in PEF treated cells. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25657798

  14. Evaluation of potential reference genes for qRT-PCR studies in human hepatoma cell lines treated with TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang; Wang, Xiang; Zhong, Ming; Liu, Hailing; He, Qiongqiong; Yang, Xiaojing; Wen, Jifang; Feng, Deyun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the expression of eight candidate reference genes, B2M, ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, UBC, and YWHAZ, was examined to identify optimal reference genes by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in two human hepatoma cell lines, BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721, treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) for different time periods. The expression stability of these genes was analyzed by three independent algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results showed that TBP was the most stably expressed gene in BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721 cell lines under current experimental conditions, and that the optimal set of reference genes required for accurate normalization was TBP and HMBS, based on the pairwise variation value determined with geNorm. UBC and ACTB were ranked as the least stable genes by same algorithms. Our findings provide evidence that using TBP alone or in combination with HMBS as endogenous controls could be a reliable method for normalizing qRT-PCR data in human hepatoma cell lines treated with TNF-α.

  15. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    SciTech Connect

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  16. Radiosensitivity of hepatoma cell lines and human normal liver cell lines exposed in vitro to carbon ions and argon ions at the HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xigang; Li, Wenjian; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Guo, Chuanling; Lu, Dong; Yang, Jianshe

    2009-05-01

    Human hepatoma (SMMC-7721) and normal liver (L02) cells were irradiated with γ-rays, 12C 6+ and 36Ar 18+ ion beams at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). By using the Calyculin-A induced premature chromosome condensation technique, chromatid-type breaks and isochromatid-type breaks were scored separately. Tumor cells irradiated with heavy ions produced a majority of isochromatid break, while chromatid breaks were dominant when cells were exposed to γ-rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for irradiation-induced chromatid breaks were 3.6 for L02 and 3.5 for SMMC-7721 cell lines at the LET peak of 96 keVμm -112C 6+ ions, and 2.9 for both of the two cell lines of 512 keVμm -136Ar 18+ ions. It suggested that the RBE of isochromatid-type breaks was pretty high when high-LET radiations were induced. Thus we concluded that the high production of isochromatid-type breaks, induced by the densely ionizing track structure, could be regarded as a signature of high-LET radiation exposure.

  17. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Stanley K.L.; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yap, Yann-Wan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Ee-Chee

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  18. Podophyllum hexandrum fraction (REC-2006) shows higher radioprotective efficacy in the p53-carrying hepatoma cell line: a role of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2009-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Podophyllum hexandrum fraction (REC-2006) in hepatoma cell lines having different p53 statuses. Higher radioresistance was observed in the HepG2 (p53(++)) cell line in comparison to the Hep3B (p53(-)) cell line, indicating a plausible role of p53 in radioresistance. REC-2006 exhibited nearly twice the survival in p53-expressing HepG2 cells compared with p53-negative Hep3B cells. REC-2006 treatment alone induced p53 expression as compared with untreated controls. However, REC-2006 reduced p53 expression when treated 2 hours before irradiation as compared with the irradiated HepG2 controls, indicating that REC-2006 modulates the expression of p53 to mitigate its apoptotic effect. Induction of p21 in the REC-2006 + radiation treatment group downregulated the expression of cyclin E and CDK2, leading to a delay in the G1 phase of HepG2 cells, which provided time for DNA repair or related processes. However, no significant difference in CDC2 expression in both cell lines suggested that G2 phase arrest might not be the only responsible factor for REC-2006-mediated radioprotection. Significant induction of PCNA and GADD45 expression in HepG2 cells suggested that REC-2006 increased the percentage survival of HepG2 cells by increasing the span of time as well as efficacy for repair processes. In conclusion, REC-2006 modulated the expression of p53 and thereby promoted cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, encouraging cell proliferation and DNA repair and thus providing significantly higher protection against acute gamma-radiation in the HepG2 cell line.

  19. Induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 in human hepatoma HepG2 and lung carcinoma NCI-H322 cells by motorcycle exhaust particulate.

    PubMed

    Ueng, T H; Hu, S H; Chen, R M; Wang, H W; Kuo, M L

    2000-05-26

    The effects of motorcycle exhaust particulate (MEP) on human cytochrome P-450 (P-450)-dependent monooxygenases were determined using human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H322 treated with organic extracts of MEP from a two-stroke engine. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of MEP extract revealed the presence of carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, chrysene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene in the chemical mixture. Treatment with MEP extract produced concentration- and time-dependent increases of monooxygenase activity in HepG2 cells. Treatment of the cells with 100 microg/ ml MEP extract for 24 h markedly increased benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation, 7-ethoxycoumarin, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activities in microsomes. Immunoblot analysis of microsomal proteins using mouse monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 against P-450 1A1 revealed that MEP extract induced a P-450-immunorelated protein in the hepatoma cells. RNA blot analysis of cellular total RNA using a human P-450 1A1 3'-end cDNA probe showed that MEP extract increased the level of a hybridizable P-450 mRNA. These P-450 1A1 inductive effects of MEP extract were similar to those from treatment with 10 microM benzo[a]pyrene or 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) in HepG2 cells. Treatment of lung carcinoma NCI-H322 cells with 100 microg/ml MEP extract, 10 microM benzo[a]pyrene, or 3-MC resulted in induction of monooxygenase activity, protein, and mRNA of P-450 1A1, similar to the induction observed with the hepatoma cells. The present study demonstrates that MEP extract has the ability to induce human hepatic and pulmonary P-450 1A1 in the liver- and lung-derived cell lines, and the induction involves a pretranslational mechanism. Induction of the human hepatic and pulmonary P-450 1A1 in vitro may provide important information in the assessment of MEP metabolism and toxicity in humans.

  20. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application.

  1. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application. PMID:27536098

  2. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application. PMID:27536098

  3. Induction of the anticarcinogenic marker enzyme, quinone reductase, in murine hepatoma cells in vitro by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Uda, Y; Price, K R; Williamson, G; Rhodes, M J

    1997-12-01

    Some flavonoids induce phase II enzymes both in vivo and in vitro. We have determined the structural requirements for this activity by examining the ability of naturally-occurring flavonoids to induce the phase II enzyme, quinone reductase (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.99.2), in murine Hepalclc7 cells. Hydroxylation of the B ring is not essential for induction, since galangin and kaempferol (with 0 and 1 hydroxyl in the B ring, respectively) are better inducers than quercetin (2 B ring hydroxyls). A 2,3 double bond in the C ring is essential for induction, since taxifolin, which has the same substitution pattern as quercetin but lacks the 2,3 double bond, is not an inducer. This is supported by catechin and epicatechin, which do not possess the 2,3 double bond and are also not inducers. A 3-hydroxyl group increases the activity but is not essential for induction, since apigenin is an inducer but kaempferol (which has the same structure as apigenin but possesses a 3-hydroxyl group) is more effective. The data show that, of the flavonoids, the flavonols are the most effective inducers of quinone reductase activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells (kaempferol approximately galangin > quercetin > myricetin approximately apigenin (a flavone)) and that flavanols and flavans are ineffective.

  4. Effects of fucoidan on proliferation, AMP-activated protein kinase, and downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-associated molecules in poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cells.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-05-01

    Survival rates are low in patients with poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, has anticancer activity; however, the effects of fucoidan on poorly differentiated HCC remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoidan on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a proliferation regulator, and its downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-related molecules in a poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cell line. HLF cells were treated with fucoidan (10, 50, or 100 µg/ml; n=4) or phosphate buffered saline (control; n=4) for 96 h. Proliferation was evaluated by counting cells every 24 h. AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP-citrate lyase, p53, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, and CDK6 expression and/or phosphorylation were examined by immunoblotting 24 h after treatment with 100 µg/ml fucoidan. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter 48 h after treatment. Treatment with 50 or 100 µg/ml fucoidan significantly and dose- and time-dependently suppressed HLF cell proliferation (P<0.0001). Fucoidan induced AMPK phosphorylation on Ser172 24 h after treatment. Although no differences were seen in expression and phosphorylation levels of TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, ATP-citrate lyase, and p53 between the control and fucoidan-treated HLF cells, fucoidan induced ACC phosphorylation on Ser79. Moreover, fucoidan decreased cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression 24 h after treatment. Furthermore, HLF cells were arrested in the G1/S phase 48 h after fucoidan treatment. We demonstrated that fucoidan suppressed HLF cell proliferation with AMPK phosphorylation. We showed that fucoidan phosphorylated ACC and downregulated cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression. Our findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits proliferation through AMPK-associated suppression of fatty acid synthesis and G1/S transition in HLF cells.

  5. Activated AMPK inhibits PPAR-{alpha} and PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sozio, Margaret S; Lu, Changyue; Zeng, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) are critical regulators of short-term and long-term fatty acid oxidation, respectively. We examined whether the activities of these molecules were coordinately regulated. H4IIEC3 cells were transfected with PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression plasmids and a peroxisome-proliferator-response element (PPRE) luciferase reporter plasmid. The cells were treated with PPAR agonists (WY-14,643 and rosiglitazone), AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) and metformin, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Both AICAR and metformin decreased basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity; compound C increased agonist-stimulated reporter activity and partially reversed the effect of the AMPK activators. Similar effects on PPAR-γ were seen, with both AICAR and metformin inhibiting PPRE reporter activity. Compound C increased basal PPAR-γ activity and rosiglitazone-stimulated activity. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α), another nuclear receptor that dimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), was largely unaffected by the AMPK activators. Compound C modestly increased AM580 (an RAR agonist)-stimulated activity. The AMPK activators did not affect PPAR-α binding to DNA, and there was no consistent correlation between effects of the AMPK activators and inhibitor on PPAR and the nuclear localization of AMPK-α subunits. Expression of either a constitutively active or dominant negative AMPK-α inhibited basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity and basal and rosiglitazone-stimulated PPAR-γ activity. We concluded that the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin inhibited transcriptional activities of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, whereas inhibition of AMPK with compound C activated both PPARs. The effects of AMPK do not appear to be mediated through effects on RXR or on PPAR/RXR binding to DNA. These effects are independent of kinase activity and instead appear to

  6. HCV Core Protein Uses Multiple Mechanisms to Induce Oxidative Stress in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Olga A.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Karpenko, Inna L.; Alekseeva, Ekaterina; Sominskaya, Irina; Makarov, Alexander A.; Bartosch, Birke; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGFβ1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37–191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α. The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein. PMID:26035647

  7. HCV core protein uses multiple mechanisms to induce oxidative stress in human hepatoma Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander V; Smirnova, Olga A; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Ivanova, Olga N; Karpenko, Inna L; Alekseeva, Ekaterina; Sominskaya, Irina; Makarov, Alexander A; Bartosch, Birke; Kochetkov, Sergey N; Isaguliants, Maria G

    2015-05-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGF\\(\\upbeta\\)1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37-191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1\\(\\upalpha\\). The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein.

  8. HSV-1 Cgal+ Infection Promotes Quaking RNA Binding Protein Production and Induces Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Shuttling of Quaking I-5 Isoform in Human Hepatoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quiles, Virginia; Mora, María I.; Segura, Victor; Greco, Anna; Epstein, Alberto L.; Foschini, Maria Giovanna; Dayon, Loïc; Sanchez, Jean-Charles; Prieto, Jesús; Corrales, Fernando J.; Santamaría, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Herpesvirus type 1 (HSV-1) based oncolytic vectors arise as a promising therapeutic alternative for neoplastic diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms mediating the host cell response to such treatments are not completely known. It is well established that HSV-1 infection induces functional and structural alterations in the nucleus of the host cell. In the present work, we have used gel-based and shotgun proteomic strategies to elucidate the signaling pathways impaired in the nucleus of human hepatoma cells (Huh7) upon HSV-1 Cgal+ infection. Both approaches allowed the identification of differential proteins suggesting impairment of cell functions involved in many aspects of host-virus interaction such as transcription regulation, mRNA processing, and mRNA splicing. Based on our proteomic data and additional functional studies, cellular protein quaking content (QKI) increases 4 hours postinfection (hpi), when viral immediate-early genes such as ICP4 and ICP27 could be also detected. Depletion of QKI expression by small interfering RNA results in reduction of viral immediate-early protein levels, subsequent decrease in early and late viral protein content, and a reduction in the viral yield indicating that QKI directly interferes with viral replication. In particular, HSV-1 Cgal+ induces a transient increase in quaking I-5 isoform (QKI-5) levels, in parallel with an enhancement of p27Kip1 protein content. Moreover, immunofluorescence microscopy showed an early nuclear redistribution of QKI-5, shuttling from the nucleus to the cytosol and colocalizing with nectin-1 in cell to cell contact regions at 16–24 hpi. This evidence sheds new light on mechanisms mediating hepatoma cell response to HSV-1 vectors highlighting QKI as a central molecular mediator. PMID:21467216

  9. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability.

    PubMed

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H(2)O(2) across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p<0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H(2)O(2) release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p<0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+120%, p<0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (-80%, p<0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. PMID:22910329

  10. Hepatitis B virus X protein up-regulates C4b-binding protein α through activating transcription factor Sp1 in protection of hepatoma cells from complement attack

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guoxing; Li, Jiong; Zheng, Minying; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yunxia; Zhang, Shuqin; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Weiying; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously showed that HBx protected hepatoma cells from complement attack by activation of CD59. Moreover, in this study we found that HBx protected hepatoma cells from complement attack by activation of C4b-binding protein α (C4BPα), a potent inhibitor of complement system. We observed that HBx were positively correlated with those of C4BPα in clinical HCC tissues. Mechanistically, HBx activated the promoter core region of C4BPα, located at −1199/−803nt, through binding to transcription factor Sp1. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that HBx was able to bind to the promoter of C4BPα, which could be blocked by Sp1 silencing. Functionally, knockdown of C4BPα obviously increased the deposition of C5b-9, a complex of complement membrane attack, and remarkably abolished the HBx-induced resistance of hepatoma cells from complement attack in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that HBx up-regulates C4BPα through activating transcription factor Sp1 in protection of liver cancer cells from complement attack. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which HBx enhances protection of hepatoma cells from complement attack. PMID:27050367

  11. Cloning and characterization of a highly reiterated 5.8-kilobase pair nucleolar EcoRI DNA fragment found in Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, D L; Busch, H; Rothblum, L I

    1981-02-17

    The DNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells was found to contain a 3.6-megadalton EcoRI restriction fragment, referred to as EcoRI fragment A (Parker et al., 1979). C0t analyses demonstrated an enrichment of fragment A sequences in Novikoff hepatoma genome relative to normal rat liver DNA. This fragment was cloned in lambda gtWES to determine its molecular structure and sequence organization. The DNA from a positive clone was labeled by nick translation and hybridized to a Southern blot of EcoRI digested Novikoff DNA. Distinct hybrids formed with the region corresponding to fragment A. The greater degree of hybridization to the nucleolar fraction suggested a nucleolar enrichment of fragment A. Fragment A has a PstI site approximately 300 base pairs from one terminus which was used to generate mono-5'-32P-labeled fragments. The larger PStI subfragment, 5500 base pairs, labeled at a single terminus, was used to evolve a restriction enzyme map. The 300 base pair fragment was partially sequenced, revealing the presence of a repetitive sequence "island", TT(GTCT)8(GAAT)5G-. C0t analysis, utilizing the purified clone as a probe, confirmed the enrichment of fragment A sequences in the tumor relative to the normal rat liver control.

  12. Elevation of Highly Up-regulated in Liver Cancer (HULC) by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Promotes Hepatoma Cell Proliferation via Down-regulating p18*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yumei; Kong, Guangyao; You, Xiaona; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yuen; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in human cancers. It has been reported that lncRNA highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) is dramatically up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) contributes importantly to the development of HCC. However, the function of HULC in HCC mediated by HBx remains unclear. Here, we report that HULC is involved in HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. We found that the expression levels of HULC were positively correlated with those of HBx in clinical HCC tissues. Moreover, we revealed that HBx up-regulated HULC in human immortalized normal liver L-O2 cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that HBx activated the HULC promoter via cAMP-responsive element-binding protein. We further demonstrated that HULC promoted cell proliferation by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine, colony formation assay, and tumorigenicity assay. Next, we hypothesized that HULC might function through regulating a tumor suppressor gene p18 located near HULC in the same chromosome. We found that the mRNA levels of p18 were inversely correlated with those of HULC in the above clinical HCC specimens. Then, we validated that HULC down-regulated p18, which was involved in the HULC-enhanced cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of HULC could abolish the HBx-enhanced cell proliferation through up-regulating p18. Thus, we conclude that the up-regulated HULC by HBx promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through suppressing p18. This finding provides new insight into the roles of lncRNAs in HBx-related hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:22685290

  13. Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation: Dominant role of PI-3'K/Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Alexia, Catherine; Fourmatgeat, Pascal; Delautier, Daniele; Groyer, Andre . E-mail: groyer@bichat.inserm.fr

    2006-04-15

    Although hepatocytes are the primary source of endocrine IGF-I and -II in mammals, their autocrine/paracrine role in the dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during hepatocarcinogenesis and in hepatocarcinomas (HCC) remains to be elucidated. Indeed, IGF-II and type-I IGF receptors are overexpressed in HCC cells, and IGF-I is synthesized in adjacent non-tumoral liver tissue. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of type-I IGF receptor signaling on H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation, as estimated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. IGF-I stimulated the rate of DNA synthesis of serum-deprived H{sub 4}II cells, stimulation being maximal 3 h after the onset of IGF-I treatment and remaining elevated until at least 6 h. The IGF-I-induced increase in DNA replication was abolished by LY294002 and only partially inhibited by PD98059, suggesting that phosphoinositol-3' kinase (PI-3'K) and to a lesser extent MEK/Erk signaling were involved. Furthermore, the 3- to 19-fold activation of the Erks in the presence of LY294002 suggested a down-regulation of the MEK/Erk cascade by PI-3'K signaling. Finally, the effect of IGF-I on DNA replication was almost completely abolished in clones of H{sub 4}II cells expressing a dominant-negative form of Akt but was unaltered by rapamycin treatment of wild-type H{sub 4}II cells. Altogether, these data support the notion that the stimulation of H{sub 4}II rat hepatoma cell proliferation by IGF-I is especially dependent on Akt activation but independent on the Akt/mTOR signal0009i.

  14. Measuring and modeling of binary mixture effects of pharmaceuticals and nickel on cell viability/cytotoxicity in the human hepatoma derived cell line HepG2

    SciTech Connect

    Rudzok, S.; Schlink, U.; Herbarth, O.; Bauer, M.

    2010-05-01

    The interaction of drugs and non-therapeutic xenobiotics constitutes a central role in human health risk assessment. Still, available data are rare. Two different models have been established to predict mixture toxicity from single dose data, namely, the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. However, chemicals can also act synergistic or antagonistic or in dose level deviation, or in a dose ratio dependent deviation. In the present study we used the MIXTOX model (EU project ENV4-CT97-0507), which incorporates these algorithms, to assess effects of the binary mixtures in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. These cells possess a liver-like enzyme pattern and a variety of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (phases I and II). We tested binary mixtures of the metal nickel, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, and the antibiotic agent irgasan and compared the experimental data to the mathematical models. Cell viability was determined by three different methods the MTT-, AlamarBlue (registered) and NRU assay. The compounds were tested separately and in combinations. We could show that the metal nickel is the dominant component in the mixture, affecting an antagonism at low-dose levels and a synergism at high-dose levels in combination with diclofenac or irgasan, when using the NRU and the AlamarBlue assay. The dose-response surface of irgasan and diclofenac indicated a concentration addition. The experimental data could be described by the algorithms with a regression of up to 90%, revealing the HepG2 cell line and the MIXTOX model as valuable tool for risk assessment of binary mixtures for cytotoxic endpoints. However the model failed to predict a specific mode of action, the CYP1A1 enzyme activity.

  15. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miccadei, Stefania; Di Venere, Donato; Cardinali, Angela; Romano, Ferdinando; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Fraioli, Rocco; Mobarhan, Sohrab; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cultured rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of polyphenolic extracts from the edible part of artichoke (AE). The hepatocytes were exposed to H2O2generated in situ by glucose oxidase and were treated with either AE, or pure chlorogenic acid (ChA) or with the well known antioxidant, N, N'-diphenyl-p-phenilenediamine (DPPD). Addition of glucose oxidase to the culture medium caused depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cultures, as a lipid peroxidation indicator, and cell death. These results demonstrated that AE protected cells from the oxidative stress caused by glucose oxidase, comparable to DPPD. Furthermore, AE, as well as ChA, prevented the loss of total GSH and the accumulation of MDA. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with AE reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, however, ChA had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, AE rather than ChA induced apoptosis, measured by flow cytometric analysis of annexin and by activation of caspase-3, in HepG2 cells. Our findings indicate that AE had a marked antioxidative potential that protects hepatocytes from an oxidative stress. Furthermore, AE reduced cell viability and had an apoptotic activity on a human liver cancer cell line.

  16. Antiproliferative activity of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma (Hep3B), colon (HT-29) cancer cells and proteases, tyrosinase, β-lactamase enzyme inhibition studies.

    PubMed

    Cömert Önder, Ferah; Ay, Mehmet; Aydoğan Türkoğlu, Sümeyye; Tura Köçkar, Feray; Çelik, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the antiproliferation of Humulus lupulus extracts on human hepatoma carcinoma (Hep3B) and human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cell lines along with enzyme inhibitory effects of the crude extracts. Potential cell cytotoxicity of six different H. lupulus extracts were assayed on various cancer cells using MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h intervals. Methanol-1 extract has inhibited the cell proliferation with doses of 0.6-1 mg/mL in a time dependent (48 and 72 hours) manner in Hep3B cells with 70% inhibition, while inhibitory effect was not seen in colon cancer cells. Acetone extract has increased the cell proliferation at low doses of 0.1 mg/mL for 72 h in Hep3B cells and 0.1-0.2 mg/mL for 48 and 72 h in HT29 cells. The inhibitory effects of the extracts were compared by relative maximum activity values (V(max)) using proteases such as α-chymotrypsin, trypsin and papain, tyrosinase and β-lactamase (penicillinase).

  17. Drug-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells is mediated by the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) receptor/ligand system and involves activation of wild-type p53.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, M; Strand, S; Hug, H; Heinemann, E M; Walczak, H; Hofmann, W J; Stremmel, W; Krammer, P H; Galle, P R

    1997-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs are cytotoxic by induction of apoptosis in drug-sensitive cells. We investigated the mechanism of bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells. At concentrations present in the sera of patients during therapy, bleomycin induced transient accumulation of nuclear wild-type (wt) p53 and upregulated expression of cell surface CD95 (APO-1/Fas) receptor in hepatoma cells carrying wt p53 (HepG2). Bleomycin did not increase CD95 in hepatoma cells with mutated p53 (Huh7) or in hepatoma cells which were p53-/- (Hep3B). In addition, sensitivity towards CD95-mediated apoptosis was also increased in wt p53 positive HepG2 cells. Microinjection of wt p53 cDNA into HepG2 cells had the same effect. In contrast, bleomycin did not enhance susceptibility towards CD95-mediated apoptosis in Huh7 and in Hep3B cells. Furthermore, bleomycin treatment of HepG2 cells increased CD95 ligand (CD95L) mRNA expression. Most notably, bleomycin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells was almost completely inhibited by antibodies which interfere with CD95 receptor/ligand interaction. These data suggest that apoptosis induced by bleomycin is mediated, at least in part, by p53-dependent stimulation of the CD95 receptor/ligand system. The same applies to other anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin and methotrexate. These data may have major consequences for drug treatment of cancer and the explanation of drug sensitivity and resistance. PMID:9022073

  18. Hepatitis C virus E2 protein promotes human hepatoma cell proliferation through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via cellular receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lanjuan; Wang Lu; Ren Hao; Cao Jie; Li Li; Ke Jinshan; Qi Zhongtian . E-mail: qizt53@hotmail.com

    2005-04-15

    Dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by various viruses has been shown to be responsible for viral pathogenicity. The molecular mechanism by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused human liver diseases has been investigated on the basis of abnormal intracellular signal events. Current data are very limited involved in transmembrane signal transduction triggered by HCV E2 protein. Here we explored regulation of the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway by E2 expressed in Chinese hamster oval cells. In human hepatoma Huh-7 cells, E2 specifically activated the MAPK/ERK pathway including downstream transcription factor ATF-2 and greatly promoted cell proliferation. CD81 and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on the cell surface mediated binding of E2 to Huh-7 cells. The MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation driven by E2 were suppressed by blockage of CD81 as well as LDLR. Furthermore, pretreatment with an upstream kinase MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 also impaired the MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation induced by E2. Our results suggest that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway triggered by HCV E2 via its receptors maintains survival and growth of target cells.

  19. Comparison of human hepatoma HepaRG cells with human and rat hepatocytes in uptake transport assays in order to predict a risk of drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Monika; Veres, Zsuzsa; Baranyai, Zsolt; Jakab, Ferenc; Jemnitz, Katalin

    2013-01-01

    Human hepatocytes are the gold standard for toxicological studies but they have several drawbacks, like scarce availability, high inter-individual variability, a short lifetime, which limits their applicability. The aim of our investigations was to determine, whether HepaRG cells could replace human hepatocytes in uptake experiments for toxicity studies. HepaRG is a hepatoma cell line with most hepatic functions, including a considerable expression of uptake transporters in contrast to other hepatic immortalized cell lines. We compared the effect of cholestatic drugs (bosentan, cyclosporinA, troglitazone,) and bromosulfophthalein on the uptake of taurocholate and estrone-3-sulfate in human and rat hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. The substrate uptake was significantly slower in HepaRG cells than in human hepatocytes, still, in the presence of drugs we observed a concentration dependent decrease in uptake. In all cell types, the culture time had a significant impact not only on the uptake process but on the inhibitory effect of drugs too. The most significant drug effect was measured at 4 h after seeding. Our report is among the first concerning interactions of the uptake transporters in the HepaRG, at the functional level. Results of the present study clearly show that concerning the inhibition of taurocholate uptake by cholestatic drugs, HepaRG cells are closer to human hepatocytes than rat hepatocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HepaRG cells may provide a suitable tool for hepatic uptake studies. PMID:23516635

  20. Development and characterization of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp1, ABCB1)-mediated doxorubicin-resistant PLHC-1 hepatoma fish cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja, Roko; Caminada, Daniel; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2008-03-01

    The development of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in mammals is often mediated by the overexpression of the P-glycoprotein1 (Pgp, ABCB1) or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-like ABC transport proteins. A similar phenomenon has also been observed and considered as an important part of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defence system in aquatic organisms. We have recently demonstrated the presence of ABC transporters in the widely used in vitro fish model, the PLHC-1 hepatoma cell line. In the present study we were able to select a highly resistant PLHC-1 sub-clone (PLHC-1/dox) by culturing the wild-type cells in the presence of 1 {mu}M doxorubicin. Using quantitative PCR a 42-fold higher expression of ABCB1 gene was determined in the PLHC-1/dox cells compared to non-selected wild-type cells (PLHC-1/wt). The efflux rates of model fluorescent Pgp1 substrates rhodamine 123 and calcein-AM were 3- to 4-fold higher in the PLHC-1/dox in comparison to the PLHC-1/wt cells. PLHC-1/dox were 45-fold more resistant to doxorubicin cytotoxicity than PLHC-1/wt. Similarly to mammalian cell lines, typical cross-resistance to cytotoxicity of other chemotherapeutics such as daunorubicin, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide and colchicine, occurred. Furthermore, cyclosporine A, verapamil and PSC833, specific inhibitors of Pgp1 transport activity, completely reversed resistance of PLHC-1/dox cells to all tested drugs, resulting in EC50 values similar to the EC50 values found for PLHC-1/wt. In contrast, MK571, a specific inhibitor of MRP type of efflux transporters, sensitized PLHC-1/dox cells, neither to doxorubicin, nor to any other of the chemotherapeutics used in the study. These data demonstrate for the first time that a specific Pgp1-mediated doxorubicin resistance mechanism is present in the PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line. In addition, the fact that low micromolar concentrations of specific inhibitors may completely reverse a highly expressed doxorubicin

  1. Metabolism of cobalamin bound to transcobalamin II and to glycoproteins that bind Cbl in HepG2 cells (human hepatoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.A.; Green-Colligan, P.D.; Begley, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    The binding, internalization, processing and release of labeled cyanocobalamin (CN(57Co)Cbl) bound to human transcobalamin II (TC II) were studied in HepG2 cells, a line of hepatocytes derived from a human hepatoma. The cells bound the TC II-Cbl by specific, high affinity receptors. Within the cell, the CN-Cbl was promptly freed from TC II and the CN-Cbl converted to more active forms including adenosyl Cbl (AdoCbl) and methyl Cbl (MeCbl). Whereas free labeled Cbl was still present at 72 hours after entry, the cells also bound Cbl to an intracellular binder (ICB) presumed to represent the holo enzymes dependent on Cbl. At levels of TC II that saturated the receptors for TC II-Cbl, much of the Cbl entering the cells remained free and was converted to AdoCbl. Under these circumstances the cells released free Cbl, mostly AdoCbl. Human R type binders of Cbl, which are glycoproteins and some having a terminal galactose, were bound by the HepG2 cells. Cbl bound to R binder was internalized and converted to coenzyme forms of Cbl, but the process was much less effective than when the Cbl entered via the TC II receptor system. It was concluded that the receptors for R-Cbl were unlikely to contribute to the physiologic transport of Cbl in man, but may function in some yet unknown way.

  2. Inflammatory Chemokines MIP-1δ and MIP-3α Are Involved in the Migration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induced by Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lejmi, Esma; Perriraz, Nadja; Clément, Sophie; Morel, Philippe; Baertschiger, Reto; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Meier, Raphael; Bosco, Domenico; Bühler, Léo H; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen

    2015-05-15

    In vivo, bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been identified at sites of tumors, suggesting that specific signals mobilize and activate MSC to migrate to areas surrounding tumors. The signals and migratory mechanisms that guide MSC are not well understood. Here, we investigated the migration of human MSC induced by conditioned medium of Huh-7 hepatoma cells (Huh-7 CM). Using a transwell migration system, we showed that human MSC migration was increased in the presence of Huh-7 CM. Using a human cytokine antibody array, we detected increased levels of MIP-1δ and MIP-3α in Huh-7 CM. Recombinant chemokines MIP-1δ and MIP-3α induced MSC migration. Anti-MIP-1δ and anti-MIP-3α antibodies added to Huh-7 CM decreased MSC migration, further suggesting that MIP-1δ and MIP-3α were implicated in the Huh-7 CM-induced MSC migration. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, we observed an absence of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CXCR2 and low expression of CCR1, CCR5, and CCR6 in MSC. Expression of these chemokine receptors was not regulated by Huh-7 CM. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) expression was strongly increased in MSC after incubation with Huh-7 CM, suggesting that MSC migration depends on MMP-1 activity. The signaling pathway MAPK/ERK was activated by Huh-7 CM but its inhibition by PD98059 did not impair Huh-7 CM-induced MSC migration. Further, long-term incubation of MSC with MIP-1δ increased α-smooth muscle actin expression, suggesting its implication in the Huh-7 CM-induced evolvement of MSC into myofibroblasts. In conclusion, we report that two inflammatory cytokines, MIP-1δ and MIP-3α, are able to increase MSC migration in vitro. These cytokines might be responsible for migration and evolvement of MSC into myofibroblasts around tumors.

  3. MiR-520b suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiying; Lu, Zhanping; Gao, Yuen; Ye, Lihong; Song, Tianqiang; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs are able to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. We previously reported that miR-520b was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its deregulation was involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report that miR-520b suppresses cell proliferation in HCC through targeting the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA. Notably, we identified that miR-520b was able to target 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TET1 mRNA by luciferase reporter gene assays. Then, we revealed that miR-520b was able to reduce the expression of TET1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. In terms of function, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation and colony formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-520b expression remarkably inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cells, but TET1 overexpression could rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-520b. Furthermore, anti-miR-520b enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells, whereas silencing of TET1 abolished anti-miR-520b-induced acceleration of cell proliferation. Then, we validated that the expression levels of miR-520b were negatively related to those of TET1 mRNA in clinical HCC tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-520b depresses proliferation of liver cancer cells through targeting 3′UTR of TET1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • TET1 is a novel target gene of miR-520b. • TET1 is upregulated in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b is negatively correlated with TET1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b depresses the proliferation of HCC cells through targeting TET1 mRNA.

  4. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee; Lee, Su-Jae; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  5. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Qiang; Jin, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying

    2011-01-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/μm carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  6. Heterologous protein expression by transimmortalized differentiated liver cell lines derived from transgenic mice (hepatomas/alpha 1 antitrypsin/ONC mouse).

    PubMed

    Dalemans, W; Perraud, F; Le Meur, M; Gerlinger, P; Courtney, M; Pavirani, A

    1990-07-01

    A number of therapeutic plasma proteins are synthesized by human hepatocytes. Since many of these proteins undergo liver-specific post-translational modifications which are required for full biological activity, it may therefore be necessary to develop hepatocyte-based expression systems for their production. Using transgenic mice we have developed a transimmortalisation technique for the isolation of differentiated hepatic cell lines, already engineered to secrete human alpha 1 antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT), a plasma protein which is produced mainly in liver cells. This was achieved by co-expression of the mouse c-myc proto-oncogene and a genomic copy of the human alpha 1 AT gene, both under the control of the human alpha 1 AT promoter. Transgenic mice carrying this construct developed hepatomas producing human alpha 1 AT. Under defined culture conditions, cell lines secreting active alpha 1 AT were derived from these tumours. These cells maintain a differentiated hepatic phenotype and continue to secrete human alpha 1 AT for at least 40 generations. PMID:2257132

  7. Huaier restrains proliferative and invasive potential of human hepatoma SKHEP-1 cells partially through decreased Lamin B1 and elevated NOV

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhongdong; Yang, Ailin; Su, Guozhu; Zhao, Yunfang; Wang, Ying; Chai, Xingyun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide. It is urgently needed to develop potential drugs with good efficacy and low toxicity for HCC treatment. The anti-tumor effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has received increasing attention worldwide. Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier) has been used in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. Clinically, Huaier has satisfactory therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, especially in HCC. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of Huaier remain ill defined. Herein we have demonstrated that Huaier dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SKHEP-1. Importantly, Huaier restrained the metastatic capability of SKHEP-1 cells. Mechanistically, down-regulation of Lamin B1 and up-regulation of Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) were at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effect of Huaier on the proliferative and invasive capacity of SKHEP-1 cells. Our finding provided new insights into mechanisms of anti-HCC effect of Huaier and suggested a new scientific basis for clinical medication. PMID:27503760

  8. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems. PMID:26714183

  9. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  10. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP—induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems. PMID:26714183

  11. Antiproliferation of Hepatoma Cell and Progression of Cell Cycle as Affected by Isoflavone Extracts from Soybean Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Tsai-Hua; Huang, Rwei-Fen S.; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to isolate various isoflavone fractions and extracts from soybean cake by preparative column chromatography and compare them with isoflavone standards with regards to inhibition of HepG2 cancer cell proliferation. Four fractions, including malonylglucoside, glucoside, acetylglucoside and aglycone, and two isoflavone extracts, ISO-1 and ISO-2, were collected for evaluation. MTT test results showed that most treatments were slightly protective against HepG2 cell growth at a low dose of isoflavone (5 and 10 μg/mL). However, at elevated concentration of isoflavone (20–50 μg/mL), both aglycone and acetylglucoside fractions as well as a mixture of isoflavone standards were the most effective in inhibition, demonstrating a possible synergistic phenomenon. Genistein showed a better retardation effect than daidzein. For cell cycle analysis, both aglycone and acetylglucoside fractions and a mixture of isoflavone standards exhibited a high G2/M ratio, correlating well with the result of MTT test. The presence of some other functional components in soybean cake like saponins and phenolic compounds may also play a vital role in inhibiting HepG2 cell growth.

  12. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy. PMID:27555772

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cyanobacterial Serine Protease Inhibitors Aeruginosin 828A and Cyanopeptolin 1020 in Human Hepatoma Cell Line Huh7 and Effects in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Hutter, Simon; Christen, Verena; Hettich, Timm; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Intensive growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater promoted by eutrophication can lead to release of toxic secondary metabolites that may harm aquatic organisms and humans. The serine protease inhibitor aeruginosin 828A was isolated from a microcystin-deficient Planktothrix strain. We assessed potential molecular effects of aeruginosin 828A in comparison to another cyanobacterial serine protease inhibitor, cyanopeptolin 1020, in human hepatoma cell line Huh7, in zebrafish embryos and liver organ cultures. Aeruginosin 828A and cyanopeptolin 1020 promoted anti-inflammatory activity, as indicated by transcriptional down-regulation of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor α in stimulated cells at concentrations of 50 and 100 µmol·L(-1) aeruginosin 828A, and 100 µmol·L(-1) cyanopeptolin 1020. Aeruginosin 828A induced the expression of CYP1A in Huh7 cells but did not affect enzyme activity. Furthermore, hatched zebrafish embryos and zebrafish liver organ cultures were exposed to aeruginosin 828A. The transcriptional responses were compared to those of cyanopeptolin 1020 and microcystin-LR. Aeruginosin 828A had only minimal effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress. In comparison to cyanopeptolin 1020 our data indicate that transcriptional effects of aeruginosin 828A in zebrafish are very minor. The data further demonstrate that pathways that are influenced by microcystin-LR are not affected by aeruginosin 828A. PMID:27428998

  14. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cyanobacterial Serine Protease Inhibitors Aeruginosin 828A and Cyanopeptolin 1020 in Human Hepatoma Cell Line Huh7 and Effects in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Faltermann, Susanne; Hutter, Simon; Christen, Verena; Hettich, Timm; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Intensive growth of cyanobacteria in freshwater promoted by eutrophication can lead to release of toxic secondary metabolites that may harm aquatic organisms and humans. The serine protease inhibitor aeruginosin 828A was isolated from a microcystin-deficient Planktothrix strain. We assessed potential molecular effects of aeruginosin 828A in comparison to another cyanobacterial serine protease inhibitor, cyanopeptolin 1020, in human hepatoma cell line Huh7, in zebrafish embryos and liver organ cultures. Aeruginosin 828A and cyanopeptolin 1020 promoted anti-inflammatory activity, as indicated by transcriptional down-regulation of interleukin 8 and tumor necrosis factor α in stimulated cells at concentrations of 50 and 100 µmol·L−1 aeruginosin 828A, and 100 µmol·L−1 cyanopeptolin 1020. Aeruginosin 828A induced the expression of CYP1A in Huh7 cells but did not affect enzyme activity. Furthermore, hatched zebrafish embryos and zebrafish liver organ cultures were exposed to aeruginosin 828A. The transcriptional responses were compared to those of cyanopeptolin 1020 and microcystin-LR. Aeruginosin 828A had only minimal effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress. In comparison to cyanopeptolin 1020 our data indicate that transcriptional effects of aeruginosin 828A in zebrafish are very minor. The data further demonstrate that pathways that are influenced by microcystin-LR are not affected by aeruginosin 828A. PMID:27428998

  16. Profiling of promoter occupancy by the SND1 transcriptional coactivator identifies downstream glycerolipid metabolic genes involved in TNFα response in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arretxe, Enara; Armengol, Sandra; Mula, Sarai; Chico, Yolanda; Ochoa, Begoña; Martínez, María José

    2015-12-15

    The NF-κB-inducible Staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain-containing 1 gene (SND1) encodes a coactivator involved in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. While SND1 is known to interact with certain transcription factors and activate client gene expression, no comprehensive mapping of SND1 target genes has been reported. Here, we have approached this question by performing ChIP-chip assays on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and analyzing SND1 binding modulation by proinflammatory TNFα. We show that SND1 binds 645 gene promoters in control cells and 281 additional genes in TNFα-treated cells. Transcription factor binding site analysis of bound probes identified motifs for established partners and for novel transcription factors including HSF, ATF, STAT3, MEIS1/AHOXA9, E2F and p300/CREB. Major target genes were involved in gene expression and RNA metabolism regulation, as well as development and cellular metabolism. We confirmed SND1 binding to 21 previously unrecognized genes, including a set of glycerolipid genes. Knocking-down experiments revealed that SND1 deficiency compromises the glycerolipid gene reprogramming and lipid phenotypic responses to TNFα. Overall, our findings uncover an unexpected large set of potential SND1 target genes and partners and reveal SND1 to be a determinant downstream effector of TNFα that contributes to support glycerophospholipid homeostasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma during inflammation.

  17. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ) moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs)-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs) were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy. PMID:27555772

  18. Profiling of promoter occupancy by the SND1 transcriptional coactivator identifies downstream glycerolipid metabolic genes involved in TNFα response in human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Arretxe, Enara; Armengol, Sandra; Mula, Sarai; Chico, Yolanda; Ochoa, Begoña; Martínez, María José

    2015-01-01

    The NF-κB-inducible Staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain-containing 1 gene (SND1) encodes a coactivator involved in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. While SND1 is known to interact with certain transcription factors and activate client gene expression, no comprehensive mapping of SND1 target genes has been reported. Here, we have approached this question by performing ChIP-chip assays on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and analyzing SND1 binding modulation by proinflammatory TNFα. We show that SND1 binds 645 gene promoters in control cells and 281 additional genes in TNFα-treated cells. Transcription factor binding site analysis of bound probes identified motifs for established partners and for novel transcription factors including HSF, ATF, STAT3, MEIS1/AHOXA9, E2F and p300/CREB. Major target genes were involved in gene expression and RNA metabolism regulation, as well as development and cellular metabolism. We confirmed SND1 binding to 21 previously unrecognized genes, including a set of glycerolipid genes. Knocking-down experiments revealed that SND1 deficiency compromises the glycerolipid gene reprogramming and lipid phenotypic responses to TNFα. Overall, our findings uncover an unexpected large set of potential SND1 target genes and partners and reveal SND1 to be a determinant downstream effector of TNFα that contributes to support glycerophospholipid homeostasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma during inflammation. PMID:26323317

  19. Control of Gene Expression by the Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha in HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Caroline; Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Duhem, Christian; Saint-Auret, Gaëlle; Bois-Joyeux, Brigitte; Djian, Philippe; Staels, Bart; Danan, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Retinoic acid-related Orphan Receptor alpha (RORα; NR1F1) is a widely distributed nuclear receptor involved in several (patho)physiological functions including lipid metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis, and circadian rhythm. To better understand the role of this nuclear receptor in liver, we aimed at displaying genes controlled by RORα in liver cells by generating HepG2 human hepatoma cells stably over-expressing RORα. Genes whose expression was altered in these cells versus control cells were displayed using micro-arrays followed by qRT-PCR analysis. Expression of these genes was also altered in cells in which RORα was transiently over-expressed after adenoviral infection. A number of the genes found were involved in known pathways controlled by RORα, for instance LPA, NR1D2 and ADIPOQ in lipid metabolism, ADIPOQ and PLG in inflammation, PLG in fibrinolysis and NR1D2 and NR1D1 in circadian rhythm. This study also revealed that genes such as G6PC, involved in glucose homeostasis, and AGRP, involved in the control of body weight, are also controlled by RORα. Lastly, SPARC, involved in cell growth and adhesion, and associated with liver carcinogenesis, was up-regulated by RORα. SPARC was found to be a new putative RORα target gene since it possesses, in its promoter, a functional RORE as evidenced by EMSAs and transfection experiments. Most of the other genes that we found regulated by RORα also contained putative ROREs in their regulatory regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed that the ROREs present in the SPARC, PLG, G6PC, NR1D2 and AGRP genes were occupied by RORα in HepG2 cells. Therefore these genes must now be considered as direct RORα targets. Our results open new routes on the roles of RORα in glucose metabolism and carcinogenesis within cells of hepatic origin. PMID:21818335

  20. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-05-15

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1{sub C}YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+){sub s}evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.

  1. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W

    2009-05-15

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how "human-like" can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+)_severe-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs. PMID:19285097

  2. A New Ligustrazine Derivative-Selective Cytotoxicity by Suppression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 Expression on Human Hepatoma Cells. Part 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenze; Yan, Wenqiang; Li, Bi; Xu, Bing; Gong, Yan; Chu, Fuhao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Yao, Qiuli; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2015-01-01

    A new anticancer ligustrazine derivative, 3β-hydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methylester (T-OA, C38H58O3N2), was previously reported. It was synthesized via conjugating hepatoprotective and anticancer ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine. We found that T-OA exerted its anticancer activity by preventing the expression of nuclear transcription factor NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 in S180 mice. However, the selective cytotoxicity of T-OA on various kinds of cell lines has not been studied sufficiently. In the present study, compared with Cisplatin, T-OA was more toxic to human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402 (IC50 = 6.36 ± 1.56 µM) than other three cancer cell lines (HeLa, HT-29, BGC-823), and no toxicity was observed toward Madin–Darby canine kidney cell line MDCK (IC50 > 150 µM). The morphological changes of Bel-7402 cells demonstrated that T-OA had an apoptosis-inducing effect which had been substantiated using 4ʹ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining, flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Combining the immumohistochemical staining, we found T-OA could prevent the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2 in Bel-7402 cells. Both of the proteins have been known to play roles in apoptosis and are mainly located in the nuclei. Moreover subcellular localization was performed to reveal that T-OA exerts in nuclei of Bel-7402 cells. The result was in accordance with the effects of down-regulating the expression of NF-κB/p65 and COX-2. PMID:26193270

  3. Identification of Replication-competent HSV-1 Cgal+ Strain Signaling Targets in Human Hepatoma Cells by Functional Organelle Proteomics*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, Enrique; Mora, María I.; Potel, Corinne; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Carro-Roldán, Elvira; Hernández-Alcoceba, Rubén; Prieto, Jesús; Epstein, Alberto L.; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we have attempted a comprehensive analysis of cytosolic and microsomal proteomes to elucidate the signaling pathways impaired in human hepatoma (Huh7) cells upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; Cgal+) infection. Using a combination of differential in-gel electrophoresis and nano liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, 18 spots corresponding to 16 unique deregulated cellular proteins were unambiguously identified, which were involved in the regulation of essential processes such as apoptosis, mRNA processing, cellular structure and integrity, signal transduction, and endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Based on our proteomic data and additional functional studies target proteins were identified indicating a late activation of apoptotic pathways in Huh7 cells upon HSV-1 Cgal+ infection. Additionally to changes on RuvB-like 2 and Bif-1, down-regulation of Erlin-2 suggests stimulation of Ca2+-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway results from a time-dependent multi-factorial impairment as inferred from the stepwise characterization of constitutive pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. Activation of serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was also found in Huh7 cells upon HSV-1 Cgal+ infection. In addition, PP2A activation paralleled dephosphorylation and inactivation of downstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway (MEK½, ERK½) critical to cell survival and activation of proapoptotic Bad by dephosphorylation of Ser-112. Taken together, our results provide novel molecular information that contributes to define in detail the apoptotic mechanisms triggered by HSV-1 Cgal+ in the host cell and lead to the implication of PP2A in the transduction of cell death signals and cell survival pathway arrest. PMID:19098277

  4. Reactive oxygen intermediates are involved in the induction of CD95 ligand mRNA expression by cytostatic drugs in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hug, H; Strand, S; Grambihler, A; Galle, J; Hack, V; Stremmel, W; Krammer, P H; Galle, P R

    1997-11-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with the induction of programmed cell death. The CD95 ligand/receptor system is a specific mediator of apoptosis. We have used the model of drug-induced apoptosis to assess whether the CD95 ligand mRNA is induced by reactive oxygen intermediates. Treatment of HepG2 hepatoma cells with bleomycin induced the production of reactive oxygen intermediates and, as an additional parameter of oxidative stress, resulted in glutathione (GSH) depletion. In parallel, CD95 ligand mRNA expression was induced. In a similar fashion CD95 ligand mRNA expression increased after treatment with H2O2. Additional treatment with the antioxidant and GSH precursor N-acetylcysteine resulted in partial restoration of intracellular GSH levels and in reduced induction of CD95 ligand mRNA. Induction of CD95 ligand mRNA by bleomycin was further reduced by combined treatment with N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine. These data suggest a direct role of oxygen radicals in the induction of the CD95 ligand.

  5. Purification and characterization of a novel type i ribosome inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from Pachyrhizus erosus seeds, and preparation of its immunotoxin against human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin-Lin; Cheng, Yuan-Liu; Qiu, Yi; Shen, Cai-Hong; Yi, Bin; Peng, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Pachyrhizus erosus seeds have a high protein content and are used in China due to their cytotoxic effect. Here we report the biological and pharmacological activity of the protein extracts from P. erosus seeds. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from P. erosus seeds was successively purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-sepharose FF, and Sephacryl S-200. Pachyerosin showed to be a type I ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.19. It strongly inhibited protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.37 ng/mL and showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes with an EC50 of 85.9 pM. The N-terminal 27 amino acids of pachyerosin revealed a 60.71% sequence identity with abrin A from the seeds of Abrus precatorius. With the aim of targeting the delivery of pachyerosin, immunotoxin was prepared by conjugating pachyerosin with anti-human AFP monoclonal antibodies SM0736. The immunotoxin pachyerosin-SM0736 efficiently inhibited the growth of the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 with an IC50 of 0.050 ± 0.004 nM, 2360 times lower than that of pachyerosin and 430 times lower than that of the immunotoxin against human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. These results imply that pachyerosin may be used as a new promising anticancer agent. PMID:25029173

  6. Differential expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells exposed to TCDD and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Kaisarevic, Sonja; Dakic, Vanja; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Lübcke-von Varel, Urte; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Teodorovic, Ivana; Brack, Werner; Kovacevic, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Rat hepatoma cells H4IIE were treated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene), low-concentration mixtures of PAHs and TCDD, and environmental mixtures contaminated by PAHs and their derivatives. Expression of the gene battery comprising cytochrome P450 Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, and glutathione-s-transferase Gsta2 and Gstp was investigated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The results revealed that TCDD induce Cyp1a1>Cyp1a2>Cyp1b1, while PAHs and PAH-containing environmental mixtures induce Cyp1a2>Cyp1a1>Cyp1b1 gene expression pattern. While low-concentration mixtures elicited a more pronounced response in comparison to single treatments, the typical gene expression patterns were not observed. In all samples, Gsta2 was predominantly expressed relative to Gstp. These findings indicate that differential Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 expression in the H4IIE cells might be used for detection of PAHs in highly contaminated environmental mixtures, but not in low-concentration mixtures of these compounds.

  7. Induction apoptosis of luteolin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.-J.; Wang, C.-J.; Kuo, H.-C.; Chou, F.-P.; Jean, L.-F.; Tseng, T.-H. . E-mail: tht@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-03-01

    Since hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major challenging clinical problem in many parts of the world including Eastern Asia and Southern Africa, it is imperative to develop more effective chemopreventive and chemotherapy agents. Herein, we present an investigation regarding the anticancer potential of luteolin, a natural flavonoid, and the mechanism of its action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Using DNA fragmentation assay and nuclear staining assay, it showed that luteolin induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Luteolin induced the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activated CPP32. We found that Bax and Bak translocated to mitochondria apparently, whereas Fas ligand (FasL) was unchanged after a treatment with luteolin for 3 h. In addition, it showed that c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated after the treatment of luteolin for 3-12 h. Further investigation showed that a specific JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reduced the activation of CPP 32, the mitochondrial translocation of Bax, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c that induced by luteolin. Finally, the apoptosis induced by luteolin was suppressed by a pretreatment with SP600125 via evaluating annexin V-FITC binding assay. These data suggest that luteolin induced apoptosis via mechanisms involving mitochondria translocation of Bax/Bak and activation of JNK.

  8. Structure and cell-specific expression of a cloned human retinol binding protein gene: the 5'-flanking region contains hepatoma specific transcriptional signals.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, C; Colantuoni, V; Cortese, R

    1985-08-01

    Human plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) is coded by a single gene and is specifically synthesized in the liver. We have characterized a lambda clone, from a human DNA library, carrying the gene coding for plasma RBP. Southern blot analysis and DNA sequencing show that the gene is composed of six exons and five introns. Primer elongation and S1 mapping experiments allowed the definition of the initiation of transcription and the identification of the putative promoter. The 5'-flanking region of the RBP gene was fused upstream to the coding sequence of the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT): the chimeric gene was introduced, by calcium phosphate precipitation, into the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 and into HeLa cells. Efficient expression of CAT was obtained only in Hep G2. Primer elongation analysis of the RNA extracted from transfected Hep G2 showed that initiation of transcription of the transfected chimeric gene occurs at a position identical to that of the natural gene. Transcriptional analysis of Bal31 deletions from the 3' end of the RBP 5'-flanking DNA allowed the identification of the RBP gene promoter.

  9. Proteomic analysis of human hepatoma cells expressing methionine adenosyltransferase I/III: Characterization of DDX3X as a target of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Paul C; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Bigaud, Emilie; Serna, Antonio; Renández-Alcoceba, Rubén; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M; Prieto, Jesús; Corrales, Fernando J

    2012-06-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MATI/III) synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in quiescent hepatocytes. Its activity is compromised in most liver diseases including liver cancer. Since SAM is a driver of hepatocytes fate we have studied the effect of re-expressing MAT1A in hepatoma Huh7 cells using proteomics. MAT1A expression leads to SAM levels close to those found in quiescent hepatocytes and induced apoptosis. Normalization of intracellular SAM induced alteration of 128 proteins identified by 2D-DIGE and gel-free methods, accounting for deregulation of central cellular functions including apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. Human Dead-box protein 3 (DDX3X), a RNA helicase regulating RNA splicing, export, transcription and translation was down-regulated upon MAT1A expression. Our data support the regulation of DDX3X levels by SAM in a concentration and time dependent manner. Consistently, DDX3X arises as a primary target of SAM and a principal intermediate of its antitumoral effect. Based on the parallelism between SAM and DDX3X along the progression of liver disorders, and the results reported here, it is tempting to suggest that reduced SAM in the liver may lead to DDX3X up-regulation contributing to the pathogenic process and that replenishment of SAM might prove to have beneficial effects, at least in part by reducing DDX3X levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link.

  10. Measuring 36Ar without H35Cl interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxton, John

    2015-04-01

    Noble gas measurements are usually made in static mode, when the mass spectrometer sensitivity is inversely proportional to volume: this makes the building of very large instruments to obtain high mass resolution impracticable. A particularly challenging interference has hitherto been H35Cl, which differs in mass from 36Ar by 1 part in 3937. We have developed a method which makes improved use of the available MRP to remove interferences, and used it to obtain HCl-free 36Ar measurements on a multicollector instrument with MRP of only ~6000 (MRP= mass resolving power = m/dm 5-95% on side of peak). By arranging that the target mass position on a minor isotope (e.g. 36Ar), from which the interference must be removed, coincides with the ~50% point on the side of a major isotope (e.g. 40Ar), it is possible both to set the mass accurately and to verify the mass position and stability during measurements. The peak top of 40Ar is measured in a separate mass step. Two small corrections are necessary. One compensates for the residual HCl tail at the 36Ar position. The other arises because the peak is not totally flat in the region of interest: 40Ar and 36Ar+HCl are measured on the peak top, whilst 36Ar is measured at the extreme edge, with slightly lower efficiency. The required correction parameters can be obtained from a series of air calibrations with different target/interference ratios. With samples containing 4x10-15to 3x10-14moles of 40Ar, 36Ar/40Ar was measured, without HCl interference, to a 1σ precision of 0.5%, only slightly worse than counting statistics. This is potentially useful for 40Ar/39Ar dating, where 36Ar is used to correct for trapped air, and may be particularly significant for smaller or younger samples.

  11. Sphingoid bases from sea cucumber induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells through p-AKT and DR5.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zakir; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    Biofunctional marine compounds have recently received substantial attention for their nutraceutical characteristics. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing effects of sphingoid bases prepared from sea cucumber using human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Apoptotic effects were determined by cell viability assay, DNA fragmentation assay, caspase-3 and caspase-8 activities. The expression levels of apoptosis-inducing death receptor-5 (DR5) and p-AKT were assayed by western blot analysis, and mRNA expression of bax, GADD45 and PPARγ was assayed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Sphingoid bases from sea cucumber markedly reduced the cell viability of HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The expression levels of the apoptosis inducer protein Bax were increased by the sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. GADD45, which plays an important role in apoptosis-inducing pathways, was markedly upregulated by sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. Upregulation of PPARγ mRNA was also observed during apoptosis induced by the sphingoid bases. The expression levels of DR5 and p-AKT proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, as a result of the effects of sphingoid bases from sea cucumber. The results indicate that sphingoid bases from sea cucumber induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through upregulation of DR5, Bax, GADD45 and PPARγ and downregulation of p-AKT. Our results show for the first time the functional properties of marine sphingoid bases as inducers of apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

  12. Proteomic profiling revealed the functional networks associated with mitotic catastrophe of HepG2 hepatoma cells induced by 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Huang Bo; Guan Hua; Zhang Shimeng; Xu Qinzhi; He Xingpeng; Liu Xiaodan; Wang Yu; Shang Zengfu; Zhou Pingkun

    2011-05-01

    Mitotic catastrophe, a form of cell death resulting from abnormal mitosis, is a cytotoxic death pathway as well as an appealing mechanistic strategy for the development of anti-cancer drugs. In this study, 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was demonstrated to induce DNA double-strand break, multipolar spindles, sustain mitotic arrest and generate multinucleated cells, all of which indicate mitotic catastrophe, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. We used proteomic profiling to identify the differentially expressed proteins underlying mitotic catastrophe. A total of 137 differentially expressed proteins (76 upregulated and 61 downregulated proteins) were identified. Some of the changed proteins have previously been associated with mitotic catastrophe, such as DNA-PKcs, FoxM1, RCC1, cyclin E, PLK1-pT210, 14-3-3{sigma} and HSP70. Multiple isoforms of 14-3-3, heat-shock proteins and tubulin were upregulated. Analysis of functional significance revealed that the 14-3-3-mediated signaling network was the most significantly enriched for the differentially expressed proteins. The modulated proteins were found to be involved in macromolecule complex assembly, cell death, cell cycle, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair, tubulin and cytoskeletal organization. These findings revealed the overall molecular events and functional signaling networks associated with spindle disruption and mitotic catastrophe. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > 6-bromoisovanillin induced spindle disruption and sustained mitotic arrest, consequently resulted in mitotic catastrophe. > Proteomic profiling identified 137 differentially expressed proteins associated mitotic catastrophe. > The 14-3-3-mediated signaling network was the most significantly enriched for the altered proteins. > The macromolecule complex assembly, cell cycle, chromatin remodeling and DNA repair, tubulin organization were also shown involved in mitotic catastrophe.

  13. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A1 by the flavonoid chrysin in the human hepatoma cell line hep G2.

    PubMed

    Walle, T; Otake, Y; Galijatovic, A; Ritter, J K; Walle, U K

    2000-09-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) have long been known to be inducible by various chemicals, including drugs, although the extent of induction in general has been modest. In the present study, we determined the ability of the dietary flavonoid chrysin to induce UGT activity, protein and mRNA. When pretreating human hepatoma Hep G2 cells with 25 microM chrysin, the glucuronidation of chrysin itself increased 4.2-fold when measured in the intact cell and 14-fold in the cell homogenate, i.e., autoinduction. Microsomes from chrysin-treated cells probed with specific antibodies in Western analyses showed marked induction of the UGT1A family of proteins. Isoform-specific induction of the important hepatic UGT1A1 protein was observed but not of UGT1A6 or UGT2B7. The strong induction of UGT1A1 was confirmed by Northern analyses of total RNA as well as mRNA, using a specific probe. UGT1A1 message as well as protein was detectable also in untreated Hep G2 cells. In catalytic activity assays with recombinant UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9, chrysin was found to be a high affinity substrate for UGT1A1 (K(m) 0.35 microM). Catalytic activity was also found for UGT1A9 and 1A6 but not for 1A4. Further studies demonstrated a 20-fold induction of the glucuronidation of bilirubin by the chrysin-treated cells and a 7. 9-fold induction of the glucuronidation of the oral contraceptive drug ethinylestradiol, two of the best known and specific UGT1A1 substrates, demonstrating the potential importance of this induction. In view of these findings, it will be important to extend these studies to other dietary flavonoids. PMID:10950852

  14. Effects of diode 808 nm GaAlAs low-power laser irradiation on inhibition of the proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vitro and their possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Hsiang; Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Ho, Chin-Chin; Pei, Ren-Jeng; Lee, Karen Ying; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chan, You; Lai, Yih-Shyong

    2004-01-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has come into a wide range of use in medical field. Considering basic research, LPLI can enhance DNA synthesis and increases proliferation rate of human cells. But only a few data about the effects of LPLI on human liver or hepatoma cells are available. The cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell function and therefore is implicated in the pathogenesis of many human liver diseases, including malignant tumors. In our previous study, we found the stability of cytokeratin molecules in human hepatocytes was related to the intact microtubule network that was influenced by colchicine. In this study, we are going to search the effect of LPLI on proliferation of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 and J-5 cells. In addition, the stability of cytokeratin and synemin (one of the intermediate filament-associated proteins) were analyzed under the action of LPLI to evaluate the possible mechanism of LPLI effects on proliferation of human hepatoma cells. In experiment, HepG2 and J-5 cells were cultured in 24-well plate for 24 hours. After irradiation by 130 mW diode 808 nm GaAlAs continue wave laser in different time intervals, the cell numbers were counted. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining examined the expression and distribution of PCNA, cytokeratin and synemin. The cell number counting and PCNA expression were evaluated to determine the proliferation. The organization and expression of cytokeratin and synemin were studied to identify the stability of cytoskeleton affected by LPLI. The results revealed that proliferation of HepG2 and J-5 cells was inhibited by LPLI since the cell number and PCNA expression was reduced. Maximal effect was achieved with 90 and 120 seconds of exposure time (of energy density 5.85 J/cm2 and 7.8 J/cm2, respectively) for HepG2 and J-5, respectively. The decreased ratio of cell number by this dose of irradiation was 72% and 66% in HepG2 and J-5 cells, respectively. Besides that, the architecture of

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-derived peptides as epitopes for hepatoma immunotherapy: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Mizejewski, Gerald J

    2009-02-01

    The various immunological roles of human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP), and its correlation with hepatomas, that is, hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), are not often addressed together in biomedical reports considering that HAFP is an established biomarker for hepatomas. Studies reporting measurement of HAFP serum levels in hepatoma patients in basic/clinical research settings has greatly increased over the years. Recent reports have now expanded our base knowledge in the mounting of an immune response against AFP, a self antigen, during hepatoma tumorigenesis. Advances in the detection and identification of AFP-derived peptide epitopes are opening new vistas of knowledge regarding the immunological role of AFP-peptides as T cell stimulating antigens in the course of hepatoma growth and progression. The present commentary addresses HAFP-derived peptides as immunologic responders in HCC and their use in the study and generation of AFP-peptide sensitized T cells directed against hepatoma cells. Attempts were further made to relate the AFP-derived peptide epitopes to T cell activities during the course of hepatoma immunotherapies and to profile the traits and properties of the peptides themselves. Hence, the present commentary was divided into two sections; (1) the characterization, properties, and traits of AFP peptide epitopes, and (2) the use of AFP-derived peptides in the therapeutic induction of T cells primed against hepatoma cells using both in vivo and in vitro models.

  16. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 synthesis in the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2. Metformin inhibits the stimulating effect of insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Anfosso, F; Chomiki, N; Alessi, M C; Vague, P; Juhan-Vague, I

    1993-01-01

    High plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity is associated with insulin resistance and is correlated with hyperinsulinemia. The cellular origin of plasma PAI-1 in insulin resistance is not known. The hepatoma cell line Hep G2 has been shown to synthesize PAI-1 in response to insulin. The aim of this study was to analyze the insulin-mediated response of PAI-1 and lipid synthesis in Hep G2 cells after producing an insulin-resistant state by decreasing insulin receptor numbers. The effect of metformin, a dimethyl-substituted biguanide, known to lower plasma insulin and PAI-1 levels in vivo was concomitantly evaluated. Preincubation by an 18-h exposure of Hep G2 cells to 10(-7) M insulin aimed at reducing the number of insulin receptors, was followed by a subsequent 24-h stimulation with 10(-9) M insulin. The decrease in insulin receptors was accompanied as expected, by a reduction in [14C]acetate incorporation, an index of lipid synthesis, whereas PAI-1 secretion and PAI-1 mRNA expression were enhanced. The addition of metformin did not modify the effect of insulin on insulin receptors or [14C]acetate incorporation. In contrast, the drug (10(-4) M) inhibited insulin-mediated PAI-1 synthesis. The results indicate that PAI-1 synthesis in presence of insulin is markedly increased in down-regulated cells, and that metformin inhibits this effect by acting at the cellular level. These in vitro data are relevant with those found in vivo in insulin-resistant patients. Hep G2 cells may be a suitable model to study PAI-1 regulation in response to hyperinsulinemia. Images PMID:8387542

  17. Potentiating effect of graphene nanomaterials on aromatic environmental pollutant-induced cytochrome P450 1A expression in the topminnow fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Tobias; Boisseaux, Paul; Navas, José M

    2015-09-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are an emerging class of carbon nanomaterial with great potential for a broad range of industrial and consumer applications. However, their increasing production and use is expected to result in release of nano-sized graphene platelets into the environment, where they may interact with chemical pollutants modifying their fate and toxic potential. The objective of this study was to assess whether graphene nanoplatelets can act as vector for aromatic environmental pollutants increasing their cellular uptake and associated hazardous effects in vitro. For this purpose, cell cultures of the topminnow fish (Poeciliopsis lucida) hepatoma cell line PLHC-1 were simultaneously (and successively) exposed to graphene nanoplatelets (graphene oxide (GO) or carboxyl graphene (CXYG)) and an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist (β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) or 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB169)). Following exposure cytochrome P450 1A (Cyp1A) induction was assessed by measuring cyp1A mRNA expression levels using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Cyp1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. It was observed that pre- and co-exposure of cells to GO and CXYG nanoplatelets had a potentiating effect on β-NF, BkF, and PCB169-dependent Cyp1A induction suggesting that graphene nanoplatelets increase the effective concentration of AhR agonists by facilitating their passive diffusion into the cells by damaging the cells' plasma membrane and/or by transporting them over the plasma membrane via a Trojan horse-like mechanism. The results demonstrate the existence of combination effects between nanomaterials and environmental pollutants and stress the importance of considering these effects when evaluating their respective hazard.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated toxic potency of dissolved lipophilic organic contaminants collected from Lincoln Creek, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, to PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida) fish hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, D.L.; Crunkilton, R.L.; DeVita, W.M.

    1997-05-01

    Lincoln Creek is a severely degraded urban stream located in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, USA. As part of a comprehensive study on effects of urban storm water runoff on the stream biota, an in vitro bioassay with PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida) fish hepatoma cells was used to assess potential toxic potency of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds, collected by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) exposed to Lincoln Creek water. Dialysates from SPMDs exposed to Lincoln Creek water caused marked cytochrome P4501A induction in PLHC-1. Toxic potency of dialysates, expressed as bioassay-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) ranged from 1,300 to 6,600 pg TCDD-EQ/g SPMD for 14-d exposures. Dialysates from SPMDs exposed to stream water at base flow had potencies consistently lower than those exposed to storm-flow (high-flow) events that occurred during the same 14-d period. Polychlorinated biphenyls were not detectable in the dialysates. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as major contaminants in the dialysates. A log-log correlation of total PAHs and TCDD-EQ yielded an r{sup 2} of 0.802. Empirical evidence suggests that AhR-active PAHs can account for about 20 to 50% of the potency observed.

  19. Genotoxic potential of montmorillonite clay mineral and alteration in the expression of genes involved in toxicity mechanisms in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Hercog, Klara; Filipic, Metka; Jos, Ángeles; Zegura, Bojana

    2016-03-01

    Montmorillonite, also known as Cloisite(®)Na(+) (CNa(+)), is a natural clay with a wide range of well-documented and novel applications, such as pharmaceutical products or food packaging. Although considered a low toxic product, the expected increased exposure to CNa(+) arises concern on the potential consequences on human and environmental health especially as its genotoxicity has scarcely been investigated so far. Thus, we investigated, for the first time, the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of CNa(+) (15.65, 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL) on genomic instability of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) by determining the formation of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Further on we studied the influence of CNa(+) on the expression of several genes involved in toxicity mechanisms using the real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CNa(+) increased the number of MNi, while the numbers of NBUDs and NPBs were not affected. In addition it deregulated genes in all the groups studied, mainly after longer time of exposure. These findings provide the evidence that CNa(+) is potentially genotoxic. Therefore further studies that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in toxic activity of CNa(+) are needed for hazard identification and human safety assessment.

  20. Development of stably transfected human and rat hepatoma cell lines for the species-specific assessment of xenobiotic response enhancer module (XREM)-dependent induction of drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fery, Yvonne; Mueller, Stefan O; Schrenk, Dieter

    2010-11-01

    Based on our current knowledge, PXR holds a key position in the induction of a selective battery of enzymes and transporters of drug metabolism. In order to prevent serious adverse drug effects or unpredicted drug-drug interactions (DDI), it is compulsory to investigate the possible inducing potency of drugs under development. Furthermore, analysis of the inducing potency of environmental pollutants and new or manufactured chemicals is part of toxicological risk assessment. In non-transfected human HepG2 and rat H4IIE hepatoma cells, we examined the characteristics of expression of 45 genes involved in drug metabolism. A few gene products such as CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 mRNA were prominent in HepG2 cells while their major rat counterparts were, e.g., CYP2B3 or CYP3A1/3A3. Furthermore, a number of xenobiotic receptors including PXR were expressed in both cell lines. A number of genes were regulated in a cell type and species-specific manner after incubation with the prototypical PXR agonists rifampicin or dexamethasone, respectively. Then, we established cell-based reporter gene assays for screening for PXR-dependent induction of drug metabolism. HepG2 and H4IIE cells were stably transfected with a reporter gene containing PXR responsive elements (XREMs) which mediate the induction of PXR target genes such as CYP3A enzymes. With both stable cell lines the CYP inducers clotrimazole, dexamethasone, omeprazole, phenobarbital, rifampicin, as well as the drug candidate EMD 392949 and the brominated flame retardants hexabromocylododecane (HBCD) and a pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE) mixture were screened. In the human HepG2-XREM3 and rat H4IIE-XREM3 cells, clotrimazole and HBCD were found as common activators of the human and rat PXR whereas pentaBDE was more effective with the human cell system. Omeprazole and phenobarbital did not induce the rat PXR-dependent reporter gene expression in H4IIE-XREM3 cells, while a moderate increase was found in HepG2-XREM3 cells. EMD 392949

  1. Augmentation of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced bioactivation in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 by the calcium channel blocker nicardipine.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Takuomi; Sekimoto, Masashi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2010-03-01

    The abilities of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nicardipine (Nic) to induce cytochrome P450 1 family enzymes (CYP1s) and to enhance the 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-mediated induction of CYP1s and formation of MC-DNA adduct were examined in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The results from real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Nic could induce CYP1 mRNAs and enhance the MC-mediated induction of the CYP1 mRNAs. The luciferase-reporter gene assay using the HepG2-A10 cell line, which has been previously established for the screening of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activators, also indicated the augmentation of MC-mediated activation of AhR (induction of luciferase) by Nic, although Nic showed limited capacity for the activation of AhR. Furthermore, the results from the Western blot analysis of CYP1s, the enzyme activity assay, and the assay for MC-DNA adduct formation indicated that Nic could enhance the MC-mediated induction of CYP1s, especially CYP1A1. Furthermore, the intracellular accumulation level of [(3)H]MC after treatment of HepG2 cells with [(3)H]MC significantly increased in the presence of Nic. The present findings demonstrate that Nic can enhance the MC-mediated induction of CYP1s, especially CYP1A1, and the formation of MC-DNA adduct in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the augmentation of the MC-mediated bioactivation by Nic is demonstrated to occur mainly through an increase in intracellular accumulation of MC. PMID:20067464

  2. Brush border myosin-I truncated in the motor domain impairs the distribution and the function of endocytic compartments in an hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Durrbach, A; Collins, K; Matsudaira, P; Louvard, D; Coudrier, E

    1996-01-01

    Myosins I, a ubiquitous monomeric class of myosins that exhibits actin-based motor properties, are associated with plasma and/or vesicular membranes and have been suggested as players for trafficking events between cell surface and intracellular membranous structures. To investigate the function of myosins 1, we have transfected a mouse hepatoma cell line (BWTG3) with cDNAs encoding the chicken brush border myosin-I (BBMI) and two variants truncated in the motor domain. One variant is deleted of the first 446 amino acids and thereby lacks the ATP binding site, whereas the other is deleted of the entire motor domain and lacks the ATP and actin binding sites. We have observed (i) that significant amounts of the truncated variants are recovered with membrane fractions after cell fractionation, (ii) that they codistribute with a compartment containing alpha2-macroglobulin internalized for 30 min as determined by fluorescent microscopy, (iii) that the production of BBMI-truncated variants impairs the distribution of the acidic compartment and ligands internalized for 30 min, and (iv) that the production of the truncated variant containing the actin binding site decreases the rate of alpha2-macroglobulin degradation whereas the production of the variant lacking the ATP binding site and the actin binding site increases the rate of a2-macroglobulin degradation. These observations indicate that the two truncated variants have a dominant negative effect on the distribution and the function of the endocytic compartments. We propose that an unidentified myosin-I might contribute to the distribution of endocytic compartments in a juxtanuclear position and/or to the regulation of the delivery of ligands to the degradative compartment in BWTG3 cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692943

  3. Differential Regulation of the Dioxin-Induced Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 Genes in Mouse Hepatoma and Fibroblast cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Taylor, Robert T.; Hankinson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 can be induced by the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-ρ-dioxin (dioxin) via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). These genes are differentially induced by dioxin in different mouse cell lines. In the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1c1c7 (Hepa-1), the Cyp1a1 gene is induced to very high levels by dioxin, but the levels of Cyp1b1 mRNA are extremely low and are not inducible by dioxin. The reverse is the case for the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line C3H10T1/2, in which Cyp1b1 is induced to very high levels by dioxin, but the levels of Cyp1a1 mRNA are extremely low and not inducible by dioxin. However, dioxin treatment leads to the recruitment of AhR to the enhancer regions of both genes in both cell lines. Somatic cell hybrid clones generated between the two cell lines display high levels of induction of both genes in response to dioxin. Strong reactivation of the Cyp1a1 gene was also observed in C3H10T1/2 cell line after treatment with the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AzadC) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA). However, only modest reactivation of Cyp1b1 was observed in Hepa-1 cells after 5-AzadC or TSA treatment. These data demonstrate that the presence or absence of binding of AhR to regulatory regions is not responsible for determining the differences in levels of induction of the two genes in these cell lines, and indicate that DNA methylation plays a major role in silencing of Cyp1a1 gene expression in C3H10T1/2 cells, but appears to play only a minor role in silencing Cyp1b1 gene expression in Hepa-1 cells, which likely occurs principally because Hepa-1 cells lack a factor required for high levels of induction of this gene. PMID:20116417

  4. Dibenzofuran induces oxidative stress, disruption of trans-mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and G1 arrest in human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Prashant Kumar; Srivastava, Shaili; Gupta, Jyotsana; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2012-10-17

    Dioxins are a class of extremely toxic environmentally persistent pollutant, comprised of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. Despite significant human exposure via multiple routes, very little is known about toxicity induced by dibenzofuran (DF). Current study shed lights on the potential toxicity mechanism of DF using human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). It was observed that the exposure to DF potentiate oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis at 10μM within 8h in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, when we pre-incubated the cells with α-NF (1nM) for 12h, an aromatic hydrocarbon receptor antagonist, the IC(50) of DF increased by 14 folds indicating the cytoprotective ability of α-NF from DF induced toxicity. Furthermore, three additional metabolites were observed while studying the metabolic profile of DF in HepG2 cells with and without pre-incubation with α-NF using chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Of these, two metabolites were characterized as dihydroxylated derivative of DF and third metabolite was characterized as quinone derivative of DF. By flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy analysis we followed the ROS formation after DF (10μM) exposure for 3h. Significantly low ROS was generated in cells which were pre-incubated with α-NF than cells which were not pre-incubated with α-NF underlining the importance of metabolism in DF toxicity. The same pattern of protection was consistent while measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), i.e., less MMP dip was observed in 'with α-NF pre-incubated and DF (10μM) exposed cells' than 'without α-NF pre-incubated but DF exposed cells'. In cell cycle studies, it was confirmed that cell population of HepG2 at G1 stage progressively increased in number (∼74%) within 24h. Thus, DF and its metabolites induce significantly higher cytotoxicity after metabolism in HepG2 cells than its parent compound (DF) by ROS formation, MMP dip and impaired cell cycle.

  5. Phyllanthin of Standardized Phyllanthus amarus Extract Attenuates Liver Oxidative Stress in Mice and Exerts Cytoprotective Activity on Human Hepatoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Krithika, Rajesh; Verma, Ramtej J; Shrivastav, Pranav S; Suguna, Lonchin

    2011-01-01

    Background Phyllanthus amarus, a traditional herbal liver-protecting medicine, is known to contain an active ingredient phyllanthin. Many research studies and clinical trials performed in the past using this plant have given contentious results which clearly accentuates the need for the standardization of the extracts. Aim In this study, P. amarus extract was standardized for phyllanthin content by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The preventive role of a standardized extract of P. amarus against CC14-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo and in vitro using mice model and human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, respectively, was investigated. Methods Phyllanthin was used as a marker phytochemical for the standardization of P. amarus extract. The extracts were verified for phyllanthin content by HPTLC and HPLC. Female mice were orally administered with CCl4 either with or without standardized P. amarus extract in three different doses. Similarly, the cytoprotective role of the standardized extract in vitro was studied in HepG2 cell line. Results Oral administration of CCl4 resulted in increased oxidative stress, decreased antioxidative defense, and liver injury. Treatment with P. amarus along with CCl4 significantly mitigated the increase in activities of liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and bilirubin content. It also increased the antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense parameter levels. The results of the in vitro study conducted in HepG2 cells indicated that the hepatotoxin lowered 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (Mil) metabolism and increased the release of transaminases which were corrected with co-incubation with P. amarus. Conclusion: The study established a significant liver-protecting role of standardized P. amarus extract due to the presence of active ingredient phyllanthin. PMID:25755316

  6. Aqueous extract from Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. Var. niger) induces detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Paul R; Webber, David M; Barnes, David M

    2007-08-01

    Spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) is a member of the Cruciferae family that also contains broccoli and Brussels sprouts, well-known to contain health-promoting constituents. Spanish black radishes (SBR) contain high concentrations of a glucosinolate unique to the radish family, glucoraphasatin, which represents >65% of the total glucosinolates present in SBR. The metabolites of glucosinolates, such as isothiocyanates, are implicated in health promotion, although it is unclear whether glucosinolates themselves elicit a similar response. The crude aqueous extract from 0.3 to 3 mg of dry SBR material increased the activity of the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase in the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line with a maximal effect at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the crude aqueous extract of 1 mg of SBR per mL also significantly induced the expression of mRNA corresponding to the phase I detoxification enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 as well as the phase II detoxification enzymes: quinone reductase, heme oxygenase 1, and thioredoxin reductase 1. Previous studies have shown that the myrosinase metabolites of different glucosinolates vary in their ability to induce detoxification enzymes. Here, we show that while glucoraphasatin addition was ineffective, the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin, 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MIBITC), significantly induced phase II detoxification enzymes at a concentration of 10 microM. These data demonstrate that the crude aqueous extract of SBR and the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin, MIBITC, are potent inducers of detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 cell line.

  7. Cheese can reduce indexes that estimate fatty acid desaturation. Results from the Oslo Health Study and from experiments with human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne T; Lunde, Marianne S H

    2012-02-01

    Previously, cheese intake was shown to be inversely related to serum triglycerides, raising the possibility that cheese might inhibit triglyceride synthesis, which is governed by fatty acid desaturases. Therefore, analyses were done to study whether cheese intake was associated with indexes that reflect fatty acid desaturation in 121 healthy ethnic Norwegians aged 40-45 years, a subsample from the Oslo Health Study (N = 18 777). Experiments with human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were done to clarify whether cheese might have a causal effect on desaturases. Fatty acid distribution in lipids of human sera and HepG2 cells was determined by gas chromatography. Δ9-Desaturase was estimated by the (16:1,n-7)/(16:0) and (18:1,n-9)/(18:0) ratios, abbreviated ds9_1 and ds9_2, and Δ5-desaturase (ds5) by the (20:4,n-6)/(18:2,n-6) ratio. Correlation, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression models were used to study associations. Oslo Health Study: Subjects with cheese intake >4-6 times per week had 33% lower ds9_1 and 16% lower ds5 than subjects with intake ≤ 4-6 times per week. The cheese intake vs. ds5 association prevailed when adjusting for sex, time since last meal, fatty fish, vegetables, fruit-berries, fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, length of education, and smoking. HepG2 cells: An ethanol extract of Jarlsberg cheese lowered the desaturase indexes. Inhibition of ds9_1 increased with increasing amount cheese extract added. Thus, cheese may contain inhibitors of desaturases, thereby providing an explanation for the previously reported negative association between cheese intake and triglycerides.

  8. Guava leaf extract inhibits quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum induced lysis of human hepatoma cells: whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Runu; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process mediated via small molecules termed autoinducers (AI) that allow bacteria to respond and adjust according to the cell population density by altering the expression of multitudinous genes. Since QS governs numerous bioprocesses in bacteria, including virulence, its inhibition promises to be an ideal target for the development of novel therapeutics. We found that the aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava (GLE) exhibited anti-QS properties as evidenced by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The gram-negative bacterium, C. violaceum is a rare pathogen with high mortality rate. In this study, perhaps for the first time, we identified the target genes of GLE in C. violaceum MTCC 2656 by whole transcriptome analysis on Ion Torrent. Our data revealed that GLE significantly down-regulated 816 genes at least three fold, with p value ≤ 0.01, which comprises 19% of the C. violaceum MTCC 2656 genome. These genes were distributed throughout the genome and were associated with virulence, motility and other cellular processes, many of which have been described as quorum regulated in C. violaceum and other gram negative bacteria. Interestingly, GLE did not affect the growth of the bacteria. However, consistent with the gene expression pattern, GLE treated C. violaceum cells were restrained from causing lysis of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, indicating a positive relationship between the QS-regulated genes and pathogenicity. Overall, our study proposes GLE as a QS inhibitor (QSI) with the ability to attenuate virulence without affecting growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which provides with a plausible set of candidate genes regulated by the QS system in the neglected pathogen C. violaceum. PMID:25229331

  9. Guava Leaf Extract Inhibits Quorum-Sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum Induced Lysis of Human Hepatoma Cells: Whole Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Differential Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Kumar, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process mediated via small molecules termed autoinducers (AI) that allow bacteria to respond and adjust according to the cell population density by altering the expression of multitudinous genes. Since QS governs numerous bioprocesses in bacteria, including virulence, its inhibition promises to be an ideal target for the development of novel therapeutics. We found that the aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava (GLE) exhibited anti-QS properties as evidenced by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The gram-negative bacterium, C. violaceum is a rare pathogen with high mortality rate. In this study, perhaps for the first time, we identified the target genes of GLE in C. violaceum MTCC 2656 by whole transcriptome analysis on Ion Torrent. Our data revealed that GLE significantly down-regulated 816 genes at least three fold, with p value≤0.01, which comprises 19% of the C. violaceum MTCC 2656 genome. These genes were distributed throughout the genome and were associated with virulence, motility and other cellular processes, many of which have been described as quorum regulated in C. violaceum and other gram negative bacteria. Interestingly, GLE did not affect the growth of the bacteria. However, consistent with the gene expression pattern, GLE treated C. violaceum cells were restrained from causing lysis of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, indicating a positive relationship between the QS-regulated genes and pathogenicity. Overall, our study proposes GLE as a QS inhibitor (QSI) with the ability to attenuate virulence without affecting growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which provides with a plausible set of candidate genes regulated by the QS system in the neglected pathogen C. violaceum. PMID:25229331

  10. Guava leaf extract inhibits quorum-sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum induced lysis of human hepatoma cells: whole transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Runu; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Kumar, Anoop; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process mediated via small molecules termed autoinducers (AI) that allow bacteria to respond and adjust according to the cell population density by altering the expression of multitudinous genes. Since QS governs numerous bioprocesses in bacteria, including virulence, its inhibition promises to be an ideal target for the development of novel therapeutics. We found that the aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava (GLE) exhibited anti-QS properties as evidenced by inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The gram-negative bacterium, C. violaceum is a rare pathogen with high mortality rate. In this study, perhaps for the first time, we identified the target genes of GLE in C. violaceum MTCC 2656 by whole transcriptome analysis on Ion Torrent. Our data revealed that GLE significantly down-regulated 816 genes at least three fold, with p value ≤ 0.01, which comprises 19% of the C. violaceum MTCC 2656 genome. These genes were distributed throughout the genome and were associated with virulence, motility and other cellular processes, many of which have been described as quorum regulated in C. violaceum and other gram negative bacteria. Interestingly, GLE did not affect the growth of the bacteria. However, consistent with the gene expression pattern, GLE treated C. violaceum cells were restrained from causing lysis of human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, indicating a positive relationship between the QS-regulated genes and pathogenicity. Overall, our study proposes GLE as a QS inhibitor (QSI) with the ability to attenuate virulence without affecting growth. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which provides with a plausible set of candidate genes regulated by the QS system in the neglected pathogen C. violaceum.

  11. Carboxyl ester lipase overexpression in rat hepatoma cells and CEL deficiency in mice have no impact on hepatic uptake or metabolism of chylomicron-retinyl ester.

    PubMed

    van Bennekum, A M; Li, L; Piantedosi, R; Shamir, R; Vogel, S; Fisher, E A; Blaner, W S; Harrison, E H

    1999-03-30

    To study the role of carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) in hepatic retinoid (vitamin A) metabolism, we investigated uptake and hydrolysis of chylomicron (CM)-retinyl esters (RE) by rat hepatoma (McArdle-RH7777) cells stably transfected with a rat CEL cDNA. We also studied tissue uptake of CM-RE in CEL-deficient mice generated by targeted disruption of the CEL gene. CEL-transfected cells secreted active enzyme into the medium. However, both control and CEL-transfected cells accumulated exogenously added CM-RE or CM remnant (CMR)-derived RE in equal amounts. Serum clearance of intravenously injected CM-RE and cholesteryl ester were not different between wild-type and CEL-deficient mice. Also, the uptake of the two compounds by the liver and other tissues did not differ. These data indicate that the lack of CEL expression does not affect the uptake of dietary CM-RE by the liver or other tissues. Moreover, the percentage of retinol formed in the liver after CM-RE uptake, the levels of retinol and retinol-binding protein in serum, and retinoid levels in various tissues did not differ, indicating that CEL deficiency does not affect hepatic retinoid metabolism and retinoid distribution throughout the body. Surprisingly, in both pancreas and liver of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous CEL-deficient mice, the levels of bile salt-dependent retinyl ester hydrolase (REH) activity were similar. This indicates that in the mouse pancreas and liver an REH enzyme activity, active in the presence of bile salt and distinct from CEL, is present, compatible with the results from our accompanying paper that the intestinal processing and absorption of RE were unimpaired in CEL-deficient mice.

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues arising through repeated fish fried oil in human hepatoma Hep G2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj K; Pant, Aditya B; Das, Mukul

    2006-04-01

    Repeated frying of vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods in edible oil is a common practice round the globe. Our studies suggest that repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may lead to hazardous effect on human health. In order to understand the mechanism of toxicity of RFFO extracts containing a mixture of PAHs, the in vitro cytotoxicity assays in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2 was undertaken. In addition to RFFO extract, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and chrysene were used as prototype compounds for heavy and light PAHs, respectively. Doses of BP and chrysene were made in such a way, that it could represent the appropriate content of heavy and light PAHs found in the RFFO extract. Out of total content of PAHs (1240.4 microg/kg) in RFFO, major composition is of light PAHs (854.8 microg/kg) while heavy PAHs showed the concentration of 385.7 microg/kg. Treatment of cells with 1 microg/ml RFFO extract for 48 h showed significant induction in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Exposure of cells to higher doses of RFFO extract (10-100 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h caused 3.5-5.2, 4.3-8.5 and 1.8-2.3-fold enhancement in EROD activity, respectively. Further, RFFO extract caused a dose dependent increase (2.1-3.5-fold) in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity at 48 h. Induction of EROD and AHH activity in Hep G2 cells was found to be relatively more following BP or chrysene treatment as compared to RFFO extract. RFFO extract did not cause any significant effect on cell viability at 1 microg/ml and 10 microg/ml. However, at 100 microg/ml concentration RFFO extract significantly decreased the cell viability at 24, 48 and 72 h. Exposure of 10 microg/ml RFFO extract reduced the colony forming ability (CFA) of Hep G2 cells with maximum decrease of 33.5% at 72 h. However, exposure of cells to RFFO extract at highest concentration of assay (100 microg/ml) reduced CFA (35-52%) at 24, 48 and 72 h. RFFO extract (1-100 microg

  13. HBV polymerase overexpression due to large core gene deletion enhances hepatoma cell growth by binding inhibition of microRNA-100.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Hui; Tseng, Ying-Hsin; Lin, Wey-Ran; Hung, George; Chen, Tse-Ching; Wang, Tong-Hong; Lee, Wei-Chen; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2016-02-23

    Different types of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core gene deletion mutants were identified in chronic hepatitis B patients. However, their clinical roles in different stages of natural chronic HBV infection remained unclear. To address this issue, HBV core genes were sequenced in three gender- and age-matched patient groups diagnosed as chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. Functional analysis of the identified mutants was performed. A novel type of large-fragment core gene deletion (LFCD) was identified exclusively in HCC patients and significantly associated with unfavorable postoperative survival. The presence of LFCDs resulted in generation of precore-polymerase fusion protein or brought the polymerase reading frame under direct control of HBV precore/core promoter, leading to its over-expression. Enhanced cell proliferation and increased tumorigenicity in nude mice were found in hepatoma cells expressing LFCDs. Because of the epsilon-binding ability of HBV polymerase, we hypothesized that the over-expressed polymerase carrying aberrant amino-terminal sequence could bind to cellular microRNAs. Screening of a panel of microRNAs revealed physical association of a precore-polymerase fusion protein with microRNA-100. A binding inhibition effect on microRNA-100 by the precore-polymerase fusion protein with up-regulation of its target, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), was discovered. The binding inhibition and growth promoting effects could be reversed by overexpressing microRNA-100. Together, HCC patients carrying hepatitis B large-fragment core gene deletion mutants had an unfavorable postoperative prognosis. The growth promoting effect was partly due to polymerase overexpression, leading to binding inhibition of microRNA-100 and up-regulation of PLK1. PMID:26824500

  14. Mechanistic study on growth suppression and apoptosis induction by targeting hepatoma-derived growth factor in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tsun Yee; Tang, Wan Yee; Tsang, Wing Pui; Co, Ngai Na; Kong, Siu Kai; Kwok, Tim Tak

    2009-01-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is frequently overexpressed in human cancer. The growth factor was previously demonstrated to be a survival factor as knock-down of HDGF suppresses the growth and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells through the Bad-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, inactivation of Bad cannot completely repress the apoptosis induced upon HDGF knock-down, indicating the presence of other unidentified pathways. In the present study, HDGF knock-down was shown to trigger the Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Increases in Fas expression and fas promoter activity were detected upon HDGF knock-down by Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Knock-down of fas inhibited HDGF knock-down effect on apoptosis induction and growth suppression as revealed by annexin V binding assay and soft agar assay. Down-regulation of IkappaBalpha was also observed upon HDGF knock-down. Overexpression of IkappaBalpha by transient transfection or inhibition of NF-kappaB by BAY11-7082 suppressed HDGF knock-down effect on fas promoter activation, Fas up-regulation, apoptosis induction and growth suppression. Furthermore, the interaction of Fas-mediated extrinsic and Bad-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways was demonstrated as a stronger inhibition on apoptosis induction and growth suppression upon HDGF knock-down was observed when both pathways were inactivated. The results therefore suggested that, through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, HDGF may function as a survival factor and be a potential target for cancer therapy.

  15. Fresh aromatic herbs containing methylchavicol did not exhibit the pro-oxidative effects of pure methylchavicol on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2.

    PubMed

    Bidri, M; Conti, M; Franetich, J-F; Tefit, M; Mazier, D; Arock, M; Vouldoukis, I

    2012-09-01

    Methylchavicol (CH(3)-CV), an important aromatic constituent of different plants like tarragon and basils, has been shown to be carcinogenic by a mechanism yet unclear, although it has been reported that carcinogenicity of CH(3)-CV in rodent might be linked to its metabolic conversion into a genotoxic electrophilic metabolite generated through a two steps bioactivation pathway catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulfotransferases. The induction of carcinogenesis by certain agents has been associated with the generation of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to determine whether pure methylchavicol applied on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, could promote oxidative stress and might alter the expression of procarcinogenic biomarkers such as the drug-metabolizing enzyme (CYP2E1), the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and might induce the expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and Mn-SOD that control the redox equilibrium of the cells. CH(3)-CV was shown to cause a significant induction of oxidative stress, as revealed by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) and to alter dramatically the expression of CYP2E1, iNOS and Mn-SOD, indicating that the toxic effect of CH(3)-CV could be mediated through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism. Under similar experimental conditions, the extracts from tarragon, chervil and basil did not induce such biological changes. These results provide evidence that the generation of an oxidative stress may be a significant event occurring during CH(3)-CV-induced toxicity. It also suggests that natural extracts containing different amounts of CH(3)-CV (tarragon, chervil and basil) did not elicit such toxicity and might contain compounds able to counteract this detrimental property. PMID:23020916

  16. Activation of procathepsin B in human hepatoma cells: the conversion into the mature enzyme relies on the action of cathepsin B itself.

    PubMed Central

    Mach, L; Schwihla, H; Stüwe, K; Rowan, A D; Mort, J S; Glössl, J

    1993-01-01

    In order to elucidate the processing mechanism of the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin B, in mammalian cells, recombinant rat and human cathepsin B precursors were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The active-site cysteine residue was changed to serine to prevent autoprocessing. When the purified proenzymes were incubated with the soluble fraction of postnuclear organelles obtained from human hepatoma HepG2 cells, processing to a 33 kDa form corresponding to the mature endogenous single-chain enzyme was observed. Inhibitors of metallo-, serine and aspartic proteinases exerted no significant effect on procathepsin B processing in vitro. However, the processing activity was effectively blocked by cysteine proteinase inhibitors, in particular E-64 and its cathepsin-B-selective derivative CA-074. Processing positions were identified by using anti-peptide antibodies specific for epitopes in the N- and C-terminal cleavage regions. The single-chain form produced in vitro was thus shown to contain an N-terminal extension of at least four residues relative to the mature lysosomal enzyme, as well as a C-terminal extension present in the proenzyme but usually absent in fully processed cathepsin B. On expression of the wild-type proenzyme in yeast, procathepsin B undergoes autoprocessing, yielding a single-chain form of the active enzyme, which contains similar N- and C-terminal extensions. These results indicate that maturation of procathepsin B in vivo in mammalian tissues relies on the proteolytic activity of cathepsin B itself. Images Scheme 1 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8393661

  17. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-3: Induction by 3-methylcholanthrene and complex regulation by xenobiotic chemicals in hepatoma cells and mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Celius, Trine; Pansoy, Andrea; Matthews, Jason; Okey, Allan B.; Henderson, Marilyn C.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2010-08-15

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases often are thought not to be inducible but we recently demonstrated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent induction of FMO mRNAs in mouse liver by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (Celius et al., Drug Metab Dispos 36:2499, 2008). We now evaluated FMO induction by other AHR ligands and xenobiotic chemicals in vivo and in mouse Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cells (Hepa-1). In mouse liver, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced FMO3 mRNA 8-fold. In Hepa-1 cells, 3MC and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced FMO3 mRNA > 30-fold. Induction by 3MC and BaP was AHR dependent but, surprisingly, the potent AHR agonist, TCDD, did not induce FMO3 mRNA in Hepa-1 cells nor did chromatin immunoprecipitation assays detect recruitment of AHR or ARNT to Fmo3 regulatory elements after exposure to 3MC in liver or in Hepa-1 cells. However, in Hepa-1, 3MC and BaP (but not TCDD) caused recruitment of p53 protein to a p53 response element in the 5'-flanking region of the Fmo3 gene. We tested the possibility that FMO3 induction in Hepa-1 cells might be mediated by Nrf2/anti-oxidant response pathways, but agents known to activate Nrf2 or to induce oxidative stress did not affect FMO3 mRNA levels. The protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (which causes 'superinduction' of CYP1A1 mRNA in TCDD-treated cells), by itself caused dramatic upregulation (> 300-fold) of FMO3 mRNA in Hepa-1 suggesting that cycloheximide prevents synthesis of a labile protein that suppresses FMO3 expression. Although FMO3 mRNA is highly induced by 3MC or TCDD in mouse liver and in Hepa-1 cells, FMO protein levels and FMO catalytic function showed only modest elevation.

  18. [Pandanus tectorius derived caffeoylquinic acids inhibit lipid accumulation in HepG2 hepatoma cells through regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chong-ming; Luan, Hong; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Xiao-po; Liu, Hai-tao; Guo, Peng

    2015-03-01

    The fruit of Pandanus tectorius (PTF) has a long history of use as a folk medicine to treat hyperlipidemia in Hainan province, South China. Our previous studies have shown that the n-butanol extract of PTF is rich in caffeoylquinic acids and has an adequate therapeutic effect on dyslipidemic animals induced by high-fat diet. In this work, seven caffeoylquinic acids isolated from PTF were screened for the lipid-lowering activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells. Oil-Red O staining, microscopy and intracellular triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) quantification showed that 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), 3, 5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,5-CQA), and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3,4,5-CQA) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation induced by oleic acid and decreased intracellular levels of TC and TG in a dose-dependent manner. These three caffeoylquinic acids showed no significant cytotoxicity at concentrations of 1 -50 μmol x L(-1) as determined by MTT assay. Realtime quantitative PCR revealed that 3-CQA and 3, 5-CQA significantly increased the expression of lipid oxidation-related genes PPARα, CPT-1 and ACOX1 while 3-CQA, 3, 5-CQA and 3,4,5-CQA decreased the expression of lipogenic genes SREBP-1c, SREBP-2, HMGR, ACC, FAS. Overall, 3-CQA, 3, 5-CQA and 3, 4, 5-CQA may be the principal hypolipidemic components in PTF which can decrease intracellular lipid accumulation through up-regulating the expression of lipid oxidative genes and down-regulating the expression of lipogenic genes.

  19. Galactose-decorated reduction-sensitive degradable chimaeric polymersomes as a multifunctional nanocarrier to efficiently chaperone apoptotic proteins into hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Huanli; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-08-12

    Hepatoma-targeting reduction-sensitive chimaeric biodegradable polymersomes were designed and developed based on galactose-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (Gal-PEG-PCL), PEG-PCL-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-PCL-PDEA, asymmetric), and PEG-SS-PCL for facile loading and triggered intracellular delivery of proteins. The chimaeric polymersomes formed from PEG-PCL-PDEA and PEG-SS-PCL had a monodisperse distribution with average sizes ranging from 95.5 to 199.2 nm depending on PEG-SS-PCL contents. Notably, these polymersomes displayed decent loading of bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA), and cytochrome C (CC) proteins likely due to presence of electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions between proteins and PDEA block located in the interior of polymersomes. The in vitro release studies showed that protein release was largely accelerated under a reductive condition containing 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). For example, ca. 77.2 and 22.1% of FITC-BSA were released from CP(SS50) (chimaeric polymersomes containing 50 wt % PEG-SS-PCL) at 37 °C in 12 h in the presence and absence of 10 mM DTT, respectively. Confocal microscopy showed that FITC-CC-loaded Gal-decorated CP(SS40) could efficiently deliver and release FITC-CC into HepG2 cells following 24 h treatment, in contrast to little or negligible fluorescence detected in HepG2 cells treated with FITC-CC-loaded nontargeting polymersomes or free CC. MTT assays revealed that CC-loaded Gal-decorated CP(SS40) exhibited apparent targetability and pronounced antitumor activity to HepG2 cells, in which cell viabilities decreased from 81.9, 60.6, 49.5, 42.2 to 31.5% with increasing Gal-PEG-PCL contents from 0, 10, 20, 30 to 40 wt %. Most remarkably, granzyme B-loaded Gal-decorated chimaeric polymersomes effectively caused apoptosis of HepG2 cells with a markedly low half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 2.7 nM. These reduction-responsive chimaeric biodegradable polymersomes offer a

  20. Antcin K, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood-Cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea, Inhibits Metastasis via Suppression of Integrin-Mediated Adhesion, Migration, and Invasion in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ling; Chu, Yung-Lin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chung, Jing-Gung; Lai, Chiao-I; Su, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2015-05-13

    Previous research demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract from Antrodia cinnamomea suppresses the invasive potential of human breast and hepatoma cells, but the effective compounds are not identified. The main bioactive compounds of A. cinnamomea are ergostane-type triterpenoids, and the content of antcin K is the highest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic activity and mechanisms of antcin K purified from the fruiting body of basswood-cultivated A. cinnamomea on human liver cancer Hep 3B cells. The results showed that adhesion, migration, and invasion of Hep 3B cells were effectively inhibited by antcin K within 24 h of treatment. Antcin K not only reduced the protein expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 but also down-regulated vimentin and up-regulated E-cadherin in Hep 3B cells. In depth investigation for the molecular mechanism revealed that antcin K could reduce the protein expression of integrin β1, β3, α5, and αv and suppress phosphorylation of FAK, Src, PI3K, AKT, MEK, ERK, and JNK. These results suggested that antcin K was able to inhibit the metastasis of human hepatoma cells through suppression of integrin-mediated adhesion, migration, and invasion. Coupled with these findings, antcin K has a good potential to reduce the risk of liver cancer metastasis. PMID:25911944

  1. Scutellaria barbate extract induces apoptosis of hepatoma H22 cells via the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-3

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Xi-Jing; Li, Zong-Fang; Ji, Zong-Zheng; Ren, Hong-Tao; Tang, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Xu; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Song, Ling-Qin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Scutellaria barbata D.Don (S. barbata) and to determine the underlying mechanism of its antitumor activity in mouse liver cancer cell line H22. METHODS: Proliferation of H22 cells was examined by MTT assay. Cellular morphology of PC-2 cells was observed under fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope (EM). Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined under laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with rhodamine 123 staining. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle of H22 cells with propidium iodide staining. Protein level of cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was measured by spectrofluorometry. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that extracts from S. barbata (ESB) could inhibit the proliferation of H22 cells in a time-dependent manner. Among the various phases of cell cycle, the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased, while the percentage of cells in G1 phase was increased. Flow cytometry assay also showed that ESB had a positive effect on apoptosis. Typical apoptotic morphologies such as condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and blebbing membrane of apoptotic cells could be observed under transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. To further investige the molecular mechanism behind ESB-induced apoptosis, ESB-treated cells rapidly lost their mitochondrial transmembrane potential, released mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytosol, and induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: ESB can effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of H22 cells involving loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome C, and activation of caspase-3. PMID:19109865

  2. The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has long been one of the most important causes of cancer mortality in the world. Many natural products and traditional herbal medicines have been used to treat HCC in Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and China. The present review aims to describe the anticancer properties and apoptotic mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde, the bioactive ingredient isolated from cinnamon trees, and the herbal prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang ( Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang; HLJDT) against human hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Implication of their treatment for the development of targeted therapy against HCC is discussed. PMID:24716182

  3. Antitumor progression potential of morusin suppressing STAT3 and NFκB in human hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wea-Lung; Lai, Deng-Yu; Lee, Yean-Jang; Chen, Nai-Fang; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa

    2015-01-22

    Morusin is a prenylated flavonoid that has been isolated from the root bark of the mulberry tree (Morus species, Moraceae), a Chinese traditional medicine. It has been synthesized by our laboratory from commercially available phloroglucinol, and has demonstrated to possess antitumor effects of cell lines including A549, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. In this study, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, morusin altered invasive morphology and suppressed cell-matrix adhesion, cell motility and cell invasion in SK-Hep1 cells. Morusin also increased the expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial cell junction protein, decreased the expression of vimentin, a mesecnchymal marker, and α2-, α6-, β1- integrin, which regulated cancer attachment and migration. In addition, morusin reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), which were involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and promoting cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, morusin suppressed the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling pathways, which modulate the protein expression involved in the invasion process. Finally, morusin decreased the lung colonization of the SK-Hep1 cells in the nude mice. These results indicate morusin possesses antitumor progression potential through suppressing STAT3 and NFκB. PMID:25476160

  4. HDAC inhibitor treatment of hepatoma cells induces both TRAIL-independent apoptosis and restoration of sensitivity to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Pathil, Anita; Armeanu, Sorin; Venturelli, Sascha; Mascagni, Paolo; Weiss, Thomas S; Gregor, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) displays a striking resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs or innovative tumor cell apoptosis-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Recently, we found 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I), valproic acid and ITF2357, exhibiting inherent therapeutic activity against HCC. In TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells, the mechanism of HDAC-I-induced cell death has been identified to be TRAIL-dependent by inducing apoptosis in an autocrine fashion. In contrast, in HCC-derived cells, a prototype of TRAIL-resistant tumor cells, we found a HDAC-I-mediated apoptosis that works independently of TRAIL and upregulation of death receptors or their cognate ligands. Interestingly, TRAIL resistance could be overcome by a combinatorial application of HDAC-I and TRAIL, increasing the fraction of apoptotic cells two- to threefold compared with HDAC-I treatment alone, whereas any premature HDAC-I withdrawal rapidly restored TRAIL resistance. Furthermore, a tumor cell-specific downregulation of the FLICE inhibitory protein (FLIP) was observed, constituting a new mechanism of TRAIL sensitivity restoration by HDAC-I. In contrast, FLIP levels in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) from different donors were upregulated by HDAC-I. Importantly, combination HDAC-I/TRAIL treatment did not induce any cytotoxicity in nonmalignant PHH. In conclusion, HDAC-I compounds, exhibiting a favorable in vivo profile and inherent activity against HCC cells, are able to selectively overcome the resistance of HCC cells toward TRAIL. Specific upregulation of intracellular FLIP protein levels in nonmalignant hepatocytes could enhance the therapeutic window for clinical applications of TRAIL, opening up a highly specific new treatment option for advanced HCC. PMID:16583461

  5. In vitro induction of the anticarcinogenic marker enzyme, quinone reductase, in human hepatoma cells by food extracts.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kei; Kawamata, Shinsuke; Usui, Naomi; Tanaka, Ayako; Uda, Yasushi

    2002-06-01

    The effect of vegetable extracts on the activity of the anticarcinogenic phase II marker enzyme, quinone reductase (QR), was investigated by using human Hep G2 cells as the model system. Hep G2 cells were less sensitive than murine Hepa1c1c7 cells to QR-inducible compounds such as tert-butylhydroquinone which have been widely used to examine the QR-inducing activity of the compounds. However, among 45 different vegetable samples, an extract of ashitaba clearly induced QR activity in Hep G2 cells. Ashitaba is therefore considered to have contained certain substances that could induce QR activity, and such induction may play a role in the anticarcinogenic action of vegetables.

  6. Effects of Silymarin on Hepatitis C Virus and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression in Human Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz, Vania; Shan, Ying; Lambrecht, Richard W.; Donohue, Susan E.; Moschenross, Darcy; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global medical problem. The current standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, is prolonged, expensive, has serious side effects and, at best, is only 50% effective. Silymarin is a natural antioxidant often used by patients with CHC, although its efficacy for decreasing HCV levels or ameliorating CHC remains uncertain. HCV infection is associated with increased hepatic oxidative stress, and one of the antioxidant enzymes which protect cells against this stress is heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods We investigated effects of silymarin on HCV and HO-1 gene expression in Huh-7 cells, CNS3, and 9-13 cells (the latter two stably expressing HCV-proteins). Results Silymarin significantly down-regulated HCV core mRNA (by 20% - 36%) and protein (by 30%-60%) in CNS3 cells. In contrast, silymarin did not decrease HCV NS5A mRNA or protein expression in 9-13 cells. HO-1 mRNA was up-regulated (60%-400%) by silymarin in Huh-7, CNS3 and 9-13 cells, whereas Bach1 and Nrf2 mRNA levels were not affected. The effect of silymarin to down-regulate HCV core was not related to changes in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. Conclusions Silymarin may be of benefit in CHC, although prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to be certain. PMID:18694403

  7. Rat hepatitis E virus derived from wild rats (Rattus rattus) propagates efficiently in human hepatoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Tanggis; Mulyanto; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Takahashi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nagashima, Shigeo; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-06-24

    Although rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been identified in wild rats, no cell culture systems for this virus have been established. A recent report suggesting the presence of antibodies against rat HEV in human sera encouraged us to cultivate rat HEV in human cells. When liver homogenates obtained from wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia were inoculated onto human hepatocarcinoma cells, the rat HEV replicated efficiently in PLC/PRF/5, HuH-7 and HepG2 cells, irrespective of its genetic group (G1-G3). The rat HEV particles released from cultured cells harbored lipid-associated membranes on their surface that were depleted by treatment with detergent and protease, with the buoyant density in sucrose shifting from 1.15-1.16 g/ml to 1.27-1.28 g/ml. A Northern blotting analysis revealed genomic RNA of 7.0 kb and subgenomic RNA of 2.0 kb in the infected cells. The subgenomic RNA of G1-G3 each possessed the extreme 5'-end sequence of GUAGC (nt 4933-4937), downstream of the highly conserved sequence of GAAUAACA (nt 4916-4923). The establishment of culture systems for rat HEV would allow for extended studies of the mechanisms of viral replication and functional roles of HEV proteins. Further investigation is required to clarify the zoonotic potential of rat HEV.

  8. Secretion of phospholipid transfer protein by human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2, is enhanced by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z; Yuan, C; Wei-Lavery, T; Fang, Y; Garvin, R A; Nishida, H I; Nishida, T

    1999-11-01

    Hep G2 cells were used to study the synthesis and secretion of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). Upon incubation of the cells at confluence with serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer activity was found to accumulate in the culture media. The PC transfer activity in the media was effectively inhibited by rabbit anti-human PLTP immunoglobulin (Ig)G, thus indicating that the PC transfer activity was due to secreted PLTP. The molecular weight of Hep G2 PLTP was approximately 78 kDa by Western blot analysis, in agreement with the molecular weight obtained for purified human plasma PLTP. The PLTP secreted by Hep G2 also possessed an HDL conversion activity similar to that of human plasma PLTP. The addition of butyrate to the cell culture media resulted in a marked increase in the secretion of PLTP. After 24 h incubation with 4 mmol/L sodium butyrate, a more than twofold increase (P < 0.01) of PC transfer activity in the cell-conditioned media was obtained. The dose-dependent increase in the PC transfer activity in the media upon butyrate treatment was well correlated (r = 0.80, P < 0.01) with that of PLTP mass as determined by immuno-slot blot analysis of cell-conditioned media. The increased secretion of PLTP by Hep G2 treated with sodium butyrate was accompanied by a greater increase in the level of PLTP mRNA in the cells as determined by ribonuclease protection assay. In the presence of 4 mmol/L sodium butyrate, a fourfold increase (P < 0. 01) in mRNA level was obtained at 24 h. No stabilizing effect of butyrate on PLTP mRNA was apparent upon treatment of the cultured cells with the RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D. Thus, the up-regulatory effect of butyrate on PLTP gene expression seemed to have occurred at the transcriptional level.

  9. Assessment of DNA damage, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells after flurochloridone herbicide exposure.

    PubMed

    Nikoloff, Noelia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Soloneski, Sonia

    2014-03-01

    In vitro effects of flurochloridone (FLC) and its formulations Twin Pack Gold® [25% active ingredient (a.i.)] and Rainbow® (25% a.i.) were evaluated in HepG2 cells. Whereas cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) and single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays were employed for genotoxicity, MTT, neutral red, and apoptosis detections were used for cytotoxicity evaluation. Activities were tested within the concentration range of 0.25-15μg/ml FLC. Results demonstrated that neither FLC nor Rainbow® was able to induce MNs. On the other hand, 5μg/ml Twin Pack Gold® only increased MN frequency. Furthermore, 10 and 15μg/ml of both formulations resulted in cellular cytotoxicity demonstrated by alterations in the nuclear division index and cellular death. A marked increase in the genetic damage index was observed after treatment with all compounds. SCGE assay appeared to be more sensitive bioassay for detecting primary DNA strand breaks at lower concentrations of FLC than did MN. Our results reveal that FLC and its two formulations trigger apoptosis on HepG2 cells. The results represent the first experimental evidence of the in vitro apoptogenic role exerted on mammalian cells by FLC and the FLC-based formulations Rainbow® and Twin Pack Gold®, at least on HepG2 cells.

  10. Residual powders from Shochu distillation remnants induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cells via the caspase-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Komizu, Yuji; Goto, Koichi; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2012-07-01

    Shochu distillation remnants (SDR) are by-products in the manufacturing process of the Japanese liquor Shochu and include various useful organic compounds derived from the fermentation of grains. We have obtained valuable powder (PSDR) from freeze-dried SDR by the treatment with ethanol. In this study, we examined the anticancer effects of barley-, rice-, and sweet potato-PSDR against HepG2 and HuH-7 cells of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro. All PSDR inhibited the growth of both these HCC cells through the induction of apoptosis. Especially, barley-PSDR was the most effective for the growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of HCC cells of all PSDR. We next examined the apoptotic mechanisms induced by barley-PSDR. Decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in HCC cells after the treatment with barley-PSDR. Furthermore, barley-PSDR induced the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, while it did not significantly affect the activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9. The results suggested that barley-PSDR induced apoptosis against HCC cells via the caspase-independent mitochondrial pathway. The findings in this study suggest that PSDR has the possibility of therapeutic and/or preventive agents of HCC.

  11. Stigmasterol isolated from marine microalgae Navicula incerta induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Sang; Li, Xi-Feng; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Ryu, BoMi; Kim, Se Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Plant sterols have shown potent anti-proliferative effects and apoptosis induction against breast and prostate cancers. However, the effect of sterols against hepatic cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, we assessed whether the stigmasterol isolated from Navicula incerta possesses apoptosis inductive effect in hepatocarcimona (HepG2) cells. According to the results, Stigmasterol has up-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic gene expressions (Bax, p53) while down-regulating the anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2). Probably via mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. With the induction of apoptosis caspase-8, 9 were activated. The DNA damage and increase in apoptotic cell numbers were observed through Hoechst staining, annexin V staining and cell cycle analysis. According to these results, we can suggest that the stigmasterol shows potent apoptosis inductive effects and has the potential to be tested as an anti-cancer therapeutic against liver cancer. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 433-438] PMID:24286323

  12. Modulation of glycosylation by. cap alpha. -d-tocopherol delivered to hepatoma cell line via human lipoproteins versus bovine serum

    SciTech Connect

    Yogeeswaran, G.; Triau, J.E.; Koul, O.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin E (E) has been shown to cause a generalized reduction in the metabolism and cell surface expression of glycoconjugates (GC) in K3T3 cells. Such changes in K3T3 cells were brought about by E administered via serum (FBS-E). A 6% agarose chromatography of FBS-E demonstrated that E is associated predominantly with albumin, liposomes, and to a small extent with LDL, HDL and micelles. Since the physiological carriers for E are lipoproteins (LP), the authors have examined the relative efficacy of receptor-mediated transfer of E from LP and nonspecific transfer from FBS-E to HepG2 cells. Plasma from 3 human subjects who ingested 1200 IU E/day for 5 days was used for LP-E isolation. During a 48 hrs culture in log-phase, the cells incorporated 3.7 ..mu..g/culture (23%) from FBS-E at 2 ..mu..g/ml, whereas similar amounts were incorporated from LDL-E and HDL-E administered at lower concentrations. E-treated HepG2 cultures via FBS-E methods showed a 39% and 29% reduction in incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-galactose (GAL) and (/sup 3/H)-N-acetylmannosamine (NAM), respectively into cellular and shed GC. Similar reduction in glycosylation of GC was detected by GAL and NAM incorporation in cells treated with a lower amount of LDL-E or HDL-E. These results indicate that E-dependent modulation of glycosylation is more sensitive to LP-E than to FBS-E.

  13. Multitargeting and antimetastatic potentials of silibinin in human HepG-2 and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Reza; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Momeny, Majid; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Yousefi, Mehdi; Malehmir, Mohsen; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common sort of primary liver malignancy with poor prognosis. This study aimed at examining the effects of silibinin (a putative antimetastatic agent) on some transcriptional markers mechanistically related to HCC recurrence and metastasis in HepG-2 [hepatitis B virus (HBV)-negative and P53 intact) and PLC/PRF/5 (HBV-positive and P53 mutated) cells. The expression of 27 genes in response to silibinin was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. The MMP gelatinolytic assay and microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) were tested. Silibinin was capable of suppressing the transcriptional levels of ANGPT2, ATP6L, CAP2, CCR6, CCR7, CLDN-10, cortactin, CXCR4, GLI2, HK2, ID1, KIAA0101, mortalin, PAK1, RHOA, SPINK1, and STMN1 as well as the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 but promoted the transcripts of CREB3L3, DDX3X, and PROX1 in both cells. Some significant differences between the cells in response to silibinin were detected that might be related to the differences of the cells in terms of HBV infection and/or P53 mutation, suggesting the possible influence of silibinin on HCC through biological functions of these 2 prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that silibinin could potentially function as a multitargeting antimetastatic agent and might provide new insights for HCC therapy particularly for HBV-related and/or P53-mutated HCCs. PMID:23659451

  14. Multitargeting and antimetastatic potentials of silibinin in human HepG-2 and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Reza; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Momeny, Majid; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Yousefi, Mehdi; Malehmir, Mohsen; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common sort of primary liver malignancy with poor prognosis. This study aimed at examining the effects of silibinin (a putative antimetastatic agent) on some transcriptional markers mechanistically related to HCC recurrence and metastasis in HepG-2 [hepatitis B virus (HBV)-negative and P53 intact) and PLC/PRF/5 (HBV-positive and P53 mutated) cells. The expression of 27 genes in response to silibinin was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. The MMP gelatinolytic assay and microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) were tested. Silibinin was capable of suppressing the transcriptional levels of ANGPT2, ATP6L, CAP2, CCR6, CCR7, CLDN-10, cortactin, CXCR4, GLI2, HK2, ID1, KIAA0101, mortalin, PAK1, RHOA, SPINK1, and STMN1 as well as the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 but promoted the transcripts of CREB3L3, DDX3X, and PROX1 in both cells. Some significant differences between the cells in response to silibinin were detected that might be related to the differences of the cells in terms of HBV infection and/or P53 mutation, suggesting the possible influence of silibinin on HCC through biological functions of these 2 prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that silibinin could potentially function as a multitargeting antimetastatic agent and might provide new insights for HCC therapy particularly for HBV-related and/or P53-mutated HCCs.

  15. Effect of GADD45a on olaquindox-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma G2 cells: Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, Daowen; Dai, Chongshan; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Xiayun; Zhao, Kena; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-09-01

    Olaquindox, a quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide derivative, has been widely used as a feed additive for promoting animal growth in China. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of grow arrest and DNA damage 45 alpha (GADD45a) on olaquindox-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The result showed that olaquindox induced the decrease of cell viability in a dose dependent manner. Compared to the control group, olaquindox treatment at 400 and 800μg/mL increased the expression level of GADD45a protein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and subsequently increased the expression of Bax while decreased the expression of Bcl-2, leading to the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c). However, knockdown of GADD45a enhanced olaquindox-induced ROS production, disrupted MMP and subsequently caused Cyt c release, then further increased olaquindox- induced cell apoptosis by increasing the activities of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In conclusion, the results revealed that GADD45a played a critical role in olaquindox-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which may embrace the regulatory ability on the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. PMID:27458702

  16. Vitamin B-6 restriction impairs fatty acid synthesis in cultured human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Ralat, Maria A; da Silva, Vanessa; Garrett, Timothy J; Melnyk, Stephan; James, S Jill; Gregory, Jesse F

    2013-02-15

    Vitamin B-6 deficiency has been reported to alter n-6 and n-3 fatty acid profiles in plasma and tissue lipids; however, the mechanisms underlying such metabolic changes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on fatty acid profiles and fatty acid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Cells were cultured for 6 wk in media with four different vitamin B-6 concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 2,000 nM added pyridoxal, representing deficient, marginal, adequate, and supraphysiological conditions) that induced a range of steady-state cellular concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate. Total cellular lipid content was greatest in the deficient (10 nM pyridoxal) medium. The percentage of arachidonic acid and the ratio of arachidonic acid to linoleic acid in the total lipid fraction were ~15% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells, which suggests that vitamin B-6 restriction affects n-6 fatty acid interconversions. Metabolic flux studies indicated significantly lower fractional synthesis rate of oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 10, 20, and 50 nM pyridoxal, whereas that of eicosapentaenoic acid was lower in the cells cultured in 10 nM pyridoxal. Additionally, relative mRNA expressions of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases were 40-50% lower in vitamin B-6-restricted cells. Overall, these findings suggest that vitamin B-6 restriction alters unsaturated fatty acid synthesis, particularly n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. These results and observations of changes in human plasma fatty acid profiles caused by vitamin B-6 restriction suggest a mechanism by which vitamin B-6 inadequacy influences the cardiovascular risk.

  17. Suppression of AMF/PGI-mediated tumorigenic activities by ursolic acid in cultured hepatoma cells and in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wen-Ling; Yu, Feng-Ling; Chang, Ching-Dong; Liao, Ming-Huei; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Ping-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI) possesses tumorigenic activities through the modulation of intracellular signaling. We then investigated the effects of ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid (OA), tangeretin, and nobiletin against AMF/PGI-mediated oncogenesis in cultured stable Huh7 and Hep3B cells expressing wild-type or mutated AMF/PGI and in a mouse model in this study. The working concentrations of the tested compounds were lower than their IC10 , which was determined by Brdu incorporation and colony formation assay. Only UA efficiently suppressed the AMF/PGI-induced Huh7 cell migration and MMP-3 secretion. Additionally, UA inhibited the AMF/PGI-mediated protection against TGF-β-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells, whereas OA, tangeretin, and nobiletin had no effect. In Huh7 cells and tumor tissues, UA disrupted the Src/RhoA/PI 3-kinase signaling and complex formation induced by AMF/PGI. In the Hep3B system, UA dramatically suppressed AMF/PGI-induced anti-apoptotic signaling transmission, including Akt, p85, Bad, and Stat3 phosphorylation. AMF/PGI enhances tumor growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis in mice, which is correlated with its enzymatic activity, and critically, UA intraperitoneal injection reduces the tumorigenesis in vivo, enhances apoptosis in tumor tissues and also prolongs mouse survival. Combination of sub-optimal dose of UA and cisplatin, a synergistic tumor cell-killing effects was found. Thus, UA modulates intracellular signaling and might serve as a functional natural compound for preventing or alleviating hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Ribavirin and alpha interferon enhance death receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Stephan F; Schuler, Markus; Berg, Christoph P; Lauber, Kirsten; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Schmahl, Friedrich Wilhelm; Wesselborg, Sebastian

    2003-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of alpha interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are not understood. Elimination of infected cells occurs in part by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) expressing CD95 ligand and thereby attacking target cells which are positive for the death receptor CD95. Since many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit apoptosis, the opposite, namely, promotion of apoptosis, could be a strategy to strengthen the host antiviral response. In the present study, we have asked whether the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin could support CD95-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspases, a family of proteases known for their essential role in apoptosis. HepG2 cells, stimulated with the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody, served as a minimal model to mimic the CD95 stimulation occurring during a CTL attack of target cells in vivo. Apoptosis was quantitated by flow cytometric detection of hypodiploid nuclei. Caspase activity was measured by cytofluorometry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. IFN and ribavirin sensitized HepG2 cells for CD95-mediated apoptosis. This effect was correlated with an increase in CD95-mediated caspase activation and enhanced cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, the positive effect on CD95-mediated caspase activation by IFN and ribavirin was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for activated caspase-3 and by immunoblot detection of activated caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8. Our data demonstrate that the antiviral substances IFN and ribavirin are able to sensitize for CD95-mediated apoptosis. IFN and ribavirin also enhance CD95-mediated caspase activation, which might in part be responsible for the apoptosis-promoting effect of these antiviral compounds. PMID:12760867

  19. Phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves inhibit HepG2 hepatoma cells through G2/M phase arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of topoisomerase IIα activity.

    PubMed

    Naowaratwattana, Wanlaya; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2010-10-01

    The entire plant of Morus alba L. (Family Moraceae), or mulberry, possesses medical benefits, including anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of mulberry leaf extracts on the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line, which is related to hepatocellular carcinoma. Mulberry leaf extracts were prepared using four solvents, each with different polarities: 100% methanol (MeOH), 50% aqueous MeOH, 1-butanol (BuOH), and hot water (W). The phenolic profile, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, and effect on human hepatoma HepG2 cells of the leaf extracts were analyzed by examining cytotoxicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, expression of topoisomerase IIα, and proteins involved in cell cycle progression. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, and BuOH extracts contained rutin, isoquercetin, and various derivatives of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides as their major constituents; the W extract contained primarily chlorogenic acid and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Total phenolic content based on rutin equivalents was 17.1%, 9.6%, 8.3%, and 6.5% of dry 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities were 70.0%, 45.8%, 41.0%, and 33.6%, and 50% inhibitory concentration values were 33.1, 79.4, 35.6, and 204.2 μg/mL for HepG2 cell proliferation inhibition for 100% MeOH, 50% MeOH, BuOH, and W extracts, respectively. MeOH extracts caused cell cycle G2/M arrest and induced the caspase cascade and apoptosis, but the W extract had very little effect on cell cycle progression. MeOH extracts reduced the level of topoisomerase IIα but increased the level of p27(Kip1), with no significant effect on p21(Cip1/waf1). Therefore, we concluded that phenolic-containing organic extracts of mulberry leaves inhibit the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells through coordinated actions of inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase (with

  20. Carbon Ion-Irradiated Hepatoma Cells Exhibit Coupling Interplay between Apoptotic Signaling and Morphological and Mechanical Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baoping; Li, Long; Li, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jizeng

    2016-01-01

    A apoptotic model was established based on the results of five hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines irradiated with carbon ions to investigate the coupling interplay between apoptotic signaling and morphological and mechanical cellular remodeling. The expression levels of key apoptotic proteins and the changes in morphological characteristics and mechanical properties were systematically examined in the irradiated HCC lines. We observed that caspase-3 was activated and that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly increased over time. Cellular morphology and mechanics analyses indicated monotonic decreases in spatial sizes, an increase in surface roughness, a considerable reduction in stiffness, and disassembly of the cytoskeletal architecture. A theoretical model of apoptosis revealed that mechanical changes in cells induce the characteristic cellular budding of apoptotic bodies. Statistical analysis indicated that the projected area, stiffness, and cytoskeletal density of the irradiated cells were positively correlated, whereas stiffness and caspase-3 expression were negatively correlated, suggesting a tight coupling interplay between the cellular structures, mechanical properties, and apoptotic protein levels. These results help to clarify a novel arbitration mechanism of cellular demise induced by carbon ions. This biomechanics strategy for evaluating apoptosis contributes to our understanding of cancer-killing mechanisms in the context of carbon ion radiotherapy. PMID:27731354

  1. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zanelatto, Leonardo Campos; Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Sartori, Daniele; Panis, Carolina; Lepri, Sandra; Fátima, Ângelo de; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide) was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies. PMID:27303908

  2. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zanelatto, Leonardo Campos; da Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves; Sartori, Daniele; Panis, Carolina; Lepri, Sandra; de Fátima, Ângelo; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide) was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies. PMID:27303908

  3. Dose- and time-dependent effects of phenobarbital on gene expression profiling in human hepatoma HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Carine B.; Spire, Catherine Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre

    2009-02-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) induces or represses a wide spectrum of genes in rodent liver. Much less is known about its effects in human liver. We used pangenomic cDNA microarrays to analyze concentration- and time-dependent gene expression profile changes induced by PB in the well-differentiated human HepaRG cell line. Changes in gene expression profiles clustered at specific concentration ranges and treatment times. The number of correctly annotated genes significantly modulated by at least three different PB concentration ranges (spanning 0.5 to 3.2 mM) at 20 h exposure amounted to 77 and 128 genes (p {<=} 0.01) at 2- and 1.8-fold filter changes, respectively. At low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM), PB-responsive genes included the well-recognized CAR- and PXR-dependent responsive cytochromes P450 (CYP2B6, CYP3A4), sulfotransferase 2A1 and plasma transporters (ABCB1, ABCC2), as well as a number of genes critically involved in various metabolic pathways, including lipid (CYP4A11, CYP4F3), vitamin D (CYP24A1) and bile (CYP7A1 and CYP8B1) metabolism. At concentrations of 3.2 mM or higher after 20 h, and especially 48 h, increased cytotoxic effects were associated with disregulation of numerous genes related to oxidative stress, DNA repair and apoptosis. Primary human hepatocyte cultures were also exposed to 1 and 3.2 mM PB for 20 h and the changes were comparable to those found in HepaRG cells treated under the same conditions. Taken altogether, our data provide further evidence that HepaRG cells closely resemble primary human hepatocytes and provide new information on the effects of PB in human liver. These data also emphasize the importance of investigating dose- and time-dependent effects of chemicals when using toxicogenomic approaches.

  4. PASS-predicted Vitex negundo activity: antioxidant and antiproliferative properties on human hepatoma cells-an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common type of tumour worldwide with a high mortality rate and with low response to current cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic drugs. The prediction of activity spectra for the substances (PASS) software, which predicted that more than 300 pharmacological effects, biological and biochemical mechanisms based on the structural formula of the substance was efficiently used in this study to reveal new multitalented actions for Vitex negundo (VN) constituents. Methods Experimental studies based on antioxidant and antiproliferative assays verified the predictions obtained by the PASS-predicted design strategy. Antioxidant activity of VN extract was studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric reducing or antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antiproliferative activity of VN extract against WRL68 and HepG2 was investigated based on methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) spectrophotometric assay. Results VN extract showed 79.43% inhibition of DPPH stable radical with IC50 13.31 ± 0.18 μg/ml. This inhibition was too closed to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) 82.53% (IC5013.8 ± 0.14) and gallic acid 89.51% (IC50 3.1 ± 0.08). VN extract exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging power compared with two commercial antioxidants, BHT and ascorbic acid. VN increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes in normal embryonic liver cells (WRL68) including, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) compared with to H2O2 group. The ethanolic extract of VN showed cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with IC50 66.46 μg/ml, 57.36 μg/ml and 65.12 μg/ml at 24, 48, and 72-hours incubation respectively, with no sensitivity in WRL68 cells. This was associated with significant elevation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in HepG2 cells. In addition, the activation of caspase-3 enzyme suggesting that the observed cytotoxicity was mediated via an intrinsic apoptosis pathway

  5. Duck hepatitis B virus integrations in LMH chicken hepatoma cells: identification and characterization of new episomally derived integrations.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, S S; Jensen, A D; Wang, H; Rogler, C E

    1995-01-01

    While the cytoplasmic phase of the hepadnavirus replication cycle is well understood, very little is known about the nuclear phase. In contrast to retroviruses, proviral integration is not required for hepadnavirus replication; however, some of the viral DNAs in the nucleus are diverted into an integration pathway. Under certain conditions these integrations function as carcinogenic agents. In order to study the integration process, we have utilized LMH-D2 cells, which replicate wild-type duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), to develop the first protocol to detect and characterize integrations of DHBV originating from episomal viral DNAs. Contrary to expectations, our results showed that stable new integrations are readily detectable in subclones of LMH-D2 cells. Complete characterization of one integration revealed a single-genome-length integrant with the structure of double-stranded linear (DSL) DHBV DNAs which are produced by in situ priming during viral replication. The integration contained a terminal redundancy of 6 bp from the r region of the virus DNA minus strand as well as a direct repeat of 70 bp of cellular DNA. On the basis of the structure of the integrant and the cellular DNA target site, we propose a molecular model for the integration mechanism that has some similarities to that of retroviruses. Identification of DSL hepadnavirus DNA integration suggests the possibility that modified DSL viral DNAs may be the precursors to a class of simple, unrearranged hepadnavirus integrations. PMID:7494330

  6. Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine.

    PubMed

    Upur, Halmurat; Yusup, Abdiryim; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Umar, Anwar; Berke, Benedicte; Yimit, Dilxat; Lapham, Jaya Conser; Creppy, Edmon E; Moore, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of (3)[H]-leucine and (3)[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis.

  7. Inhibition of Cell Growth and Cellular Protein, DNA and RNA Synthesis in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells by Ethanol Extract of Abnormal Savda Munziq of Traditional Uighur Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Upur, Halmurat; Yusup, Abdiryim; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Umar, Anwar; Berke, Benedicte; Yimit, Dilxat; Lapham, Jaya Conser; Creppy, Edmon E.; Moore, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) is a traditional Uighur medicinal herbal preparation, commonly used for the treatment and prevention of cancer. We tested the effects of ethanol extract of ASMq on cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) to explore the mechanism of its putative anticancer properties, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide, neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assays, testing the incorporation of 3[H]-leucine and 3[H]-nucleosides into protein, DNA and RNA, and quantifying the formation of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid (MDA) adducts. ASMq ethanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and cell viability, increased the leakage of LDH after 48 hours or 72 hours treatment, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). Cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner (P < .05). No significant MDA release in culture medium and no lipid peroxidation in cells were observed. The results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ASMq ethanol extract might be related to inhibition of cancer cell growth, alteration of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cellular protein, DNA and RNA synthesis. PMID:18955370

  8. CRISPR/Cas9 produces anti-hepatitis B virus effect in hepatoma cells and transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xie, Kun; Xu, Yuanjian; Wang, Le; Chen, Kaiming; Zhang, Longzhen; Fang, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is at risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and remains one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a major barrier of persistence HBV cccDNA under current antiviral therapy as novel strategies of disrupting HBV cccDNA is pressing. The (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is presently emerging in gene editing and we also apply it for targeting and deleting the conserved regions of HBV genome. Two homologous sequences of HBV S and X genes were carried with CRISPR/Cas9 endonuclease to build pCas9 constructs, which may mediate anti-HBV effects of in vitro and in vivo systems in this study. The results showed the better anti-HBV productions by pCas9-2 and without significant differences in between Huh7 and HepG2 cells. CRISPR/Cas9 direct cleavage and mutagenesis were further analyzed of in vitro system. In the M-TgHBV mouse model of HBV, injection of pCas9 constructs by hydrodynamics decreased HBsAg of sera and liver HBcAg. In conclusion, this designed CRISPR/Cas9 system can induce anti-HBV effects and potentially consider as a novel therapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection.

  9. Metabolism of an Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 5-Methylchrysene in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Hackfeld, Linda C; Hodge, Richard P; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2015-10-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C1-chrysenes are representative PAHs present in the crude oil and have been detected in contaminated sea food in amounts that exceed their permissible safety thresholds. We describe the metabolism of the most carcinogenic C1-chrysene regioisomer, 5-methylchrysene (5-MC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 5-MC-tetraol, a signature metabolite of the diol-epoxide pathway, was identified as reported previously. Novel O-monosulfonated-5-MC-catechol isomers and O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-5-MC-catechol were discovered, and evidence for their precursor ortho-quinones was obtained. The identities of O-monosulfonated-5-MC-1,2-catechol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-5-MC-1,2-catechol, and 5-MC-1,2-dione were validated by comparison to authentic synthesized standards. Dual metabolic activation of 5-MC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones is reported for the first time. Evidence was also obtained for minor metabolic conversion of 5-MC to form monohydroxylated-quinones and bis-phenols. The identification of 5-MC-tetraol, O-monosulfonated-5-MC-1,2-catechol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-5-MC-1,2-catechol, and 5-MC-1,2-dione supports metabolic activation of 5-MC by P450 and AKR isozymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of redox cycling by COMT and SULT isozymes. The major metabolites, O-monosulfonated-catechols and tetraols, could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 5-MC resulting from oil spills.

  10. Esculetin-induced protection of human hepatoma HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the Nrf2-dependent induction of the NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, Sudhakar R.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-15

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers to measure cellular oxidative stress and response to ROS. The protective effect of esculetin was compared to a well-characterized chemoprotective compound quercetin. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with sub-lethal (10-25 {mu}M) esculetin for 8 h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with esculetin. In addition, esculetin ameliorated the decrease in intracellular glutathione caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. Moreover, treatment with 25 {mu}M esculetin for 8 h increased the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) at both protein and mRNA levels significantly, by 12-fold and 15-fold, respectively. Esculetin treatment also increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8-fold indicating that increased NQO1 expression is Nrf2-mediated. These results indicate that esculetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and that this protection is provided through the induction of protective enzymes as part of an adaptive response mediated by Nrf2 nuclear accumulation.

  11. Elevated glutathione level does not protect against chronic alcohol mediated apoptosis in recombinant human hepatoma cell line VL-17A over-expressing alcohol metabolizing enzymes--alcohol dehydrogenase and Cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Chatterjee, Suvro; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2011-06-01

    Chronic consumption of alcohol leads to liver injury. Ethanol-inducible Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays a critical role in alcohol mediated oxidative stress due to its ability to metabolize ethanol. In the present study, using the recombinant human hepatoma cell line VL-17A that over-expresses the alcohol metabolizing enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and CYP2E1; and control HepG2 cells, the mechanism and mode of cell death due to chronic ethanol exposure were studied. Untreated VL-17A cells exhibited apoptosis and oxidative stress when compared with untreated HepG2 cells. Chronic alcohol exposure, i.e., 100 mM ethanol treatment for 72 h caused a significant decrease in viability (47%) in VL-17A cells but not in HepG2 cells. Chronic ethanol mediated cell death in VL-17A cells was predominantly apoptotic, with increased oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism. Chronic ethanol exposure of VL-17A cells resulted in 1.1- to 2.5-fold increased levels of ADH and CYP2E1. Interestingly, the level of the antioxidant GSH was found to be 3-fold upregulated in VL-17A cells treated with ethanol, which may be a metabolic adaptation to the persistent and overwhelming oxidative stress. In conclusion, the increased GSH level may not be sufficient enough to protect VL-17A cells from chronic alcohol mediated oxidative stress and resultant apoptosis. PMID:21414402

  12. Lysyl oxidase like 4, a novel target gene of TGF-{beta}1 signaling, can negatively regulate TGF-{beta}1-induced cell motility in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Dong Chul; Yang, Suk-Jin; Lee, Jung Ju; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Dong Min; Min, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kang, Dong Chul; Sang, Byung Chan; Myung, Pyung Keun; Park, Kyung Chan Yeom, Young Il

    2008-09-05

    Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) is a multi-functional cytokine involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix formation. In search for novel genes mediating the TGF-{beta}1 function at downstream signaling, we performed a cDNA microarray analysis and identified 60 genes whose expression is regulated by TGF-{beta}1 in the liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5. Among them, we report here lysyl oxidase like 4 (LOXL4) as a novel target of TGF-{beta}1 signaling, and provide experimental evidence for its expression regulation and function. LOXL4 was found to be the only member of LOX family whose expression is induced by TGF-{beta}1 in hepatoma cells. Deletion mapping of the LOXL4 promoter indicated that the TGF-{beta}1 regulation of LOXL4 expression is mediated through the binding of AP1 transcription factor to a conserved region of the promoter. This was confirmed by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay that captured c-Fos-bound chromatin from TGF-{beta}1-treated cells. Forced expression of LOXL4 in PLC/PRF/5 cells resulted in inhibition of cell motility through Matrigel in the presence of TGF-{beta}1 treatment. In parallel, LOXL4 suppressed the expression of laminins and {alpha}3 integrin and the activity of MMP2. These results suggest that LOXL4 may function as a negative feedback regulator of TGF-{beta}1 in cell invasion by inhibiting the metabolism of extracellular matrix (ECM) components.

  13. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (p<0.05) and the IC50 values were 69.83, 16.66 and 51.6 μM, respectively. Wogonin and oroxylin A, which were screened both from Radix scutellariae extraction and the drug-containing serum, could be selected as lead compounds to obtain good anti-hepatoma effects. The proposed comprehensive 2D CMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  14. Effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine alone and combined with adriamycin or vindesine on L1210 leukemia in mice, EMT6 solid tumors in mice, and solid tumors induced by injection of hepatoma tissue culture cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Bartholeyns, J; Koch-Weser, J

    1981-12-01

    The effects of alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; RMI 71782) in combination with vindesine or Adriamycin were investigated in three different animal tumor models. When given in a concentration of 2% in drinking water to C57BL/6 X DBA/2 F1 mice inoculated i.p. with L1210 leukemia cells, DFMO prolonged the survival time 1,2-fold. Treatment with vindesine (0.1 mg/kg/week i.p. or Adriamycin (2.5 mg/kg/week i.p.) increased the mean survival time 1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively. DFMO with vindesine doubled survival time, while DFMO with Adriamycin increased it 3.5-fold and yielded 30% long-term survivors. The growth of solid tumors induced in Buffalo rats by i.m. injection of hepatoma tissue culture cells was inhibited 65% after 2 weeks of DFMO treatment. Similar inhibition of growth could be achieved by weekly i.p. injections of vindesine (0.2 mg/kg) or Adriamycin (2.5 mg/kg). When the same doses of these drugs were administered in combination with DFMO, the growth of this hepatoma was completely arrested. Combined treatment of BALB/c mice bearing s.c. solid EMT6 tumors with DFMO and adriamycin or vindesine also resulted in enhanced inhibition of tumor growth compared to single-drug therapy. These results indicate that combination of DFMO with vindesine or Adriamycin is an effective approach to the treatment of several animal cancers.

  15. Magnetic nano-Fe3O4 particles targeted gathering and bio-effects on nude mice loading human hepatoma Bel-7402 cell lines model under external magnetic field exposure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wen, Jian; Ju, Huixiang; Fang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nano-Fe3O4 particles (MNPs), static magnetic field (SMF) and extremely low-frequency altering electric magnetic field (ELFF) were utilized to treat nude mice loading hepatoma Bel-7402 cell lines to investigate the therapeutic values of MNPs combined with ELFF in vivo. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) figures showed that about 98.9% MNPs injected into mice body through tail vein were gathered in tumor focal by SMF directing exposure. Single ELFF and MNPs treatments did not influence mice physiological function obviously. However, gathered MNPs combined with ELFF treatment prolonged mice survival time and inhibited loading tumor cells proliferation significantly compared to other mice groups (p < 0.05); furthermore, the tumor cells early apoptosis ratio of mice group was significantly higher than other groups (p < 0.05), and ELFF combined with gathered MNPs treatment improved tumor cells early apoptosis associated with Bcl group protein expression: Bax protein expression was higher than Bcl-2 and the combined treatment improved cells Heat shock protein-27 (Hsp-27) expression which could protect cells avoiding early apoptosis. The possible mechanism that this kind of combination inducing more cells into early apoptosis could be due to ELFF exposure influencing cells ion metabolism, MNPs strengthening the effects, and the ELFF vibrating MNPs to generate extra heat and activate cellular heat shock signal channel.

  16. In vivo – in vitro toxicogenomic comparison of TCDD-elicited gene expression in Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells and C57BL/6 hepatic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dere, Edward; Boverhof, Darrell R; Burgoon, Lyle D; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    Background In vitro systems have inherent limitations in their ability to model whole organism gene responses, which must be identified and appropriately considered when developing predictive biomarkers of in vivo toxicity. Systematic comparison of in vitro and in vivo temporal gene expression profiles were conducted to assess the ability of Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells to model hepatic responses in C57BL/6 mice following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Results Gene expression analysis and functional gene annotation indicate that Hepa1c1c7 cells appropriately modeled the induction of xenobiotic metabolism genes in vivo. However, responses associated with cell cycle progression and proliferation were unique to Hepa1c1c7 cells, consistent with the cell cycle arrest effects of TCDD on rapidly dividing cells. In contrast, lipid metabolism and immune responses, representative of whole organism effects in vivo, were not replicated in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Conclusion These results identified inherent differences in TCDD-mediated gene expression responses between these models and highlighted the limitations of in vitro systems in modeling whole organism responses, and additionally identified potential predictive biomarkers of toxicity. PMID:16611356

  17. Mengovirus Replication in Novikoff Rat Hepatoma and Mouse L Cells: Effects on Synthesis of Host-Cell Macromolecules and Virus-specific Synthesis of Ribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Plagemann, Peter G. W.

    1968-01-01

    Novikoff cells (strain N1S1-67) and L-67 cells, a nutritional mutant of the common strain of mouse L cells which grows in the same medium as N1S1-67 cells, were infected with mengovirus under identical experimental conditions. The synthesis of host-cell ribonucleic acid (RNA) by either type of cell was not affected quantitatively or qualitatively until about 2 hr after infection, when viral RNA synthesis rapidly displaced the synthesis of cellular RNA. The rate of synthesis of protein by both types of cells continued at the same rate as in uninfected cells until about 3 hr after infection, and a disintegration of polyribosomes occurred only towards the end of the replicative cycle, between 5 and 6 hr. The time courses and extent of synthesis of single-stranded and double-stranded viral RNA and of the production of virus were very similar in both types of cells, in spite of the fact that the normal rate of RNA synthesis and the growth rate of uninfected N1S1-67 cells are about three times greater than those of L-67 cells. In both cells, the commencement of viral RNA synthesis coincided with the induction of viral RNA polymerase, as measured in cell-free extracts. Viral RNA polymerase activity disappeared from infected L-67 cells during the period of production of mature virus, but there was a secondary increase in activity in both types of cells coincidental with virus-induced disintegration of the host cells. Infected L-67 cells, however, disintegrated and released progeny virus much more slowly than N1S1-67 cells. The two strains of cells also differed in that replication of the same strain of mengovirus was markedly inhibited by treating N1S1-67 cells with actinomycin D prior to infection; the same treatment did not affect replication in L-67 cells. PMID:4176992

  18. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Yim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul; Hwang, Sang-Gu

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  19. PAI-1 synthesis in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 is increased by cytokines--evidence that the liver contributes to acute phase behaviour of PAI-1.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J P; Abbink, J J; Brouwer, M C; Meijer, C; Roem, D; Voorn, G P; Lambers, J W; van Mourik, J A; Hack, C E

    1991-02-12

    The acute phase behaviour of the fast inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (PAI-1) in vivo has been attributed to increased synthesis by endothelial cells. However, most other acute phase proteins in vivo are synthesized in the liver, which process is regulated by cytokines and can be studied in the hepatoma derived cell line HepG2. In this study, we investigated whether the synthesis of PAI-1 by HepG2 cells is regulated by the cytokines recombinant IL-1, rIL-6 and rTNF. Recombinant IL-1 and rTNF each increased PAI-1 synthesis by HepG2 cells two to three fold, whereas rIL-6 hardly had an effect. Mixtures of rIL-1, rIL-6 and rTNF increased PAI-1 synthesis up to eleven fold. The effects observed were not due to non-specific effects on HepG2 cell metabolism, since synthesis of alpha-2-antiplasmin was not effected by any of those cytokines, whereas fibrinogen synthesis was increased three to four fold by rIL-6, but was unaffected by rIL-1. Thus, our results demonstrate that synthesis of PAI-1 by HepG2 cells is regulated by cytokines and implicate that the acute phase behaviour of PAI-1 in vivo at least in part may be due to an increased synthesis by the liver.

  20. Combined use of adenoviral vector Ad5/F35-mediated APE1 siRNA enhances the therapeutic efficacy of adenoviral-mediated p53 gene transfer in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cun, Yanping; Zhang, Qinhong; Xiong, Chengjie; Li, Mengxia; Dai, Nan; Zhang, Shiheng; Wang, Dong

    2013-06-01

    Gene therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. In order to establish a more effective therapeutic strategy against unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we evaluated, in the present study, the effects of combined treatment with adenoviral vector Ad5/F35-mediated APE1 siRNA (Ad5/F35-siAPE1) and adenoviral-mediated p53 gene transfer (Ad-p53) in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Infection of SMMC-7721 cells with Ad5/F35-siAPE1 resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of APE1 protein, while Ad-p53 treatment led to a time- and dose-dependent increase of p53 protein expression. Ad5/F35-siAPE1 significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of SMMC-7721 cells to Ad-p53 in cell survival assays, associated with increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, administration of Ad5/F35-siAPE1 and Ad-p53 into nude mice resulted in tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in SMMC-7721 xenografts compared to administration of either agent alone. These results suggest that combination of Ad5/F35-siAPE1 and Ad-p53 could be a promising gene therapeutic approach against human HCC.

  1. Characterization of microsomal methyl sterol demethylase in two Morris hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Williams, M T; Gaylor, J L; Morris, H P

    1976-02-01

    Previously, we reported that the rate of metabolism of methyl sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis by broken-cell preparations of Morriss hepatoma 7777 is very slow, whereas the intact tumors are known to synthesize cholesterol quite efficiently. Active preparations have now been obtained by substitution of pyrophosphate for phosphate buffer. Although substitution of pyrophosphate buffer markedly enhances microsomal methyl sterol demethylation rates 3- to 4-fold in hepatoma 7777, other microsomal enzymes and electron carriers in either liver or a more slowly growing hepatoma appear to be unaffected by pyrophosphate. Several properties of the active microsomal methyl sterol demethylase have now been compared for control rat liver, host liver, tumor 7777, and tumor 5123C. Conditions necessary for the assay of initial velocities of enzymic reactions in the tumor microsomes have been established with respect to the amount of protein, time-course, concentrations of cofactors and substrate, pH, and other variables. The K'm and the responses to the variables studied above are very similar for methyl sterol demethylase of microsomes isolated from control liver, host liver, tumor 5123C, and tumor 7777. The multienzymic demethylase in the various preparations has been found to be inhibited similarly by in vitro additions of cyanide, cytochrome c, and bile salts. Thus, the enzymes of the microsomal-bound 4-methyl sterol demethylase of cholesterol biosynthesis appear to be very similar in liver and these 2 Morris hepatomas. When xenobiotic inducers of microsomal oxidases, such as phenobarbital and methylcholanthrene, are administered to normal and tumor-bearing rats, elevated rates of methyl sterol demethylation are observed with isolated liver microsomes obtained from both normal and tumor-bearing rats. Similar increases are not observed in the tumors. Furthermore, daily administration of an intestinal bile acid sequestrant elevates hepatic methyl sterol

  2. Nqrs Data for C26H35Br2CuNP (Subst. No. 1602)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C26H35Br2CuNP (Subst. No. 1602)

  3. Nqrs Data for C26H35Br2CuP2 (Subst. No. 1603)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Substances Containing C10H16 … Zn' of Volume 48 'Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section '3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter '3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C26H35Br2CuP2 (Subst. No. 1603)

  4. 2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone, from buds of Cleistocalyx operculatus, induces apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chun-Lin; Lai, Yi-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, much effort is being devoted to detect new substances that not only significantly induce the death of tumor cells, but also have little side effect on normal cells. Our previous study showed that 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (DMC) exhibited significant cytotoxic potential with an IC50 value of 32.3 ± 1.13 μM against SMMC-7721 cells and could induce SMMC-7721 cells apoptosis. In the present study, we found that DMC was almost nontoxic to human normal liver L-02 and human normal fetal lung fibroblast HFL-1 cells as their IC50 values (111.0 ± 4.57 and 152.0 ± 4.83 µM for L-02 and HFL-1 cells, respectively) were much higher. To further explore the apoptotic mechanism of DMC, we investigated the role of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoptosis induced by DMC in SMMC-7721 cells. Our results suggested that the cytotoxicity and the generation of intracellular ROS were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Reversal of apoptosis in NAC pretreated cells indicated the involvement of ROS in DMC-induced apoptosis. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by DMC was significantly blocked by NAC. NAC also prevented the decrease of Caspase-3 and -9 activities, the increase of Bcl-2 protein expression and the decrease of p53 and PUMA protein expressions. Together, these results indicated that ROS played a key role in the apoptosis induced by DMC in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells. PMID:25260543

  5. Penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose induces senescence-like terminal S-phase arrest in human hepatoma and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shutao; Dong, Yinhui; Li, Jinhua; Lü, Junxuan; Hu, Hongbo

    2011-08-01

    Senescence is a permanent growth arrest and has been implicated as an efficient anti-carcinogenesis mechanism. The purpose of this study was designed to test the hypothesis that penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG), a naturally occurring polyphonolic gallotannin compound, might induce this type of permanent growth arrest in cancer cells. Our results show, for the first time, that PGG-induced senescence-like S-phase arrest in HepG2, Huh-7 human hepatoma cells, and SKBr3 human breast cancer cells at sublethal doses, judged by cellular morphological changes, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, together with loss of proliferative capacity after being released from the treatment. This senescence-like response was mediated by intracellular ROS generation, but was not attributed to p53 Ser15 phosphorylative activation and was uncoupled from the p21cip1 axis, which has been shown to mediate Pten loss-induced cellular senescence or oncogene-driven senescence. The findings of the present study implicate a novel mechanism of PGG action to induce an atypical cellular senescence, adding to its promise as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  6. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Virion and Covalently Closed Circular DNA Formation in Primary Tupaia Hepatocytes and Human Hepatoma Cell Lines upon HBV Genome Transduction with Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shaotang; Nassal, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the causative agent of B-type hepatitis in humans, is a hepatotropic DNA-containing virus that replicates via reverse transcription. Because of its narrow host range, there is as yet no practical small-animal system for HBV infection. The hosts of the few related animal viruses, including woodchuck hepatitis B virus and duck hepatitis B virus, are either difficult to keep or only distantly related to humans. Some evidence suggests that tree shrews (tupaias) may be susceptible to infection with human HBV, albeit with low efficiency. Infection efficiency depends on interactions of the virus with factors on the surface and inside the host cell. To bypass restrictions during the initial entry phase, we used recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vectors, either with or without a green fluorescent protein marker gene, to deliver complete HBV genomes into primary tupaia hepatocytes. Here we show that these cells, like the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7, are efficiently transduced by the vectors and produce all HBV gene products required to generate the secretory antigens HBsAg and HBeAg, replication-competent nucleocapsids, and enveloped virions. We further demonstrate that covalently closed circular HBV DNA is formed. Therefore, primary tupaia hepatocytes support all steps of HBV replication following deposition of the genome in the nucleus, including the intracellular amplification cycle. These data provide a rational basis for in vivo experiments aimed at developing tupaias into a useful experimental animal system for HBV infection. PMID:11152483

  7. Elevated cholesterol and decreased sterol carrier protein-2 in peroxisomes from AS-30D hepatoma compared to normal rat liver.

    PubMed

    Lyons, H T; Kharroubi, A; Wolins, N; Tenner, S; Chanderbhan, R F; Fiskum, G; Donaldson, R P

    1991-03-01

    Peroxisomes were isolated from AS-30D hepatoma and compared to normal rat liver cells for the purpose of investigating the cholesterol accumulation in the hepatoma cells. Cholesterol was found to be approximately 10-fold higher relative to protein in AS-30D peroxisomes as compared to peroxisomes from normal liver. The peroxisomes from the hepatoma cells were found to be more stable; catalase was not released from these peroxisomes during isolation or osmotic shock of the peroxisomal fraction. The elevated cholesterol level may stabilize the peroxisomal membrane. Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay (RIA), which indicated the highest concentration of SCP-2 to be in peroxisomes. Hepatoma peroxisomes had a lower concentration of SCP-2 (2.5 micrograms/mg) than normal liver peroxisomes (8 micrograms/mg). Approximately half of all SCP-2 detected was found to be soluble in both hepatoma and normal rat liver cells. Immunoblots from both rat liver and AS-30D fractions demonstrated the presence of the 14-kDa form of SCP-2. The liver fractions also had a 57-kDa immunoreactive protein, which was barely detectable in the AS-30D fractions. The low abundance of the high molecular weight form of SCP-2 from hepatoma peroxisomes and the lower amounts of SCP-2 detected in the AS-30D peroxisomes may be related to the accumulation of cholesterol in the cells. PMID:1897930

  8. Vildagliptin and its metabolite M20.7 induce the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Karaki, Fumika; Fujii, Hideaki; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver. We further examined the effects of vildagliptin and its major metabolite M20.7 on the mRNA expression levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in human hepatoma HepG2 and leukemia HL-60 cells. In HepG2 cells, vildagliptin, M20.7, and sitagliptin – another DPP-4 inhibitor – induced S100A9 mRNA. In HL-60 cells, in contrast, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs were significantly induced by vildagliptin and M20.7, but not by sitagliptin. The release of S100A8/A9 complex in the cell culturing medium was observed in the HL-60 cells treated with vildagliptin and M20.7. Therefore, the parental vildagliptin- and M20.7-induced release of S100A8/A9 complex from immune cells, such as neutrophils, might be a contributing factor of vildagliptin-associated liver dysfunction in humans. PMID:27759084

  9. Cinnamaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells involves the mitochondrial death pathway and is sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporin A and z-VAD-fmk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chang, Shun-Pang; Chen, Jin-Liang; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-12-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) has been shown to exert chemopreventive activity against several types of human cancer cells. We previously reported that CIN induced apoptosis of human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells and this effect was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and the MAPK cascade. To further clarify the underlying mechanism of CIN-induced apoptosis, we examined in this study its relationship with the mitochondrial death pathway using the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), and the general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Results indicated that CIN-induced apoptosis involved enhanced ROS generation, disruption of mitochondrial potential, and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO into the cytosol, which in turn promoted caspase-3 to its active form and the subsequent cleavage of PARP. Treatment with CIN also downregulated protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors XIAP and Bcl-2 with concomitant accumulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax in a timedependent manner. These mitochondria-related apoptotic effects induced by CIN were however blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk pretreatments, which prevented cells from undergoing programmed cell death triggered by CIN. Furthermore, the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 and XIAP protein expression due to CIN treatment were also reversely modulated by the two inhibitors. Taken together, these results suggested that CIN is an apoptotic inducer that acts on the mitochondrial death pathway in PLC/PRF/5 cells and its effect could be blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk.

  10. Comparative study of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by herbicide S-metolachlor and its commercial formulation Twin Pack Gold® in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Nikoloff, Noelia; Escobar, Luciana; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2013-12-01

    The in vitro effects of S-metolachlor and its formulation Twin Pack Gold(®) (96% a.i.) were evaluated in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) and MTT assays as well as Neutral Red uptake were employed for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity evaluation. Activities were tested within the concentration range of 0.25-15 μg/ml S-metolachlor for 24h of exposure. Both compounds rendered a minor reduction in the NDI although not reaching statistical significance. Results demonstrated that the S-metolachlor was not able to induce MNs. On the other hand, 0.5-6 μg/ml Twin Pack Gold(®) increased the frequency of MNs. When cytotoxicity was estimated, S-metolachlor was not able to induce either a reduction of lysosomal or mitochondrial activity. Contrarily, whereas 1-15 μg/ml Twin Pack Gold(®) induced a significant reduction of mitochondrial activity, all tested concentrations of the formulated product induced a significant decrease of lysosomal performance as a function of the concentration of the S-metolachlor-based formulation titrated into cultures. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity differences obtained with pure S-metolachlor and the commercial S-metolachlor-based formulation indicate that the latter may contain additional unsafe xenobiotics and support the concept of the importance of evaluating not only the active principle but also the commercial formulation when estimating the real hazard from agrochemicals.

  11. Comparison of DNA damage in human-derived hepatoma line (HepG2) exposed to the fifteen drinking water disinfection byproducts using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Liang; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Xie, Hong; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2012-01-24

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but generates disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. In this study, the effect of fifteen DBPs on DNA damage in human-derived hepatoma line (HepG2) was investigated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. These fifteen DBPs are: four trihalomethanes (THMs), six haloacetic acides (HAAs), three haloacetonitriles (HANs), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), and chloral hydrate (CH). Based on the minimal effective concentration (MEC) at which DBPs induced significant increase in olive tail moment (OTM), the rank order of DNA-damaging potency is: bromodichloromethane (BDCM)>dibromochloromethane (DBCM)>tribromomethane (TBM)>trichloromethane (TCM) of the four THMs; iodoacetic acid (IA)>bromoacetic acid (BA)>dibromoacetic acid (DBA)>dichloracetic acid (DCA)>trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the five HAAs; dibromoacetonitrile (DBN)approximately dichloroacetonitrile (DCN)>trichloroacetonitrile (TCN) of the three HANs. The DNA damaging potency of MX and CH is similar to TCA and DCA, respectively. IA is the most genotoxic DBP in the fifteen DBPs, followed by BA. Chloroacetic acid (CA) is not genotoxic in this assay. Our findings indicated that HepG2/SCGE is a sensitive tool to evaluate the genotoxicity of DBPs and iodinated DBPs are more genotoxic than brominated DBPs, but chlorinated DBPs are less genotoxic than brominated DBPs.

  12. Protective effects of xanthohumol against the genotoxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines MeIQx and PhIP in bacteria and in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Zegura, Bojana; Pezdric, Marko; Novak, Matjaž; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia; Filipič, Metka

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies showed that xanthohumol (XN), a hop derived prenylflavonoid, very efficiently protects against genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of the food borne carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). In this study, we showed that XN was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and did not induce genomic instability in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In the bacteria XN suppressed the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8 dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) induced mutations in a dose dependent manner and in HepG2 cells it completely prevented PhIP and MeIQx induced DNA strand breaks at nanomolar concentrations. With the QRT-PCR gene expression analysis of the main enzymes involved in the biotransformation of HAAs in HepG2 cells we found that XN upregulates the expression of phase I (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) and phase II (UGT1A1) enzymes. Further gene expression analysis in cells exposed to MeIQx and PhIP in combination with XN revealed that XN mediated up-regulation of UGT1A1 expression may be important mechanism of XN mediated protection against HAAs induced genotoxicity. Our findings confirm the evidence that XN displays strong chemopreventive effects against genotoxicity of HAAs, and provides additional mechanistic information to assess its potential chemopreventive efficiency in humans. PMID:22138251

  13. Cytochrome P4501A induction, benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, and nucleotide adduct formation in fish hepatoma cells: Effect of preexposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smeets, J.M.W.; Voormolen, A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Everaarts, J.M.; Seinen, W.; Vanden Berg, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    In PLHC-1 hepatoma cells, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) caused a maximum induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), after 4 to 8 h of exposure, depending on the B[a]P concentration. The decline of EROD activity at longer exposure times was probably caused by the rapid metabolism of B[a]P in this system (57% metabolism within 4 h incubation). In subsequent experiments, PLHC-1 cells were preinduced with PCB 126 for 24 h and then received a dose of 10, 100, or 1,000 nM 3H-B[a]P. A 1-nM concentration of PCB 126 caused an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity, resulting in an increase in B[a]P metabolism of less than 10%, except at the highest concentration of B[a]P (1,000 nM), where a 50% increase was observed. In another experiment, an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity caused a 20% increase in the metabolism of B[a]P (100 nM), and RNA adduct formation was increased approximately twofold. These results indicate that, at exposure concentrations up to 100 nM B[a]P, CYP1A activity is not rate limiting for B[a]P metabolism. Furthermore, CYP1A seems to also he specifically involved in B[a]P activation in PLHC-1 cells. However, CYP1A induction causes only a relatively small increase in activation, probably because of the action of other enzymes involved in B[a]P activation and deactivation.

  14. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. Increased oxidative stress and toxicity in ADH and CYP2E1 overexpressing human hepatoma VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2012-05-01

    High glucose mediated oxidative stress and cell death is a well documented phenomenon. Using VL-17A cells which are HepG2 cells over-expressing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and control HepG2 cells, the association of ADH and CYP2E1 with high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in liver cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured and apoptosis or necrosis was determined through caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and detecting decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and the formation of advanced glycated-end products were assessed. The levels of several antioxidants which included glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were altered in high glucose treated VL-17A cells. Greater toxicity was observed in VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose when compared to HepG2 cells. Oxidative stress parameters were greatly increased in high glucose exposed VL-17A cells and apoptotic cell death was observed. Inhibition of CYP2E1 or caspase 3 or addition of the antioxidant trolox led to significant decreases in high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Thus, the over-expression of ADH and CYP2E1 in liver cells is associated with increased high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity.

  16. Hepatoma-derived growth factor/nucleolin axis as a novel oncogenic pathway in liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Cher; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Kung, Mei-Lang; Chu, Tian-Huei; Yi, Li-Na; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Liu, Li-Feng; Wu, Han-Chung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Min-Chi; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2015-06-30

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) overexpression is involved in liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis. However, the receptor(s) and signaling for HDGF remain unclear. By using affinity chromatography and proteomic techniques, nucleolin (NCL) was identified and validated as a HDGF-interacting membrane protein in hepatoma cells. Exogenous HDGF elicited the membrane NCL accumulation within 0.5 hour by protein stabilization and transcriptional NCL upregulation within 24 hours. Blockade of surface NCL by antibodies neutralization potently suppressed HDGF uptake and HDGF-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in hepatoma cells. By using rescectd hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, immunohistochemical analysis revealed NCL overexpression was correlated with tumour grades, vascular invasion, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and the poor survival in HCC patients. Multivariate analysis showed NCL was an independent prognostic factor for survival outcome of HCC patients after surgery. To delineate the role of NCL in liver carcinogenesis, ectopic NCL overexpression promoted the oncogenic behaviours and induced PI3K/Akt activation in hepatoma cells. Conversely, NCL knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the oncogenic behaviours and PI3K/Akt signaling, which could be partially rescued by exogenous HDGF supply. In summary, this study provides the first evidence that surface NCL transmits the oncogenic signaling of HDGF and facilitates a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:25938538

  17. Anti-hepatoma effect of safrole from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Ye, Kuichuan; Wei, Qin; Jia, Renrong; Zhou, Lijun; Du, Yonghua; Xu, Jiao; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Shu, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the anti-hepatoma effect of safrole and elucidate its molecular mechanism, the human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells were incubated with various concentrations (40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 μg/ml) of safrole and the cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated. The results showed that both the cell proliferation determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium brominde (MTT) assay and cell colony determined by soft agar assay were significantly suppressed by safrole in a dose-time-dependent manner. Characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis, including cells shrinkage, deformation and vacuolization of mitochondria, nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies were observed when treated with safrole for 24 h and 48 h. Cell cycle changes evaluated by flow cytometry analysis showed that the safrole could induce accumulation of cells arrested at G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results demonstrated that safrole is potent anti-hepatoma agent and the underlying mechanism may be attributed to suppress tumor cell growth by inducing cell apoptosis. PMID:24966935

  18. Anti-hepatoma effect of safrole from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Ye, Kuichuan; Wei, Qin; Jia, Renrong; Zhou, Lijun; Du, Yonghua; Xu, Jiao; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Shu, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the anti-hepatoma effect of safrole and elucidate its molecular mechanism, the human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells were incubated with various concentrations (40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 μg/ml) of safrole and the cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated. The results showed that both the cell proliferation determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium brominde (MTT) assay and cell colony determined by soft agar assay were significantly suppressed by safrole in a dose-time-dependent manner. Characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis, including cells shrinkage, deformation and vacuolization of mitochondria, nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies were observed when treated with safrole for 24 h and 48 h. Cell cycle changes evaluated by flow cytometry analysis showed that the safrole could induce accumulation of cells arrested at G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results demonstrated that safrole is potent anti-hepatoma agent and the underlying mechanism may be attributed to suppress tumor cell growth by inducing cell apoptosis.

  19. Oroxylin A regulates glucose metabolism in response to hypoxic stress with the involvement of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qinsheng; Yin, Qian; Wei, Libin; Zhou, Yuxin; Qiao, Chen; Guo, Yongjian; Wang, Xiaotang; Ma, Shiping; Lu, Na

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic alteration in cancer cells is one of the most conspicuous characteristics that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. In this study, we investigated the influence and signaling ways of oroxylin A affecting cancer cell energy metabolism under hypoxia. The data showed that oroxylin A remarkably reduced the generation of lactate and glucose uptake under hypoxia in HepG2 cells. Moreover, oroxylin A inhibited HIF-1α expression and its stability. The downstream targets (PDK1, LDHA, and HK II), as well as their mRNA levels were also suppressed by oroxylin A under hypoxia. The silencing or the overexpression of HIF-1α assays suggested that HIF-1α is required for metabolic effect of oroxylin A in HepG2 cells during hypoxia. Furthermore, oroxylin A could reduce the expression of complex III in mitochondrial respiratory chain, and then decrease the accumulation of ROS at moderate concentrations (0-50 µM) under hypoxia, which was benefit for its inhibition on glycolytic activity by decreasing ROS-mediated HIF-1 expression. Besides, oroxylin A didn't cause the loss of MMP under hypoxia and had no obvious effects on the expression of OXPHOS complexes, suggesting that oroxylin A did not affect mitochondrial mass at the moderate stress of oroxylin A. The suppressive effect of oroxylin A on glycolysis led to a significantly repress of ATP generation, for ATP generation mostly depends on glycolysis in HepG2 cells. This study revealed a new aspect of glucose metabolism regulation of oroxylin A under hypoxia, which may contribute to its new anticancer mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26259145

  20. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-11-30

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull extract and its molecular mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Fathalizadeh, J; Bagheri, V; Khorramdelazad, H; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Jafarzadeh, A; Mirzaei, M R; Shamsizadeh, A; Hajizadeh, M R

    2015-01-01

    Several important Pistacia species such as P. vera have been traditionally used for treating a wide range of diseases (for instance, liver-related disorders). There is a relative lack of research into pharmacological aspects of pistachio hull. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating whether pistachio rosy hull (PRH) extract exerts apoptotic impacts on HepG2 liver cancer cell line. In order to evaluate cell viability and apoptosis in response to treatment with the extract, MTT assay and Annexin-V-fluorescein/propidium iodide (PI) double staining were performed, respectively. Moreover, molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by the extract was determined using human apoptosis PCR array. Our findings showed that PRH extract treatment reduced cell viability (IC50 ~ 0.3 mg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract significantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In addition, quantitative PCR array results demonstrated the regulation of a considerable number of apoptosis-related genes belonging to the TNF, BCL2, IAP, TRAF, and caspase families. We observed altered expression of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes associated with the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of PRH possesses apoptotic activity through cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on HepG2 cells. PMID:26638894

  2. Role of retinoic acid in the modulation of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in human hepatoma cells: Implications for cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guodong; Richardson, Molly; Fazili, Inayat S.; Wang, Jianbo; Donnelly, Kirby C.; Wang Fen; Amendt, Brad; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2010-12-15

    Carcinogen-DNA adducts could lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually resulting in cancer. Many studies have shown that retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in inducing cell apoptosis. Here we have tested the hypothesis that levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts can be diminished by DNA repair and/or by eliminating damaged cells through apoptosis. Our results showed that the levels of total DNA adducts in HepG2 cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BP, 2 {mu}M) + RA (1 {mu}M) were significantly reduced compared to those treated with BP only (P = 0.038). In order to understand the mechanism of attenuation of DNA adducts, further experiments were performed. Cells were treated with BP (4 {mu}M) for 24 h to initiate DNA adduct formation, following which the medium containing BP was removed, and fresh medium containing 1 {mu}M RA was added. The cells were harvested 24 h after RA treatment. Interestingly, the levels of total DNA adducts were lower in the BP/RA group (390 {+-} 34) than those in the BP/DMSO group (544 {+-} 33), P = 0.032. Analysis of cell apoptosis showed an increase in BP + RA group, compared to BP or RA only groups. Our results also indicated that attenuation of BP-DNA adducts by RA was not primarily due to its effects on CYP1A1 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest a mechanistic link between cellular apoptosis and DNA adduct formation, phenomena that play important roles in BP-mediated carcinogenesis. Furthermore, these results help understand the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, especially in relation to the chemopreventive properties of nutritional apoptosis inducers.

  3. Mapping the response of human fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) promoter to serum availability and lipoic acid in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengna; Erickson, Anjeza; Yi, Xiaohua; Moreau, Régis

    2016-03-01

    The hormone-like polypeptide, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is a major modulator of lipid and glucose metabolism and an exploratory treatment strategy for obesity related metabolic disorders. The costs of recombinant FGF21 and mode of delivery by injection are important constraints to its wide therapeutic use. The stimulation of endogenous FGF21 production through diet is being explored as an alternative approach. To that end, we examined the mechanism(s) by which serum manipulation and lipoic acid (a dietary activator of FGF21) induce FGF21 in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Serum withdrawal markedly induced FGF21 mRNA levels (88 fold) and FGF21 secreted in the media (19 fold). Lipoic acid induced FGF21 mRNA 7 fold above DMSO-treated control cells and FGF21 secretion 3 fold. These effects were several-fold greater than those of PPARα agonist, Wy14643, which failed to induce FGF21 above and beyond the induction seen with serum withdrawal. The use of transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, revealed that de novo mRNA synthesis drives FGF21 secretion in response to serum starvation. Four previously unrecognized loci in FGF21 promoter were nucleosome depleted and enriched in acetylated histone H3 revealing their role as transcriptional enhancers and putative transcription factor binding sites. FGF21 did not accumulate to a significant degree in induced HepG2 cells, which secreted FGF21 time dependently in media. We conclude that lipoic acid cell signaling connects with the transcriptional upregulation of FGF21 and it may prove to be a safe and affordable means to stimulate FGF21 production. PMID:26691139

  4. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes.

  5. Detection of main metabolites of XLR-11 and its thermal degradation product in human hepatoma HepaRG cells and human urine.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Kanda, Koji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Iwata, Yuko Togawa; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    The metabolism of (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (XLR-11), a novel synthetic cannabinoid, was studied using a HepaRG cell culture. The HepaRG cells were incubated with the drug for 48 hours and the metabolites were extracted from the culture medium by liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect the metabolites. N-(5-Hydroxypentyl) metabolite and N-pentanoic acid metabolite were identified in the culture medium of XLR-11, and several other metabolites, presumably formed by oxidation of the first two metabolites and XLR-11, were detected. The extract of an XLR-11 user's urine was also analyzed; however, the metabolites detected in the urine were different from XLR-11 metabolites in the medium. A metabolic experiment with the thermal degradation product of XLR-11, XLR-11 degradant, using HepaRG cells revealed that the urinary metabolites were almost identical to the XLR-11 degradant metabolites. These findings suggest that most of the XLR-11 was degraded by heating when the user smoked the herbal product containing XLR-11.

  6. A base substitution in the promoter associated with the human haptoglobin 2-1 modified phenotype decreases transcriptional activity and responsiveness to interleukin-6 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.J.; Maeda, N. )

    1993-05-01

    An A-to-C base substitution at nucleotide position -61 in the promoter region of the human haptoglobin gene (Hp) has been shown to be strongly associated with the haptoglobin 2-1 modified (Hp2-1mod) phenotype. In order to investigate whether this base substitution is the cause of reduced expression of the Hp[sup 2] allele relative to the Hp[sup 1] allele in individuals with the Hp2-1mod phenotype, the authors used the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) expression system to evaluate promoter function. In HepG2 cells, which normally express their endogenous haptoglobin genes, CAT plasmid constructs with the -61C base change in the promoter had about 10-fold-lower transcriptional activity after transfection than did the Hp control construct. The -61C substitution also rendered the construct unresponsive to treatment by interleukin-6 after transfection into Hep3B2 cells, which normally do not express haptoglobin but do so in response to stimulation by acute-phase reactants. In addition, two base substitutions, T to A and A to G, at positions -104 and -55G, respectively, in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 1] allele, are also associated with the Hp2-1mod phenotype. CAT constructs with both substitutions (-104A-55G) and with one substitution (-55G) showed activity similar to that in the Hp control when transfected into both HepG2 and Hep3B2 cells, although interleukin-6 induction was less than with the Hp control construct. These results further support the hypothesis that the Hp2-1mod phenotype results, in part, from the -61C mutation in the promoter region of the Hp[sup 2] gene.

  7. Induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 by tanshinones in human HepG2 hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Rong; Sun Jianguo; Ma Liping; Wu Xiaolan; Pan Guoyu; Hao Haiping; Zhou Fang; Jiye, A; Liu Changhui; Ai Hua; Shang Lili; Gao Haiyan; Peng Ying; Wan Ping; Wu Hui; Wang Guangji

    2011-04-01

    Diterpenoid tanshinones including tanshinone IIA (TIIA), cryptotanshinone (CTS), tanshinone I (TI) and dihydrotanshinone I (DHTI) are the major bioactive components from Danshen. The major aim of our present study was to investigate the induction potential of these four main components of tanshinones (TIIA, CTS, TI, and DHTI) on the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that all of these four tanshinones caused a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the amount of CYP1A1/2 expression in HepG2 cells. These induction effects were further characterized through transcriptional regulation: the induction of CYP1A1/2 mRNA level by tanshinones was completely blocked by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D; the expression of CYP1A1/2 heterogeneous nuclear RNA was induced by tanshinone treatment; and CYP1A1 mRNA stability was not influenced by these tanshinones. Interestingly, tanshinones plus B[a]P produced additive/synergistic effect on CYP1A1/2 induction. In addition, the tanshinone-induced CYP1A1/2 expression was abolished by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist resveratrol, suggesting an AhR dependent transcription mechanism. In the reporter gene assay, while TI and DHTI significantly induced AhR-dependent luciferase activity, TIIA and CTS failed to induce this activity. Collectively, the tanshinones could induce CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through transcriptional activation mechanism and exert differential effects on activating AhR in HepG2 cells. Our findings suggest that rational administration of tanshinones should be considered with respect to their effect on AhR and CYP1A1/2 expression.

  8. Comparative evaluation of N-acetylcysteine and N-acetylcysteineamide in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in human hepatoma HepaRG cells

    PubMed Central

    Tobwala, Shakila; Khayyat, Ahdab; Fan, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is one of the most widely used over-the-counter antipyretic analgesic medications. Despite being safe at therapeutic doses, an accidental or intentional overdose can result in severe hepatotoxicity; a leading cause of drug-induced liver failure in the U.S. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) is implicated as an initiating event in APAP-induced toxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, is the only currently approved antidote for an APAP overdose. Unfortunately, fairly high doses and longer treatment times are required due to its poor bioavailability. In addition, oral and intravenous administration of NAC in a hospital setting are laborious and costly. Therefore, we studied the protective effects of N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a novel antioxidant, with higher bioavailability and compared it with NAC in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in a human-relevant in vitro system, HepaRG. Our results indicated that exposure of HepaRG cells to APAP resulted in GSH depletion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction (assessed by JC-1 fluorescence), and lactate dehydrogenase release. Both NAC and NACA protected against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by restoring GSH levels, scavenging ROS, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and preserving mitochondrial membrane potential. However, NACA was better than NAC at combating oxidative stress and protecting against APAP-induced damage. The higher efficiency of NACA in protecting cells against APAP-induced toxicity suggests that NACA can be developed into a promising therapeutic option for treatment of an APAP overdose. PMID:25245075

  9. AP-1 Inhibition by SR 11302 Protects Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells from Bile Acid-Induced Cytotoxicity by Restoring the NOS-3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    González-Rubio, Sandra; Linares, Clara I.; Aguilar-Melero, Patricia; Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel; Montero-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis. The cytotoxic response to GCDCA was characterized by 1) the increased expression and activation of TFs cJun and c-Fos; 2) a higher binding capability of these at position -666 of the NOS-3 promoter; 3) a decrease of the transcriptional activity of the promoter and the expression and activity of NOS-3; and 4) the expression increase of cyclin D1. Specific inhibition of AP-1 by the retinoid SR 11302 counteracted the cytotoxic effects induced by GCDCA while promoting NOS-3 expression recovery and cyclin D1 reduction. NOS activity inhibition by L-NAME inhibited the protective effect of SR 11302. Inducible NOS isoform was no detected in this experimental model of cholestasis. Our data provide direct evidence for the involvement of AP-1 in the NOS-3 expression regulation during cholestasis and define a critical role for NOS-3 in regulating the expression of cyclin D1 during the cell damage induced by bile acids. AP-1 appears as a potential therapeutic target in cholestatic liver diseases given its role as a transcriptional repressor of NOS-3. PMID:27490694

  10. Metabolism of a Representative Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC–UV–fluorescence detection and LC–MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH. PMID:24646012

  11. Metabolism of a representative oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blaha, Michael A; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH.

  12. Anti-hepatoma activity of a novel compound glaucocalyxin H in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hai, Guangfan; Zhang, Chong; Jia, Yanlong; Bai, Suping; Han, Jinfen; Guo, Lanqing; Cui, Taizhen; Niu, Bingxuan; Huang, Feng; Song, Yu

    2015-06-01

    Glaucocalyxin H (GLH) is a new compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medical herb Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx which has been used for folk medicine. This study was carried out for the first time to investigate the potential role of GLH in anti-hepatoma activity and underlying mechanisms in it. GLH could inhibit the growth of tumor in mice and induce HepG2 cells to death as assessed by the tumor reduction assay, toxic assay, morphological change, and survival rate assay. Many antitumor drugs originated from plants could inhibit the growth of tumor by inducing cells to apoptosis. The morphological changes of HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of GLH under fluorescence and electron microscope and apoptotic rates were detected to verify its effect on apoptosis. As shown in the study, GLH could induce HepG2 cells to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Bcl2 and Bax proteins played important roles in apoptosis and the disequilibrium between Bcl2 and Bax might result in apoptosis. The expression of Bax protein was upregulated and Bcl2 protein was downregulated in HepG2 cells treated with GLH assessed by Western blotting, and they were in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, GLH can inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing cell apoptosis due to the decreased Bcl2 and increased Bax proteins suggesting that GLH could be a potential candidate as an anti-hepatoma agent for the therapeutic treatment of hepatoma. PMID:25374342

  13. Anti-hepatoma activity of a novel compound glaucocalyxin H in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hai, Guangfan; Zhang, Chong; Jia, Yanlong; Bai, Suping; Han, Jinfen; Guo, Lanqing; Cui, Taizhen; Niu, Bingxuan; Huang, Feng; Song, Yu

    2015-06-01

    Glaucocalyxin H (GLH) is a new compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medical herb Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx which has been used for folk medicine. This study was carried out for the first time to investigate the potential role of GLH in anti-hepatoma activity and underlying mechanisms in it. GLH could inhibit the growth of tumor in mice and induce HepG2 cells to death as assessed by the tumor reduction assay, toxic assay, morphological change, and survival rate assay. Many antitumor drugs originated from plants could inhibit the growth of tumor by inducing cells to apoptosis. The morphological changes of HepG2 cells treated with different concentrations of GLH under fluorescence and electron microscope and apoptotic rates were detected to verify its effect on apoptosis. As shown in the study, GLH could induce HepG2 cells to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Bcl2 and Bax proteins played important roles in apoptosis and the disequilibrium between Bcl2 and Bax might result in apoptosis. The expression of Bax protein was upregulated and Bcl2 protein was downregulated in HepG2 cells treated with GLH assessed by Western blotting, and they were in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, GLH can inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing cell apoptosis due to the decreased Bcl2 and increased Bax proteins suggesting that GLH could be a potential candidate as an anti-hepatoma agent for the therapeutic treatment of hepatoma.

  14. The acute transcriptomic and proteomic response of HC-04 hepatoma cells to hepatocyte growth factor and its implications for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite invasion.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dingyin; King, Jonas G; Tweedell, Rebecca E; Jost, Philipp J; Boddey, Justin A; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2014-05-01

    The routine study of human malaria liver-stage biology in vitro is hampered by low infection efficiency of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lines (<0.1%), poor understanding of steady-state HCC biology, and lack of appropriate tools for trace sample analysis. HC-04 is the only HCC that supports complete development of human malaria parasites. We hypothesized that HCCs are in various intermediate stages of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HC-04s retain epithelial characteristics that permit infection. We developed a facile analytical approach to test this hypothesis viz. the HC-04 response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We used online two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) to quantify protein expression profiles in HC-04 pre-/post-HGF treatment and validated these results by RT-qPCR and microscopy. We successfully increased protein identification efficiency over offline-2D methods by 12-fold, using less sample material, allowing robust protein quantification. We observed expected up-regulation and down-regulation of EMT protein markers in response to HGF, but also unexpected cellular responses. We also observed that HC-04 is generally more susceptible to HGF-mediated signaling than what was observed for HepG2, a widely used, but poor malaria liver stage-HCC model. Our analytical approach to understanding the basic biology of HC-04 helps us understand the factors that may influence its utility as a model for malaria liver-stage development. We observed that HC-04 treatment with HGF prior to the addition of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites did not facilitate cell invasion, which suggests unlinking the effect of HGF on malaria liver stage development from hepatocyte invasion. Finally, our 2D-LC-MS/MS approach and broadly applicable experimental strategy should prove useful in the analysis of various hepatocyte-pathogen interactions, tumor progression, and early disease events.

  15. The Acute Transcriptomic and Proteomic Response of HC-04 Hepatoma Cells to Hepatocyte Growth Factor and its Implications for Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Dingyin; King, Jonas G.; Tweedell, Rebecca E.; Jost, Philipp J.; Boddey, Justin A.; Dinglasan, Rhoel R.

    2014-01-01

    The routine study of human malaria liver-stage biology in vitro is hampered by low infection efficiency of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lines (<0.1%), poor understanding of steady-state HCC biology, and lack of appropriate tools for trace sample analysis. HC-04 is the only HCC that supports complete development of human malaria parasites. We hypothesized that HCCs are in various intermediate stages of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HC-04s retain epithelial characteristics that permit infection. We developed a facile analytical approach to test this hypothesis viz. the HC-04 response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We used online two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) to quantify protein expression profiles in HC-04 pre-/post-HGF treatment and validated these results by RT-qPCR and microscopy. We successfully increased protein identification efficiency over offline-2D methods by 12-fold, using less sample material, allowing robust protein quantification. We observed expected up-regulation and down-regulation of EMT protein markers in response to HGF, but also unexpected cellular responses. We also observed that HC-04 is generally more susceptible to HGF-mediated signaling than what was observed for HepG2, a widely used, but poor malaria liver stage-HCC model. Our analytical approach to understanding the basic biology of HC-04 helps us understand the factors that may influence its utility as a model for malaria liver-stage development. We observed that HC-04 treatment with HGF prior to the addition of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites did not facilitate cell invasion, which suggests unlinking the effect of HGF on malaria liver stage development from hepatocyte invasion. Finally, our 2D-LC-MS/MS approach and broadly applicable experimental strategy should prove useful in the analysis of various hepatocyte-pathogen interactions, tumor progression, and early disease events. PMID:24532842

  16. Transforming DNA sequences of human hepatocellular carcinomas, their distribution and relationship with hepatitis B virus sequence in human hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Modali, R; Parks, J B; Taub, J V

    1988-12-01

    Several related human transforming DNA sequences, hhc, and a putative normal liver homologue, c-hhc, have been molecularly cloned from the genomic DNAs of individual African and Asian hepatomas and from normal liver respectively. hhcM (Mahlavu) and hhcK3 (Korean), but not c-hhc, transformed NIH3T3 cells in DNA-mediated gene transfer assays. Transformed cells were found tumorigenic in athymic NIH Swiss nu/nu mice. In view of recent epidemiological studies implicating hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection early in life as causative for the eventual development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in humans in Southeast Asia, the Far-East, and certain areas of Africa, we hereby analyzed the relationship between these hhcs and HBV in a survey of 20 hepatomas for DNA sequences homologous to hhcM and HBV by sequential hybridizations against [32p]hhcM and [32p]HBV probes. hhcM related DNA sequence were found highly amplified in 80% of the 20 hepatomas but HBV DNA sequence was rare or low. hhcM lends itself as a marker for human hepatomas. However, overall results indicated that patients with integrated HBV DNA sequences showed high copy number of hhcM sequence. Furthermore, EcoR1-restricted hepatoma DNAs showed that HBV and hhcM DNA sequences resided at different fragments in hepatomas. Our results suggest that HBV contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis probably via an activation mechanism involving possibly an integration or transient interaction of HBV DNA with hepatocyte DNA sequences, leading to recombination and eventual amplifications of the hhcM sequence in Mahlavu.

  17. Daily timed meals dissociate circadian rhythms in hepatoma and healthy host liver.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Alec J; Straume, Martin; Block, Gene D; Menaker, Michael

    2006-04-01

    Dividing cells, including human cancers, organize processes necessary for their duplication according to circadian time. Recent evidence has shown that disruption of central regulation of circadian rhythms can increase the rate at which a variety of cancers develop in rodents. To study circadian rhythms in liver tumors, we have chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in transgenic rats bearing a luciferase reporter gene attached to the promoter of a core circadian clock gene (Period 1). We explanted normal liver cells and hepatomas, placed them into short-term culture, and precisely measured their molecular clock function by recording light output. Results show that isolated hepatocellular carcinoma is capable of generating circadian rhythms in vitro. Temporally restricting food availability to either day or night altered the phase of the rhythms in both healthy and malignant tissue. However, the hepatomas were much less sensitive to this signal resulting in markedly different phase relationships between host and tumor tissue as a function of mealtime. These data support the conclusion that hepatoma is differentially sensitive to circadian timing signals, although it maintains the circadian organization of the nonmalignant cells from which it arose. Because circadian clocks are known to modulate the sensitivity of many therapeutic cytotoxic targets, controlling meal-timing might be used to increase the efficacy of treatment. Specifically, meal and treatment schedules could be designed that take advantage of coincident times of greatest tumor sensitivity and lowest sensitivity of host tissue to damage.

  18. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres ((131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of (131)I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to (131)I alone, (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the (131)I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma.

  19. Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres: 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Zhang, Dongsheng; Jiang, Xingmao; Zhang, Jia; Yu, Hong; Xiao, Yanhong; Shi, Yujuan; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres (131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of 131I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to 131I alone, 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma. PMID:26981334

  20. Hepatotoxins and liver transplantation decrease pulmonary metastases in rats with hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Freise, C E; Liu, T; Ascher, N L; Roberts, J P

    1996-08-01

    Results following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma have been dismal, attributed largely to recurrent disease locally or at distance sites. Undetected micrometastases or tumor that embolizes at the time of liver transplant from manipulation of the liver may account for these recurrences. A model and treatment protocol were developed to address this clinical problem. The protocol is modeled on the concept of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia. Hepatotoxins that are lethal to both normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells are administered followed by liver transplantation to "rescue" the failing liver. The feasibility of this protocol was examined in a rat model. Male Buffalo rats were injected with 1 million Morris hepatoma MH-7777 cells intravenously at Day 0 as a model for micrometastatic disease. Three treatment groups were established. Group 1 received no treatment. Group 2 received 5% dextrose in water (D5W) followed by a syngeneic orthotopic liver transplant (OLTX). Group 3 received the hepatotoxin pyrazofuin (10 mg/kg) followed by OLTX. Animals were followed to Day 35, at which time they were sacrificed and examined for evidence of pulmonary metastases and quantitation of nodules with India ink insufflation. There was a significant decrease in the number with pulmonary nodules as well as the number of animals with pulmonary metastatic disease in the pyrazofurin-treated group compared with groups 1 and 2 (4.8 +/- 4.0 nodules/animal vs 45.2 +/- 11.2 nodules/animal--no treatment and 60.8 +/- 21.4 nodules animal--D5W/OLTX group) These data indicate that this model is reliable for examining metastatic hepatoma and that pyrazofurin is effective in preventing hematogenous micrometastases of hepatoma cells. Other hepatotoxins and the effect of allogeneic transplantation and immunosuppression could be examined in this model.

  1. Trout hepatoma--a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; Wolf, H.

    1961-01-01

    Fish pathology and its role in fish culture were brought into prominence in the spring of 1960 by the disclosure of a high incidence of hepatomas in hatchery-reared rainbow trout. The current problem came to light as the result of a routine inspection of live trout shipments at a California border fish-disease checking station. This service is performed by personnel of the California Department of Fish and Game to preclude the introduction or further spread of communicable fish diseases into California watersheds. Collaborative studies which followed revealed the nationwide distribution of the disease. This unusual disease soon attracted the attention of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the Food and Drug Administration, Public Health Service, and several western State health and conservation agencies.

  2. Glucose utilization in a patient with hepatoma and hypoglycemia. Assessment by a positron emission tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, R C; Carson, R E; Orloff, D G; Cochran, C S; Perdue, J F; Rechler, M M; Lanau, F; Roberts, C T; Shapiro, J; Roth, J

    1992-01-01

    Tumor glucose use in patients with non-islet-cell tumors has been difficult to measure, particularly in hepatoma, because of hepatic involvement by neoplasm. We studied a patient with nonhepatic recurrence of hepatoma after successful liver transplantation. Tumor tissue contained messenger RNA for insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and circulating high molecular weight components and E-peptide of IGF-II were increased. Glucose use measured by isotope dilution with [3-3H]glucose was 7.94 mg/kg fat-free mass per min, and splanchnic glucose production was 0.93 mg/kg fat-free mass per min. Glucose uptake and glucose model parameters were independently measured in tissues by positron emission tomography with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Glucose uptake by heart muscle, liver, skeletal muscle, and neoplasm accounted for 0.8, 14, 44, and 15% of total glucose use, respectively. Model parameters in liver and neoplasm were not significantly different, and glucose transport and phosphorylation were twofold and fourfold greater than in muscle. This suggests that circulating IGF-II-like proteins are partial insulin agonists, and that hypoglycemia in hepatoma with IGF-II production is predominantly due to glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and suppression of glucose production. PMID:1318326

  3. Creation of a murine orthotopic hepatoma model with intra-abdominal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jamie; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Chiu, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To create an orthotopic hepatoma model with local metastasis monitored with ultrasound could be created as a platform for testing new treatments. Background: Hepatoma accounts for 25% of liver tumors in children with poor overall survival. Intraabdominal metastasis are present in 35% of patients at time of diagnosis. We hypothesized that an orthotopic tumor model with local metastasis could be created as a platform for testing treatment modalities and could be monitored with ultrasound. Patients and methods: One million human hepatoma cells (Hep3B) were injected into the left lobe of the liver of immunocompromised mice. Tumor volume was monitored with high frequency-ultrasound until it reached 1,000mm3. At that time animals were sacrificed and examined for gross metastatic disease. Tumor sections were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Results: Tumor formed in 8/15 mice. The tumor was detected as small as 19.59mm3 on ultrasound. Of the forming tumors, tumor size was 145±177.93mm3 at 60 days post-injection, 665±650.39mm3 at 67 days, and reached >1000mm3 by 76.6±9.9 days. At necropsy, four mice (50%) had tumor only within the liver, four (50%) had additional tumors in omentum, pelvis and peritoneum. H&E showed tumor within the normal liver parenchyma, with multiple mitotic figures, small areas of necrosis, and hemorrhage within the tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully established an orthotopic hepatoma murine model, with a local metastatic rate of 50%. Non-invasive tumor monitoring is feasible via ultrasound. PMID:27458509

  4. Lysosomal accumulation of gallium-67 in Morris hepatoma-7316A and Shionogi mammary carcinoma-115.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Okuyama, S; Takusagawa, K; Matsuzawa, T

    1978-04-01

    Intracellular localization of gallium-67 was investigated in Morris hepatoma-7316A and Shionogi mammary carcinoma-115 cells by the cell fractionation method 48 hr after an intraperitoneal injection of the nuclide. When lysosomes were purified from both tumors by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, they had a strikingly high relative specific activity of the nuclide. From these results it was confirmed that gallium-67 is concentrated most specifically in the lysosomes of both tumor cells, which consist chiefly of phagolysosomes and can engulf only limited amount of foreign materials such as Triton and gallium-67. PMID:210077

  5. Active pixel sensors in AMS H18/H35 HV-CMOS technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-09-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement signal processing electronics in deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150 V leading to a depletion depth of several 10 μm. Prototype sensors in the AMS H18 180 nm and H35 350 nm HV-CMOS processes were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiations with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses of 1 Grad while Edge-TCT studies assessed the effects of radiation on the charge collection. The sensors showed high detection efficiencies after neutron irradiation to 1015neq cm-2 in testbeam experiments. A full reticle size demonstrator chip, implemented in the H35 process is being submitted to prove the large scale feasibility of the HV-CMOS concept.

  6. Correlations between heparan sulfate metabolism and hepatoma growth.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, M; Conrad, H E

    1989-03-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line (Gershenson et al., Science, 170:859-861, 1970) contains a dynamic steady-state pool of free heparan sulfate (HS) chains in the nucleus that increases in amount when growing cells reach confluence (Fedarko and Conrad, J. Cell Biol., 102:587-599, 1986). In logarithmically growing cells labeled with 35SO4(2-) steady-state levels of [35SO4]HS in the nucleus are altered by a variety of culture conditions. Rapidly dividing cells (doubling time = 18-22 h) growing under optimized conditions had steady-state levels of nuclear HS within the range of 40-50 pmol 35SO4 in nuclear HS/10(6) cells. The steady-state levels of nuclear HS were lowered by several changes in culture conditions, including 1) additions of 1 mM p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xyloside, 0.25-0.5 mM (+)-catechin, 0.5 ng/ml transforming growth factor beta, 20 ng/ml phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, 1 mM dibutyryl cAMP, or 1 mM inositol-2-PO4; 2) decreased levels of D-glucose; or 3) deletions of serum, insulin, or inositol. In all cases lowering of the nuclear HS level was accompanied by an increase in the cell doubling times, suggesting a correlation in which nuclear HS levels must be optimized for maximal growth rates. When cells cultured under optimal growth conditions reached confluence, the level of nuclear HS increased threefold and the cells stopped dividing. The same culture conditions that lowered the steady-state levels of HS in the logarithmically growing cells prevented this rise in the nuclear HS as the cells reached confluence and resulted in loss of contact inhibition and overgrowth of the confluent cultures. These observations suggest a second correlation in which elevated nuclear HS levels are found when cell growth is inhibited at confluence; prevention of this rise results in continued growth. Consistent with this correlation between elevated nuclear HS and reduced growth rates, it was observed that addition of either 0.5 microgram/ml hydrocortisone or 0.05 microgram

  7. Molecular switch of Cre/loxP for radiation modulated gene therapy on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Fu Hui; Ke, Chien Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    For the purpose of enhancement of AFP promoter for the use of radiation modulated gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we combined hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer II with AFP promoter which shows the selectivity to the target cells to control the Cre/loxP system. Different gene constructs, pE4luc, pE4Tk, EIIAPA-Cre, E4CMV-STOP-Tk and chimeric promoters combined with HBV enhancer were constructed and transfected into HepG2, HeLa and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Cell experiments revealed that E4 enhancer responses to radiation best after 60 h irradiation at a dose range of 5-7 Gy in HepG2 stable clone. The EIIAPA promoter provided high specificity to hepatoma and activated the Cre downstream and removed the stop cassette only in hepatoma cells. After removal of the stop cassette, the E4 response to radiation could encode more Tk protein and kill more tumor cells. In summary, the chimeric EIIAPA promoter can stringently control the expression of Cre recombinase only in HCC. The radiation effect of the EIIAPA-Cre and E4CMV-STOP-Tk system shows promising results in terms of cell survival of HCC.

  8. Fucoxanthin Attenuates Rifampin-Induced Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Multiple Drug Resistance 1 (MDR1) Gene Expression Through Pregnane X Receptor (PXR)-Mediated Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Colon Adenocarcinoma LS174T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cheng-Ling; Lim, Yun-Ping; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been reported to regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) family and transporters, such as multiple drug resistance 1 (MDR1). Fucoxanthin, the major carotenoid in brown sea algae, is a putative chemopreventive agent. In this study, we determined whether fucoxanthin could overcome drug resistance through attenuation of rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by PXR-mediated pathways in HepG2 hepatoma cells. We found that fucoxanthin (1–10 μM) significantly attenuated rifampin (20 μM)-induced CYP3A4, MDR1 mRNA and CYP3A4 protein expression at 24 h of incubation. Mechanistically, fucoxanthin strongly attenuated the PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In addition, fucoxanthin attenuated constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)- and rPXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activity in this cell line. Using the mammalian two-hybrid assay, we found that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the interaction between PXR and SRC-1, a PXR co-activator. Thus, fucoxanthin can decrease rifampin-induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression through attenuation of PXR-mediated CYP3A4 promoter activation and interaction between PXR and co-activator. These findings could lead to potentially important new therapeutic and dietary approaches to reduce the frequency of adverse drug reactions. PMID:22363234

  9. Contradicting interplay between insulin-like growth factor-1 and miR-486-5p in primary NK cells and hepatoma cell lines with a contemporary inhibitory impact on HCC tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Youness, Rana Ahmed; Rahmoon, Mai Atef; Assal, Reem Amr; Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Hamza, Mohamed Tarif; Waked, Imam; El Tayebi, Hend Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an impaired natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity in 135 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients parallel to a reduced expression level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in NK cells of HCC patients has been revealed. Ectopic expression of miR-486-5p, a direct upstream regulator of IGF-1, restored the endogenous level of IGF-1 in NK cells of HCC patients, thus augmenting its cytolytic activity against Huh7 cells in an opposite manner to the IGF-1 siRNAs. Unorthodoxly, over-expression of miR-486-5p in target hepatocytes resulted in the repression of IGF-1, suppression of Huh7 cells proliferation and viability in a similar pattern to the IGF-1 siRNAs. Therefore, this study highlights a potential role of IGF-1 in modulating cytolytic potential of NK cells of HCC patients. miR-486-5p acts in a cell-specific manner, differentially modulating IGF-1 expression in NK cells and their target hepatocytes with a contemporary inhibitory impact on HCC progression.

  10. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Shafarin, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins. PMID:27441638

  11. Galactose-functionalized multi-responsive nanogels for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Shaofeng; Gao, Shan; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Ju; Wang, Chun; Li, Chen; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using a combination of enzymatic transesterification and emulsion copolymerization for intracellular drug delivery. The nanogel exhibited redox, pH and temperature-responsive properties, which can be adjusted by varying the monomer feeding ratio. Furthermore, the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels was close to body temperature and can result in rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy also revealed that the P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel showed uniform spherical monodispersion. With pyrene as a probe, the fluorescence excitation spectra demonstrated nanogel degradation in response to glutathione (GSH). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed an amorphous property of DOX within the nanogel, which was used in this study as a model anti-cancer drug. Drug-releasing characteristics of the nanogel were examined in vitro. The results showed multi-responsiveness of DOX release by the variation of environmental pH values, temperature or the availability of GSH, a biological reductase. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed a higher anti-tumor activity of the galactose-functionalized DOX-loaded nanogels against human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which was, at least in part, due to specific binding between the galactose segments and the asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-Rs) in hepatic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometric profiles further confirmed elevated cellular uptake of DOX by the galactose-functionalised nanogels. Thus, we report here a multi-responsive P(ODGal-VCL-MAA) nanogel with a hepatoma-specific targeting ability for anti-cancer drug delivery.We report here a hepatoma-targeting multi-responsive biodegradable crosslinked nanogel, poly(6-O-vinyladipoyl-d-galactose-ss-N-vinylcaprolactam-ss-methacrylic acid) P(ODGal-VCL-MAA), using

  12. Aspafilioside B induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by up-regulating H-Ras and N-Ras via ERK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ning, Rui; Chen, Rui-Ni; Huang, Xue-Feng; Dai, Qin-Sheng; Hu, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Li-Li; Xiong, Jing; Hu, Gang; Guo, Qing-Long; Yang, Jian; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    We recently establish that aspafilioside B, a steroidal saponin extracted from Asparagus filicinus, is an active cytotoxic component. However, its antitumor activity is till unknown. In this study, the anticancer effect of aspafilioside B against HCC cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Our results showed that aspafilioside B inhibited the growth and proliferation of HCC cell lines. Further study revealed that aspafilioside B could significantly induce G2 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, accompanying the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but blocking ROS generation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) could not prevent G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, treatment with aspafilioside B induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAP kinase. Moreover, both ERK inhibitor PD98059 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 almost abolished the G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis induced by aspafilioside B, and reversed the expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins. We also found that aspafilioside B treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation, and transfection of cells with H-Ras and N-Ras shRNA almost attenuated aspafilioside B-induced G2 phase arrest and apoptosis as well as the ERK and p38 activation. Finally, in vivo, aspafilioside B suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft models, and the mechanism was the same as in vitro study. Collectively, these findings indicated that aspafilioside B may up-regulate H-Ras and N-Ras, causing c-Raf phosphorylation, and lead to ERK and p38 activation, which consequently induced the G2 phase arrest and apoptosis. This study provides the evidence that aspafilioside B is a promising therapeutic agent against HCC.

  13. Aspafilioside B induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by up-regulating H-Ras and N-Ras via ERK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Ning, Rui; Chen, Rui-Ni; Huang, Xue-Feng; Dai, Qin-Sheng; Hu, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yu-Wen; Wu, Li-Li; Xiong, Jing; Hu, Gang; Guo, Qing-Long; Yang, Jian; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-01

    We recently establish that aspafilioside B, a steroidal saponin extracted from Asparagus filicinus, is an active cytotoxic component. However, its antitumor activity is till unknown. In this study, the anticancer effect of aspafilioside B against HCC cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Our results showed that aspafilioside B inhibited the growth and proliferation of HCC cell lines. Further study revealed that aspafilioside B could significantly induce G2 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, accompanying the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but blocking ROS generation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) could not prevent G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, treatment with aspafilioside B induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAP kinase. Moreover, both ERK inhibitor PD98059 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 almost abolished the G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis induced by aspafilioside B, and reversed the expression of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins. We also found that aspafilioside B treatment increased both Ras and Raf activation, and transfection of cells with H-Ras and N-Ras shRNA almost attenuated aspafilioside B-induced G2 phase arrest and apoptosis as well as the ERK and p38 activation. Finally, in vivo, aspafilioside B suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenograft models, and the mechanism was the same as in vitro study. Collectively, these findings indicated that aspafilioside B may up-regulate H-Ras and N-Ras, causing c-Raf phosphorylation, and lead to ERK and p38 activation, which consequently induced the G2 phase arrest and apoptosis. This study provides the evidence that aspafilioside B is a promising therapeutic agent against HCC. PMID:25683703

  14. Anti-hepatoma activity and mechanism of ursolic acid and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ze; Lin, Geng; Zheng, Rui-Xia; Huang, Feng; Yang, Meng-Su; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor activity of ursolic acid (UA) and its derivatives isolated from Aralia decaisneana on hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In vivo cytotoxicity was first screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, DNA ladder, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot and real time PCR were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of UA. Implanted mouse hepatoma H22 was used to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of UA in vivo. RESULTS: UA could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 and its drug-resistance strain, R-HepG2 cells, but had no inhibitory effect on primarily cultured normal mouse hepatocytes whereas all the six derivatives of UA could not inhibit the growth of all tested cell lines. Further study on mechanism demonstrated that apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest were involved in the cytotoxicity and cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP). Downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP) 105 mRNA correlated to the apoptosis of HepG2 cells treated with UA. In addition, UA also could inhibit the growth of H22 hepatoma in vivo. CONCLUSION: UA is a promising anti-tumor agent, but further work needs to be done to improve its solubility. PMID:16521214

  15. Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor: Its Possible Involvement in the Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Nakamura, Hideji; Liu, Weidong; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important complication of viral infection induced by hepatitis virus C, and our major research theme is to identify a new growth factor related to the progression of HCC. HDGF (hepatoma-derived growth factor) is a novel growth factor that belongs to a new gene family. HDGF was initially purified from the conditioned medium of a hepatoma cell line. HDGF promotes cellular proliferation as a DNA binding nuclear factor and a secreted protein acting via a receptor-mediated pathway. HDGF is a unique multi-functional protein that can function as a growth factor, angiogenic factor and anti-apoptotic factor and it participates in the development and progression of various malignant diseases. The expression level of HDGF may be an independent prognostic factor for predicting the disease-free and overall survival in patients with various malignancies, including HCC. Furthermore, the overexpression of HDGF promotes the proliferation of HCC cells, while a reduction in the HDGF expression inhibits the proliferation of HCC cells. This article provides an overview of the characteristics of HDGF and describes the potential role of HDGF as a growth-promoting factor for HCC. PMID:26101867

  16. Lack of adaptation in lipogenesis by hepatoma 9121.

    PubMed

    Elwood, J C; Morris, H P

    1968-05-01

    The "minimal deviation" hepatoma 9121, implanted in rats, was shown to biosynthesize fatty acids from acetate-1-(14)C at the same rate as normal rat liver but faster than host liver. Feeding the host animals a fat-deficient diet caused fatty acid biosynthesis to be increased 3- to 13-fold in liver, but the dietary regimen did not influence fatty acid biosynthesis in the tumor tissue. Oxygen consumption and the oxidation of acetate and mevalonate to CO(2) were all affected by the dietary manipulation in liver but not in hepatoma. The fat-deficient diet decreased incorporation of acetate and mevalonate into cholesterol by the liver of control animals, increased it in the liver of host animals, and had no effect on this process in hepatoma. Thus, the transplantable tumor has lost the adaptive power of its parent tissue to respond to the dietary stimulus. The changes in fatty acid composition in total lipids in response to the fasting and refeeding were also markedly different in hepatoma from those in liver of the host animals. These results support the concept that this tumor is characterized by a loss of some metabolic controls.

  17. Modified nucleotides in T1 RNase oligonucleotides of 18S ribosomal RNA of the Novikoff hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y C; Busch, H

    1978-06-27

    The primary structure of 18S rRNA of the Novikoff hepatoma cells was investigated. Regardless of whether the primary sequence of 18S rRNA is finally determined by RNA sequencing methods or DNA sequencing methods, it is important to identify numbers and types of the modified nucleotides and accordingly the present study was designed to localize the modified regions in T1 RNase derived oligonucleotide. Modified nucleotides found in 66 different oligonucleotide sequences included 2 m62A, 1 m6A, 1 m7G, 1m1cap3psi, 7 Cm, 13 Am, 9 Gm, 11 Um, and 38 psi residues. A number of these modified nucleotides are now placed in defined sequences of T1 RNase oligonucleotides which are now being searched for in larger fragments derived from partial T1 RNase digests of 18S rRNA. Improved homochromatography fingerprinting (Choi et al. (1976) Cancer Res. 36, 4301) of T1 RNase derived oligonucleotides provided a distinctive pattern for 18S rRNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells. The 116 spots obtained by homochromatography contain 176 oligonucleotide sequences. PMID:209819

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNase H(35) Functions in RNA Primer Removal during Lagging-Strand DNA Synthesis, Most Efficiently in Cooperation with Rad27 Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Junzhuan; Qian, Ying; Frank, Peter; Wintersberger, Ulrike; Shen, Binghui

    1999-01-01

    Correct removal of RNA primers of Okazaki fragments during lagging-strand DNA synthesis is a critical process for the maintenance of genome integrity. Disturbance of this process has severe mutagenic consequences and could contribute to the development of cancer. The role of the mammalian nucleases RNase HI and FEN-1 in RNA primer removal has been substantiated by several studies. Recently, RNase H(35), the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of mammalian RNase HI, was identified and its possible role in DNA replication was proposed (P. Frank, C. Braunshofer-Reiter, and U. Wintersberger, FEBS Lett. 421:23–26, 1998). This led to the possibility of moving to the genetically powerful yeast system for studying the homologues of RNase HI and FEN-1, i.e., RNase H(35) and Rad27p, respectively. In this study, we have biochemically defined the substrate specificities and the cooperative as well as independent cleavage mechanisms of S. cerevisiae RNase H(35) and Rad27 nuclease by using Okazaki fragment model substrates. We have also determined the additive and compensatory pathological effects of gene deletion and overexpression of these two enzymes. Furthermore, the mutagenic consequences of the nuclease deficiencies have been analyzed. Based on our findings, we suggest that three alternative RNA primer removal pathways of different efficiencies involve RNase H(35) and Rad27 nucleases in yeast. PMID:10567561

  19. Impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatomas: possible involvement of oxygen free radicals.

    PubMed

    Boitier, E; Merad-Boudia, M; Guguen-Guillouzo, C; Defer, N; Ceballos-Picot, I; Leroux, J P; Marsac, C

    1995-07-15

    Alterations in the energy metabolism of cancer cells have been reported for many years. However, the deleterious mechanisms involved in these deficiencies have not yet been clearly proved. The main goal of this study was to decipher the harmful mechanisms responsible for the respiratory chain deficiencies in the course of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis, where mitochondrial DNA abnormalities had been previously reported. The respiratory activity of freshly isolated hepatoma mitochondria, assessed by oxygen consumption experiments and enzymatic assays, presented a severe complex I deficiency 19 months after DENA treatment, and later on, in addition, a defective complex III activity. Since respiratory complex subunits are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we checked whether the respiratory chain defects were due to impaired synthesis processes. The specific immunodetection of complex I failed to show any alterations in the steady-state levels of both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded subunits in the hepatomas. Moreover, in vitro protein synthesis experiments carried out on freshly isolated hepatoma mitochondria did not bring to light any modifications in the synthesis of the mitochondrial subunits of the respiratory complexes, whatever the degree of tumor progression. Finally, Southern blot analysis of mitochondrial DNA did not show any major mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in DENA-induced hepatomas. Because the synthetic processes of respiratory complexes did not seem to be implicated in the respiratory chain impairment, these deficiencies could be partly ascribed to a direct toxic impact of highly reactive molecules on these complexes, thus impairing their function. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is an important generator of noxious, reactive oxygen free radicals such as superoxide and H2O2, which are normally catabolized by powerful antioxidant scavengers. Nineteen months after DENA treatment, a general collapse of

  20. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gábelová, Alena; Poláková, Veronika; Prochazka, Gabriela; Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína; Segerbäck, Dan

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  1. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Cui, Yuqiang; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen; Jin, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiangsheng; Du, Yifan; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extracted compound JMM6 were studied in BEL-7402 cells by MTT, Cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). After treatment with the JMM6, the growth of BEL-7402 cells was inhibited and cells displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. Further investigations revealed that treatment with JMM6 mainly caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. To evaluate the alteration of mitochondria in JMM6 induced apoptosis. The data showed that JMM6 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Our results show that the JMM6 will have a potential advantage of anti-tumor, less harmful to normal cells. This paper not only summarized the JMM6 pick-up technology from Juglans mandshurica Maxim and biological characteristic, but also may provide further evidence to exploit the potential medicine compounds from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

  2. Effect of O-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin on advanced hepatoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bai-Jun; Yu, Mei-Li; Yang, Shao-Guang; Liao, Lian-Ming; Liu, Jie-Wen; Zhao, Robert -C-H

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the synergistic effects of calmodulin (CaM) antagonist O-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine (EBB) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) on hepatoma-22 (H22) in vivo. METHODS: Hepatoma model was established in 50 Balb/c mice by inoculating H22 cells (2.5 × 106) subcutaneously into the right backs of the mice. These mice were divided into 5 groups, and treated with saline only, PLD only, doxorubicin (Dox) only, PLD plus EBB and Dox plus EBB, respectively. In the treatment groups, mice were given 5 intravenous of PLD or Dox on days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. The first dosage of PLD or Dox was 4.5 mg/kg, the other 4 injections was 1 mg/kg. EBB (5 mg/kg) was coadministered with PLD or Dox in the corresponding groups. The effect of drugs on the life spans of hepatoma-bearing mice and tumor response to the drugs were recorded. Dox levels in the hepatoma cells were measured by a fluorescence assay. Light microscopy was performed to determine the histopathological changes in the major organs of these tumor-bearing mice. The MTT method was used to analyze the effect of Dox or PLD alone, Dox in combination with EBB, or PLD in combination with EBB on the growth of H22 cells in an in vitro experiment. RESULTS: EBB (5 mg/kg) significantly augmented the antitumor activity of Dox or PLD, remarkably prolonged the median survival time. The median survival time was 18.2 d for control group, but 89.2 d for PLD + EBB group and 70.1 d for Dox + EBB group, respectively. However, Dox alone did not show any remarkable antitumor activity, and the median survival time was just 29.7 d. Addition of EBB to Dox or PLD significantly increased the level of Dox in H22 cells in vivo. Moreover, EBB diminished liver toxicity of Dox and PLD. In vitro, EBB reduced the IC50 value of Dox or PLD on H22 cells from 0.050 ± 0.006 mg/L and 0.054 ± 0.004 mg/L to 0.012 ± 0.002 mg/L and 0.013 ± 0.002 mg/L, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: EBB and liposomization could improve the therapeutic efficacy of

  3. Effect of 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB{number_sign}126) on benzo(a)pyrene induced DNA-damage in the fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Smeets, J.; Berg, M. van den; Seinen, W.; Everaarts, J.

    1995-12-31

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) can be transformed to 7,8 diol-9,10 epoxide BaP which is a major carcinogen. The cytochrome P45OIAI isoenzyme is playing an important role in this bioactivation. The coplanar PCB{number_sign}126 is a strong inducer of CYPIAI in vivo but also in the PLHC-1 fish cell line. This CYPIAI inducing property of PCB{number_sign}L26 could increase the BaP induced DNA-damage. In this study dose-response relationships for PCB{number_sign}126, BaP and their combination are presented, measured either as CYPIAI (EROD) induction or as DNA strand breaks. Strand breaks were measured by means of an alkaline unwinding assay. BaP is readily metabolized in this cell line and induces strand breaks dose-dependently. PCB induces EROD in a dose-dependant way but does not cause DNA strand breaks significantly. PLHC-1 cells were pre-treated with PCB{number_sign}126 (LOEL,ED50 and maximal EROD induction) and then dosed with BaP (LOEL,ED5 and maximal strand break induction). DNA-strand breaks in the pre-treated cells were compared to cells treated with BaP alone. Results of these combined exposures will be presented and discussed.

  4. Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau Ethanol Extract Inhibits Hepatoma in Mice through Upregulation of the Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Huang, Danmin; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Olatunji, Joshua Opeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Clinacanthans nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau is a popular medicinal vegetable in Southern Asia, and its extracts have displayed significant anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect has yet to be established. This study investigated the antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of C. nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau 30% ethanol extract (CN30) in vivo. CN30 was prepared and its main components were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CN30 had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor volume and weight. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining and TUNEL assay revealed that hepatoma cells underwent significant apoptosis with CN30 treatment, while expression levels of proliferation markers PCNA and p-AKT were significantly decreased when treated with low or high doses of CN30 treatment. Western blot analysis of PAPR, caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl2 also showed that CN30 induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, intracellular staining analysis showed that CN30 treatment increased the number of IFN-γ⁺ T cells and decreased the number of IL-4⁺ T cells. Serum IFN-γ and interleukin-2 levels also significantly improved. Our findings indicated that CN30 demonstrated antitumor properties by up-regulating the immune response, and warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of cancers.

  5. The MAPK pathway and HIF-1 are involved in the induction of the human PAI-1 gene expression by insulin in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Elitsa Y; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    Enhanced levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are considered to be a risk factor for pathological conditions associated with hypoxia or hyperinsulinemia. The expression of the PAI-1 gene is increased by insulin in different cells, although, the molecular mechanisms behind insulin-induced PAI-1 expression are not fully known yet. Here, we show that insulin upregulates human PAI-1 gene expression and promoter activity in HepG2 cells and that mutation of the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE)-binding hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) abolished the insulin effects. Mutation of E-boxes E4 and E5 abolished the insulin-dependent activation of the PAI-1 promoter only under normoxia, but did not affect it under hypoxia. Furthermore, the insulin effect was associated with activation of HIF-1alpha via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) but not PDK1 and PKB in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, mutation of a putative FoxO1 binding site which was supposed to be involved in insulin-dependent PAI-1 gene expression influenced the insulin-dependent activation only under normoxia. Thus, insulin-dependent PAI-1 gene expression might be regulated by the action of both HIF-1 and FoxO1 transcription factors.

  6. Effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and response to hyperthermia and x rays

    SciTech Connect

    van Rijn, J.; van den Berg, J.; Kipp, J.B.A.; Schamhart, D.H.J.; van Wijk, R.

    1985-02-01

    Hyperthermia is a potent radio enhancer. Studies using hypothermia in combination with irradiation have given confusing results due to lack of uniformity in experimental design. This report shows that hypothermia might have potential significance in the treatment of malignant cells with both thermo- and radiotherapy. Reuber H35 hepatoma cells, clone KRC-7 were used to study the effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and subsequent response to hyperthermia and/or X rays. Cells were incubated at 8.5/sup 0/C or between 25 and 37/sup 0/C for 24 hr prior to hyperthermia or irradiation. Hypothermia caused sensitization to both hyperthermia and X rays. In contrast to the effect of hypothermia on either hyperthermia or X rays alone, thermal radiosensitization was decreased in hypothermically pretreated cells (24 hr at 25/sup 0/C) compared to control cells (37/sup 0/C). The expression of thermotolerance and the rate of development at 37/sup 0/C after an initial heating at 42.5/sup 0/C were not influenced after preincubation at 25/sup 0/C for 24 hr. The expression of thermotolerance for heat or heat plus X rays during incubation at 41/sup 0/C occurred in a significantly smaller number of cells after 24 hr preincubation at 25/sup 0/C. The enhanced thermo- and radiosensitivity in hypothermically treated cells disappeared in approximately 6 hr after return to 37/sup 0/C.

  7. Synthesis of cholic-acid-carrying polymer and in-vitro evaluation of hepatoma-targeting nanoparticles decorated with the polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiantao; Yu, Changjun; Jiang, Guoqiang

    2016-06-01

    The specific interaction between bile acids and the bile acids transporters provides a promising way for hepatoma-targeted drug delivery. We synthesized an amphipathic polymer containing cholic acid (CA), the main bile acids in body, and prepared CA-functionalized nanoparticles to target hepatoma cells. Poly-[3-(4-vinylbenzonate)-7, 12-dihydroxy-5-cholan-24-oic acid] (PVBCA) was synthesized by introducing methyl cholate onto polyvinyl benzoate polymer backbone, and was characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR, and GFC. PVBCA can be incorporated onto PLGA nanoparticles surface via the emulsion-solvent evaporation procedure, resulting in the nanoparticles carrying CA moieties on their surface. The binding of CA moieties to the bile acids' transporters on the cell membrane enhances the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles significantly. The SMMC-7721 cell uptake of PVBCA-decorated nanoparticles increases with amount of incorporated PVBCA and is 2- to 2.8-fold higher than that of the normal PLGA nanoparticles. By exclusion of specific endocytosis pathways using chemical inhibitors, we found that the uptake mechanism of PVBCA-decorated nanoparticles was mainly attributed to clathrin-and-caveolae-independent endocytosis, which was distinct from that of PLGA nanoparticles. The present study provides a simple and versatile method for hepatoma-targeted delivery of nanoparticles. PMID:27045998

  8. Pancreatic tissue damage by transcatheter arterial embolization for hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Khan, K N; Nakata, K; Shima, M; Kusumoto, Y; Ishii, N; Koji, T; Nagataki, S

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed the serial changes in serum pancreatic enzyme activities by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in 20 hepatoma patients with liver cirrhosis in an attempt to evaluate the incidence of the pancreatic tissue damage by TAE. Serum amylase activities increased in two (10%) cases, elastase 1 levels in six (30%) cases, and trypsin and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI) levels in each of five (25%) cases. Consequently, TAE resulted in the elevation of at least more than one serum pancreatic enzyme in eight (40%) of 20 cases, although none had clinical symptoms related to pancreatitis. When the adverse effect on the pancreatic tissue was compared among 6 cases of the superselective TAE and 14 cases of the nonsuperselective TAE, which were performed from the segmental and the nonsegmental hepatic arteries, respectively, the elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes was caused only by nonsuperselective TAE, not by superselective TAE. The volumes of Spongel and Lipiodol used or the injected doses of the anticancer agent mitomycin C were not different between the two groups. These results indicate that TAE for the treatment of hepatoma frequently causes pancreatic tissue damage, and the position of the inserted catheter tip is very important to avoid the pancreatic tissue damage by TAE.

  9. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills. PMID:27054409

  10. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2016-06-20

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills.

  11. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2016-06-20

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills. PMID:27054409

  12. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA contents in human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 by distinct classes of mevalonate-derived metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L H; Griffioen, M

    1988-01-01

    Hep G2 cells were incubated under conditions known to influence the HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase activity, e.g. in the presence of compactin (a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase itself) and U18666A (a squalene-2,3-epoxide cyclase inhibitor). We studied the effects of these conditions both on the HMG-CoA reductase activity and on the reductase mRNA content. In the presence of compactin the mRNA content increased, but less than the enzyme activity, as determined after removal of the inhibitor. The increase in mRNA could be prevented by addition of mevalonate or by a combination of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plus a low concentration of mevalonate. LDL alone prevented the compactin-induced increases in mRNA and activity only partially. The effect of U18666A on reductase mRNA content and activity was biphasic, i.e. a slight decrease at low (0.3-0.5 microM) concentrations, with a concomitant formation of polar sterols [Boogaard, Griffioen & Cohen (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 345-351], and an increase at high (20-30 microM) concentrations, with complete blockage of sterol formation. At these high concentrations of U18666A, additional compactin (2 microM) increased the reductase activity, but not the mRNA content. We conclude that non-sterol metabolites of mevalonate regulate exclusively at the enzyme level, whereas sterol metabolites regulate at the reductase mRNA level. In the latter group of regulators we distinguish mevalonate metabolites which can, and metabolites which cannot, be replaced by exogenous LDL. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2848511

  13. Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Michelle E; Wang, Weiwen; Caberoy, Nora B; Chen, Xiuping; Guo, Feiye; Alvarado, Gabriela; Shen, Chen; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hui; Chen, Rui; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Webster, Keith; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (Hdgfrp3 or HRP-3) was recently reported as a neurotrophic factor and is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma to promote cancer cell survival. Here we identified HRP-3 as a new endothelial ligand and characterized its in vitro and in vivo functional roles and molecular signaling. We combined open reading frame phage display with multi-round in vivo binding selection to enrich retinal endothelial ligands, which were systematically identified by next generation DNA sequencing. One of the identified endothelial ligands was HRP-3. HRP-3 expression in the retina and brain was characterized by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation assay showed that HRP-3 stimulated the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HRP-3 induced tube formation of HUVECs in culture. Wound healing assay indicated that HRP-3 promoted endothelial cell migration. HRP-3 was further confirmed for its in vitro angiogenic activity by spheroid sprouting assay. HRP-3 extrinsically activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK1/2) pathway in endothelial cells. The angiogenic activity of HRP-3 was independently verified by mouse cornea pocket assay. Furthermore, in vivo Matrigel plug assay corroborated HRP-3 activity to promote new blood vessel formation. These results demonstrated that HRP-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.

  14. Dynamics of the spleen and its significance in a murine H22 orthotopic hepatoma model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Shu; Huang, Na; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Peijun; Li, Jun; Pu, Yansong; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the spleen during tumor progression remains incompletely understood. In this study, we established a murine H22 orthotopic hepatoma model and dynamically detected alterations in the percentages of immunocytes in the spleen. We observed a prominent myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation during the early response which persisted through all the stages of tumor growth. In addition, the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) increased by week 2. Although the percentage of CD3+CD49b+ natural killer T (NKT) cells increased by day 3, and that of CD3+CD4+ T cells slightly increased by week 1, they decreased to either normal or lower levels compared with those of normal mice. The percentages of total CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+ T cells decreased by week 2, and that of NK cells decreased by week 3. The activation of non-Treg CD4+ T cells was scarce. Moreover, splenic MDSCs of tumor-bearing mice suppressed the activation of splenocytes. Therefore, a negative immune response gradually prevailed over a positive immune response during tumor growth. In addition, splenectomy was performed at the time of tumor inoculation, and we found that splenectomy could prolong the survival time, reduce the tumor weights, decrease the ascites volumes, and ameliorate the immune status of the tumor-bearing mice. Splenectomy also decreased the percentage of MDSCs and increased the percentages of CD8+ T cells, NK, and NKT cells in tumor tissues. Additionally, splenectomy decreased the percentage of MDSCs and increased that of CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood. Overall, our findings suggest that immune-negative cells are dominant in the spleen during tumor progression. Splenectomy could be helpful to improve the immune responses of tumor-bearing hosts. PMID:26989085

  15. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies. PMID:12203264

  16. In vitro anti-hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Liu, Li-Teh; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Fifteen crude drugs, Stellaria media Cyrill. (Caryophyllaceae), Calendula officinalis L. (Compositae), Achillea millefolium L. (Compositae), Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae), Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), Satureja hortensis L. (Labiatae), Coptis groenlandica Salisb. (Ranunculaceae), Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Leguminosae), Origanum majorana L. (Labiatae), Centella asiatica L. (Umbelliferae), Caulophyllum thalictroides Mich. (Berberidaceae), Picea rubens Sargent. (Pinaceae), Rhamnus purshiana D.C. (Rhamnaceae) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), which have been used as folk medicine in Canada, were evaluated for their anti-hepatoma activity on five human liver-cancer cell lines, i.e. HepG2/C3A, SK-HEP-1, HA22T/VGH, Hep3B and PLC/PRF/5. The samples were examined by in vitro evaluation for their cytotoxicity. The results showed that the effects of crude drugs on hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines were different from those against non hepatitis B virus genome-containing cell lines. C. groenlandica was observed to be the most effective against the growth of all five cell lines and its chemotherapeutic values will be of interest for further studies.

  17. Membrane Glycolipids Content Variety in Gastrointestinal Tumors and Transplantable Hepatomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Lv, Can Qun; Wang, Bo-Liang; Mei, Ping; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the variety of plasma contents of membrane glycolipids in 65 gastrointestinal tumors and 31 transplant hepatomas in mice. Material/Methods The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into 3 groups. Results The LSA and TSA content in the 2 groups were significantly difference (p<0.01), and were significantly lower in the therapeutic group than in the control group (p<0.01). Conclusions These results indicate that membrane glycolipids index LSA and TSA are sensitive markers in gastrointestinal tumors. In the transplanted hepatomas in mice, they may be considered as ancillary indicators for judging the therapeutic effect of hepatoma. PMID:27554918

  18. Membrane Glycolipids Content Variety in Gastrointestinal Tumors and Transplantable Hepatomas in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Lv, Can Qun; Wang, Bo-Liang; Mei, Ping; Xu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the variety of plasma contents of membrane glycolipids in 65 gastrointestinal tumors and 31 transplant hepatomas in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into 3 groups. RESULTS The LSA and TSA content in the 2 groups were significantly difference (p<0.01), and were significantly lower in the therapeutic group than in the control group (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that membrane glycolipids index LSA and TSA are sensitive markers in gastrointestinal tumors. In the transplanted hepatomas in mice, they may be considered as ancillary indicators for judging the therapeutic effect of hepatoma. PMID:27554918

  19. Optimization modeling of single-chain antibody against hepatoma based on similarity algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Jing-Tao; Yuan, Jia-Ying; Yin, Xiao-Xiang; Song, Hua-Yong; Wang, Xin-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purposes was to establish optimal modeling of single-chain antibody molecules based on similarity algorithm and seek the connecting peptides that had the minimal effect on the structure and bioactivity of the variable region of heavy chain (VH) and that of light chain (VL) in a single-chain antibody against liver cancer. After the Linker with different lengths (n=0~7) had been added into single chain fragment variable (ScFv), modeling of the overall sequences of VH, VL and ScFv were conducted respectively. Meanwhile, the peptide chain structure of (Gly4Ser)n was adopted for the connecting peptide. Then the spatial spherical shell layer alignment algorithm based on spherical polar coordinates was utilized for comparing the structural similarity of VH and VL before and after adding connecting peptide. Equally, in order to determine the stability of VH and VL, MATLAB was applied for analysis of the fore and aft distances and the diffusion radius. Indirect ELISA method was used to detect single-chain antibody immunological activity of Linker with different lengths. The MTT assay was utilized for the examination of the inhibition rate of single-chain antibody with different lengths of Linker to liver cancer cell. When n=4, the structural similarity between VH together with VL and their original ones was the highest. When n=3, the influence of connecting peptide on the stability of VH and VL was minimum. When n>3, the fore and aft distances changed little due to the increase and fold of the length of peptide chain. The results of ELISA detection showed that when n=4, affinity of single chain antibody to liver cancer cells was much higher. The MTT test also indicated that when n=4, the inhibition rate of the connecting peptide on hepatoma carcinoma cell reached the highest, and that came second when n=3. When n=4, the structural stability and biological functions of anti-hepatoma single-chain antibody were both favorable. This study has provided a basis for the design

  20. Expression of Hepatoma-derived growth factor family members in the adult central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    El-Tahir, Heba M; Dietz, Frank; Dringen, Ralf; Schwabe, Kerstin; Strenge, Karen; Kelm, Sørge; Abouzied, Mekky M; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Franken, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Background Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) belongs to a polypeptide family containing five additional members called HDGF related proteins 1–4 (HRP-1 to -4) and Lens epithelial derived growth factor. Whereas some family members such as HDGF and HRP-2 are expressed in a wide range of tissues, the expression of others is very restricted. HRP-1 and -4 are only expressed in testis, HRP-3 only in the nervous system. Here we investigated the expression of HDGF, HRP-2 and HRP-3 in the central nervous system of adult mice on the cellular level by immunohistochemistry. In addition we performed Western blot analysis of various brain regions as well as neuronal and glial cell cultures. Results HDGF was rather evenly expressed throughout all brain regions tested with the lowest expression in the substantia nigra. HRP-2 was strongly expressed in the thalamus, prefrontal and parietal cortex, neurohypophysis, and the cerebellum, HRP-3 in the bulbus olfactorius, piriform cortex and amygdala complex. HDGF and HRP-2 were found to be expressed by neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In contrast, strong expression of HRP-3 in the adult nervous system is restricted to neurons, except for very weak expression in oligodendrocytes in the brain stem. Although the majority of neurons are HRP-3 positive, some like cerebellar granule cells are negative. Conclusion The coexpression of HDGF and HRP-2 in glia and neurons as well as the coexpression of all three proteins in many neurons suggests different functions of members of the HDGF protein family in cells of the central nervous system that might include proliferation as well as cell survival. In addition the restricted expression of HRP-3 point to a special function of this family member for neuronal cells. PMID:16430771

  1. Oxidation of pyruvate, malate, citrate, and cytosolic reducing equivalents by AS-30D hepatoma mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, D J; Davis, E J

    1993-08-15

    Mitochondria isolated from normal rat liver and AS-30D hepatoma were concurrently evaluated with regard to their bioenergetic and metabolic properties. AS-30D mitochondria oxidized many NAD-linked respiratory substrates at rates 1.5-4 times faster than those from liver, a fact which contributes to their diminished membrane depolarization on conversion from state 4 to state 3 respiration. AS-30D mitochondria exhibited no signs of a "truncated" Krebs cycle, nor did they oxidize malate preferentially based upon its origin in the cytosol or the mitochondrial matrix. In addition, beta-oxidation in AS-30D mitochondria was not sufficient to suppress respiratory CO2 production and induce pyruvate carboxylation to the extent observed in liver. Finally, AS-30D mitochondria were able to oxidize externally generated NADH in a reconstituted system, but in a manner independent of the transmembrane electrical potential (delta psi), suggesting that the malate-aspartate shuttle is not operable in vivo. This fact may necessitate the adaptations tumor cells make to reoxidize cytosolic NADH through glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen. PMID:8342959

  2. New Accurate Wavenumbers of H35Cl^+ and H37Cl^+ Rovibrational Transitions in the v=0-1 Band of the ^2Π State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, Jose Luis; Cueto, Maite; Herrero, Victor Jose; Tanarro, Isabel; Cernicharo, Jose; Drouin, Brian

    2015-06-01

    HCl^+ is a key intermediate in the interstellar chemistry of chlorine. It has been recently identified in space from Herschel's spectra and it has also been detected in the laboratory through its optical emission, infrared and mm-wave spectra. Now that Hershchel is decomissioned, further astrophysical studies on this radical ion will likely rely on ground-based observations in the mid-infrared. We have used a difference frequency laser spectrometer coupled to a hollow cathode discharge to measure the absorption spectrum of H35Cl^+ and H37Cl^+ in the v=0-1 band of the ^2Π state with Dopppler limited resolution. The accuracy of the individual measurements (˜ 10 MHz (3σ)) relies on a solid state wavemeter referenced to an iodine-stabilized Ar^+ laser. The new data are being fit using the CALPGM software from JPL, and the current status will be presented. M. De Luca et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 751, L37 (2012) W. D. Sheasley and C. W. Mathews, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 47, 420 (1973) P. B. Davies, P. A. Hamilton, B. A. Johnson, Mol. Phys. 57, 217 (1986) H. Gupta, B. J. Drouin, and J. C. Pearson, Astrophys. J. Lett. 751, L37 (2012)

  3. Observation of myo-inositol 1,2-(cyclic) phosphate in a Morris hepatoma by 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Graham, R A; Meyer, R A; Szwergold, B S; Brown, T R

    1987-01-01

    We have identified an unusual resonance at 16.5 ppm in the 31P NMR spectrum of a Morris (7777) hepatoma grown in the inguinal fossa of a Buffalo rat as myoinositol 1,2-(cyclic) phosphate. This compound has been observed in all of the 32 tumors examined as well as in cultured cells derived from the tumor, but it has not been observed in normal rat tissues. Its level in the aqueous phase of chloroform/methanol/water extracts of the tumor is 70 +/- 40 nmol/g, wet weight (n = 4). The presence of a breakdown product of phosphatidylinositol at such high levels in a fast growing tumor may provide an important clue for understanding the metabolic defect that results in the malignant growth of this tumor.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic gene delivery and magnetic-inducing heating on hepatoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chenyan; An, Yanli; Zhang, Jia; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Gene therapy holds great promise for treating cancers, but their clinical applications are being hampered due to uncontrolled gene delivery and expression. To develop a targeted, safe and efficient tumor therapy system, we constructed a tissue-specific suicide gene delivery system by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carriers for the combination of gene therapy and hyperthermia on hepatoma. The suicide gene was hepatoma-targeted and hypoxia-enhanced, and the MNPs possessed the ability to elevate temperature to the effective range for tumor hyperthermia as imposed on an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The tumoricidal effects of targeted gene therapy associated with hyperthermia were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The experiment demonstrated that hyperthermia combined with a targeted gene therapy system proffer an effective tool for tumor therapy with high selectivity and the synergistic effect of hepatoma suppression.

  5. The triad of lichen planus, thymoma and liver cirrhosis-hepatoma. First reported case.

    PubMed

    Hassan, J A; Saadiah, S; Roslina, A M; Atan, M; Masir, N; Hussein, S; Ganesapillai, T

    2000-07-01

    We describe a patient with liver cirrhosis who presented with erosive oral and cutaneous lichen planus (LP) and incidentally was found simultaneously to have thymoma and hepatoma. We support the notion forwarded earlier that LP and chronic liver disease is more than a mere coincidence and that there is a non-coincidental association between LP and thymoma. We believe this is also the first reported case in the English Literature of coexistence of the three condition LP, thymoma and hepatoma complicating liver disease. PMID:22977389

  6. The Triad of Lichen Planus, Thymoma and Liver Cirrhosis-Hepatoma. First Reported Case

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, J. A.; Saadiah, S; Roslina, A M; Atan, M; Masir, Noraidah; Hussein, S; Ganesapillai, T

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with liver cirrhosis who presented with erosive oral and cutaneous lichen planus (LP) and incidentally was found simultaneously to have thymoma and hepatoma. We support the notion forwarded earlier that LP and chronic liver disease is more than a mere coincidence and that there is a non-coincidental association between LP and thymoma. We believe this is also the first reported case in the English Literature of coexistence of the three condition LP, thymoma and hepatoma complicating liver disease. PMID:22977389

  7. Synthesis of a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative with potent anti-hepatoma activity in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Wang, Shan; Bu, Wei; Wei, Meng-Ying; Li, Wei-Wei; Yao, Min-Na; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Lu, Cheng-Tao; Li, Hui-Hui; Hu, Na-Ping; Zhang, En-Hu; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wen, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative was synthesized and its antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The adamantyl nitroxide derivative 4 displayed a potent anticancer activity against all the tested human hepatoma cells, especially with IC50 of 68.1 μM in Bel-7404 cells, compared to the positive control 5-FU (IC50=607.7 μM). The significant inhibition of cell growth was also observed in xenograft mouse model, with low toxicity. Compound 4 suppressed the cell migration and invasion, induced the G2/M phase arrest. Further mechanistic studies revealed that compound 4 induced cell death, which was accompanied with damaging mitochondria, increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3, as well as activations of Bax and Bcl-2. These results confirmed that adamantyl nitroxide derivative exhibited selective antitumor activities via mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in Bel-7404 cells, and would be a potential anticancer agent for liver cancer. PMID:27429843

  8. [Regularity of drugs compatibility of anti-hepatoma traditional Chinese medicine ancient prescriptions and risk evaluation of anti-hepatoma new drug research and development].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hong-Fa; Fan, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Man, Shu-Li; Si, Shu-Yong; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese ancient prescriptions have been used for treatment of liver cancer for a long history and the scientific and rational compatibility is a great wealth for modern research and development (R&D) of new drugs. The research and development of new drugs are often accompanied with a large investment, a long cycle and a high risk, especially for the anti-tumor drugs R&D which are facing more risks and lower successful rate. In this research, the regularity of compatibility of drugs was analyzed from 124 anti-hepatoma ancient prescriptions by computer program. The results can offer help to the R&D of anti-hepatoma new drugs and reduce the risk of drug screening. In addition, we surveyed 22 companies in this field from six provinces such as Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and so on and obtained 240 risk assessment questionaires. Then we used qualitative analysis method to interpret the greatest impacts for the risks in the process of R&D, production and sales of anti-hepatoma new drugs. The study provides a basis for anti-liver cancer drugs R&D researchers, who can take effective measures to reduce the R&D risks and improve successful rate.

  9. Excretion of Alpha-foetoprotein in the Urine of Pregnant Rats and Hepatoma-bearing animals

    PubMed Central

    Okon, E.; Rosenmann, E.; Dishon, T.; Boss, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Urine of normal rats, pregnant animals and animals bearing chemically induced hepatoma was tested with antisera to foetoproteins by the double immunodiffusion technique. Antigens were not detected in the urine of normal rats. Alpha-foetoprotein was demonstrated in the urine of pregnant rats and hepatomabearing animals. PMID:4351512

  10. Hepatoma-derived growth factor upregulation is correlated with prognostic factors of early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Shun-Chen; Tai, Ming Hong; Chien, Chan-Chao Chang; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2014-11-21

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a unique nuclear/growth factor that plays an important role in the progression of different types of cancer. A total of 63 patients with early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (Cx) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The expression of HDGF was significantly increased compared with adjacent non-tumor tissue samples (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated nuclear HDGF levels were correlated with lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI; p < 0.05), lymph node metastasis (LNM; p < 0.001), recurrence (p < 0.001) and advanced grade (AG; p < 0.001). The growth of cervical cancer cells (Hela cells) was enhanced by HDGF treatment. The HDGF mRNA and protein level were significantly higher in malignant cervical cancer cells compared with primary ones. By adenovirus gene delivery, HDGF overexpression enhanced, whereas HDGF knockdown perturbed the tumorigenic behaviors of cervical cancer cells. HDGF overexpression is common in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma and is involved in the carcinogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma. Cytoplasmic HDGF expression is strongly correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and recurrence, indicating that HDGF may serve as a novel prognostic marker for patients with Cx.

  11. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    PubMed

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  12. Intracellular trafficking and cellular uptake mechanism of mPEG-PLGA-PLL and mPEG-PLGA-PLL-Gal nanoparticles for targeted delivery to hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Sun, Yanming; Wang, Qi; Sun, Ying; Li, He; Duan, Yourong

    2014-01-01

    The lysosomal escape of nanoparticles is crucial to enhancing their delivery and therapeutic efficiency. Here, we report the cellular uptake mechanism, lysosomal escape, and organelle morphology effect of monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL, PEAL) and 4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-gluconic acid (Gal)-modified PEAL (PEAL-Gal) for intracellular delivery to HepG2, Huh7, and PLC hepatoma cells. These results indicate that PEAL is taken up by clathrin-mediated endocytosis of HepG2, Huh7 and PLC cells. For PEAL-Gal, sialic acid receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis are the primary uptake pathways in HepG2 cells, respectively, whereas PEAL-Gal is internalized by sag vesicle- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in Huh7 cells. In the case of PLC cells, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and sialic acid receptor play a primary role in the uptake of PEAL-Gal. TEM results verify that PEAL and PEAL-Gal lead to a different influence on organelle morphology of HepG2, Huh7 and PLC cells. In addition, the results of intracellular distribution reveal that PEAL and PEAL-Gal are less entrapped in the lysosomes of HepG2 and Huh7 cells, demonstrating that they effectively escape from lysosomes and contribute to enhance the efficiency of intracellular delivery and tumor therapy. In vivo tumor targeting image results demonstrate that PEAL-Gal specifically delivers Rhodamine B (Rb) to the tumor tissue of mice with HepG2, Huh7, and PLC hepatomas and remains at a high concentration in tumor tissue until 48 h, properties that will greatly contribute to enhanced antitumor efficiency.

  13. HNF4 and HNF1 as well as a panel of hepatic functions are extinguished and reexpressed in parallel in chromosomally reduced rat hepatoma-human fibroblast hybrids

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Rat hepatoma-human fibroblast hybrids of two independent lineages containing only 8-11 human chromosomes show pleiotropic extinction of thirteen out of fifteen