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Sample records for h7546b anode current

  1. MAPMT H7546B anode current response study for ILC SiD muon system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Blazey, G.; Francis, K.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Fisk, H.; Milstene, C.; Abrams, R.; /Indiana U.

    2007-10-01

    The proposed Silicon Detector (SiD) concept for the ILC has barrel and end cap muon systems. An SiD scintillator based muon system prototype has 256 strips and was constructed from extruded strips, WLS fibers, clear fibers, and multianode photo multiplier tubes (MAPMT) Hamamatsu H7546B. Six MAPMTs were used. As a first step to understand strip output, the response of every anode to a given brightness of light and applied voltage must be measured. For the test, a custom made light source was used. Each MAPMT output was measured independently. The anode currents were measured at constant (green) input light brightness and the same photocathode to anode voltage (800V). The anode currents have a wide spread; for all tubes the maximum value is 5.23 times larger than the minimum value. The MAPMT cross talk was measured for one of the central inputs. The maximum cross talk value is about 4.9%. The average cross talk for the nearest four neighboring channels is 3.9%, for the farthest four is 1%. To assure the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements, the double reference method was used.

  2. Electric current characteristic of anodic bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Yang, Fang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Huang, Xian; Zhang, Dacheng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a novel current-time model of anodic bonding is proposed and verified experimentally in order to investigate underlying mechanisms of anodic bonding and to achieve real-time monitoring of bonding procedure. The proposed model provides a thorough explanation for the electric current characteristic of anodic bonding. More significantly, it explains two issues which other models cannot explain. One is the sharp rise in current when a voltage is initially applied during anodic bonding. The other is the unexpected large width of depletion layers. In addition, enlargement of the intimately contacted area during anodic bonding can be obtained from the proposed model, which can be utilized to monitor the bonding process. To verify the proposed model, Borofloat33 glass and silicon wafers were adopted in bonding experiments in SUSS SB6 with five different bonding conditions (350 °C 1200 V 370 °C 1200 V 380 °C 1200 V 380 °C 1000 V and 380 °C 1400 V). The results indicate that the observed current data highly coincide with the proposed current-time model. For widths of depletion layers, depth profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry demonstrates that the calculated values by the model are basically consistent with the experimental values as well.

  3. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huan; Liu, Hui; Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren

    2015-12-01

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  4. Anode current density distribution in a cusped field thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huan Liu, Hui Meng, Yingchao; Zhang, Junyou; Yang, Siyu; Hu, Peng; Chen, Pengbo; Yu, Daren

    2015-12-15

    The cusped field thruster is a new electric propulsion device that is expected to have a non-uniform radial current density at the anode. To further study the anode current density distribution, a multi-annulus anode is designed to directly measure the anode current density for the first time. The anode current density decreases sharply at larger radii; the magnitude of collected current density at the center is far higher compared with the outer annuli. The anode current density non-uniformity does not demonstrate a significant change with varying working conditions.

  5. Anode jet in a high-current vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. A.; Schneider, A. V.; Batrakov, A. V.; Sandolache, G.; Rowe, S. W.; Markov, A. B.; Zyul'kova, L. A.

    2012-07-01

    A stable intense jet with a clear-cut bright sheath has been detected on the anode of a 10-ms-long high-current vacuum arc with a current amplitude of 15 kA. The jet is adjacent to the hot spot of a molten metal on the anode surface. The primary light of the jet is emitted by neutrals. The sheath of the jet is surrounded by an ion-induced diffuse glow. The anode jet arises from interaction between the cathode and anode plasmas. Because of this, the size of the jet inversely depends on the current of the arc and the jet becomes observable only by the end of the current pulse. This object (anode jet with a bright sheath) is well reproducible when the arc is initiated between copper-chromium electrodes. In the case of pure copper electrodes, such objects occur randomly and appear at long projections of the molten metal, where heat release is hampered, and at large drops moving in the interelectrode gap. This means that the anode evaporation intensity is crucial for the appearance of bright-sheath jets.

  6. Structural changes of anodic layer on titanium in sulfate solution as a function of anodization duration in constant current mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Shinji; Sakamoto, Kouta; Ohtsu, Naofumi

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the effect of anodization time, in constant current mode, on the anodic oxide layer formed on titanium (Ti). Anodization of the Ti substrate was carried out in a 0.1 M (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution with reaction times of various durations, after which the characteristics and photocatalytic activity were investigated in detail. The TiO2 layer fabricated in a short duration exhibited comparatively flat surface morphology and an anatase-type crystal structure. This layer acted as a photocatalyst only under ultraviolet light (UV) illumination. Upon prolonging the anodization, the layer structure changed drastically. The surface morphology became rough, and the crystal structure changed to rutile-type TiO2. Furthermore, the layer showed photocatalytic activity both under UV and visible light illumination. Further anodization increased the amount of methylene blue (MB) adsorbed on the surface, but did not cause additional change to the structure of the anodic layer. The surface morphology and crystal structure of the anodic layer were predominantly controlled by the anodization time; thus, the anodization time is an important parameter for controlling the characteristics of the anodic layer.

  7. Different Current Intensities of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Do Not Differentially Modulate Motor Cortex Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kidgell, Dawson J.; Daly, Robin M.; Young, Kayleigh; Lum, Jarrod; Tooley, Gregory; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Zoghi, Maryam; Pearce, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that modulates the excitability of neurons within the motor cortex (M1). Although the aftereffects of anodal tDCS on modulating cortical excitability have been described, there is limited data describing the outcomes of different tDCS intensities on intracortical circuits. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the aftereffects of M1 excitability following anodal tDCS, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effect of different intensities on cortical excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Using a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, with a one-week wash-out period, 14 participants (6 females and 8 males, 22–45 years) were exposed to 10 minutes of anodal tDCS at 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mA. TMS was used to measure M1 excitability and SICI of the contralateral wrist extensor muscle at baseline, immediately after and 15 and 30 minutes following cessation of anodal tDCS. Cortical excitability increased, whilst SICI was reduced at all time points following anodal tDCS. Interestingly, there were no differences between the three intensities of anodal tDCS on modulating cortical excitability or SICI. These results suggest that the aftereffect of anodal tDCS on facilitating cortical excitability is due to the modulation of synaptic mechanisms associated with long-term potentiation and is not influenced by different tDCS intensities. PMID:23577272

  8. Different current intensities of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation do not differentially modulate motor cortex plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kidgell, Dawson J; Daly, Robin M; Young, Kayleigh; Lum, Jarrod; Tooley, Gregory; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Zoghi, Maryam; Pearce, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that modulates the excitability of neurons within the motor cortex (M1). Although the aftereffects of anodal tDCS on modulating cortical excitability have been described, there is limited data describing the outcomes of different tDCS intensities on intracortical circuits. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the aftereffects of M1 excitability following anodal tDCS, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effect of different intensities on cortical excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Using a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, with a one-week wash-out period, 14 participants (6 females and 8 males, 22-45 years) were exposed to 10 minutes of anodal tDCS at 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mA. TMS was used to measure M1 excitability and SICI of the contralateral wrist extensor muscle at baseline, immediately after and 15 and 30 minutes following cessation of anodal tDCS. Cortical excitability increased, whilst SICI was reduced at all time points following anodal tDCS. Interestingly, there were no differences between the three intensities of anodal tDCS on modulating cortical excitability or SICI. These results suggest that the aftereffect of anodal tDCS on facilitating cortical excitability is due to the modulation of synaptic mechanisms associated with long-term potentiation and is not influenced by different tDCS intensities.

  9. Flexible graphite as battery anode and current collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, M. S.; Krassowski, D.; Prakash, J.

    In making graphite-based electrodes and current collectors, there is significant simplification if a flexible graphite process is used. The lithium intercalation capacity of Grafoil ® flexible graphite sheet and its powder was evaluated using electrochemical charge-discharge cycling in half-cell configuration (coin cell with Li anode and graphite cathode). The sheet form was used with and without a copper current collector. Excellent electrical conductivity of the monolithic material with very low interface resistance helps as current collector and electrode. The comparatively low capacity of Grafoil ® sheet is thought to be due to diffusion limitation of the structure, especially in the light of the very high capacity of its powder form. The highly irreversible capacity of the powdered material may be due to unfunctionalized graphitic structures or impurities present in the powder. Impedance response for the first intercalation-deintercalation was different than responses taken after several cycles. The presence of a second impedance arc suggests structural modification is taking place in the graphite anode, possibly through formation of a porous structure as a result of graphite expansion. ®GRAFOIL is a registered trademark of Advanced Energy Technology Inc.

  10. Thermal investigation of an electrical high-current arc with porous gas-cooled anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E. R. G.; Schoeck, P. A.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The following guantities were measured on a high-intensity electric arc with tungsten cathode and transpiration-cooled graphite anode burning in argon: electric current and voltage, cooling gas flow rate (argon), surface temperature of the anode and of the anode holder, and temperature profile in three cross-sections of the arc are column. The last mentioned values were obtained from spectroscopic photographs. From the measured quantities, the following values were calculated: the heat flux into the anode surface, the heat loss of the anode by radiation and conduction, and the heat which was regeneratively transported by the cooling gas back into the arc space. Heat balances for the anode were also obtained. The anode losses (which are approximately 80% of the total arc power for free burning arcs) were reduced by transpiration cooling to 20%. The physical processes of the energy transfer from the arc to the anode are discussed qualitatively.

  11. Anodic Oxidation of Carbon Steel at High Current Densities and Investigation of Its Corrosion Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Khan, Hamid Yazdani

    2017-02-01

    This work aims at studying the influence of high current densities on the anodization of carbon steel. Anodic protective coatings were prepared on carbon steel at current densities of 100, 125, and 150 A/dm2 followed by a final heat treatment. Coatings microstructures and morphologies were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance of the uncoated carbon steel substrate and the anodic coatings were evaluated in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that the anodic oxide coatings which were prepared at higher current densities had thicker coatings as a result of a higher anodic forming voltage. Therefore, the anodized coatings showed better anti-corrosion properties compared to those obtained at lower current densities and the base metal.

  12. Modeling of the anode surface deformation in high-current vacuum arcs with AMF contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Jia, Shenli; Qin, Kang; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-02-01

    A high-current vacuum arc subjected to an axial magnetic field is maintained in a diffuse status. With an increase in arc current, the energy carried by the arc column to the anode becomes larger and finally leads to the anode temperature exceeding the melting point of the anode material. When the anode melting pool is formed, and the rotational plasma of the arc column delivers its momentum to the melting pool, the anode melting pool starts to rotate and also flow outwards along the radial direction, which has been photographed by some researchers using high-speed cameras. In this paper, the anode temperature and melting status is calculated using the melting and solidification model. The swirl flow of the anode melting pool and deformation of the anode is calculated using the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model with the volume of fraction (VOF) method. All the models are transient 2D axial-rotational symmetric models. The influence of the impaction force of the arc plasma, electromagnetic force, viscosity force, and surface tension of the liquid metal are all considered in the model. The heat flux density injected into the anode and the arc pressure are obtained from the 3D numerical simulation of the high-current vacuum arc using the MHD model, which gives more realistic parameters for the anode simulation. Simulation results show that the depth of the anode melting pool increases with an increase in the arc current. Some droplets sputter out from the anode surface, which is caused by the inertial centrifugal force of the rotational melting pool and strong plasma pressure. Compared with the previous anode melting model without consideration of anode deformation, when the deformation and swirl flow of the anode melting pool are considered, the anode temperature is relatively lower, and just a little more than the melting point of Cu. This is because of liquid droplets sputtering out of the anode surface taking much of the energy away from the anode surface. The

  13. Influence of Anode Potentials on Current Generation and Extracellular Electron Transfer Paths of Geobacter Species.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro

    2017-01-06

    Geobacter species are capable of utilizing solid-state compounds, including anodic electrodes, as electron acceptors of respiration via extracellular electron transfer (EET) and have attracted considerable attention for their crucial role as biocatalysts of bioelectrochemical systems (BES's). Recent studies disclosed that anode potentials affect power output and anodic microbial communities, including selection of dominant Geobacter species, in various BES's. However, the details in current-generating properties and responses to anode potentials have been investigated only for a model species, namely Geobacter sulfurreducens. In this study, the effects of anode potentials on the current generation and the EET paths were investigated by cultivating six Geobacter species with different anode potentials, followed by electrochemical analyses. The electrochemical cultivation demonstrated that the G. metallireducens clade species (G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens) constantly generate high current densities at a wide range of anode potentials (≥-0.3 or -0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl), while the subsurface clades species (G. daltonii, G. bemidjensis, G. chapellei, and G. pelophilus) generate a relatively large current only at limited potential regions (-0.1 to -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The linear sweep voltammetry analyses indicated that the G. metallireducens clade species utilize only one EET path irrespective of the anode potentials, while the subsurface clades species utilize multiple EET paths, which can be optimized depending on the anode potentials. These results clearly demonstrate that the response features to anode potentials are divergent among species (or clades) of Geobacter.

  14. Theoretical derivation of anodizing current and comparison between fitted curves and measured curves under different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Bin; Yu, Dongliang; Jin, Rong; Wang, Yang; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Gao, Mingqi; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-04-01

    Anodic TiO2 nanotubes have been studied extensively for many years. However, the growth kinetics still remains unclear. The systematic study of the current transient under constant anodizing voltage has not been mentioned in the original literature. Here, a derivation and its corresponding theoretical formula are proposed to overcome this challenge. In this paper, the theoretical expressions for the time dependent ionic current and electronic current are derived to explore the anodizing process of Ti. The anodizing current-time curves under different anodizing voltages and different temperatures are experimentally investigated in the anodization of Ti. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship between the thickness of the barrier layer and anodizing time, and the relationships between the ionic/electronic current and temperatures are proposed in this paper. All of the current-transient plots can be fitted consistently by the proposed theoretical expressions. Additionally, it is the first time that the coefficient A of the exponential relationship (ionic current jion = A exp(BE)) has been determined under various temperatures and voltages. And the results indicate that as temperature and voltage increase, ionic current and electronic current both increase. The temperature has a larger effect on electronic current than ionic current. These results can promote the research of kinetics from a qualitative to quantitative level.

  15. Modeling and simulation of high-current vacuum arc considering the micro process of anode vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Huang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Xiao; Jia, Shenli

    2017-03-01

    In vacuum arc (VA), when the arc current is very high (usually in the tens of kilo-ampere), the heat flux density injecting into an anode is larger and leads to a higher anode temperature with the increasing of current. The strong anode evaporation drives the evaporated atoms from the anode surface to the arc column. Simultaneously, the anode evaporated atoms impact with the cathode plasma, and then the micro processes as ionization and recombination between anode atoms and plasma will happen. In this paper, the two fluid three-dimensional (3D) magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model of VA considering ionization and recombination processes is built, and the influence of the anode vapor and its micro processes on the arc column is obtained by solving the two fluid MHD equations, which control anode neutral atoms and cathode plasma, respectively. In the model, the ionization of neutral atoms and the recombination of ions are both considered, the mass, momentum and energy exchange caused by the ionization and recombination processes are also considered. Moreover, the influence of ionization and recombination processes on the electromagnetic process of VA is also considered in the model. By numerical simulation, the anode vapor distribution, cathode plasma distribution and VA distribution, such as density, temperature, pressure, etc, are all obtained, and the parameters related to ionization and recombination processes are also obtained. When the anode temperature is high enough, the anode neutral vapor will enter into the arc column, and strong ionization happens at the interface between anode vapor and cathode plasma. Then, the anode vapor will be quickly ionized (usually smaller than a few microseconds) and generate a lot of ions (usually higher than 1021 m‑3 orders of magnitude). The anode neutral vapor has the same temperature with the anode surface, which is much lower than the temperature of the arc column, so the anode neutral vapor obviously has a cooling effect

  16. Influence of Anode Potentials on Current Generation and Extracellular Electron Transfer Paths of Geobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro

    2017-01-01

    Geobacter species are capable of utilizing solid-state compounds, including anodic electrodes, as electron acceptors of respiration via extracellular electron transfer (EET) and have attracted considerable attention for their crucial role as biocatalysts of bioelectrochemical systems (BES’s). Recent studies disclosed that anode potentials affect power output and anodic microbial communities, including selection of dominant Geobacter species, in various BES’s. However, the details in current-generating properties and responses to anode potentials have been investigated only for a model species, namely Geobacter sulfurreducens. In this study, the effects of anode potentials on the current generation and the EET paths were investigated by cultivating six Geobacter species with different anode potentials, followed by electrochemical analyses. The electrochemical cultivation demonstrated that the G. metallireducens clade species (G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens) constantly generate high current densities at a wide range of anode potentials (≥−0.3 or −0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl), while the subsurface clades species (G. daltonii, G. bemidjensis, G. chapellei, and G. pelophilus) generate a relatively large current only at limited potential regions (−0.1 to −0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The linear sweep voltammetry analyses indicated that the G. metallireducens clade species utilize only one EET path irrespective of the anode potentials, while the subsurface clades species utilize multiple EET paths, which can be optimized depending on the anode potentials. These results clearly demonstrate that the response features to anode potentials are divergent among species (or clades) of Geobacter. PMID:28067820

  17. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhances procedural consolidation.

    PubMed

    Tecchio, Franca; Zappasodi, Filippo; Assenza, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Vollaro, Stefano; Barbati, Giulia; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2010-08-01

    The primary motor cortex (M1) area recruitment enlarges while learning a finger tapping sequence. Also M1 excitability increases during procedural consolidation. Our aim was to investigate whether increasing M1 excitability by anodal transcranial DC stimulation (AtDCS) when procedural consolidation occurs was able to induce an early consolidation improvement. Forty-seven right-handed healthy participants were trained in a nine-element serial finger tapping task (SFTT) executed with the left hand. Random series blocks were interspersed with training series blocks. Anodal or sham tDCS was administered over the right M1 after the end of the training session. After stimulation, the motor skills of both trained and a new untrained sequential series blocks were tested again. For each block, performance was estimated as the median execution time of correct series. Early consolidation of the trained series, assessed by the performance difference between the first block after and the last block before stimulation normalized by the random, was enhanced by anodal and not by sham tDCS. Stimulation did not affect random series execution. No stimulation effect was found on the on-line learning of the trained and new untrained series. Our results suggest that AtDCS applied on M1 soon after training improves early consolidation of procedural learning. Our data highlight the importance of neuromodulation procedures for understanding learning processes and support their use in the motor rehabilitation setting, focusing on the timing of the application.

  18. Effect of an axial magnetic field and arc current on the anode current density in diffuse vacuum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhenxing; Zhang, Zaiqin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the effect of an axial magnetic field (AMF) BAMF and arc current on the anode current density in diffuse vacuum arcs. The experimental geometry included a split anode and a butt-type cathode, both with a diameter of 60 mm. The anode surface was divided into a central area and three symmetrically disposed peripheral annular areas. The central area of the split anode had a diameter of 20 mm. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). The arc current IARC ranged from 4 to 14 kA (rms) at 50 Hz. The opening velocity was 2.4 m/s. The currents of the four areas on the anode contact were measured using four Rogowski coils situated outside the vacuum chamber. An external uniform AMF BAMF ranging from 0 to 110 mT was applied during the experiment. The observed arc modes were recorded by a high-speed charge-coupled device video camera. The experimental results quantitatively reveal that the current density distribution on the anode surface in the diffuse arc mode was not uniform but concentrated in the central area. The current density in the central anode area at the current peak JPeakArea I decreased with increasing BAMF following a power law. For BAMF of 0-110 mT and IARC of 4-14 kA, JPeakArea I = (2.2 IARC + 0.069 IARC2) BAMF-0.22, where JPeakArea I is in A/mm2, BAMF is in mT, and IARC is in kA. Moreover, the current distribution was uneven in the three peripheral areas.

  19. Parasitic Currents Caused by Different Ionic and Electronic Conductivities in Fuel Cell Anodes.

    PubMed

    Schalenbach, Maximilian; Zillgitt, Marcel; Maier, Wiebke; Stolten, Detlef

    2015-07-29

    The electrodes in fuel cells simultaneously realize electric and ionic conductivity. In the case of acidic polymer electrolytes, the electrodes are typically made of composites of carbon-supported catalyst and Nafion polymer electrolyte binder. In this study, the interaction of the proton conduction, the electron conduction, and the electrochemical hydrogen conversion in such composite electrode materials was examined. Exposed to a hydrogen atmosphere, these composites displayed up to 10-fold smaller resistivities for the proton conduction than that of Nafion membranes. This effect was ascribed to the simultaneously occurring electrochemical hydrogen oxidation and evolution inside the composite samples, which are driven by different proton and electron resistivities. The parasitic electrochemical currents resulting were postulated to occur in the anode of fuel cells with polymer, solid oxide, or liquid alkaline electrolytes, when the ohmic drop of the ion conduction in the anode is higher with the anodic kinetic overvoltage (as illustrated in the graphical abstract). In this case, the parasitic electrochemical currents increase the anodic kinetic overpotential and the ohmic drop in the anode. Thinner fuel cell anodes with smaller ohmic drops for the ion conduction may reduce the parasitic electrochemical currents.

  20. Graphitized Carbon Fibers as Multifunctional 3D Current Collectors for High Areal Capacity Li Anodes.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tong-Tong; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Ye, Huan; Li, Nian-Wu; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2017-08-01

    The Li metal anode has long been considered as one of the most ideal anodes due to its high energy density. However, safety concerns, low efficiency, and huge volume change are severe hurdles to the practical application of Li metal anodes, especially in the case of high areal capacity. Here it is shown that that graphitized carbon fibers (GCF) electrode can serve as a multifunctional 3D current collector to enhance the Li storage capacity. The GCF electrode can store a huge amount of Li via intercalation and electrodeposition reactions. The as-obtained anode can deliver an areal capacity as high as 8 mA h cm(-2) and exhibits no obvious dendritic formation. In addition, the enlarged surface area and porous framework of the GCF electrode result in lower local current density and mitigate high volume change during cycling. Thus, the Li composite anode displays low voltage hysteresis, high plating/stripping efficiency, and long lifespan. The multifunctional 3D current collector promisingly provides a new strategy for promoting the cycling lifespan of high areal capacity Li anodes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Gyrotron Output Power Stabilization by PID Feedback Control of Heater Current and Anode Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Ueda, K.

    2014-12-01

    To provide stable output power of a gyrotron during long operation time the power stabilization was achieved by two schemes with PID feedback control of heater current and anode voltage. It was based on the dependence of the output power on both the anode voltage and the beam current and also on the dependence of the beam current on the gun heater current. Both schemes provided decrease of the power standard deviation to 0.3-0.5%. The comparison between parameters of both schemes is discussed in the paper.

  2. Anode-pore tortuosity in solid oxide fuel cells found from gas and current flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V. Hugo; Tsai, Chih-Long

    The effect of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode thickness, porosity, pore size, and pore tortuosity on fuel and exhaust gas flow is calculated. Also determined is the concentration of these gases and of diluent gases as a function of position across the anode. The calculation is based on the dusty-gas model which includes a Knudsen (molecule-wall) collision term in the Stefan-Maxwell equation which is based on unlike-molecule collisions. Commonly made approximations are avoided in order to obtain more exact results. One such approximation is the assumption of uniform total gas pressure across the anode. Another such approximation is the assumption of zero fuel gas concentration at the anode-electrolyte interface under the anode saturation condition for which the SOFC output voltage goes to zero. Elimination of this approximation requires use of a model we developed (published elsewhere) for terminal voltage V as a function of electrolyte current density i. Key formulae from this model are presented. The formulae developed herein for gas flow and tortuosity are applied to the results of a series of careful experiments performed by another group, who used binary and ternary gas mixtures on the anode side of an SOFC. Our values for tortuosity are in a physically reasonable low range, from 1.7 to 3.3. They are in fair agreement with those obtained by the other group, once a difference in nomenclature is taken into account. This difference consists in their definition of tortuosity being what some call tortuosity factor, which is the square of what we and some others call tortuosity. The results emphasize the need for careful design of anode pore structures, especially in anode-supported SOFCs which require thicker anodes.

  3. Highly conductive freestanding graphene films as anode current collectors for flexible lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kuldeep; Singh, Jyoti; Lee, Jeong-Taik; Park, Jong Hyeok; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-07-23

    The electrodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are typically films that are arranged on metal foil current collectors with a thickness of several tens of μm. Here, we report on the preparation of a thick free-standing graphene film synthesized by CVD as an alternative to Cu foil as an anode current collector. As a model system, MoS2 anodes with a flower-like morphology were anchored onto the surface of the thick graphene film. A hybrid and binder free anode without a conventional metal current collector exhibited an excellent capacity value of around 580 mAh/g (@50 mA/g) and reasonable charge/discharge cyclability. The work presented here may stimulate the use of graphene films as replacements for conventional current collectors and additive free electrode in LIBs.

  4. Velocity controlled anodization nanolithography with an atomic force microscope using Faradaic current feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Matthew S.; Cole, Daniel G.; Clark, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    A technique, called velocity controlled anodization nanolithography, is presented that ensures line continuity during atomic force microscope based local anodic oxidation on silicon. Spontaneous current spikes disrupt the generation of uniform silicon oxide patterns during lithography at low humidity. Varying the translational speed during lithography in response to the current fluctuations enables the formation of a more complete and continuous oxide layer. The velocity corrections as a result of control are able to maintain constant current flow through the tip-sample interface. The authors demonstrate that this method is effective for in situ quality control.

  5. A Patterned 3D Silicon Anode Fabricated by Electrodeposition on a Virus-Structured Current Collector

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2010-11-09

    Electrochemical methods were developed for the deposition of nanosilicon onto a 3D virus-structured nickel current collector. This nickel current collector is composed of self-assembled nanowire-like rods of genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), chemically coated in nickel to create a complex high surface area conductive substrate. The electrochemically depo­sited 3D silicon anodes demonstrate outstanding rate performance, cycling stability, and rate capability. Electrodeposition thus provides a unique means of fabricating silicon anode materials on complex substrates at low cost.

  6. Differential Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability by Different Current Densities of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Andisheh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2013-01-01

    Background Novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been developed in recent years. TDCS-induced corticospinal excitability changes depend on two important factors current intensity and stimulation duration. Despite clinical success with existing tDCS parameters, optimal protocols are still not entirely set. Objective/hypothesis The current study aimed to investigate the effects of four different anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) current densities on corticospinal excitability. Methods Four current intensities of 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2 mA resulting in current densities (CDs) of 0.013, 0.029, 0.058 and 0.083 mA/cm2 were applied on twelve right-handed (mean age 34.5±10.32 yrs) healthy individuals in different sessions at least 48 hours apart. a-tDCS was applied continuously for 10 minute, with constant active and reference electrode sizes of 24 and 35 cm2 respectively. The corticospinal excitability of the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) was measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. Results Post hoc comparisons showed significant differences in corticospinal excitability changes for CDs of 0.013 mA/cm2 and 0.029 mA/cm2 (P = 0.003). There were no significant differences between excitability changes for the 0.013 mA/cm2 and 0.058 mA/cm2 (P = 0.080) or 0.013 mA/cm2 and 0.083 mA/cm2 (P = 0.484) conditions. Conclusion This study found that a-tDCS with a current density of 0.013 mA/cm2 induces significantly larger corticospinal excitability changes than CDs of 0.029 mA/cm2. The implication is that might help to avoid applying unwanted amount of current to the cortical areas. PMID:23991076

  7. Polarographic study of hydrogen peroxide anodic current and its application to antioxidant activity determination.

    PubMed

    Sužnjević, Desanka Ž; Pastor, Ferenc T; Gorjanović, Stanislava Ž

    2011-09-15

    Behavior of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium has been studied by direct current (DC) polarography with dropping mercury electrode (DME) aiming to apply it in antioxidant (AO) activity determination. Development of a peroxide anodic current having form of a peak, instead of common polarographic wave, has been investigated. As a base for this investigation the interaction of H(2)O(2) with anodically dissolved mercury was followed. Formation of mercury complex [Hg(O(2)H)(OH)] has been confirmed. The relevant experimental conditions, such as temperature, concentration and pH dependence, as well as time stability of hydrogen peroxide anodic current, have been assessed. Development of an AO assay based on decrease of anodic current of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of antioxidants (AOs) has been described. Under optimized working conditions, a series of benzoic acids along with corresponding cinnamate analogues have been tested for hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In addition, the assay versatility has been confirmed on various complex samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic currents and the formation of nanopores in porous anodic alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xu-Fei; Song, Ye; Liu, Lin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Zheng, Jie; Jia, Hong-Bing; Wang, Xin-Long

    2009-11-01

    The formation processes of barrier anodic alumina (BAA) and porous anodic alumina (PAA) are discussed in detail. The anodizing current JT within the oxide includes ionic current jion and electronic current je during the anodizing process. The jion is used to form an oxide and the je is used to give rise to oxygen gas or sparking. The je results from the impurity centers within the oxide. For a given electrolyte, the je is dependent on the impurity centers and independent of the JT. The formation of nanopores can be ascribed to the oxygen evolution within the oxide. Oxygen gas will begin to be released at the critical thickness dc. The manner of the development of PAA is in accordance with that of BAA. The differences between PAA and BAA are the magnitude of je or the continuity of oxygen evolution. There are two competitive reactions, i.e. oxide growth (\\mathrm {2Al^{3+}+3O^{2-}} \\to \\mathrm {Al_{2}O_{3}} ) and oxygen evolution (\\mathrm {2O^{2-}} \\to \\mathrm {O_{2}} {\\uparrow } +4\\rme ). The former keeps the wall of the channel lengthened, the latter keeps the channel open. By controlling the release rate of oxygen gas under different pressures, the shape of the channels can be adjusted. The present results may open up some opportunities for fabricating special templates.

  9. Anodal current intensities above 40 microA interfere with current-induced axon-reflex vasodilatation in human skin.

    PubMed

    Tartas, M; Durand, S; Koïtka, A; Bouyé, P; Saumet, J L; Abraham, P

    2004-01-01

    When using iontophoresis, the 'non-specific' vasodilatation (NSV) that is observed as a result of C-fibre excitation is generally attributed to the local accumulation of protons under the anode. NSV following prolonged 100-microA anodal current application only appears after the current is stopped. Break excitation alone does not explain the delayed onset of this vasodilatation. We hypothesised that this delay could result from an anodal block and thus, that a minimal intensity would be required to achieve hyperpolarisation of primary afferent fibres (mainly C-fibres). Using laser Doppler flowmetry, cutaneous blood flow was recorded in the forearms of 8 healthy volunteers 2 min before current application, during the application and 20 min after stopping the monopolar anodal current. In protocol 1, after 2.5 min of current application at an intensity of 100 microA, the intensity was abruptly decreased to 0-80 microA for a second 2.5-min period. The onset of vasodilatation was only delayed at intensities >30 microA during this second period. In protocol 2, re-application of the current after a 50-second interruption (expected to allow for the occurrence of an axon reflex) did not interfere with the onset of vasodilatation. Thus: (1) the minimal intensity interfering with the axon reflex is far lower than that reported for C-fibre blockade in isolated nerves; (2) the results suggest that current application does not directly interfere with the vasodilator mechanisms induced by the axon reflex at the level of smooth muscle cells.

  10. Incorporation of Ca and P on anodized titanium surface: Effect of high current density.

    PubMed

    Laurindo, Carlos A H; Torres, Ricardo D; Mali, Sachin A; Gilbert, Jeremy L; Soares, Paulo

    2014-04-01

    This study systematically evaluated the surface and corrosion characteristics of commercially pure titanium (grade 2) modified by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) with high current density. The anodization process was carried out galvanostatically (constant current density) using a solution containing calcium glycerophosphate (0.02mol/L) and calcium acetate (0.15mol/L). The current densities applied were 400, 700, 1000 and 1200mA/cm(2) for a period of 15s. Composition, crystalline structure, morphology, roughness, wettability and "in-vitro" bioactivity test in SBF of the anodized layer were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurements. Corrosion properties were evaluated by open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results show that the TiO2 oxide layers present an increase of thickness, porosity, roughness, wettability, Ca/P ratio, and bioactivity, with the applied current density up to 1000mA/cm(2). Corrosion resistance also increases with applied current density. It is observed that for 1200mA/cm(2), there is a degradation of the oxide layer. In general, the results suggest that the anodized TiO2 layer with better properties is formed with an applied current of 1000mA/cm(2).

  11. Accommodating lithium into 3D current collectors with a submicron skeleton towards long-life lithium metal anodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-Peng; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhang, Shuai-Feng; Li, Nian-Wu; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is one of the most attractive anode materials for electrochemical energy storage. However, the growth of Li dendrites during electrochemical deposition, which leads to a low Coulombic efficiency and safety concerns, has long hindered the application of rechargeable Li-metal batteries. Here we show that a 3D current collector with a submicron skeleton and high electroactive surface area can significantly improve the electrochemical deposition behaviour of Li. Li anode is accommodated in the 3D structure without uncontrollable Li dendrites. With the growth of Li dendrites being effectively suppressed, the Li anode in the 3D current collector can run for 600 h without short circuit and exhibits low voltage hysteresis. The exceptional electrochemical performance of the Li-metal anode in the 3D current collector highlights the importance of rational design of current collectors and reveals a new avenue for developing Li anodes with a long lifespan. PMID:26299379

  12. Safety parameter considerations of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark P; Truong, Dennis; Brownlow, Milene L; Wagner, Jessica A; McKinley, R Andy; Bikson, Marom; Jankord, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    A commonly referenced transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) safety threshold derives from tDCS lesion studies in the rat and relies on electrode current density (and related electrode charge density) to support clinical guidelines. Concerns about the role of polarity (e.g. anodal tDCS), sub-lesion threshold injury (e.g. neuroinflammatory processes), and role of electrode montage across rodent and human studies support further investigation into animal models of tDCS safety. Thirty-two anesthetized rats received anodal tDCS between 0 and 5mA for 60min through one of three epicranial electrode montages. Tissue damage was evaluated using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, and computational brain current density modeling. Brain lesion occurred after anodal tDCS at and above 0.5mA using a 25.0mm(2) electrode (electrode current density: 20.0A/m(2)). Lesion initially occurred using smaller 10.6mm(2) or 5.3mm(2) electrodes at 0.25mA (23.5A/m(2)) and 0.5mA (94.2A/m(2)), respectively. Histological damage was correlated with computational brain current density predictions. Changes in microglial phenotype occurred in higher stimulation groups. Lesions were observed using anodal tDCS at an electrode current density of 20.0A/m(2), which is below the previously reported safety threshold of 142.9A/m(2) using cathodal tDCS. The lesion area is not simply predicted by electrode current density (and so not by charge density as duration was fixed); rather computational modeling suggests average brain current density as a better predictor for anodal tDCS. Nonetheless, under the assumption that rodent epicranial stimulation is a hypersensitive model, an electrode current density of 20.0A/m(2) represents a conservative threshold for clinical tDCS, which typically uses an electrode current density of 2A/m(2) when electrodes are placed on the skin (resulting in a lower brain current density). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen suppresses light-driven anodic current generation by a mixed phototrophic culture.

    PubMed

    Darus, Libertus; Ledezma, Pablo; Keller, Jürg; Freguia, Stefano

    2014-12-02

    This paper describes the detrimental effect of photosynthetically evolved oxygen on anodic current generation in the presence of riboflavin upon illumination of a mixed phototrophic culture enriched from a freshwater pond at +0.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. In the presence of riboflavin, the phototrophic biomass in the anodic compartment produced an electrical current in response to light/dark cycles (12 h/12 h) over 12 months of operation, generating a maximum current density of 17.5 mA x m(-2) during the dark phase, whereas a much lower current of approximately 2 mA x m(-2) was generated during illumination. We found that the low current generation under light exposure was caused by high rates of reoxidation of reduced riboflavin by oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Quantification of biomass by fluorescence in situ hybridization images suggested that green algae were predominant in both the anode-based biofilm (55.1%) and the anolyte suspension (87.9%) with the remaining biovolume accounted for by bacteria. Genus-level sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria were dominated by cyanobacterium Leptolyngbia (∼35%), while the prevailing algae were Dictyosphaerium, Coelastrum, and Auxenochlorella. This study offers a key comprehension of mediator sensitivity to reoxidation by dissolved oxygen for improvement of microbial solar cell performance.

  14. Time and space resolved spectroscopic investigation during anode plume formation in a high-current vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, A.; Methling, R.; Uhrlandt, D.; Franke, St.; Gortschakow, S.; Popov, S.; Batrakov, A.; Weltmann, K. D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents time and space resolved results of spectroscopic measurements during the formation of an anode plume in the late current pulse phase of a high-current vacuum arc. The formation of the anode plume is investigated systematically based on the occurrence of high-current anode spots, depending on gap distance and current for AC 100 Hz and CuCr7525 butt contacts with a diameter of 10 mm. The anode plume is observed after the extinction of anode spot type 2 in which both the anode and cathode are active. It is concluded from the spatial profiles of the atomic and ionic radiation, parallel and perpendicular to anode surface, that the inner part of the plume is dominated by Cu I radiation, whereas a halo of light emitted by Cu II covers the plume. The radiation intensity of Cu III lines is quite low across the whole anode plume. Upper level excited state densities corresponding to Cu I lines at 510.55, 515.32, 521.82, 578.21 nm are determined. The temporal evolution of the resulting excitation temperature in the centre of the plume varies from 8500 K to 6000 K at 500 µs to 100 µs before current zero, respectively. The density calculated for Cu I at position in the plume is in the range of 1-5  ×  1019 m-3.

  15. Minute Current Detection during Anodic Oxidation by Atomic Force Microscope At High Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Hiromi; Ando, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    The faradaic current during anodic oxidation has been detected using an atomic force microscope with intent to study the meniscus formation process and the oxidation mechanism. The faradaic current is of the order of pA for a Si sample, which is at the same level as the leakage current noise; there are problems in detecting, such as sensitivity limits and poor reproducibility. These problems occurred due to high humidity. We could overcome these problems by hermetically sealing the entire electronic parts in the unit to avoid the humidity effects and achieved the detection of a minute current of the sub-pA order even at high humidity.

  16. Light-responsive current generation by phototrophically enriched anode biofilms dominated by green sulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to employ microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) to selectively enrich and examine anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria for potential anaerobic respiration capabilities using electrodes. In the process, we designed a novel enrichment strategy that manipulated the poised anode potential, light, nitrogen availability, and media supply to promote growth of phototrophic bacteria while minimizing co-enrichment of non-phototrophic anode-respiring bacteria (ARB). This approach resulted in light-responsive electricity generation from fresh- and saltwater inocula. Under anoxic conditions, current showed a negative light response, suggesting that the enriched phototrophic consortia shifted between phototrophic and anaerobic respiratory metabolism. Molecular, physical, and electrochemical analyses elucidated that anode biofilms were dominated by green sulfur bacteria, and biofilms exhibited anode respiration kinetics indicative of non-mediated electron transfer, but kinetic parameters differed from values previously reported for non-phototrophic ARB. These results invite the utilization of MXCs as microbiological tools for exploring anaerobic respiratory capabilities among anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Task-Specific Facilitation of Cognition by Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Pope, Paul A; Brenton, Jonathan W; Miall, R Chris

    2015-11-01

    We previously speculated that depression of cerebellar excitability using cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might release extra cognitive resources via the disinhibition of activity in prefrontal cortex. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether anodal tDCS over the prefrontal cortex could similarly improve performance when cognitive demands are high. Sixty-three right-handed participants in 3 separate groups performed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) and the more difficult Paced Auditory Serial Subtraction Task (PASST), before and after 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Performance was assessed in terms of the accuracy, latency, and variability of correct verbal responses. All behavioral measures significantly improved for the PASST after anodal DLPFC stimulation, but not the PASAT. There were smaller practice effects after cathodal and sham stimulation. Subjective ratings of attention and mental fatigue were unchanged by tDCS over time. We conclude that anodal stimulation over the left DLPFC can selectively improve performance on a difficult cognitive task involving arithmetic processing, verbal working memory, and attention. This result might be achieved by focally improving executive functions and/or cognitive capacity when tasks are difficult, rather than by improving levels of arousal/alertness.

  18. Proton transport inside the biofilm limits electrical current generation by anode-respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Torres, César I; Kato Marcus, Andrew; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-08-01

    Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) in a biofilm anode carry out an oxidation half-reaction of organic matter, producing an electrical current from renewable biomass, including wastes. At the same time, ARB produce protons, usually one proton for every electron. Our study shows how current density generated by an acclimated ARB biofilm was limited by proton transport out of the biofilm. We determined that, at high current densities, protons were mainly transported out of the biofilm by protonating the conjugate base of the buffer system; the maximum current generation was directly related to the transport of the buffer, mainly by diffusion, into and out of the biofilm. With non-limiting acetate concentrations, the current density increased with higher buffer concentrations, going from 2.21 +/- 0.02 A m(-2) with 12.5-mM phosphate buffer medium to 9.3 +/- 0.4 A m(-2) using a 100-mM phosphate buffer at a constant anode potential of E(anode) = -0.35 V versus Ag/AgCl. Increasing the concentration of sodium chloride in the medium (0-100 mM) increased current density by only 15%, indicating that ion migration was not as important as diffusion of phosphate inside the biofilm. The current density also varied strongly with medium pH as a result of the buffer speciation: The current density was 10.0 +/- 0.8 A m(-2) at pH 8, and the pH giving one-half the maximum rate was 6.5. A j-V curve analysis using 100 mM phosphate buffer showed a maximum current density of 11.5 +/- 0.9 A m(-2) and half-saturation potential of -0.414 V versus Ag/AgCl, a value that deviated only slightly from the standard acetate potential, resulting in small anode-potential losses. We discuss the implications of the proton-transport limitation in the field of microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolytic cells. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the supramarginal gyrus facilitates pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Williamson, Victoria J; Banissy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown activation of the supramarginal gyrus during pitch memory tasks. A previous transcranial direct current stimulation study using cathodal stimulation over the left supramarginal gyrus reported a detrimental effect on short-term pitch memory performance, indicating an important role of the supramarginal gyrus in pitch memory. The current study aimed to determine whether pitch memory could be improved following anodal stimulation of the left supramarginal gyrus. The performances of non-musicians on two pitch memory tasks (pitch recognition and recall) and a visual memory control task following anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation were compared. The results show that, post-stimulation, the anodal group but not the control group performed significantly better on both pitch memory tasks; performance did not differ on the face memory task. These findings provide strong support for the causal involvement of the left supramarginal gyrus in the pitch memory process, and highlight the potential efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation as a tool to improve pitch memory. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Monitoring DC anode current of a grounded-cathode photomultiplier tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argirò, S.; Camin, D. V.; Destro, M.; Guérard, C. K.

    1999-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatories (PAO) for the highest energy cosmic rays will make use of both the Cherenkov and Air Fluorescence techniques. Surface Detectors (SD) and Fluorescence Detectors (FD) will have to operate in a desert-type environment during at least 15 years. In order to avoid dust deposition, due to electrostatics, and other practical inconveniences derived from biasing the cathode with a negative potential, the 15000 PMTs of the FD will operate in the grounded cathode configuration. Despite the fact that the anodes will remain at high voltage with respect to ground, the DC anode current, which varies with background light, will have to be recorded. We have developed a current monitoring system based on a novel optocoupled feedback circuit that allows sensitive, linear, and temperature-independent measurements of the DC anode current. A distinctive feature of this circuit is that it uses optical coupling between passive components at high voltage and active components near the ground potential. This represents a substantial improvement over classical solutions which require the supply of power to an active circuit at high voltage. We report on the first tests performed with both active and passive biasing networks which demonstrate the validity of this new method.

  1. Porous Al Current Collector for Dendrite-Free Na Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Tang, Shan; Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Aoxuan; Yang, Quan-Hong; Luo, Jiayan

    2017-09-13

    Na-based batteries are proposed as promising energy storage candidates for beyond Li-ion technology due to the higher natural earth of Na metal. For its high capacity and low potential, Na metal may carve itself a niche when directly used as anodes. Similar to or even more problematic than Li, however, uneven plating/stripping of Na leads to dendrite formation. As the plating substrates, current collectors have a paramount influence on the Na plating/stripping behaviors. Here we propose porous Al current collectors as the plating substrate to suppress Na dendrites. Al does not alloy with Na. It is advantageous over Cu current collectors in terms of cost and weight. The interconnected porous structure can increase available surface for Na to nucleate and decrease the Na(+) flux distribution, leading to homogeneous plating. The Na metal anodes can run for over 1000 cycles on porous Al with a low and stable voltage hysteresis and their average plating/stripping Coulombic efficiency was above 99.9%, which is greatly improved compared to planar Al. We used the porous Al for Na-O2, Na-Na3V2(PO4)3 cells with low Na amount and anode free Na-TiS2 batteries and anticipate that using this strategy can be combined with further electrolyte and cathodes to develop high performance Na-based batteries.

  2. Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Autism: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Keeratitanont, Keattichai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in individuals with autism. Twenty patients with autism received 5 consecutive days of both sham and active tDCS stimulation (1 mA) in a randomized double-blind crossover trial over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3) for 20 minutes in different orders. Measures of CARS, ATEC, and CGAS were administered before treatment and at 7 days posttreatment. The result showed statistical decrease in CARS score (P < 0.001). ATEC total was decreased from 67.25 to 58 (P < 0.001). CGAS was increased at 7 days posttreatment (P = 0.042). Our study suggests that anodal tDCS over the F3 may be a useful clinical tool in autism. PMID:25530675

  3. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex increases sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Jennifer A; Johnson, Robyn; Raw, Rachael; Deuchars, Susan A; Deuchars, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is currently being investigated as a non-invasive neuromodulation therapy for a range of conditions including stroke rehabilitation. tDCS affects not only the area underlying the electrodes but also other areas of the cortex and subcortical structures. This could lead to unintended alteration in brain functions such as autonomic control. We investigated the potential effects of tDCS on cardiovascular autonomic function in healthy volunteers. Anodal (n = 14) or cathodal (n = 8) tDCS at 1 mA was applied over the primary motor cortex with the second electrode placed on the contralateral supraorbital region. Subjects visited the department twice and received active or sham tDCS for 15 min. Heart rate, blood pressure and respiration were recorded at baseline, during tDCS and after stimulation. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated using spectral analysis of beat-to-beat intervals derived from ECG data. Microneurography was also used to record muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; n = 5). Anodal tDCS caused a significant shift in HRV toward sympathetic predominance (P = 0.017), whereas there was no significant change in the cathodal or sham groups. Microneurography results also showed a significant increase in MSNA during anodal tDCS that continued post-stimulation. Anodal tDCS of the motor cortex shifts autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic dominance due at least in part to an increase in sympathetic output. These results suggest further investigation is warranted on tDCS use in patient groups with potential autonomic dysfunction, such as stroke patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-efficiency, nickel-ceramic composite anode current collector for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Wu, Zhentao; Li, K.

    2015-04-01

    High manufacturing cost and low-efficient current collection have been the two major bottlenecks that prevent micro-tubular SOFCs from large-scale application. In this work, a new nickel-based composite anode current collector has been developed for anode-supported MT-SOFC, addressing reduced cost, manufacturability and current collection efficiencies. Triple-layer hollow fibers have been successfully fabricated via a phase inversion-assisted co-extrusion process, during which a thin nickel-based inner layer was uniformly coated throughout the interior anode surface for improved adhesion with superior process economy. 10 wt.% CGO was added into the inner layer to prevent the excessive shrinkage of pure NiO, thus helping to achieve the co-sintering process. The electrochemical performance tests illustrate that samples with the thinnest anodic current collector (15% of the anode thickness) displayed the highest power density (1.07 W cm-2). The impedance analysis and theoretical calculations suggest that inserting the anodic current collector could dramatically reduce the percentage of contact loss down to 6-10 % of the total ohmic loss (compared to 70% as reported in literatures), which proves the high efficiencies of new current collector design. Moreover, the superior manufacturability and process economy suggest this composite current collector suitable for mass-scale production.

  5. Modeling of the Plasma Flow and Anode Region Inside a Direct Current Plasma Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolot, Rodolphe; Coddet, Christian; Allimant, Alain; Billières, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This study is devoted to the modeling of the arc formation in a direct current plasma gun newly commercialized by Saint-Gobain Coating Solutions (Avignon, France). The CFD computations were performed using the FLUENT code. The electromagnetic coupling was implemented on the basis of a three-dimensional model using additional scalars for the electromagnetic equations and user-defined functions to set up the problem. Whereas most of earlier models include the arc region only, the CFD domain was extended to the gas injection region (i.e., upstream part of the gun, including the gas diffuser), thus allowing a better description of the swirl injection on the plasma flow. Similarly, whereas numerous earlier works include the fluid domain only, the present model takes the fluid/solid coupling problem in the anode into account. In particular, the thermal and the electromagnetic equations are solved not only in the fluid parts but also in the tungsten and copper parts of the anode. This change was found to be important because the internal surface of the anode is no more a boundary of the domain. Thus, its temperature (and electric potential) becomes variable and is thus not necessarily imposed. Finally, the implemented model provides interesting results describing the arc behavior inside the plasma gun.

  6. Potential attenuation and anode current output determination alternatives for marine pipelines and risers

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, P.; Hartt, W.H.; Bethune, K.P.

    1999-07-01

    Potential attenuation along a pipeline that is catholically polarized by multiple, equally spaced anodes is evaluated using three approaches boundary element modeling, a newly developed attenuation equation, and the classical equation of Uhlig, where the first two consider the net resistance to be comprised of electrolyte (anode), coating, and metallic path components, whereas the last approach neglects electrolyte resistance. It is demonstrated that results from the BEM analysis correspond to a first principles based projection of resistance change along a pipeline; and so results obtained by this method (BEM) are judged to be the most accurate of the three. Distinctions between the BEM and the newly developed attenuation equation, which is also first principles based, are discussed in terms of assumptions that are made in arriving at a closed form solution to the latter. The Uhlig equation is judged to be the least accurate of the three and to be non-conservative. While the closed form solution for the newly developed equation projects a potential attenuation that is non-conservative, the corresponding anode current output is conservative. Based upon this, a protocol for design of galvanic cathodic protection systems upon marine pipelines is proposed.

  7. Counteracting Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis with Right Parietal Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hanken, Katrin; Bosse, Mona; Möhrke, Kim; Eling, Paul; Kastrup, Andreas; Antal, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients appears to correlate with vigilance decrement as reflected in an increase in reaction time (RT) and errors with prolonged time-on-task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right parietal or frontal cortex counteracts fatigue-associated vigilance decrement and subjective fatigue. In study I, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) was delivered to the right parietal cortex or the right frontal cortex of 52 healthy participants during the first 20 min of a 40-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study II, also a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, investigated the effect of anodal tDCS (1.5 mA) over the right parietal cortex in 46 MS patients experiencing cognitive fatigue. tDCS was delivered for 20 min before patients performed a 20-min lasting visual vigilance task. Study I showed that right parietal stimulation, but not right frontal stimulation, counteracts the increase in RT associated with vigilance decrement. Hence, only right parietal stimulation was applied to the MS patients in study II. Stimulation had a significant effect on vigilance decrement in mildly to moderately cognitively fatigued MS patients. Vigilance testing significantly increased the feeling of fatigue independent of stimulation. Anodal tDCS over the right parietal cortex can counteract the increase in RTs during vigilance performance, but not the increase in subjective fatigue. This finding is compatible with our model of fatigue in MS, suggesting a dissociation between the feeling and the behavioral characteristics of fatigue.

  8. Formation and disruption of current paths of anodic porous alumina films by conducting atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Nigo, S.; Inoue, J.; Sakai, O.; Kitazawa, H.; Kido, G.

    2010-11-01

    Anodic porous alumina (APA) films have a honeycomb cell structure of pores and a voltage-induced bi-stable switching effect. We have applied conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a method to form and to disrupt current paths in the APA films. A bi-polar switching operation was confirmed. We have firstly observed terminals of current paths as spots or areas typically on the center of the triangle formed by three pores. In addition, though a part of the current path showed repetitive switching, most of them were not observed again at the same position after one cycle of switching operations in the present experiments. This suggests that a part of alumina structure and/or composition along the current paths is modified during the switching operations.

  9. Duty Cycling Influences Current Generation in Multi-Anode Environmental Microbial Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gardel, EJ; Nielsen, ME; Grisdela, PT; Girguis, PR

    2012-05-01

    Improving microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance continues to be the subject of research, yet the role of operating conditions, specifically duty cycling, on MFC performance has been modestly addressed. We present a series of studies in which we use a 15-anode environmental MFC to explore how duty cycling (variations in the time an anode is connected) influences cumulative charge, current, and microbial composition. The data reveal particular switching intervals that result in the greatest time-normalized current. When disconnection times are sufficiently short, there is a striking decrease in current due to an increase in the overall electrode reaction resistance. This was observed over a number of whole cell potentials. Based on these results, we posit that replenishment of depleted electron donors within the biofilm and surrounding diffusion layer is necessary for maximum charge transfer, and that proton flux may be not limiting in the highly buffered aqueous phases that are common among environmental MFCs. Surprisingly, microbial diversity analyses found no discernible difference in gross community composition among duty cycling treatments, suggesting that duty cycling itself has little or no effect. Such duty cycling experiments are valuable in determining which factors govern performance of bioelectrochemical systems and might also be used to optimize field-deployed systems.

  10. EEG-NIRS based assessment of neurovascular coupling during anodal transcranial direct current stimulation--a stroke case series.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Jacob, Athira; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy; Das, Abhijit; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    A method for electroencephalography (EEG) - near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based assessment of neurovascular coupling (NVC) during anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Anodal tDCS modulates cortical neural activity leading to a hemodynamic response, which was used to identify impaired NVC functionality. In this study, the hemodynamic response was estimated with NIRS. NIRS recorded changes in oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations during anodal tDCS-induced activation of the cortical region located under the electrode and in-between the light sources and detectors. Anodal tDCS-induced alterations in the underlying neuronal current generators were also captured with EEG. Then, a method for the assessment of NVC underlying the site of anodal tDCS was proposed that leverages the Hilbert-Huang Transform. The case series including four chronic (>6 months) ischemic stroke survivors (3 males, 1 female from age 31 to 76) showed non-stationary effects of anodal tDCS on EEG that correlated with the HbO2 response. Here, the initial dip in HbO2 at the beginning of anodal tDCS corresponded with an increase in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5Hz-11.25Hz frequency band. The cross-correlation coefficient changed signs but was comparable across subjects during and after anodal tDCS. The log-transformed mean-power of EEG lagged HbO2 response during tDCS but then led post-tDCS. This case series demonstrated changes in the degree of neurovascular coupling to a 0.526 A/m(2) square-pulse (0-30 s) of anodal tDCS. The initial dip in HbO2 needs to be carefully investigated in a larger cohort, for example in patients with small vessel disease.

  11. Electric current generation by sulfur-reducing bacteria in microbial-anode fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2012-10-01

    Sulfur - reducing bacteria are a part of normal microflora of natural environment. Their main function is supporting of reductive stage of sulfur cycle by hydrogen sulfide production in the process of dissimilative sulfur-reduction. At the same time these bacteria completely oxidize organic compounds with CO2 and H2O formation. It was shown that they are able to generate electric current in the two chamber microbial-anode fuel cell (MAFC) by interaction between these two processes. Microbial-anode fuel cell on the basis of sulfur- and ferric iron-reducing Desulfuromonas acetoxidans bacteria has been constructed. It has been shown that the amount of electricity generation by investigated bacteria is influenced by the concentrations of carbon source (lactate) and ferric iron chloride. The maximal obtained electric current and potential difference between electrodes equaled respectively 0.28-0.29 mA and 0.19-0.2 V per 0.3 l of bacterial suspension with 0.4 g/l of initial biomass that was grown under the influence of 0.45 mM of FeCl3 and 3 g/l of sodium lactate as primal carbon source. It has also been shown that these bacteria are resistant to different concentrations of silver ions.

  12. Enhanced current and power density of micro-scale microbial fuel cells with ultramicroelectrode anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hao; Rangaswami, Sriram; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Chae, Junseok

    2016-09-01

    We present a micro-scale microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an ultramicroelectrode (UME) anode, with the aim of creating a miniaturized high-current/power-density converter using carbon-neutral and renewable energy sources. Micro-scale MFCs have been studied for more than a decade, yet their current and power densities are still an order of magnitude lower than those of their macro-scale counterparts. In order to enhance the current/power densities, we engineer a concentric ring-shaped UME, with a width of 20 μm, to facilitate the diffusion of ions in the vicinity of the micro-organisms that form biofilm on the UME. The biofilm extends approximately 15 μm from the edge of the UME, suggesting the effective biofilm area increases. Measured current/power densities per the effective area and the original anode area are 7.08  ±  0.01 A m-2 & 3.09  ±  0.04 W m-2 and 17.7  ±  0.03 A m-2 & 7.72  ±  0.09 W m-2, respectively. This is substantially higher than any prior work in micro-scale MFCs, and very close, or even higher, to that of macro-scale MFCs. A Coulombic efficiency, a measure of how efficiently an MFC harvests electrons from donor substrate, of 70%, and an energy conversion efficiency of 17% are marked, highlighting the micro-scale MFC as an attractive alternative within the existing energy conversion portfolio.

  13. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Liu, Wei; Xing, Feng

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout. PMID:28788137

  14. Electrical and Mechanical Performance of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Used as the Impressed Current Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Zhu, Miaochang; Han, Ningxu; Liu, Wei; Xing, Feng

    2014-07-24

    An investigation was performed by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) as the anode material in the impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system of steel reinforced concrete structures. The service life and performance of CFRP were investigated in simulated ICCP systems with various configurations. Constant current densities were maintained during the tests. No significant degradation in electrical and mechanical properties was found for CFRP subjected to anodic polarization with the selected applied current densities. The service life of the CFRP-based ICCP system was discussed based on the practical reinforced concrete structure layout.

  15. Modeling the effects of anode secondary electron emission on transmitted current in crossed-field diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Venkatesh; Vanderberg, Bo

    1996-11-01

    Recent experimental measurements of transmitted current in a crossed-field switch by Vanderberg and Eninger ( B. H. Vanderberg and J. E. Eninger, ``Space-charge limited current cut-off in crossed fields,'' presented at IEEE ICOPS'95, Madison, Wi. ) have shown that the measured values of transmitted current are significantly smaller than the theoretically predicted limit. The experiments also showed larger decrease in transmitted current for higher magnetic fields, implying an effect due to the higher angle of incidence of incident electrons (i.e., at values of B closer to B_H). Studies by Verboncoeur and Birdsall ( J. P. Verboncoeur and C. K. Birdsall. ``Rapid current transition in a crossed-field diode,'' Phys. Plasmas 3) 3, March 1996. have shown that even small amount ( < 1%) of over injection in a crossed-field diode near cut-off led to substantial decrease in transmitted current. In our current work, we show that the same effect can be triggered by the presence of secondary electron emission from the anode. This study models the dependence of emission upon incident electron angle and energy. Since the yield of secondary electrons increases with incident angle, this model follows the experimental results as B approaches B_Hull accurately. This work was supported in part by ONR under grant FD-N00014-90-J-1198

  16. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of right temporoparietal area inhibits self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sophie; Tsakiris, Manos

    2017-02-01

    Self-other discrimination is a crucial mechanism for social cognition. Neuroimaging and neurostimulation research has pointed to the involvement of the right temporoparietal region in a variety of self-other discrimination tasks. Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right temporoparietal area has been shown to disrupt self-other discrimination in face-recognition tasks, no research has investigated the effect of increasing the cortical excitability in this region on self-other face discrimination. Here we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate changes in self-other discrimination with a video-morphing task in which the participant's face morphed into, or out of, a familiar other's face. The task was performed before and after 20 min of tDCS targeting the right temporoparietal area (anodal, cathodal, or sham stimulation). Differences in task performance following stimulation were taken to indicate a change in self-other discrimination. Following anodal stimulation only, we observed a significant increase in the amount of self-face needed to distinguish between self and other. The findings are discussed in relation to the control of self and other representations and to domain-general theories of social cognition.

  17. Anodic dissolution of Al current collectors in unconventional solvents for high voltage electrochemical double layer capacitors.

    PubMed

    Krummacher, Jakob; Hess, Lars Henning; Balducci, Andrea

    2017-09-04

    This study investigated the anodic dissolution of Al current collectors in unconventional electrolytes for high voltage electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) containing adiponitrile (ADN), 3-cyanopropionic acid methyl ester (CPAME), 2-methyl-glutaronitrile (2-MGN) as solvent, and tetraethylammonium tetrafluroroborate (Et4NBF4) and tetraethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Et4NTFSI) as conductive salts. In order to have a comparison with the state-of-the-art electrolytes, the same salts were also used in combination with acetonitrile (ACN). The chemical-physical properties of the electrolytes were investigated. Furthermore, their impact on the anodic dissolution of Al was analysed in detail, as well as the influence of this process on the performance of high voltage EDLCs. The results of this study indicated that in the case of Et4NBF4-based electrolytes the use of alternative solvent is very beneficial for the realization of stable devices. When Et4NTFSI is used, the reduced solubility of the complex Al(TFSI)3 appears to be the key for the realization of advanced electrolytes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. What is the optimal anodal electrode position for inducing corticomotor excitability changes in transcranial direct current stimulation?

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Kim, Yun-Hee; Im, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Chang-hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ahee

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) non-invasively modulates brain function by inducing neuronal excitability. The conventional hot spot for inducing the highest current density in the hand motor area may not be the optimal site for effective stimulation. In this study, we investigated the influence of the center position of the anodal electrode on changes in motor cortical excitability. We considered three tDCS conditions in 16 healthy subjects: (i) real stimulation with the anodal electrode located at the conventional hand motor hot spot determined by motor evoked potentials (MEPs); (ii) real stimulation with the anodal electrode located at the point with the highest current density in the hand motor area as determined by electric current simulation; and (iii) sham stimulation. Motor cortical excitability as measured by MEP amplitude increased after both real stimulation conditions, but not after sham stimulation. Stimulation using the simulation-derived anodal electrode position, which was found to be posterior to the MEP hot spot for all subjects, induced higher motor cortical excitability. Individual positioning of the anodal electrode, based on the consideration of anatomical differences between subjects, appears to be important for maximizing the effects of tDCS.

  19. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations.

  20. Modeling and simulation of anode melting pool flow under the action of high-current vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lijun; Jia Shenli; Liu Yu; Chen Bin; Yang Dingge; Shi Zongqian

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, a transient magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of an anode melting pool (AMP) flow (AMPF) is established. Mass equation, momentum equations along axial, radial and azimuthal directions, energy equation, and current continuity equations are considered in the model. In the momentum equations, the influence of electromagnetic force, viscosity force and Marangoni force (anode surface shear stress) are included. Joule heating is also included in the energy equations. According to the MHD model of AMPF, the influence of different heat flux densities to melting pool flow velocities (including azimuthal, radial, and axial velocity), anode temperature, fraction of liquid, melting depth, melting radius, and anode vapor flux will be analyzed. In the AMP, the azimuthal velocity is dominant, whose value approximately approaches velocity magnitude, the radial velocity is much smaller than azimuthal velocity, and the axial velocity is the smallest one compared with radial and azimuthal velocity. According to simulation results, anode surface temperature, melting width, melting depth, and anode vapor flux are increased with the increase in heat flux densities, but the increase in azimuthal velocity is not significant. Simulation results also show that the maximum anode temperature appears near 6.5-7 ms (50 Hz), but the maximum velocity of AMPF appears near 8-10 ms, which is in agreement with the experimental observation. Simulation result of AMPF swirl velocity (about 0.4 m/s) is approximately close to experimental result (about 0.6 m/s) based on high-speed camera data. Simulation results also show that the influence of joule heating and radiation on anode temperature can be neglected. The influence of Marangoni force on AMPF is significant.

  1. Measuring equipment for controlling the anode current during training and testing of the X-ray tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Vasquez, N. O.; Kostrin, D. K.; Uhov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the features of controlling of the anode current of the X-ray tubes during their training and testing are described. Requirements for developing of the control and measuring equipment are given. In detail are shown the approaches to the development of two types of microammeters with optical signal transmission: analog, with compensation of the nonlinearity of the transfer characteristics with the use of the optical negative feedback, and digital, in which the values of anodic current are transfered using a microcontroller.

  2. Redox cycling performance of inert-substrate-supported tubular single cells with nickel anode current collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kai; Kim, Bok-Hee; Xu, Qing; Du, Yanhai; Ahn, Byung-Guk

    2015-10-01

    An inert-substrate-supported tubular single cell, with a configuration of porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) supporter/Ni anode current collector/Ni-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 anode/YSZ/Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 bi-layer electrolyte/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathode, has been fabricated by extrusion and dip-coating techniques. Thickness of the Ni layer is modified by controlling the number of dip-coatings from one to four. Electrochemical performance and redox cycling stability of the single cell are investigated with respect to the microstructure of the Ni layer. Increasing the thickness of the Ni layer enhances the maximum power density of the cell, while it is unfavorable for the redox cycling stability. Considering the trade-off between these two aspects, an optimum dip-coating time is determined to be two. The cell shows a reasonable maximum power density of 453 mW cm-2 at 800 °C, as well as good redox cycling stability within eight redox cycles. Additionally, 10 vol.% Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 ceramic particle is incorporated into the Ni layer to further improve the redox cycling stability. The cell exhibits enhanced redox cycling performance after the Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 incorporation. Within seven redox cycles, the cell voltage loss is less than 1% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, and it maintains 93% of its initial performance after 11 redox cycles.

  3. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation relieves the unilateral bias of a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiyan; Tian, Xulong; Qian, Long; Yu, Xuehong; Jiang, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The unilaterally lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease which fails to orient to the food stimuli presented on the contralateral side of its preferential side of body could be induced by the injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). We employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, current intensity: 80 μA, and 40 μA; anodal electrode area: 3.14 mm(2); stimulation time: 30 minutes) over the M1 area to relieve the ipsilateral bias in the rat model. A corridor test was set to count the ipsilateral bias of the rats. In this experiment, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats (80 μA: n = 8, 40 μA: n = 8, sham: n = 7, healthy control: n = 7) were chosen for the corridor test and the tDCS session. The lesioned rats exhibited increased ipsilateral bias 4 weeks after the lesion surgery (P < 0.01), and the anodal tDCS with the active electrode on the lesioned side relieved the ipsilateral bias significantly (P < 0.01) immediately after the surgery and the improvement lasted for nearly 1 day. The rats in the group of 80 μA exhibited more significant changes than the 40 μA group after one day. After all the experiments, the histological process showed no neurotrauma led by the tDCS. In conclusion, the modulatory function of the cortical excitability of the tDCS may awaken the compensatory mechanisms and the response mechanisms which modulate the loss of the brain function. Further studies should be done to provide more evidence about the assumption.

  4. Flame oxidation of stainless steel felt enhances anodic biofilm formation and current output in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Donose, Bogdan C; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Prévoteau, Antonin; Patil, Sunil A; Freguia, Stefano; Gooding, J Justin; Rabaey, Korneel

    2014-06-17

    Stainless steel (SS) can be an attractive material to create large electrodes for microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), due to its low cost and high conductivity. However, poor biocompatibility limits its successful application today. Here we report a simple and effective method to make SS electrodes biocompatible by means of flame oxidation. Physicochemical characterization of electrode surface indicated that iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were generated in situ on an SS felt surface by flame oxidation. IONPs-coating dramatically enhanced the biocompatibility of SS felt and consequently resulted in a robust electroactive biofilm formation at its surface in BESs. The maximum current densities reached at IONPs-coated SS felt electrodes were 16.5 times and 4.8 times higher than the untreated SS felts and carbon felts, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum current density achieved with the IONPs-coated SS felt (1.92 mA/cm(2), 27.42 mA/cm(3)) is one of the highest current densities reported thus far. These results demonstrate for the first time that flame oxidized SS felts could be a good alternative to carbon-based electrodes for achieving high current densities in BESs. Most importantly, high conductivity, excellent mechanical strength, strong chemical stability, large specific surface area, and comparatively low cost of flame oxidized SS felts offer exciting opportunities for scaling-up of the anodes for BESs.

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases the amplitudes of long-latency stretch reflexes in cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Manto, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that the neuromodulation of the cerebellum using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could represent a new therapeutic strategy for the management of cerebellar disorders. Anodal tDCS of the cerebellum increases the excitability of the cerebellar cortex. We tested the effects of anodal tDCS applied over the cerebellum in ataxic patients. We studied (a) stretch reflexes (SR) in upper limb (SLSR: short-latency stretch reflexes; LLSR: long-latency stretch reflexes), (b) a coordination functional task in upper limbs based on mechanical counters (MCT: mechanical counter test), and (c) computerized posturography. tDCS did not change the amplitude of SLSR, but reduced significantly the amplitudes of LLSR. tDCS did not improve the MCT scores and did not modify posture. We suggest that anodal tDCS of the cerebellum reduces the amplitudes of LLSR by increasing the inhibitory effect exerted by the cerebellar cortex upon cerebellar nuclei. The absence of effect upon upper limb coordination and posture suggests that the cerebello-cerebral networks subserving these functions are less responsive to anodal tDCS of the cerebellum. Anodal tDCS of the cerebellum represents a novel experimental tool to investigate the effects of the cerebellar cortex on the modulation of the amplitudes of LLSR.

  6. The Homeostatic Interaction Between Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning in Humans is Related to GABAA Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Allman, Claire; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown. Objective We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate. Results As predicted, we found that anodal tDCS prior to the motor task decreased learning rates. This worsening of learning after tDCS was accompanied by a correlated increase in GABAA activity, as measured by TMS-assessed short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI). Conclusion This provides the first direct demonstration in humans that inhibitory synapses are the likely site for the interaction between anodal tDCS and motor learning, and further, that homeostatic plasticity at GABAA synapses has behavioral relevance in humans. PMID:26279408

  7. The Homeostatic Interaction Between Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motor Learning in Humans is Related to GABAA Activity.

    PubMed

    Amadi, Ugwechi; Allman, Claire; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2015-01-01

    The relative timing of plasticity-induction protocols is known to be crucial. For example, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which increases cortical excitability and typically enhances plasticity, can impair performance if it is applied before a motor learning task. Such timing-dependent effects have been ascribed to homeostatic plasticity, but the specific synaptic site of this interaction remains unknown. We wished to investigate the synaptic substrate, and in particular the role of inhibitory signaling, underpinning the behavioral effects of anodal tDCS in homeostatic interactions between anodal tDCS and motor learning. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortical excitability and inhibitory signaling following tDCS and motor learning. Each subject participated in four experimental sessions and data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs and post-hoc t-tests as appropriate. As predicted, we found that anodal tDCS prior to the motor task decreased learning rates. This worsening of learning after tDCS was accompanied by a correlated increase in GABAA activity, as measured by TMS-assessed short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI). This provides the first direct demonstration in humans that inhibitory synapses are the likely site for the interaction between anodal tDCS and motor learning, and further, that homeostatic plasticity at GABAA synapses has behavioral relevance in humans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ANODAL TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT CURRENT STIMULATION (TDCS) INCREASES ISOMETRIC STRENGTH OF SHOULDER ROTATORS MUSCLES IN HANDBALL PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; da Cunha, Ronaldo Alves; Soliaman, Renato Rozenblit; Romancini, Ana Clara Bezerra; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes

    2017-06-01

    Weakness of the rotator cuff muscles can lead to imbalances in the strength of shoulder external and internal rotators, change the biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint and predispose an athlete to injury. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has demonstrated promising results in a variety of health conditions. However few studies addressed its potential approach in the realm of athletics. The purpose of this study was to investigate if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technique increases the isometric muscle strength of shoulder external and internal rotators in handball athletes. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Eight female handball players aged between 17 and 21 years (Mean=19.65; SD=2.55) with 7.1 ± 4.8 years of experience in training, participating in regional and national competitions were recruited. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles was evaluated during and after 30 and 60 minutes post one session of anodal and sham current (2mA; 0.057mA/cm(2)) with a one-week interval between stimulations. Compared to baseline, MVIC of shoulder external and internal rotators significantly increased after real but not sham tDCS. Between-group differences were observed for external and internal rotator muscles. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of external rotation increased significantly during tDCS, and 30 and 60 minutes post-tDCS for real tDCS compared to that for sham tDCS. For internal rotation MVIC increased significantly during and 60 minutes post-tDCS. The results indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation temporarily increases maximal isometric contractions of the internal and external rotators of the shoulder in handball players. 2.

  9. Anodal Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation: The Effects of Pulse Duration on Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to investigate the effects of pulse duration (PD) on the modulatory effects of transcranial pulsed current (tPCS) on corticospinal excitability (CSE). CSE of the dominant primary motor cortex (M1) of right first dorsal interosseous muscle was assessed by motor evoked potentials, before, immediately, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after application of five experimental conditions: 1) anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), 2) a-tPCS with 125 ms pulse duartion (a-tPCSPD = 125), 3) a-tPCS with 250 ms pulse duration (a-tPCSPD = 250), 4) a-tPCS with 500 ms pulse duration (a-tPCSPD = 500) and 5) sham a-tPCS. The total charges were kept constant in all experimental conditions except sham condition. Post-hoc comparisons indicated that a-tPCSPD = 500 produced larger CSE compared to a-tPCSPD = 125 (P<0.0001), a-tPCSPD = 250 (P = 0.009) and a-tDCS (P = 0.008). Also, there was no significant difference between a-tPCSPD = 250 and a-tDCS on CSE changes (P>0.05). All conditions except a-tPCSPD = 125 showed a significant difference to the sham group (P<0.006). All participants tolerated the applied currents. It could be concluded that a-tPCS with a PD of 500ms induces largest CSE changes, however further studies are required to identify optimal values. PMID:26177541

  10. High-current diode with ferroelectric plasma source-assisted hollow anode

    SciTech Connect

    Vekselman, V.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Yatom, S.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2010-11-15

    The operation of a ferroelectric plasma source-assisted hollow anode (HA) electron source in a vacuum diode powered by an {approx}200 kV and {approx}400 ns pulsed generator was studied using time- and space-resolved laser induced fluorescence diagnostics. It was found that the plasma ion ''temperature'' in the vicinity of the HA output grid increases up to {approx}15 eV during the accelerating pulse, which is consistent with a model of the potential screening of the grid by the randomly moving ions [Phys. Plasmas 13, 073506 (2006)]. Also it was shown that the increase in the HA plasma potential up to several kilovolts because of the appearance of a noncompensated ion charge in the HA bulk plasma due to electrons fast extraction, leads to explosive emission centers being generated at the HA grid and to nonuniformity in the cross-sectional electron beam current density. Finally, the plasma prefilled mode of diode operation was studied using a simple one-dimensional model of the plasma erosion and the HA plasma electron heating by energetic ions was considered.

  11. Bihemispheric anodal corticomotor stimulation using transcranial direct current stimulation improves bimanual typing task performance.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is associated with improved unimanual skilled hand use. The authors assessed effects of bihemispheric anodal corticomotor tDCS (BAC-tDCS) on bimanual skilled hand use. Twenty-eight nondisabled subjects were randomized to either BAC-tDCS or sham-tDCS, 20 min daily for 5 consecutive days. Performance on a bimanual typing (BT) task and a short-term memory (STM) task was assessed daily and at 1-week follow-up. Mean change between Day 1 and Day 5 in BT score with BAC-tDCS (19.4 points; 95% CI [12.82, 25.99]) was significantly greater (p =.04) than change with sham-tDCS (12.5 points; 95% CI [7.6, 17.3]). Neither group retained improvements in BT score at follow-up. BAC-tDCS had no effect on STM. These results may have implications for interventions to improve hand function in persons with bilateral hand dysfunction.

  12. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulate sensory perception and pain? A meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, B; Zoghi, M; Jaberzadeh, S

    2014-09-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy individuals and pain levels (PL) in patients with chronic pain. Electronic databases were searched for a-tDCS studies. Methodological quality was examined using the PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. a-tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1) increases both STh (P<0.005, with the effect size of 22.19%) and PTh (P<0.001, effect size of 19.28%). In addition, STh was increased by a-tDCS of the primary sensory cortex (S1) (P<0.05 with an effect size of 4.34). Likewise, PL decreased significantly in the patient group following application of a-tDCS to both the M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The average decrease in visual analogue score was 14.9% and 19.3% after applying a-tDCS on the M1 and DLPFC. Moreover, meta-analysis showed that in all subgroups (except a-tDCS of S1) active a-tDCS and sham stimulation produced significant differences. This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of a-tDCS in increasing STh/PTh in healthy group and decreasing PL in patients. However, due to small sample sizes in the included studies, our results should be interpreted cautiously. Given the level of blinding did not considered in inclusion criteria, the result of current study should be interpreted with caution. Site of stimulation should have a differential effect over pain relief. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left temporal pole restores normal visual evoked potential habituation in interictal migraineurs.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Francesca; Pierelli, Francesco; Bove, Ilaria; Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Evangelista, Maurizio; Perrotta, Armando; Serrao, Mariano; Parisi, Vincenzo; Coppola, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging data has implicated the temporal pole (TP) in migraine pathophysiology; the density and functional activity of the TP were reported to fluctuate in accordance with the migraine cycle. Yet, the exact link between TP morpho-functional abnormalities and migraine is unknown. Here, we examined whether non-invasive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) ameliorates abnormal interictal multimodal sensory processing in patients with migraine. We examined the habituation of visual evoked potentials and median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) before and immediately after 20-min anodal tDCS (2 mA) or sham stimulation delivered over the left TP in interictal migraineurs. Prior to tDCS, interictal migraineurs did not exhibit habituation in response to repetitive visual or somatosensory stimulation. After anodal tDCS but not sham stimulation, migraineurs exhibited normal habituation responses to visual stimulation; however, tDCS had no effect on SSEP habituation in migraineurs. Our study shows for the first time that enhancing excitability of the TP with anodal tDCS normalizes abnormal interictal visual information processing in migraineurs. This finding has implications for the role of the TP in migraine, and specifically highlights the ventral stream of the visual pathway as a pathophysiological neural substrate for abnormal visual processing in migraine.

  14. On the Use of the Terms Anodal and Cathodal in High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Emily O; Malyutina, Svetlana; Datta, Abhishek; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart

    2015-12-01

    The terms "anodal" and "cathodal" are widely used to describe transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of opposing polarities, often interpreted as excitatory and inhibitory, respectively. However, high-definition tDCS allows for complex electrode configurations that may not be characterized accurately as "anodal" and "cathodal." To illustrate challenges to data interpretation that may result from unclarity about the neuromodulatory effects of different field orientations, we present two high-definition tDCS experiments in the language domain, with different electrode configurations. We also present the modeled electric fields for a traditional tDCS setup, showing how brain stimulation may far exceed target regions. More research is warranted on the hypothesized inhibitory or excitatory effects of different electrode configurations. Moreover, conventional bicephalic 1 × 1 configurations using sponges or HD electrodes may not be accurately described by the terms "anodal" and "cathodal" either, as these terms only pertain to the desired effects over an area of interest, but not any other areas affected. Therefore, design and interpretation of (HD-)tDCS and conventional tDCS research studies should not be constrained by the anodal/cathodal dichotomy. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. A Novel and Generalized Lithium-Ion-Battery Configuration utilizing Al Foil as Both Anode and Current Collector for Enhanced Energy Density.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bifa; Zhang, Fan; Sheng, Maohua; Tong, Xuefeng; Tang, Yongbing

    2017-02-01

    A novel battery configuration based on an aluminum foil anode and a conventional cathode is developed. The aluminum foil plays a dual role as both the active anode material and the current collector, which enhances the energy density of the packaged battery, and reduces the production cost. This generalized battery configuration has high potential for application in next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Syntrophic interactions between H2-scavenging and anode-respiring bacteria can improve current density in microbial electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaohuan; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2014-02-01

    High current density of 10.0-14.6A/m(2) and COD removal up to 96% were obtained in a microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) fed with digestate at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4d and 8d. Volatile fatty acids became undetectable in MEC effluent (HRT 8d), except for trivial acetate (4.16±1.86mgCOD/L). Accumulated methane only accounted for 3.42% of ΔCOD. Pyrosequencing analyses showed abundant fermenters (Kosmotoga spp.) and homoacetogens (Treponema spp.) in anolytes. In anode biofilm, propionate fermenters (Kosmotoga, and Syntrophobacter spp.), homoacetogens (Treponema spp.), and anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) (Geobacter spp. and Dysgonomonas spp.) were dominant. These results imply that syntrophic interactions among fermenters, homoacetogens and ARB would allow MECs to maintain high current density and coulombic efficiency.

  17. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J.; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults’ ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders. PMID:28197085

  18. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Elisabeth; Hoff, Maike; Rjosk, Viola; Steele, Christopher J; Gundlach, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.

  19. Bundled and densified carbon nanotubes (CNT) fabrics as flexible ultra-light weight Li-ion battery anode current collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehezkel, Shani; Auinat, Mahmud; Sezin, Nina; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) fabrics were studied and evaluated as anode current collectors, replacing the traditional copper foil current collector in Li-ion batteries. Glavanostatic measurements reveal high values of irreversible capacities (as high as 28%), resulted mainly from the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the CNT fabric surface. Various pre-treatments to the CNT fabric prior to active anode material loading have shown that the lowest irreversible capacity is achieved by immersing and washing the CNT fabric with iso-propanol (IPA), which dramatically modified the fabric surface. Additionally, the use of very thin CNT fabrics (5 μm) results in a substantial irreversible capacity minimization. A combination of IPA rinse action and utilization of the thinnest CNT fabric provides the lowest irreversible capacity of 13%. The paper describes innovative and rather simple techniques towards a complete implementation of CNT fabric as an anode current collector in Li-ion batteries, instead of the relatively heavy and expensive copper foil, enabling an improvement in the gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of such advanced batteries.

  20. Faradaic current detection during anodic oxidation of the H-passivated p-Si(001) surface with controlled relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, H.; Pérez-Murano, F.; Dagata, J. A.; Yokoyama, H.

    2004-03-01

    Faradaic current during anodic oxidation is measured over a relative humidity range of 40-70% using an atomic force microscope with humidity control. The level of detected current during the fabrication of oxide dots on H-passivated Si(001) is in the picoampere (pA) level. Current flow began immediately (within a few milliseconds) after applying an oxidation voltage above a threshold value and decreased with time according to oxide growth. The total charge resulting from the current flow was calculated by integrating the current-time curve and was found to agree well with an estimation of expected current from the volume of the fabricated oxide dots. Actual monitoring of the oxidation process by the Faradaic current is demonstrated during the fabrication of a two-dimensional lattice.

  1. Nanofiber-deposited porous platinum enables glucose fuel cell anodes with high current density in body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Maxi; Erben, Johannes; Martin, Julian; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2017-09-01

    The poisoning of platinum anodes by body-fluid constituents such as amino acids is currently the main hurdle preventing the application of abiotic glucose fuel cells as battery-independent power supply for medical implants. We present a novel anode material that enables continuous operation of glucose oxidation anodes in horse serum for at least 30 days at a current density of (7.2 ± 1.9) μA cm-2. The fabrication process is based on the electro-deposition of highly porous platinum onto a 3-dimensional carbon nanofiber support, leading to approximately 2-fold increased electrode roughness factors (up to 16500 ± 2300). The material's superior performance is not only related to its high specific surface area, but also to an improved catalytic activity and/or poisoning resistance. Presumably, this results from the micro- and nanostructure of the platinum deposits. This represents a major step forward in the development of implantable glucose fuel cells based on long-term stable platinum electrodes.

  2. Preliminary Evidence That Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Time to Task Failure of a Sustained Submaximal Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Petra S.; Hoffman, Richard L.; Clark, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) delivered while performing a sustained submaximal contraction would increase time to task failure (TTF) compared to sham stimulation. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) performed two fatiguing contractions at 20% of maximum strength with the elbow flexors on separate occasions. During fatigue task performance, either anodal or sham stimulation was delivered to the motor cortex for up to 20 minutes. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess changes in cortical excitability during stimulation. There was no systematic effect of the anodal tDCS stimulation on TTF for the entire subject set (n = 18; p = 0.64). Accordingly, a posteriori subjects were divided into two tDCS-time groups: Full-Time (n = 8), where TTF occurred prior to the termination of tDCS, and Part-Time (n = 10), where TTF extended after tDCS terminated. The TTF for the Full-Time group was 31% longer with anodal tDCS compared to sham (p = 0.04), whereas TTF for the Part-Time group did not differ (p = 0.81). Therefore, the remainder of our analysis addressed the Full-Time group. With anodal tDCS, the amount of muscle fatigue was 6% greater at task failure (p = 0.05) and the amount of time the Full-Time group performed the task at an RPE between 8–10 (“very hard”) increased by 38% (p = 0.04) compared to sham. There was no difference in measures of cortical excitability between stimulation conditions (p = 0.90). That the targeted delivery of anodal tDCS during task performance both increased TTF and the amount of muscle fatigue in a subset of subjects suggests that augmenting cortical excitability with tDCS enhanced descending drive to the spinal motorpool to recruit more motor units. The results also suggest that the application of tDCS during performance of fatiguing activity has the potential to bolster the capacity to exercise under conditions

  3. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over auditory cortex degrades frequency discrimination by affecting temporal, but not place, coding.

    PubMed

    Tang, Matthew F; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2013-09-01

    We report three studies of the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over auditory cortex on audition in humans. Experiment 1 examined whether tDCS enhances rapid frequency discrimination learning. Human subjects were trained on a frequency discrimination task for 2 days with anodal tDCS applied during the first day with the second day used to assess effects of stimulation on retention. This revealed that tDCS did not affect learning but did degrade frequency discrimination during both days. Follow-up testing 2-3 months after stimulation showed no long-term effects. Following the unexpected results, two additional experiments examined the effects of tDCS on the underlying mechanisms of frequency discrimination, place and temporal coding. Place coding underlies frequency selectivity and was measured using psychophysical tuning curves with broader curves indicating poorer frequency selectivity. Temporal coding is determined by measuring the ability to discriminate sounds with different fine temporal structure. We found that tDCS does not broaden frequency selectivity but instead degraded the ability to discriminate tones with different fine temporal structure. The overall results suggest anodal tDCS applied over auditory cortex degrades frequency discrimination by affecting temporal, but not place, coding mechanisms.

  4. Switching off perceptual learning: Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) at Fp3 eliminates perceptual learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Civile, Ciro; Verbruggen, Frederick; McLaren, Rossy; Zhao, Di; Ku, Yixuan; McLaren, I P L

    2016-07-01

    Perceptual learning can be acquired as a result of experience with stimuli that would otherwise be difficult to tell apart, and is often explained in terms of the modulation of feature salience by an error signal based on how well that feature can be predicted by the others that make up the stimulus. In this article we show that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at Fp3 directly influences this modulation process so as to eliminate and possibly reverse perceptual learning. In 2 experiments, anodal stimulation disrupted perceptual learning (indexed by an inversion effect) compared with sham (Experiment 1) or cathodal (Experiment 2) stimulation. Our findings can be interpreted as showing that anodal tDCS severely reduced or even abolished the modulation of salience based on error, greatly increasing generalization between stimuli. This result supports accounts of perceptual learning based on variations in salience as a consequence of pre-exposure, and opens up the possibility of controlling this phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex induces opposite modulation of reciprocal inhibition in wrist extensor and flexor.

    PubMed

    Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Klomjai, Wanalee; Bussel, Bernard; Katz, Rose; Roche, Nicolas

    2014-09-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used as a noninvasive tool to modulate brain excitability in humans. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that tDCS applied over the motor cortex also modulates spinal neural network excitability and therefore can be used to explore the corticospinal control acting on spinal neurons. Previously, we showed that reciprocal inhibition directed to wrist flexor motoneurons is enhanced during contralateral anodal tDCS, but it is likely that the corticospinal control acting on spinal networks controlling wrist flexors and extensors is not similar. The primary aim of the study was to explore the effects of anodal tDCS on reciprocal inhibition directed to wrist extensor motoneurons. To further examine the supraspinal control acting on the reciprocal inhibition between wrist flexors and extensors, we also explored the effects of the tDCS applied to the ipsilateral hand motor area. In healthy volunteers, we tested the effects induced by sham and anodal tDCS on reciprocal inhibition pathways innervating wrist muscles. Reciprocal inhibition directed from flexor to extensor muscles and the reverse situation, i.e., reciprocal inhibition, directed from extensors to flexors were studied in parallel with the H reflex technique. Our main finding was that contralateral anodal tDCS induces opposing effects on reciprocal inhibition: it decreases reciprocal inhibition directed from flexors to extensors, but it increases reciprocal inhibition directed from extensors to flexors. The functional result of these opposite effects on reciprocal inhibition seems to favor wrist extension excitability, suggesting an asymmetric descending control onto the interneurons that mediate reciprocal inhibition.

  6. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  7. Dual-cut graphene transistors with constant-current regions fabricated by the atomic force microscope anode oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chong-Rong; Dou, Kun Peng; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Chang, Chung-En; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Wu, Chao-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Graphene bandgap opening is an important issue for the application of this material. We have demonstrated that by atomic force microscope (AFM) anode oxidation, long nonconductive oxidation lines can be fabricated on graphene surfaces. By using this fabrication technique with the dual-cut transistor architecture, the phenomenon of constant-current regions near the Dirac point can be observed in devices at room temperature when the cut separation is smaller than 100 nm. The results may provide evidence of the phenomenon of graphene bandgap opening at room temperature. The theoretical bandgap values are further estimated by density-function-derived tight-binding calculations.

  8. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L; Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E; González, Ignacio; Peñuela, Gustavo; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2014-08-15

    Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO2) used as anode materials were tested with Na2SO4 or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode-electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If icurrent density (i(lim)), CV is mainly degraded by OH radicals, whereas if i>i(lim), generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO2 was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na2SO4 on IrO2 seems to occur via IrO3; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na2SO4 electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO2. Thus, the IrO2/Cl(-) and BDD/SO4(2-) systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO4(2-) and IrO2/Cl(-) systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treadmill Walking Combined With Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Study of Kinematic and Neurophysiological Effects.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Lago, Helena; Bello, Olalla; Mora-Cerdá, Francina; Montero-Cámara, Jorge; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel Ángel

    2017-04-08

    We tested the hypothesis that combining treadmill walking with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhances the gait improvements associated with treadmill walking in Parkinson disease. We explored the effects of these combined methodologies on corticospinal parameters. Eighteen participants with Parkinson disease were evaluated under the following three conditions: treadmill walking alone (treadmill), treadmill walking combined with anodal tDCS (AtDCS+treadmill) delivered over the motor cortex, and treadmill walking combined with sham stimulation (StDCS+treadmill). Overground walking performance, soleus H-reflex, reciprocal Ia inhibition from the tibialis anterior to the soleus muscle, intracortical facilitation, and short intracortical inhibition of the tibialis anterior muscle, were measured before and after each treadmill condition. The soleus H-reflex and walking performance on the treadmill were also evaluated. All treadmill conditions improved walking performance and modulated spinal and corticospinal parameters in a similar way. However, AtDCS+treadmill lead to a different modulation of reciprocal Ia inhibition in comparison with the other treadmill conditions. A single session combining treadmill walking and anodal tDCS delivered over the motor cortex resulted in a specific modulation of the reciprocal Ia inhibition from the tibialis anterior to the soleus muscle. However, this acute effect did not result in improvements of gait parameters associated with treadmill walking in Parkinson disease.

  10. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation boosts synaptic plasticity and memory in mice via epigenetic regulation of Bdnf expression

    PubMed Central

    Podda, Maria Vittoria; Cocco, Sara; Mastrodonato, Alessia; Fusco, Salvatore; Leone, Lucia; Barbati, Saviana Antonella; Colussi, Claudia; Ripoli, Cristian; Grassi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet largely unknown. Here we report that mice subjected to 20-min anodal tDCS exhibited one-week lasting increases in hippocampal LTP, learning and memory. These effects were associated with enhanced: i) acetylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoter I; ii) expression of Bdnf exons I and IX; iii) Bdnf protein levels. The hippocampi of stimulated mice also exhibited enhanced CREB phosphorylation, pCREB binding to Bdnf promoter I and recruitment of CBP on the same regulatory sequence. Inhibition of acetylation and blockade of TrkB receptors hindered tDCS effects at molecular, electrophysiological and behavioral levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that anodal tDCS increases hippocampal LTP and memory via chromatin remodeling of Bdnf regulatory sequences leading to increased expression of this gene, and support the therapeutic potential of tDCS for brain diseases associated with impaired neuroplasticity. PMID:26908001

  11. Electrochemical Performance Estimation of Anodized AZ31B Magnesium Alloy as Function of Change in the Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girón, L.; Aperador, W.; Tirado, L.; Franco, F.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2017-06-01

    The anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys were synthesized via electrodeposition processes. The aim of this work was to determine the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloys by using anodized alloys as a protective coating. The anodized alloys were characterized by x-ray diffraction, exhibiting the crystallography orientation for Mg and MgO phases. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of anodized magnesium alloys. By using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel curves, it was possible to estimate the electrochemical behavior of anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to analyze chemical changes and morphological surface changes on anodized Mg alloys due to the reaction in HBSS/anodized magnesium surface interface. Electrochemical behavior in HBSS indicates that the coatings may be a promising material for biomedical industry.

  12. Electrochemical Performance Estimation of Anodized AZ31B Magnesium Alloy as Function of Change in the Current Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girón, L.; Aperador, W.; Tirado, L.; Franco, F.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2017-08-01

    The anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys were synthesized via electrodeposition processes. The aim of this work was to determine the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloys by using anodized alloys as a protective coating. The anodized alloys were characterized by x-ray diffraction, exhibiting the crystallography orientation for Mg and MgO phases. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of anodized magnesium alloys. By using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel curves, it was possible to estimate the electrochemical behavior of anodized AZ31B magnesium alloys in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to analyze chemical changes and morphological surface changes on anodized Mg alloys due to the reaction in HBSS/anodized magnesium surface interface. Electrochemical behavior in HBSS indicates that the coatings may be a promising material for biomedical industry.

  13. Carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide multilayer anchored to nanostructured current collector as lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengjiao; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Boli; Xie, Wenhe; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan

    2017-02-01

    Silicon is the most promising anode material for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and low intrinsic conductivity hamper its electrochemical performance. Here we report a well-designed LIB anode in which carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (Si/rGO) multilayer was anchored to nanostructured current collector with stable mechanical support and rapid electron conduction. Furthermore, we improved the integral stability of the electrode through introducing amorphous carbon. The designed anode exhibits superior cyclability, its specific capacity remains above 800 mAh g-1 after 350 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact that the Si/rGO multilayer is reinforced by the nanostructured current collector and the formed amorphous carbon, which can maintain the structural and electrical integrities of the electrode.

  14. No Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Motor Cortex on Response-Related ERPs during a Conflict Task

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Alexander C.; Fulham, W. R.; Marquez, Jodie L.; Parsons, Mark W.; Karayanidis, Frini

    2016-01-01

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex is considered a potential treatment for motor rehabilitation following stroke and other neurological pathologies. However, both the context under which this stimulation is effective and the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which anodal tDCS may affect motor performance by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) during a cued go/nogo task after anodal tDCS over dominant primary motor cortex (M1) in young adults (Experiment 1) and both dominant and non-dominant M1 in older adults (Experiment 2). In both experiments, anodal tDCS had no effect on either response time (RT) or response-related ERPs, including the cue-locked contingent negative variation (CNV) and both target-locked and response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (LRP). Bayesian model selection analyses showed that, for all measures, the null effects model was stronger than a model including anodal tDCS vs. sham. We conclude that anodal tDCS has no effect on RT or response-related ERPs during a cued go/nogo task in either young or older adults. PMID:27547180

  15. Enhancement of anodic biofilm formation and current output in microbial fuel cells by composite modification of stainless steel electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuxiang; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Guo, Kun; Zhou, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Wei; Jia, Yufeng; Huang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we first systematically investigate the current output performance of stainless steel electrodes (SS) modified by carbon coating (CC), polyaniline coating (PANI), neutral red grafting (NR), surface hydrophilization (SDBS), and heat treatment (HEAT). The maximum current density of 13.0 A m-2 is obtained on CC electrode (3.0 A m-2 of the untreated anode). Such high performance should be attributed to its large effective surface area, which is 2.3 times that of the unmodified electrode. Compared with SS electrode, about 3-fold increase in current output is achieved with PANI. Functionalization with hydrophilic group and electron medium result in the current output rising to 1.5-2 fold, through enhancing bioadhesive and electron transport rate, respectively. CC modification is the best choice of single modification for SS electrode in this study. However, this modification is not perfect because of its poor hydrophilicity. So CC electrode is modified by SDBS for further enhancing the current output to 16 A m-2. These results could provide guidance for the choice of suitable single modification on SS electrodes and a new method for the perfection of electrode performance through composite modification.

  16. Field Trial of impressed current, sacrificial anode, constant voltage and intermittent cathodic protection on a steel reinforced coastal bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, S.J.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Williamson, K.M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A.; Cryer, C.B.; Tran, H.

    2007-03-01

    Equipment has been designed and installed for a field trial being conducted on a coastal reinforced concrete bridge with a newly installed cathodic protection (CP) system. The purpose of the field trial is to determine the optimum form of intermittent CP for protecting coastal bridges. The forms of CP that were considered for the field trial are: (1) impressed current CP as the control; (2) currentinterrupted ICCP; (3) corrosion rate monitoring device controlled ICCP; (4) constant voltage CP; and (5) sacrificial anode CP. Once the test is initiated, the performance of these four forms of CP on a coastal RC bridge and their effectiveness in providing protection to reinforcing steel will be is compared with that achieved by present Oregon Department of Transportation ICCP practices. Details are presented on the set up of the experiment and the logic used to control CP intermittently. The field trial is scheduled to be started early 2007.

  17. Characterization of plasma ion source utilizing anode spot with positively biased electrode for stable and high-current ion beam extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2011-12-15

    The operating conditions of a rf plasma ion source utilizing a positively biased electrode have been investigated to develop a stably operating, high-current ion source. Ion beam characteristics such as currents and energies are measured and compared with bias currents by varying the bias voltages on the electrode immersed in the ambient rf plasma. Current-voltage curves of the bias electrode and photographs confirm that a small and dense plasma, so-called anode spot, is formed near an extraction aperture and plays a key role to enhance the performance of the plasma ion source. The ion beam currents from the anode spot are observed to be maximized at the optimum bias voltage near the knee of the characteristic current-voltage curve of the anode spot. Increased potential barrier to obstruct beam extraction is the reason for the reduction of the ion beam current in spite of the increased bias current indicating the density of the anode spot. The optimum bias voltage is measured to be lower at higher operating pressure, which is favorable for stable operation without severe sputtering damage on the electrode. The ion beam current can be further enhanced by increasing the power for the ambient plasma without increasing the bias voltage. In the same manner, noble gases with higher atomic number as a feedstock gas are preferable for extracting higher beam current more stably. Therefore, performance of the plasma ion source with a positively biased electrode can be enhanced by controlling the operating conditions of the anode spot in various manners.

  18. Uneven biofilm and current distribution in three-dimensional macroporous anodes of bio-electrochemical systems composed of graphite electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Hu, Linbin; Zhang, Liang; Ye, Ding-Ding; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    A 3-D macroporous anode was constructed using different numbers of graphite rod arrays in fixed-volume bio-electrochemical systems (BESs), and the current and biofilm distribution were investigated by dividing the 3-D anode into several subunits. In the fixed-volume chamber, current production was not significantly improved after the electrode number increased to 36. In the case of 100 electrodes, a significant uneven current distribution was found in the macroporous anode. This was attributed to a differential pH distribution, which resulted from proton accumulation inside the macroporous anode. The pH distribution influenced the biofilm development and led to an uneven biofilm distribution. With respect to current generation, the uneven distribution of both the pH and biofilm contributed to the uneven current distribution. The center had a low pH, which led to less biofilm and a lower contribution to the total current, limiting the performance of the BESs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ring laser gyroscope anode

    SciTech Connect

    Ljung, B.H.

    1981-03-17

    An anode for a ring laser gyroscope which provides improved current stability in the glow discharge path is disclosed. The anode of this invention permits operation at lower currents thereby allowing a reduction of heat dissipation in the ring laser gyroscope. The anode of one embodiment of this invention is characterized by a thumbtack appearance with a spherical end where the normal sharp end of the thumbtack would be located. The stem of the anode extends from the outside of the gyroscope structure to the interior of the structure such that the spherical end is substantially adjacent to the laser beam.

  20. Anode Biofilm Transcriptomics Reveals Outer Surface Components Essential for High Density Current Production in Geobacter sulfurreducens Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Glaven, Richard H.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Woodard, Trevor L.; Methé, Barbara A.; DiDonato, Raymond J.; Covalla, Sean F.; Franks, Ashley E.; Liu, Anna; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 µm) biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes. PMID:19461962

  1. Synthesis and biological properties of Zn-incorporated micro/nano-textured surface on Ti by high current anodization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hanwu; Huang, Xiaobo; Yang, Xiaoning; Liu, Huibing; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xiangyu; Hang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Bin

    2017-09-01

    It is acknowledged that ideal implant coatings should possess micro/nano-textured surface, have good interfacial bonding, and can release bioactive elements. In this study, we fabricated a Zn-incorporated micro/nano-textured surface by one-step high current anodization (HCA) in an aqueous solution with 10g/L of NaOH and different concentrations of Zn(NO3)2 (4, 7, and 12g/L). The control group of Zn-free was fabricated in the electrolyte of 7g/L Zn(NO3)2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to analyze the morphology, composition, microstructure, and Zn(+) release kinetics of the micro/nano-textured coatings. The biological properties of the surface structure were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay, cell viability, cytoskeletal assembly and alkaline phosphatase activity. Our results show the micro/nano-textured surface is composed of TiO2 mesoporous arrays, into which the Zn is demonstrated to be incorporated in the form of ZnO. The Zn content in the surface and release level of Zn(2+) can be tailored through varying Zn(NO3)2 concentration in the electrolyte. In addition, the surface oxide layers show good interfacial bonding strength to the substrate. Compared with pure Ti and anodized Zn-free samples, the Zn-incorporated surface can upregulate osteoblast functions such as proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, which are assayed by MTT and ALP staining experiments, respectively. Collectively, this micro/nano-textured structure combined with high interfacial bonding strength and release of Zn(2+) render the material surface promising as orthopedic implant coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the Right Angular Gyrus on Brain Activity during Rest

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site. PMID:24760013

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask.

    PubMed

    Scheldrup, Melissa; Greenwood, Pamela M; McKendrick, Ryan; Strohl, Jon; Bikson, Marom; Alam, Mahtab; McKinley, R Andy; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to facilitate acquisition of real world cognitive multi-tasks that require long periods of training (e.g., air traffic control, intelligence analysis, medicine). Non-invasive brain stimulation-specifically transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)-has promise as a method to speed multi-task training. We hypothesized that during acquisition of the complex multi-task Space Fortress, subtasks that require focused attention on ship control would benefit from tDCS aimed at the dorsal attention network while subtasks that require redirection of attention would benefit from tDCS aimed at the right hemisphere ventral attention network. We compared effects of 30 min prefrontal and parietal stimulation to right and left hemispheres on subtask performance during the first 45 min of training. The strongest effects both overall and for ship flying (control and velocity subtasks) were seen with a right parietal (C4, reference to left shoulder) montage, shown by modeling to induce an electric field that includes nodes in both dorsal and ventral attention networks. This is consistent with the re-orienting hypothesis that the ventral attention network is activated along with the dorsal attention network if a new, task-relevant event occurs while visuospatial attention is focused (Corbetta et al., 2008). No effects were seen with anodes over sites that stimulated only dorsal (C3) or only ventral (F10) attention networks. The speed subtask (update memory for symbols) benefited from an F9 anode over left prefrontal cortex. These results argue for development of tDCS as a training aid in real world settings where multi-tasking is critical.

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation facilitates cognitive multi-task performance differentially depending on anode location and subtask

    PubMed Central

    Scheldrup, Melissa; Greenwood, Pamela M.; McKendrick, Ryan; Strohl, Jon; Bikson, Marom; Alam, Mahtab; McKinley, R. Andy; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to facilitate acquisition of real world cognitive multi-tasks that require long periods of training (e.g., air traffic control, intelligence analysis, medicine). Non-invasive brain stimulation—specifically transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)—has promise as a method to speed multi-task training. We hypothesized that during acquisition of the complex multi-task Space Fortress, subtasks that require focused attention on ship control would benefit from tDCS aimed at the dorsal attention network while subtasks that require redirection of attention would benefit from tDCS aimed at the right hemisphere ventral attention network. We compared effects of 30 min prefrontal and parietal stimulation to right and left hemispheres on subtask performance during the first 45 min of training. The strongest effects both overall and for ship flying (control and velocity subtasks) were seen with a right parietal (C4, reference to left shoulder) montage, shown by modeling to induce an electric field that includes nodes in both dorsal and ventral attention networks. This is consistent with the re-orienting hypothesis that the ventral attention network is activated along with the dorsal attention network if a new, task-relevant event occurs while visuospatial attention is focused (Corbetta et al., 2008). No effects were seen with anodes over sites that stimulated only dorsal (C3) or only ventral (F10) attention networks. The speed subtask (update memory for symbols) benefited from an F9 anode over left prefrontal cortex. These results argue for development of tDCS as a training aid in real world settings where multi-tasking is critical. PMID:25249958

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right anterior temporal lobe did not significantly affect verbal insight.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Takatsugu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Takeaki; Yamashita, Okito

    2017-01-01

    Humans often utilize past experience to solve difficult problems. However, if past experience is insufficient to solve a problem, solvers may reach an impasse. Insight can be valuable for breaking an impasse, enabling the reinterpretation or re-representation of a problem. Previous studies using between-subjects designs have revealed a causal relationship between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) and non-verbal insight, by enhancing the right ATL while inhibiting the left ATL using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In addition, neuroimaging studies have reported a correlation between right ATL activity and verbal insight. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the right ATL is causally related to both non-verbal and verbal insight. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with 66 subjects using a within-subjects design, which typically has greater statistical power than a between-subjects design. Subjects participated in tDCS experiments across 2 days, in which they solved both non-verbal and verbal insight problems under active or sham stimulation conditions. To dissociate the effects of right ATL stimulation from those of left ATL stimulation, we used two montage types; anodal tDCS of the right ATL together with cathodal tDCS of the left ATL (stimulating both ATLs) and anodal tDCS of the right ATL with cathodal tDCS of the left cheek (stimulating only the right ATL). The montage used was counterbalanced across subjects. Statistical analyses revealed that, regardless of the montage type, there were no significant differences between the active and sham conditions for either verbal or non-verbal insight, although the finding for non-verbal insight was inconclusive because of a lack of statistical power. These results failed to support previous findings suggesting that the right ATL is the central locus of insight.

  6. Current density reversibly alters metabolic spatial structure of exoelectrogenic anode biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dan; Cheng, Shaoan; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2017-07-01

    Understanding how current densities affect electrogenic biofilm activity is important for wastewater treatment as current densities can substantially decrease at COD concentrations greater than those suitable for discharge to the environment. We examined the biofilm's response, in terms of viability and enzymatic activity, to different current densities using microbial electrolysis cells with a lower (0.7 V) or higher (0.9 V) added voltage to alter current production. Viability was assessed using florescent dyes, with dead cells identified on the basis of dye penetration due to a compromised cell outer-membrane (red), and live cells (intact membrane) fluorescing green. Biofilms operated with 0.7 V produced 2.4 ± 0.2 A m-2, and had an inactive layer near the electrode and a viable layer at the biofilm-solution interface. The lack of cell activity near the electrode surface was confirmed by using an additional dye that fluoresces only with enzymatic activity. Adding 0.9 V increased the current by 61%, and resulted in a single, more homogeneous and active biofilm layer. Switching biofilms between these two voltages produced outcomes associated with the new current rather than the previous biofilm conditions. These findings suggest that maintaining higher current densities will be needed to ensure long-term viability electrogenic biofilms.

  7. The effect of ion current density amplification in a diode with passive anode in magnetic self-isolation mode

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, Alexander I.; Isakova, Yulia I.; Vakhrushev, Dmitry V.

    2010-12-15

    The results of a study on gigawatt power pulsed ion beam parameters are presented here. The pulsed ion beam is formed by a diode with an explosive-emission potential electrode, in magnetic self-isolation mode [A. I. Pushkarev, J. I. Isakova, M. S. Saltimakov et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 013104 (2010)]. The ion current density is 20-40 A/cm{sup 2}, the energy of the ions is 200-250 keV, and the beam composition is of protons and carbon ions. Experiments have been performed on the TEMP-4M accelerator, set in double-pulse formation mode. To measure the beam parameters, we used a time-of-flight diagnosis. It is shown that the carbon ion current density, formed in a planar diode with graphite potential electrode, is five to seven times higher than the values calculated from the Child-Langmuir ratio. A model of ion current density amplification in a diode with magnetic self-isolation is proposed. The motion of electrons in the anode-cathode gap is simulated using the program CST PARTICLE STUDIO.

  8. A new equation for potential attenuation and anode current output projection for cathodically polarized marine pipelines and risers

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, P.; Bethune, K.P.; Hartt, W.H.; Anathakrishnan, P.

    2000-04-01

    A first principles based equation for potential attenuation along a marine pipeline or riser that was cathodically polarized by multiple, equally spaced, identical galvanic anodes and that incorporated the electrolyte (anode), coating, and metallic path resistances, as well as the pipe polarization resistance, was derived. Finite different method (FDM) solutions for this equation showed that the potential profile consisted of a relatively abrupt polarization decay within the first several meters of an anode and an essentially constant potential beyond this for cases where anode spacing was {approximately}< 1 km (this distance varied with pipe and anode dimensions, properties, and exposure conditions). For anode spacings greater than this, metallic path resistance became important such that a potential gradient resulted along the entire pipe length. Comparison of the RDM solutions for the case of a pipeline of typical dimensions and marine exposure conditions with results from boundary element modeling (BEM) indicated excellent agreement between the two for situations where the metallic resistance was negligible. For cases where this term was not negligible (relatively large anode spacings), the FDM solutions were more accurate since BEM did not incorporate metallic path resistance. It was concluded that the derived equation has utility for design of pipeline cathodic protection systems and for analysis of data there from, particularly in cases where anode spacing is sufficiently large that metallic path resistance is non-negligible.

  9. Graphene/Fe3 O4 Nanocomposites as Efficient Anodes to Boost the Lifetime and Current Output of Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong-Bin; Zhao, Cui-E; Gai, Pan-Pan; Guo, Dan; Jiang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qichun; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2017-02-01

    The enhancement of microbial activity and electrocatalysis through the design of new anode materials is essential to develop microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with longer lifetimes and higher output. In this research, a novel anode material, graphene/Fe3 O4 (G/Fe3 O4 ) composite, has been designed for Shewanella-inoculated MFCs. Because the Shewanella species could bind to Fe3 O4 with high affinity and their growth could be supported by Fe3 O4 , the bacterial cells attached quickly onto the anode surface and their long-term activity improved. As a result, MFCs with reduced startup time and improved stability were obtained. Additionally, the introduction of graphene not only provided a large surface area for bacterial attachment, but also offered high electrical conductivity to facilitate extracellular electron transfer (EET). The results showed that the current and power densities of a G/Fe3 O4 anode were much higher than those of each individual component as an anode.

  10. A glucose anode for enzymatic fuel cells optimized for current production under physiological conditions using a design of experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Leech, Dónal

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a design of experiment methodology to investigate and improve the performance of glucose oxidizing enzyme electrodes. Enzyme electrodes were constructed by co-immobilization of amine-containing osmium redox complexes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase in a carboxymethyldextran matrix at graphite electrode surfaces to provide a 3-dimensional matrix for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Optimization of the amount of the enzyme electrode components to produce the highest current density under pseudo-physiological conditions of 5 mM glucose in saline buffer at 37 °C was performed using response surface methodology. A statistical analysis showed that the proposed model had a good fit with the experimental results. From the validated model, the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carboxymethyldextran components was identified as major contributing factors to the improved performance. Based on the optimized amount of components, enzyme electrodes display current densities of 1.2±0.1 mA cm(-2) and 5.2±0.2 mA cm(-2) at 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl in buffer containing 5 mM and 100 mM glucose, respectively, largely consistent with the predicted values. This demonstrates that use of a design of experiment approach can be applied effectively and efficiently to improve the performance of enzyme electrodes as anodes for biofuel cell device development.

  11. Ultrahigh–current density anodes with interconnected Li metal reservoir through overlithiation of mesoporous AlF3 framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansen; Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Yayuan; Li, Yuzhang; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is the ultimate solution for next-generation high–energy density batteries but is plagued from commercialization by infinite relative volume change, low Coulombic efficiency due to side reactions, and safety issues caused by dendrite growth. These hazardous issues are further aggravated under high current densities needed by the increasing demand for fast charging/discharging. We report a one-step fabricated Li/Al4Li9-LiF nanocomposite (LAFN) through an “overlithiation” process of a mesoporous AlF3 framework, which can simultaneously mitigate the abovementioned problems. Reaction-produced Al4Li9-LiF nanoparticles serve as the ideal skeleton for Li metal infusion, helping to achieve a near-zero volume change during stripping/plating and suppressed dendrite growth. As a result, the LAFN electrode is capable of working properly under an ultrahigh current density of 20 mA cm−2 in symmetric cells and manifests highly improved rate capability with increased Coulombic efficiency in full cells. The simple fabrication process and its remarkable electrochemical performances enable LAFN to be a promising anode candidate for next-generation lithium metal batteries. PMID:28913431

  12. Ultrahigh–current density anodes with interconnected Li metal reservoir through overlithiation of mesoporous AlF3 framework

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hansen; Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Yayuan; ...

    2017-09-08

    Lithium (Li) metal is the ultimate solution for next-generation high–energy density batteries but is plagued from commercialization by infinite relative volume change, low Coulombic efficiency due to side reactions, and safety issues caused by dendrite growth. These hazardous issues are further aggravated under high current densities needed by the increasing demand for fast charging/discharging. We report a one-step fabricated Li/Al4Li9-LiF nanocomposite (LAFN) through an “overlithiation” process of a mesoporous AlF3 framework, which can simultaneously mitigate the abovementioned problems. Reaction-produced Al4Li9-LiF nanoparticles serve as the ideal skeleton for Li metal infusion, helping to achieve a near-zero volume change during stripping/plating andmore » suppressed dendrite growth. As a result, the LAFN electrode is capable of working properly under an ultrahigh current density of 20 mA cm–2 in symmetric cells and manifests highly improved rate capability with increased Coulombic efficiency in full cells. Here, the simple fabrication process and its remarkable electrochemical performances enable LAFN to be a promising anode candidate for next-generation lithium metal batteries.« less

  13. Characterization of Electrical Current-Generation Capabilities from Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus Using Xylose, Glucose, Cellobiose, or Acetate with Fixed Anode Potentials.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bradley G; Khan, Qaiser Farid; Parameswaran, Prathap; Hameed, Abdul; Ali, Naeem; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, Cesar I

    2015-12-15

    Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E (ATCC 33223), a thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing, and fermentative bacterium, was evaluated for its ability to produce current from four electron donors-xylose, glucose, cellobiose, and acetate-with a fixed anode potential (+ 0.042 V vs SHE) in a microbial electrochemical cell (MXC). Under thermophilic conditions (60 °C), T. pseudethanolicus produced high current densities from xylose (5.8 ± 2.4 A m(-2)), glucose (4.3 ± 1.9 A m(-2)), and cellobiose (5.2 ± 1.6 A m(-2)). It produced insignificant current when grown with acetate, but consumed the acetate produced from sugar fermentation to produce electrical current. Low-scan cyclic voltammetry (LSCV) revealed a sigmoidal response with a midpoint potential of -0.17 V vs SHE. Coulombic efficiency (CE) varied by electron donor, with xylose at 34.8% ± 0.7%, glucose at 65.3% ± 1.0%, and cellobiose at 27.7% ± 1.5%. Anode respiration was sustained over a pH range of 5.4-8.3, with higher current densities observed at higher pH values. Scanning electron microscopy showed a well-developed biofilm of T. pseudethanolicus on the anode, and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated a maximum biofilm thickness (Lf) greater than ~150 μm for the glucose-fed biofilm.

  14. Effects of Anodal High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Bilateral Sensorimotor Cortex Activation During Sequential Finger Movements: An fNIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Muthalib, Makii; Besson, Pierre; Rothwell, John; Ward, Tomas; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical brain stimulation technique that can modulate cortical neuronal excitability and activity. This study utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging to determine the effects of anodal high-definition (HD)-tDCS on bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) activation. Before (Pre), during (Online), and after (Offline) anodal HD-tDCS (2 mA, 20 min) targeting the left SMC, eight healthy subjects performed a simple finger sequence (SFS) task with their right or left hand in an alternating blocked design (30-s rest and 30-s SFS task, repeated five times). In order to determine the level of bilateral SMC activation during the SFS task, an Oxymon MkIII fNIRS system was used to measure from the left and right SMC, changes in oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) haemoglobin concentration values. The fNIRS data suggests a finding that compared to the Pre condition both the "Online" and "Offline" anodal HD-tDCS conditions induced a significant reduction in bilateral SMC activation (i.e., smaller decrease in HHb) for a similar motor output (i.e., SFS tap rate). These findings could be related to anodal HD-tDCS inducing a greater efficiency of neuronal transmission in the bilateral SMC to perform the same SFS task.

  15. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over supplementary motor area (SMA) but not pre-SMA promotes short-term visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Henning; Conde, Virginia; Sewerin, Sebastian; Taubert, Marco; Sehm, Bernhard; Witte, Otto W; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate cortical excitability and thereby influencing motor behaviour and learning. While there is increasing knowledge about the importance of the primary motor cortex (M1) in short- and long-term motor skill learning, little is known about the role of secondary motor areas such as the supplementary and pre-supplementary motor area (SMA/pre-SMA) especially in short-term motor performance. Since SMA but not pre-SMA is directly connected to M1, we hypothesize that anodal tDCS over SMA but not pre-SMA will facilitate visuomotor learning. We applied anodal tDCS (tDCS(anodal)) over left SMA, pre-SMA or M1 (n=12 in each group) while subjects performed a visuomotor pinch force task (VPFT) with their right hand and compared VPFT performance relative to sham (tDCS(sham)). For the first time, we could show that apart from tDCS(anodal) over left M1 also SMA but not pre-SMA stimulation promotes short-term improvements in visuomotor learning relative to tDCS(sham). Our findings provide novel evidence about the role of SMA in short-term visuomotor performance. This knowledge might be beneficial in developing hypothesis-driven clinical studies in neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anodal Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum Reduces Cerebellar Brain Inhibition but Does Not Influence Afferent Input from the Hand or Face in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Young, Jessica; Bradnam, Lynley V

    2016-08-01

    The cerebellum controls descending motor commands by outputs to primary motor cortex (M1) and the brainstem in response to sensory feedback. The cerebellum may also modulate afferent input en route to M1 and the brainstem. The objective of this study is to determine if anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the cerebellum influences cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), short afferent inhibition (SAI) and trigeminal reflexes (TRs) in healthy adults. Data from two studies evaluating effects of cerebellar anodal and sham tDCS are presented. The first study used a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol to investigate CBI and combined TMS and cutaneous stimulation of the digit to assess SAI. The second study evaluated effects on trigemino-cervical and trigemino-masseter reflexes using peripheral nerve stimulation of the face. Fourteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 1. CBI was observed at baseline and was reduced by anodal cerebellar DCS only (P < 0.01). There was SAI at interstimulus intervals of 25 and 30 ms at baseline (both P < 0.0001), but cerebellar tDCS had no effect. Thirteen right-handed healthy adults participated in experiment 2. Inhibitory reflexes were evoked in the ipsilateral masseter and sternocleidomastoid muscles. There was no effect of cerebellar DCS on either reflex. Anodal DCS reduced CBI but did not change SAI or TRs in healthy adults. These results require confirmation in individuals with neurological impairment.

  17. A new, high current output, galvanic (sacrificial) anode, electrochemical rehabilitation system for reinforced and prestressed concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, K.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes 1995 through 1998 laboratory, outdoor exposure facility, and field data on the subject concrete rehab system. The system shows promise as a means of providing cathodic protection to the reinforcing, as a chloride removal process, as a re-alkalization process, and/or as a lithium injection procedure to minimize alkali-aggregate reactions in the concrete. Unique characteristics of the system include: (1) Surrounding each galvanic anode with a highly corrosive liquid which maintains it (the anode) at peak output voltage throughout its life; and (2) Placing an ionic transfer layer between the anode and the concrete surface that is high volume, low resistivity and deliquescent (i.e. pulls water vapor out of the air at relative humidities of 35% or higher). The ionic transfer layer typically consists of sponge, felt or sand loaded with calcium chloride (and/or other chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, potassium acetate, and lithium-salts). In some cases it also contains a wetting agent and is encapsulated (fully or partially) in vapor permeable, but water impermeable materials. The ionic transfer layer will not freeze at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C ({minus}5 F), and provides sufficient space for all anode corrosion products, thus preventing undesirable stresses on the concrete, the anode assembly and any cosmetic covering.

  18. Controlling the Emotional Bias: Performance, Late Positive Potentials, and the Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    PubMed

    Faehling, Florian; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive control of emotional processing is essential for adaptive human behavior. Biased attention toward emotionally salient information is critically linked with affective disorders and is discussed as a promising treatment target. Anodal (activity enhancing) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to increase healthy and impaired cognitive control over emotional distraction and is therefore widely used for the investigation and experimental treatment of this disorder. In this study, event-related potential (ERP) were recorded parallel to tDCS to track its online effects. Healthy volunteers (n = 87) performed a delayed working memory paradigm with emotional salient and neutral distractors during stimulation with different intensities (sham, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mA). Measuring the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that indexes attention allocation, we found that a valence-specific increase of the early portion of the LPP (eLPP, 250-500 ms) was associated with less emotional distraction in the sham group. Of note, stimulation with tDCS exerted an intensity related effect on this correlation. The later part of the LPP (lLPP, 500-1000 ms) was found to be correlated with reaction time, regardless of valence. General effect of tDCS on LPPs and task performance were not observed. These findings demonstrate that ERP recordings parallel to tDCS are feasible to investigate the neuronal underpinnings of stimulation effects on executive functions. Furthermore, they support the notion that the LPP induced by a distractive stimulus during a working memory task mirrors the additional allocation of neuronal resources with a specific sensitivity of the early LPP for highly arousing negative stimuli. Finally, together with the variable magnitude and direction of the emotional bias, the lack of systematic modulations of LPPs and behavior by tDCS further underlines the important influence of the individual brain activity patterns on stimulation effects both on the

  19. The effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and patterned electrical stimulation on spinal inhibitory interneurons and motor function in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Tsai, Yun-An; Tang, Shuen-Chang; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Liu, Meigen

    2016-06-01

    Supraspinal excitability and sensory input may play an important role for the modulation of spinal inhibitory interneurons and functional recovery among patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we investigated the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with patterned electrical stimulation (PES) on spinal inhibitory interneurons in patients with chronic incomplete SCI and in healthy individuals. Eleven patients with incomplete SCI and ten healthy adults participated in a single-masked, sham-controlled crossover study. PES involved stimulating the common peroneal nerve with a train of ten 100 Hz pulses every 2 s for 20 min. Anodal tDCS (1 mA) was simultaneously applied to the primary motor cortex that controls the tibialis anterior muscle. We measured reciprocal inhibition and presynaptic inhibition of a soleus H-reflex by stimulating the common peroneal nerve prior to tibial nerve stimulation, which elicits the H-reflex. The inhibition was assessed before, immediately after, 10 min after and 20 min after the stimulation. Compared with baseline, simultaneous application of anodal tDCS with PES significantly increased changes in disynaptic reciprocal inhibition and long-latency presynaptic inhibition in both healthy and SCI groups for at least 20 min after the stimulation (all, p < 0.001). In patients with incomplete SCI, anodal tDCS with PES significantly increased the number of ankle movements in 10 s at 20 min after the stimulation (p = 0.004). In conclusion, anodal tDCS combined with PES could induce spinal plasticity and improve ankle movement in patients with incomplete SCI.

  20. Fabrication of porous anodic alumina using normal anodization and pulse anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, I. K.; Yam, F. K.; Hassan, Z.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports on the fabrication of porous anodic alumina (PAA) by two-step anodizing the low purity commercial aluminum sheets at room temperature. Different variations of the second-step anodization were conducted: normal anodization (NA) with direct current potential difference; pulse anodization (PA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and 0 V; hybrid pulse anodization (HPA) alternate between potential differences of 10 V and -2 V. The method influenced the film homogeneity of the PAA and the most homogeneous structure was obtained via PA. The morphological properties are further elucidated using measured current-transient profiles. The absent of current rise profile in PA indicates the anodization temperature and dissolution of the PAA structure were greatly reduced by alternating potential differences.

  1. Effect of Graphene Modified Cu Current Collector on the Performance of Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiangmin; Nie, Ping; Ding, Bing; Wu, Wenxin; Chang, Zhi; Wu, Yuting; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2016-11-16

    Interface design between current collector and electroactive materials plays a key role in the electrochemical process for lithium-ion batteries. Here, a thin graphene film has been successfully synthesized on the surface of Cu current collector by a large-scale low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process. The modified Cu foil was used as a current collector to support spinel Li4Ti5O12 anode directly. Electrochemical test results demonstrated that graphene coating Cu foil could effectively improve overall Li storage performance of Li4Ti5O12 anode. Especially under high current rate (e.g., 10 C), the Li4Ti5O12 electrode using modified current collector maintained a favorable capacity, which is 32% higher than that electrode using bare current collector. In addition, cycling performance has been improved using the new type current collector. The enhanced performance can be attributed to the reduced internal resistance and improved charge transfer kinetics of graphene film by increasing electron collection and decreasing lithium ion interfacial diffusion. Furthermore, the graphene film adhered on the Cu foil surface could act as an effective protective film to avoid oxidization, which can effectively improve chemical stability of Cu current collector.

  2. Degradation Mechanisms of Magnesium Metal Anodes in Electrolytes Based on (CF3SO2)2N(-) at High Current Densities.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Han, Sang-Don; Bolotin, Igor L; Nolis, Gene M; Bayliss, Ryan D; Burrell, Anthony K; Vaughey, John T; Cabana, Jordi

    2017-09-19

    The energy density of rechargeable batteries utilizing metals as anodes surpasses that of Li ion batteries, which employ carbon instead. Among possible metals, magnesium represents a potential alternative to the conventional choice, lithium, in terms of storage density, safety, stability, and cost. However, a major obstacle for metal-based batteries is the identification of electrolytes that show reversible deposition/dissolution of the metal anode and support reversible intercalation of ions into a cathode. Traditional Grignard-based Mg electrolytes are excellent with respect to the reversible deposition of Mg, but their limited anodic stability and compatibility with oxide cathodes hinder their applicability in Mg batteries with higher voltage. Non-Grignard electrolytes, which consist of ethereal solutions of magnesium(II) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Mg(TFSI)2), remain fairly stable near the potential of Mg deposition. The slight reactivity of these electrolytes toward Mg metal can be remedied by the addition of surface-protecting agents, such as MgCl2. Hence, ethereal solutions of Mg(TFSI)2 salt with MgCl2 as an additive have been suggested as a representative non-Grignard Mg electrolyte. In this work, the degradation mechanisms of a Mg metal anode in the TFSI-based electrolyte were studied using a current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and an areal capacity of ∼0.4 mAh cm(-2), which is close to those used in practical applications. The degradation mechanisms identified include the corrosion of Mg metal, which causes the loss of electronic pathways and mechanical integrity, the nonuniform deposition of Mg, and the decomposition of TFSI(-) anions. This study not only represents an assessment of the behavior of Mg metal anodes at practical current density and areal capacity but also details the outcomes of interfacial passivation, which was detected by simple cyclic voltammetry experiments. This study also points out the absolute absence of any passivation at

  3. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  4. Comparison of the anodic behavior of aluminum current collectors in imide-based ionic liquids and consequences on the stability of high voltage supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Ruben-Simon; Balducci, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    In this work, the influence of two common ionic liquid (IL) anions on the anodic stability of Al current collectors was studied. Namely, the Al corrosion/passivation process in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) is compared to the one in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI). It is shown, that Al slowly corrodes in PYR14FSI, while it is much better passivated in PYR14TFSI, although the ionic liquids were prepared in the same way. Float tests were carried out to illustrate the consequences of these different anodic stabilities of Al on the cycling stability of supercapacitors. Interestingly, when the chloride content of PYR14FSI was <1 ppm, Al electrodes were also pretty stable in this IL, and a similar cycling stability during float tests than for PYR14TFSI could be obtained.

  5. The ABC of tDCS: Effects of Anodal, Bilateral and Cathodal Montages of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients with Stroke—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, A.; De Angelis, D.; Morone, G.; Maglione, L.; Paolucci, T.; Bragoni, M.; Venturiero, V.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that is emerging as a prospective therapy for different neurologic disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that anodal and cathodal stimulation can improve motor performance in terms of dexterity and manual force. The objective of this study was to determine whether different electrodes' setups (anodal, cathodal, and simultaneous bilateral tDCS) provide different motor performance and which montage was more effective. As secondary outcome, we have asked to the patients about their satisfaction, and to determine if the bilateral tDCS was more uncomfortable than unilateral tDCS. Nine patients with stroke in subacute phase were enrolled in this study and randomly divided in three groups. Our results showed that tDCS was an effective treatment if compared to Sham stimulation (P = 0.022). In particular, anodal stimulation provided the higher improvement in terms of manual dexterity. Cathodal stimulation seemed to have a little effect in terms of force improvement, not observed with other setups. Bipolar stimulation seemed to be the less effective. No significant differences have been noted for the different set-ups for patients' judgment. These results highlight the potential efficacy of tDCS for patients with stroke in subacute phase. PMID:23365790

  6. A newly-developed effective direct current assisted sintering technique for electrolyte film densification of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yajie; Hao, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiawei; Qiao, Jinshuo; Yan, Yiming; Sun, Kening

    2012-10-01

    In order to lower the sintering temperature and shorten firing time, a novel, effective and facile technique has been developed for sintering Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte thin film. Herein this technique, which employs a weak direct current (DC), is used for the first time in the manufacture of the anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). A single cell is directly assembled using a pre-sintered anode/electrolyte and screen printed cathode and subsequently sintered under electric assistance from room temperature to 800 °C at a heating rate of 5 °C min-1. A fully dense YSZ electrolyte film can be observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the open circuit voltages (OCVs) are in accordance with theoretical values, confirming that the cell possesses a dense YSZ film. Using hydrogen fuel, the maximum power density of this cell was 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4 W cm-2 at 650, 700 and 750 °C, respectively. We believe this DC assisted sintering technique (DC-AST) may not only reduce the cost, but also maintain the anode nanostructure, thus offering a potentially useful manufacturing technique for SOFCs.

  7. Delineating the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on myoelectric control based on slow cortical potentials.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anirban; Boulenouar, Rahima S; Guiraud, David; Nitsche, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Active cortical participation in rehabilitation procedures may be facilitated by modulating neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) derived biopotentials, that represent simultaneous volitional effort. Here, the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function, and connections is called neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity is involved in post-stroke functional disturbances, but also in rehabilitation. Beneficial neuroplastic changes may be facilitated with an adjuvant treatment with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). This paper presents the results from a motor cortex anodal tDCS-EEG/EMG study in healthy volunteers. We investigated slow cortical potentials (SCP) during self-initiated movements. In this preliminary study, we found that anodal tDCS increased baseline-normalized post-tDCS mean power in the Theta band (4-8 Hz) of resting state EEG (60.71% vs. 8.36%; p<0.01), and decreased the slope of post-tDCS SCP from motor task-related EEG (-6.43 au/sec vs. -4.86 au/sec; p=0.021) when compared to sham tDCS. These preliminary results are discussed based on an accumulator model for spontaneous neural activity which postulates that a decision threshold applied to auto-correlated noise—in this case the output of a leaky stochastic accumulator—can account for the specific shape of the SCP prior to movement. We postulate that the anodal tDCS facilitated change in the slope of SCP may be related to the reaction times during a cued movement task since our prior work showed that anodal tDCS decreases the delay in initiation of muscle contraction and increases the delay in termination of muscle activity.

  8. Impact of Anodal and Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Attention Bias Modification: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Alexandre; Baeken, Chris; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Philippot, Pierre; de Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    People with anxiety disorders show an attentional bias for threat (AB), and Attention Bias Modification (ABM) procedures have been found to reduce this bias. However, the underlying processes accounting for this effect remain poorly understood. One explanation suggests that ABM requires the modification of attention control, driven by the recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the present double-blind study, we examined whether modifying left DLPFC activation influences the effect of ABM on AB. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to directly modulate cortical excitability of the left DLPFC during an ABM procedure designed to reduce AB to threat. Anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases it. We randomly assigned highly trait-anxious individuals to one of three conditions: 1) ABM combined with cathodal tDCS, 2) ABM combined with anodal tDCS, or 3) ABM combined with sham tDCS. We assessed the effects of these manipulations on both reaction times and eye-movements on a task indexing AB. Results indicate that combining ABM and anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC reduces the total duration that participants' gaze remains fixated on threat, as assessed using eye-tracking measurement. However, in contrast to previous studies, there were no changes in AB from baseline to post-training for participants that received ABM without tDCS. As the tendency to maintain attention to threat is known to play an important role in the maintenance of anxiety, the present findings suggest that anodal tDCS over the left DLPFC may be considered as a promising tool to reduce the maintenance of gaze to threat. Implications for future translational research combining ABM and tDCS are discussed.

  9. Generation of High Current Densities by Pure Cultures of Anode-Respiring Geoalkalibacter spp. under Alkaline and Saline Conditions in Microbial Electrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Torres, César I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) generate electric current in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) by channeling electrons from the oxidation of organic substrates to an electrode. Production of high current densities by monocultures in MXCs has resulted almost exclusively from the activity of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a neutrophilic freshwater Fe(III)-reducing bacterium and the highest-current-producing member documented for the Geobacteraceae family of the Deltaproteobacteria. Here we report high current densities generated by haloalkaliphilic Geoalkalibacter spp., thus broadening the capability for high anode respiration rates by including other genera within the Geobacteraceae. In this study, acetate-fed pure cultures of two related Geoalkalibacter spp. produced current densities of 5.0 to 8.3 and 2.4 to 3.3 A m−2 under alkaline (pH 9.3) and saline (1.7% NaCl) conditions, respectively. Chronoamperometric studies of halophilic Glk. subterraneus DSM 23483 and alkaliphilic Glk. ferrihydriticus DSM 17813 suggested that cells performed long-range electron transfer through electrode-attached biofilms and not through soluble electron shuttles. Glk. ferrihydriticus also oxidized ethanol directly to produce current, with maximum current densities of 5.7 to 7.1 A m−2 and coulombic efficiencies of 84 to 95%. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) elicited a sigmoidal response with characteristic onset, midpoint, and saturation potentials, while CV performed in the absence of an electron donor suggested the involvement of redox molecules in the biofilm that were limited by diffusion. These results matched those previously reported for actively respiring Gb. sulfurreducens biofilms producing similar current densities (~5 to 9 A m−2). PMID:23631915

  10. Development of Point of Care Testing Device for Neurovascular Coupling From Simultaneous Recording of EEG and NIRS During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Utkarsh; Sood, Mehak; Dutta, Anirban; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a point of care testing device for neurovascular coupling (NVC) from simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Here, anodal tDCS modulated cortical neural activity leading to hemodynamic response can be used to identify the impaired cerebral microvessels functionality. The impairments in the cerebral microvessels functionality may lead to impairments in the cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), where severely reduced CVR predicts the chances of transient ischemic attack and ipsilateral stroke. The neural and hemodynamic responses to anodal tDCS were studied through joint imaging with EEG and NIRS, where NIRS provided optical measurement of changes in tissue oxy-(\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$HbO2)$ \\end{document} and deoxy-(\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Hb$ \\end{document}) hemoglobin concentration and EEG captured alterations in the underlying neuronal current generators. Then, a cross-correlation method for the assessment of NVC underlying the site of anodal tDCS is presented. The feasibility studies on healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed detectable changes in the EEG and the NIRS responses to a 0.526 A/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{m}^{2}$ \\end{document} of anodal tDCS. The NIRS system

  11. Analysis of equilibrium and kinetic models of internal reforming on solid oxide fuel cell anodes: Effect on voltage, current and temperature distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Khaliq; Fӧger, Karl

    2017-03-01

    The SOFC is well-established as a high-efficiency energy conversion technology with demonstrations of micro-CHP systems delivering 60% net electrical efficiency [1]. However, there are key challenges in the path to commercialization. Foremost among them is stack durability. Operating at high temperatures, the SOFC invariably suffers from thermally induced material degradation. This is compounded by thermal stresses within the SOFC stack which are generated from a number of interacting factors. Modelling is used as a tool for predicting undesirable temperature and current density gradients. For an internal reforming SOFC, fidelity of the model is strongly linked to the representation of the fuel reforming reactions, which dictate species concentrations and net heat release. It is critical for simulation of these profiles that the set of reaction rate expressions applicable for the particular anode catalyst are chosen in the model. A relatively wide spectrum of kinetic correlations has been reported in the literature. This work presents a comparative analysis of the internal distribution of temperature, current, voltage and compositions on a SOFC anode, using various combinations of reaction kinetics and equilibrium expressions for the reactions. The results highlight the significance of the fuel reforming chemistry and kinetics in the prediction of cell performance.

  12. Optimum structural properties for an anode current collector used in a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer operated at the boiling point of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakajima, Hironori; Inada, Akiko; Ito, Kohei

    2016-11-01

    This study attempts to optimize the properties of the anode current collector of a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer at high temperatures, particularly at the boiling point of water. Different titanium meshes (4 commercial ones and 4 modified ones) with various properties are experimentally examined by operating a cell with each mesh under different conditions. The average pore diameter, thickness, and contact angle of the anode current collector are controlled in the ranges of 10-35 μm, 0.2-0.3 mm, and 0-120°, respectively. These results showed that increasing the temperature from the conventional temperature of 80 °C to the boiling point could reduce both the open circuit voltage and the overvoltages to a large extent without notable dehydration of the membrane. These results also showed that decreasing the contact angle and the thickness suppresses the electrolysis overvoltage largely by decreasing the concentration overvoltage. The effect of the average pore diameter was not evident until the temperature reached the boiling point. Using operating conditions of 100 °C and 2 A/cm2, the electrolysis voltage is minimized to 1.69 V with a hydrophilic titanium mesh with an average pore diameter of 21 μm and a thickness of 0.2 mm.

  13. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  14. Intensity-dependent effects of repetitive anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on learning and memory in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuehong; Li, Yiyan; Wen, Huizhong; Zhang, Yinghui; Tian, Xuelong

    2015-09-01

    Single-session anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve the learning-memory function of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). After-effects of tDCS can be more significant if the stimulation is repeated regularly in a period. Here the behavioral and the histologic effects of the repetitive anodal tDCS on a rat model of AD were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups, the sham group, the β-amyloid (Aβ) group, the Aβ+20μA tDCS group, the Aβ+60μA tDCS group, the Aβ+100μA tDCS group and the Aβ+200μA tDCS group. Bilateral hippocampus of the rats in the Aβ group and the Aβ+tDCS groups were lesioned by Aβ1-40 to produce AD models. One day after drug injection, repetitive anodal tDCS (10 sessions in two weeks, 20min per session) was applied to the frontal cortex of the rats in the tDCS groups, while sham stimulation was applied to the Aβ group and the sham group. The spatial learning and memory capability of the rats were tested by Morris water maze. Bielschowsky's silver staining, Nissl's staining, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and glial-fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry of the hippocampus were conducted for histologic analysis. Results show in the Morris water maze task, rats in the Aβ+100μA and the Aβ+200μA tDCS groups had shorter escape latency and larger number of crossings on the platform. Significant histologic differences were observed in the Aβ+100μA and the Aβ+200μA tDCS groups compared to the Aβ group. The behavioral and the histological experiments indicate that the proposed repetitive anodal tDCS treatment can protect spatial learning and memory dysfunction of Aβ1-40-lesioned AD rats.

  15. Use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on brain connectivity in motor-related cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiaqing; Wei, Yun; Wang, Yinghua; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive, safe and convenient neuro-modulatory technique in neurological rehabilitation, treatment, and other aspects of brain disorders. However, evaluating the effects of tDCS is still difficult. We aimed to evaluate the effects of tDCS using hemodynamic changes using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Five healthy participants were employed and anodal tDCS was applied to the left motor-related cortex, with cathodes positioned on the right dorsolateral supraorbital area. fNIRS data were collected from the right motor-related area at the same time. Functional connectivity (FC) between intracortical regions was calculated between fNIRS channels using a minimum variance distortion-less response magnitude squared coherence (MVDR-MSC) method. The levels of Oxy-HbO change and the FC between channels during the prestimulation, stimulation, and poststimulation stages were compared. Results showed no significant level difference, but the FC measured by MVDR-MSC significantly decreased during tDCS compared with pre-tDCS and post-tDCS, although the FC difference between pre-tDCS and post-tDCS was not significant. We conclude that coherence calculated from resting state fNIRS may be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of anodal tDCS and optimizing parameters for tDCS application.

  16. Enhancement in current density and energy conversion efficiency of 3-dimensional MFC anodes using pre-enriched consortium and continuous supply of electron donors

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A

    2011-01-01

    Using a pre-enriched microbial consortium as the inoculum and continuous supply of carbon source, improvement in performance of a three-dimensional, flow-through MFC anode utilizing ferricyanide cathode was investigated. The power density increased from 170 W/m3 (1800 mW/m2) to 580 W/m3 (6130 mW/m2), when the carbon loading increased from 2.5 g/l-day to 50 g/l-day. The coulombic efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 23% with increasing carbon loading. The CEs are among the highest reported for glucose and lactate as the substrate with the maximum current density reaching 15.1 A/m2. This suggests establishment of a very high performance exoelectrogenic microbial consortium at the anode. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 54% was observed at a loading of 2.5 g/l-day. Biological characterization of the consortium showed presence of Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the dominant members. Imaging of the biofilms revealed thinner biofilms compared to the inoculum MFC, but a 1.9-fold higher power density.

  17. Anode power deposition in quasi-steady MPD arcs. [accelerator anode heat flux measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saber, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The power deposited in the anode of a quasi-steady MPD accelerator has been measured directly by thermocouples attached to the inside surface of a shell anode which provide a local measurement of anode heat flux. The results over a range of arc currents from 5.5 to 44 kiloamperes and argon mass flows from 1 g/sec to 48 g/sec show that the fraction of the total input power deposited in the anode decreases drastically from 50% at an arc power of 200 kW to 10% at 20 MW, and that anode power is not uniformly deposited in the anode. A theoretical model of the anode heat transfer, including effects of anode work function, electron thermal energy, and anode sheath, can be brought into reasonable agreement with the measurements, provided the effective range of the conduction electrons from within the discharge plasma to the anode surface is properly acknowledged.

  18. Anode power deposition in quasi-steady MPD arcs. [accelerator anode heat flux measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saber, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The power deposited in the anode of a quasi-steady MPD accelerator has been measured directly by thermocouples attached to the inside surface of a shell anode which provide a local measurement of anode heat flux. The results over a range of arc currents from 5.5 to 44 kiloamperes and argon mass flows from 1 g/sec to 48 g/sec show that the fraction of the total input power deposited in the anode decreases drastically from 50% at an arc power of 200 kW to 10% at 20 MW, and that anode power is not uniformly deposited in the anode. A theoretical model of the anode heat transfer, including effects of anode work function, electron thermal energy, and anode sheath, can be brought into reasonable agreement with the measurements, provided the effective range of the conduction electrons from within the discharge plasma to the anode surface is properly acknowledged.

  19. Sequential Vapor Infiltration Treatment Enhances the Ionic Current Rectification Performance of Composite Membranes Based on Mesoporous Silica Confined in Anodic Alumina.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-12-20

    Ionic current rectification of nanofluidic diode membranes has been studied widely in recent years because it is analogous to the functionality of biological ion channels in principle. We report a new method to fabricate ionic current rectification membranes based on mesoporous silica confined in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Two types of mesostructured silica nanocomposites, hexagonal structure and nanoparticle stacked structure, were used to asymmetrically fill nanochannels of AAO membranes by a vapor-phase synthesis (VPS) method with aspiration approach and were further modified via sequence vapor infiltration (SVI) treatment. The ionic current measurements indicated that SVI treatment can modulate the asymmetric ionic transport in prepared membranes, which exhibited clear ionic current rectification phenomenon under optimal conditions. The ionic current rectifying behavior is derived from the asymmetry of surface conformations, silica species components, and hydrophobic wettability, which are created by the asymmetrical filling type, silica depositions on the heterogeneous membranes, and the condensation of silanol groups. This article provides a considerable strategy to fabricate composite membranes with obvious ionic current rectification performance via the cooperation of the VPS method and SVI treatment and opens up the potential of mesoporous silica confined in AAO membranes to mimic fluid transport in biological processes.

  20. Anode sheath transition in an anodic arc for synthesis of nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchinsky, V. A.; Raitses, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The arc discharge with ablating anode or so-called anodic arc is widely used for synthesis of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and fullerens, metal nanoparticles etc. We present the model of this arc, which confirms the existence of the two different modes of the arc operation with two different anode sheath regimes, namely, with negative anode sheath and with positive anode sheath. It was previously suggested that these regimes are associated with two different anode ablating modes—low ablation mode with constant ablation rate and the enhanced ablation mode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322). The transition of the arc operation from low ablation mode to high ablation mode is determined by the current density at the anode. The model can be used to self-consistently determine the distribution of the electric field, electron density and electron temperature in the near-anode region of the arc discharge. Simulations of the carbon arc predict that for low arc ablating modes, the current is driven mainly by the electron diffusion to the anode. For positive anode sheath, the anode voltage is close to the ionization potential of anode material, while for negative anode sheath, the anode voltage is an order of magnitude smaller. It is also shown that the near-anode plasma, is far from the ionization equilibrium.

  1. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  2. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  3. Arcjet anode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichon, Paul G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    There is disclosed an anode for an arcjet thruster which resists erosion during start-up on constriction during steady-state operation. The anode includes a converging upstream portion, a diverging downstream portion and a constricted portion disposed therebetween. In one embodiment of the invention, rails formed in the constricted portion accelerate the passage of an arc during start-up reducing erosion. In a second embodiment, a higher strength material resists bulging as a result of the thermal gradient within the nozzle.

  4. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) increases frontal-midline theta activity in the human EEG: a preliminary investigation of non-invasive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joe; Berger, Barbara; Sauseng, Paul

    2015-02-19

    Rhythmical brain activity in the range between four and eight Hz acquired over frontal-midline EEG recording sites - so called frontal-midline theta activity - is regarded as one of the most prominent neural signatures of sustained attention. It is reported to parametrically increase with cognitive load and is thought to be generated in medial prefrontal cortex. Here we explored the possibility of using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over frontal sites to enhance frontal-midline theta activity and to increase sustained attention performance. We used a small preliminary sample to test a novel direct current stimulation electrode configuration by which we were able to significantly increase frontal-midline theta amplitude in a resting condition after the end of the stimulation period. Using standardised low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis the effect in the surface EEG was localised to right prefrontal and left medial prefrontal brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation did, however, not have any impact on behavioural performance during a sustained attention task. This most likely was due to a very fast washout of the stimulation's after effect on theta activity. Although these are only preliminary results from a rather small sample, this study demonstrates that transcranial direct current stimulation can be used to rather selectively enhance frontal-midline theta amplitude.

  5. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on behavioral and spatial memory during the early stage of traumatic brain injury in the rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chae, Seoung Wan; Park, Chae Ri; Kim, Dae Yul

    2016-03-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique to modulate the neural membrane potential. Its effects in the early stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have rarely been investigated. This study assessed the effects of anodal tDCS on behavioral and spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. Thirty six rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were then randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (n=12), five-day tDCS over peri-lesional cortex at one (1W, n=12), or two (2W, n=12) weeks post-injury. The Barnes maze (BM) and Rotarod (RR) tests were evaluated in a blind manner on day 1, week 3 and week 5 post-injury. After three weeks, both the 1W and 2W groups showed significant improvements in the BM ratio (P<0.05), whereas only group 2W obtained a significant improvement in the RR ratio compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between any of the groups at five weeks after TBI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that only group 2W had a significantly higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the peri-lesional cortex, which was significantly correlated with the improvement of the Rotarod test at 3-week post-injury. However, BDNF expression in the ipsi-lesional hippocampus was not significantly different among the three groups. Group 1W tended to have increased choline/creatine ratios, as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the peri-lesional cortex, than the control group (P=0.051). Neither regimen aggravated the lesion volume or brain edema measured by MRI. These beneficial effects were not observed with either regimen at five weeks post-injury. In conclusions, anodal tDCS ameliorated behavioral and spatial memory function in the early phase after TBI when it is delivered two weeks post-injury. Earlier stimulation (one week post-injury) improves spatial memory only. However, the beneficial effects did not persist after cessation of the anodal

  6. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor cortex does not enhance the learning benefits of self-controlled feedback schedules.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michael J; Smith, Victoria; Carlsen, Anthony N; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-02-27

    A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules. Here, we investigated whether applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex (M1) would enhance the typically found benefits of learning a novel motor skill with a self-controlled KR schedule. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal task in one of four groups using a factorial combination of KR schedule (self-controlled vs. yoked) and tDCS (anodal vs. sham). Testing occurred on two consecutive days with spatial and temporal accuracy measured on both days and learning was assessed using 24-h retention and transfer tests without KR. All groups improved their performance in practice and a significant effect for practicing with a self-controlled KR schedule compared to a yoked schedule was found for temporal accuracy in transfer, but a similar advantage was not evident in retention. There were no significant differences as a function of KR schedule or tDCS for spatial accuracy in retention or transfer. The lack of a significant tDCS effect suggests that M1 may not strongly contribute to self-controlled KR learning advantages; however, caution is advised with this interpretation as typical self-controlled learning benefits were not strongly replicated in the present experiment.

  7. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, Oscar; Marschman, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  8. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  9. Anode power deposition in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, A. D.; Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Results of anode heat-flux and anode fail measurements from a multimegawatt self-field quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster are presented. Measurements were obtained with argon and helium propellants for a variety of currents and mass flow rates. Anode heat flux was directly measured with thermocouples attached to the inner surface of a hollowed section. Anode falls were determined both from floating probes and through heat flux measurements. Comparison of data acquired through either method shows excellent agreement. Anode falls varied between 4-50 V with anode power fractions reaching 70 percent with helium at 150 kW, and 50 percent with argon at 1.9 MW. The anode fall was found to correlate well with electron Hall parameters calculated from triple Langmuir and magnetic probe data collected near the anode. Two possible explanations for this result are proposed: (1) the establishment of large electric fields at the anode to maintain current conduction across the strong magnetic fields; and (2) anomalous resistivity resulting from the onset of microturbulence in the plasma. To investigate the latter hypothesis, electric field, magnetic field, and current density profiles measured in the vicinity of the anode were incorporated into Ohm's law to estimate the electrical conductivity. Results of this analysis show a substantial deviation of the measured conductivity from that calculated with classical formulas. These results imply that anomalous effects are present in the plasma near the anode.

  10. Anode power deposition in magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallimore, A. D.; Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1993-06-01

    Results of anode heat-flux and anode fail measurements from a multimegawatt self-field quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster are presented. Measurements were obtained with argon and helium propellants for a variety of currents and mass flow rates. Anode heat flux was directly measured with thermocouples attached to the inner surface of a hollowed section. Anode falls were determined both from floating probes and through heat flux measurements. Comparison of data acquired through either method shows excellent agreement. Anode falls varied between 4-50 V with anode power fractions reaching 70 percent with helium at 150 kW, and 50 percent with argon at 1.9 MW. The anode fall was found to correlate well with electron Hall parameters calculated from triple Langmuir and magnetic probe data collected near the anode. Two possible explanations for this result are proposed: (1) the establishment of large electric fields at the anode to maintain current conduction across the strong magnetic fields; and (2) anomalous resistivity resulting from the onset of microturbulence in the plasma. To investigate the latter hypothesis, electric field, magnetic field, and current density profiles measured in the vicinity of the anode were incorporated into Ohm's law to estimate the electrical conductivity. Results of this analysis show a substantial deviation of the measured conductivity from that calculated with classical formulas. These results imply that anomalous effects are present in the plasma near the anode.

  11. Syntrophic interactions between H2-scavenging and anode-respiring bacteria can improve current density in microbial electrochemical cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    High current density of 10.0-14.6 A/m2 and COD removal up to 96% were obtained in a microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) fed with digestate at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4d and 8d. Volatile fatty acids became undetectable in MEC effluent (HRT 8d), except for trivial acetat...

  12. Mussel-inspired Polydopamine-treated Copper Foil as a Current Collector for High-performance Silicon Anodes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Inseong; Gong, Seokhyeon; Song, Danoh; Lee, Young-Gi; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-08-17

    A new Cu current collector was prepared by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine coating onto a Cu foil surface to improve the electrochemical performance of a Si electrode. The polydopamine coating covalently bonded the polymeric binder (with hydroxyl functional groups) via a condensation reaction. The coating improved the adhesion strength between the Si composite electrode and the Cu current collector (245.5 N m(-1), 297.5 N m(-1), and 353.2 N m(-1) for the Si electrodes based on bare Cu, polydopamine-treated Cu without thermal treatment, and polydopamine-treated Cu with thermal treatment, respectively). We demonstrate that the detachment between the Si composite electrode and the current collector plays an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of the Si electrode. The cycle life and rate capability of the Si electrode improved when the polydopamine surface-treated Cu current collector was used (963.9 mAh g(-1), 1361.1 mAh g(-1), and 1590.0 mAh g(-1) for the Si electrodes based on bare Cu, polydopamine-treated Cu without thermal treatment, and polydopamine-treated Cu with thermal treatment, respectively, at C/2 after 500 cycles).

  13. Mussel-inspired Polydopamine-treated Copper Foil as a Current Collector for High-performance Silicon Anodes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inseong; Gong, Seokhyeon; Song, Danoh; Lee, Young-Gi; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    A new Cu current collector was prepared by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine coating onto a Cu foil surface to improve the electrochemical performance of a Si electrode. The polydopamine coating covalently bonded the polymeric binder (with hydroxyl functional groups) via a condensation reaction. The coating improved the adhesion strength between the Si composite electrode and the Cu current collector (245.5 N m−1, 297.5 N m−1, and 353.2 N m−1 for the Si electrodes based on bare Cu, polydopamine-treated Cu without thermal treatment, and polydopamine-treated Cu with thermal treatment, respectively). We demonstrate that the detachment between the Si composite electrode and the current collector plays an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of the Si electrode. The cycle life and rate capability of the Si electrode improved when the polydopamine surface-treated Cu current collector was used (963.9 mAh g−1, 1361.1 mAh g−1, and 1590.0 mAh g−1 for the Si electrodes based on bare Cu, polydopamine-treated Cu without thermal treatment, and polydopamine-treated Cu with thermal treatment, respectively, at C/2 after 500 cycles). PMID:27530802

  14. Mussel-inspired Polydopamine-treated Copper Foil as a Current Collector for High-performance Silicon Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inseong; Gong, Seokhyeon; Song, Danoh; Lee, Young-Gi; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-08-01

    A new Cu current collector was prepared by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine coating onto a Cu foil surface to improve the electrochemical performance of a Si electrode. The polydopamine coating covalently bonded the polymeric binder (with hydroxyl functional groups) via a condensation reaction. The coating improved the adhesion strength between the Si composite electrode and the Cu current collector (245.5 N m-1, 297.5 N m-1, and 353.2 N m-1 for the Si electrodes based on bare Cu, polydopamine-treated Cu without thermal treatment, and polydopamine-treated Cu with thermal treatment, respectively). We demonstrate that the detachment between the Si composite electrode and the current collector plays an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of the Si electrode. The cycle life and rate capability of the Si electrode improved when the polydopamine surface-treated Cu current collector was used (963.9 mAh g-1, 1361.1 mAh g-1, and 1590.0 mAh g-1 for the Si electrodes based on bare Cu, polydopamine-treated Cu without thermal treatment, and polydopamine-treated Cu with thermal treatment, respectively, at C/2 after 500 cycles).

  15. Syntrophic interactions between H2-scavenging and anode-respiring bacteria can improve current density in microbial electrochemical cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    High current density of 10.0-14.6 A/m2 and COD removal up to 96% were obtained in a microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) fed with digestate at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4d and 8d. Volatile fatty acids became undetectable in MEC effluent (HRT 8d), except for trivial acetat...

  16. Self-ordered nanopore arrays through hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadniaei, M.; Maleki, K.; Kashi, M. Almasi; Ramezani, A.; Mayamei, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp was employed to fabricate self-ordered nanoporous alumina in the wide range of interpore distances (259-405 nm) in pure oxalic acid and mixture of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions. Anode temperature ramp technique was employed to adjust the anodization current density to optimize the self-ordering of the nanopore arrays in the interpore range in which no ordered self-assembled hard anodized anodic aluminum oxide has reported. It is found that the certain ratios of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions in this anodization technique increased self-ordering of the nanopores especially for anodization voltages over the 170 V by increasing alumina's viscous flow which could lead to decrease the overall current density of anodization, yet leveled up by anode temperature ramp. However, below 150 V anodization voltage, the ratio of interpore distance to the anodization voltage of the both anodization techniques was the same (~2 nm/V), while above this voltage, it increased to about 2.2 nm/V.

  17. Anodic Behavior of the Aluminum Current Collector in Imide-Based Electrolytes: Influence of Solvent, Operating Temperature, and Native Oxide-Layer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Meister, Paul; Qi, Xin; Kloepsch, Richard; Krämer, Elisabeth; Streipert, Benjamin; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2017-02-22

    The inability of imide salts to form a sufficiently effective passivation layer on aluminum current collectors is one of the main obstacles that limit their broad application in electrochemical energy-storage systems. However, under certain circumstances, the use of electrolytes with imide electrolyte salts in combination with the aluminum current collector is possible. In this contribution, the stability of the aluminum current collector in electrolytes containing either lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) or lithium fluorosulfonyl-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiFTFSI) as conductive salt was investigated by electrochemical techniques, that is, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronocoulometry (CC) in either room-temperature ionic liquids or in ethyl methyl sulfone. In particular, the influence of the solvent, operating temperature, and thickness of the native oxide layer of aluminum on the pit formation at the aluminum current collector surface was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. In general, a more pronounced aluminum dissolution and pit formation was found at elevated temperatures as well as in solvents with a high dielectric constant. An enhanced thickness of the native aluminum oxide layer increases the oxidative stability versus dissolution. Furthermore, we found a different reaction rate depending on dwell time at the upper cut-off potential for aluminum dissolution in TFSI- and FTFSI-based electrolytes during the CC measurements; the use of LiFTFSI facilitated the dissolution of aluminum compared to LiTFSI. Overall, the mechanism of anodic aluminum dissolution is based on: i) the attack of the Al2 O3 surface by acidic species and ii) the dissolution of bare aluminum into the electrolyte, which, in turn, is influenced by the electrolyte's dielectric constant.

  18. The anodic passivation of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    James, S.D.

    1983-10-01

    The anodic passivation of Li has been characterized at room temperature in a variety of electrolytes (propylene carbonate, thionyl chloride, sulfur dioxide), as a function of convection and current density and in the presence of water and other impurities. In thionyl chloride the effect of salt concentration (0.5-4.5M, LiA1C1/sub 4/) and acidity (0.5-3M, A1C1/sub 3/) has been studied. The evidence accumulated suggests that anodic passivation is caused by anodic enrichment and eventual precipitation of electrolyte salt in superficial anolyte.

  19. Effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment of graphite and carbon felt electrodes on the anodic current from Shewanella attached cells.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Monica; Inguva, Saikumar; Kitching, Michael; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    The attachment of electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) on an electrode is determined by both the chemistry and topography of the electrode surface. Pre-treatment of the electrode surface by atmospheric air plasma introduces hydrophilic functional groups, thereby increasing cell attachment and electroactivity in short-term experiments. In this study, we use graphite and carbon felt electrodes to grow the model EAM Shewanella loihica PV-4 at oxidative potential (0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Cell attachment and electroactivity are measured through electrodynamic methods. Atmospheric air plasma pre-treatment increases cell attachment and current output at graphite electrodes by 25%, while it improves the electroactivity of the carbon felt electrodes by 450%. Air plasma pre-treatment decreased the coulombic efficiency on both carbon felt and graphite electrodes by 60% and 80%, respectively. Microbially produced flavins adsorb preferentially at the graphite electrode, and air plasma pre-treatment results in lower flavin adsorption at both graphite and carbon felt electrodes. Results show that air plasma pre-treatment is a feasible option to increase current output in bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Anode Dielectric Coating on Hall Thruster Operation

    SciTech Connect

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch; V. Semenov

    2003-10-20

    An interesting phenomenon observed in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which is produced on the anode surface during the normal course of Hall thruster operation. The anode fall might affect the thruster lifetime and acceleration efficiency. The effect of the anode coating on the anode fall is studied experimentally using both biased and emissive probes. Measurements of discharge current oscillations indicate that thruster operation is more stable with the coated anode.

  1. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in early rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke non-fluent aphasia: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Polanowska, Katarzyna Ewa; Leśniak, Marcin Maciej; Seniów, Joanna Barbara; Czepiel, Wojciech; Członkowska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in patients with chronic aphasia shows an association between excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (A-tDCS) of the stroke-affected left hemisphere coupled with speech and language therapy (SLT) and better language performance. The present study aimed to investigate this association during the early post-stroke rehabilitation period, when adaptive changes are most possible on neurophysiological and behavioral levels. We randomized 24 patients with non-fluent aphasia to receive 15 consecutive sessions (5 days/week for 3 weeks) of A-tDCS (1 mA, 10 min; n = 14) or sham tDCS (S-tDCS: 1 mA, 25 sec; n = 10) over Broca's area followed by 45-min SLT. Naming ability was assessed before the rehabilitation, after its completion, and three months later. Both groups significantly improved after the therapy. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the short-term or long-term tDCS effects on naming accuracy and naming time. The A-tDCS group obtained higher effect sizes in naming time, both post-treatment and at the 3-month follow-up, suggesting potential benefits of the stimulation. The findings provide only weak evidence for A-tDCS-related language gains during early neurorehabilitation of post-stroke aphasia. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of this kind of neuromodulation.

  2. Effect of antimony on the semiconducting properties of the anodic plumbous oxide film formed in sulfuric acid solution. II. Studies of photoelectrochemical current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Cong; He, Zhuo-Li; Zhou, Wei-Fang

    The semiconducting properties of t-PbO (also known as tet-PbO or α-PbO) in the anodic plumbous oxide films formed on lead and lead-antimony alloys in 4.5 M H 2SO 4 (22±2 °C) at 0.9 V (versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4) have been studied using measurements of photoelectrochemical current. Antimony has little effect on the value of the bandgap energy of t-PbO in the films. From the relation between quantum yield and electrode potential, the values of the donor density of the t-PbO in the films formed on Pb, Pb-1at.%Sb, Pb-3at.%Sb, and Pb-9at.%Sb are 9.3×10 15, 3.1×10 16, 4.5×10 17 and 5.8×10 17 cm -3. Meanwhile, the flat-band potential of the t-PbO in the various films ranges from -0.07 to -0.28 V (versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4). By comparing the effect of antimony of the growth rate of the t-PbO with that on donor density, it is concluded that these experimental results conform to the Hauffe Rules.

  3. The effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on motor sequence learning in healthy individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hashemirad, Fahimeh; Zoghi, Maryam; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2016-02-01

    A large number of studies have indicated the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor skill training. The effects of a-tDCS on different stages of motor sequence learning are not yet completely understood. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of single and multiple sessions of a-tDCS on two different tasks: the sequential finger tapping task/serial reaction time task (SEQTAP/SRTT) and the sequential visual isometric pinch task (SVIPT). We searched electronic databases for M1 a-tDCS studies. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The results indicate that application of multiple sessions of a-tDCS, compared to single session a-tDCS induced a significant improvement in skill in both SEQTAP/SRTT and SVIPT. Retention after a single day and multiple days of a-tDCS was statistically significant for the SEQTAP/SRTT task but not for SVIPT. Therefore, our findings suggest that application of M1 a-tDCS across the three or five consecutive days can be helpful to improve motor sequence learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ANODIC TREATMENT OF URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for effecting eloctrolytic dissolution of a metallic uranium article at a uniform rate. The uranium is made the anode in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing nitrate ions furnished by either ammonium nitrate, lithium nitrate, sodium nitrate, or potassium nitrate. A stainless steel cathode is employed and electrolysls carried out at a current density of about 0.1 to 1 ampere per square inch.

  5. Anode power deposition in applied-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Soulas, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Anode power deposition is the principal performance limiter of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Current thrusters lose between 50 and 70 percent of the input power to the anode. In this work, anode power deposition was studied for three cylindrical applied magnetic field thrusters for a range of argon propellant flow rates, discharge currents, and applied-field strengths. Between 60 and 95 percent of the anode power depositions resulted from electron current conduction into the anode, with cathode radiation depositing between 5 and 35 percent of the anode power, and convective heat transfer from the hot plasma accounting for less than 5 percent. While the fractional anode power loss decreased with increasing applied-field strength and anode size, the magnitude of the anode power increased. The rise in anode power resulted from a linear rise in the anode fall voltage with applied-field strength and anode radius. The anode fall voltage also rose with decreasing propellant flow rate. The trends indicate that the anode fall region is magnetized, and suggest techniques for reducing the anode power loss in MPD thrusters.

  6. Anode power deposition in applied-field MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Soulas, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Anode power deposition is the principle performance limiter of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters. Current thrusters lose between 50 and 70 percent of the input power to the anode. In this work, anode power deposition was studied for three cylindrical applied magnetic field thrusters for a range of argon propellant flow rates, discharge currents, and applied-field strengths. Between 60 and 95 percent of the anode power deposition resulted from electron current conduction into the anode, with cathode radiation depositing between 5 and 35 percent of the anode power, and convective heat transfer from the hot plasma accounting for less than 5 percent. While the fractional anode power loss decreased with increasing applied-field strength and anode size, the magnitude of the anode power increased. The rise in anode power resulted from a linear rise in the anode fall voltage with applied-field strength and anode radius. The anode fall voltage also rose with decreasing propellant flow rate. The trends indicate that the anode fall region is magnetized, and suggest techniques for reducing the anode power loss in MPD thrusters.

  7. No Effect of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Patients with Recurrent Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Skadi; List, Jonathan; Mekle, Ralf; Lindenberg, Robert; Bukowski, Martin; Ott, Stefanie; Schubert, Florian; Ittermann, Bernd; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-01-15

    In patients in the chronic phase after recurrent mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration and receptor activity have been reported, possibly mediating subtle but persistent cognitive deficits and increased rate of dementia in older age. We evaluated whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) over the primary motor cortex reduces GABA concentration and GABAB receptor activity in patients with recurrent mTBI. Seventeen patients (mean age 25, two women) in the chronic phase after recurrent mTBI and 22 healthy control subjects (mean age 26, two women) were included. All participants received comprehensive cognitive testing and detailed questionnaires on post-concussive symptoms at baseline. Subsequently, they participated in four experimental sessions, consisting of either magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)/atDCS/MRS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)/atDCS/TMS, MRS/sham/MRS, or TMS/sham/TMS to determine GABA concentration (from MRS) and GABAB receptor activity (from TMS) after atDCS and after sham stimulation. Patients with mTBI scored significantly lower on verbal fluency tasks compared with healthy control subjects. GABA concentration at baseline was associated with the number of mTBI, although no group differences in GABA concentration and GABAB receptor activity were found. Moreover, no effects of atDCS on GABA concentration and receptor activity were seen in patients with mTBI or healthy control subjects. GABA concentration may increase with the number of mTBI, but atDCS did not modulate GABA concentration and receptor activity, as has been reported previously. Specifics of experimental design and analysis, but also characteristics of the respective samples, may account for these differential findings, and should be addressed in future larger studies.

  8. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  9. Mechanisms of anode power deposition in a low pressure free burning arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Myers, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    Anode power deposition is a dominant power loss mechanism for arc jets and MPD thrusters. In this study, a free burning arc experiment was operated at pressures and current densities similar to those in arc jets and MPD thrusters in an attempt to identify the physics controlling this loss mechanism. Use of a free burning arc allowed for the isolation of independent variables controlling anode power deposition and provided a convenient and flexible way to cover a broad range of currents, anode surface pressures, and applied magnetic field strengths and orientations using an argon gas. Test results showed that anode power deposition decreased with increasing anode surface pressure up to 6.7 Pa (0.05 torr) and then became insensitive to pressure. Anode power increased with increasing arc current while the electron number density near the anode surface increased linearity. Anode power also increased with increasing applied magnetic field strength due to an increasing anode fall voltage. Applied magnetic field orientation had an effect only at high currents and low anode surface pressures, where anode power decreased when applied field lines intercepted the anode surface. The results demonstrated that anode power deposition was dominated by the current carrying electrons and that the anode fall voltage was the largest contributor. Furthermore, the results showed that anode power deposition can be reduced by operating at increased anode pressures, reduced arc currents, and applied magnetic field strengths and with magnetic field lines intercepting the anode.

  10. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  11. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  12. Bath impregnation of carbon anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Perruchoud, R.C.; Meier, M.W.; Fischer, W.K.

    1996-10-01

    A rapid bath impregnation in anode butts set in contact with the cathodic metal has been observed. The sodium content of the butts is raised by 0.2% per minute of contact. Slower rates of impregnation have been measured in cases of pot current interruptions. The impact of the impregnated butts on the anode reactivity is so dramatic that sorting of these butts is absolutely needed. Critical electrolysis conditions which may lead to impregnation are reviewed and the mechanism of impregnation is examined.

  13. FLUORINE CELL ANODE ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Cable, R.E.; Goode, W.B. Jr.; Henderson, W.K.; Montillon, G.H.

    1962-06-26

    An improved anode assembly is deslgned for use in electrolytlc cells ln the productlon of hydrogen and fluorlne from a moIten electrolyte. The anode assembly comprises a copper post, a copper hanger supported by the post, a plurality of carbon anode members, and bolt means for clamplng half of the anode members to one slde of the hanger and for clamplng the other half of the anode members to the other slde of the hanger. The heads of the clamplng bolts are recessed withln the anode members and carbon plugs are inserted ln the recesses above the bolt heads to protect the boIts agalnst corroslon. A copper washer is provided under the head of each clamplng boIt such that the anode members can be tightly clamped to the hanger with a resultant low anode jolnt resistance. (AEC)

  14. High current-density anodic electro-dissolution in flow-injection systems for the determination of aluminium, copper and zinc in non-ferroalloys by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giacomozzi, C A; de Queiróz, R R; Souza, I G; Neto, J A

    1999-01-01

    An automatic procedure with a high current-density anodic electrodissolution unit (HDAE) is proposed for the determination of aluminium, copper and zinc in non-ferroalloys by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, based on the direct solid analysis. It consists of solenoid valve-based commutation in a flow-injection system for on-line sample electro-dissolution and calibration with one multi-element standard, an electrolytic cell equipped with two electrodes (a silver needle acts as cathode, and sample as anode), and an intelligent unit. The latter is assembled in a PC-compatible microcomputer for instrument control, and for data acquisition and processing. General management of the process is achieved by use of software written in Pascal. Electrolyte compositions, flow rates, commutation times, applied current and electrolysis time were investigated. A 0.5 mol l(-1) HN03 solution was elected as electrolyte and 300 A/cm(2) as the continuous current pulse.The performance of the proposed system was evaluated by analysing aluminium in Al-alloy samples, and copper/zinc in brass and bronze samples, respectively. The system handles about 50 samples per hour. Results are precise (R.S.D. < 2%) and in agreement with those obtained by ICP-AES and spectrophotometry at a 95% confidence level.

  15. Pilot demonstration of cerium oxide coated anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, J.S.; Frederick, M.S.; Shingler, M.J.; Alcorn, T.R.

    1992-10-01

    Cu cermet anodes were tested for 213 to 614 hours with an in-situ deposited CEROX coating in a pilot cell operated by Reynolds Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. At high bath ratio ([approximately]1.5) and low current density (0.5 A/cm[sup 2]), a [ge]1 mm thick dense CEROX coating was deposited on the anodes. At lower bath ratios and higher current density, the CEROX coating was thinner and less dense, but no change in corrosion rate was noted. Regions of low current density on the anodes and sides adjacent to the carbon anode sometimes had thin or absent CEROX coatings. Problems with cracking and oxidation of the cermet substrates led to higher corrosion rates in a pilot cell than would be anticipated from lab scale results.

  16. Droplet shaped anode double layer and electron sheath formation in magnetically constricted anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S.; Ranjan, M.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-01-01

    Anode double layer and droplet shaped fireball are found in a magnetically constricted anode. The disc shaped anode is constricted using permanent magnets. The device has only one anode and vacuum chamber acts as cathode. Plasma is created through glow discharge by applying high voltage between the anode and the cathode. Large size droplet shaped glow is obtained near the anode and is shown to have a double layer structure. Discharge is operated in pressure range from 5 ×10-3 mbar to 5 ×10-2 mbar keeping discharge current between 1 and 10 mA . Typical plasma density obtained near anode is 1 ×1010 cm-3 . The profile of plasma potential clearly shows two distinct regions with potential difference of 15.6 V at the boundary of anode glow. The potential difference is close to the ionization potential of Argon gas, which is used during the experiment. This distinct region is visible as bright anode glow and dark "bulk plasma" fill the chamber. This indicates the presence of the double layer formation. The role of magnetic field is also discussed in the formation of the glow, its shape, and the plasma potential profile.

  17. The anode mechanism of a thermal argon arc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busz-Peuckert, G.; Finkelnburg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In order to clarify the anode mechanism in freely burning argon arcs, the anode drop was determined by probe measurements in the current intensity range of 10 to 200 A and arc lengths between 2 and 10 mm. Simultaneously, the power input at the anode was determined by measuring the temperature increase in the cooling water, using a thermoelement, and compared to the electrical output at the arc and in the anodic drop area. An anodic contraction was observed in the arc, at low current intensities. The results can be explained in terms of the effects of a cathodic plasma current, and in the contracted arc, in terms of an additional anodic plasma current.

  18. Ohmic resistance affects microbial community and electrochemical kinetics in a multi-anode microbial electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2016-11-01

    Multi-anode microbial electrochemical cells (MxCs) are considered as one of the most promising configurations for scale-up of MxCs, but understanding of anode kinetics in multiple anodes is limited in the MxCs. In this study we assessed microbial community and electrochemical kinetic parameters for biofilms on individual anodes in a multi-anode MxC to better comprehend anode fundamentals. Microbial community analysis targeting 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing showed that Geobacter genus was abundant (87%) only on the biofilm anode closest to a reference electrode (low ohmic energy loss) in which current density was the highest among three anodes. In comparison, Geobacter populations were less than 1% for biofilms on other two anodes distant from the reference electrode (high ohmic energy loss), generating small current density. Half-saturation anode potential (EKA) was the lowest at -0.251 to -0.242 V (vs. standard hydrogen electrode) for the closest biofilm anode to the reference electrode, while EKA was as high as -0.134 V for the farthest anode. Our study proves that electric potential of individual anodes changed by ohmic energy loss shifts biofilm communities on individual anodes and consequently influences electron transfer kinetics on each anode in the multi-anode MxC.

  19. Methods for solid electrolyte interphase formation and anode pre-lithiation of lithium ion capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Raman, Santhanam; Xi, Xiaomei; Ye, Xiang-Rong

    2017-07-18

    A method of pre-doping an anode of an energy storage device can include immersing the anode and a dopant source in an electrolyte, and coupling a substantially constant current between the anode and the dopant source. A method of pre-doping an anode of an energy storage device can include immersing the anode and a dopant source in an electrolyte, and coupling a substantially constant voltage across the anode and the dopant source. An energy storage device can include an anode having a lithium ion pre-doping level of about 60% to about 90%.

  20. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  1. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Donado, Rafael A.; Hrdina, Kenneth E.; Remick, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  2. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; de Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Guzmán, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patiño Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sánchez, F. A.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vargas Treviño, A. D.; Vergara Limón, S.; Villaseñor, L. M.; Auger Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm2. Each layer is 4m2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cm×2m, oriented at a 90∘ angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4×4cm2. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  3. Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation combined with virtual reality for improving gait in children with spastic diparetic cerebral palsy: a pilot, randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Collange Grecco, Luanda André; de Almeida Carvalho Duarte, Natália; Mendonça, Mariana E; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2015-12-01

    To compare the effects of anodal vs. sham transcranial direct current stimulation combined with virtual reality training for improving gait in children with cerebral palsy. A pilot, randomized, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. Rehabilitation clinics. A total of 20 children with diparesis owing to cerebral palsy. The experimental group received anodal stimulation and the control group received sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during virtual reality training. All patients underwent the same training programme involving a virtual reality (10 sessions). Evaluations were performed before and after the intervention as well as at the one-month follow-up and involved gait analysis, the Gross Motor Function Measure, the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory and the determination of motor evoked potentials. The experimental group had a better performance regarding gait velocity (experimental group: 0.63 ±0.17 to 0.85 ±0.11 m/s; control group: 0.73 ±0.15 to 0.61 ±0.15 m/s), cadence (experimental group: 97.4 ±14.1 to 116.8 ±8.7 steps/minute; control group: 92.6 ±10.4 to 99.7 ±9.7 steps/minute), gross motor function (dimension D experimental group: 59.7 ±12.8 to 74.9 ±13.8; control group: 58.9 ±10.4 to 69.4 ±9.3; dimension E experimental group: 59.0 ±10.9 to 79.1 ±8.5; control group: 60.3 ±10.1 to 67.4 ±11.4) and independent mobility (experimental group: 34.3 ±5.9 to 43.8 ±75.3; control group: 34.4 ±8.3 to 37.7 ±7.7). Moreover, transcranial direct current stimulation led to a significant increase in motor evoked potential (experimental group: 1.4 ±0.7 to 2.6 ±0.4; control group: 1.3 ±0.6 to 1.6 ±0.4). These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation combined with virtual reality training could be a useful tool for improving gait in children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Effect of antimony on the semiconducting properties of the anodic plumbous oxide film formed in sulfuric acid solution I. Studies with alternating-current (a.c.) impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhuo-Li; Pu, Cong; Zhou, Wei-Fang

    The semiconducting properties of the anodic plumbous oxide films formed on lead and leadantimony alloys in 4.5 M H 2SO 4 (20 °C) at 0.9 V (versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4) for 2 h have been studied using the a.c. method. From the Mott-Schottky plots, the films are demonstrated to be n-type semiconductors. The flat-band potentials of the films on Pb, Pb—1at.%Sb, Pb—3at.%Sb and Pb—9at.%Sb are -0.95, -1.0, -0.69 and -0.70 V (versus Hg/Hg 2SO 4), respectively; while the corresponding donor densities are 0.82×10 16, 1.2×10 17, 5.5×10 17 and 6.3×10 17 cm -3. The shift of the flat-band potential to more positive values with increase in the antimony content is probably due to the occlusion of a Sb 2O 3 phase in the film. The effect of antimony on the donor density and the lattice-defect density of the n-type semiconductor oxide both conform to the Hauffe Rules.

  5. Anodized Ti3SiC2 As an Anode Material for Li-ion Microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Alexander T; Mashtalir, Olha; Naguib, Michael; Barsoum, Michel W; Gogotsi, Yury; Djenizian, Thierry

    2016-07-06

    We report on the synthesis of an anode material for Li-ion batteries by anodization of a common MAX phase, Ti3SiC2, in an aqueous electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid (HF). The anodization led to the formation of a porous film containing anatase, a small quantity of free carbon, and silica. By varying the anodization parameters, various oxide morphologies were produced. The highest areal capacity was achieved by anodization at 60 V in an aqueous electrolyte containing 0.1 v/v HF for 3 h at room temperature. After 140 cycles performed at multiple applied current densities, an areal capacity of 380 μAh·cm(-2) (200 μA·cm(-2)) has been obtained, making this new material, free of additives and binders, a promising candidate as a negative electrode for Li-ion microbatteries.

  6. Anodized dental implant surface.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Muktadar Anand; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Anodized implants with moderately rough surface were introduced around 2000. Whether these implants enhanced biologic effect to improve the environment for better osseointegration was unclear. The purpose of this article was to review the literature available on anodized surface in terms of their clinical success rate and bone response in patients till now. A broad electronic search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases was performed. A focus was made on peer-reviewed dental journals. Only articles related to anodized implants were included. Both animal and human studies were included. The initial search of articles resulted in 581 articles on anodized implants. The initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 112 full-text papers; 40 animal studies, 16 studies on cell adhesion and bacterial adhesion onto anodized surfaced implants, and 47 human studies were included. Nine studies, which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria, were excluded. The long-term studies on anodized surface implants do favor the surface, but in most of the studies, anodized surface is compared with that of machined surface, but not with other surfaces commercially available. Anodized surface in terms of clinical success rate in cases of compromised bone and immediately extracted sockets has shown favorable success.

  7. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  8. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  9. Electrometallurgy of copper refinery anode slimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    High-selenium copper refinery anode slimes form two separate and dynamically evolving series of compounds with increasing electrolysis time. In one, silver is progressively added to non-stoichiometric copper selenides, both those originally present in the anode and those formed subsequently in the slime layer, and in the other, silver-poor copper selenides undergo a dis-continuous crystallographic sequence of anodic-oxidative transformations. The silver-to-selenium molar ratio in the as-cast anode and the current density of electrorefining can be used to construct predominance diagrams for both series and, thus, to predict the final bulk “mineralogy” of the slimes. Although totally incorrect in detail, these bulk data are sufficiently accurate to provide explanations for several processing problems which have been experienced by Kidd Creek Division, Falconbridge Ltd., in its commercial tankhouse. They form the basis for a computer model which predicts final cathode quality from chemical analyses of smelter feed.

  10. Instability Analysis of Formation of Multiple Arc Anode Attachments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Heberlein, Joachim

    2007-10-01

    To understand the origin of the multiple arc-anode attachments and the origin of the restrike behavior in the anode region of high intensity arcs, linear stability analyses of a non-uniform singly-ionized argon plasma and of the arc-anode interface are performed. The short characteristic times of such anode phenomena allow significant simplification and linearization of the governing equations, from which dispersion relations of the plasma are obtained. According to the calculations, we propose that the electron overheating instability and the anode evaporation-ionization instability are responsible for the formation of these anode phenomena. The electron overheating instability, which generates an electron temperature run-away situation, is excited by small-amplitude fluctuations in the plasma with specific combination of current flow, electric field, electron temperature and electron density. The vaporation-ionization instability, which leads to current run-away in a small area, is encouraged by large electric fields accelerating electrons towards the anode. The regions of these instabilities are identified with our experimental measurements. The results show that the multiple arc-anode attachments form in the fringes of the arc, and that the restrike behavior starts from flow instabilities, which bring high electron temperature cloud to the anode surface. Observations to the anode surface confirm the analysis results.

  11. Operational results of pilot cell test with cermet ``inert`` anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Alcorn, T.R.; Tabereaux, A.T.; Richards, N.E.; Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Strachan, D.M.; Gregg, J.S.; Frederick, M.S.

    1993-02-01

    The operational performance of a ``six-pack`` of cermet anodes and corrosion rates was evaluated in a six kA pilot reduction cell at Reynolds` Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. Two separate test periodswere conducted with the cermet anodes; the first period was in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the second with ELTECH Research Corporation. Both tests used identical NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu anodes manufactured by Ceramic Magnetics, Inc.. The ELTECH testing involved the in situ coating of the anodes with cerium oxide. Primary evaluations for both test periods were conducted at target conditions of alumina saturation and 0.5 amp/cm{sup 2} anode current density. Individual anodes remained in operation for 25 days during the two and one-half month testing period. Operational difficulties developed throughout the test due to breakage of the anode conductor stems, cracking and breaking of the cermet anodes, unequal anode current distribution, and alumina muck build-up in the cell. These operational problems are discussed as well as an estimate of anode corrosion rates based on metal impurity levels in the aluminum metal pad.

  12. Operational results of pilot cell test with cermet inert'' anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Alcorn, T.R.; Tabereaux, A.T.; Richards, N.E. . Mfg. Technology Lab.); Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Strachan, D.M. ); Gregg, J.S.; Frederick, M.S. )

    1993-02-01

    The operational performance of a six-pack'' of cermet anodes and corrosion rates was evaluated in a six kA pilot reduction cell at Reynolds' Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. Two separate test periodswere conducted with the cermet anodes; the first period was in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the second with ELTECH Research Corporation. Both tests used identical NiO-NiFe[sub 2]O[sub 4]-Cu anodes manufactured by Ceramic Magnetics, Inc.. The ELTECH testing involved the in situ coating of the anodes with cerium oxide. Primary evaluations for both test periods were conducted at target conditions of alumina saturation and 0.5 amp/cm[sup 2] anode current density. Individual anodes remained in operation for 25 days during the two and one-half month testing period. Operational difficulties developed throughout the test due to breakage of the anode conductor stems, cracking and breaking of the cermet anodes, unequal anode current distribution, and alumina muck build-up in the cell. These operational problems are discussed as well as an estimate of anode corrosion rates based on metal impurity levels in the aluminum metal pad.

  13. Iron resonant photoemission spectroscopy on anodized hematite points to electron hole doping during anodization.

    PubMed

    Braun, Artur; Chen, Qianli; Flak, Dorota; Fortunato, Giuseppino; Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina; Grätzel, Michael; Graule, Thomas; Guo, Jinghua; Huang, Tzu-Wen; Liu, Zhi; Popelo, Anastasiya V; Sivula, Kevin; Wadati, Hiroki; Wyss, Pradeep P; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Junfa

    2012-08-27

    Anodization of α-Fe(2)O(3) (hematite) electrodes in alkaline electrolyte under constant potential conditions the electrode surface in a way that an additional current wave occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. The energy position of this current wave is closely below the potential of the anodization treatment. Continued cycling or exchanging of the electrolyte causes depletion of this new feature. The O 1s and Fe 2p core-level X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of such conditioned hematite exhibit a chemical shift towards higher binding energies, in line with the general perception that anodization generates oxide species with dielectric properties. The valence band XPS and particularly the iron resonant valence band photoemission spectra, however, are shifted towards the opposite direction, that is, towards the Fermi energy, suggesting that hole doping on hematite has taken place during anodization. Quantitative analysis of the Fe 2p resonant valence band photoemission spectra shows that the spectra obtained at the Fe 2p absorption threshold are shifted by virtually the same energy as the anodization potential towards the Fermi energy. The tentative interpretation of this observation is that anodization forms a surface film on the hematite that is specific to the anodization potential.

  14. Chemical enhancement of metallized zinc anode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.

    1998-12-31

    Galvanic current delivered to reinforced concrete by a metallized zinc anode was studied relative to the humidity of its environment and periodic direct wetting. Current decreased quickly at low humidity to values unlikely to meet accepted cathodic protection criteria, but could be easily restored by direct wetting of the anode. Thirteen chemicals were screened for their ability to enhance galvanic current. Such chemicals, when applied to the exterior surface of the anode, are easily transported by capillary action to the anode-concrete interface where they serve to maintain the interface conductive and the zinc electrochemically active. The most effective chemicals were potassium and lithium bromide, acetate, chloride and nitrate, which increased galvanic current by a factor of 2--15, depending on relative humidity and chloride contamination of the concrete. This new technique is expected to greatly expand the number of concrete structures which can be protected by simple galvanic cathodic protection, The use of lithium-based chemicals together with metallized zinc anode is also proposed for mitigation of existing problems due to ASR. In this case, lithium which prevents or inhibits expansion due to ASR can be readily injected into the concrete. A new process, electrochemical maintenance of concrete (EMC), is also proposed to benefit reinforced concrete structures suffering from chloride-induced corrosion.

  15. Selecting anode-respiring bacteria based on anode potential: phylogenetic, electrochemical, and microscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Parameswaran, Prathap; Marcus, Andrew Kato; Wanger, Greg; Gorby, Yuri A; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2009-12-15

    Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) are able to transfer electrons contained in organic substrates to a solid electrode. The selection of ARB should depend on the anode potential, which determines the amount of energy available for bacterial growth and maintenance. In our study, we investigated how anode potential affected the microbial diversity of the biofilm community. We used a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) containing four graphite electrodes, each at a different anode potential (E(anode) = -0.15, -0.09, +0.02, and +0.37 V vs SHE). We used wastewater-activated sludge as inoculum, acetate as substrate, and continuous-flow operation. The two electrodes at the lowest potentials showed a faster biofilm growth and produced the highest current densities, reaching up to 10.3 A/m(2) at the saturation of an amperometric curve; the electrode at the highest potential produced a maximum of 0.6 A/m(2). At low anode potentials, clone libraries showed a strong selection (92-99% of total clones) of an ARB that is 97% similar to G. sulfurreducens. At the highest anode potential, the ARB community was diverse. Cyclic voltammograms performed on each electrode suggest that the ARB grown at the lowest potentials carried out extracellular electron transport exclusively by conducting electrons through the extracellular biofilm matrix. This is supported by scanning electron micrographs showing putative bacterial nanowires and copious EPS at the lowest potentials. Non-ARB and ARB using electron shuttles in the diverse community for the highest anode potential may have insulated the ARB using a solid conductive matrix from the anode. Continuous-flow operation and the selective pressure due to low anode potentials selected for G. sulfurreducens, which are known to consume acetate efficiently and use a solid conductive matrix for electron transport.

  16. Metal assisted anodic etching of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chang Quan; Zheng, Wen; Choi, W. K.; Thompson, Carl V.

    2015-06-01

    Metal assisted anodic etching (MAAE) of Si in HF, without H2O2, is demonstrated. Si wafers were coated with Au films, and the Au films were patterned with an array of holes. A Pt mesh was used as the cathode while the anodic contact was made through either the patterned Au film or the back side of the Si wafer. Experiments were carried out on P-type, N-type, P+-type and N+-type Si wafers and a wide range of nanostructure morphologies were observed, including solid Si nanowires, porous Si nanowires, a porous Si layer without Si nanowires, and porous Si nanowires on a thick porous Si layer. Formation of wires was the result of selective etching at the Au-Si interface. It was found that when the anodic contact was made through P-type or P+-type Si, regular anodic etching due to electronic hole injection leads to formation of porous silicon simultaneously with metal assisted anodic etching. When the anodic contact was made through N-type or N+-type Si, generation of electronic holes through processes such as impact ionization and tunnelling-assisted surface generation were required for etching. In addition, it was found that metal assisted anodic etching of Si with the anodic contact made through the patterned Au film essentially reproduces the phenomenology of metal assisted chemical etching (MACE), in which holes are generated through metal assisted reduction of H2O2 rather than current flow. These results clarify the linked roles of electrical and chemical processes that occur during electrochemical etching of Si.Metal assisted anodic etching (MAAE) of Si in HF, without H2O2, is demonstrated. Si wafers were coated with Au films, and the Au films were patterned with an array of holes. A Pt mesh was used as the cathode while the anodic contact was made through either the patterned Au film or the back side of the Si wafer. Experiments were carried out on P-type, N-type, P+-type and N+-type Si wafers and a wide range of nanostructure morphologies were observed

  17. Electrical energy per order and current efficiency for electrochemical oxidation of p-chlorobenzoic acid with boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Lanzarini-Lopes, Mariana; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Hristovski, Kiril; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-08-30

    Electrochemical oxidation (EO) is an advanced oxidation process for water treatment to mineralize organic contaminants. While proven to degrade a range of emerging pollutants in water, less attention has been given to quantify the effect of operational variables such applied current density and pollutant concentration on efficiency and energy requirements. Particular figures of merit were mineralization current efficiency (MCE) and electrical energy per order (EEO). Linear increases of applied current exponentially decreased the MCE due to the enhancement of undesired parasitic reactions that consumed generated hydroxyl radical. EEO values ranged from 39.3 to 331.8 kW h m(-3) order(-1). Increasing the applied current also enhanced the EEO due to the transition from kinetics limited by current to kinetics limited by mass transfer. Further increases in current did not influence the removal rate, but it raised the EEO requirement. The EEO requirement diminished when decreasing initial pollutant loading with the increase of the apparent kinetic rate because of the relative availability of oxidant per pollutant molecule in solution at a defined current. Oxidation by-products released were identified, and a plausible degradative pathway has been suggested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  19. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  20. Metal assisted anodic etching of silicon.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chang Quan; Zheng, Wen; Choi, W K; Thompson, Carl V

    2015-07-07

    Metal assisted anodic etching (MAAE) of Si in HF, without H2O2, is demonstrated. Si wafers were coated with Au films, and the Au films were patterned with an array of holes. A Pt mesh was used as the cathode while the anodic contact was made through either the patterned Au film or the back side of the Si wafer. Experiments were carried out on P-type, N-type, P(+)-type and N(+)-type Si wafers and a wide range of nanostructure morphologies were observed, including solid Si nanowires, porous Si nanowires, a porous Si layer without Si nanowires, and porous Si nanowires on a thick porous Si layer. Formation of wires was the result of selective etching at the Au-Si interface. It was found that when the anodic contact was made through P-type or P(+)-type Si, regular anodic etching due to electronic hole injection leads to formation of porous silicon simultaneously with metal assisted anodic etching. When the anodic contact was made through N-type or N(+)-type Si, generation of electronic holes through processes such as impact ionization and tunnelling-assisted surface generation were required for etching. In addition, it was found that metal assisted anodic etching of Si with the anodic contact made through the patterned Au film essentially reproduces the phenomenology of metal assisted chemical etching (MACE), in which holes are generated through metal assisted reduction of H2O2 rather than current flow. These results clarify the linked roles of electrical and chemical processes that occur during electrochemical etching of Si.

  1. Finding Platinum-Coating Gaps On Titanium Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodemeijer, Ronnald; Flowers, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple procedure makes gaps visible to eye. New gap-detection method consists of plating thin layer of non-silver-colored metal like copper or gold on anode. Contrast in color between plated metal and bare anode material makes gaps stand out. If anode passes inspection, copper or gold plate removable by reversal of test-plating current. Remains to be determined whether test plating and removal damages anode. New method simpler and more economical than previous attempts to identify gaps in platinum.

  2. Finding Platinum-Coating Gaps On Titanium Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodemeijer, Ronnald; Flowers, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    Simple procedure makes gaps visible to eye. New gap-detection method consists of plating thin layer of non-silver-colored metal like copper or gold on anode. Contrast in color between plated metal and bare anode material makes gaps stand out. If anode passes inspection, copper or gold plate removable by reversal of test-plating current. Remains to be determined whether test plating and removal damages anode. New method simpler and more economical than previous attempts to identify gaps in platinum.

  3. Anodes - Technology review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, L.; Wills, R. G. A.

    2014-06-01

    Many electrochemical energy storage technologies utilize anodes that are specific to the chemistry of the device. Anodes must be designed for devices including primary and secondary batteries, fuel cells and capacitors. These applications include a diverse range of operational conditions, including aqueous, solid or organic media. This paper will provide a brief overview of anode technologies for medium (e.g. electric and hybrid electric vehicles) and large (e.g. integration of renewable energy generation to electrical networks) battery applications. Established and developing storage technologies will be discussed to provide an insight into how anodes (materials, manufacturing processes and modes of operation) differ between specific applications and devices. Lead-acid batteries are used as a case study to provide a practical example and guide discussion onto the question of future challenges and opportunities.

  4. Glucose electro-oxidizing biofuel cell anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binyamin, Gary Neil

    The glucose electro-oxidizing anode for a proposed biofuel cell operating at a current density of 1 mA cm-2 in a 1 mW, 1 cm 3 cell with an oxygen cathode is developed. The anode is based on electrically "wiring" the reaction centers of glucose oxidase to a carbon electrode through an electron conducting redox hydrogel. A flow system is simulated using rotating disk electrodes in variable volumes. The relationship between the mechanical strength and electron transport within the redox hydrogels was determined and a mechanically stable composite anode was designed. The anode was successfully tested under the shear stress of 0.06 N/m2, similar to that produced by a fluid flowing at a linear velocity of ˜10 cm-1 in a tubular cell of 2--5 mm diameter. A composite anode was made of hydrophilized graphite particles bound by the "wired" enzyme. When the enzyme was fully glucose-complexed, glucose was electrooxidized at a current density of 1.9 mA cm-2. H2O2 and gluconolactone, the two known damaging reaction products of the glucose oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of glucose by O2, did not rapidly damage the anodes in this system. The anodes were, however damaged by the transition metal ions and urate present in serum. The transition metal ions coordinatively crosslinked heterocyclic nitrogens of the "wires" reducing their segmental mobility and thereby the transport of electrons and also inhibited the glucose oxidase catalyzed-oxidation of glucose. Urate damaged the anodes because it was oxidatively electropolymerized and the polymer formed precipitated in the enzyme "wiring" film. The damage by transition metal ions and by urate can be alleviated by overcoating the anode films with thin membranes that do not limit mass transport. A slightly (0.05mA cm2) oxidizing shift in Tafel region of a biofuel cell cathode is observed by overcoating high surface area platinum black with superoxide dismutase and albumin. A "wired" pyruvate oxidase anode, sensitive over physiological

  5. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOEpatents

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  6. Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A.; Coffey, Greg W.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Nguyen, Carolyn D.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2008-08-13

    This report describes efforts to characterize the interactions nickel anodes with phosphorus in coal gas using three different button cell configurations to emphasize particular degradation modes. Important parameters addressed included contaminant concentration, temperature, reaction time, fuel utilization, and current density. In addition, coupon tests in flow-through and flow-by arrangements were conducted to complement cell tests. The studies have involved extensive electrochemical testing using both dc and ac methods. Post-test analyses to determine the composition and extent of nickel modification are particularly important to understanding reactions that have occurred. This report also provides a thermodynamic assessment of contaminant reactions with nickel in a coal gas environment with regard to alteration phase formation. Contaminants addressed were phosphorus, arsenic, sulfur, selenium, and antimony. Phosphorus was found to interact strongly with nickel and result in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Even in button cell tests where the fuel utilization was low, phosphorus was found to be nearly completely captured by the nickel anode. For anode-supported cells, an important degradation mode involved loss of electronic percolation, the result of nickel phosphide formation, grain growth, and inducement of micro-fractures within the anode support. Even with excessive anode support conversion, electrochemical degradation rates were often very low. This is attributed to a “shadowing effect,” whereby a dense structure such as current leads prevent phosphorus from reacting with the nickel directly underneath. This effect maintains an electrical pathway to the active interface, and allows the cell to operate with minimal degradation until the anode is essentially completely consumed. In a planar stack, ribs on the interconnect plate would be expected to provide this conductive pathway in the

  7. Boosting current generation in microbial fuel cells by an order of magnitude by coating an ionic liquid polymer on carbon anodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Deng, Wenfang; Zhang, Youming; Tan, Yueming; Ma, Ming; Xie, Qingji

    2017-05-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have attracted great attentions due to their great application potentials, but the relatively low power densities of MFCs still hinder their widespread practical applications. Herein, we report that the current generation in MFCs can be boosted by an order of magnitude, simply by coating a hydrophilic and positively charged ionic liquid polymer (ILP) on carbon cloth (CC) or carbon felt (CF). The ILP coating not only can increase the bacterial loading capacity due to the electrostatic interactions between ILP and bacterial cells, but also can improve the mediated extracellular electron transfer between the electrode and the cytochrome proteins on the outer membrane of Shewanella putrefaciens cells. As a result, the maximum power density of a MFC equipped with the CF-ILP bioanode is as high as 4400±170mWm(-2), which is amongst the highest values reported to date. This work demonstrates a new strategy for greatly boosting the current generation in MFCs.

  8. Enhancement of anodic current attributed to oxygen evolution on α-Fe2O3 electrode by microwave oscillating electric field

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Fuminao; Matsuhisa, Masayuki; Kawamura, Shinichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M.; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Various microwave effects on chemical reactions have been observed, reported and compared to those carried out under conventional heating. These effects are classified into thermal effects, which arise from the temperature rise caused by microwaves, and non-thermal effects, which are attributed to interactions between substances and the oscillating electromagnetic fields of microwaves. However, there have been no direct or intrinsic demonstrations of the non-thermal effects based on physical insights. Here we demonstrate the microwave enhancement of oxidation current of water to generate dioxygen with using an α-Fe2O3 electrode induced by pulsed microwave irradiation under constantly applied potential. The rectangular waves of current density under pulsed microwave irradiation were observed, in other words the oxidation current of water was increased instantaneously at the moment of the introduction of microwaves, and stayed stably at the plateau under continuous microwave irradiation. The microwave enhancement was observed only for the α-Fe2O3 electrode with the specific surface electronic structure evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This discovery provides a firm evidence of the microwave special non-thermal effect on the electron transfer reactions caused by interaction of oscillating microwaves and irradiated samples. PMID:27739529

  9. Enhancement of anodic current attributed to oxygen evolution on α-Fe2O3 electrode by microwave oscillating electric field.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Fuminao; Matsuhisa, Masayuki; Kawamura, Shinichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-10-14

    Various microwave effects on chemical reactions have been observed, reported and compared to those carried out under conventional heating. These effects are classified into thermal effects, which arise from the temperature rise caused by microwaves, and non-thermal effects, which are attributed to interactions between substances and the oscillating electromagnetic fields of microwaves. However, there have been no direct or intrinsic demonstrations of the non-thermal effects based on physical insights. Here we demonstrate the microwave enhancement of oxidation current of water to generate dioxygen with using an α-Fe2O3 electrode induced by pulsed microwave irradiation under constantly applied potential. The rectangular waves of current density under pulsed microwave irradiation were observed, in other words the oxidation current of water was increased instantaneously at the moment of the introduction of microwaves, and stayed stably at the plateau under continuous microwave irradiation. The microwave enhancement was observed only for the α-Fe2O3 electrode with the specific surface electronic structure evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This discovery provides a firm evidence of the microwave special non-thermal effect on the electron transfer reactions caused by interaction of oscillating microwaves and irradiated samples.

  10. Enhancement of anodic current attributed to oxygen evolution on α-Fe2O3 electrode by microwave oscillating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Fuminao; Matsuhisa, Masayuki; Kawamura, Shinichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Maitani, Masato M.; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    Various microwave effects on chemical reactions have been observed, reported and compared to those carried out under conventional heating. These effects are classified into thermal effects, which arise from the temperature rise caused by microwaves, and non-thermal effects, which are attributed to interactions between substances and the oscillating electromagnetic fields of microwaves. However, there have been no direct or intrinsic demonstrations of the non-thermal effects based on physical insights. Here we demonstrate the microwave enhancement of oxidation current of water to generate dioxygen with using an α-Fe2O3 electrode induced by pulsed microwave irradiation under constantly applied potential. The rectangular waves of current density under pulsed microwave irradiation were observed, in other words the oxidation current of water was increased instantaneously at the moment of the introduction of microwaves, and stayed stably at the plateau under continuous microwave irradiation. The microwave enhancement was observed only for the α-Fe2O3 electrode with the specific surface electronic structure evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This discovery provides a firm evidence of the microwave special non-thermal effect on the electron transfer reactions caused by interaction of oscillating microwaves and irradiated samples.

  11. Composite ceramic materials as anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Brian Douglas

    In this thesis, a composite material of La0.8Sr0.2Cr 1-yXyO3 (LSC), Ce0.9Gd0.1O 1.95 (GDC) and Ni was proposed to replace the standard solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite anode of Ni metal with Zr0.92Y0.08O 2 (YSZ). Ni-YSZ cermet anodes provide high performance for SOFCs operating on humidified hydrogen as a fuel. The anode performance degrades irreversibly, however, during reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling and due to carbon deposition on the anode when operating on hydrocarbon fuels without the addition of a reforming species (e.g., H2O, CO2). The LSC-GDC-Ni anode has the potential to avoid these drawbacks due to the very low Ni content, which is achieved by replacing the majority of the nickel with LSC, a ceramic electronic conductor. SOFCs were tested from 500-800°C using GDC electrolyte-supported cells with LSCF-GDC cathodes. Current-voltage and impedance measurements were used to characterize the anode performance in hydrogen, methane and propane fuels. The anode atmosphere was cycled between hydrogen and air during operation to test the redox stability of the anode. Power densities of ≈150 mW/cm 2 were achieved in H2 at 750°C, and switching to methane or propane resulted in a ˜25% decrease in power density. The power density in H2 was comparable to an identically prepared Ni-GDC anode on GDC. No carbon deposition was observed for an LSC-GDC-Ni anode after > 3h operation in propane, while the Ni-GDC anode rapidly failed. Seven redox cycles at 750°C resulted in only minimal performance loss for an SOFC with an LSC-GDC-Ni anode. Several studies were conducted to determine favorable compositions and processing parameters to obtain more active LSC-GDC-Ni anodes. The addition of 5 wt.% NiO to the anode was sufficient to catalyze the anode reaction for fine microstructures formed at 1100°C. The results agree well with a proposed reaction mechanism where adsorption/dissociation of H2 on the anode surface is co-limiting with surface diffusion of hydrogen

  12. Anode power in a quasi-steady MPD thruster. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saber, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Local anode heat flux in a quasi-steady MPD thruster is measured by thermocouples attached to the inside surface of a shell anode. Over a range of arc currents J from 5.5 to 44 kiloamperes and argon propellant mass flows m from 1 to 48 g/sec, with the ratio J2/m held constant, the fraction of arc power deposited in the anode is found to decrease with increasing arc power. Specifically, this anode power fraction decreases from 50% at 200 kW arc power, to 10% at 20 MW. In an effort to account for this functional behavior, the current density, plasma potential, and electron temperature in the plasma adjacent to the anode are measured with probes, and the results are used in a theoretical anode heat flux model. The model asserts that energy exchange between electrons and heavy particles in the plasma near the anode occur over distances greater than the anode sheath thickness.

  13. Performance of thermal-sprayed zinc anodes treated with humectants in cathodic protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bennett, John E.; Milius, John K.; Cryer, Curtis B.; Soltesz, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed Zn anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems in Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to minimize corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed Zn performs well as an ICCP anode but the voltage requirement can increase with increasing electrochemical age. It also performs well as a galvanic (GCP) anode but current output can decrease with increasing electrochemical age. Past research has shown that increasing moisture at the Zn anode-concrete interface improves the operation of the thermal-sprayed Zn anode. Humectants, hygroscopic materials that are applied to the surface of the Zn-anode, can increase the moisture at the zinc-concrete interface, thereby improving the performance and extending the anode service life. Results are given for humectant-treated (LiBr and LiNO3) thermal-sprayed Zn anodes used in the laboratory electrochemical aging studies and in field studies on the Yaquina Bay Bridge, Oregon, USA.

  14. Anodic electrosynthesis of some peroxy compounds on glassy carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Khomutov, N.E.; Zakhodyakina, N.A.; Svirida, L.V.; Nesvat, N.V.

    1987-11-10

    The authors present the results of a study of the anodic electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide and its derivatives on glassy carbon in solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate with sodium borate. We studied the kinetics of anodic processes on glassy carbon with the aid of polarization measurements and a method for determining the concentrations of active oxygen in the anolyte and the current efficiency. The current efficiencies with respect to active oxygen obtained on glassy carbon in the mixed solution of sodium borate and sodium carbonate are close to the current efficiencies which are observed on platinum anodes in the industrial electrosynthesis of perborates.

  15. Wet chemical synthesis of Cu/TiO2 nanocomposites with integrated nano-current-collectors as high-rate anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fei-Fei; Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2011-02-14

    Using a soft-template assisted method, well-organized Cu/TiO(2) nanoarchitectured electrode materials with copper nanowires as their own current collectors are synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in the presence of Cu-based nanowires, and investigated by SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical tests towards lithium storage. Two types of Cu/TiO(2) nanocomposites with different TiO(2) grain sizes are obtained by using different thermal treatments. The two types of Cu/TiO(2) nanocomposites show much enhanced rate performances compared with bare TiO(2). A high-rate capability (reversible capacity at 7500 mA g(-1) still accounts for 58% of its initial capacity at 50 mA g(-1)) is observed for the Cu/TiO(2) nanocomposite with smaller TiO(2) grain size. The improvements can be attributed to the integrated Cu nanowires as mechanical supports and efficient current collectors. A cell made from the Cu/TiO(2) nanoarchitectured electrodes exhibits promise as an energy storage device with both high energy and high power densities.

  16. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  17. A Database Approach for Predicting and Monitoring Baked Anode Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauzon-Gauthier, Julien; Duchesne, Carl; Tessier, Jayson

    2012-11-01

    The baked anode quality control strategy currently used by most carbon plants based on testing anode core samples in the laboratory is inadequate for facing increased raw material variability. The low core sampling rate limited by lab capacity and the common practice of reporting averaged properties based on some anode population mask a significant amount of individual anode variability. In addition, lab results are typically available a few weeks after production and the anodes are often already set in the reduction cells preventing early remedial actions when necessary. A database approach is proposed in this work to develop a soft-sensor for predicting individual baked anode properties at the end of baking cycle. A large historical database including raw material properties, process operating parameters and anode core data was collected from a modern Alcoa plant. A multivariate latent variable PLS regression method was used for analyzing the large database and building the soft-sensor model. It is shown that the general low frequency trends in most anode physical and mechanical properties driven by raw material changes are very well captured by the model. Improvements in the data infrastructure (instrumentation, sampling frequency and location) will be necessary for predicting higher frequency variations in individual baked anode properties. This paper also demonstrates how multivariate latent variable models can be interpreted against process knowledge and used for real-time process monitoring of carbon plants, and detection of faults and abnormal operation.

  18. Interfacial chemistry of zinc anodes for reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R.; McGill, G.E.; Cryer, C.B.; Stoneman, A.; Carter, R.R.

    1997-12-01

    Thermally-sprayed zinc anodes are used in both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems for reinforced concrete structures. The Albany Research Center, in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation, has been studying the effect of electrochemical aging on the bond strength of zinc anodes for bridge cathodic protection systems. Changes in anode bond strength and other anode properties can be explained by the chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface. The chemistry of the zinc-concrete interface in laboratory electrochemical aging studies is compared with that of several bridges with thermal-sprayed zinc anodes and which have been in service for 5 to 10 years using both galvanic and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The bridges are the Cape Creek Bridge on the Oregon coast and the East Camino Undercrossing near Placerville, CA. Also reported are interfacial chemistry results for galvanized steel rebar from the 48 year old Longbird Bridge in Bermuda.

  19. An Investigation of the Role of Near-Anode Plasma Conditions on Anode Spot Self-Organization in Atmospheric Pressure DC Glows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovach, Yao; Foster, John

    2016-09-01

    In previous work, plasma self-organization patterns were experimentally observed on both liquid surface and metal anode surface in atmospheric pressure glows. However, the origin of the self-organized pattern formation is still poorly understood and is currently under study. In this work, it was observed that the discharge current is the dominant parameter controlling the onset of the self-organization of the plasma attachment on a liquid anode. On the other hand, it is observed that interelectrode spacing is the key parameter that controls plasma self-organization on metal anodes. Presented here are experiments aimed at understanding how these parameters control conditions at the anode surface which ultimately result in self-organization. Here we determine the effects of space charge at the anode surface and also estimate the anode fall voltage in response to discharge parameter variations. Additionally, electron microscopy is used to assess anode morphological changes resulting from the self-organization plasma attachments.

  20. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Applestone, Danielle; Yoon, Sukeun

    2017-03-21

    The current disclosure relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'O.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'O.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySb. It also relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySn-M'C.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'C.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySn. It further relates to an anode material with the general formula Mo.sub.3Sb.sub.7--C, where --C forms a matrix containing Mo.sub.3Sb.sub.7. The disclosure also relates to an anode material with the general formula M.sub.ySb-M'C.sub.x--C, where M and M' are metals and M'C.sub.x--C forms a matrix containing M.sub.ySb. Other embodiments of this disclosure relate to anodes or rechargeable batteries containing these materials as well as methods of making these materials using ball-milling techniques and furnace heating.

  1. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  2. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18–35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition–M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant’s body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS’ growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control. PMID:28099522

  3. Self-ordered anodic aluminum oxide formed by H2SO4 hard anodization.

    PubMed

    Schwirn, Kathrin; Lee, Woo; Hillebrand, Reinald; Steinhart, Martin; Nielsch, Kornelius; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-02-01

    The self-ordering of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) in the course of the hard anodization (HA) of aluminum in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solutions at anodization voltages ranging from 27 to 80 V was investigated. Direct H2SO4-HA yielded AAOs with hexagonal pore arrays having interpore distances D(int) ranging from 72 to 145 nm. However, the AAOs were mechanically unstable and cracks formed along the cell boundaries. Therefore, we modified the anodization procedure previously employed for oxalic acid HA (H2C2O4-HA) to suppress the development of cracks and to fabricate mechanically robust AAO films with D(int) values ranging from 78 to 114 nm. Image analyses based on scanning electron micrographs revealed that at a given anodization voltage the self-ordering of nanopores as well as D(int) depend on the current density (i.e., the electric field strength at the bottoms of the pores). Moreover, periodic oscillations of the pore diameter formed at anodization voltages in the range from 27 to 32 V, which are reminiscent of structures originating from the spontaneous growth of periodic fluctuations, such as topologies resulting from Rayleigh instabilities.

  4. Self-ordering behavior of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) in malonic acid anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Nielsch, K.; Gösele, U.

    2007-11-01

    The self-ordering behavior of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been investigated for anodization of aluminum in malonic acid (H4C3O4) solution. In the present study it is found that a porous oxide layer formed on the surface of aluminum can effectively suppress catastrophic local events (such as breakdown of the oxide film and plastic deformation of the aluminum substrate), and enables stable fast anodic oxidation under a high electric field of 110-140 V and ~100 mA cm-2. Studies on the self-ordering behavior of AAO indicated that the cell homogeneity of AAO increases dramatically as the anodization voltage gets higher than 120 V. Highly ordered AAO with a hexagonal arrangement of the nanopores could be obtained in a voltage range 125-140 V. The current density (i.e., the electric field strength (E) at the bottom of a pore) is an important parameter governing the self-ordering of the nanopores as well as the interpore distance (Dint) for a given anodization potential (U) during malonic acid anodization.

  5. Influence of anode surface chemistry on microbial fuel cell operation.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Babanova, Sofia; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Cornejo, Jose A; Ista, Linnea; Bretschger, Orianna; Marsili, Enrico; Atanassov, Plamen; Schuler, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified gold anodes are used in single chamber microbial fuel cells for organic removal and electricity generation. Hydrophilic (N(CH3)3(+), OH, COOH) and hydrophobic (CH3) SAMs are examined for their effect on bacterial attachment, current and power output. The different substratum chemistry affects the community composition of the electrochemically active biofilm formed and thus the current and power output. Of the four SAM-modified anodes tested, N(CH3)3(+) results in the shortest start up time (15 days), highest current achieved (225 μA cm(-2)) and highest MFC power density (40 μW cm(-2)), followed by COOH (150 μA cm(-2) and 37 μW cm(-2)) and OH (83 μA cm(-2) and 27 μW cm(-2)) SAMs. Hydrophobic SAM decreases electrochemically active bacteria attachment and anode performance in comparison to hydrophilic SAMs (CH3 modified anodes 7 μA cm(-2) anodic current and 1.2 μW cm(-2) MFC's power density). A consortium of Clostridia and δ-Proteobacteria is found on all the anode surfaces, suggesting a synergistic cooperation under anodic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of corrosion and oxygen evolution behaviors between cast and rolled Pb-Ag-Nd anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao-cong; Yu, Xiao-ying; Liu, Zheng-wei; Jiang, Liang-xing; Li, Jie; Liu, Ye-xiang

    2015-10-01

    The corrosion and oxygen evolution behaviors of cast and rolled Pb-Ag-Nd anodes were investigated by metalloscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and various electrochemical measurements. The rolled anode exhibits fewer interdendritic boundaries and a dispersed distribution of Pb-Ag eutectic mixtures and Nd-rich phases in its cross-section. This feature inhibits rapid interdendritic corrosion into the metallic substrate along the interdendritic boundary network. In addition, the anodic layer formed on the rolled anode is more stable toward the electrolyte than that formed on the cast anode, reducing the corrosion of the metallic substrate during current interruption. Hence, the rolled anode has a higher corrosion resistance than the cast anode. However, the rolled anode exhibits a slightly higher anodic potential than the cast anode after 72 h of galvanostatic polarization, consistent with the larger charge transfer resistance. This larger charge transfer resistance may result from the oxygen-evolution reactive sites being blocked by the adsorption of more intermediates and oxygen species at the anodic layer/electrolyte interfaces of the rolled anode than at the interfaces of cast anode.

  7. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  8. Fabrication of novel porous anodic alumina membranes by two-step hard anodization.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ling, Z Y; Chen, S S; Wang, J C

    2008-06-04

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA) membranes with highly ordered hexagonal cells and a novel pore structure have been fabricated by two-step hard anodization in a H(2)SO(4)-Al(2)(SO(4))(3)-H(2)O system at 40 and 50 V, giving average cell diameters of 77 and 96 nm, respectively. There are several tiny pores embedded in each big shallow pore on the top of the membranes, and there is only one pore in one cell at their bottom. The cells on both sides of the membranes present almost the same periodic arrangement. In order to explore the formation of the novel pore structure, PAA membranes fabricated at different current densities (30-200 mA cm(-2)) are obtained by maintaining a constant voltage at 40 V. The experimental results show that the interpore distance is not only dependent on the anodization voltage, but is also influenced by the current density, which means that the pore structure of PAA membranes fabricated by hard anodization can be accurately designed and controlled by adjusting the anodization voltage and current density simultaneously.

  9. Experimental Studies of Anode Sheath Phenomena in a Hall Thruster Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2004-12-17

    Both electron-repelling and electron-attracting anode sheaths in a Hall thruster were characterized by measuring the plasma potential with biased and emissive probes [L. Dorf, Y. Raitses, V. Semenov, and N.J. Fisch, Appl. Phys. Let. 84 (2004) 1070]. In the present work, two-dimensional structures of the plasma potential, electron temperature, and plasma density in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster with clean and dielectrically coated anodes are identified. Possible mechanisms of anode sheath formation in a Hall thruster are analyzed. The path for current closure to the anode appears to be the determining factor in the anode sheath formation process. The main conclusion of this work is that the anode sheath formation in Hall thrusters differs essentially from that in the other gas discharge devices, like a glow discharge or a hollow anode, because the Hall thruster utilizes long electron residence times to ionize rather than high neutral pressures.

  10. Inert Anode Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-07-01

    This ASME report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issues associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint.

  11. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  12. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  13. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  14. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOEpatents

    Bird, Charles R.; Rockett, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  15. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Zhili; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs. PMID:28809361

  16. Carbon paint anode for reinforced concrete bridges in coastal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cryer, C.B.; Laylor, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Solvent-based acrylic carbon paint anodes were installed on the north approach spans of the Yaquina Bay Bridge (Newport OR) in 1985. The anodes continue to perform satisfactorily after more than 15 years service. The anodes were inexpensive to apply and field repairs are easily made. Depolarization potentials are consistently above 100 mV with long-term current densities around 2 mA/m 2. Bond strength remains adequate, averaging 0.50 MPa (73 psi). Some deterioration of the anode-concrete interface has occurred in the form of cracks and about 4% of the bond strength measurements indicated low or no bond. Carbon anode consumption appears low. The dominant long-term anode reaction appears to be chlorine evolution, which results in limited further acidification of the anode-concrete interface. Chloride profiles were depressed compared to some other coastal bridges suggesting chloride extraction by the CP system. Further evidence of outward chloride migration was a flat chloride profile between the anode and the outer rebar.

  17. Protocol study for a randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial involving virtual reality and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for the improvement of upper limb motor function in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; de Moura, Renata Calhes Franco; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Duarte, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho; Miziara, Isabela; de Melo, Gileno Edu Lameira; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Santos Oliveira, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence. Methods and analysis A randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The calculation of the sample size will be defined based on the results of a pilot study involving the same methods. The participants will be randomly allocated to two groups. Evaluations will be conducted before and after the intervention as well as 1 month after the end of the intervention process. At each evaluation, three-dimensional analysis of upper limb movement muscle activity will be measured using electromyography, cerebral activity will be measured using an electroencephalogram system and intellectual capacity will be assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Virtual reality training will be performed three times a week (one 20 min session per day) for a total of 10 sessions. During the protocol, transcranial stimulation will be administered concomitantly to upper limb motor training. The results will be analysed statistically, with a p value≤0.05 considered indicative of statistical significance. Ethical aspects and publicity The present study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Universidade Nove de Julho (Sao Paulo,Brazil) under process number 1.540.113 and is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (N° RBR3PHPXB). The participating institutions have presented a declaration of participation. The volunteers will be permitted to drop out of the study at any time with no negative repercussions. The results will

  18. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  19. Hybrid pulse anodization for the fabrication of porous anodic alumina films from commercial purity (99%) aluminum at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chung, C K; Zhou, R X; Liu, T Y; Chang, W T

    2009-02-04

    Most porous anodic alumina (PAA) or anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films are fabricated using the potentiostatic method from high-purity (99.999%) aluminum films at a low temperature of approximately 0-10 degrees C to avoid dissolution effects at room temperature (RT). In this study, we have demonstrated the fabrication of PAA film from commercial purity (99%) aluminum at RT using a hybrid pulse technique which combines pulse reverse and pulse voltages for the two-step anodization. The reaction mechanism is investigated by the real-time monitoring of current. A possible mechanism of hybrid pulse anodization is proposed for the formation of pronounced nanoporous film at RT. The structure and morphology of the anodic films were greatly influenced by the duration of anodization and the type of voltage. The best result was obtained by first applying pulse reverse voltage and then pulse voltage. The first pulse reverse anodization step was used to form new small cells and pre-texture concave aluminum as a self-assembled mask while the second pulse anodization step was for the resulting PAA film. The diameter of the nanopores in the arrays could reach 30-60 nm.

  20. Anode arc motion in high power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. J.; O'Hair, E. A.; Hatfield, L. L.; Kristiansen, M.; Mankins, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term operational lifetime of most medium to high power arcjets is currently limited by the rapid deterioration of the arcjet electrodes. To a large extent, the rate of this deterioration is related to the motion of the arc discharge on the electrode surfaces. This paper details a series of experiments aimed at studying the temporal behavior of dc arcs on a water-cooled radially-segmented 30 kW class arcjet anode. The experimental anode used for these tests was made of copper, and was divided into four equivalent radial segments which were electrically isolated with aluminum oxide gaskets. The current carried by each segment was measured independently using four calibrated resistive shunts, and was analyzed by digital computer. The tests were limited to nitrogen propellant over a current range of 100-250 A dc. Results show that for the range of total currents considered here, the current distribution in the segmented arcjet anode is generally asymmetric, exhibiting random fluctuations over a wide range of frequencies.

  1. Analysis of mechanisms for anode plasma formation in ion diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.A.; Brandenburg, J.E.; Gerber, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Hoffman, J.M.; Miller, P.A.; Quintenz, J.P.; Slutz, S.A.; Bieg, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding how anode plasma is formed in intense pulsed-power ion diodes by insulator breakdown is important in assessing the effect on ion beam quality. Formation of a passive flashover anode plasma source may involve one or more of the following: polarization of the anode dielectric, direct leakage electron bombardment, UV-stimulated desorption of excited gas in the gap or on the anode surface, ionization of desorbed neutrals in a surface plasma by electron return currents associated with ion extraction, or bombardment by low energy electrons or negative ions. At Sandia National Laboratories experiments have been done on Nereus, PI 110A, Proto I, Proto II, HydraMITE, and PBFA I using anodes with dielectric-filled surfaces. The experiments represent a variety of anode turn-on delays (2 to 15 ns), magnetic field strengths (7 to 30 kG), voltages (300 keV to 2 MeV), and anode configurations. Data include ion beam current from Faraday cups, holographic observation of plasma motion, the spatial and temporal character of visible light emitted from the plasma, and optical metallographic examination of the dielectric.

  2. Nickel anode electrode

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Benedict, Mark

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  3. Does anodal transcranial direct current stimulation enhance excitability of the motor cortex and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bastani, A; Jaberzadeh, S

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on corticomotor excitability and motor function in healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The secondary aim is to find a-tDCS optimal parameters for its maximal effects. Electronic databases were searched for studies into the effect of a-tDCS when compared to no stimulation. Studies which met the inclusion criteria were assessed and methodological quality was examined using PEDro and Downs and Black (D&B) assessment tools. Data from seven studies revealed increase in corticomotor excitability with a small but significant effect size (0.31 [0.14, 0.48], p=0.0003) in healthy subjects and data from two studies in subjects with stroke indicated significant results with moderate effect size (0.59 [0.24, 0.93], p=0.001) in favor of a-tDCS. Likewise, studies examining motor function demonstrated a small and non-significant effect (0.39 [-0.17, 0.94], p=0.17) in subjects with stroke and a large but non-significant effect (0.92 [-1.02, 2.87], p=0.35) in healthy subjects in favor of improvement in motor function. The results also indicate that efficacy of a-tDCS is dependent on current density and duration of application. A-tDCS increases corticomotor excitability in both healthy individuals and subjects with stroke. The results also show a trend in favor of motor function improvement following a-tDCS. A-tDCS is a non-invasive, cheap and easy-to-apply modality which could be used as a stand-alone technique or as an adds-on technique to enhance corticomotor excitability and the efficacy of motor training approaches. However, the small sample size of the included studies reduces the strength of the presented evidences and any conclusion in this regard should be considered cautiously.

  4. Electrochemical degradation of bisphenol A on different anodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-hong; Li, Xiao-yan; Chen, Guohua

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on the kinetics, pathways and mechanisms of electrochemical (EC) degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) on four types of anodes, Ti/boron-doped diamond (BDD), Ti/Sb-SnO(2), Ti/RuO(2) and Pt. There were considerable differences among the anodes in their effectiveness and performance of BPA electrolysis. BPA was readily destructed at the Ti/Sb-SnO(2) and Ti/BDD anodes, the Pt anode had a moderate ability to remove BPA, and the Ti/RuO(2) anode was incapable of effectively oxidising BPA. The intermediate products of EC degradation of BPA were detected and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a general BPA degradation pathway was proposed based on the analytical results. It was suggested that OH radicals produced by water electrolysis attacked BPA to form hydroxylated BPA derivatives that were then transformed into one-ring aromatic compounds. These compounds underwent ring breakage, which led to the formation of aliphatic acids that were eventually mineralised by electrolysis to CO(2). Compared to the Pt and Ti/RuO(2) anodes, the Ti/Sb-SnO(2) and Ti/BDD anodes were found to have higher oxygen evolution potentials and higher anodic potentials for BPA electrolysis under the same current condition. However, the stability and durability of the Ti/Sb-SnO(2) anode still needs to be greatly improved for actual application. In comparison, with its high durability and good reactivity for organic oxidation, the Ti/BDD anode appears to be the more promising one for the effective EC treatment of BPA and similar endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) pollutants.

  5. Performance variation according to anode-embedded orientation in a sediment microbial fuel cell employing a chessboard-like hundred-piece anode.

    PubMed

    An, Junyeong; Nam, Jonghyun; Kim, Bongkyu; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Kim, Byung Hong; Chang, In Seop

    2015-08-01

    The effect of two different anode-embedding orientations, lengthwise- and widthwise-embedded anodes was explored, on the performance of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) using a chessboard anode. The maximum current densities and power densities in SMFCs having lengthwise-embedded anodes (SLA1-SLA10) varied from 38.2mA/m(2) to 121mA/m(2) and from 5.5mW/m(2) to 20mW/m(2). In comparison, the maximum current densities and maximum power densities in SMFCs having anodes widthwise-embedded between 0cm to 8cm (SWA2-SWA5) increased from 82mA/m(2) to 140mA/m(2) and from 14.7mW/m(2) to 31.1mW/m(2) as the anode depth became deeper. Although there was a difference in the performance among SWA5-SWA10, it was considered negligible. Hence, it is concluded that it is important to embed anodes widthwise at the specific anode depths, in order to improve of SMFC performance. Chessboard anode used in this work could be a good option for the determination of optimal anode depths. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-02-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50-200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  7. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  8. Micro-finish hard anodized coatings on aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1992-03-01

    The production of thin hard anodized coatings on Single Point Diamond Turned (SPDT) 6061-T6 aluminum has been studied. The investigation centered on producing a surface finish of less than 10 microinch after anodizing. By starting with a 2 microinch (AA) surface finish and controlling time, temperature, current density and solution chemistry, coatings with surface finishes of 8 microinch and a thickness of .0003 inch, are obtained. Surface roughness from several anodizing solutions is compared. The operational life of a PTFE sliding seal against a coated cylinder bore is used as verification of finish quality.

  9. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-02-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50-200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials.

  10. Corrosion of cermet anodes during low temperature electrolysis of alumina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kozarek, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.

    1997-09-26

    Successful development of inert anodes to replace carbon anodes in Hall cells has the potential benefits of lower energy consumption,lower operating costs, and reduced CO{sub 2} and CO emissions. Using inert anodes at reduced current density and reduced operating temperature (800 C) has potential for decreasing the corrosion rate of inert anodes. It may also permit the use of new materials for containment and insulation. This report describes the fabrication characteristics and the corrosion performance of 5324-17% Cu Cermet anodes in 100 hour tests. Although some good results were achieved, the corrosion rate at low temperature (800 C) is varied and not significantly lower than typical results at high temperature ({approximately} 960 C). This report also describes several attempts at 200 hour tests, with one anode achieving 177 hours of continuous operation and another achieving a total of 235 hours but requiring three separate tests of the same anode. The longest run did show a lower wear rate in the last test; but a high resistance layer developed on the anode surface and forced an unacceptably low current density. It is recommended that intermediate temperatures be explored as a more optimal environment for inert anodes. Other electrolyte chemistries and anode compositions (especially high conductivity anodes) should be considered to alleviate problems associated with lower temperature operation.

  11. An inert metal anode for magnesium electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. F.; Hryn, J. N.; Pellin, M. J.; Calaway, W. F.; Watson, K.

    1999-12-01

    Results from the development of a novel type of anode for electrowinning Mg are reported. A tailored alloy system based on the binary Cu-Al can be made to form a thin alumina layer on its surface that is relatively impervious to attack by the molten chloride melt at high temperature. This barrier is thin enough (5--50 nm) to conduct electrical current without significant IR loss. As the layer slowly dissolves, the chemical potential developed at the surface drives the diffusion of aluminum from the bulk alloy to reform (heal) the protective alumina layer. In this way, an anode that generates Cl{sub 2} (melt electrolysis) and O{sub 2} (wet feed hydrolysis) and no chlorocarbons can be realized. Further, the authors expect the rate of loss of the anode to be dramatically less than the coke-derived carbon anodes typically in use for this technology, leading to substantial cost savings and ancillary pollution control by eliminating coke plant emissions, as well as eliminating chlorinated hydrocarbon emissions from Mg electrowinning cells.

  12. Anode potential influences the structure and function of anodic electrode and electrolyte-associated microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Paul G.; Virdis, Bernardino; Vanwonterghem, Inka; Hassan, Alif; Hugenholtz, Phil; Tyson, Gene W.; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-01-01

    Three bioelectrochemical systems were operated with set anode potentials of +300 mV, +550 mV and +800 mV vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) to test the hypothesis that anode potential influences microbial diversity and is positively associated with microbial biomass and activity. Bacterial and archaeal diversity was characterized using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and biofilm thickness was measured as a proxy for biomass. Current production and substrate utilization patterns were used as measures of microbial activity and the mid-point potentials of putative terminal oxidases were assessed using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were performed after 4, 16, 23, 30 and 38 days. Microbial biomass and activity differed significantly between anode potentials and were lower at the highest potential. Anodic electrode and electrolyte associated community composition was also significantly influenced by anode potential. While biofilms at +800 mV were thinner, transferred less charge and oxidized less substrate than those at lower potentials, they were also associated with putative terminal oxidases with higher mid-point potentials and generated more biomass per unit charge. This indicates that microbes at +800 mV were unable to capitalize on the potential for additional energy gain due to a lack of adaptive traits to high potential solid electron acceptors and/or sensitivity to oxidative stress. PMID:27991591

  13. Anode potential influences the structure and function of anodic electrode and electrolyte-associated microbiomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Paul G.; Virdis, Bernardino; Vanwonterghem, Inka; Hassan, Alif; Hugenholtz, Phil; Tyson, Gene W.; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-12-01

    Three bioelectrochemical systems were operated with set anode potentials of +300 mV, +550 mV and +800 mV vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) to test the hypothesis that anode potential influences microbial diversity and is positively associated with microbial biomass and activity. Bacterial and archaeal diversity was characterized using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and biofilm thickness was measured as a proxy for biomass. Current production and substrate utilization patterns were used as measures of microbial activity and the mid-point potentials of putative terminal oxidases were assessed using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were performed after 4, 16, 23, 30 and 38 days. Microbial biomass and activity differed significantly between anode potentials and were lower at the highest potential. Anodic electrode and electrolyte associated community composition was also significantly influenced by anode potential. While biofilms at +800 mV were thinner, transferred less charge and oxidized less substrate than those at lower potentials, they were also associated with putative terminal oxidases with higher mid-point potentials and generated more biomass per unit charge. This indicates that microbes at +800 mV were unable to capitalize on the potential for additional energy gain due to a lack of adaptive traits to high potential solid electron acceptors and/or sensitivity to oxidative stress.

  14. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X. L.; Gerasopoulos, K.; Guo, J. C.; Brown, A.; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J. N.

    2010-08-13

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge-discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  15. Virus-enabled silicon anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xilin; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Guo, Juchen; Brown, Adam; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, James N

    2010-09-28

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge-discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  16. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-11-06

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80/sup 0/ C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V.

  17. Protocol study for a randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial involving virtual reality and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for the improvement of upper limb motor function in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Moura, Renata Calhes Franco de; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Duarte, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho; Miziara, Isabela; Melo, Gileno Edu Lameira de; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Santos Oliveira, Claudia

    2017-08-11

    Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The calculation of the sample size will be defined based on the results of a pilot study involving the same methods. The participants will be randomly allocated to two groups. Evaluations will be conducted before and after the intervention as well as 1 month after the end of the intervention process. At each evaluation, three-dimensional analysis of upper limb movement muscle activity will be measured using electromyography, cerebral activity will be measured using an electroencephalogram system and intellectual capacity will be assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Virtual reality training will be performed three times a week (one 20 min session per day) for a total of 10 sessions. During the protocol, transcranial stimulation will be administered concomitantly to upper limb motor training. The results will be analysed statistically, with a p value≤0.05 considered indicative of statistical significance. The present study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Universidade Nove de Julho (Sao Paulo,Brazil) under process number 1.540.113 and is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (N° RBR3PHPXB). The participating institutions have presented a declaration of participation. The volunteers will be permitted to drop out of the study at any time with no negative repercussions. The results will be published and will contribute evidence regarding the use of

  18. A dynamic inert metal anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.

    1998-11-09

    A new concept for a stable anode for aluminum electrowinning is described. The anode consists of a cup-shaped metal alloy container filled with a molten salt that contains dissolved aluminum. The metal alloy can be any of a number of alloys, but it must contain aluminum as a secondary alloying metal. A possible alloy composition is copper with 5 to 15 weight percent aluminum. In the presence of oxygen, aluminum on the metal anode's exterior surface forms a continuous alumina film that is thick enough to protect the anode from chemical attack by cryolite during electrolysis and thin enough to maintain electrical conductivity. However, the alumina film is soluble in cryolite, so it must be regenerated in situ. Film regeneration is achieved by the transport of aluminum metal from the anode's molten salt interior through the metal wall to the anode's exterior surface, where the transported aluminum oxidizes to alumina in the presence of evolving oxygen to maintain the protective alumina film. Periodic addition of aluminum metal to the anode's interior keeps the aluminum activity in the molten salt at the desired level. This concept for an inert anode is viable as long as the amount of aluminum produced at the cathode greatly exceeds the amount of aluminum required to maintain the anode's protective film.

  19. Performance characterization of a segmented anode arcjet thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Manzella, David H.; Pencil, Eric J.

    1990-01-01

    A modular, 1 to 2 kW class arcjet thruster incorporating a segmented anode/nozzle was operated on a thrust stand to obtain performance characteristics of the device and further study its operating characteristics under a number of experimental conditions. The nozzle was composed of five axial conducting segments isolated from one another by boron nitride spacers. The electrical configuration allowed the current delivered to the arcjet to be collected at any combination of segments. Both the current collected by each segment, and the potential difference between the cathode and each segment were monitored throughout the test period. As in previous tests a similar device, current appeared to attach diffusely in the anode when all of the segments were allowed to conduct. Improvements to the device allowed long term (4 to 8 hour) operation at steady-state and operating characteristics were repeatable over extended periods. Performance characteristics indicated that the segmented anode reasonably simulates the behavior of solid anodes of similar geometry. Current distribution depended on flow rate as the arc attachment moved downstream in the nozzle with increases in the mass flow rate. The current level had little effect on current distribution on the anode segments. Thrust measurements indicated that the current distribution in the nozzle did not significantly affect performance of the device.

  20. Investigation of mechanism of anode plasma formation in ion diode with dielectric anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarev, A.

    2015-10-01

    The results of investigation of the anode plasma formation in a diode with a passive anode in magnetic insulation mode are presented. The experiments have been conducted using the BIPPAB-450 ion accelerator (350-400 kV, 6-8 kA, 80 ns) with a focusing conical diode with Br external magnetic field (a barrel diode). For analysis of plasma formation at the anode and the distribution of the ions beam energy density, infrared imaging diagnostics (spatial resolution of 1-2 mm) is used. For analysis of the ion beam composition, time-of-flight diagnostics (temporal resolution of 1 ns) were used. Our studies have shown that when the magnetic induction in the A-C gap is much larger than the critical value, the ion beam energy density is close to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit on the entire working surface of the diode. Formation of anode plasma takes place only by the flashover of the dielectric anode surface. In this mode, the ion beam consists primarily of singly ionized carbon ions, and the delay of the start of formation of the anode plasma is 10-15 ns. By reducing the magnetic induction in the A-C gap to a value close to the critical one, the ion beam energy density is 3-6 times higher than that calculated by the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit, but the energy density of the ion beam is non-uniform in cross-section. In this mode, the anode plasma formation occurs due to ionization of the anode material with accelerated electrons. In this mode, also, the delay in the start of the formation of the anode plasma is much smaller and the degree of ionization of carbon ions is higher. In all modes occurred effective suppression of the electronic component of the total current, and the diode impedance was 20-30 times higher than the values calculated for the mode without magnetic insulation of the electrons. The divergence of the ion beam was 4.5°-6°.

  1. Investigation of mechanism of anode plasma formation in ion diode with dielectric anode

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A.

    2015-10-15

    The results of investigation of the anode plasma formation in a diode with a passive anode in magnetic insulation mode are presented. The experiments have been conducted using the BIPPAB-450 ion accelerator (350–400 kV, 6–8 kA, 80 ns) with a focusing conical diode with B{sub r} external magnetic field (a barrel diode). For analysis of plasma formation at the anode and the distribution of the ions beam energy density, infrared imaging diagnostics (spatial resolution of 1–2 mm) is used. For analysis of the ion beam composition, time-of-flight diagnostics (temporal resolution of 1 ns) were used. Our studies have shown that when the magnetic induction in the A-C gap is much larger than the critical value, the ion beam energy density is close to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit on the entire working surface of the diode. Formation of anode plasma takes place only by the flashover of the dielectric anode surface. In this mode, the ion beam consists primarily of singly ionized carbon ions, and the delay of the start of formation of the anode plasma is 10–15 ns. By reducing the magnetic induction in the A-C gap to a value close to the critical one, the ion beam energy density is 3–6 times higher than that calculated by the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir limit, but the energy density of the ion beam is non-uniform in cross-section. In this mode, the anode plasma formation occurs due to ionization of the anode material with accelerated electrons. In this mode, also, the delay in the start of the formation of the anode plasma is much smaller and the degree of ionization of carbon ions is higher. In all modes occurred effective suppression of the electronic component of the total current, and the diode impedance was 20–30 times higher than the values calculated for the mode without magnetic insulation of the electrons. The divergence of the ion beam was 4.5°–6°.

  2. Carbon nanofibers modified graphite felt for high performance anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youliang; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Shuiliang; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Suqi; Hou, Haoqing

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF) composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm(-2) at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm(-2), was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  3. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  4. Nanostructural Engineering of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina for Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Pallarès, Josep; Macías, Gerard; Marsal, Lluis F.

    2014-01-01

    Modifying the diameter of the pores in nanoporous anodic alumina opens new possibilities in the application of this material. In this work, we review the different nanoengineering methods by classifying them into two kinds: in situ and ex situ. Ex situ methods imply the interruption of the anodization process and the addition of intermediate steps, while in situ methods aim at realizing the in-depth pore modulation by continuous changes in the anodization conditions. Ex situ methods permit a greater versatility in the pore geometry, while in situ methods are simpler and adequate for repeated cycles. As an example of ex situ methods, we analyze the effect of changing drastically one of the anodization parameters (anodization voltage, electrolyte composition or concentration). We also introduce in situ methods to obtain distributed Bragg reflectors or rugate filters in nanoporous anodic alumina with cyclic anodization voltage or current. This nanopore engineering permits us to propose new applications in the field of biosensing: using the unique reflectance or photoluminescence properties of the material to obtain photonic barcodes, applying a gold-coated double-layer nanoporous alumina to design a self-referencing protein sensor or giving a proof-of-concept of the refractive index sensing capabilities of nanoporous rugate filters. PMID:28788127

  5. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The Coulombic efficiency improves to ∼ 99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.

  6. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g-1) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm-2. The Coulombic efficiency improves to ˜99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.

  7. Microbial community composition is unaffected by anode potential.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuping; Yates, Matthew D; Hatzell, Marta C; Ananda Rao, Hari; Saikaly, Pascal E; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-21

    There is great controversy on how different set anode potentials affect the performance of a bioelectrochemical system (BES). It is often reported that more positive potentials improve acclimation and performance of exoelectrogenic biofilms, and alter microbial community structure, while in other studies relatively more negative potentials were needed to achieve higher current densities. To address this issue, the biomass, electroactivity, and community structure of anodic biofilms were examined over a wide range of set anode potentials (-0.25, -0.09, 0.21, 0.51, and 0.81 V vs a standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) in single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells. Maximum currents produced using a wastewater inoculum increased with anode potentials in the range of -0.25 to 0.21 V, but decreased at 0.51 and 0.81 V. The maximum currents were positively correlated with increasing biofilm biomass. Pyrosequencing indicated biofilm communities were all similar and dominated by bacteria most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens. Differences in anode performance with various set potentials suggest that the exoelectrogenic communities self-regulate their exocellular electron transfer pathways to adapt to different anode potentials.

  8. Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

    1992-04-01

    The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

  9. Anodic bonded graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Adrian; Kumar, Rakesh; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Beyssac, Olivier; Bouillard, Jean-Claude; Taverna, Dario; Sacks, William; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Lacaze, Emanuelle; Gohler, Roger; Escoffier, Walter; Poumirol, Jean-Marie; Shukla, Abhay

    2010-09-01

    We show how to prepare graphene samples on a glass substrate with the anodic bonding method. In this method, a graphite precursor in flake form is bonded to a glass substrate with the help of an electrostatic field and then cleaved off to leave few layer graphene on the substrate. Now that several methods are available for producing graphene, the relevance of our method is in its simplicity and practicality for producing graphene samples of about 100 µm lateral dimensions. This method is also extensible to other layered materials. We discuss some detailed aspects of the fabrication and results from Raman spectroscopy, local probe microscopy and transport measurements on these samples.

  10. Polytetrafluoroethylene-Impregnated Anodization For Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1990-01-01

    Technical memorandum describes experiments on ability of two commercial coatings and of standard hard anodization to protect aluminum against corrosion. Both commercial coatings, Polylube and Tufram, polytetrafluoroethylene-impregnated anodizations. Standard hard-anodized coating found to provide greatest protection.

  11. Mechanism of anode break stimulation in the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, R; Chiamvimonvat, N; Thakor, N V; Tomaselli, G F; Marban, E

    1998-01-01

    Anodal stimulation is routinely observed in cardiac tissue, but only recently has a mechanism been proposed. The bidomain cardiac tissue model proposes that virtual cathodes induced at sites distant from the electrode initiate the depolarization. In contrast, none of the existing cardiac action potential models (Luo-Rudy phase I and II, or Oxsoft) predict anodal stimulation at the single-cell level. To determine whether anodal stimulation has a cellular basis, we measured membrane potential and membrane current in mammalian ventricular myocytes by using whole-cell patch clamp. Anode break responses can be readily elicited in single ventricular cells. The basis of this anodal stimulation in single cells is recruitment of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current I(f). The threshold of activation for I(f) is -80 mV in rat cells and -120 mV in guinea pig or canine cells. Persistent I(f) "tail" current upon release of the hyperpolarization drives the transmembrane potential toward the threshold of sodium channels, initiating an action potential. Time-dependent block of the inward rectifier, I(K1), at hyperpolarized potentials decreases membrane conductance and thereby potentiates the ability of I(f) to depolarize the cell on the break of an anodal pulse. Inclusion of I(f), as well as the block and unblock kinetics of I(K1), in the existing Luo-Rudy action potential model faithfully reproduces anode break stimulation. Thus active cellular properties suffice to explain anode break stimulation in cardiac tissue. PMID:9545047

  12. Mesoporous Silicon-Based Anodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2015-01-01

    For high-capacity, high-performance lithium-ion batteries. A new high-capacity anode composite based on mesoporous silicon is being developed. With a structure that resembles a pseudo one-dimensional phase, the active anode material will accommodate significant volume changes expected upon alloying and dealloying with lithium (Li).

  13. Recent Development on Anodes for Na-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bommier, C; Ji, XL

    2015-01-23

    New discoveries in anode materials for sodium ion batteries (NIBs) are highly necessary to achieve the goals of widespread applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and grid-level energy storage. Carbon-based materials are critical for this task as they are inexpensive, abundant, and versatile. They contain a plethora of structures and morphologies, ranging from highly ordered graphite or nanotubes to highly disordered amorphous carbon, thus making them very attractive for electrochemical energy storage. This review attempts to cover past and recent progress in the development of carbon-based anode materials for NIBs. To give a larger context, the article will briefly cover other anode materials for NIBs as well. The aim of this paper is to provide a timely update for researchers currently involved in the respective fields or to serve as a starting point for individuals who would like to gain a greater knowledge of new NIB anode materials.

  14. Report on the source of the electrochemical impedance on cermet inert anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1991-02-01

    the Inert Electrode Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anode surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The electrochemical impedances of cermet inert anodes in alumina-saturated molten cryolite as a function of frequency, current density, and time indicated that a significant component of the impedance is due to the gas bubbles produced at the anode during electrolysis. The data also showed a connection between surface structure and impedance that appears to be related to the effects of surface structure on bubble flow. Given the results of this work, it is doubtful that a resistive film contributes significantly to the electrochemical impedances on inert anodes. Properties previously assigned to such a film are more likely due to the bubbles and those factors that affect the properties and dynamics of the bubbles at the anode surface. 12 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Perovskites for use as sulfur tolerant anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Thomas G.

    One of the major obstacles encountered when using solid oxide fuel cells with hydrocarbon fuels is sulfur poisoning. The current anode material used is Ni/YSZ and Ni is not sulfur tolerant; therefore, the performance of the cell will degrade over time due to the formation of NiS. Perovskites have demonstrated superior sulfur tolerance but lack the high conductivity and catalytic activity of Ni/YSZ cermets. One of the objectives of this effort is to explore the substitution of the A-site in an A2MgMoO 6 perovskite with Sr and Ba, to create Sr2MgMoO6 (SMMO) and Ba2MgMoO6 (BMMO), respectively, to improve the sulfur tolerance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Sr2MgMoO 6, a double perovskite, has been previously studied and is suggested as a material of interest because of its relatively high conductivity and catalytic potential. Barium has not been previously studied and was selected as the dopant because the ionic radii (1.61 A) resulted in a calculated tolerance factor of 1.036 for BMMO when compared to SMMO, which has an ionic radii of 1.44 A and a calculated tolerance factor of 0.978. The tolerance factor for BaSrMgMoO6, a bi-substituted material synthesized for comparison as an intermediate formulation, was calculated to be 1.00. Another objective is to synthesize and characterize a series of lanthanum (La) doped Sr2MgMoO6 (SMMO) or La doped Sr2MgNbO 6 (SMNO) anode materials, which can be used in combination with electrolytes containing lanthanum to mitigate the effects of lanthanum poisoning in SOFCs. Currently, a La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) transition layer is used with many perovskite-based anode materials to prevent La diffusion into the anode from the La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg 0.2O2.8 (LSGM) electrolyte, which can create a resistive La species that impedes electrochemical performance. To accomplish this, a new class of anode materials was synthesized with the goal of balancing La chemical potential between these neighboring materials. It was hypothesized that by

  16. Optimization of Aluminum Anodization Conditions for the Fabrication of Nanowires by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucsko, Viola

    2005-01-01

    Anodized alumina nanotemplates have a variety of potential applications in the development of nanotechnology. Alumina nanotemplates are formed by oxidizing aluminum film in an electrolyte solution.During anodization, aluminum oxidizes, and, under the proper conditions, nanometer-sized pores develop. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the optimal conditions for anodization. Three-micrometer thick aluminum films on silicon and silicon oxide substrates were anodized using constant voltages of 13-25 V. 0.1-0.3M oxalic acid was used as the electrolyte. The anodization time was found to increase and the overshooting current decreased as both the voltage and the electrolyte concentrations were decreased. The samples were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Anodizing with 25V in 0.3M oxalic acid appears to be the best process conditions. The alumina nanotemplates are being used to fabricate nanowires by electrodeposition. The current-voltage characteristics of copper nanowires have also been studied.

  17. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred

    2003-10-31

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH* radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included.

  18. Effects of anodization process of aluminum oxide template fabrication on selective growth of Si nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang Nguyen, Van; Tutashkonko, Sergii; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka

    2015-08-01

    We report on effects of anodization process of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template on selective growth of Si nanowires using gas source molecular beam epitaxy. By switching off the anodization currents at several points, the structure of Si surface was altered, which was critical factor for the Si nanowire array growth. With reasonable switched-off point of anodization current at R of 10%, the selective growth of Si nanowire growth was favorable and 1-µm-long Si nanowire arrays were successfully grown. It was interesting that their structures were epitaxial structures; whereas, long anodization of AAO was found to be unfavorable for growth of Si nanowires due to anodization of Si surface. It caused the density of Si nanowire arrays to be modest and their structures were polycrystal structure.

  19. Optimization of Aluminum Anodization Conditions for the Fabrication of Nanowires by Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucsko, Viola

    2005-01-01

    Anodized alumina nanotemplates have a variety of potential applications in the development of nanotechnology. Alumina nanotemplates are formed by oxidizing aluminum film in an electrolyte solution.During anodization, aluminum oxidizes, and, under the proper conditions, nanometer-sized pores develop. A series of experiments was conducted to determine the optimal conditions for anodization. Three-micrometer thick aluminum films on silicon and silicon oxide substrates were anodized using constant voltages of 13-25 V. 0.1-0.3M oxalic acid was used as the electrolyte. The anodization time was found to increase and the overshooting current decreased as both the voltage and the electrolyte concentrations were decreased. The samples were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Anodizing with 25V in 0.3M oxalic acid appears to be the best process conditions. The alumina nanotemplates are being used to fabricate nanowires by electrodeposition. The current-voltage characteristics of copper nanowires have also been studied.

  20. Anode sheath contributions in plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biblarz, Oscar; Riggs, John F.

    1993-06-01

    Contributions of the anode to MPD plasma thruster performance are considered. High energy losses at the electrode, surface erosion, and sheath/ionization effects must be controlled in designs of practical interest. Current constriction or spotting at the electrode, resulting in localized surface damage and considerable throat erosion, is shown to be related to the rise in T(e) above the gas temperature T(0). An elementary 1D description of a collisional sheath which highlights the role of T(e) is presented. For a large temperature nonequilibrium the 1D approach fails to give reasonable answers and a multidimensional description is necessary. Thus, current constriction at the electrode surface may be precipitated by the elevation of T(e). Thermionic arc breakdown is proposed as an explanation for the observed breakdown voltages below the ionization potentials. A review of transpiration cooling as a means of recouping anode power is included. Active anode cooling via transpiration cooling would result in (1) quenching T(e), (2) adding 'hot' propellant to exhaust, and (3) reducing the local electron Hall parameter. However, significant technical problems remain.

  1. Anion exchange polymer coated graphite granule electrodes for improving the performance of anodes in unbuffered microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Dengfeng; Mao, Xuhui; Yu, Eileen Hao; Scott, Keith; Zhang, Enren; Wang, Dihua

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, graphite granule composite electrodes are prepared for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by coating commercial graphite granules with the mixture of quaternary DABCO polysulfone or Nafion ion exchange polymer and carbon black. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) suggest that the addition of carbon black could significantly improve the electrical conductivity of graphite granule anodes. When phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is replaced by NaCl solution, the current densities of the pristine anode, 0.08 g Nafion coated anode and 0.16 g QDPSU coated anode decrease by 52.6%, 20.6% and 10.3% at -0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. The solution resistance of ion exchange polymer coated anodes is more stable in comparison with that of pristine anode. After 40 operational days, the performance drop of 0.16 g QDPSU coated anode when switching the solution from PBS to NaCl is still smaller than that of pristine anode. However, 0.08 g Nafion coated anode shows the similar performance in NaCl solution to the pristine anode after long term operation. This study reveals that QDPSU anion exchange polymer is more suitable for the anode modification. The QDPSU coated anode promises a great potential for three-dimensional anode based MFCs to treat domestic wastewater.

  2. Electronic properties of lithiated SnO-based anode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Dominik; Bunjaku, Teutë; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we use an ab-initio quantum transport approach to study the electron current flowing through lithiated SnO anodes for potential applications in Li-ion batteries. By investigating a set of lithiated structures with varying lithium concentrations, it is revealed that Lix SnO can be a good conductor, with values comparable to bulk β-Sn and Li. A deeper insight into the current distribution indicates that electrons preferably follow specific trajectories, which offer superior conducting properties than others. These channels have been identified and it is shown here how they can enhance or deteriorate the current flow in lithiated anode materials.

  3. Performance of Zinc Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Collins, W. Keith; Laylor, Martin H.; Cryer, Curtis B.

    2002-03-01

    Operation of thermal spray zinc (Zn) anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of reinforced concrete structures was investigated in laboratory and field studies conducted by the Albany Research Center (ARC) in collaboration with the Oregon Department of Transportation. The purposes of the research presented in this report were: evaluate the need for preheating concrete to improve the adhesion of the anode; estimate the service life of thermal spray Zn CP anodes; determine the optimum thickness for Zn CP anodes; characterize the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry; and correlate field and laboratory results. Laboratory studies involved accelerated electrochemical aging of thermal sprayed Zn anodes on concrete slabs, some of which were periodically wetted while others were unwetted. Concrete used in the slabs contained either 1.2 or 3 kg NaCl /m3 (2 or 5 lbs NaCl /yd3) as part of the concrete mix design. The Zn anodes were applied to the slabs using the twin wire arc-spray technique. Half of the slabs were preheated to 120-160 C (250-320 F) to improve the initial Zn anode bond strength and the other half were not. Accelerated aging was done at a current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3 mA/ft2), 15 times that used on Oregon DOT Coastal bridges, i.e, . 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) Cores from the Cape Creek Bridge (OR), the Richmond San Rafael Bridge (CA), and the East Camino Underpass (CA) were used to study the anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, to relate the chemistry to electrochemical age at the time of sampling, and to compare the chemistry of the field anodes to the chemistry of anodes from the laboratory studies. Cores from a CALTRANS study of a silane sealant used prior to the application of the Zn anodes and cores with galvanized rebar from the Longbird Bridge (Bermuda) were also studied. Aged laboratory and field anodes were characterized by measuring some or all of the following parameters: thickness, bond strength, anode-concrete interfacial chemistry, bulk chemistry

  4. Studies of anode sheath phenomena in a Hall-effect thruster discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorf, Leonid

    2005-10-01

    Crossed electric and magnetic fields devices (plasma thrusters, magnetrons, coaxial plasma guns, plasma opening switches, etc.) are routinely used for plasma production and in other applications. Despite these numerous applications, the fundamental anode sheath phenomena in many of these devices have received surprisingly little experimental scrutiny. We chose a Hall-effect thruster (HT) discharge for our study of the anode sheath. It has been typically assumed in most fluid models of an HT that its steady-state operation requires the presence of a negative anode fall (electron-repelling anode sheath). Such anode fall behavior, opposite to that in typical glow discharges or hollow-anode plasma sources, is the result of a relatively high degree of ionization in HTs, achieved by applying a radial magnetic field transverse to the direction of the discharge current. Our data from non-perturbing probe measurements showed for the first time that the anode fall in HTs can be either negative or positive (electron-attracting anode sheath), depending on conditions at the anode surface. The path for current closure to the anode turns out to be quite subtle in HTs. This path determines the mechanism of the anode fall formation. In varying the magnetic field topology in the channel from a more uniform to a cusp-like one, we uncover intriguing results. For cusp configurations, in which the radial magnetic field changes polarity somewhere along the channel, the anode fall is positive, whereas it is negative for a more uniform field. This polarity difference could be attributed to the decreased electron mobility across the magnetic field in the cusp-like configuration. Our theoretical modeling of the anode sheath correlates well with the experimental results in describing how the magnitude of the sheath varies with the discharge voltage and mass flow rate.

  5. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Smith, Graham; Mahler, George J.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  6. Effect of electrolysis conditions on photocatalytic activities of the anodized TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Kinji; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2007-12-15

    Photocatalytic activities of anodized TiO{sub 2} films for decomposition of gaseous acetaldehyde were investigated. The anodized TiO{sub 2} films were fabricated by galvanostatic anodization in a mixed electrolyte composed of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pre-nitridation treatment effectively enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the anodized TiO{sub 2} films. The electrolysis parameters such as anodization time, current density, electrolyte temperature, and electrolyte composition significantly affected the photocatalytic activity of the anodized TiO{sub 2} films. The improvement of photocatalytic activity of the anodized films is attributed to increase in surface areas of the anodized specimens. - Graphical abstract: The effect of concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the photocatalytic activity of the anodized TiO{sub 2} films was investigated. The pre-nitrided titanium plates were anodized in electrolyte of 1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 0.3 M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with varying H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration in the range from 0 to 0.5 M. The highest photocatalytic activity was obtained at H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration of 0.1 M.

  7. Direct operation of Ag-based anode solid oxide fuel cells on propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yapeng; Yu, Fangyong; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Jiang; Liu, Meilin

    2017-10-01

    A cermet of sliver and gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) is investigated as the anode material of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The SOFCs are operated with hydrogen and dry propane as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant. Their electrochemical and durability performances are tested and compared to those of SOFCs with conventional Ni-GDC anode. Experimental results show that performances of the SOFCs, respectively with Ag-GDC and Ni-GDC anode, are similar when operated on hydrogen, while quite different on propane. The open circuit voltage (OCV) of a SOFC with Ag-GDC anode is stable at ∼1 V while that with Ni-GDC anode continuously drops from the initial 1.2 V-0.85 V in 140 min. A SOFC with Ag-GDC anode has been stably operated on propane at a constant current density of 103 mA cm-2 for more than 160 h while that with Ni-GDC anode for only 50 h. SEM examination shows Ni-GDC anode is destroyed by carbon deposition during operation on propane, while Ag-GDC anode is well conserved and has a carbon layer, with some breakages, built on its surface. Mechanisms of the stable operation of SOFCs with Ag-GDC anode on dry propane is investigated and analyzed.

  8. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  9. The effects of anodization parameters on titania nanotube arrays and dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z B; Adams, S; Blackwood, D J; Wang, J

    2008-10-08

    Ordered, closely packed, and vertically oriented titania nanotube arrays with lengths exceeding 10 µm were fabricated by anodization of titanium foils. The effects of anodization voltage and time on the microstructural morphology and the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on the titania nanotube arrays were investigated. On increasing the anodization voltage or time, the increase in active surface area leads to enhanced photovoltaic currents and thereby an overall higher performance of the dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency enhancement with rising anodization voltage exceeds the increase in the outer surface area of the nanotubes, indicating that the active surface area is further enlarged by a more accessible inner surface of the nanotube arrays grown with a higher anodization voltage. A promising efficiency of 3.67% for dye sensitized solar cells based on anodized titania nanotube arrays was achieved under AM1.5, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination.

  10. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  11. SnO2-Based Gas (Methane) Anodes for Electrowinning of Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S.; Mokkelbost, T.; Paulsen, O.; Ratvik, A. P.; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2013-10-01

    SnO2-based and carbon-based gas anodes were studied in molten Na3AlF6-AlF3-Al2O3 at 1123 K (850 °C) for aluminum electrolysis. Methane was introduced to the porous anodes to take part in a three-phase (anode/electrolyte/methane) boundary reaction. Carbon was used as the cathode. It was observed that the anode potential was reduced by 0.6 V and that the current was increased up to three times in galvanostatic and potentiostatic tests after the introduction of methane on SnO2-based anodes. A measurable depolarization effect and lower consumption of carbon after the introduction of methane on carbon anodes were also demonstrated.

  12. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  13. Highly Ordered Porous Anodic Alumina with Large Diameter Pores Fabricated by an Improved Two-Step Anodization Approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Ni, Siyu; Zhou, Xingping

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare highly ordered porous anodic alumina (PAA) with large pore sizes (> 200 nm) by an improved two-step anodization approach which combines the first hard anodization in oxalic acid-water-ethanol system and second mild anodization in phosphoric acid-water-ethanol system. The surface morphology and elemental composition of PAA are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The effects of matching of two-step anodizing voltages on the regularity of pore arrangement is evaluated and discussed. Moreover, the pore formation mechanism is also discussed. The results show that the nanopore arrays on all the PAA samples are in a highly regular arrangement and the pore size is adjustable in the range of 200-300 nm. EDS analysis suggests that the main elements of the as-prepared PAA are oxygen, aluminum and a small amount of phosphorus. Furthermore, the voltage in the first anodization must match well with that in the second anodization, which has significant influence on the PAA regularity. The addition of ethanol to the electrolytes effectively accelerates the diffusion of the heat that evolves from the sample, and decreases the steady current to keep the steady growth of PAA film. The improved two-step anodization approach in this study breaks through the restriction of small pore size in oxalic acid and overcomes the drawbacks of irregular pore morphology in phosphoric acid, and is an efficient way to fabricate large diameter ordered PAA.

  14. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to < or = 10(exp 9) Omega-cm. The present treatment does this. The treatment is a direct electrodeposition process in which the outer anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic

  15. Formation of self-organized nanoporous anodic oxide from metallic gallium.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Bipin; Thapa, Prem S; Higgins, Daniel A; Ito, Takashi

    2012-09-25

    This paper reports the formation of self-organized nanoporous gallium oxide by anodization of solid gallium metal. Because of its low melting point (ca. 30 °C), metallic gallium can be shaped into flexible structures, permitting the fabrication of nanoporous anodic oxide monoliths within confined spaces like the inside of a microchannel. Here, solid gallium films prepared on planar substrates were employed to investigate the effects of anodization voltage (1, 5, 10, 15 V) and H(2)SO(4) concentration (1, 2, 4, 6 M) on anodic oxide morphology. Self-organized nanopores aligned perpendicular to the film surface were obtained upon anodization of gallium films in ice-cooled 4 and 6 M aqueous H(2)SO(4) at 10 and 15 V. Nanopore formation could be recognized by an increase in anodic current after a current decrease reflecting barrier oxide formation. The average pore diameter was in the range of 18-40 nm with a narrow diameter distribution (relative standard deviation ca. 10-20%), and was larger at lower H(2)SO(4) concentration and higher applied voltage. The maximum thickness of nanoporous anodic oxide was ca. 2 μm. In addition, anodic formation of self-organized nanopores was demonstrated for a solid gallium monolith incorporated at the end of a glass capillary. Nanoporous anodic oxide monoliths formed from a fusible metal will lead to future development of unique devices for chemical sensing and catalysis.

  16. Electrode distance regulates the anodic growth of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-06-01

    Electrochemical anodization of titanium has been used widely to produce self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays. Many experimental parameters, such as anodizing voltage and electrolyte composition, have been investigated extensively in the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotubes. The effect of electrode distance on the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays, however, remains elusive. This could be an important problem when in situ growth of TiO2 nanotubes is required in microdevices. Here, we show that decreasing the electrode distance at a constant anodizing voltage enhances the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotubes and the change of nanotube structures becomes more sensitive to the electrode distance at high voltages. We further demonstrate the correlation between electrode distance and current density during the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotubes and suggest that the change of current density regulated by electrode distance controls the growth of TiO2 nanotubes. The present study offers an effective approach to enhance the production of TiO2 nanotube arrays without changing the anodizing voltage and electrolyte composition and thus provides useful insights to the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotubes at reduced electrode distances.

  17. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part II: Influence of In addition on the electrochemical characteristics of Al-Zn alloy in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, In-Jun; Choi, Seok-Ryul; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2017-07-01

    Effects of Zn and In additions on the aluminum anode for Al-air battery in alkaline solution are examined by the self-corrosion rate, cell voltage, current-voltage characteristics, anodic polarization, discharge performance and AC impedance measurements. The passivation behavior of Zn-added anode during anodic polarization decreases the discharge performance of Al-air battery. The addition of In to Al-Zn anode reduces the formation of Zn passivation film by repeated adsorption and desorption behavior of In ion onto anode surface. The attenuated Zn passive layer by In ion attack leads to the improvement of discharge performance of Al-air battery.

  18. Ohmic resistance affects microbial community and electrochemical kinetics in a multi-anode microbial electrochemical cell

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-anode microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) are considered as one of the most promising configurations for scale-up of MXCs, but fundamental understanding of anode kinetics governing current density is limited in the MXCs. In this study we first assessed microbial communi...

  19. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-09-08

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.

  20. Ohmic resistance affects microbial community and electrochemical kinetics in a multi-anode microbial electrochemical cell

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-anode microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) are considered as one of the most promising configurations for scale-up of MXCs, but fundamental understanding of anode kinetics governing current density is limited in the MXCs. In this study we first assessed microbial communi...

  1. Performance characterization of a segmented anode arcjet thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Pencil, Eric J.; Manzella, David H.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a continuing experimental program aimed at providing insight into arc energy deposition in the nozzle, the nature of the arc attachment, and its effects on performance characteristics of the device. A modular, 1-2 kW class arcjet thruster incorporating a segmented anode/nozzle was run on a thrust stand to determine performance characteristics under a number of experimental conditions. The nozzle comprised five axial conducting segments isolated from each other by boron nitride spacers. The electrical configuration permitted the current delivered to the arcjet to be collected at any combination of segments. It is concluded that the changes in the electric field in the nozzle that occur as a result of the changes in the current distribution do not significantly affect the momentum transfer or loss mechanisms in the type of nozzle investigated. Performance characteristics show that the segmented anode reasonably simulates the behavior of solid anodes of similar geometry.

  2. Unstable Behavior of Anodic Arc Discharge for Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Sophia; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2016-09-01

    Fast imaging and electrical current measurements reveal unstable behavior of the carbon arc discharge for synthesis of nanomaterials. The arc column and the arc attachment region to the anode move in a somewhat sporadic way with a characteristic time in a 10-3 sec range. The arc exhibits a negative differential resistance before the arc motion occurs. A physical mechanism is proposed based on the thermal processes in the arc plasma region interacting with the ablating anode which leads to the shift of the arc to a new anode region. According to the transient heat transfer analysis, the time needed to heat a new anode region is also in a 10-3 sec range. For a 0.6 cm diameter anode used in our experiments, this time yields a frequency of about 200-300 Hz, comparable to the measured frequency of the arc motion. The voltage and current measurements show oscillations with a similar characteristic frequency. The thermal model is indirectly supported by the measured negative differential resistance of the arc discharge during arc oscillations. The observed unstable behavior of the arc may be responsible for the mixing of the flow of nanoparticles during the synthesis of nanoparticles leading to poor selectivity typical for the arc synthesis. The work was supported by US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Kinetic experiments for evaluating the Nernst-Monod model for anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) in a biofilm anode.

    PubMed

    Torres, César I; Marcus, Andrew Kato; Parameswaran, Prathap; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-09-01

    Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) are able to transfer electrons from reduced substrates to a solid electrode. Previously, we developed a biofilm model based on the Nernst-Monod equation to describe the anode potential losses of ARB that transfer electrons through a solid conductive matrix. In this work, we develop an experimental setup to demonstrate how well the Nernst-Monod equation is able to represent anode potential losses in an ARB biofilm. We performed low-scan cyclic voltammetry (LSCV) throughout the growth phase of an ARB biofilm on a graphite electrode growing on acetate in continuous mode. The (j)V response of 9 LSCVs corresponded well to the Nernst-Monod equation, and the half-saturation potential (E(KA)) was -0.425 +/- 0.002 V vs Ag/AgCl at 30 degrees C (-0.155 +/- 0.002 V vs SHE). Anode-potential losses from the potential of acetate reached approximately 0.225 V at current density saturation, and this loss was determined by our microbial community's E(KA) value. The LSCVs at high current densities showed no significant deviation from the Nernst-Monod ideal shape, indicating that the conductivity of the biofilm matrix (kappa(bio)) was high enough (> or = 0.5 mS/cm) that potential loss did not affect the performance of the biofilm anode. Our results confirm the applicability of the Nernst-Monod equation for a conductive biofilm anode and give insights of the processes that dominate anode potential losses in microbial fuel cells.

  4. Titanium sponge on titanium substrate for titanium electrolytic capacitor anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Jun-Wan

    2005-07-01

    Capacitors are energy storage devices capable of supplying electric energy. Volumetric and gravimetric energy storage efficiencies are some of the important criteria for evaluating electrolytic capacitors as energy storage devices. High energy density capacitors can be achieved by anodic growth of a dielectric film on surface enhanced valve-metal. Electrodes with high surface area accessible along with wide and short conduction paths (electrolyte) have advantages as power devices. Surface-enhanced metal substrates can be made by various methods. One method is by oxidation followed by reduction. Oxidation of a metal and reduction of oxide are generally associated with volume changes. During growth of an oxide scale on a metal substrate, the volume expansion of an attached oxide scale can only occur in the thickness direction. During subsequent reduction of the oxide volume shrinkage occurs. It can take place along all directions, in particular in the plane of the oxide scale. This shrinkage leads to pores in the metal layer that is formed by the reduction of the oxide scale. Therefore, a layer of titanium sponge can be obtained by the oxidation plus reduction method. The titanium sponge layer can be anodized in order to grow a thin dielectric film on the surface of the sponge metal. In this way it is made into a capacitor anode. Reduction of titanium oxide scale with magnesium or calcium produces titanium sponge with different morphologies. Magnesium-reduced sponge has a higher degree of porosity than calcium-reduced sponge. The different morphologies of the reduced oxide scale result from different reduction behaviors in the presence of magnesium or calcium. Possible mechanisms are suggested to explain how magnesium and calcium affect the reduction behavior of titanium oxide. Because titanium anodic films tend to have high leakage current, titanium is not used for commercial electrolytic capacitor anodes. Nitrogen and oxygen doping of titanium surface layer enables

  5. A kinetic perspective on extracellular electron transfer by anode-respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Torres, César I; Marcus, Andrew Kato; Lee, Hyung-Sool; Parameswaran, Prathap; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2010-01-01

    In microbial fuel cells and electrolysis cells (MXCs), anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) oxidize organic substrates to produce electrical current. In order to develop an electrical current, ARB must transfer electrons to a solid anode through extracellular electron transfer (EET). ARB use various EET mechanisms to transfer electrons to the anode, including direct contact through outer-membrane proteins, diffusion of soluble electron shuttles, and electron transport through solid components of the extracellular biofilm matrix. In this review, we perform a novel kinetic analysis of each EET mechanism by analyzing the results available in the literature. Our goal is to evaluate how well each EET mechanism can produce a high current density (> 10 A m(-2)) without a large anode potential loss (less than a few hundred millivolts), which are feasibility goals of MXCs. Direct contact of ARB to the anode cannot achieve high current densities due to the limited number of cells that can come in direct contact with the anode. Slow diffusive flux of electron shuttles at commonly observed concentrations limits current generation and results in high potential losses, as has been observed experimentally. Only electron transport through a solid conductive matrix can explain observations of high current densities and low anode potential losses. Thus, a study of the biological components that create a solid conductive matrix is of critical importance for understanding the function of ARB.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of anode passivation mechanisms in copper electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moats, Michael Scott

    Anode passivation can decrease productivity and quality while increasing costs in modern copper electrorefineries. This investigation utilized electrochemical techniques to characterize the passivation behavior of anode samples from ten different operating companies. It is believed that this collection of anodes is the most diverse set ever to be assembled to study the effect of anode composition on passivation. Chronopotentiometry was the main electrochemical technique, employing a current density of 3820 A m-2. From statistical analysis of the passivation characteristics, increasing selenium, tellurium, silver, lead and nickel were shown to accelerate passivation. Arsenic was the only anode impurity that inhibited passivation. Oxygen was shown to accelerate passivation when increased from 500 to 1500 ppm, but further increases did not adversely affect passivation. Nine electrolyte variables were also examined. Increasing the copper, sulfuric acid or sulfate concentration of the electrolyte accelerated passivation. Arsenic in the electrolyte had no effect on passivation. Chloride and optimal concentrations of thiourea and glue delayed passivation. Linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy provided complementary information. Analysis of the electrochemical results led to the development of a unified passivation mechanism. Anode passivation results from the formation of inhibiting films. Careful examination of the potential details, especially those found in the oscillations just prior to passivation, demonstrated the importance of slimes, copper sulfate and copper oxide. Slimes confine dissolution to their pores and inhibit diffusion. This can lead to copper sulfate precipitation, which blocks more of the surface area. Copper oxide forms because of the resulting increase in potential at the interface between the copper sulfate and anode. Ultimate passivation occurs when the anode potential is high enough to stabilize the oxide film in

  7. Electrochemical degradation of waters containing O-toluidine on PbO2 and BDD anodes.

    PubMed

    Hmani, Emna; Chaabane Elaoud, Sourour; Samet, Youssef; Abdelhédi, Ridha

    2009-10-30

    Electrochemical oxidation of O-toluidine (OT) was studied by galvanostatic electrolysis using lead dioxide (PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anodes. The influence of operating parameters, such as current density, initial concentration of OT and temperature was investigated. Measurements of chemical oxygen demand were used to follow the oxidation. The experimental data indicated that on PbO2 and BDD anodes, OT oxidation takes place by reaction with electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals and is favoured by low current density and high temperature. Furthermore, BDD anodes offer significant advantages over PbO2 in terms of current efficiency and oxidation rate.

  8. Development of an inert ceramic anode to reduce energy consumption in magnesium production. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a dimensionally stable ceramic anode for production of magnesium metal in electrolytic cells, replacing the graphite anodes currently used by The Dow Chemical Company magnesium business. The work is based on compositional and design technology for a ceramic anode developed in the former Central Research Inorganic Laboratory. The approach selected is to use a ceramic semiconductor tube as the material to interface with the bath and gaseous atmosphere in the cell. The testing goal was to demonstrate six anodes surviving a 30 day test lifetime with acceptable wear rates and electrical performance in a laboratory scale magnesium cell test. State of the art slip casting techniques were used and advanced in the pursuit of a virtually flaw free ceramic anode shell. Novel core materials were also invented to allow for the complete, crack free fabrication of the laboratory scale anode. Two successive anodes were tested and exceeded the 30 day cell lifetime goal with excellent wear characteristics. More aggressive testing of the ceramic anode revealed that the anode had a rather narrow operating region.

  9. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  10. The performance of microbial anodes in municipal wastewater: Pre-grown multispecies biofilm vs. natural inocula.

    PubMed

    Madjarov, Joana; Prokhorova, Anna; Messinger, Thorsten; Gescher, Johannes; Kerzenmacher, Sven

    2016-12-01

    In this study, different inoculation strategies for continuously operated microbial anodes are analyzed and compared. After 20daysof operation with municipal wastewater anodes pre-incubated with a biofilm of the exoelectrogenic species Geobacter and Shewanella showed current densities of (65±8) μA/cm(2). This is comparable to the current densities of non-inoculated anodes and anodes inoculated with sewage sludge. Analysis of the barcoded pre-grown multispecies biofilms reveal that 99% of the original biofilm was detached after 20daysof operation with municipal wastewater. This is in contrast to previous experiments where a pre-grown biofilm of exoelectrogens was operated in batch mode. To implement pre-grown biofilms in continuous systems it will thus be necessary to reveal a window of process parameters in which typical exoelectrogenic microorganisms including model organisms can be kept and/or enriched on anodes.

  11. Alternative Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwin, Augustus

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is an essential step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to consume current stockpiles, ceramic uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel will be subjected to an electrolytic reduction process. The current reduction process employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel alloy 316 cathode in a molten salt bath consisting of LiCl-2wt% Li 2O and occurs at 700°C. A major shortcoming of the existing process is the degradation of the platinum anode under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during electrolytic reduction. This work investigates alternative anode materials for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide. The high temperature and extreme oxidizing conditions encountered in these studies necessitated a unique set of design constraints on the system. Thus, a customized experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. The electrochemical experiments were performed in an electrochemical reactor placed inside a furnace. This entire setup was housed inside a glove box, in order to maintain an inert atmosphere. This study investigates alternative anode materials through accelerated corrosion testing. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of candidate materials was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. After narrowing the number of candidate electrode materials, ferrous stainless steel alloy 316, nickel based Inconel 718 and elemental tungsten were chosen for further investigation. Of these materials only tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable at the anodic potential required for electrolysis of uranium dioxide in molten salt. The tungsten anode and stainless steel alloy 316 cathode electrode system was studied at the required reduction potential for UO2 with varying lithium oxide concentrations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  12. Effects of an anode sheath on energy and momentum transfer in vacuum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anode phenomena under high-current vacuum arcs have a significant impact on the interrupting capacity of vacuum interrupters. However, the vacuum arc energy flux and momentum flux on the anode—which are necessary boundary conditions for simulations—are either set to an imaginary distribution or calculated using simple formulas without considering anode sheath regulatory effects. The objective of this paper is to reveal the anode sheath effects on regulating the energy and momentum transfer from the arc column to the anode surface in vacuum arcs. A particle-in-cell model for the anode sheath is developed. The required input parameters are obtained from a magnetohydrodynamic model for the arc column. From the results, there exists a sheath near the anode with a negative voltage drop. Both the electron density and the ion density significantly decline in the anode sheath region. The kinetic energy of the ions absorbed by the anode consists of directed kinetic energy, random kinetic energy, and sheath acceleration energy. The sheath acceleration energy contribution is the largest, and the random kinetic energy also accounts for a large part that cannot be ignored. The arc pressure on the anode surface is mainly caused by ion impact, and the accelerating effect of the anode sheath on the ions cannot be neglected in pressure calculations. In addition, in the case of an arc current at 15 kA, the input energy and momentum upon the anode surface is not obviously affected by the evaporated atoms at surface temperatures of 1600 K and 2000 K.

  13. The effects of microstructure on the corrosion of glycine/nitrate processed cermet inert anodes: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Chick, L A; Maupin, G D; Stice, N D

    1991-07-01

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under the study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The anode mechanism studies were focused in four areas in FY 1990 and FY 1991: (a) the determination of whether a film formed on cermet inert anodes and (if it existed) the characterization of this film, (b) the determination of the sources of the anode impedance, (c) the evaluation of the effects of silica and a precorroded state on anode corrosion, and (d) a preliminary study on the effect of microstructure on the corrosion properties of the anodes. This report discusses the results of the microstructure studies. 6 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Advanced Nanostructured Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidi; Zhao, Chenglong; Lu, Yaxiang; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Yuheng; Qi, Yuruo; Rong, Xiaohui; Jiang, Liwei; Qi, Xinguo; Shao, Yuanjun; Pan, Du; Li, Baohua; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Liquan

    2017-09-19

    Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs), due to the advantages of low cost and relatively high safety, have attracted widespread attention all over the world, making them a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage systems. However, the inherent lower energy density to lithium-ion batteries is the issue that should be further investigated and optimized. Toward the grid-level energy storage applications, designing and discovering appropriate anode materials for NIBs are of great concern. Although many efforts on the improvements and innovations are achieved, several challenges still limit the current requirements of the large-scale application, including low energy/power densities, moderate cycle performance, and the low initial Coulombic efficiency. Advanced nanostructured strategies for anode materials can significantly improve ion or electron transport kinetic performance enhancing the electrochemical properties of battery systems. Herein, this Review intends to provide a comprehensive summary on the progress of nanostructured anode materials for NIBs, where representative examples and corresponding storage mechanisms are discussed. Meanwhile, the potential directions to obtain high-performance anode materials of NIBs are also proposed, which provide references for the further development of advanced anode materials for NIBs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Role of sulfur during acetate oxidation in biological anodes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Paritam K; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel

    2009-05-15

    The treatment of wastewater containing sulfides in bioelec-trochemical systems (BES) causes deposition of sulfur on the anode as a result of a solely electrochemical process. In this study, we investigate whether microorganisms can use this sulfur, ratherthan the anode or soluble sulfate, as an electron acceptor for the oxidation of acetate. Our results indicate that microorganisms use electrodeposited sulfur as preferable electron acceptor over the anode and sulfate and produce sulfide irrespective of electrochemical conditions. Bioelectrochemical and biological sulfide generation pathways were studied under different electrochemical conditions. The obtained results show that the sulfide generation rate at open circuit condition (anode potential -235 +/- 5 mV versus standard hydrogen electrode, SHE)was higher in comparison to the electrochemical sulfide generation even at a lower potential of -275 mV (vs SHE), confirming that sulfide is produced through biological processes without any current generation. However, during closed circuit operation, the overall Coulombic efficiency (97% +/- 2%) is not affected as the produced sulfide (originating from the reduction of deposited sulfur) is spontaneously reoxidized to sulfur when a favorable potential is maintained. This confirms the mediator role of sulfur during acetate oxidation in BES. A diagrammatic representation of the mechanism is proposed to characterize the interactions between acetate oxidation and sulfur conversions on the anode.

  16. Aqueous rechargeable alkali-ion batteries with polyimide anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Song, Z. P.; Zhan, H.; Zhou, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    1,4,5,8-Naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA)-derived Polyimide is proposed as the anode material for aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion or sodium-ion battery (ARLB or ARSB), which is based on a mechanism beyond the intercalation chemistry. Comparing with other transient oxide anode for ARLB, Polyimide has more suitable working voltage, higher capacity and better structure stability. Therefore, the ARLB with Polyimide anode and LiCoO2 cathode presents a specific capacity of 71 mAh g-1 and a specific energy of 80 Wh kg-1 in 5 M LiNO3 solution at the current rate of 100 mA g-1, which is the highest among all reported ARLB system. Besides, it shows excellent cycling stability and rate capability. The ARSB system is demonstrated by Polyimide/NaVPO4F cell. It has been proved that the Polyimide anode has a good capacity performance and cycling stability in 5 M NaNO3 solution. The two aqueous rechargeable batteries with Polyimide anode both show a promising prospect in large-scale energy storage.

  17. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  18. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOEpatents

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  19. Battery with modular air cathode and anode cage

    DOEpatents

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.; Turk, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  20. Organic light-emitting diodes having carbon nanotube anodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Hu, Liangbing; Wang, Lian; Zhou, Yangxin; Grüner, George; Marks, Tobin J

    2006-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films on flexible PET (polyethyleneterephthalate) substrates are used as transparent, flexible anodes for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). For polymer-based OLEDs having the structure: SWNT/PEDOT-PSS:MeOH/TFB (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine)) + TPD-Si(2) (4,4'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl) /BT (poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole))/CsF/Al, a maximum light output of 3500 cd/m(2) and a current efficiency of 1.6 cd/A have been achieved. The device operational lifetime is comparable to that of devices with Sn-doped In(2)O(3) (ITO)/PET anodes. The advantages of this novel type of anode over conventional ITO are discussed.

  1. Progress in Nano-Engineered Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Development

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai; Ali, Nurshahidah; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The anodization of aluminum is an electro-chemical process that changes the surface chemistry of the metal, via oxidation, to produce an anodic oxide layer. During this process a self organized, highly ordered array of cylindrical shaped pores can be produced with controllable pore diameters, periodicity and density distribution. This enables anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes to be used as templates in a variety of nanotechnology applications without the need for expensive lithographical techniques. This review article is an overview of the current state of research on AAO membranes and the various applications of nanotechnology that use them in the manufacture of nano-materials and devices or incorporate them into specific applications such as biological/chemical sensors, nano-electronic devices, filter membranes and medical scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:28880002

  2. Recent Progress of Nanostructure Modified Anodes in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Marie; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; In, Su-Il

    2015-09-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical system which converts chemical energy into electrical energy by catalytic activity of microorganisms. Electrons produced by microbial oxidation from substrates such as organic matter, complex or renewable biomass are transferred to the anode. Protons produced at the anode migrate to the cathode via the wire and combine with oxygen to form water. Therefore MFC technologies are promising approach for generating electricity or hydrogen gas and wastewater treatment. Electrode materials are one of the keys to increase the power output of MFCs. To improve the cost effective performance of MFCs, various electrodes materials, modifications and configurations have been developed. In this paper, among other recent advances of nanostructured electrodes, especially carbon based anodes, are highlighted. The properties of these electrodes, in terms of surface characteristics, conductivity, modifications, and options were reviewed. The applications, challenges and perspectives of the current MFCs electrode for future development in bio or medical field are briefly discussed.

  3. Fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Okano, Hironaga; Wada, Kenji; Inoue, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Anodization techniques by alternating current (ac) are introduced in this review. By using ac anodization, laminated alumina films are fabricated. Different types of alumina films consisting of 50–200 nm layers were obtained by varying both the ac power supply and the electrolyte. The total film thickness increased with an increase in the total charge transferred. The thickness of the individual layers increased with the ac voltage; however, the anodization time had little effect on the film thickness. The laminated alumina films resembled the nacre structure of shells, and the different morphologies exhibited by bivalves and spiral shells could be replicated by controlling the rate of increase of the applied potentials. PMID:27877636

  4. Studies on white anodizing on aluminum alloy for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Kumar, C.; Mayanna, S. M.; Mahendra, K. N.; Sharma, A. K.; Uma Rani, R.

    1999-10-01

    A process of white anodizing in an electrolyte system consisting of sulfuric acid, lactic acid, glycerol and sodium molybdate was studied for space applications. The influence of anodic film thickness and various operating parameters, viz., electrolyte formulation, operating temperature, applied current density, on the optical properties of the coating has been investigated to optimize the process. The coatings were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis, thickness and microhardness evaluation. The space worthiness of the coating has been evaluated by humidity, thermal cycling, thermo-vacuum performance tests and measurement of optical properties. The anodic film developed herein provides solar absorptance value as low as 0.16, and infrared (IR) emittance of the order of 0.80. These results indicate that the process developed is suitable for thermal control applications in space environment.

  5. Novel Non-Carbonate Based Electrolytes for Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ye; Yang, Johnny; Cheng, Gang; Carroll, Kyler; Clemons, Owen; Strand, Diedre

    2016-09-09

    Substantial improvement in the energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries is required to meet the future needs for electric and plug-in electric vehicles (EV and PHEV). Present day lithium ion battery technology is based on shuttling lithium between graphitic carbon and inorganic oxides. Non-graphitic anodes, such as silicon can provide significant improvements in energy density but are currently limited in cycle life due to reactivity with the electrolyte. Wildcat/3M proposes the development of non-carbonate electrolyte formulations tailored for silicon alloy anodes. Combining these electrolytes with 3M’s anode and an NMC cathode will enable up to a 20% increase in the volumetric cell energy density, while still meeting the PHEV/EV cell level cycle/calendar life goals.

  6. Advanced gas-emission anode design for microfluidic fuel cell eliminating bubble accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Xuan, Jin; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Wang, Huizhi; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2017-10-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a low cost, easily fabricated energy device and is considered a promising energy supplier for portable electronics. However, the currently developed microfluidic fuel cells that are fed with hydrocarbon fuels are confronted with a bubble problem especially when operating at high current density conditions. In this work, a gas-emission anode is presented to eliminate the gas accumulation at the anode. This gas-emission anode is verified as a valid design for discharging gaseous products, which is especially beneficial for stable operation of microfluidic fuel cells. The electrochemical performance of a counter-flow microfluidic fuel cell equipped with a gas-emission anode was measured. The results indicate that the specific design of the gas-emission anode is essential for reducing the oxygen reduction reaction parasitic effect at the anode. Fuel utilization of 76.4% was achieved at a flow rate of 0.35 µl min‑1. Current–voltage curves of single electrodes were measured and the parasitic effect at the anode was identified as the main performance limiting factor in the presented anode design.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol using graphite anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, Y.M.; Abuzaid, N.S.

    1999-02-01

    The effects of current and pH on the electrochemical oxidation of phenol on graphite electrodes is investigated in this study. There was no sign of deterioration of the graphite bed after 5 months of operation. Phenol removal efficiency was a function of the current applied and was around 70% at a current of 2.2 A. The increase of phenol removal efficiency with current is attributed to the increase of ionic transport which increases the rate of electrode reactions responsible for the removal process. The percentage of complete oxidation of phenol increases with current, with a maximum value of about 50%. However, at pH 0.2 it is slightly higher than that at pH 0.5 at all currents. The phenol removal rate increases with increases of current and pH. While the current (CO{sub 2}) efficiency reaches a maximum value in the current range of 1.0--1.2 A, it increases with an increase of acid concentration. The findings of this study have important implications: while anodic oxidation of phenol on graphite can achieve acceptable removal of phenol, the extent of oxidation should not be overlooked.

  8. Tested Demonstrations: Dyeing of Anodized Aluminum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides a list of needed materials, required preparations, and instructions for demonstrating the dyeing of anodized aluminum. Discusses the chemistry involved and gives equations for reactions occurring at the anode and cathode. (JM)

  9. Anode configuration for electrothermal/electromagnetic arcjet

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Nishida, E.

    1987-01-01

    To improve the performance of an MPD thruster in the range of a specific impulse near and above 1000 s, which corresponds to the electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrid mode of operation, the anode configuration was modified by changing: (1) the axial length of the metal anode and insulator nozzle, and (2) anode segments in the azimuthal direction as experimental parameters. The anode which was 5 percent the axial length of the nozzle resulted in a drastic improvement of thrust efficiency.

  10. Use of magnetite as anode for electrolysis of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halley, J. W.; Schofield, A.; Berntson, B.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the oxidation of magnetite to Fe2O3 in an electrolytic cell in which the anode is magnetite and the cathode is platinum. We report cyclic voltammagram data consistent with the hypothesis that magnetite, without oxygen gas production but with hydrogen gas production at the cathode, is occurring. The reaction occurs at a potential at the anode of about 0.3 V vs SCE in 1 M NaOH electrolyte, consistent with colloid experiments which also estimated the equilibrium potential of the hypothesized reaction. Electrode characterization results using BET, XEDS, and macroscopic volume and mass measurements are reported, as well as the measurements of the amount of hydrogen gas generated per unit current. The quantity of gas generated is also consistent with our hypothesis concerning the electrode chemistry. Some samples exhibit evidence of two oxidation reactions occurring at the anode and a possible interpretation of these is also discussed. These results suggest the use of magnetite as an anode in a cell electrolysing water to produce hydrogen gas and Fe2O3. In such an electrolyser, the electrical energy cost of producing hydrogen gas could be significantly lower than the cost in a standard electrolyser. The measured steady state currents, equivalent to about 400 mA/g of magnetite, are too low to make a practical electrolyser. We briefly discuss several ways in which the currents might be increased to the levels required.

  11. Anode Fall Formation in a Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid A. Dorf; Yevgeny F. Raitses; Artem N. Smirnov; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2004-06-29

    As was reported in our previous work, accurate, nondisturbing near-anode measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential performed with biased and emissive probes allowed the first experimental identification of both electron-repelling (negative anode fall) and electron-attracting (positive anode fall) anode sheaths in Hall thrusters. An interesting new phenomenon revealed by the probe measurements is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which appears on the anode surface during the course of Hall thruster operation. As reported in the present work, energy dispersion spectroscopy analysis of the chemical composition of the anode dielectric coating indicates that the coating layer consists essentially of an oxide of the anode material (stainless steel). However, it is still unclear how oxygen gets into the thruster channel. Most importantly, possible mechanisms of anode fall formation in a Hall thruster with a clean and a coated anodes are analyzed in this work; practical implication of understanding the general structure of the electron-attracting anode sheath in the case of a coated anode is also discussed.

  12. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  13. Improving the flexibility of microbial desalination cells through spatially decoupling anode and cathode.

    PubMed

    Ping, Qingyun; He, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    To improve the flexibility of microbial desalination cell (MDC) construction and operation, a new configuration with decoupled anode and cathode was developed and examined in this study. A higher salt concentration resulted in higher current generation, as well as a higher salt removal rate. The effect of the distance between the anode and the cathode on the MDC performance was not obvious, likely due to a sufficient conductivity in the salt solution. Because the cathode was identified as a limiting factor, adding one more cathode unit increased the current generation from 72.3 to 116.0 A/m(3), while installing additional anode units did not obviously alter the MDC current production. Changing the position of the anode/cathode units exhibited a weak influence on the MDC performance. Parallel connection of electrical circuits generally produced more current than the individual connections, and a strong competition was observed between multiple units sharing the same opposite unit.

  14. Anodization As A Repair Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groff, Roy E.; Maloney, Robert D.; Reeser, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Thin, hard oxide layer added to aluminum part. Surfaces on aluminum part worn out of tolerance by no more than 0.004 in. often repaired by anodizing to build up aluminum oxide layers. Oxide layers very hard and grounded to desired final dimensions.

  15. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  16. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  17. Increased performance of a tubular microbial fuel cell with a rotating carbon-brush anode.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Biao

    2015-01-15

    A novel method was proposed to improve the power output of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) by rotating the carbon-brush anode. The MFC with a rotating anode produced a peak power density of 210±3 W/m(3) and a maximum current density of 945±43 A/m(3), 1.4 and 2.7 times higher than those of the non-rotating case, respectively. The difference of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry before and after anode rotation clearly suggested that the mass transfer to the spiral space was enhanced by the rotating anode. Furthermore, Tafel plots analysis also revealed that the rotating anode can improve the electrochemical activity of the biofilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of anode ring arrangement on the spectroscopic characteristics of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The modified Penning discharge in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus is normally produced by an anode ring at high voltage in each of the 12 magnetic mirror midplanes. For this investigation, the plasma was run with 12, 6, 3, and 1 anode rings. When 3 anode rings were used, the spectroscopically determined relative electron density and mean ion residence time increased by factors of 10 and 5, respectively, in one mode of operation. The discharge is observed to uniformly fill all bumps around the torus regardless of the anode arrangement and number. A plasma density on axis of 100 billion per cu cm is estimated for the 3-anode case in one mode of operation based on an observed discharge current to ion loss rate correlation and a measured mean ion residence time of .5 msec.

  19. Effect of anode ring arrangement on the spectroscopic characteristics of the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The modified Penning discharge in the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus is normally produced by an anode ring at high voltage in each of the 12 magnetic mirror midplanes. For this investigation, the plasma was run with 12, 6, 3, and 1 anode rings. When 3 anode rings were used, the spectroscopically determined relative electron density and mean ion residence time increase by factors of 10 and 5, respectively, in one mode of operation. The discharge is observed to uniformly fill all bumps around the torus regardless of the anode arrangement and number. A plasma density on axis of 10 to the 11th power cm/3 is estimated for the 3 anode case in one mode of operation based on an observed discharge current to ion loss rate correlation and a measured mean ion residence time of .5 msec.

  20. Improved Anode for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, Thomas; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

    2005-01-01

    A modified chemical composition has been devised to improve the performance of the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell. The main feature of the modified composition is the incorporation of hydrous ruthenium oxide into the anode structure. This modification can reduce the internal electrical resistance of the cell and increase the degree of utilization of the anode catalyst. As a result, a higher anode current density can be sustained with a smaller amount of anode catalyst. These improvements can translate into a smaller fuel-cell system and higher efficiency of conversion. Some background information is helpful for understanding the benefit afforded by the addition of hydrous ruthenium oxide. The anode of a direct methanol fuel cell sustains the electro-oxidation of methanol to carbon dioxide in the reaction CH3OH + H2O--->CO2 + 6H(+) + 6e(-). An electrocatalyst is needed to enable this reaction to occur. The catalyst that offers the highest activity is an alloy of approximately equal numbers of atoms of the noble metals platinum and ruthenium. The anode is made of a composite material that includes high-surface-area Pt/Ru alloy particles and a proton-conducting ionomeric material. This composite is usually deposited onto a polymer-electrolyte (proton-conducting) membrane and onto an anode gas-diffusion/current-collector sheet that is subsequently bonded to the proton-conducting membrane by hot pressing. Heretofore, the areal density of noble-metal catalyst typically needed for high performance has been about 8 mg/cm2. However, not all of the catalyst has been utilized in the catalyzed electro-oxidation reaction. Increasing the degree of utilization of the catalyst would make it possible to improve the performance of the cell for a given catalyst loading and/or reduce the catalyst loading (thereby reducing the cost of the cell). The use of carbon and possibly other electronic conductors in the catalyst layer has been proposed for increasing the utilization of the

  1. Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

    2008-12-31

    One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode

  2. -Based Cermet Inert Anodes for Aluminum Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, ZhongLiang; Lai, YanQing; Li, ZhiYou; Chai, DengPeng; Li, Jie; Liu, YeXiang

    2014-11-01

    The new aluminum electrolysis technology based on inert electrodes has received much interest for several decades because of the environment and energy advantages. The key to realize this technique is the inert anode. This article presents China's recent developments of NiFe2O4-based cermet inert anodes, which include the optimization of material performance, the joint between the cermet inert anode and metallic bar, as well as the results of 20 kA pilot testing for a large-size inert anode group. The problems NiFe2O4-based cermet inert anodes face are also discussed.

  3. Retrofitting sacrificial anodes in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J.H.; Thomason, W.H.; Alansari, N.G.

    1999-08-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) systems of 15 fixed offshore platforms were analyzed. These steel template structures, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, are in water depths between 125 and 185 ft (115 and 170 m). A systematic survey program exists to monitor the CP systems including assessment of sacrificial anode depletion, and measurement of anode and platform potentials. These data are used to design new anode retrofits for older structures to extend CP system life. An analysis of field survey measurements, the method used to evaluate new anode needs, and locations for retrofit anodes are described.

  4. Limiting current in electron-beam welders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiegel, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    Damage to workpiece by excessive current in electron-beam welder is prevented by mechanism that accurately adjusts anode-to-cathode spacing. Mechanism is installed on standard Sciaky (or equivalent) electron-beam gun with only minimal modification. By turning knurled knob and observing digital readout of anode/cathode separation, machine operator adjusts welder for safe maximum current before welding begins.

  5. A Comparative Study of Anodized Titania Nanotube Architectures in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Matthew R; Lai, Peng; Hu, Michael Z.

    2011-01-01

    The unique and highly utilized properties of TiO2 nanotubes are a direct result of nanotube architecture. In order to create different engineered architectures, the effects of electrolyte solution, time, and temperature on the anodization of titanium foil were studied along with the resultant anodized titanium oxide (ATO) nanotube architectures encompassing nanotube length, pore diameter, wall thickness, smoothness, and ordered array structure. Titanium foil was anodized in three different electrolyte solutions: one aqueous (consisting of NH4F and (NH4)2SO4)) and two nonaqueous (glycerin or ethylene glycol, both containing NH4F) at varying temperatures and anodization times. Variation in anodization applied voltage, initial current, and effect of F- ion concentration on ATO nanotube architecture were also studied. Anodization in the aqueous electrolyte produced short, rough nanotube arrays, whereas anodization in organic electrolytes produced long, smooth nanotube arrays greater than 10 m in length. Anodization in glycerin at elevated temperatures for several hours presents the possibility of producing freely dispersed individual nanotubes.

  6. Adsorption orientation of sodium of polyaspartic acid effect on anodic films formed on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, YuPing; Zhang, Dingfei; Chen, Changguo; Zhang, Jiangang; Cui, libo

    2011-06-01

    We previously reported organic addition agent in improving the performance of anodic film formed on magnesium alloy. Here we report that the environment-friendly electrolyte with sodium of polyaspartic acid (PASP) affects the anodizing process including the microstructure, phase constituents and corrosion performance. We have used SEM, XRD, XPS and polarization curve to study in detail the electrolyte impact. Our results show that the anodic film in electrolyte with 19.2-28.8 g/L PASP is compact, smooth and high corrosion resistant. And also, increasing the PASP concentration ranging from 9.6 to 28.8 g/L results in enhancing the cell voltage, thickness and the content of compound including MgO and Mg 2SiO 4 in anodic film. Interestingly, the anodic film is non-stoichiometric oxide. Comparing with Tafel curves of the anodic film to the addition of PASP or not to, the corrosion current density is 1-2 magnitudes less than the later. Furthermore, a plausible model we propose that the anodizing process is regulated by two main plausible adsorption orientations of PASP at the surface anode. With the increasing of PASP content, the adsorption orientation may transit from "end-on" to "flat-on". This research using organic addition agent PASP may further broaden applications of organic additive in the anti-corrosion engineering and electrochemical surface treatment of magnesium alloy.

  7. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  8. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  9. Probing anode degradation in automotive Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ou Jung

    circumstances, no more Li+ ions can be intercalated but should be reduced to metallic form on the anode particle surface. This is validated by calculating the distribution of Li concentration inside the anode particle with electrochemical modeling. In part three, a novel pulse charge protocol is developed, which consists of two steps. First high current charge/discharge pulses increase the cell temperature from a subzero temperature up to above room temperature in a short time, and next, high current charge provides the net charge capacity. Sluggish Li diffusion at low temperature becomes fast thanks to cell temperature elevation by high current pulses (1st step), which plays a role of preventing surface saturation during high current charge (2nd step). Thus, this charge protocol is not only Li deposition-free but also leads to rapid charge at subzero temperatures.

  10. [Vernier Anode Design and Image Simulation].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ai-rong; Ni, Qi-liang; Song, Ke-fei

    2015-12-01

    Based-MCP position-sensitive anode photon-counting imaging detector is good at detecting extremely faint light, which includes micro-channel plate (MCP), position-sensitive anode and readout, and the performances of these detectors are mainly decided by the position-sensitive anode. As a charge division anode, Vernier anode using cyclically varying electrode areas which replaces the linearly varying electrodes of wedge-strip anode can get better resolution and greater electrode dynamic range. Simulation and design of the Vernier anode based on Vernier's decode principle are given here. Firstly, we introduce the decode and design principle of Vernier anode with nine electrodes in vector way, and get the design parameters which are the pitch, amplitude and the coarse wavelength of electrode. Secondly, we analyze the effect of every design parameters to the imaging of the detector. We simulate the electron cloud, the Vernier anode and the detector imaging using Labview software and get the relationship between the pitch and the coarse wavelength of the anode. Simultaneously, we get the corresponding electron cloud for the designing parameters. Based on the result of the simulation and the practical machining demand, a nine electrodes Vernier anode was designed and fabricated which has a pitch of 891 µm, insulation width of 25 µm, amplitude of 50 µm, coarse pixel numbers of 5.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of anodized titanium-oxide nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.; Lai, Peng; Bhuiyan, Md S; Tsouris, Costas; Gu, Baohua; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Gabitto, Jorge; Harrison, L. D.

    2009-01-01

    Anodized titanium-oxide containing highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays is a nanomaterial architecture that shows promise for diverse applications. In this paper, an anodization synthesis using HF-free aqueous solution is described. The anodized TiO2 film samples (amorphous, anatase, and rutile) on titanium foils were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Additional characterization in terms of photocurrent generated by an anode consisting of a titanium foil coated by TiO2 nanotubes was performed using an electrochemical cell. A platinum cathode was used in the electrochemical cell. Results were analyzed in terms of the efficiency of the current generated, defined as the ratio of the difference between the electrical energy output and the electrical energy input divided by the input radiation energy, with the goal of determining which phase of TiO2 nanotubes leads to more efficient hydrogen production. It was determined that the anatase crystalline structure converts light into current more efficiently and is therefore a better photocatalytic material for hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical splitting of water.

  12. Anode spots acting as independent self-organized systems

    SciTech Connect

    Biborosch, L.; Toma, M.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    1995-12-31

    The time averaged current-voltage (I-V) characteristics between two anodes A and P of a glow discharge in helium were taken by means of a circuit containing a dc voltage supply U{sub 12} and a small load resistor R{sub 1} or only a variable load resistor R{sub v}. Here the current I{sub 1}, through the movable wire anode P (0, 1 mm in diameter and 2,5 mm in length) were measured versus their bias voltage U{sub 12} in respect to the grounded hollow anode A. Fig. 2 shows the profiles of the I-V characteristics obtained for different axial distances d{sub p} between A and P. Thus, we have introduced two new external parameters, namely the axial distance d{sub p} and the voltage bias U{sub 12} (or the load resistor R{sub v}) to control the occurrence and features of the coherent and well defined nearly spherical anode spots, formed in front of A or around the wire P, respectively.

  13. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, C. F., Jr.; Huettig, F. R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. The reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  14. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Huettig, F.R.

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  15. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. ); Huettig, F.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  16. Coaxial anode wire for gas radiation counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraushaar, W. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a gas radiation counter are discussed. The coaxial anode consists of an elongated central wire covered with an electrically insulating sleeve. Several longitudinally discontinuous segments of an electrically conductive coating are disposed about the insulating sleeve in a coaxial pattern along the length of the central wire. The conductive coating segments form a veto or rejection anode at each end of the central wire and a main or primary charge detecting anode between the ends. The segments are coupled together so that the primary charge detecting anode is connected to detection circuitry in anti-coincidence with the veto anodes. Background radiation detected by either of the veto anodes and the primary charge detecting anode is rejected and the sensitivity of the radiation counter device is increased.

  17. Pilot demonstration of cerium oxide coated anodes. Final report, April 1990--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, J.S.; Frederick, M.S.; Shingler, M.J.; Alcorn, T.R.

    1992-10-01

    Cu cermet anodes were tested for 213 to 614 hours with an in-situ deposited CEROX coating in a pilot cell operated by Reynolds Manufacturing Technology Laboratory. At high bath ratio ({approximately}1.5) and low current density (0.5 A/cm{sup 2}), a {ge}1 mm thick dense CEROX coating was deposited on the anodes. At lower bath ratios and higher current density, the CEROX coating was thinner and less dense, but no change in corrosion rate was noted. Regions of low current density on the anodes and sides adjacent to the carbon anode sometimes had thin or absent CEROX coatings. Problems with cracking and oxidation of the cermet substrates led to higher corrosion rates in a pilot cell than would be anticipated from lab scale results.

  18. High-performance flexible nanoporous Si-carbon nanotube paper anodes for micro-battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biserni, Erika; Scarpellini, Alice; Li Bassi, Andrea; Bruno, Paola; Zhou, Yun; Xie, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Nanoporous Si has been grown by pulsed laser deposition on a free-standing carbon nanotube (CNT) paper sheet for micro-battery anodes. The Si deposition shows conformal coverage on the CNT paper, and the Si-CNT paper anodes demonstrate high areal capacity of ˜1000 μAh cm-2 at a current density of 54 μA cm-2, while 69% of its initial capacity is preserved when the current density is increased by a factor 10. Excellent stability without capacity decay up to 1000 cycles at a current density of 1080 μA cm-2 is also demonstrated. After bending along the diameter of the circular paper disc many times, the Si-CNT paper anodes preserve the same morphology and show promising electrochemical performance, indicating that nanoporous Si-CNT paper anodes can find application for flexible micro-batteries.

  19. Effects of Anode Wettability and Slots on Anodic Bubble Behavior Using Transparent Aluminium Electrolytic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhibin; Gao, Bingliang; Feng, Yuqing; Huang, Yipeng; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei

    2017-02-01

    Transparent aluminum electrolytic cells were used to study the effects of anode wettability and slots on bubble behavior in a similar environment to that used in industrial cells. Observations were conducted using two types of transparent cells, one with side-observation and the other with a bottom-observation cell design. Anodic bubbles rising process in the side channel is strongly affected by the wettability of the anode. After rising a short distance, the bubbles detach from the anode vertical surface at good-wetting anode cases, while the bubbles still attach to the vertical surface at poor-wetting anode cases. Anode slots of width of 4 mm are able to prevent smaller bubbles from coalescing into larger bubbles and thus decrease the bubble size and gas coverage on the anode. Anode slots also make a contribution in slightly reducing bubble thickness. With the presence of slots, the bubble-induced cell voltage oscillation decreases as well.

  20. Experimental analysis of spatio-temporal behavior of anodic dead-end mode operated polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manokaran, A.; Pushpavanam, S.; Sridhar, P.; Pitchumani, S.

    During the anodic dead-end mode operation of fuel cells, the inert gases (nitrogen and water) present in the cathode side gas channel permeate to the anode side and accumulate in the anode gas channel. The inert gas accumulation in the anode decreases the fuel cell performance by impeding the access of hydrogen to the catalyst. The performance of fuel cell under potentiostatic dead-end mode operation is shown to have three distinct regions viz. time lag region, transient current region and a steady state current region. A current distribution measurement setup is used to capture the evolution of the current distribution as a function of time and space. Co- and counter-flow operations of dead-end mode confirm the propagation of inert gas from the dead-end of anode channel to the inlet of anode. Experiments with different oxidants, oxygen and air, under dead-end mode confirm that nitrogen which permeates from cathode to anode causes the performance drop of the fuel cell. For different starting current densities of 0.15 A cm -2, 0.3 A cm -2 and 0.6 A cm -2 the inert gas occupies 35%, 45% and 57%, respectively of anode channel volume at the end of 60 min of dead-end mode operation.

  1. Ultra-High Density Single Nanometer-Scale Anodic Alumina Nanofibers Fabricated by Pyrophosphoric Acid Anodizing

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Nishinaga, Osamu; Nakajima, Daiki; Kawashima, Jun; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic oxide fabricated by anodizing has been widely used for nanostructural engineering, but the nanomorphology is limited to only two oxides: anodic barrier and porous oxides. Therefore, the discovery of an additional anodic oxide with a unique nanofeature would expand the applicability of anodizing. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a third-generation anodic oxide, specifically, anodic alumina nanofibers, by anodizing in a new electrolyte, pyrophosphoric acid. Ultra-high density single nanometer-scale anodic alumina nanofibers (1010 nanofibers/cm2) consisting of an amorphous, pure aluminum oxide were successfully fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The nanomorphologies of the anodic nanofibers can be controlled by the electrochemical conditions. Anodic tungsten oxide nanofibers can also be fabricated by pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. The aluminum surface covered by the anodic alumina nanofibers exhibited ultra-fast superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle of less than 1°, within 1 second. Such ultra-narrow nanofibers can be used for various nanoapplications including catalysts, wettability control, and electronic devices. PMID:25491282

  2. The roles of metallic rectangular-grating and planar anodes in the photocarrier generation and transport of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Cho Chew, Weng

    2012-11-01

    A multiphysics study carries out on organic solar cells (OSCs) by solving Maxwell's and semiconductor equations simultaneously. By introducing a metallic rectangular-grating as the anode, surface plasmons are excited resulting in nonuniform exciton generation. Meanwhile, the internal E-field of plasmonic OSCs is modified with the modulated anode boundary. The plasmonic OSC improves 13% of short-circuit current but reduces 7% of fill factor (FF) compared to the standard one with a planar anode. The uneven photocarrier generation and transport by the grating anode are physical origins of the dropped FF. This work provides fundamental multiphysics modeling and understanding for plasmonic OSCs.

  3. Variation of anode grid surface morphology and its effect on operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Qifu; Cai Dan; Zhang Qiang; Zhao Xuelong; Zhao Qi; Cheng Guoxin; Liu Lie

    2012-10-15

    After repeatedly operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator, the surface morphology of anode grid is studied by a scanning electron microscope. It is found that there are many quasi-periodic sawteeth formed on the anode grid, which are about 300-500 {mu}m in height, {approx}200 {mu}m in width, and 150-200 {mu}m in period. The formation of this sawteeth implies that there is possible Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability on the anode grid during the irradiation by high-current relativistic electron beam. These sawteeth enhance the electric field on anode grid, leading to more feasible of anode plasma generation, and more rapidly expansion of that plasma. As a result, the electron transmissivity of anode grid is decreased, the output microwave power of the virtual cathode oscillator is lowered and its operational performance is degraded.

  4. Variation of anode grid surface morphology and its effect on operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qifu; Cai, Dan; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xuelong; Zhao, Qi; Cheng, Guoxin; Liu, Lie

    2012-10-01

    After repeatedly operation of a triode virtual cathode oscillator, the surface morphology of anode grid is studied by a scanning electron microscope. It is found that there are many quasi-periodic sawteeth formed on the anode grid, which are about 300-500 μm in height, ~200 μm in width, and 150-200 μm in period. The formation of this sawteeth implies that there is possible Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability on the anode grid during the irradiation by high-current relativistic electron beam. These sawteeth enhance the electric field on anode grid, leading to more feasible of anode plasma generation, and more rapidly expansion of that plasma. As a result, the electron transmissivity of anode grid is decreased, the output microwave power of the virtual cathode oscillator is lowered and its operational performance is degraded.

  5. In situ determination of the pore opening point during wet-chemical etching of the barrier layer of porous anodic aluminum oxide: nonuniform impurity distribution in anodic oxide.

    PubMed

    Han, Hee; Park, Sang-Joon; Jang, Jong Shik; Ryu, Hyun; Kim, Kyung Joong; Baik, Sunggi; Lee, Woo

    2013-04-24

    Wet-chemical etching of the barrier oxide layer of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was systematically investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and a newly devised experimental setup that allows accurate in situ determination of the pore opening point during chemical etching of the barrier oxide layer. We found that opening of the barrier oxide layer by wet-chemical etching can be significantly influenced by anodization time (tanodi). According to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis, porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) samples formed by long-term anodization contained a lower level of anionic impurity in the barrier oxide layer compared to the short-term anodized one and consequently exhibited retarded opening of the barrier oxide layer during the wet-chemical etching. The observed compositional dependence on the anodization time (tanodi) in the barrier oxide layer is attributed to the progressive decrease of the electrolyte concentration upon anodization. The etching rate of the outer pore wall at the bottom part is lower than that of the one at the top part due to the lower level of impurity content in that region. This indicates that a concentration gradient of anionic impurity in the outer pore wall oxide may be established along both the vertical and radial directions of cylindrical pores. Apart from the effect of electrolyte concentration on the chemical composition of the barrier oxide layer, significantly decreased current density arising from the lowered concentration of electrolyte during the long-term anodization (~120 h) was found to cause disordering of pores. The results of the present work are expected to provide viable information not only for practical applications of nanoporous AAO in nanotechnology but also for thorough understanding of the self-organized formation of oxide nanopores during anodization.

  6. Struvite precipitation and phosphorus removal using magnesium sacrificial anode.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Damian J; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-04-01

    Struvite precipitation using magnesium sacrificial anode as the only source of magnesium is presented. High-purity magnesium alloy cast anode was found to be very effective in recovery of high-quality struvite from water solutions and from supernatant of fermented waste activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant that does not practice enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Struvite purity was strongly dependent on the pH and the electric current density. Optimum pH of the 24 mM phosphorus and 46 mM ammonia solution (1:1.9 P:N ratio) was in the broad range between 7.5 and 9.3, with struvite purity exceeding 90%. Increasing the current density resulted in elevated struvite purity. No upper limits were observed in the studied current range of 0.05-0.2 A. Phosphorus removal rate was proportional to the current density and comparable for tests with water solutions and with the supernatant from fermented sludge. The highest P-removal rate achieved was 4.0 mg PO4-P cm(-2) h(-1) at electric current density of 45 A m(-2). Initial substrate concentrations affected the rate of phosphorus removal. The precipitated struvite accumulated in bulk liquid with significant portions attached to the anode surface from which regular detachment occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preventing Cracking of Anodized Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Charles C.; Heslin, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodized coatings have been used as optical and thermal surfaces in spacecraft. Particulate contamination from cracked coatings is a concern for many applications. The major cause for the cracking is the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide coatings and the aluminum substrate. The loss of water when the coating is exposed to a vacuum also could induce cracking of the coating. Hot-water sealing was identified as the major cause for the cracking of the coatings because of the large temperature change when the parts were immersed in boiling water and the water was absorbed in the coating. when the hot-water sealing process was eliminated, the cracking resistance of the anodized coatings was greatly improved. Also, it was found that dyed black coatings were more susceptible than clear coatings to cracking during thermo-vacuum cyclings.

  8. Variable anodic thermal control coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliland, C. S.; Duckett, J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A process for providing a thermal control solar stable surface coating for aluminum surfaces adapted to be exposed to solar radiation wherein selected values within the range of 0.10 to 0.72 thermal emittance (epsilon sub tau) and 0.2 to 0.4 solar absorptance (alpha subs) are reproducibly obtained by anodizing the surface area in a chromic acid solution for a selected period of time. The rate voltage and time, along with the parameters of initial epsilon sub tau and alpha subs, temperature of the chromic acid solution, acid concentration of the solution and the material anodized determines the final values of epsilon/tau sub and alpha sub S. 9 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures.

  9. Anode and cathode materials characterization for a microbial fuel cell in half cell configuration.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Van Bogaert, Gilbert; Porto-Carrero, Christof; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien

    2011-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are novel bioelectrochemical devices for spontaneous conversion of biomass into electricity through the metabolic activity of the bacteria. Microbial production of electricity may become an important source of bioenergy in future because MFCs offer the possibility of extracting electric current from a wide range of soluble or dissolved complex organic wastes and renewable biomass. However, the materials used in these devices are still not economic and researchers use different materials as cathode and anode in MFCs. This results in variable performance which is difficult to compare. We tested several commercially available materials for their suitability as anode in an acetate fed MFC. Besides, a novel non-platinized activated carbon (AC) based, gas porous air cathode was also tested. Both the anode and cathode were tested in a half cell configuration. Carbon cloth, graphite cloth and dynamically stable anode (DSA) served as ideal anode material with carbon cloth and graphite mesh reaching the open circuit voltage (OCV) of acetate oxidation (-500 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). The effect of increasing concentration of acetate on anode OCV was also investigated and results showed that on increasing the acetate concentration from 10 mM to 40 mM has no adverse impact on the anodic activity towards electrochemical oxidation of acetate. The AC cathode showed stable current (-1.2 mA/cm2) over a period of 100 days.

  10. Electrochemical anodizing treatment to enhance localized corrosion resistance of pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Prando, Davide; Brenna, Andrea; Bolzoni, Fabio M; Diamanti, Maria V; Pedeferri, Mariapia; Ormellese, Marco

    2017-01-26

    Titanium has outstanding corrosion resistance due to the thin protective oxide layer that is formed on its surface. Nevertheless, in harsh and severe environments, pure titanium may suffer localized corrosion. In those conditions, costly titanium alloys containing palladium, nickel and molybdenum are used. This purpose investigated how it is possible to control corrosion, at lower cost, by electrochemical surface treatment on pure titanium, increasing the thickness of the natural oxide layer. Anodic oxidation was performed on titanium by immersion in H2SO4 solution and applying voltages ranging from 10 to 80 V. Different anodic current densities were considered. Potentiodynamic tests in chloride- and fluoride-containing solutions were carried out on anodized titanium to determine the pitting potential. All tested anodizing treatments increased corrosion resistance of pure titanium, but never reached the performance of titanium alloys. The best corrosion behavior was obtained on titanium anodized at voltages lower than 40 V at 20 mA/cm2. Titanium samples anodized at low cell voltage were seen to give high corrosion resistance in chloride- and fluoride-containing solutions. Electrolyte bath and anodic current density have little effect on the corrosion behavior.

  11. Additive-free thick graphene film as an anode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kuldeep; Kim, Seong Dae; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2015-04-28

    This work demonstrates a simple route to develop mechanically flexible electrodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) that are usable as lightweight effective conducting networks for both cathodes and anodes. Removing electrochemically dead elements, such as binders, conducting agents and metallic current collectors, from the battery components will allow remarkable progress in this area. To investigate the feasibility of using thick, additive-free graphene films as anodes for flexible LIBs, we have synthesized and tested thick, additive-free, freestanding graphene films as anodes, first in a coin cell and further in a flexible full cell. As an anode material in a half cell, it showed a discharge capacity of about 350 mA h g(-1) and maintained nearly this capacity over 50 cycles at various current rates. This film was also tested as an anode material in a full cell with a LiCoO2 cathode and showed good electrochemical performance. Because the graphene-based flexible film showed good performance in half- and full coin cells, we used this film as a flexible anode for flexible LIBs. No conducting agent or binder was used in the anode side, which helped in realizing the flexible LIBs. Using this, we demonstrate a thin, lightweight and flexible lithium ion battery with good electrochemical performance in both its flat and bent states.

  12. Anodic polarographic determination of flucloxacillin.

    PubMed

    Squella, J A; Silva, M M; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1981-11-01

    The hydrolysis of flucloxacillin at pH 4.9 yields a degradation product which is polarographically oxidizable. This derivative has not been identified, but would seem to contain a thiol group. It gives a diffusion-controlled anodic polarographic wave with a half-wave potential at -0.24 V vs. SCE. The method developed has been applied to the analysis of flucloxacillin capsules, and a recovery of 99% has been obtained.

  13. Acid blue 29 decolorization and mineralization by anodic oxidation with a cold gas spray synthesized Sn-Cu-Sb alloy anode.

    PubMed

    do Vale-Júnior, Edilson; Dosta, Sergi; Cano, Irene Garcia; Guilemany, Josep Maria; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The elevated cost of anodic materials used in the anodic oxidation for water treatment of effluents undermines the real application of these technologies. The study of novel alternative materials more affordable is required. In this work, we report the application of Sn-Cu-Sb alloys as cheap anodic material to decolorize azo dye Acid Blue 29 solutions. These anodes have been synthesized by cold gas spray technologies. Almost complete decolorization and COD abatement were attained after 300 and 600 min of electrochemical treatment, respectively. The influence of several variables such as supporting electrolyte, pH, current density and initial pollutant concentration has been investigated. Furthermore, the release and evolution of by-products was followed by HPLC to better understand the oxidative power of Sn-Cu-Sb electrodes.

  14. Effects of constant or dynamic low anode potentials on microbial community development in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hengjing; Yates, Matthew D; Regan, John M

    2015-11-01

    In bioelectrochemical systems, exoelectrogenic bacteria respire with anode electrodes as their extracellular electron acceptor; therefore, lower anode potentials can reduce the energy gain to each microbe and select against ones that are not able to respire at a lower potential range. Often fully developed anode communities are compared across bioelectrochemical systems with set anode potentials or fixed external resistances as different operational conditions. However, the comparative effect of the resulting constantly low versus dynamically low anode potentials on the development of anode microbial communities as well as the final cathode microbial communities has not been directly demonstrated. In this study, we used a low fixed anode potential of -250 mV and a higher-current control potential of -119 mV vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode to approximately correspond with the negative peak anode potential values obtained from microbial fuel cells operated with fixed external resistances of 1 kΩ and 47 Ω, respectively. Pyrosequencing data from a 2-month time series show that a lower set anode potential resulted in a more diverse community than the higher- and variable-potential systems, likely due to the hindered enrichment of a Geobacter-dominated community with limited energy gain at this set potential. In this case, it appears that the selective pressure caused by the low set potential was counteracted by the low energy gain over a 2-month time scale. The air cathode microbial community with constant low anode potentials showed delayed enrichment of denitrifiers or perchlorate-reducing bacteria compared to the fixed external resistance condition.

  15. THE USE OF A HYDROGENASE-METHYLENE BLUE SYSTEM IN A BIOCHEMICAL FUEL CELL (AN ANODE REACTION)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An electron carrier system similar to one found in living cells has been studied in vitro at the anode of a biochemical fuel cell . The action of an...the anode of a biochemical fuel cell . A current of 0.16 mA/(sq. cm.) has been shown using a hydrogenase solution obtained from E. coli. It gave

  16. Structural modifications to nickel cermet anodes in fuel cell environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Douglas G.; Brightman, Edward; Brandon, Nigel

    Restructuring of Ni in cermet anodes of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been studied using both bulk fuel cells and thin foil anodes. The bulk cells were button cells (23 mm in diameter) with cermet anodes (30-70 μm thick) made up of nickel and gadolinium-doped ceria (Ni/CGO). The cells were operated (under current load) at 700 °C in moist H 2 or moist H 2 with low levels of H 2S. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the microstructure before and after testing. The thin foil samples (100-150 nm thick) were cermets of nickel and yttria doped zirconia (Ni/YSZ) and these were exposed (without current load) at 700 °C to dry H 2, moist H 2 or moist H 2 with H 2S (1 ppm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SEM were used to analyze the microstructural changes in these samples. The anodes from the bulk cells exhibited terracing of Ni grains in all instances, with the extent of terracing increasing with exposure to H 2S, and with increasing H 2S levels and exposure time. The thin foil anodes showed much more extensive Ni restructuring leading to agglomeration and faceting of Ni grains. This was accompanied by debonding from YSZ, commencing at triple points, where some combination of three Ni/YSZ grains meet. The amount of restructuring increased with increasing H 2 concentration in the gas, and was accelerated by the presence of H 2S and/or H 2O. Evidence is presented that indicates that terracing may represent the early stages of Ni agglomeration.

  17. The performance of a microbial fuel cell depends strongly on anode geometry: a multidimensional modeling study.

    PubMed

    Merkey, Brian V; Chopp, David L

    2012-04-01

    A multidimensional biofilm model is developed to simulate biofilm growth on the anode of a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). The biofilm is treated as a conductive material, and electrons produced during microbial growth are assumed to be transferred to the anode through a conductive biofilm matrix. Growth of Geobacter sulfurreducens is simulated using the Nernst-Monod kinetic model that was previously developed and later validated in experiments. By implementing a conduction-based biofilm model in two dimensions, we are able to explore the impact of anode density and arrangement on current production in a MFC.

  18. Efficient organic light-emitting diode using semitransparent silver as anode

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Huajun; Zhu Xiuling; Sun Jiaxin; Xie Zhiliang; Xie Shuang; Wong Man; Kwok, H.-S.

    2005-10-24

    A semitransparent silver layer is investigated as the anode for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). By pretreating the silver layer in a CF{sub 4} plasma, hole injection into the hole-transport layer is greatly enhanced. A bottom-emitting OLED using the modified, semitransparent silver anode, demonstrates improved current density-voltage characteristics and a 20% higher external quantum efficiency, compared to a conventional OLED using indium tin oxide as an anode. The superior optical characteristics are attributed to a higher outcoupling efficiency in the microcavity structure.

  19. Fabrication of Porous Anodic Alumina with Ultrasmall Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Gu Qiao; Yang, Rong; Ding, Jian Ning; Yuan, Ning Yi; Zhu, Yuan Yuan

    2010-08-01

    Anodization of Al foil under low voltages of 1-10 V was conducted to obtain porous anodic aluminas (PAAs) with ultrasmall nanopores. Regular nanopore arrays with pore diameter 6-10 nm were realized in four different electrolytes under 0-30°C according to the AFM, FESEM, TEM images and current evolution curves. It is found that the pore diameter and interpore distance, as well as the barrier layer thickness, are not sensitive to the applied potentials and electrolytes, which is totally different from the rules of general PAA fabrication. The brand-new formation mechanism has been revealed by the AFM study on the samples anodized for very short durations of 2-60 s. It is discovered for the first time that the regular nanoparticles come into being under 1-10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultrasmall nanopores. Under higher potentials from 10 to 40 V, the surface nanoparticles will be less and less and nanopores transform into general PAAs.

  20. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  1. [Corrosion resistant properties of different anodized microtopographies on titanium surfaces].

    PubMed

    Fangjun, Huo; Li, Xie; Xingye, Tong; Yueting, Wang; Weihua, Guo; Weidong, Tian

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the corrosion resistant properties of titanium samples prepared by anodic oxidation with different surface morphologies. Pure titanium substrates were treated by anodic oxidation to obtain porous titanium films in micron, submicron, and micron-submicron scales. The surface morphologies, coating cross-sectional morphologies, crystalline structures, and surface roughness of these samples were characterized. Electrochemical technique was used to measure the corrosion potential (Ecorr), current density of corrosion (Icorr), and polarization resistance (Rp) of these samples in a simulated body fluid. Pure titanium could be modified to exhibit different surface morphologies by the anodic oxidation technique. The Tafel curve results showed that the technique can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance varied with different surface morphologies. The submicron porous surface sample demonstrated the best corrosion resistance, with maximal Ecorr and Rp and minimal Icorr. Anodic oxidation technology can improve the corrosion resistance of pure titanium in a simulated body fluid. The submicron porous surface sample exhibited the best corrosion resistance because of its small surface area and thick barrier layer.

  2. Fabrication of Porous Anodic Alumina with Ultrasmall Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Anodization of Al foil under low voltages of 1–10 V was conducted to obtain porous anodic aluminas (PAAs) with ultrasmall nanopores. Regular nanopore arrays with pore diameter 6–10 nm were realized in four different electrolytes under 0–30°C according to the AFM, FESEM, TEM images and current evolution curves. It is found that the pore diameter and interpore distance, as well as the barrier layer thickness, are not sensitive to the applied potentials and electrolytes, which is totally different from the rules of general PAA fabrication. The brand-new formation mechanism has been revealed by the AFM study on the samples anodized for very short durations of 2–60 s. It is discovered for the first time that the regular nanoparticles come into being under 1–10 V at the beginning of the anodization and then serve as a template layer dominating the formation of ultrasmall nanopores. Under higher potentials from 10 to 40 V, the surface nanoparticles will be less and less and nanopores transform into general PAAs. PMID:20676199

  3. Interferometric nanoporous anodic alumina photonic coatings for optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Changhai; Li, Junsheng; Losic, Dusan

    2015-05-07

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optical optimization and sensing applicability of colored photonic coatings based on nanoporous anodic alumina films grown on aluminum substrates. These optical nanostructures, so-called distributed Bragg reflectors (NAA-DBRs), are fabricated by galvanostatic pulse anodization process, in which the current density is altered in a periodic manner in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic coatings. As-prepared NAA-DBR photonic coatings present brilliant interference colors on the surface of aluminum, which can be tuned at will within the UV-visible spectrum by means of the anodization profile. A broad library of NAA-DBR colors is produced by means of different anodization profiles. Then, the effective medium of these NAA-DBR photonic coatings is systematically assessed in terms of optical sensitivity, low limit of detection and linearity by reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to optimize their nanoporous structure toward optical sensors with enhanced sensing performance. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these photonic nanostructures as optical platforms by selectively detecting gold(iii) ions in aqueous solutions. The obtained results reveal that optimized NAA-DBR photonic coatings can achieve an outstanding sensing performance for gold(iii) ions, with a sensitivity of 22.16 nm μM(-1), a low limit of detection of 0.156 μM (i.e. 30.7 ppb) and excellent linearity within the working range (0.9983).

  4. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; ...

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Here, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycledmore » at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Lastly, further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.« less

  5. Controlling the Electron Energy Distribution Function Using an Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Barnat, Edward V.; Hopkins, Mathew M.

    2014-10-01

    Positively biased electrodes inserted into plasmas influence the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) by providing a sink for low energy electrons that would otherwise be trapped by ion sheaths at the chamber walls. We develop a model for the EEDF in a hot filament generated discharge in the presence of positively biased electrodes of various surface areas, and compare the model results with experimental Langmuir probe measurements and particle-in-cell simulations. In the absence of an anode, the EEDF is characterized by a cool trapped population at energies below the sheath energy, and a comparatively warm tail population associated with the filament primaries. Anodes that are small enough to collect a negligible fraction of the electrons exiting the plasma have little affect on the EEDF, but as the anode area approaches √{me /mi }Aw , where Aw is the chamber wall area, the anode collects most of the electrons leaving the plasma. This drastically reduces the density of the otherwise trapped population, causing an effective heating of the electrons and a corresponding density decrease. A global model is developed based on the EEDF model and current balance, which shows the interconnected nature of the electron temperature, density and the plasma potential. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science at the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94SL85000, and by the University of Iowa Old Gold Program.

  6. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sonia C.; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A.; Rocha, Luis A.; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film. PMID:28788295

  7. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film.

  8. Metal-based anode for high performance bioelectrochemical systems through photo-electrochemical interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yuxiang; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Long, Yuyang; Li, Na; Zhou, Yuyang; Ying, Xianbin; Gu, Yuan; Wang, Yanfeng

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a novel composite anode that uses light to enhance current generation and accelerate biofilm formation in bioelectrochemical systems. The composite anode is composed of 316L stainless steel substrate and a nanostructured α-Fe2O3 photocatalyst (PSS). The electrode properties, current generation, and biofilm properties of the anode are investigated. In terms of photocurrent, the optimal deposition and heat-treatment times are found to be 30 min and 2 min, respectively, which result in a maximum photocurrent of 0.6 A m-2. The start-up time of the PSS is 1.2 days and the maximum current density is 2.8 A m-2, twice and 25 times that of unmodified anode, respectively. The current density of the PSS remains stable during 20 days of illumination. Confocal laser scanning microscope images show that the PSS could benefit biofilm formation, while electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicates that the PSS reduce the charge-transfer resistance of the anode. Our findings show that photo-electrochemical interaction is a promising way to enhance the biocompatibility of metal anodes for bioelectrochemical systems.

  9. Relating MEC population dynamics to anode performance from DGGE and electrical data.

    PubMed

    Croese, Elsemiek; Keesman, Karel J; Widjaja-Greefkes, Aura H C A; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Plugge, Caroline M; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Stams, Alfons J M; Euverink, Gert-Jan W

    2013-09-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising system for H2 production, but little is known about the active microbial population in MEC systems. Therefore, the microbial community of five different MEC graphite felt anodes was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling. The results showed that the bacterial population was very diverse and there were substantial differences between microorganisms in anolyte and anode samples. The archaeal population in the anolyte and at the anodes, and between the different MEC anodes, was very similar. SEM and FISH imaging showed that Archaea were mainly present in the spaces between the electrode fibers and Bacteria were present at the fiber surface, which suggested that Bacteria were the main microorganisms involved in MEC electrochemical activity. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and QR factorization-based estimation (QRE) were used to link the composition of the bacterial community to electrochemical performance of the MEC. The operational mode of the MECs and their consequent effects on current density and anode resistance on the populations were significant. The results showed that the community composition was most strongly correlated with current density. The DGGE band mostly correlated with current represented a Clostridium sticklandii strain, suggesting that this species had a major role in current from acetate generation at the MEC anodes. The combination of RDA and QRE seemed especially promising for obtaining an insight into the part of the microbial population actively involved in electrode interaction in the MEC.

  10. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode

    DOEpatents

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-04-13

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

  11. Anode Sheath Switching in a Carbon Nanotube Arc Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abe Fetterman, Yevgeny Raitses, and Michael Keidar

    2008-04-08

    The anode ablation rate is investigated as a function of anode diameter for a carbon nanotube arc plasma. It is found that anomalously high ablation occurs for small anode diameters. This result is explained by the formation of a positive anode sheath. The increased ablation rate due to this positive anode sheath could imply greater production rate for carbon nanotubes.

  12. Structural engineering of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide by pulse anodization of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo; Schwirn, Kathrin; Steinhart, Martin; Pippel, Eckhard; Scholz, Roland; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-04-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide has traditionally been made in one of two ways: mild anodization or hard anodization. The first method produces self-ordered pore structures, but it is slow and only works for a narrow range of processing conditions; the second method, which is widely used in the aluminium industry, is faster, but it produces films with disordered pore structures. Here we report a novel approach termed "pulse anodization" that combines the advantages of the mild and hard anodization processes. By designing the pulse sequences it is possible to control both the composition and pore structure of the anodic aluminium oxide films while maintaining high throughput. We use pulse anodization to delaminate a single as-prepared anodic film into a stack of well-defined nanoporous alumina membrane sheets, and also to fabricate novel three-dimensional nanostructures.

  13. Experimental Studies of the Effects of Anode Composition and Process Parameters on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Copper Purity by Performing Copper Electrorefining in a Pilot-Scale Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    Copper electrorefining tests were conducted in a pilot-scale cell under commercial tankhouse environment to study the effects of anode compositions, current density, cathode blank width, and flow rate on anode slime behavior and cathode copper purity. Three different types of anodes (high, mid, and low impurity levels) were used in the tests and were analyzed under SEM/EDS. The harvested copper cathodes were weighed and analyzed for impurities concentrations using DC Arc. The adhered slimes and released slimes were collected, weighed, and analyzed for compositions using ICP. It was shown that the lead-to-arsenic ratio in the anodes affects the sintering and coalescence of slime particles. High current density condition can improve anode slime adhesion and cathode purity by intensifying slime particles' coalescence and dissolving part of the particles. Wide cathode blanks can raise the anodic current densities significantly and result in massive release of large slime particle aggregates, which are not likely to contaminate the cathode copper. Low flow rate can cause anode passivation and increase local temperatures in front of the anode, which leads to very intense sintering and coalescence of slime particles. The results and analyses of the tests present potential solutions for industrial copper electrorefining process.

  14. Fabrication of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polymeric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyong; Luo, Yuting; Sun, Linyu; Wu, Ruomei; Jiang, Haiyun; Liu, Yuejun

    2013-01-01

    We reported the preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy via anodizing and polymeric coating. Both the different anodizing processes and different polymeric coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. The results showed that a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated by polypropylene (PP) coating after anodizing. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. When the concentration of oxalic acid was 10 g/L, the concentration of NaCl was 1.25 g/L, anodization time was 40 min, and anodization current was 0.4 A, the best superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy with the contact angle (CA) of 162° and the sliding angle of 2° was obtained. On the other hand, the different polymeric coatings, such as polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polypropylene grafting maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) were used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the superhydrophobicity was most excellent by coating PP, while the duration of the hydrophobic surface was poor. By modifying the surface with the silane coupling agent before PP coating, the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved. The morphologies of the superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Combined with the material of PP with the low surface free energy, the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  15. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  16. Trivalent Chromium Solutions for Sealing Anodized Aluminum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-20

    the comparatively innocuous trivalent form before acid , chromic acid , oxalic acid , sulfophthalic acid , boric disposal. This method is expensive and...or had only faint anodized aluminum substrates by immersion in a mildly traces of corrosion . All 7075-T6 panels provided with acid solution containing...alloy panels wereP 10 anodized in 15% (weight) sulfuric acid solution for 30 To produce improved corrosion resistance on anod- minutes at 21 C. at 18

  17. Novel trench gate field stop IGBT with trench shorted anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xudong, Chen; Jianbing, Cheng; Guobing, Teng; Houdong, Guo

    2016-05-01

    A novel trench field stop (FS) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a trench shorted anode (TSA) is proposed. By introducing a trench shorted anode, the TSA-FS-IGBT can obviously improve the breakdown voltage. As the simulation results show, the breakdown voltage is improved by a factor of 19.5% with a lower leakage current compared with the conventional FS-IGBT. The turn off time of the proposed structure is 50% lower than the conventional one with less than 9% voltage drop increased at a current density of 150 A/cm2. Additionally, there is no snapback observed. As a result, the TSA-FS-IGBT has a better trade-off relationship between the turn off loss and forward drop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274080) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2013M541585).

  18. Reviving the lithium metal anode for high-energy batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Yayuan; Cui, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have had a profound impact on our daily life, but inherent limitations make it difficult for Li-ion chemistries to meet the growing demands for portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. Therefore, chemistries beyond Li-ion are currently being investigated and need to be made viable for commercial applications. The use of metallic Li is one of the most favoured choices for next-generation Li batteries, especially Li-S and Li-air systems. After falling into oblivion for several decades because of safety concerns, metallic Li is now ready for a revival, thanks to the development of investigative tools and nanotechnology-based solutions. In this Review, we first summarize the current understanding on Li anodes, then highlight the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques, and finally discuss the opportunities and possible directions for future development of Li anodes in applications.

  19. Electrochemical Treatment of Textile Dye Wastewater by Mild Steel Anode.

    PubMed

    Bhavya, J G; Rekha, H B; Murthy, Usha N

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the results of the treatment of textile dye wastewater generated from a textile processing industry by electrochemical method. Experiments were conducted at current densities of 12, 24 and 48 A/m2 using mild steel as anode and cathode. During the various stages of electrolysis, parameters such as COD, color and BOD5 were determined in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. It was observed that increasing the electrolysis time and increased current density bring down the concentration of pollutants. Also COD removal rate and energy consumption during the electrolysis were calculated and presented in this paper. The present study proves the effectiveness of electrochemical treatment using MS as anode for TDW oxidation.

  20. Reviving the lithium metal anode for high-energy batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dingchang; Liu, Yayuan; Cui, Yi

    2017-03-07

    Lithium-ion batteries have had a profound impact on our daily life, but inherent limitations make it difficult for Li-ion chemistries to meet the growing demands for portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage. Therefore, chemistries beyond Li-ion are currently being investigated and need to be made viable for commercial applications. The use of metallic Li is one of the most favoured choices for next-generation Li batteries, especially Li-S and Li-air systems. After falling into oblivion for several decades because of safety concerns, metallic Li is now ready for a revival, thanks to the development of investigative tools and nanotechnology-based solutions. In this Review, we first summarize the current understanding on Li anodes, then highlight the recent key progress in materials design and advanced characterization techniques, and finally discuss the opportunities and possible directions for future development of Li anodes in applications.

  1. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Keller, Jürg; Brillas, Enric; Radjenovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl(-) ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO(-)), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO(-) species led to the production of ClO3(-) and ClO4(-) ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment.

  2. Si nanoparticle-decorated Si nanowire networks for Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Hong, Seung Sae; Cui, Lifeng; McDonough, James R; Bohy, Sy; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-07

    We designed and fabricated binder-free, 3D porous silicon nanostructures for Li-ion battery anodes, where Si nanoparticles electrically contact current collectors via vertically grown silicon nanowires. When compared with a Si nanowire anode, the areal capacity was increased by a factor of 4 without having to use long, high temperature steps under vacuum that vapour-liquid-solid Si nanowire growth entails.

  3. Anode composite for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    An anode composite useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell comprised of a porous sintered metallic anode component having a porous bubble pressure barrier integrally sintered to one face thereof, said barrier being comprised of metal coated ceramic particles sintered together and to said anode by means of said metal coating, said metal coating enveloping said ceramic particle and being selected from the group consisting of nickel, copper and alloys thereof, the median pore size of the barrier being significantly smaller than that of the anode.

  4. Surface modifications for carbon lithium intercalation anodes

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Tri D.; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2000-01-01

    A prefabricated carbon anode containing predetermined amounts of passivating film components is assembled into a lithium-ion rechargeable battery. The modified carbon anode enhances the reduction of the irreversible capacity loss during the first discharge of a cathode-loaded cell. The passivating film components, such as Li.sub.2 O and Li.sub.2 CO.sub.3, of a predetermined amount effective for optimal passivation of carbon, are incorporated into carbon anode materials to produce dry anodes that are essentially free of battery electrolyte prior to battery assembly.

  5. Noise analysis of the Vernier anode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Airong; Ni, Qiliang; Yu, Weixing

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the partition noise and the electronic noise of the Vernier anode are thoroughly analyzed based on the theory of statistical variation and error analysis. A new method calculating the inter-electrode capacitance of the Vernier anode is proposed, and the electronic noise's effect is discussed in detail, which is useful for the optimal design of a Vernier anode in the induced charge mode. The calculated results of the inter-electrode capacitance for a 0.891 mm period Vernier anode are in good agreement with the measured results.

  6. Theoretical analysis of hydrogen oxidation reaction in solid oxide fuel cell anode based on species territory adsorption model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Tsuyoshi; Hanamura, Katsunori

    2015-09-01

    A modified reaction model of hydrogen oxidation around a triple phase boundary (TPB) is proposed for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with a Ni/oxide ion conductor cermet anode containing proton conductor particles in order to describe the mechanism of anode overpotential reduction. In this model, three kinds of TPBs consisting of nickel metal, oxide ion conductors, proton conductors, and gas phases were considered. It was assumed that the chemical species could be adsorbed within a finite narrow area on each material around the TPB. The reaction rate in the anode was controlled by the surface reaction between the adsorbed hydrogen and adsorbed oxygen; all other reactions took place under chemical equilibrium. Based on the reaction model, analytical expressions of current density with oxygen activity and anode overpotential with current density could be obtained. The latter could combine the anode overpotential at low- and high-current-density regions, which were conventionally expressed independently. The analytical results were in good agreement with the experimental results for both the conventional anode and the new anode incorporating a proton conductor. Especially, the anode overpotential reduction could be explained by the additional supply of adsorbed hydrogen from the proton conductor to the TPB.

  7. Nickel oxide/carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite as bifunctional anode catalyst for high-performance Shewanella-based dual-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mohsennia, Mohsen; Pazouki, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    A novel nickel oxide/carbon nanotube/polyaniline (NCP) nanocomposite has been prepared and used to modify the electrocatalytic properties of carbon cloth anode in fabricating dual-chamber MFC. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The carbon cloth coated with the NCP nanocomposite showed the enhanced electrochemical performance as compared to bare carbon cloth anode. The electrochemical properties of the fabricated MFC with the modified anode have been investigated by linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The maximum power density of the MFC using the novel NCP nanocomposite-carbon cloth anode increased by 61.88% compared to that of the bare carbon cloth anode. In comparison to the bare carbon cloth anode, the new composite anode showed 26.8% enhancement of current density output which it can be due to the enhancement of the charge transfer capability.

  8. Electrical characteristics and cathode deposit growth in an anodic arc producing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alexey; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2008-11-01

    Voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of the carbon nanotube producing anodic arc are measured for different gap sizes, anode compositions and background He pressures. It is shown that voltage-current characteristics has V-type shape and with increasing of the gap V-I characteristic shifts to the higher arc voltages, while minimum shifts to higher arc currents. The increasing the metallic catalyst fraction in the anode composition leads to slight decrease in the arc voltage and shifts the minimum position to higher arc currents. Such shape of the voltage current characteristics is explained by superposition of two effects: decreasing of the potential drop in the quasineutral plasma column and increasing of the anode potential drop with arc current. In addition two effects regarding cathode deposit growth in the anodic arc producing carbon nanotubes are reported. First, decreasing of the cathode deposit growth rate with interelectrode gap increase and second, increasing of the cathode deposit diameter with arc current increase. Both effects are explained by invoking the argument that the interelectrode plasma is necessary to trigger the growth of the cathode deposit.

  9. A novel Ni/ceria-based anode for metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojek-Wöckner, Veronika A.; Opitz, Alexander K.; Brandner, Marco; Mathé, Jörg; Bram, Martin

    2016-10-01

    For optimization of ageing behavior, electrochemical performance, and sulfur tolerance of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells a new anode concept is introduced, which is based on a Ni/GDC cermet replacing the established Ni/YSZ anodes. In the present work optimized processing parameters compatible with MSC substrates are specified by doing sintering studies on pressed bulk specimen and on real porous anode structures. The electrochemical performance of the Ni/GDC anodes was characterized by means of symmetrical electrolyte supported model-type cells. In this study, three main objectives are pursued. Firstly, the effective technical realization of the Ni/GDC concept is demonstrated. Secondly, the electrochemical behavior of Ni/GDC porous anodes is characterized by impedance spectroscopy and compared with the current standard Ni/YSZ anode. Further, a qualitative comparison of the sulfur poisoning behavior of both anode types is presented. Thirdly, preliminary results of a successful implementation of the Ni/GDC cermet into a metal-supported single cell are presented.

  10. Long life modified lead dioxide anode for organic wastewater treatment: electrochemical characteristics and degradation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Minghua; Dai, Qizhou; Lei, Lecheng; Chun'an, M A; Wang, Dahui

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the lack of ideal anodes with both good activity and stability is still one of the critical problems in electrochemical oxidation for organic wastewater treatment. The electrochemical properties, the activity and stability for anodic oxidation of various phenolic compounds, and the degradation mechanism on a novel beta-PbO2 electrode modified with fluorine resin were investigated. The anode life after modification was greatly improved to be more than 10 yr in common electrochemical current conditions. Such an anode was effective for partial degradation of phenolic compounds, but selective because reactive activities were varied with different substituents. Characterized by SEM and XRD, the crystal form of the anode was verified to be mainly beta-PbO2, and it hardly changed when used for p-nitrophenol degradation for around 320 h although there existed slow electrode corrosion. The active species generated during anodic oxidation were determined to be mainly hydroxyl radical and little ozone. The reactions between hydroxyl radical and phenolic compounds were proved to be electrophilic reactions, based on which a general electrochemical degradation mechanism for aromatic compounds was proposed. In general, such a novel anode has a good performance for organics degradation with perfect electrode life, showing potential for environmental application.

  11. Anode modeling of a molten-carbonate based direct carbon fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Selman, J. Robert

    2017-06-01

    The Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) is a type of fuel cell using solid carbon as fuel and molten carbonate as electrolyte. Although the primary anodic reaction is believed to be a 4-electron carbon oxidation reaction, to explain the performance of the DCFC in practice it is necessary to consider the 2-electron CO oxidation reaction as well as the reverse Boudouard reaction. Taking these multiple reactions into account, this work develops a 1-D macrohomogeneous model, and investigates the current and concentration distribution in the DCFC anode. The result shows that the active zone is mostly located on the portion of the anode bed nearest the electrolyte matrix. The dimensionless analysis of the electrode's resistance ratios suggests that the DCFC anode performance is mainly limited by ohmic losses and the relatively slow kinetics of the anodic reactions. To improve the performance of the DCFC, increasing effective electrical conductivity of the carbon particle bed by an order of magnitude, for example by a small fraction of inert metallic additives, can increase the cell efficiency appreciably. Besides causing the anode bed to be fully used, the rise in effective electrical conductivity of the anode bed appreciably improves the power density of DCFC.

  12. An investigation of anode and cathode materials in photomicrobial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kenneth; Thorne, Rebecca J; Cameron, Petra J

    2016-02-28

    Photomicrobial fuel cells (p-MFCs) are devices that use photosynthetic organisms (such as cyanobacteria or algae) to turn light energy into electrical energy. In a p-MFC, the anode accepts electrons from microorganisms that are either growing directly on the anode surface (biofilm) or are free floating in solution (planktonic). The nature of both the anode and cathode material is critical for device efficiency. An ideal anode is biocompatible and facilitates direct electron transfer from the microorganisms, with no need for an electron mediator. For a p-MFC, there is the additional requirement that the anode should not prevent light from perfusing through the photosynthetic cells. The cathode should facilitate the rapid reaction of protons and oxygen to form water so as not to rate limit the device. In this paper, we first review the range of anode and cathode materials currently used in p-MFCs. We then present our own data comparing cathode materials in a p-MFC and our first results using porous ceramic anodes in a mediator-free p-MFC.

  13. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube-textile anode for high-performance microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Wells, George F; Kong, Desheng; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-12

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of microorganisms, converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Anode performance is an important factor limiting the power density of MFCs for practical application. Improving the anode design is thus important for enhancing the MFC performance, but only a little development has been reported. Here, we describe a biocompatible, highly conductive, two-scale porous anode fabricated from a carbon nanotube-textile (CNT-textile) composite for high-performance MFCs. The macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT-textile fibers creates an open 3D space for efficient substrate transport and internal colonization by a diverse microflora, resulting in a 10-fold-larger anolyte-biofilm-anode interfacial area than the projective surface area of the CNT-textile. The conformally coated microscale porous CNT layer displays strong interaction with the microbial biofilm, facilitating electron transfer from exoelectrogens to the CNT-textile anode. An MFC equipped with a CNT-textile anode has a 10-fold-lower charge-transfer resistance and achieves considerably better performance than one equipped with a traditional carbon cloth anode: the maximum current density is 157% higher, the maximum power density is 68% higher, and the energy recovery is 141% greater.

  14. Enhanced osteoblast adhesion to drug-coated anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Aninwene, George E; Yao, Chang; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Current orthopedic implants have functional lifetimes of only 10–15 years due to a variety of reasons including infection, extensive inflammation, and overall poor osseointegration (or a lack of prolonged bonding of the implant to juxtaposed bone). To improve properties of titanium for orthopedic applications, this study anodized and subsequently coated titanium with drugs known to reduce infection (penicillin/streptomycin) and inflammation (dexamethasone) using simple physical adsorption and the deposition of such drugs from simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed improved drug elution from anodized nanotubular titanium when drugs were coated in the presence of SBF for up to 3 days. For the first time, results also showed that the simple physical adsorption of both penicillin/streptomycin and dexamethasone on anodized nanotubular titanium improved osteoblast numbers after 2 days of culture compared to uncoated unanodized titanium. In addition, results showed that depositing such drugs in SBF on anodized titanium was a more efficient method to promote osteoblast numbers compared to physical adsorption for up to 2 days of culture. In addition, osteoblast numbers increased on anodized titanium coated with drugs in SBF for up to 2 days of culture compared to unanodized titanium. In summary, compared to unanodized titanium, this preliminary study provided unexpected evidence of greater osteoblast numbers on anodized titanium coated with either penicillin/streptomycin or dexamethasone using simple physical adsorption or when coated with SBF; results which suggest the need for further research on anodized titanium orthopedic implants possessing drug-eluting nanotubes. PMID:18686785

  15. Ipsilesional anodal tDCS enhances the functional benefits of rehabilitation in patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Claire; Amadi, Ugwechi; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wilkins, Leigh; Filippini, Nicola; Kischka, Udo; Stagg, Charlotte J; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can boost the effects of motor training and facilitate plasticity in the healthy brain. Motor rehabilitation depends on learning and plasticity, and motor learning can occur after stroke. Here, we tested whether brain stimulation using anodal tDCS added to motor training could improve rehabilitation outcomes in patients after stroke. We performed a randomized, controlled trial in 24 patients at least 6 months after a first unilateral stroke not directly involving the primary motor cortex. Patients received either anodal tDCS (n=11) or sham treatment (n=13) paired with daily motor training for 9 days. We observed improvements that persisted for at least 3 months post-intervention after anodal tDCS but not sham treatment on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) but not on the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity score (UEFM). Functional MRI showed increased activity during movement of the affected hand in the ipsilesional motor and premotor cortex in the anodal tDCS group compared to the sham treatment group. Structural MRI revealed intervention-related increases in gray matter volume in cortical areas including ipsilesional motor and premotor cortex after anodal tDCS but not sham treatment. The addition of ipsilesional anodal tDCS to a 9-day motor training program improved long-term clinical outcomes relative to sham treatment in patients after stroke. PMID:27089207

  16. Corrosion Protection of Al/Au/ZnO Anode for Hybrid Cell Application

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter, Gymama; Stevens, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection of power sources from corrosion is critical in the development of abiotic fuel cells, biofuel cells, hybrid cells and biobateries for implantable bioelectronics. Corrosion of these bioelectronic devices result in device inability to generate bioelectricity. In this paper Al/Au/ZnO was considered as a possible anodic substrate for the development of a hybrid cell. The protective abilities of corrosive resistant aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films formed on the surface of Al/Au/ZnO anode in various electrolyte environments were examined by electrochemical methods. The presence of phosphate buffer and physiological saline (NaCl) buffer allows for the formation of aluminum hyrdroxide and zinc phosphite composite films on the surface of the Al/Au/ZnO anode that prevent further corrosion of the anode. The highly protective films formed on the Al/Au/ZnO anode during energy harvesting in a physiological saline environment resulted in 98.5% corrosion protective efficiency, thereby demonstrating that the formation of aluminum hydroxide and zinc phosphite composite films are effective in the prevention of anode corrosion during energy harvesting. A cell assembly consisting of the Al/Au/ZnO anode and platinum cathode resulted in an open circuit voltage of 1.03 V. A maximum power density of 955.3 μW/ cm2 in physiological saline buffer at a cell voltage and current density of 345 mV and 2.89 mA/ cm2, respectively. PMID:26580661

  17. Effects of the voltage and time of anodization on modulation of the pore dimensions of AAO films for nanomaterials synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahrour, Khaled M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hashim, M. R.; Elfadill, Nezar G.; Maryam, W.; Ahmad, M. A.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Highly-ordered and hexagonal-shaped nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) of 1 μm thickness of Al pre-deposited onto Si substrate using two-step anodization was successfully fabricated. The growth mechanism of the porous AAO film was investigated by anodization current-time behavior for different anodizing voltages and by visualizing the microstructural procedure of the fabrication of AAO film by two-step anodization using cross-sectional and top view of FESEM imaging. Optimum conditions of the process variables such as annealing time of the as-deposited Al thin film and pore widening time of porous AAO film were experimentally determined to obtain AAO films with uniformly distributed and vertically aligned porous microstructure. Pores with diameter ranging from 50 nm to 110 nm and thicknesses between 250 nm and 1400 nm, were obtained by controlling two main influential anodization parameters: the anodizing voltage and time of the second-step anodization. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation after annealing at temperatures above 800 °C. AFM images show optimum ordering of the porous AAO film anodized under low voltage condition. AAO films may be exploited as templates with desired size distribution for the fabrication of CuO nanorod arrays. Such nanostructured materials exhibit unique properties and hold high potential for nanotechnology devices.

  18. Fabrication of Self-Ordered Alumina Films with Large Interpore Distance by Janus Anodization in Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingjun; Wen, Yihao; Li, Juan; Li, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Chenchen; Sun, Runguang

    2016-12-13

    Self-organized porous anodic alumina (PAA) formed by electrochemical anodization have become a fundamental tool to develop various functional nanomaterials. However, it is still a great challenge to break the interpore distance (Dint) limit (500 nm) by using current anodization technologies of mild anodization (MA) and hard anodization (HA). Here, we reported a new anodization mode named "Janus anodization" (JA) to controllably fabricate self-ordered PAA with large Dint at high voltage of 350-400 V. JA naturally occurs as anodizing Al foils in citric acid solution, which possessing both the characteristics of MA and HA. The process can be divided into two stages: I, slow pore nucleation stage similar to MA; II, unequilibrium self-organization process similar to HA. The as-prepared films had the highest modulus (7.0 GPa) and hardness (127.2 GPa) values compared with the alumina obtained by MA and HA. The optical studies showed that the black films have low reflectance (<10 %) in the wavelength range of 250-1500 nm and photoluminescence property. Dint can be tuned between 645-884 nm by controlling citric acid concentration or anodization voltage. JA is a potential technology to efficiently and controllably fabricate microstructured or hybrid micro- and nanostructured materials with novel properties.

  19. Experimental investigation of anodic gaseous concentration of a practical seal-less solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Akihiko; Kaga, Yasuo; Takano, Kiyonami; Nozaki, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Inagaki, Toru; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Koji; Yamada, Masaharu; Akbay, Taner; Akikusa, Jun

    In order to verify the validity of the simulation and to investigate the gaseous diffusion from the outlet of the anode, anodic gas concentration measurements of a seal-less disk-type solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) were carried out using quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). Simultaneous gas sampling was conducted from the five sampling ports made at the anode separator. The uniformity of the radial gas flow in the anode was confirmed by analyzing the gas from four sampling ports located at a concentric circle. H 2, H 2O and N 2 concentration profiles were measured and simulated under various fuel utilization ( Uf) conditions and changing the gas flow rate. The diffusion of N 2 into the anode was found to become less with increasing Uf owing to the lesser diffusivity of N 2 in H 2O than in H 2. From the simulation, the existence of the reverse current, i.e., electrolysis current, in the outlet region was predicted. It was confirmed that the existence of the electrolysis current is possible by measuring the concentration of the gas in the anode under electrolysis operations. The comparison of V- i characteristics measured and simulated revealed that the effect of the concentration polarization is not significant and suggested the validity of the assumption made for the simulation.

  20. Highly efficient lithium composite anode with hydrophobic molten salt in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yancheng; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    A lithium composite anode (lithium/1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazoleum hexafluorophosphate (BMI +PF 6-)/4-VLZ) for primary lithium/seawater semi-fuel-cells is proposed to reduce lithium-water parasitic reaction and, hence, increase the lithium anodic efficiency up to 100%. The lithium composite anode was activated when in contact with artificial seawater (3% NaCl solution) and the output was a stable anodic current density at 0.2 mA/cm 2, which lasted about 10 h under potentiostatic polarization at +0.5 V versus open circuit potential (OCP); the anodic efficiency was indirectly measured to be 100%. With time, a small traces of water diffused through the hydrophobic molten salt, BMI +PF 6-, reached the lithium interface and formed a double layer film (LiH/LiOH). Accordingly, the current density decreased and the anodic efficiency was estimated to be 90%. The hypothesis of small traces of water penetrating the molten salt and reaching the lithium anode—after several hours of operation—is supported by the collected experimental current density and hydrogen evolution, electrochemical impedance spectrum analysis, and non-mechanistic interface film modeling of lithium/BMI +PF 6-.

  1. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  2. Surface modifications for enhanced enzyme immobilization and improved electron transfer of PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase anodes.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ryan J; Babanova, Sofia; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen

    2015-10-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent soluble glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-sGDH) enzymatic MWCNT electrodes were p roduced using 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid (PCA) activated through carbodiimide functionalization and 1-Pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (PBSE) as tethering agents. At 600 mV potential, the current density generated by the activated-PCA tethered PQQ-sGDH anode was significantly greater than the current density generated by the untethered PQQ-sGDH and PBSE tethered anodes, and performance was nearly identical to the performance of a covalently bound PQQ-sGDH anode. A technique for covalently bonding heme-b (hemin), a natural quinohemoprotein porphyrin redox cofactor, to carbon nanotubes modified with arylamine groups is reported. The resulting performance of the covalently bound hemin PQQ-sGDH anode is considerably higher than that of any other PQQ-sGDH anodes tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  4. Study of the anodic arc discharge for carbon nanotube production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldorff, Erik; Keidar, Michael; Wass, Anthony; Friedmann, Peretz

    2003-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are unique nanostructures with remarkable electronic and mechanical properties. CNTs are currently considered to be a promising candidate as a next generation material having various applications. To-date, a variety of CNT fabrication methods have been developed, among them is an arc discharge method. Arc discharge is a relatively simple method having high rate of CNT production. In this method single-wall and multi-wall nanotubes are produced from an ionized carbon plasma with joule heating from the discharge used to generate the plasma. The University of Michigan carbon nanotube production facility in the Aerospace Engineering Department utilizes the anodic arc discharge. In this type of discharge, the Carbon plasma is supplied mainly by the anode ablation. In addition a buffer gas (Helium) with a pressure range of 100-1000 torr is introduced into the discharge chamber. The experimental anode ablation rate is about 2-4 m3/s and generally increases with the background gas pressure in the considered pressure range.A model of the anodic arc discharge is developed. The main component of this model is the anode ablation kinetics that takes into account the non-free nature of ablation due to the presence of a high-density discharge plasma. Different characteristic sub-regions near the surface, namely, space-charge sheath, Knudsen layer, presheath and a hydrodynamic layer are considered. The ablation rate is determined by the flow velocity at the edge of the Knudsen layer. Coupling solution of the non-equilibrium, Knudsen layer, with hydrodynamic layer and discharge column provides self-consistent solution for the ablation rate and plasma parameter distribution.

  5. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  6. Anodically bonded submicron microfluidic chambers.

    PubMed

    Dimov, S; Bennett, R G; Córcoles, A; Levitin, L V; Ilic, B; Verbridge, S S; Saunders, J; Casey, A; Parpia, J M

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of anodic bonding to fabricate cells with characteristic size as large as 7 x 10 mm(2), with height of approximately 640 nm, and without any internal support structure. The cells were fabricated from Hoya SD-2 glass and silicon wafers, each with 3 mm thickness to maintain dimensional stability under internal pressure. Bonding was carried out at 350 degrees C and 450 V with an electrode structure that excluded the electric field from the open region. We detail fabrication and characterization steps and also discuss the design of the fill line for access to the cavity.

  7. Anodically bonded submicron microfluidic chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimov, S.; Bennett, R. G.; Córcoles, A.; Levitin, L. V.; Ilic, B.; Verbridge, S. S.; Saunders, J.; Casey, A.; Parpia, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of anodic bonding to fabricate cells with characteristic size as large as 7×10 mm2, with height of ≈640 nm, and without any internal support structure. The cells were fabricated from Hoya SD-2 glass and silicon wafers, each with 3 mm thickness to maintain dimensional stability under internal pressure. Bonding was carried out at 350 °C and 450 V with an electrode structure that excluded the electric field from the open region. We detail fabrication and characterization steps and also discuss the design of the fill line for access to the cavity.

  8. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  9. A novel compensation method for the anode gain non-uniformity of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Mi; Il Kwon, Sun; Ko, Guen Bae; Ito, Mikiko; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Hong, Seong Jong; Lee, Jae Sung

    2012-01-07

    The position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MA-PMT) is widely used in high-resolution scintillation detectors. However, the anode gain nonuniformity of this device is a limiting factor that degrades the intrinsic performance of the detector module. The aim of this work was to develop a gain compensation method for the MA-PMT and evaluate the resulting enhancement in the performance of the detector. The method employs a circuit that is composed only of resistors and is placed between the MA-PMT and a resistive charge division network (RCN) used for position encoding. The goal of the circuit is to divide the output current from each anode, so the same current flows into the RCN regardless of the anode gain. The current division is controlled by the combination of a fixed-value series resistor with an output impedance that is much larger than the input impedance of the RCN, and a parallel resistor, which detours part of the current to ground. PSpice simulations of the compensation circuit and the RCN were performed to determine optimal values for the compensation resistors when used with Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs. The intrinsic characteristics of a detector module consisting of this MA-PMT and a lutetium-gadolinium-oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystal array were tested with and without the gain compensation method. In simulation, the average coefficient of variation and max/min ratio decreased from 15.7% to 2.7% and 2.0 to 1.2, respectively. In the flood map of the LGSO-H8500 detector, the uniformity of the photopeak position for individual crystals and the energy resolution were much improved. The feasibility of the method was shown by applying it to an octagonal prototype positron emission tomography scanner.

  10. Modification of solid oxide fuel cell anodes with cerium oxide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ling

    A priority for research in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is to develop cells that can maintain adequate performance in sulfur-containing fuel streams. There has been evidence that cerium oxide in the anode or electrolyte is associated with sulfur tolerance of the cell, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The objective of the present research is to show that the porous cermet SOFC anodes can be coated with cerium oxide films, so that the cell performance can be evaluated as a function of the anode structure and the microstructure of the film. Three types of anodes---Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), Ni/gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), and Ni/GDC with GDC interlayer were infiltrated with an aqueous solution to deposit nanocrystalline ceria films. The cells were then tested in hydrogen/nitrogen fuel containing hydrogen sulfide at levels up to 500 ppm. Modification of the anodes with thiol-terminated and trichlorosilane-terminated surfactants was explored. Different ceria film morphology was achieved for each surface treatment. In the cells that underwent performance testing, the thiol treatment promoted ceria film deposition, while the sulfonate treatment suppressed ceria deposition. Uniform ceria films up to 100 nm thick could be deposited in 48 h. Results on cell testing conditions, e.g. current, time, and H2S exposure were related to different anode structures and ceria coating morphologies. In general, the Ni/GDC anodes showed better performance than the Ni/YSZ anode. The introduction of ceria films often resulted in higher cell current and longer testing time, including operation under H2S exposure. Post-testing characterization revealed that, for some anodes, microstructure changes such as coarsening of Ni in the anode, migration of Ni to the anode surface, and depletion of Ni occurred. These changes in microstructure were irreversible and might account for permanent loss of cell performance. The presence of ceria films delayed these

  11. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  12. Effect of select organic compounds on perchlorate formation at boron-doped diamond film anodes.

    PubMed

    Donaghue, Adrienne; Chaplin, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Rates of ClO4(-) formation from ClO3(-) oxidation were investigated in batch experiments as a function of organic compounds (p-nitrophenol, p-benzoquinone, p-methoxyphenol, and oxalic acid) and current density using boron-doped diamond film anodes. Excluding organics, ClO4(-) formation rates ranged from 359 to 687 μmoles m(-2) min(-1) for current densities of 1-10 mA cm(-2). The presence of p-substituted phenols inhibited ClO4(-) formation rates between 13.0 and 99.6%. Results from a reactive-transport model of the diffuse layer adjacent to the anode surface indicate that competition between organics and ClO3(•) for OH(•) within a reaction zone (0.02-0.96 μm) adjacent to the anode controls ClO4(-) formation. Under kinetic-limited conditions (1.0 mA cm(-2)), organics reach the anode surface and substrates with higher OH(•) reaction rates demonstrate greater inhibition of perchlorate formation (IPF). At higher current densities (10 mA cm(-2)), organic compound oxidation becomes mass transfer-limited and compounds degrade a small distance from the anode surface (∼ 0.26 μm for p-methoxyphenol). Therefore, OH(•) scavenging does not occur at the anode surface and IPF values decrease. Results provide evidence for the existence of desorbed OH(•) near the anode surface and highlight the importance of controlling reactor operating conditions to limit ClO4(-) production during anodic treatment of organic compounds.

  13. Aluminum oxide as a dual-functional modifier of Ni-based anodes of solid oxide fuel cells for operation on simulated biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Ran, Ran; Tade, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2014-12-01

    Al2O3 and SnO2 additives are introduced into the Ni-YSZ cermet anode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for operation on simulated biogas. The effects of incorporating Al2O3/SnO2 on the electrical conductivity, morphology, coking resistance and catalytic activity for biogas reforming of the cermet anode are systematically studied. The electrochemical performance of the internal reforming SOFC is enhanced by introducing an appropriate amount of Al2O3 into the anode, but it becomes worse with excess alumina addition. For SnO2, a negative effect on the electrochemical performance is demonstrated, although the coking resistance of the anode is improved. For fuel cells operating on biogas, stable operation under a polarization current for 130 h at 750 °C is achieved for a cell with an Al2O3-modified anode, while cells with unmodified or SnO2-modified Ni-YSZ anodes show much poorer stability under the same conditions. The improved performance of the cell with the Al2O3-modified anode mainly results from the suppressed coking and sintering of the anode and from the formation of NiAl2O4 in the unreduced anode. In sum, modifying the anode with Al2O3 may be a useful and facile way to improve the coking resistance and electrochemical performance of the nickel-based cermet anodes for SOFCs.

  14. Electrochemical techniques reveal that total ammonium stress increases electron flow to anode respiration in mixed-species bacterial anode biofilms.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2017-06-01

    When anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) respire electrons to an anode in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs), they harvest only a small amount of free energy. This means that ARB must have a high substrate-oxidation rate coupled with a high ratio of electrons used for respiration compared to total electrons removed by substrate utilization. It also means that they are especially susceptible to inhibition that slows anode respiration or lowers their biomass yield. Using several electrochemical techniques, we show that a relatively high total ammonium-nitrogen (TAN) concentration (2.2 g TAN/L) induced significant stress on the ARB biofilms, lowering their true yield and forcing the ARB to boost the ratio of electrons respired per electrons consumed from the substrate. In particular, a higher respiration rate, measured as current density (j), was associated with slower growth and a lower net yield, compared to an ARB biofilm grown with a lower ammonium concentration (0.2 g TAN/L). Further increases in influent TAN (to 3 and then to 4.4 g TAN/L) caused nearly complete inhibition of anode respiration. However, the ARB could recover from high-TAN inhibition after a shift of the MXC's feed to 0.2 g TAN/L. In summary, ARB biofilms were inhibited by a high TAN concentration, but could divert more electron flow toward anode respiration with modest inhibition and recover when severe inhibition was relieved. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1151-1159. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interfacial morphology of low-voltage anodic aluminium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Naiping; Dongcinn, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Argekar, Sandip; Zhang, Yan; Browning, Jim; Schaefer, Dale

    2013-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and neutron reflectivity (NR), as well as ultra-smallangle X-ray scattering (USAXS), are used to examine the in-plane and surfacenormal structure of anodic films formed on aluminium alloy AA2024 and pure aluminium. Aluminium and alloy films up to 3500 A thick were deposited on Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of ingots. Porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) films are formed by polarizing at constant voltage up to 20 V noble to the open circuit potential. The voltage sweet spot (5 V) appropriate for constant-voltage anodization of such thin films was determined for both alloy and pure Al. In addition, a new concurrent voltage- and current-control protocol was developed to prepare films with larger pores (voltages higher than 5 V), but formed at a controlled current so that pore growth is slow enough to avoid stripping the aluminium substrate layer. USAXS shows that the pore size and interpore spacing are fixed in the first 10 s after initiation of anodization. Pores then grow linearly in time, at constant radius and interpore spacing. Using a combination of XRR and NR, the film density and degree of hydration of the films were determined from the ratio of scattering length densities. Assuming a chemical formula Al2O3xH2O, it was found that x varies from 0.29 for the native oxide to 1.29 for AAO grown at 20 V under concurrent voltage and current control. The average AAO film density of the porous film at the air surface is 2.45 (20) g cm3. The density of the barrier layer at the metal interface is 2.9 (4) g cm3, which indicates that this layer is also quite porous

  16. Computing anode heating voltage in high-pressure arc discharges and modelling rod electrodes in dc and ac regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, N. A.; Cunha, M. D.; Benilov, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical modelling of near-anode layers in arc discharges in several gases (Ar, Xe and Hg) is performed in a wide range of current densities, anode surface temperatures, and plasma pressures. It is shown that the density of energy flux to the anode is only weakly affected by the anode surface temperature and varies linearly with the current density. This allows one to interpret the results in terms of anode heating voltage (volt equivalent of the heat flux to the anode). The computed data may be useful in different ways. An example considered in this work concerns the evaluation of thermal regime of anodes in the shape of a thin rod operating in the diffuse mode. Invoking the model of nonlinear surface heating for cathodes, one obtains a simple and free of empirical parameters model of thin rod electrodes applicable to dc and ac high-pressure arcs provided that no anode spots are present. The model is applied to a variety of experiments reported in the literature and a good agreement with the experimental data found.

  17. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  18. Microscale Alloy Type Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the backside might be protected with a layer of photoresist or hard mask that could be etched at a later time. As shown in Fig. 2, for the fabrication...The fabrication of microscale anodes designed for in situ atomic force microscopy testing is discussed. The anodes are partially confined in a nickel...

  19. Anode circuit reconfiguration of two sedimentation basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.

    1999-12-01

    Upgrades at two sedimentation basins of a water treatment plant necessitated reconfiguration of the cathodic protection system. Modifications to the anode circuit and improvements to the corrosion monitoring system were implemented. The reconfiguration included the use of continuous strings of tubular mixed metal oxide (MMO) anode assemblies.

  20. Studies of AN Extractor Geometry Magnetically Insulated Ion Diode with AN Exploding Metal Film Anode Plasma Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondeau, Gary D.

    Magnetically insulated diodes (MIDs) are of interest as ion sources for inertial confinement fusion. We examine several issues that are of concern with MIDs, including ion turn-on delay and anode plasma production, and diode impedance history and particle current scaling with the applied magnetic field and gap spacing. The LION pulsed power generator (1.5 MV, 4 Omega, 40 ns pulse length) was used to power an extractor geometry magnetically insulated (radial magnetic field) ion beam diode. The diode was studied with three anode configurations. In the first, with epoxy-filled-groove (epoxy) anodes, scaling of the ion and electron currents with the gap and the magnetic field was examined. We found that the observed ion current is consistent with a diode model that has been successful with barrel geometry MIDs. The electron leakage current scaled proportionally to 1/Bd^2, where d is the anode-cathode gap spacing and B is the magnetic field strength. Studies of ion beam propagation in vacuum showed that space charge non -neutrality near the magnetic field coils caused the beam to expand initially. Later in the ion pulse (20 to 30 ns), the beam expansion became much less severe. The second anode configuration utilized an "electron collector" protruding above an epoxy anode surface. With the collector, we observed less bremsstrahlung across the active anode region. From the damage to thin wires inserted into the anode and from the level of the ion current, we inferred that the electron layer was 1-2 mm further from the anode on collector shots. The last anode configuration studied was the exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS). Current from the accelerator was directed by an electron collector or a plasma opening switch through a thin aluminum film, which exploded to form the anode plasma. The primary ion species from EMFAAPS were protons, Al^{3+ } and Al^{2+}, although oxygen discharge cleaning reduced the proton fraction in favor of O^{3+}, O ^{2+}, C

  1. Comparative study on ammonia oxidation over Ni-based cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molouk, Ahmed Fathi Salem; Yang, Jun; Okanishi, Takeou; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Eguchi, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    In the current work, we investigate the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with Ni‒yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) and Ni‒gadolinia-dope ceria (Ni-GDC) cermet anodes fueled with H2 or NH3 in terms of the catalytic activity of ammonia decomposition. The cermet of Ni-GDC shows higher catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition than Ni-YSZ. In response to this, the performance of direct NH3-fueled SOFC improved by using Ni-GDC anode. Moreover, we observe further enhancement in the cell performance and the catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition with applying Ni-GDC anode synthesised by the glycine-nitrate combustion process. These results reveal that the high performance of Ni-GDC anode for the direct NH3-fueled SOFC results from its mixed ionic-electronic conductivity as well as high catalytic activity for ammonia decomposition.

  2. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  3. Preparation of uniform Si nanoparticles for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Su, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Du, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-21

    Nanostructured silicon has attracted a great deal of attention as an excellent anode material for Li ion batteries (LIBs). However, the use of Si nanomaterials in LIBs is severely hindered by their preparative methods owing to the high cost, low yield, and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we report a new method for the synthesis of uniform Si nanocrystals based on the magnesiothermic reduction of natural attapulgite clay. The obtained Si nanocrystals with a uniform size of ca. 10 nm are coated with polypyrrole (denoted ppy@Si) and show excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs. After charging-discharging for 200 cycles at a current density of 0.6 A g(-1), the specific capacity value of the ppy@Si anode is ∼954 mA h g(-1). Because of the abundance of attapulgite, the obtained silicon nanoparticles can be exploited as a practical anode material for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  4. Design and fabrication of novel anode flow-field for commercial size solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavar, Murat; Timurkutluk, Bora

    2017-04-01

    In this study, nickel based woven meshes are tested as not only anode current collecting meshes but also anode flow fields instead of the conventional gas channels fabricated by machining. For this purpose, short stacks with different anode flow fields are designed and built by using different number of meshes with various wire diameters and widths of opening. A short stack with classical machined flow channels is also constructed. Performance and impedance measurements of the short stacks with commercial size cells of 81 cm2 active area are performed and compared. The results reveal that it is possible to create solid oxide fuel cell anode flow fields with woven meshes and obtain acceptable power with a proper selection of the mesh number, type and orientation.

  5. Ceramic anode catalyst for dry methane type molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, T.; Yanase, A.; Goto, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kondo, M.

    Oxide catalyst materials for methane oxidation were examined in order to develop the anode electrode for molten carbonate type fuel cell (MCFC). As a primary selection, oxides such as lanthanum (La 2O 3) and samarium (Sm 2O 3) were selected from screening experiments of TPD, TG and tubular reactor. Composite materials of these oxides with titanium fine powder were assembled into a cell unit for MCFC as the anode electrode. Steady-state activities were observed with these anode electrode materials when hydrogen was used as a fuel. When methane was directly charged to anode as a fuel (dry methane operation), a power generation with steady state was observed on both lanthanum and samarium composites after gradual decrease of open circuit electromotive force (OCV) and closed circuit current (CCI). The steady-state activity held as long as 144 h of continuous operation.

  6. Improvement of rate capability by graphite foam anode for Li secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sunghyun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Yamada, Yuto; Munakata, Hirokazu; Lee, Young-Seak; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    The rate performances of Li batteries are severely influenced by the electrochemical properties of anode material. The graphite foams (GFms) is prepared by simple process from mesophase pitch (MP) precursor. The physical and electrochemical properties are investigated for Li secondary battery anode. The rate performances of GFms anode cell is more than 92% at the 30 C-rate compare to 1 C-rate current, which is very promising to the high power applications such as electric vehicles. For the quantitative analysis of rate capability improvement, the charge transfer resistance and diffusivity are measured by microelectrode system with single particle and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). The diffusion coefficient of GFms is in the range of 3.2 × 10-12 - 2.0 × 10-9 cm2/s, which is 2 orders higher than that of commercialized graphite anodes.

  7. Fabrication of resistive switching memory structure using double-sided-anodized porous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Yoshitaka; Hosono, Takaya; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2017-05-01

    Double-sides of aluminum sheet were anodized; at first, one side (front-side) of aluminum sheet was anodized, and the pores were filled with nickel using electroplating technique. Next, the other side (back side) of aluminum sheet was anodized. After formation of electrodes on both sides of anodic porous alumina, the current-voltage characteristics were examined, and reversible change in the resistance between metallic and insulating states was measured during mono-polar operation. This switching behavior could be measured for the sample with the depth of backside pores of about 100 μm. The bias voltage, at which the resistance state changed into the lower-resistance state from the higher-resistance state, decreased with decreasing the depth of backside pores, and the bias voltage was about 1 V in the case of the backside pores of about 10 μm.

  8. Electron harvest and treatment of amendment free municipal wastewater using microbial anodes: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Luis F. M.; Koch, Christin; Korth, Benjamin; Harnisch, Falk

    2017-07-01

    Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) and especially microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are considered to allow energy harvest from the fuel wastewater during its treatment. However, the majority of studies use either ;artificial; wastewater, amended wastewater, (i.e. with addition of chemicals), or pre-enriched microbial anodes. As these strategies might not be transferable to large scale, this study uses exclusively amendment free municipal wastewater as inoculum and sole carbon and energy source. It is shown that electrons can be harvested, at maximum current densities of 0.01 mA cm-2. In weekly cycles using batch systems (with 90 cm2 L-1 anode surface) only a minor fraction (<10%) of the available charge from COD-removal was turned into electricity by a highly diverse anodic microbial community. This performance is below those achieved by pre-enriched anodes or in amended wastewater studies, illustrating the need for more fundamental, application relevant studies.

  9. One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P.

    2011-08-01

    A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm × 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

  10. One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Poehlman, John F; Alexander, Andrew W; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P

    2011-08-01

    A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm × 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

  11. One hundred anode microchannel plate ion detector

    SciTech Connect

    He Yi; Poehlman, John F.; Alexander, Andrew W.; Boraas, Kirk; Reilly, James P.

    2011-08-15

    A one-hundred-anode microchannel plate detector is constructed on a 10 cm x 15 cm printed circuit board and attached to a homebuilt matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ringing and cross talk between anodes have been successfully eliminated and preliminary mass spectra of peptide ions recorded. With one hundred anodes on the printed circuit board, spatial information about the ion beam can also be readily determined with this detector. During operation, the detector anode assembly loses sensitivity after ions strike it for a considerable period of time due to charging of the non-conductive regions between anodes. However, this effect can be minimized by deflecting matrix ions away from the detector.

  12. Comparison in performance of sediment microbial fuel cells according to depth of embedded anode.

    PubMed

    An, Junyeong; Kim, Bongkyu; Nam, Jonghyeon; Ng, How Yong; Chang, In Seop

    2013-01-01

    Five rigid graphite plates were embedded in evenly divided sections of sediment, ranging from 2 cm (A1) to 10 cm (A5) below the top sediment layer. The maximum power and current of the MFCs increased in depth order; however, despite the increase in the internal resistance, the power and current density of the A5 MFC were 2.2 and 3.5 times higher, respectively, than those of the A1 MFC. In addition, the anode open circuit potentials (OCPs) of the sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) became more negative with sediment depth. Based on these results, it could be then concluded that as the anode-embedding depth increases, that the anode environment is thermodynamically and kinetically favorable to anodophiles or electrophiles. Therefore, the anode-embedding depth should be considered an important parameter that determines the performance of SMFCs, and we posit that the anode potential could be one indicator for selecting the anode-embedding depth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron and ion kinetics and anode plasma formation in two applied Br field ion diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. J.; Quintenz, J. P.; Sweeney, M. A.

    1985-02-01

    Two magnetically insulated ion diodes that utilize a radial applied-B field are described. Both diodes generate an annular beam that is extracted along the diode axis. The first diode operated at 1.2 MV and 600 kA for 25 ns and generated a 300-kA ion beam. The second operated at 300 kV, 100 kA and generated 15 kA of ion current. The first diode was used to study diode performance as a function of inner and outer anode-cathode gaps, the applied-B field, and transmission line current ratios. The second diode was used to study anode plasma formation. The diodes were operated below Bcrit, resulting in electron leakage to the anode, especially near the outer cathode. A definition of Bcrit applicable to extraction diodes is given and methods of improving ion production efficiency in these diodes are suggested. The strong correlation of ion production with visible light emission suggests, however, that the electron loss played an important role in anode turn-on. The breakdown of neutral gas desorbed by electron impact is thought to be the anode plasma production mechanism. The grazing incidence leakage electrons affect the breakdown by significantly enhancing space-charge-induced electric fields in the dielectric-filled anode grooves.

  14. Anode Biofilms of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Exhibit Electrochemical Signatures of Multiple Electron Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yoho, Rachel A; Popat, Sudeep C; Rago, Laura; Guisasola, Albert; Torres, César I

    2015-11-17

    Thriving under alkaliphilic conditions, Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus (Glk. ferrihydriticus) provides new applications in treating alkaline waste streams as well as a possible new model organism for microbial electrochemistry. We investigated the electrochemical response of biofilms of the alkaliphilic anode-respiring bacterium (ARB) Glk. ferrihydriticus voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry. We observed there to be at least four dominant electron transfer pathways, with their contribution to the overall current produced dependent on the set anode potential. These pathways appear to be manifested at midpoint potentials of approximately -0.14 V, -0.2 V, -0.24 V, and -0.27 V vs standard hydrogen electrode. The individual contributions of the pathways change upon equilibration from a set anode potential to another anode potential. Additionally, the contribution of each pathway to the overall current produced is reversible when the anode potential is changed back to the original set potential. The pathways involved in anode respiration in Glk. ferrihydriticus biofilms follow a similar, but more complicated, pattern as compared to those in the model ARB, Geobacter sulfurreducens. This greater diversity of electron transport pathways in Glk. ferrihydriticus could be related to its wider metabolic capability (e.g., higher pH and larger set of possible substrates, among others).

  15. Electrogenic capacity and community composition of anodic biofilms in soil-based bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Ringelberg, David B; Foley, Karen L; Reynolds, Charles M

    2011-06-01

    Although a number of bacteria are known to be capable of generating an electrical current, the diversity of electrogenic bacteria in soils and the commonality across soil types is relatively unknown. Simple bioelectrochemical cells were constructed to measure the electrogenic capacity and community composition of bacteria originating on cell anodes from three biogeochemically distinct soil types. All three soils supported electrogenic activity, amounting to a maximum sustained current of 1.5-2.1 mA over 55 days. Analysis of fatty acids identified differences in microbial community composition between anode biofilms and far-field soil materials. Anode communities showed greater percentages of fatty acids indicative of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes. By analysis of anode biofilm genomic DNA via terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphisms, commonalities in community composition across the three soil types were identified, specifically, the putative presence of bacterial species belonging to the α- and ß-Proteobacteria and the Firmicutes. Subsequent culture and isolation of bacteria from the anodes confirmed the presence of similar classes of bacteria. Results showed that, under saturated conditions, different soils can support electrogenic activity and that the bacterial communities that develop on the anodes share certain common inherent community traits.

  16. Electrochemical effect on denitrification in different microenvironments around anodes and cathodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le-hua; Jia, Jin-ping; Ying, Di-wen; Zhu, Nan-wen; Zhu, You-chun

    2005-01-01

    A bio-anode reactor and a bio-cathode reactor were developed to investigate the microenvironments around anodes and cathodes and their effects on denitrification. With an applied current of 40 mA, the oxidation-reduction potentials (ORPs) in the bio-cathode and bio-anode reactors were 100-200 mV lower and 50 mV higher, respectively, than that in the control reactor (a normal bio-reactor). The cathode reaction enhanced denitrification and the anode reaction inhibited denitrification. At 40 mA, the denitrification rate in the bio-cathode reactor was 55.1% higher than that in the control reactor. At 75 mA, the denitrification rate in the bio-anode reactor was just 33.5% of that in control reactor. Electric current of less than 20 mA had no effect on the most probable number (MPN) of denitrifiers, but at 75 mA, the MPN of denitrifiers decreased by 90% in the bio-anode reactor. In the bio-cathode reactor, the MPN of denitrifiers increased more than 100% for the lower ORP environment produced by a cathode reaction at 75 mA.

  17. Metal Anode Performance in Low-Temperature Electrolytes for Aluminum Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, T. R.; Macrae, C. M.; Wilson, N. C.

    2011-08-01

    An investigation has been undertaken into the performance of metal alloy anodes used to produce aluminum via an electrochemical method. Alumina was electrolyzed in NaF/AlF3 and KF/AlF3 electrolytes and mixtures thereof with copper-nickel-iron (Cu:Ni:Fe) alloy anodes and titanium diboride (TiB2) cathodes. The operating temperatures of the electrochemical cells ranged from 973 K to 1123 K (700 °C to 850 °C), with an anode current density of 5000 A/m2. Cells ranged in current capacity from 10 to 300 amperes, with oxygen gas formed at the anode and molten aluminum collected from the cathode. Posttest anodes were sectioned, and elemental maps were performed to characterize the distribution of the chemical phases, including the metal electrodes, bath phases, and aluminum metal production, which were used to determine the reaction mechanisms of the cell. The metal alloy slowly corroded and formed an adherent, electronically conducting nickel ferrite plus copper scale during the operation of the cell. The proposed mechanisms of the anode performance are described herein.

  18. Synergistic integration of sonochemical and electrochemical disinfection with DSA anodes.

    PubMed

    Cotillas, Salvador; Llanos, Javier; Castro-Ríos, Katherin; Taborda-Ocampo, Gonzalo; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This work focuses on the disinfection actual urban wastewater by the combination of ultrasound (US) irradiation and electrodisinfection with Dimensionally Stable Anodes (DSA). First, the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) during the sonochemical disinfection was studied at increasing ultrasound power. Results showed that it was not possible to achieve a complete disinfection, even at the highest US power (200 W) dosed by the experimental device used. Next, the electrodisinfection with DSA anodes at different current densities was studied, finding that it was necessary a minimum current density of 11.46 A m(-2) to reach the complete disinfection. Finally, an integrated sonoelectrodisinfection process was studied. Results showed a synergistic effect when coupling US irradiation with DSA electrodisinfection, with a synergy coefficient higher than 200% of the disinfection rate attained for the highest US power applied. In this process, hypochlorite and chloramines were identified as the main reagents for the disinfection process (neither chlorate nor perchlorate were detected), and the presence of trihalomethanes was far below acceptable values. Confirming this synergistic effect with DSA anodes opens the door to novel efficient disinfection processes, limiting the occurrence of hazardous disinfection by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Very High Isp Thruster with Anode Layer (VHITAL): An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrese-Reading, Colleen M.; Frisbee, Robert; Sengupta, Anita; Cappelli, Mark A.; Tverdoklebov, Sergey; Semenkin, Sasha; Boyd, Iain

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the two stage bismuth fueled Hall thruster technology that was developed at TsNIIMASH [1] and the Very High Isp Thruster with Anode Layer (VHITAL) technology assessment program that is funded by NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD)' Prometheus program. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the potential for this Russian-developed thruster technology to enable near-term, Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEf)-enabled ESMD missions to the outer planets. This 2.5 year program will provide the technology basis for the development of even higher power anode layer thrusters for rapid outer planet exploration missions and, ultimately, human exploration of the solar system. The first 6 month phase is currently in progress. If this phase is successful, the second (1 year) and third (1 year) phase of the proposed program will follow.

  20. Electrochemical degradation of gallic acid on a BDD anode.

    PubMed

    Panizza, Marco; Cerisola, Giacomo

    2009-11-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) has been studied on a boron-doped diamond anode (BDD). Cyclic voltammetries, chronoamperometries and bulk electrolyses were performed to characterise the electrochemical behaviour of gallic acid on diamond-type anode and to study the kinetics of gallic acid degradation. UV spectroscopy, HPLC analysis, COD and TOC measurements were conducted to study the reaction pathway for gallic acid mineralisation. The results showed that both direct and mediated electrochemical processes were involved in the oxidation of gallic acid. The degradation of gallic acid evidenced a pseudo first-order kinetics and the rate constant increased with applied current. Aliphatic acids were the main intermediates formed during the electrolyses and they were finally mineralised to CO(2) and water. The degradation rate on boron-doped diamond was under mass-transport control and was favoured by the increase of the flow rate of the solution into the electrochemical reactor.

  1. Effect of Slotted Anode on Gas Bubble Behaviors in Aluminum Reduction Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meijia; Li, Baokuan; Li, Linmin; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Jianping; Wang, Yaowu; Cheung, Sherman C. P.

    2017-08-01

    In the aluminum reduction cells, gas bubbles are generated at the bottom of the anode which eventually reduces the effective current contact area and the system efficiency. To encourage the removal of gas bubbles, slotted anode has been proposed and increasingly adopted by some industrial aluminum reduction cells. Nonetheless, the exact gas bubble removal mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. A three-dimensional (3D) transient, multiphase flow mathematical model coupled with magnetohydrodynamics has been developed to investigate the effect of slotted anode on the gas bubble movement. The Eulerian volume of fluid approach is applied to track the electrolyte (bath)-molten aluminum (metal) interface. Meanwhile, the Lagrangian discrete particle model is employed to handle the dynamics of gas bubbles with considerations of the buoyancy force, drag force, virtual mass force, and pressure gradient force. The gas bubble coalescence process is also taken into account based on the O'Rourke's algorithm. The two-way coupling between discrete bubbles and fluids is achieved by the inter-phase momentum exchange. Numerical predictions are validated against the anode current variation in an industrial test. Comparing the results using slotted anode with the traditional one, the time-averaged gas bubble removal rate increases from 36 to 63 pct; confirming that the slotted anode provides more escaping ways and shortens the trajectories for gas bubbles. Furthermore, the slotted anode also reduces gas bubble's residence time and the probability of coalescence. Moreover, the bubble layer thickness in aluminum cell with slotted anode is reduced about 3.5 mm (17.4 pct), so the resistance can be cut down for the sake of energy saving and the metal surface fluctuation amplitude is significantly reduced for the stable operation due to the slighter perturbation with smaller bubbles.

  2. Tuning nanoporous anodic alumina distributed-Bragg reflectors with the number of anodization cycles and the anodization temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferré-Borrull, Josep; Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Pallarès, Josep; Marsal, Lluís F

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the anodization temperature and of the number of applied voltage cycles on the photonic properties of nanoporous anodic alumina-based distributed-Bragg reflectors obtained by cyclic voltage anodization is analyzed. Furthermore, the possibility of tuning the stop band central wavelength with a pore-widening treatment after anodization and its combined effect with temperature has been studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic transmittance measurements. The spectra for samples measured right after anodization show irregular stop bands, which become better defined with the pore widening process. The results show that with 50 applied voltage cycles, stop bands are obtained and that increasing the number of cycles contributes to enhancing the photonic stop bands (specially for the case of the as-produced samples) but at the expense of increased scattering losses. The anodization temperature is a crucial factor in the tuning of the photonic stop bands, with a linear rate of 42 nm/°C. The pore widening permits further tuning to reach stop bands with central wavelengths as low as 500 nm. Furthermore, the results also show that applying different anodization temperatures does not have a great influence in the pore-widening rate or in the photonic stop band width.

  3. Autotrophic denitrification performance and bacterial community at biocathodes of bioelectrochemical systems with either abiotic or biotic anodes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Khanh; Hong, Sungsug; Park, Younghyun; Jo, Kyungmin; Lee, Taeho

    2015-02-01

    Two-chamber bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have recently been developed for nitrate removal from nitrate-contaminated water. In this study, we compared the nitrate removal performance of biocathodes of BESs when using abiotic and biotic anodes. Acetate was used as electron donor in BESs with biotic anode, whereas a direct current power supply was used as energy source in BESs with abiotic anode. The nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 18.1% to 43.0% when the voltage supplied to the BES with abiotic anode increased from 0.7 V to 0.9 V, whereas no higher removal efficiency was obtained at a higher supplied voltage (1.1 V). The highest efficiency (78.0%) of autotrophic nitrogen removal was achieved when electron transfer from the biotic anode chamber of BESs was used. Unexpectedly, control of the cathode potential did not enhance nitrate removal in BESs with biotic anode. Special attention was paid to elucidate the differences of bacterial communities catalysing autotrophic denitrification in the biocathodes of BESs with abiotic and biotic anodes. Data from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and phylogenetic analysis suggested that denitrification in BESs with abiotic anode could be attributed to Nitratireductor sp., Shinella sp., and Dyella sp., whereas the dominant bacterial denitrifiers in BESs with biotic anode were found to be Pseudomonas sp., Curtobacterium sp., and Aeromonas sp. These results implied that biocathodes of BESs with biotic anode are more efficient than those of BESs with abiotic anode for nitrate removal from nitrate-contaminated water in practical applications. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Open circuit versus closed circuit enrichment of anodic biofilms in MFC: effect on performance and anodic communities.

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Guerrero, Amor; Scott, Keith; Katuri, Krishna P; Godinez, Carlos; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    The influence of various carbon anodes; graphite, sponge, paper, cloth, felt, fiber, foam and reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC); on microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance is reported. The feed was brewery wastewater diluted in domestic wastewater. Biofilms were grown at open circuit or under an external load. Microbial diversity was analysed as a function of current and anode material. The bacterial community formed at open circuit was influenced by the anode material. However at closed circuit its role in determining the bacterial consortia formed was less important than the passage of current. The rate and extent of organic matter removal were similar for all materials: over 95% under closed circuit. The biofilm in MFCs working at open circuit and in the control reactors, increased COD removal by up to a factor of nine compared with that for baseline reactors. The average voltage output was 0.6 V at closed circuit, with an external resistor of 300 kOmega and 0.75 V at open circuit for all materials except RVC. The poor performance of this material might be related to the surface area available and concentration polarizations caused by the morphology of the material and the structure of the biofilm. Peak power varied from 1.3 mW m(-2) for RVC to 568 mW m(-2) for graphite with biofilm grown at closed circuit.

  5. Development of lithium powder based anode with conductive carbon materials for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Man Su

    Current lithium ion battery with a graphite anode shows stable cycle performance and safety. However, the lithium ion battery still has the limitation of having a low energy density caused by the application of lithium intercalated cathode and anode with low energy density. The combination of high capacity non-lithiated cathode such as sulfur and carbon and lithium metal anode has been researched for a long time to maximize battery's energy density. However, this cell design also has a lot of technical challenges to be solved. Among the challenges, lithium anode's problem related to lithium dendrite growth causing internal short and low cycling efficiency is very serious. Thus, extensive research on lithium metal anode has been performed to solve the lithium dendrite problem and a major part of the research has been focused on the control of the interface between lithium and electrolyte. However, research on lithium anode design itself has not been much conducted. In this research, innovative lithium anode design for less dendrite growth and higher cycling efficiency was suggested. Literature review for the lithium dendrite growth mechanism was conducted in Chapter 2 to develop electrode design concept and the importance of the current density on lithium dendrite growth was also found in the literatures. The preliminary test was conducted to verify the developed electrode concept by using lithium powder based anode (LIP) with conductive carbon materials and the results showed that lithium dendrite growth could be suppressed in this electrode design due to its increased electrochemical surface area and lithium deposition sites during lithium deposition. The electrode design suggested in Chapter 2 was extensively studied in Chapter 3 in terms of lithium dendrite growth morphology, lithium cycling efficiency and full cell cycling performance. This electrode concept was further developed to maximize the electrode's performance and safety in Chapter 4. In this new

  6. Selective niobium anodization process for fabricating Josephson tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Kroger, H.; Smith, L.N.; Jillie, D.W.

    1981-08-01

    A novel process for fabricating refractory sperconducting tunnel junctions is described, which is useful with both deposited and native oxide barriers. The distinguishing feature of the method is that the entire superconductor-barrier-superconductor sandwich is formed before the patterning of any layer. Isolated Josephson junctions are then formed by anodizing through the upper electrode, while the devices themselves are protected by a photoresist mask. Using this process, Nb-Si:H-Nb junctions have been fabricated, whose product of critical current and subgap resistance exceeds 10 mV and whose critical current density varies by about 50% over a 2-in. diameter wafer.

  7. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  8. Enrichment and analysis of anode-respiring bacteria from diverse anaerobic inocula.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Joseph F; Parameswaran, Prathap; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Torres, César I

    2012-09-18

    One of the limitations currently faced by microbial electrochemical cell (MXC) technologies lies in the shortage of different organisms capable of forming a biofilm and channeling electrons from substrates to the anode at high current densities. Using a poised anode (-0.30 V vs Ag/AgCl) and acetate as the electron donor in a MXC, we demonstrated the presence of highly efficient anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) able to produce high current densities (>1.5 A/m(2) anode) in seven out of thirteen environmental samples. These included marshes, lake sediments, saline microbial mats, and anaerobic soils obtained from geographically diverse locations. Our microbial ecology analysis, using pyrosequencing, shows that bacteria related to the genus Geobacter, a known and commonly found ARB, dominate only two of the biofilm communities producing high current; other biofilm communities contained different known and/or novel ARB. The presence of ARB in geographically diverse locations indicates that ARB thrive in a wide range of ecosystems. Studying ARB from different environmental conditions will allow us to better understand the ubiquity of anode respiration, compare the capabilities of different ARB consortia, and find ARB with useful metabolic capacities for future applications.

  9. The effect of anodic polarization on a Ag electrode deposited on YSZ solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jin Ki; Oh, In-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Ahn; Lee, Wha Young

    1995-07-01

    The polarization behavior in HeO 2 atmosphere was studied on a Ag electrode deposited on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte. It was seen that the open circuit potential followed the Nernst equation under experimental conditions. If the cathodic overpotential applied was lower than -100 mV, a limiting current was observed for a wide range of PO 2 and this was found to result from the interfacial diffusion of adsorbed oxygen. For PO 2 above 0.05 atm, however, a remarkably steep increase in currents was observed above a certain anodic overpotential. After this unexpected phenomenon had happened, the time required to attain a stable open circuit potential became longer and the cathodic limiting current increased by about ten times. To investigate the effect of anodic polarization on the Ag electrode, changes in the surface of the electrode before and after anodic polarization were examined by SEM and XPS, and the results showed that anodic polarization severely and irreversibly deformed the surface structure of the electrode. However, little change in the surface state was observed with polarization from the XPS analysis. The decomposition of the oxides which were formed during anodic polarization was presumed to result in a change in the surface structure, leading to an increase in cathodic limiting current.

  10. Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, P.; Henderson, D. J.; Good, D. E.; Hogge, K.; Mitton, C. V.; Molina, I.; Naffziger, C.; Codova, S. R.; Ormond, E. U.

    2013-06-01

    Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

  11. Fabrication of Self-Ordered Alumina Films with Large Interpore Distance by Janus Anodization in Citric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yingjun; Wen, Yihao; Li, Juan; Li, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Chenchen; Sun, Runguang

    2016-12-01

    Self-organized porous anodic alumina (PAA) formed by electrochemical anodization have become a fundamental tool to develop various functional nanomaterials. However, it is still a great challenge to break the interpore distance (Dint) limit (500 nm) by using current anodization technologies of mild anodization (MA) and hard anodization (HA). Here, we reported a new anodization mode named “Janus anodization” (JA) to controllably fabricate self-ordered PAA with large Dint at high voltage of 350-400 V. JA naturally occurs as anodizing Al foils in citric acid solution, which possessing both the characteristics of MA and HA. The process can be divided into two stages: I, slow pore nucleation stage similar to MA; II, unequilibrium self-organization process similar to HA. The as-prepared films had the highest modulus (7.0 GPa) and hardness (127.2 GPa) values compared with the alumina obtained by MA and HA. The optical studies showed that the black films have low reflectance (<10 %) in the wavelength range of 250-1500 nm and photoluminescence property. Dint can be tuned between 645-884 nm by controlling citric acid concentration or anodization voltage. JA is a potential technology to efficiently and controllably fabricate microstructured or hybrid micro- and nanostructured materials with novel properties.

  12. Fabrication of Self-Ordered Alumina Films with Large Interpore Distance by Janus Anodization in Citric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingjun; Wen, Yihao; Li, Juan; Li, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Chenchen; Sun, Runguang

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized porous anodic alumina (PAA) formed by electrochemical anodization have become a fundamental tool to develop various functional nanomaterials. However, it is still a great challenge to break the interpore distance (Dint) limit (500 nm) by using current anodization technologies of mild anodization (MA) and hard anodization (HA). Here, we reported a new anodization mode named “Janus anodization” (JA) to controllably fabricate self-ordered PAA with large Dint at high voltage of 350–400 V. JA naturally occurs as anodizing Al foils in citric acid solution, which possessing both the characteristics of MA and HA. The process can be divided into two stages: I, slow pore nucleation stage similar to MA; II, unequilibrium self-organization process similar to HA. The as-prepared films had the highest modulus (7.0 GPa) and hardness (127.2 GPa) values compared with the alumina obtained by MA and HA. The optical studies showed that the black films have low reflectance (<10 %) in the wavelength range of 250–1500 nm and photoluminescence property. Dint can be tuned between 645–884 nm by controlling citric acid concentration or anodization voltage. JA is a potential technology to efficiently and controllably fabricate microstructured or hybrid micro- and nanostructured materials with novel properties. PMID:27958365

  13. Anode-biofilm electron transfer behavior and wastewater treatment under different operational modes of bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baoguo; Feng, Chunhua; Huang, Liqiao; Lv, Zhisheng; Xie, Daohai; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-04-01

    Anode-biofilm electron transfer behavior was investigated during the advanced wastewater treatment process by three bioelectrochemical systems (BESs): microbial fuel cell (MFC), MFC operated under short circuit condition (MSC), and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Under different operational modes, current produced by the anode biofilm varied from 0.92, 4.15 to 8.21mA in the sequence of MFC, MSC and MEC, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry test on the anode biofilm suggested that the current generation was achieved via various bioelectroactive species with formal potentials at -0.473, -0.402 and -0.345V (vs. SCE). Gibbs free energy and charge transfer resistance data demonstrated that different amounts of available bioelectroactive species functioned in different BESs. The comparative investigation among MFC, MSC and MEC suggested that MEC was the only feasible operational mode for advanced wastewater treatment, because of its superior current generation capability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhizosphere anode model explains high oxygen levels during operation of a Glyceria maxima PMFC.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Ruud A; Strik, David P B T B; Arampatzoglou, Cristina; Buisman, Cees J N; Hamelers, Hubertus V M

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of root oxygen loss on energy recovery of the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is described. In this manner, advanced understanding of competing processes within the rhizosphere-anode interface was provided. A microscopic model was developed on the basis of exudation, oxygen loss, biological oxidation, and biological current generation. The model was successfully validated by comparison to oxygen concentration profiles, volatile fatty acid profiles, and chemical oxygen demand profiles measured in the anode compartment. The model predicted oxic zones around roots in the anode of the plant microbial fuel cell. Results show no direct link between current generation and photosynthesis. This was consistent with the model which predicted that current was generated via hydrolysis of root-derived organic compounds. This result means that to optimize energy recovery of a PMFC, the plant selection should focus on high root biomass production combined with low oxygen loss.

  15. Improving Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Gerard K.; Goswami, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands increase for applications such as automotive, military, aerospace, and biomedical, lithium-ion battery capacities are forced to increase in a corresponding manner. For this reason, much research is directed toward the development of improved battery anodes. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), silicon, tin, and nanocomposites with these metals are the leading candidates for the next generation of lithium-ion battery anodes, leading to capacities 3 to 10 times that of graphite alone. This review looks at some of the studies addressing high capacity lithium-ion battery anodes.

  16. Anode materials for electrochemical waste destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, Peter M.; Clarke, Clayton

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation (ECO) offers promise as a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure method for safe destruction of hazardous organic chemical wastes in water. Anode materials tend to suffer corrosion in the intensely oxidizing environment of the ECO cell. There is a need for cheaper, more resistant materials. In this experiment, a system is described for testing anode materials, with examples of several common anodes such as stainless steel, graphite, and platinized titanium. The ECO system is simple and safe to operate and the experiment can easily be expanded in scope to study the effects of different solutions, temperatures, and organic materials.

  17. Dual-Anode Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, Randall F.; Ryan, Timothy P.

    1994-01-01

    Use of two hydrogen anodes in nickel/hydrogen cell reduces ohmic and concentration polarizations contributing to internal resistance, yielding cell with improved discharging performance compared to single-anode cell. Dual-anode concept incorporated into nickel/hydrogen cells of individual pressure-vessel type (for use aboard spacecraft) and common pressure-vessel type, for use on Earth to store electrical energy from photovoltaic sources, "uninterruptible" power supplies of computer and telephone systems, electric vehicles, and load leveling on power lines. Also applicable to silver/hydrogen and other metal/gas batteries.

  18. Anode readout for pixellated CZT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hong, Jaesub; Niestemski, Francis C.

    2004-02-01

    Determination of the photon interaction depth offers numerous advantages for an astronomical hard X-ray telescope. The interaction depth is typically derived from two signals: anode and cathode, or collecting and non-collecting electrodes. We present some preliminary results from our depth sensing detectors using only the anode pixel signals. By examining several anode pixel signals simultaneously, we find that we can estimate the interaction depth, and get sub-pixel 2-D position resolution. We discuss our findings and the requirements for future ASIC development.

  19. Sacrificial anode stability and polarization potential variation in a ternary Al-xZn-xMg alloy in a seawater-marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muazu, Abubakar; Aliyu, Yaro Shehu; Abdulwahab, Malik; Idowu Popoola, Abimbola Patricia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the effects of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) addition on the performance of an aluminum-based sacrificial anode in seawater were investigated using a potential measurement method. Anodic efficiency, protection efficiency, and polarized potential were the parameters used. The percentages of Zn and Mg in the anodes were varied from 2% to 8% Zn and 1% to 4% Mg. The alloys produced were tested as sacrificial anodes for the protection of mild steel in seawater at room temperature. Current efficiency as high as 88.36% was obtained in alloys containing 6% Zn and 1% Mg. The polarized potentials obtained for the coupled (steel/Al-based alloys) are as given in the Pourbaix diagrams, with steel lying within the immunity region/cathodic region and the sacrificial anodes within the anodic region. The protection offered by the sacrificial anodes to the steel after the 7th and 8th week was measured and protection efficiency values as high as 99.66% and 99.47% were achieved for the Al-6%Zn-1%Mg cast anode. The microstructures of the cast anodes comprise of intermetallic structures of hexagonal Mg3Zn2 and body-centered cubic Al2Mg3Zn3. These are probably responsible for the breakdown of the passive alumina film, thus enhancing the anode efficiency.

  20. Electrochemical Behavior of Anode-Respiring Bacteria on Doped Carbon Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yasri, Nael G; Nakhla, George

    2016-12-28

    Cultivating anodic respiring bacteria (ARB) on anodes doped with metal-enhanced biological growth and affected higher electocatalytic activity (ECA). The anode doped with calcium sulfide (CaS) proved more favorable for ARB than the magnetite (Fe3O4) or iron(II) sulfide (FeS). Average anodic current densities of 8.4 Am(2-) (Fe3O4), 11.1 Am(2-) (FeS), and 22.0 Am(2-) (CaS) were achieved as compared to that of nondoped carbon (5.1 A m(-2)). Thus, CaS-doped graphite represents a promising anode material which is suitable for highly efficient bioelectrochemical systems (BES). Electrochemical evaluation during turnover and starvation using simple cycle voltammetry (CV) and derivative cycle voltammetry (DCV) indicated several extracellular electron transfer (EET) pathways characterized with lower potentials for biofilms. However, despite the high affinity of bacteria to iron, their lower ECA was kinetically attributed to the accumulation of self-produced mediators on iron-doped anodes.

  1. Development of a niobium-doped titania inert anode for titanium electrowinning in molten chloride salts.

    PubMed

    Snook, Graeme A; McGregor, Katherine; Urban, Andrew J; Lanyon, Marshall R; Donelson, R; Pownceby, Mark I

    2016-08-15

    The direct electrochemical reduction of solid titanium dioxide in a chloride melt is an attractive method for the production of titanium metal. It has been estimated that this type of electrolytic approach may reduce the costs of producing titanium sponge by more than half, with the additional benefit of a smaller environmental footprint. The process utilises a consumable carbon anode which releases a mixture of CO2 and CO gas during electrolysis, but suffers from low current efficiency due to the occurrence of parasitic side reactions involving carbon. The replacement of the carbon anode with a cheap, robust inert anode offers numerous benefits that include: elimination of carbon dioxide emissions, more efficient cell operation, opportunity for three-dimensional electrode configurations and reduced electrode costs. This paper reports a study of Nb-doped titania anode materials for inert anodes in a titanium electrolytic reduction cell. The study examines the effect of niobium content and sintering conditions on the performance of Nb-doped TiO2 anodes in laboratory-scale electrolysis tests. Experimental findings, including performance in a 100 h laboratory electrolysis test, are described.

  2. Corrosion control acceptance criteria for sacrificial anode type, cathodic protection systems (user guide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Vincent F.; Noble, Michael; McLeod, Malcolm E.

    1994-07-01

    The Army currently operates and maintains more than 20,000 underground storage tanks and over 3000 miles of underground gas pipelines, all of which require some form of corrosion control. Cathodic protection is one method of corrosion control used to prevent corrosion-induced leaks when a steel structure is exposed to an aggressive soil. The corrosion control acceptance criteria for sacrificial anode type CP systems provides guidelines for the DEH/DPW cathodic protection installation inspectors whose responsibilities are to ensure that the materials and equipment specified are delivered to the job site and subsequently installed in accordance with the engineering drawings and specifications. The sacrificial anode CP acceptance criteria includes all components for the sacrificial anode system such as insulated conductors, anodes, anode backfills, and auxiliary equipment. The sacrificial anode CP acceptance criteria is composed of a checklist that lists each component and that contains a space for the inspector to either check 'yes' or 'no' to indicate whether the component complies with the job specifications. In some cases, the inspector must measure and record physical dimensions or electrical output and compare the measurements to standards shown in attached tables.

  3. Reviving Lithium-Metal Anodes for Next-Generation High-Energy Batteries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanpeng; Li, Huiqiao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-08-01

    Lithium-metal batteries (LMBs), as one of the most promising next-generation high-energy-density storage devices, are able to meet the rigid demands of new industries. However, the direct utilization of metallic lithium can induce harsh safety issues, inferior rate and cycle performance, or anode pulverization inside the cells. These drawbacks severely hinder the commercialization of LMBs. Here, an up-to-date review of the behavior of lithium ions upon deposition/dissolution, and the failure mechanisms of lithium-metal anodes is presented. It has been shown that the primary causes consist of the growth of lithium dendrites due to large polarization and a strong electric field at the vicinity of the anode, the hyperactivity of metallic lithium, and hostless infinite volume changes upon cycling. The recent advances in liquid organic electrolyte (LOE) systems through modulating the local current density, anion depletion, lithium flux, the anode-electrolyte interface, or the mechanical strength of the interlayers are highlighted. Concrete strategies including tailoring the anode structures, optimizing the electrolytes, building artificial anode-electrolyte interfaces, and functionalizing the protective interlayers are summarized in detail. Furthermore, the challenges remaining in LOE systems are outlined, and the future perspectives of introducing solid-state electrolytes to radically address safety issues are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Characterization and performance of anodic mixed culture biofilms in submersed microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Christy, Ann D; Yu, Zhongtang; Co, Anne C; Islam, Rafiq; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2017-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed for laboratory scale experiments to study electroactive biofilms in anodic chambers. Anodic biofilms and current generation during biofilm growth were examined using single chambered MFCs submersed in algal catholyte. A culture of the marine green alga Nanochloropsis salina was used as a biocatholyte, and a rumen fluid microbiota was the anodic chamber inoculum. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was performed under varying external resistance once a week to identify mass transport limitations at the biofilm-electrolyte interface during the four-week experiment. The power generation increased from 249 to 461mWm(-2) during the time course. Confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging showed that the depth of the bacterial biofilm on the anode was about 65μm. There were more viable bacteria on the biofilm surface and near the biofilm-electrolyte interface as compared to those close to the anode surface. The results suggest that biofilm growth on the anode creates a conductive layer, which can help overcome mass transport limitations in MFCs.

  5. Flame synthesis of carbon nanostructures on stainless steel anodes for use in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamp, Jennifer L.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Naha, Sayangdev; Radavich, Katherine A.; Love, Nancy G.; Ellis, Michael W.; Puri, Ishwar K.

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer a promising alternative energy technology, but suffer from low power densities which hinder their practical applicability. In order to improve anodic power density, we deposited carbon nanostructures (CNSs) on an otherwise plain stainless steel mesh (SS-M) anode. Using a flame synthesis method that did not require pretreatment of SS-M substrates, we were able to produce these novel CNS-enhanced SS-M (CNS-M) anodes quickly (in a matter of minutes) and inexpensively, without the added costs of chemical pretreatments. During fed batch experiments with biomass from anaerobic digesters in single-chamber MFCs, the median power densities (based on the projected anodic surface area) were 2.9 mW m -2 and 187 mW m -2 for MFCs with SS-M and CNS-M anodes, respectively. The addition of CNSs to a plain SS-M anode via flame deposition therefore resulted in a 60-fold increase in the median power production. The combination of CNSs and metallic current collectors holds considerable promise for power production in MFCs.

  6. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  7. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  8. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  9. Interferometric nanoporous anodic alumina photonic coatings for optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Wang, Changhai; Li, Junsheng; Losic, Dusan

    2015-04-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optical optimization and sensing applicability of colored photonic coatings based on nanoporous anodic alumina films grown on aluminum substrates. These optical nanostructures, so-called distributed Bragg reflectors (NAA-DBRs), are fabricated by galvanostatic pulse anodization process, in which the current density is altered in a periodic manner in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic coatings. As-prepared NAA-DBR photonic coatings present brilliant interference colors on the surface of aluminum, which can be tuned at will within the UV-visible spectrum by means of the anodization profile. A broad library of NAA-DBR colors is produced by means of different anodization profiles. Then, the effective medium of these NAA-DBR photonic coatings is systematically assessed in terms of optical sensitivity, low limit of detection and linearity by reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to optimize their nanoporous structure toward optical sensors with enhanced sensing performance. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these photonic nanostructures as optical platforms by selectively detecting gold(iii) ions in aqueous solutions. The obtained results reveal that optimized NAA-DBR photonic coatings can achieve an outstanding sensing performance for gold(iii) ions, with a sensitivity of 22.16 nm μM-1, a low limit of detection of 0.156 μM (i.e. 30.7 ppb) and excellent linearity within the working range (0.9983).Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optical optimization and sensing applicability of colored photonic coatings based on nanoporous anodic alumina films grown on aluminum substrates. These optical nanostructures, so-called distributed Bragg reflectors (NAA-DBRs), are fabricated by galvanostatic pulse anodization process, in which the current density is altered in a periodic manner in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting

  10. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  11. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; ...

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-levelmore » outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less

  12. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  13. Expanded graphite as superior anode for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yang; He, Kai; Zhu, Yujie; Han, Fudong; Xu, Yunhua; Matsuda, Isamu; Ishii, Yoshitaka; Cumings, John; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-06-01

    Graphite, as the most common anode for commercial Li-ion batteries, has been reported to have a very low capacity when used as a Na-ion battery anode. It is well known that electrochemical insertion of Na+ into graphite is significantly hindered by the insufficient interlayer spacing. Here we report expanded graphite as a Na-ion battery anode. Prepared through a process of oxidation and partial reduction on graphite, expanded graphite has an enlarged interlayer lattice distance of 4.3 Å yet retains an analogous long-range-ordered layered structure to graphite. In situ transmission electron microscopy has demonstrated that the Na-ion can be reversibly inserted into and extracted from expanded graphite. Galvanostatic studies show that expanded graphite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 284 mAh g-1 at a current density of 20 mA g-1, maintain a capacity of 184 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, and retain 73.92% of its capacity after 2,000 cycles.

  14. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Wei, Liangliang; Zhu, Miaochang; Sun, Hongfang; Tang, Luping; Xing, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m2, corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface. PMID:28793442

  15. Polarization Induced Deterioration of Reinforced Concrete with CFRP Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-Hua; Wei, Liangliang; Zhu, Miaochang; Sun, Hongfang; Tang, Luping; Xing, Feng

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates the deterioration of reinforced concrete with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) anode after polarization. The steel in the concrete was first subjected to accelerated corrosion to various extents. Then, a polarization test was performed with the external attached CFRP as the anode and the steel reinforcement as the cathode. Carbon fiber reinforced mortar and conductive carbon paste as contact materials were used to adhere the CFRP anode to the concrete. Two current densities of 1244 and 2488 mA/m², corresponding to the steel reinforcements were applied for 25 days. Electrochemical parameters were monitored during the test period. The deterioration mechanism that occurred at the CFRP/contact material interface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The increase of feeding voltage and the failure of bonding was observed during polarization process, which might have resulted from the deterioration of the interface between the contact material and CFRP. The formation and accumulation of NaCl crystals at the contact material/CFRP interface were inferred to be the main causes of the failure at the interface.

  16. A new short-anoded IGBT with high emission efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weizhong, Chen; Bo, Zhang; Zehong, Li; Min, Ren; Zhaoji, Li

    2012-11-01

    A novel short-anoded insulated-gate bipolar transistor (SA-IGBT) with double emitters is proposed. At the on-state, the new structure shows extraordinarily high emission efficiency. Moreover, with a short-contacted anode, it further enhances the hole emission efficiency because of the crowding of the electrons. The forward voltage drop VF of this structure is 1.74 V at a current density 100 of A/cm2. Compared to the conventional NPT IGBT (1.94 V), segment-anode IGBT (SA-NPN 2.1 V), and conventional SA-IGBT (2.33 V), VF decreased by 10%, 17% and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, no NDR has been detected comparing to the SA-IGBT. At the off-state, there is a channel for extracting excessive carriers in the drift region. The turn-off loss Eoff of this proposed structure is 8.64 mJ/cm2. Compared to the conventional NPT IGBT (15.3 mJ/cm2), S