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Sample records for haarp hf transmitter

  1. DEMETER Observations of ELF Waves Injected With the HAARP HF Transmitter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-17

    DEMETER observations of ELF waves injected with the HAARP HF transmitter M. Platino,1 U. S. Inan,1 T. F. Bell,1 M. Parrot,2 and E. J. Kennedy3...Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) facility in Gakona, Alaska, (located at L 4.9). Simultaneous observations of all six components of the ELF...signals generated by the HAARP heater are also simultaneously observed at a nearby ground-based site, allowing a comparison of the ELF power in the

  2. ELF/VLF Waves Generated by an Artificially-Modulated Auroral Electrojet Above the HAARP HF Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2004-12-01

    Naturally-forming, global-scale currents, such as the polar electrojet current and the mid-latitude dynamo, have been used as current sources to generate electromagnetic waves in the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) bands since the 1970's. While many short-duration experiments have been performed, no continuous multi-week campaign data sets have been published providing reliable statistics for ELF/VLF wave generation. In this paper, we summarize the experimental data resulting from multiple ELF/VLF wave generation campaigns conducted at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. For one 14-day period in March, 2002, and one 24-day period in November, 2002, the HAARP HF transmitter broadcast ELF/VLF wave generation sequences for 10 hours per day, between 0400 and 1400 UT. Five different modulation frequencies broadcast separately using two HF carrier frequencies are examined at receivers located 36, 44, 147, and 155 km from the HAARP facility. Additionally, a continuous 24-hour transmission period is analyzed to compare day-time wave generation to night-time wave generation. Lastly, a power-ramping scheme was employed to investigate possible thresholding effects at the wave-generating altitude. Wave generation statistics are presented along with source-region property calculations performed using a simple model.

  3. ELF/VLF wave disturbances detected by the DEMETER satellite over the HAARP transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Parrot, Michel; Mogilevsky, Mikhail; Mochalov, Alexey; Pashin, Anatoly

    We report observations of electromagnetic the ELF/VLF wave disturbances by the DEMETER satellite (670 km altitude) overflying the HAARP heating facility (62.39(°) N, 145.15(°) W, L = 4.9). The HAARP HF transmitter operated at the maximum available power of 3.6 MW, O-mode polarization, and the beam directed towards the magnetic zenith. ELF/VLF waves caused by the HAARP heating are detected by the DEMETER satellite when the HF radio wave frequency was close to the critical frequency (foF2) of the ionospheric F2 layer but below it. ELF/VLF wave disturbances observed above the HAARP transmitter were detected by electrical antennas in an area with characteristic size 10 (2) km. We analyze amplitude and polarization spectra of the ELF disturbances and compare them with the characteristics of natural ELF hiss above HAARP. The VLF wave disturbances in the topside ionosphere above the HAARP transmitter were detected in the frequency ranges 8-17 kHz and 15-18 kHz which are close to the lower hybrid resonance frequency f _LHR in the heating region and its second harmonic (2f _LHR), respectively. In the case where the HAARP HF power was modulated, the detected VLF waves were also modulated with the same frequency whereas in the ELF frequency range the modulation period of the HAARP power was not observed. Possible mechanisms of generation of the ELF/VLF disturbances produced by the HAARP transmitter in the topside ionosphere are discussed.

  4. Ionospheric Modification from Under-Dense Heating by High-Power HF Transmitter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) is a HF transmitter, which delivers 0.36 to 3.6 GW effective isotropic radiated powers (F.IRP) for the radiation...dense heating, the EIRP of the HAARP heater can be increased significantly by increasing the heater frequency. With higher heater frequency, the loss...1304 local time) and on 13 April from 0812 to 0844 UTC (0012 to 0044 local time), using the HAARP transmitter facility at Gakona, AK, at full power

  5. Large ionospheric disturbances produced by the HAARP HF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; McCarrick, Mike; Michell, Robert G.

    2016-07-01

    The enormous transmitter power, fully programmable antenna array, and agile frequency generation of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska have allowed the production of unprecedented disturbances in the ionosphere. Using both pencil beams and conical (or twisted) beam transmissions, artificial ionization clouds have been generated near the second, third, fourth, and sixth harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The conical beam has been used to sustain these clouds for up to 5 h as opposed to less than 30 min durations produced using pencil beams. The largest density plasma clouds have been produced at the highest harmonic transmissions. Satellite radio transmissions at 253 MHz from the National Research Laboratory TACSat4 communications experiment have been severely disturbed by propagating through artificial plasma regions. The scintillation levels for UHF waves passing through artificial ionization clouds from HAARP are typically 16 dB. This is much larger than previously reported scintillations at other HF facilities which have been limited to 3 dB or less. The goals of future HAARP experiments should be to build on these discoveries to sustain plasma densities larger than that of the background ionosphere for use as ionospheric reflectors of radio signals.

  6. Power-Stepped HF Cross Modulation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.; Langston, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. In this paper, we apply experimental observations of HF cross-modulation to the related problem of ELF/VLF wave generation. HF cross-modulation measurements are used to evaluate the efficiency of ionospheric conductivity modulation during power-stepped modulated HF heating experiments. The results are compared to previously published dependencies of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF peak power. The experiments were performed during the March 2013 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory. HAARP was operated in a dual-beam transmission format: the first beam heated the ionosphere using sinusoidal amplitude modulation while the second beam broadcast a series of low-power probe pulses. The peak power of the modulating beam was incremented in 1-dB steps. We compare the minimum and maximum cross-modulation effect and the amplitude of the resulting cross-modulation waveform to the expected power-law dependence of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF power.

  7. Creation of Artificial Ionospheric Layers Using High-Power HF Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-30

    Program ( HAARP ) transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The HF- driven ionization process is initiated near the 2nd electron gyroharmonic at 220 km altitude in...the 3.6 MW High-Frequency Active Auroral Program ( HAARP ) transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The HF-driven ionization process is initiated near the 2nd...Maine. USA. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union. 0094-8276/I0/2009GLO41895SO5.0O Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitter facility, however

  8. ELF Waves Generated by Modulated HF Heating of the Auroral Electrojet and Observed at a Ground Distance of Approximately 4400 km

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-22

    HAARP ) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska, and detected after propagating more than 4400 km in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to Midway Atoll. The...conductivity variation (created by modulated HF heating) and radiating 4–32 W. The HF-ELF conversion efficiency at HAARP is thus estimated to be...Program ( HAARP ) research station in Gakona, Alaska. The HAARP HF transmitter (or heater), which JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 112, A05309, doi

  9. Upper atmospheric effects of the hf active auroral research program ionospheric research instrument (HAARP IRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, V.; Armstrong, R.

    1993-05-01

    The earth's ozone layer occurs in the stratosphere, primarily between 10 and 30 miles altitude. The amount of ozone, O3, present is the result of a balance between production and destruction processes. Experiments have shown that natural processes such as auroras create molecules that destroy O. One family of such molecules is called odd nitrogen of which nitric oxide (NO) is an example. Because the HAARP (HF Active Auroral Research Program) facility is designed to mimic and investigate certain natural processes, a study of possible effects of HAARP on the ozone layer was conducted. The study used a detailed modelmore » of the thermal and chemical effects of the high power HF beam, which interacts with free electrons in the upper atmosphere above 50 miles altitude. It was found only a small fraction of the beam energy goes into the production of odd nitrogen molecules, whereas odd nitrogen is efficiently produced by auroras. Since the total energy emitted by HAARP in the year is some 200,000 times less than the energy deposited in the upper atmosphere by auroras, the study demonstrates that HAARP HF beam experiments will cause no measurable depletion of the earth's ozone layer.... Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Odd nitrogen, Nitric oxide, HAARP Emitter characteristics.« less

  10. Nonlinear Plasma Experiments in Geospace with Gigawatts of RF Power at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2014-10-01

    The HAARP phased-array HF transmitter at Gakona, AK delivers up to 3.6 GW (ERP) of HF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), artificial aurora, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the plasma line, and suprathermal electrons. Applications are made to the study and control of irregularities affecting spacecraft communication and navigation systems.

  11. Upper Atmospheric Effects of the HF Active Auroral Research Program Ionospheric Research Instrument (HAARP IRI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    RESEARCH INSTRUMENT ( HAARP IRI) V. Eccles R. Armstrong Mission Research Corporation One Tara Blvd Nashua, NH 03062-2801 May 1993 Scientific Report No...INSTRUMENT ( HAARP IRI) PR 2310 STA G3 WU BM6. AUTHOR(S) V. Eccles and R. Armstrong 7. PERFOR•IlNG ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...Because the HAARP (HF Active Auroral Research Program) facility is designed to mimic and investigate certain natural processes, a study of possible

  12. Geophysical Remote Sensing Using the HF Pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) Emission Lines Produced by HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    resonance altitude where the pump wave electric fields reach their maximum values. All of these measurements of the HF modified ionosphere are made possible at HAARP because of (1) the recently increased transmitter power to 3.6 MW into the large antenna array and (2) the new digital receiver diagnostics that allow up to 100 dB dynamic range in the stimulated electromagnetic emission measurements. Paul A. Bernhardt, Craig A. Selcher, Robert H. Lehmberg, Serafin Rodriguez, Joe Thomason, Mike McCarrick, Gordon Frazer, Determination of the Electron Temperature in the Modified Ionosphere over HAARP Using the HF Pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) Emission Lines, Annales Geophysicae, in press, 2009. Norin, L., Leyser, T. B., Nordblad, E., Thidé, B., and McCarrick, M., Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere, Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 065003, 2009.

  13. New Generation of ELF/VLF Wave Injection Experiments for HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.; Watkins, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Allen probe, and planned DSX. We discuss the potential of a new generation of wave injection experiments from HAARP transmitter to investigate: duct and ELF/VLF generation by high power HF transmitters, whistler mode wave propagation and wave particle interactions, and cold and hot plasma diagnostics.

  14. Simultaneous Multi-angle Observations of Strong Langmuir Turbulence at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Naomi; Golkowski, Mark; Sheerin, James P.; Watkins, Brenton J.

    2015-10-01

    We report results from a recent series of experiments employing the HF transmitter of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. The Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) located at the HAARP facility is used as the primary diagnostic. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments are used to avoid generation of artificial field-aligned irregularities and isolate ponderomotive plasma turbulence effects. The HF pump frequency is close to the 3rd gyro-harmonic frequency and the HF pointing angle and MUIR look angle are between the HF Spitze angle and Magnetic Zenith angle. Plasma line spectra measured simultaneously in different spots of the interaction region display differences dependent on the aspect angle of the HF pump beam in the boresight direction and the pointing angle of the MUIR diagnostic radar. Outshifted Plasma Lines, cascade, collapse, coexistence, spectra are observed in agreement with existing theory and simulation results of Strong Langmuir Turbulence in ionospheric interaction experiments. It is found that SLT at HAARP is most readily observed at a HF pointing angle of 11° and UHF observation angle of 15°, which is consistent with the magnetic zenith effect as documented in previous works and optimal orientation of the refracted HF electric field vector.

  15. Multi-angle Spectra Evolution of Ionospheric Turbulence Excited by RF Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Watanabe, N.; Golkowski, M.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. For a narrow range of HF pointing between Spitze and magnetic zenith, a reduced threshold for AFAI is observed. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts

  16. Studies of High Power RF-induced Turbulence in the Ionosphere over HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The HAARP phased-array HF transmitter at Gakona, AK delivers up to 3.6 GW (ERP) of HF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), artificial aurora, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. For a narrow range of HF pointing between Spitze and magnetic zenith, a reduced threshold for AFAI is observed. Recent results of simulations of these experiments enable interpretation of many observed features. Applications are made to the study of irregularities relevant to spacecraft communication and navigation systems.

  17. Ionospheric Turbulence and the Evolution of Artificial Irregularities Excited by RF Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The HAARP phased-array HF transmitter at Gakona, AK delivers up to 3.6 GW (ERP) of HF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), artificial aurora, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the plasma line, and suprathermal electrons. For a narrow range of HF pointing between Spitze and magnetic zenith, a reduced threshold for AFAI is observed. Applications are made to the study of irregularities relevant to spacecraft communication and navigation systems.

  18. Active experiments in geospace plasmas with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, James

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere provides a relatively quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the inter¬action region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and optics for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. Applications are made to the controlled study of fundamental nonlinear plasma processes of relevance to laboratory plasmas, ionospheric irregularities affecting spacecraft communication and navigation systems, artificial ionization mirrors, wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, active global magnetospheric experiments, and many more.

  19. Nonlinear plasma experiments in geospace with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Cohen, Morris B.

    2015-12-01

    The ionosphere is the ionized uppermost layer of our atmosphere (from 70 - 500 km altitude) where free electron densities yield peak critical frequencies in the HF (3 - 30 MHz) range. The ionosphere thus provides a quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. High power RF experiments on ionospheric plasma conducted in the U.S. have been reported since 1970. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with microsecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of unique nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. One of the primary missions of HAARP, has been the generation of ELF (300 - 3000 Hz) and VLF (3 - 30 kHz) radio waves which are guided to global distances in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. We review

  20. Multi-angle Spectra Evolution of Langmuir Turbulence Excited by RF Ionospheric Interactions at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Rayyan, N.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Spaleta, J.; Watanabe, N.; Golkowski, M.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The high power HAARP HF transmitter is employed to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Dependence of diagnostic signals on HAARP HF parameters, including pulselength, duty-cycle, aspect angle, and frequency were recorded. Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI) and isolation of ponderomotive effects. Among the effects observed and studied are: SLT spectra including cascade, collapse, and co-existence spectra and an outshifted plasma line under certain ionospheric conditions. High time resolution studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma line reveal the appearance of an overshoot effect on ponderomotive timescales. Bursty turbulence is observed in the collapse and cascade lines. For the first time, simultaneous multi-angle radar measurements of plasma line spectra are recorded demonstrating marked dependence on aspect angle with the strongest interaction region observed displaced southward of the HF zenith pointing angle. Numerous measurements of the outshifted plasma line are observed. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  1. 100 Days of ELF/VLF Generation via HF Heating with HAARP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M.; Golkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    ELF/VLF radio waves are difficult to generate with conventional antennas. Ionospheric HF heating facilities generate ELF/VLF waves via modulated heating of the lower ionosphere. HF heating of the ionosphere changes the lower ionospheric conductivity, which in the presence of natural currents such as the auroral electrojet, creates an antenna in the sky when heating is modulated at ELF/VLF frequencies. We present a summary of nearly 100 days of ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the 3.6 MW HAARP facility near Gakona, Alaska, and provide a baseline reference of ELF/VLF generation capabilities with HF heating. Between February 2007 and August 2008, HAARP was operated on close to 100 days for ELF/VLF wave generation experiments, at a variety of ELF/VLF frequencies, seasons and times of day. We present comprehensive statistics of generated ELF/VLF magnetic fields observed at a nearby site, in the 500-3500 Hz band. Transmissions with a specific HF beam configuration (3.25 MHz, vertical beam, amplitude modulation) are isolated so the data comparison is self-consistent, across nearly 5 million individual measurements of either a tone or a piece of a frequency-time ramp. There is a minimum in the average generation close to local midnight. It is found that generation during local nighttime is on average weaker, but more highly variable, with a small number of very strong generation periods. Signal amplitudes from day to day may vary by as much as 20-30 dB. Generation strengthens by ~5 dB during the first ~30 minutes of transmission, which may be a signature of slow electron density changes from sustained HF heating. Theoretical calculations are made to relate the amplitude observed to the power injected into the waveguide and reaching 250 km. The median power generated by HAARP and injected into the waveguide is ~0.05-0.1 W in this base-line configuration (vertical beam, 3.25 MHz, amplitude modulation), but may have generated hundreds of Watts for brief durations

  2. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  3. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, W. A.; Hysell, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  4. Nonlinear plasma experiments in geospace with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    SciTech Connect

    Sheerin, J. P., E-mail: jsheerin@emich.edu; Cohen, Morris B., E-mail: mcohen@gatech.edu

    2015-12-10

    The ionosphere is the ionized uppermost layer of our atmosphere (from 70 – 500 km altitude) where free electron densities yield peak critical frequencies in the HF (3 – 30 MHz) range. The ionosphere thus provides a quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. High power RF experiments on ionospheric plasma conducted in the U.S. have been reported since 1970. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8more » – 10 MHz to the ionosphere with microsecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP’s unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of unique nonlinear plasma experiments in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and telescopes and cameras for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. One of the primary missions of HAARP, has been the generation of ELF (300 – 3000 Hz) and VLF (3 – 30 kHz) radio waves which are guided to global distances in the Earth

  5. High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP Paul Rodriguez Naval Research Laboratory Information Technology Division Washington, DC 20375, USA Edward...a period of several years, the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitting array near Gakona, Alaska, has increased in total...high frequency (HF) radar facility used for research purposes. The basic science objective of HAARP is to study nonlinear effects associated with

  6. Studies of the Ionospheric Turbulence Excited by the Fourth Gyroharmonic at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A. C.; Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S.; Siefring, C. L.; Yampolski, Y.; Alexander, K.; Sopin, A.; Zalizovski, A.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M. L.; Morton, Y.; Taylor, S.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of a set of experiments conducted during the HAARP June 2014 campaign, whose objective was to study the development of artificial ionospheric turbulence. During the experiments, the heating frequency was stepped up and down near the 4th gyroharmonic, and the power of the heating HF radiation was varied. Our diagnostics included: measurements of phase-derived Slant Total Electron Content using the L1/L2 signals from PRN 25 GPS satellite received at HAARP; measurements of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) conducted 15 km away from the HAARP site; detection of the HAARP HF radiation at Vernadsky station located in Antarctica ~15.6 Mm from HAARP; ionograms from HAARP's digisonde and reflectance data from Kodiak radar. Our observations showed: a distinct correlation between the broad upshifted maximum detected by the SEE and strong suppression of the HF signals detected at Vernadsky station; drift velocity of the ionospheric irregularities causing HF scattering detected at Vernadsky station corresponds to that measured by the Kodiak radar; the intensity of the scattered radar signals by Kodiak correlates with the amplitude of downshifted maximum observed by the SEE.

  7. ELF/VLF Perturbations Above the Haarp Transmitter Recorded by the Demeter Satellite in the Upper Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, E. E.; Demekhov, A. G.; Mochalov, A. A.; Gvozdevsky, B. B.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Parrot, M.

    2015-08-01

    In the studies of the data received from DEMETER (orbit altitude above the Earth is about 700 km), we detected for the first time electromagnetic perturbations, which are due to the ionospheric modification by HAARP, a high-power high-frequency transmitter, simultaneously in the extremely low-frequency (ELF, below 1200 Hz) and very low-frequency (VLF, below 20 kHz) ranges. Of the thirteen analyzed flybys of the satellite above the heated area, the ELF/VLF signals were detected in three cases in the daytime (LT = 11-12 h), when the minimum distance between the geomagnetic projections of the satellite and the heated area center on the Earth's surface did not exceed 31 km. During the nighttime flybys, the ELF/VLF perturbations were not detected. The size of the perturbed region was about 100 km. The amplitude, spectrum, and polarization of the ELF perturbations were analyzed, and their comparison with the characteristics of natural ELF noise above the HAARP transmitter was performed. In particular, it was shown that in the daytime the ELF perturbation amplitude above the heated area can exceed by a factor of 3 to 8 the amplitude of natural ELF noise. The absence of the nighttime records of artificial ELF/VLF perturbations above the heated area can be due to both the lower frequency of the heating signal, at which the heating occurs in the lower ionosphere, and the higher level of natural noise. The spectrum of the VLF signals related to the HAARP transmitter operation had two peaks at frequencies of 8 to 10 kHz and 15 to 18 kHz, which are close to the first and second harmonics of the lower-hybrid resonance in the heated area. The effect of the whistler wave propagation near the lower-hybrid resonance region on the perturbation spectrum recorded in the upper ionosphere for these signals has been demonstrated. In particular, some of the spectrum features can be explained by assuming that the VLF signals propagate in quasiresonance, rather than quasilongitudinal, regime

  8. Future Operations of HAARP with the UAF's Geophysical Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    The High frequency Active Aurora Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona Alaska is the world's premier facility for active experimentation in the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. The ionosphere affects communication, navigation, radar and a variety of other systems depending on, or affected by, radio propagation through this region. The primary component of HAARP, the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), is a phased array of 180 HF antennas spread across 33 acres and capable of radiating 3.6 MW into the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. The array is fed by five 2500 kW generators, each driven by a 3600 hp diesel engine (4 + 1 spare). Transmit frequencies are selectable in the range 2.8 to 10 MHz and complex configurations of rapidly slewed single or multiple beams are possible. HAARP was owned by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RV) in Albuquerque, NM but recently was transferred to the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF/GI). The transfer of ownership of the facility is being implemented in stages involving a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) and an Educational Partnership Agreement (EPA) which are complete, and future agreements to transfer ownership of the facility land. The UAF/GI plans to operate the facility for continued ionospheric and upper atmospheric experimentation in a pay-per-use model. In their 2013 "Decadal Survey in Solar and Space Physics" the National Research Council (NRC) made the recommendation to "Fully realize the potential of ionospheric modification…" and in their 2013 Workshop Report: "Opportunities for High-Power, High-Frequency Transmitters to Advance Ionospheric/Thermospheric Research" the NRC outlined the broad range of future ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric experiments that could be performed with HAARP. HAARP is contains a variety of RF and optical ionospheric diagnostic instruments to measure the effects of the heater in real time. The UAF/GI encourages the

  9. UHF Radar observations at HAARP with HF pump frequencies near electron gyro-harmonics and associated ionospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Brenton; Fallen, Christopher; Secan, James

    Results for HF modification experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska are presented for experiments with the HF pump frequency near third and fourth electron gyro-harmonics. A UHF diagnostic radar with range resolution of 600 m was used to determine time-dependent altitudes of scattering from plasma turbulence during heating experiments. Experiments were conducted with multiple HF frequencies stepped by 20 kHz above and below the gyro-harmonic values. During times of HF heating the HAARP facility has sufficient power to enhance large-scale ionospheric densities in the lower ionosphere (about 150-200 km altitude) and also in the topside ionosphere (above about 350 km). In the lower ionosphere, time-dependent decreases of the altitude of radar scatter result from electron density enhancements. The effects are substantially different even for relatively small frequency steps of 20 kHz. In all cases the time-varying altitude decrease of radar scatter stops about 5-10 km below the gyro-harmonic altitude that is frequency dependent; we infer that electron density enhancements stop at this altitude where the radar signals stop decreasing with altitude. Experiments with corresponding total electron content (TEC) data show that for HF interaction altitudes above about 170 km there is substantial topside electron density increases due to upward electron thermal conduction. For lower altitudes of HF interaction the majority of the thermal energy is transferred to the neutral gas and no significant topside density increases are observed. By selecting an appropriate HF frequency a little greater than the gyro-harmonic value we have demonstrated that the ionospheric response to HF heating is a self-oscillating mode where the HF interaction altitude moves up and down with a period of several minutes. If the interaction region is above about 170 km this also produces a continuously enhanced topside electron density and upward plasma flux. Experiments using an FM scan with the HF

  10. Recent Science Campaigns at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, R. P.; Bristow, W. A.; Fallen, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Experiments in HF ionospheric heating using the High­frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities have tremendous potential for informing our investigation of the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. They provide a unique opportunity for quantifying and modeling the multi­scale coupled processes that characterize the interactions between the plasma in near­Earth space, the Earth's magnetic field, and the neutral gasses of the atmosphere. Physical parameters of the region are often difficult to measure with ground­based instruments, and the measurements that are possible are often poorly resolved in range or time or unavailable outside narrow altitude regimes. HF ionospheric modification experiments allow us to measure ionospheric and thermospheric state parameters more systematically and over a broader range of conditions than would otherwise be possible. HAARP is the world's most powerful and most flexible HF transmitting facility, capable of generating 3.6 MW of RF power over a frequency range from about 2 MHz to about 10 MHz. The electronic phased array antenna provides the ability to direct the RF energy to a large region of the sky above Alaska. HAARP was constructed through a research program managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). It was jointly funded by AFRL, ONR, and the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA). These agencies ended of their program of HAARP research in 2014, and donated the site equipment to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), in the summer of 2015, who now operate the facility as an international observatory for radio plasma heating and subauroral physics. Since taking control of HAARP, UAF has carried out research campaigns in February 2017, and September 2017. The topics investigated in the campaigns included the physics of ionospheric irregularities (FAI), the stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), generation of optical

  11. Geophysical Electromagnetic Sounding Using HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    apparent resistivity vs. frequency can be converted into true resistivity vs. depth, This grant involved an investigation into the HAARP virtual antenna pattern out to 200 km, and its use as a CSAMT transmitter.

  12. Physics of the Geospace Response to Powerful HF Radio Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-31

    studies of the response of the Earth’s space plasma to high-power HF radio waves from the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ...of HF heating and explored to simulate artificial ducts. DMSP- HAARP experiments revealed that HF-created ion outflows and artificial density ducts...in the topside ionosphere appeared faster than predicted by the models, pointing to kinetic (suprathermal) effects. CHAMP/GRACE- HAARP experiments

  13. Initial Results from CASSIOPE/ePOP Satellite Overpasses above HAARP in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility was operated in conjunction with overpasses of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) instruments on the Canadian CASSIOPE satellite. During these overpasses HAARP was operated in several different heating modes and regimes as diagnosed by the characteristics of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) using ground-based receivers while simultaneously ePOP monitored in-situ HF and VLF signals, looked for ion and electron heating, and provided VHF and UHF signals for propagation effects studies. The e-POP suite of instruments and particularly the ePOP Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) offer a unique combination diagnostics appropriate for studying the non-linear plasma effects generated high-power HF waves in the ionosphere. In this presentation, the initial results from ePOP observations from two separate 2014 measurement campaigns at HAARP (April 16 to April 29 and May 25 to June 9) will be discussed. Several innovative experiments were performed during the campaign. Experiments explored a wide range of ionospheric effects. These include: 1) Penetration of HF pump waves into the ionosphere via large and small scale irregularities, 2) effects of gyro-harmonic heating and artificial ionization layers, 3) effects of HAARP beam shape with O- and X-mode transmissions, 4) coupling of Lower Hybrid modes into Whistler waves, 5) D/E-region VLF generation in the ionosphere using VLF modulation of the HF pump 6) scattering of VHF and UHF signals and 7) scattering and non-linear modulation of a 9.5 MHz probe wave propagating through the region of the ionosphere modified by HAARP. This work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  14. Information Technology Division’s Technical Paper Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-05

    antenna systems. 86 Title: An Electromagnetic Interference Study of Potential Transmitter Sites for the HF Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ...examined a number of potential sites for the location of the proposed High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitter facility. The...proposed HAARP facility will consist of a large planar array of antennas excited by phased high power transmitters operating in the lower portion of the

  15. The WIND-HAARP Experiment: Initial Results of High Power Radiowave Interactions with Space Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-10

    Results from the first science experiment with the new HF Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) facility in Alaska are reported. The initial...experiments involved transmission of high frequency waves from HAARP to the NASA/WIND satellite. The objective was to investigate the effects of space

  16. A Diagnostic System for Studying Energy Partitioning and Assessing the Response of the Ionosphere during HAARP Modification Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Elder, John H.; Williams, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    This research program focused on the construction of several key radio wave diagnostics in support of the HF Active Auroral Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP). Project activities led to the design, development, and fabrication of a variety of hardware units and to the development of several menu-driven software packages for data acquisition and analysis. The principal instrumentation includes an HF (28 MHz) radar system, a VHF (50 MHz) radar system, and a high-speed radar processor consisting of three separable processing units. The processor system supports the HF and VHF radars and is capable of acquiring very detailed data with large incoherent scatter radars. In addition, a tunable HF receiver system having high dynamic range was developed primarily for measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). A separate processor unit was constructed for the SEE receiver. Finally, a large amount of support instrumentation was developed to accommodate complex field experiments. Overall, the HAARP diagnostics are powerful tools for studying diverse ionospheric modification phenomena. They are also flexible enough to support a host of other missions beyond the scope of HAARP. Many new research programs have been initiated by applying the HAARP diagnostics to studies of natural atmospheric processes.

  17. HAARP-Induced Ionospheric Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Milikh, Gennady; Vartanyan, Aram

    2011-01-04

    It is well known that strong electron heating by a powerful HF-facility can lead to the formation of electron and ion density perturbations that stretch along the magnetic field line. Those density perturbations can serve as ducts for ELF waves, both of natural and artificial origin. This paper presents observations of the plasma density perturbations caused by the HF-heating of the ionosphere by the HAARP facility. The low orbit satellite DEMETER was used as a diagnostic tool to measure the electron and ion temperature and density along the satellite orbit overflying close to the magnetic zenith of the HF-heater. Thosemore » observations will be then checked against the theoretical model of duct formation due to HF-heating of the ionosphere. The model is based on the modified SAMI2 code, and is validated by comparison with well documented experiments.« less

  18. Artificial Aurora and Ionospheric Heating by HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadavandkhani, S.; Nikouravan, Bijan; Ghazimaghrebi, F.

    2016-08-01

    A recent experiment was achieved at HAARP to study the scaling of the ionospherically generated ELF signal with power transmitted from the high frequency (HF) array. The results were in excellent agreement with computer simulations. The outcomes approving that the ELF power increases with the square of the incident HF power. This paper present a review on the situation of the ionized particles in Ionospheric layer when stimulated by artificial an ELF and VLF external high energy radio waves.

  19. Prompt Ion Outflows and Artificial Ducts during High-Power HF Heating at HAARP: Effect of Suprathermal Electrons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Milikh, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    In situ observations from the DMSP and Demeter satellites established that high-power HF heating of the ionosphere F-region results in significant ion outflows associated with 10-30% density enhancements in the topside ionosphere magnetically-conjugate to the heated region. As follows from the SAMI2 two-fluid model calculations, their formation time should exceed 5-7 minutes. However, specially designed DMSP-HAARP experiments have shown that artificial ducts and ion outflows appear on the topside within 2 minutes. We describe the results of these observations and present a semi-quantitative explanation of the fast timescale due to suprathermal electrons accelerated by HF-induced plasma turbulence. There are two possible effects of suprathermal electrons: (1) the increase of the ambipolar electric field over the usual thermal ambipolar diffusion and (2) excitation of heat flux-driven plasma instability resulting in an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange. Both effects result in faster upward ion flows.

  20. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) With Applications for Laser Imaging and Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high latitude SuperDARN radars used for auroral...DF arrays, ground HF transmitters such as the Navy relocatable over the horizon radar (ROTHR) and the Air Force/Navy HAARP system would be employed...United States and Australia; (2) high power HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high

  1. 12. Hard HF transmitter antenna, view toward west. Lyon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Hard HF transmitter antenna, view toward west. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  2. Electron Acceleration and Ionization Production in High-Power Heating Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Pedersen, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60-80 km. Artificial ionization production is indicated by significant 427.8 nm emissions from the 1st negative band of N2+ and the appearance of transmitter-induced bottomside traces in ionosonde data during the periods of most intense optical emissions. However, the exact mechanisms producing the artificial plasmas remain to be determined. Yet the only existing theoretical models explain the development of artificial plasma as an ionizing wavefront moving downward due to ionization by electrons accelerated by HF-excited strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) generated near the plasma resonance, where the pump frequency matches the plasma frequency. However, the observations suggest also the significance of interactions with upper hybrid and electron Bernstein waves near multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We describe recent observations and discuss suitable acceleration mechanisms.

  3. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  4. HAARP-based Investigations of Lightning-induced Nonlinearities within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is well-documented that energetic lightning can produce fantastical events with the lower ionosphere. Although the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter is not as powerful as lightning, it can be used to investigate the nonlinear interactions that occur within the lower ionosphere, many of which also occur during lightning-induced ionospheric events. This paper presents the best experimental results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the HAARP observatory between 2007 and 2014, including ELF/VLF wave generation experiments, wave-wave mixing experiments, and cross-modulation experiments. We emphasize the physical processes important for lightning-ionosphere interactions that can be directly investigated using HAARP.

  5. High Power HF Excitation of Low Frequency Stimulated Electrostatic Waves in the Ionospheric Plasma over HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul; Selcher, Craig A.

    High Power electromagnetic (EM) waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low frequency electrostatic waves by several processes including (1) direct magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter (MSBS) and (2) parametric decay of high frequency electrostatic waves into electron and ion Bernstein waves. Either an ion acoustic (IA) wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (fCI) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above fCI can be produced by MSBS. The coupled equations describing the MSBS instabil-ity show that the production of both IA and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation direction relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska have confirmed the theoretical predictions that only IA waves are excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The electron temperature in the heated plasma is obtained from the IA spectrum offsets from the pump frequency. The ion composition can be determined from the measured EIC frequency. Near the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency, the EM pump wave is converted into an electron Bernstein (EB) wave that decays into another EB wave and an ion Bernstein (IB) wave. Strong cyclotron resonance with the EB wave leads to acceleration of the electrons. Ground based SEE observations are related to the theory of low-frequency electrostatic wave generation.

  6. ELF/VLF Wave Generation via HF Modulation of the Equatorial Electrojet at Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Q. A.; Moore, R. C.; Burch, H.; Erdman, A.; Wilkes, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we generate ELF/VLF waves by modulating the conductivity of the lower ionosphere using the HF heater at Arecibo. For many years, researchers have generated ELF/VLF waves using the powerful HF transmitters at HAARP, but few have attempted to do the same in the mid- to low- latitude region. While HAARP users have benefitted from the auroral electrojet, we attempt to exploit the equatorial electrojet to generate radio waves. On 31 July 2017, we transmitted at an HF frequency of 5.1 MHz (X-Mode) applying sinusoidal amplitude modulation in a step-like fashion from 0-5 kHz in 200 Hz steps over 10 seconds at 100% peak power to approximate a linear frequency ramp. We also transmitted 10-second-long fixed frequency tones spaced from 1 to 5 kHz. The frequency sweep is a helpful visual tool to identify generated waves, but is also used to determine optimal modulation frequencies for future campaigns. The tones allow us to perform higher SNR analysis. Ground-based B-field VLF receivers recorded the amplitude and phase of the generated radio waves. We employ time-of-arrival techniques to determine the altitude of the ELF/VLF signal source. In this paper, we present the initial analysis of these experimental results.

  7. Excitation of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator with HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Milikh, G. M.; Vartanyan, A.; Snyder, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    We report results from numerical and experimental studies of the excitation of ULF waves inside the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) by heating the ionosphere with powerful HF waves launched from the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Numerical simulations of the two-fluid MHD model describing IAR in a dipole magnetic field geometry with plasma parameters taken from the observations at HAARP during October-November 2010 experimental campaign reveal that the IAR quality is higher during night-time conditions, when the ionospheric conductivity is very low. Simulations also reveal that the resonance wave cannot be identified from the magnetic measurements on the ground or at an altitude above 600 km because the magnetic field in this wave has nodes on both ends of the resonator, and the best way to detect IAR modes is by measuring the electric field on low-Earth-orbit satellites. These theoretical predictions are in good, quantitative agreement with results from observations: In particular, 1) observations from the ground-based magnetometer at the HAARP site demonstrate no any significant difference in the amplitudes of the magnetic field generated by HAARP in the frequency range from 0 to 5 Hz, and 2) the DEMETER satellite detected the electric field of the IAR first harmonic at an altitude of 670 km above HAARP during the heating experiment.

  8. Studies of the ionospheric turbulence excited by the fourth gyroharmonic at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Milikh, G.; Yampolski, Y. M.; Koloskov, A. V.; Sopin, A. A.; Zalizovski, A.; Bernhardt, P.; Briczinski, S.; Siefring, C.; Chiang, K.; Morton, Y.; Taylor, S.; Mahmoudian, A.; Bristow, W.; Ruohoniemi, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2015-08-01

    A study is presented of artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) induced by HF heating at High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) using frequencies close to the fourth electron gyroharmonic, in a broad range of radiated powers and using a number of different diagnostics. The diagnostics include GPS scintillations, ground-based stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), the HAARP ionosonde, Kodiak radar, and signals received at the Ukrainian Antarctic Station (UAS). The latter allowed analysis of waves scattered by the AIT into the ionospheric waveguide along Earth's terminator, 15.6 mm from the HAARP facility. For the first time, the amplitudes of two prominent SEE features, the downshifted maximum and broad upshifted maximum, were observed to saturate at ~50% of the maximum HAARP effective radiated power. Nonlinear effects in slant total electron content, SEE, and signals received at UAS at different transmitted frequencies and intensities of the pump wave were observed. The correlations between the data from different detectors demonstrate that the scattered waves reach UAS by the waveguide along the Earth's terminator, and that they were injected into the waveguide by scattering off of artificial striations produced by AIT above HAARP, rather than via direct injection from sidelobe radiation.

  9. Generation of whistler waves by continuous HF heating of the upper ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Eliasson, B.; Najmi, A. C.; Parrot, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2016-07-01

    Broadband VLF waves in the frequency range 7-10 kkHz and 15-19 kHz, generated by F region CW HF ionospheric heating in the absence of electrojet currents, were detected by the DEMETER satellite overflying the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter during HAARP/BRIOCHE campaigns. The VLF waves are in a frequency range corresponding to the F region lower lybrid (LH) frequency and its harmonic. This paper aims to show that the VLF observations are whistler waves generated by mode conversion of LH waves that were parametrically excited by HF-pump-plasma interaction at the upper hybrid layer. The paper discusses the basic physics and presents a model that conjectures (1) the VLF waves observed at the LH frequency are due to the interaction of the LH waves with meter-scale field-aligned striations—generating whistler waves near the LH frequency; and (2) the VLF waves at twice the LH frequency are due to the interaction of two counterpropagating LH waves—generating whistler waves near the LH frequency harmonic. The model is supported by numerical simulations that show good agreement with the observations. The (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions results and model discussions are complemented by the Kodiak radar, ionograms, and stimulated electromagnetic emission observations.

  10. Ground and Satellite Observations of ULF Waves Artificially Produced by HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Shroff, H.; Doxas, I.; Papadopoulos, D.; Milikh, G.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating at ULF frequencies using the HAARP heater was performed from April 28 to May 3, 2008 (http://www.haarp.alaska.edu). Simultaneous ground-based ULF measurements were made locally at Gakona, AK and at Lake Ozette, WA that is 2000 km away. The ground-based results showed that ULF amplitudes measured at Gakona are mostly proportional to the electrojet strength above HAARP, indicating electrojet modulation to be the source of the local ULF waves. However, the timing of ULF events recorded at Lake Ozette did not correlated with the electrojet strength at Gakona, indicating that modulation of F region pressure is the more likely source for distant ULF waves. These observations are consistent with the theoretical understanding that ULF waves generated by current modulation are shear Alfven waves propagating along the magnetic field line, thus at high latitude their observations are limited to the vicinity of the heated spot. On the other hand, propagation of ULF waves at significant lateral distances requires generation of magnetosonic waves since they are the only mode that propagates isotropically and can thus couple efficiently in the Alfvenic duct. In addition to ground-based observations, the DEMETER satellite also provided space measurements of the heating effects during its passes over HAARP. The DEMETER results showed direct detection of HAARP ULF waves at 0.1 Hz. Moreover, density dips were observed every time HAARP was operated at CW mode, which provides clear evidence of duct formation by direct HF heating at F peak. Details of these results will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  11. Study of HF-induced plasma turbulence by SEE and ISR technique during 2011 HAARP experimental campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, Savely; Bernhardt, Paul; Sergeev, Evgeny; Shindin, Alexey; Broughton, Matt; Labelle, James; Bricinsky, Stanley; Mishin, Evgeny; Isham, Brett; Watkins, Brenton

    A concise review of the results of the 20 March - 4 April 2011 experimental campaign at the HAARP heating facility, Gakona, Alaska is presented. The campaign goals were to study the physical processes that determine the interaction of high-power HF radio waves with the F-region ionosphere. The stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) observational sites A/B/C were located along the magnetic meridian to the south of the HAARP facility at about 11/83/113 km distant. Site A (B) was nearly under the region during injections at vertical (Magnetic Zenith, MZ). Enhanced plasma line (PL) radar echoes were measured by the modular UHF incoherent scatter radar (MUIR) located at HAARP. Specially designed 'diagnostic' regimes of the pump wave radiation were used to account for the characteristic times of the excitation and fading of the plasma waves (Delta t_w ˜ 1-10 ms) and small-scale field-aligned irregularities (FAI, Delta t_{fai} ˜ 1-10 s). They include mainly (I) alternation low-duty cycles consisting of short (a few Delta t_w) pulses with long (Delta t_{fai}) pauses between them and high duty cycles, i.e. long injection pulses (≫ t_w) with a short pauses of 20-30 ms. The low-duty regime is aimed to study the excited Langmuir turbulence and at to specify the evolution of FAI and their scale-lengths related to different SEE spectral features. The main objective of the high-duty regime is to explore the excitation and fading of upper-hybrid and electron Bernstein plasma waves, with FAI fixed. (II) Concurrent injection of the pump wave f_0 in the regime I, and another wave at a frequency f_1≠q f_0 in the low duty cycle. Since these waves reflect/refract at different altitudes, the altitudinal distribution of FAI can be obtained. (III) Fast (within some seconds) sweeping the pump frequency about electron gyroharmonics s f_c (s=2,3,4) in order to determine the contribution of various nonlinear interaction processes to the excitation of the HF part of the pump

  12. In-Band and Out-of-Band VLF Scattering by Modulated D-region Heating at the Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, H.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    The HF heating facility at the Arecibo Observatory is able to create an artificial disturbance in the D-region ionosphere through HF heating, a phenomenon which has been well documented at HAARP. Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves radiated by Navy transmitters propagate around the globe in the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide and scatter from this artificially disturbed region. We investigated this effect at the Arecibo Observatory during the July 2017 HF heating campaign using an amplitude-modulated HF signal at modulation frequencies from below 1 Hz to approximately 5 kHz. VLF receivers stationed in Puerto Rico measured the amplitude and phase of propagating VLF transmitter signals under HF-heated and ambient ionospheric conditions. We interpret the scattered VLF signals in the context of an ionospheric HF heating model that has been successfully used to interpret the results of HAARP experiments for a number of years. We present initial results regarding the generation and detection of nonlinear mixing components at the VLF transmitter frequency +/- the HF modulation frequency.

  13. Experiments and theory on parametric instabilities excited in HF heating experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Lee, M. C.

    2014-06-01

    Parametric instabilities excited by O-mode HF heater and the induced ionospheric modification were explored via HAARP digisonde operated in a fast mode. The impact of excited Langmuir waves and upper hybrid waves on the ionosphere are manifested by bumps in the virtual spread, which expand the ionogram echoes upward as much as 140 km and the downward range spread of the sounding echoes, which exceeds 50 km over a significant frequency range. The theory of parametric instabilities is presented. The theory identifies the ionogram bump located between the 3.2 MHz heater frequency and the upper hybrid resonance frequency and the bump below the upper hybrid resonance frequency to be associated with the Langmuir and upper hybrid instabilities, respectively. The Langmuir bump is located close to the upper hybrid resonance frequency, rather than to the heater frequency, consistent with the theory. Each bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the E-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile similar to E-F2 layer transitions. The experimental results also show that the strong impact of the upper hybrid instability on the ionosphere can suppress the Langmuir instability.

  14. Interaction of Intense Lasers and Relativistic Electron Beams with Solids, Gases and Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    June 18, 1993. The main subject was the identification of research opportunities and needs that are at- tractive for investigation using the HAARP ...warming and global change. Highly leveraged cooperative or collaborative programs exploring the HAARP facility and diagnostic complement in conjunction...1. Diagnostic issues - HF diagnostics. 1.1 Possible use of HAARP transmitter as a receiving antenna. 1.2 Possible addition of a "big" receiving

  15. SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP Using Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    High power HF radio waves exciting the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaksa is the world's largest heating facility, providing effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. Experiments performed at HAARP have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. Typical SEE experiments at HAARP have focused on characterizing the parametric decay of the electromagnetic pump wave into several different wave modes such as upper and lower hybrid, ion acoustic, ion-Bernstein and electron-Bernstein. These production modes have been extensively studied at HAARP using traditional beam heating patterns and SEE detection. New results are present from HAARP experiments using an excitation mode that attempts to impart orbital angular momentum (OAM) into the heating region. This OAM mode is also referred to as a 'twisted beam.' Previous analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are nearly identical to the modes without OAM. Recent twisted beam heating experiments have produced SEE modes not previously characterized. These new modes are presented and discussed. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional 'solid spot' region. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of artificial ionization clouds. The results of these runs include artificial ionization creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern.

  16. Experiments and theory on parametric instabilities excited in HF heating experiments at HAARP

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Lee, M. C.

    2014-06-15

    Parametric instabilities excited by O-mode HF heater and the induced ionospheric modification were explored via HAARP digisonde operated in a fast mode. The impact of excited Langmuir waves and upper hybrid waves on the ionosphere are manifested by bumps in the virtual spread, which expand the ionogram echoes upward as much as 140 km and the downward range spread of the sounding echoes, which exceeds 50 km over a significant frequency range. The theory of parametric instabilities is presented. The theory identifies the ionogram bump located between the 3.2 MHz heater frequency and the upper hybrid resonance frequency and the bump below themore » upper hybrid resonance frequency to be associated with the Langmuir and upper hybrid instabilities, respectively. The Langmuir bump is located close to the upper hybrid resonance frequency, rather than to the heater frequency, consistent with the theory. Each bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the E-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile similar to E-F2 layer transitions. The experimental results also show that the strong impact of the upper hybrid instability on the ionosphere can suppress the Langmuir instability.« less

  17. Recent Observations and Modeling of Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs at HAARP and EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W.; Mahmoudian, A.; Fu, H.; Bordikar, M. R.; Samimi, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Isham, B.

    2014-12-01

    There has been significant interest in so-called narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission SEE over the past several years due to recent discoveries at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP facility near Gakone, Alaska. Narrowband SEE (NSEE) has been defined as spectral features in the SEE spectrum typically within 1 kHz of the transmitter (or pump) frequency. SEE is due to nonlinear processes leading to re-radiation at frequencies other than the pump wave frequency during heating the ionospheric plasma with high power HF radio waves. Although NSEE exhibits a richly complex structure, it has now been shown after a substantial number of observations at HAARP, that NSEE can be grouped into two basic classes. The first are those spectral features, associated with Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS, which typically occur when the pump frequency is not close to electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. Typically, these spectral features are within roughly 50 Hz of the pump wave frequency where it is to be noted that the O+ ion gyro-frequency is roughly 50 Hz. The second class of spectral features corresponds to the case when the pump wave frequency is typically within roughly 10 kHz of electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. In this case, spectral features ordered by harmonics of ion gyro-frequencies are typically observed, and termed Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS. This presentation will first provide an overview of the recent NSEE experimental observations at HAARP. Both Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS observations will be discussed as well as their relationship to each other. Possible theoretical formulation in terms of parametric decay instabilities and computational modeling will be provided. Possible applications of NSEE will be pointed out including triggering diagnostics for artificial ionization layer formation, proton precipitation event diagnostics, electron temperature measurements in the heated

  18. "Twisted Beam" SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Han, S.-M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Scales, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions of high power HF radio waves in the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska is the world's largest heating facility, yielding effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. New results are present from HAARP experiments using a "twisted beam" excitation mode. Analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are identical to more traditional patterns. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional "solid spot" region from a pencil beam. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of stable artificial airglow layers because of the horizontal structure of the ring. The results of these runs include artificial layer creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern. The SEE measurements aid the interpretation of the twisted beam interactions in the ionosphere.

  19. Recent Observations and Modeling of Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs at the HAARP Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne; Bernhardt, Paul; McCarrick, Michael; Briczinski, Stanley; Mahmoudian, Alireza; Fu, Haiyang; Ranade Bordikar, Maitrayee; Samimi, Alireza

    There has been significant interest in so-called narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission SEE over the past several years due to recent discoveries at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP facility near Gakone, Alaska. Narrowband SEE (NSEE) has been defined as spectral features in the SEE spectrum typically within 1 kHz of the transmitter (or pump) frequency. SEE is due to nonlinear processes leading to re-radiation at frequencies other than the pump wave frequency during heating the ionospheric plasma with high power HF radio waves. Although NSEE exhibits a richly complex structure, it has now been shown after a substantial number of observations at HAARP, that NSEE can be grouped into two basic classes. The first are those spectral features, associated with Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS, which typically occur when the pump frequency is not close to electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. Typically, these spectral features are within roughly 50 Hz of the pump wave frequency where it is to be noted that the O+ ion gyro-frequency is roughly 50 Hz. The second class of spectral features corresponds to the case when the pump wave frequency is typically within roughly 10 kHz of electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. In this case, spectral features ordered by harmonics of ion gyro-frequencies are typically observed, and termed Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS. There is also important parametric behavior on both classes of NSEE depending on the pump wave parameters including the field strength, antenna beam angle, and electron gyro-harmonic number. This presentation will first provide an overview of the recent NSEE experimental observations at HAARP. Both Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS observations will be discussed as well as their relationship to each other. Possible theoretical formulation in terms of parametric decay instabilities will be provided. Computer simulation model results will be presented

  20. The WIND-HAARP-HIPAS Interferometer Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6750--99-8349 The WIND- HAARP -HIPAS Interferometer Experiment P. RODRIGUEZ AND M. J...1999 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Interim Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The WIND- HAARP -HIPAS Interferometer Experiment 5. FUNDING NUMBERS JO...frequency transmitting facilities in a bistatic, interferometer mode. The HAARP and HIPAS facilities in Alaska radiated at 4525 kHz with total combined

  1. Telescopic Imaging of Heater-Induced Airglow at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    03-01-2007 Final1 10-09-2003 - 10-09-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ba. CONTRACT NUMBER Telescopic Imaging of Heater-Induced Airglow at HAARP N00014-03-1... HAARP to optically measure fine structure in the ionosphere and to study airglow sources. In the presence of aurora and a strong blanketing E layer... HAARP was modulated at intervals of several seconds. For several cycles, small bright airglow spots were observed whenever HAARP was on. These spots

  2. Recent Advances in Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission NSEE Investigations at HAARP and EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of stimulated radiation, commonly known as Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE), produced by the interaction of high-power, High Frequency HF radiowaves with the ionospheric plasma has been a vibrant area of research since the early 1980's. Substantial diagnostic information about ionospheric plasma characteristics, dynamics, and turbulence can be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the stimulated radiation. During the past several decades, so-called wideband SEE (WSEE) which exists in a frequency band of ±100 KHz or so of the transmit wave frequency (which is several MHz) has been investigated relatively thoroughly. Upgrades both in transmitter power and diagnostic receiver frequency sensitivity at major ionosphere interaction facilities (i.e. HAARP and EISCAT) have allowed new breakthroughs in the ability to study a plethora of processes associated with the ionospheric plasma during these active experiments. A primary advance is in observations of so-called narrowband SEE (NSEE) which exists roughly within ±1 kHz of the transmit wave frequency. NSEE investigation has opened the door for a potentially powerful tool for aeronomy investigations as well. An overview of several important new results associated with NSEE are discussed in this presentation, including observations, theory, computational modeling, as well as implications to new diagnostics of space plasma physics occurring during ionospheric interaction experiments.

  3. VLF wave generation by beating of two HF waves in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Kossey, Paul; Chang, Chia-Lie; Labenski, John

    2011-05-01

    Theory of a beat-wave mechanism for very low frequency (VLF) wave generation in the ionosphere is presented. The VLF current is produced by beating two high power HF waves of slightly different frequencies through the nonlinearity and inhomogeneity of the ionospheric plasma. Theory also shows that the density irregularities can enhance the beat-wave generation. An experiment was conducted by transmitting two high power HF waves of 3.2 MHz and 3.2 MHz + f, where f = 5, 8, 13, and 2.02 kHz, from the HAARP transmitter. In the experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the O-mode heater, i.e., the heater frequency f0 > foF2, and overdense or slightly underdense to the X-mode heater, i.e., f0 < fxF2 or f0 ≥ fxF2. The radiation intensity increased with the VLF wave frequency, was much stronger with the X-mode heaters, and was not sensitive to the electrojet. The strongest VLF radiation of 13 kHz was generated when the reflection layer of the X-mode heater was just slightly below the foF2 layer and the spread of the O-mode sounding echoes had the largest enhancement, suggesting an optimal setting for beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters.

  4. Detection and Analysis of Partial Reflections of HF Waves from the Lower Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdman, A.; Moore, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    On the afternoon of August 27, 2011, the western half of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program's (HAARP's) HF transmitter repeatedly broadcast a low-power (1 kW/Tx), 4.5-MHz, X-mode polarized, 10 microsecond pulse. The HF beam was directed vertically, and the inter-pulse period was 20 milliseconds. HF observations were performed at Oasis (62° 23' 30" N, 145° 9' 03" W) using two crossed 90-foot folded dipoles. Observations clearly indicate the detection of a ground wave and multiple reflections from different sources at F-region altitudes, which is consistent with digisonde measurements at 4.5 MHz. Additional reflections were detected at a virtual altitude of 90-110 km, and we interpret these reflections as partial reflections from the rapid conductivity change at the base of the ionosphere. We compare these observations with the predictions of a new finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) plasma model. The model is a one-dimensional, second-order accurate, cold plasma FDTD model of the ionosphere extending from ground through the lower F-region. The model accounts for a spatially varying plasma frequency, cyclotron frequency, and electron-neutral collision frequency. We discuss the possibility to analyze partial reflections from the base of the ionosphere as a function of frequency to characterize the reflecting plasma.

  5. Artificial Excitation of Schumann Resonance with HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Chang, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance (typically, 7.5 - 8.0 Hz frequency range). Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of the Schumann resonance, when the ionosphere has a strong F-layer and an electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the E-region.

  6. Full-Wave Radio Characterization of Ionospheric Modification at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-26

    Full-Wave Radio Characterization of Ionospheric Modification at HAARP We have studied electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence stimulated by...radio receivers at HAARP in Alaska, and ground-based radio receivers, incoherent scatter radars, and in-situ measurements from Canadian, ESA, and Polish...363255 San Juan, PR 00936 -3255 31-May-2015 ABSTRACT Final Report: Full-Wave Radio Characterization of Ionospheric Modification at HAARP Report Title We

  7. HF-enhanced 4278-Å airglow: evidence of accelerated ionosphere electrons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallen, C. T.; Watkins, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    We report calculations from a one-dimensional physics-based self-consistent ionosphere model (SCIM) demonstrating that HF-heating of F-region electrons can produce 4278-Å airglow enhancements comparable in magnitude to those reported during ionosphere HF modification experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in Alaska. These artificial 'blue-line' emissions, also observed at the EISCAT ionosphere heating facility in Norway, have been attributed to arise solely from additional production of N2+ ions through impact ionization of N2 molecules by HF-accelerated electrons. Each N2+ ion produced by impact ionization or photoionization has a probability of being created in the N2+(1N) excited state, resulting in a blue-line emission from the allowed transition to its ground state. The ionization potential of N2 exceeds 18 eV, so enhanced impact ionization of N2 implies that significant electron acceleration processes occur in the HF-modified ionosphere. Further, because of the fast N2+ emission time, measurements of 4278-Å intensity during ionosphere HF modification experiments at HAARP have also been used to estimate artificial ionization rates. To the best of our knowledge, all observations of HF-enhanced blue-line emissions have been made during twilight conditions when resonant scattering of sunlight by N2+ ions is a significant source of 4278-Å airglow. Our model calculations show that F-region electron heating by powerful O-mode HF waves transmitted from HAARP is sufficient to increase N2+ ion densities above the shadow height through temperature-enhanced ambipolar diffusion and temperature-suppressed ion recombination. Resonant scattering from the modified sunlit region can cause a 10-20 R increase in 4278-Å airglow intensity, comparable in magnitude to artificial emissions measured during ionosphere HF-modification experiments. This thermally-induced artificial 4278-Å aurora occurs independently of any artificial

  8. Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) ePOP transionospheric observations from an HF transmitter in Ottawa (45N, 75W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, G. C.; Danskin, D. W.; Gillies, R. G.; James, H. G.; Yau, A. W.; Hird, F. C.; Fairbairn, D. T.

    2016-12-01

    A ground-based HF transmitter operating at 10.422 MHz in Ottawa, Canada (45.4N, 75.6W) was the radio source for reception by the satellite-based Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) for 5 passes in late April, 2016. The RRI is one of eight instruments on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) scientific payload portion of the CSA (Canadian Space Agency) CASSIOPE (Cascade Demonstrator Small-Sat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer) satellite mission launched in September, 2013. The crossed-dipole configuration of the RRI allows for complete polarization observations. Initial analysis of the passes indicates reception of a highly polarized signal. South of the transmitter the signal clearly exhibits Faraday rotation of an essentially linearly polarized radio wave in agreement with modeling by Gillies et al. [2007]. This propagation is characterized as quasi-longitudinal (QL) by the Appleton-Hartree equation (electromagnetic wave propagation in a cold magnetized plasma) as the radio waves travel in a direction more along the magnetic field of the Earth. When the satellite moves north of the Ottawa transmitter the radio wave propagation transitions into quasi-transverse (QT). The data indicates favoring circular polarization dependent on the geometry with respect to the transmitter. Surprisingly the Faraday rotation effect is still very pronounced reversing in direction roughly 1000 km north of the transmitter. The model of Gillies et al. [2007] has been extended to explain these observations. This is the first direct observation, by polarimetry, of HF radio wave propagation in near-Earth space plasmas.Gillies, R.G., G.C. Hussey, H.G. James, G.J. Sofko, and D. Andre, Modelling and observation of transionospheric propagation results from ISIS II in preparation for ePOP, Ann. Geophys. 25, 87-97, 2007.

  9. An Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP-Generated VLF Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-02

    AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2007-1021 An Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP -Generated VLF Waves O o o r- Q M. J. Kosch T. Pedersen J...Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP Generated VLF Waves. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62101F...model. The frequency-time modulated VLF wave patterns have been successfully implemented at the HAARP ionospheric modification facility in Alaska

  10. Large-Scale Ionospheric Effects Related to Electron-Gyro Harmonics: What We Have Learned from HAARP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The HAARP ionospheric modification facility has unique capabilities that enable a wide range of HF frequencies with transmit powers ranging from very low to very high values. We will review a range of experiment results that illustrate large-scale ionospheric effects when the HF frequencies used are close to electron gyro-harmoncs and we focus mainly on the 3rd and 4th harmonics. The data are primarily from the UHF diagnosticc radar and total electron content (TEC) observations through the heated topside ionosphere. Radar data for HF frequencies just above and just below gyro harmoncs show significant differences in radar scatter cross-section that suggest differing plasma processes, and this effect is HF power dependent with some effects only observable with full HF power. For the production of artificial ionization in the E-region when the HF frequency is near gyro-harmoncs the results differ significantly for relatively small (50 kHz) variations in the HF frequency. We show how slow FM scans in conjunction with gyro-harmonic effects are effective in producing artificial ionization in the lower ionosphere.In the topside ionosphere enhanced density and upward fluxes have been observed and these may act as effective ducts for the propagation of VLF waves upward into the magneosphere. Experimental techniques have been developed that may be used to continuously maintain these effects in the topside ionossphere.

  11. Optimizing an ELF/VLF Phased Array at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaru, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to maximize the amplitude of 1-5 kHz ELF/VLF waves generated by ionospheric HF heating and measured at a ground-based ELF/VLF receiver. The optimization makes use of experimental observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the amplitude, phase, and propagation delay of the ELF/VLF waves were carefully measured. The HF beam was aimed at 15 degrees zenith angle in 8 different azimuthal directions, equally spaced in a circle, while broadcasting a 3.25 MHz (X-mode) signal that was amplitude modulated (square wave) with a linear frequency-time chirp between 1 and 5 kHz. The experimental observations are used to provide reference amplitudes, phases, and propagation delays for ELF/VLF waves generated at these specific locations. The presented optimization accounts for the trade-off between duty cycle, heated area, and the distributed nature of the source region in order to construct a "most efficient" phased array. The amplitudes and phases generated by modulated heating at each location are combined in post-processing to find an optimal combination of duty cycle, heating location, and heating order.

  12. Power-Stepped HF Cross-Modulation Experiments: Simulations and Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. The interaction between the heating wave and the probing pulse depends on the ambient and modified conditions of the D-region ionosphere. Cross-modulation observations are employed as a measure of the HF-modified refractive index. We employ an optimized version of Fejer's method that we developed during previous experiments. Experiments were performed in March 2013 at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the power of the HF heating signal incrementally increased in order to determine the dependence of cross-modulation on HF power. We found that a simple power law relationship does not hold at high power levels, similar to previous ELF/VLF wave generation experiments. In this paper, we critically compare these experimental observations with the predictions of a numerical ionospheric HF heating model and demonstrate close agreement.

  13. First artificial periodic inhomogeneity experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; McCarrick, M. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Vierinen, J.

    2015-03-01

    Experiments involving the generation and detection of artificial periodic inhomogeneities have been performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. Irregularities were created using powerful X-mode HF emissions and then probed using short (10 μs) X- and O-mode pulses. Reception was performed using a portable software-defined receiver together with the crossed rhombic antenna from the local ionosonde. Echoes were observed reliably between about 85 and 140 km altitude with signal-to-noise ratios as high as about 30 dB. The Doppler shift of the echoes can be associated with the vertical neutral wind in this altitude range. Small but persistent Doppler shifts were observed. The decay time constant of the echoes is meanwhile indicative of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient which depends on the plasma temperature, composition, and neutral gas density. The measured time constants appear to be consistent with theoretical expectations and imply a methodology for measuring neutral density profiles. The significance of thermospheric vertical neutral wind and density measurements which are difficult to obtain using ground-based instruments by other means is discussed.

  14. High Frequency Resolution TOA Analysis for ELF/VLFWave Generation Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddle, J. D.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Modulated HF heating of the ionosphere in the presence of natural ionospheric current sources has been used as a method to generate electromagnetic ELF/VLF waves since the 1970's. In the ~1-5 kHz band, the amplitude and phase of the received ELF/VLF signal depends on the amplitude and phase of the conductivity modulation generated throughout the HF-heated ionospheric body, as well as on the signal propagation parameters (i.e., the attenuation and phase constants) between each of the current sources and the receiver. Recent signal processing advances have produced an accurate ELF/VLF time-of-arrival (TOA) analysis technique that differentiates line-of-sight and ionospherically-reflected signal components, determining the amplitude and phase of each component observed at the receiver. This TOA method requires a wide bandwidth (> 2.5 kHz) and therefore is relatively insensitive to the frequency-dependent nature of ELF/VLF wave propagation. In this paper, we present an improved ELF/VLF TOA method that is capable of providing high frequency resolution. The new analysis technique is applied to experimental observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating at HAARP. We present measurements of the amplitude and phase of the received ELF/VLF signal as a function of frequency and compare the results with the predictions of an HF heating model.

  15. Investigation of third gyro-harmonic heating at HAARP using stimulated radio emissions and the MUIR and Kodiak radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Watkins, B. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Isham, B.; Vega-Cancel, O.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents data from two campaigns at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility (HAARP) in 2011 and 2012. The measurements of stimulated radio emissions (often called stimulated electromagnetic emissions or SEE) were conducted 15 km from the HAARP site. The potential of Narrowband SEE (NSEE) as a new diagnostic tool to monitor artificial irregularities excited during HF-pump heating of the ionosphere is the main goal of this paper. This has been investigated using well established diagnostics including the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) and Kodiak SuperDARN radars as well as Wideband SEE (WSEE). The measured data using these three diagnostics were compared to characterize the ionospheric parameters and study the plasma irregularities generated in the interaction region. Variation of the wideband/narrowband SEE features, SuperDARN echoes, and HF-enhanced ion lines (EHIL) were studied with pump power variation, pump frequency stepping near the third electron gyro-frequency (3fce) as well as changing beam angle relative to the magnetic zenith. In particular, electrostatic plasma waves and associated irregularities excited near the reflection resonance layer as well as the upper-hybrid resonance layer are investigated. The time evolution and growth rate of these irregularities are studied using the experimental observations. Close alignment of narrowband SEE (NSEE) with wideband SEE (WSEE) and EHIL was observed. SuperDARN radar echoes and WSEE also showed alignment as in previous investigations. Correlations between these three measurements underscore potential diagnostics by utilizing the NSEE spectrum to estimate ionospheric parameters such as electron temperature.

  16. First demonstration of HF-driven ionospheric currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.

    2011-10-01

    The first experimental demonstration of HF driven currents in the ionosphere at low ELF/ULF frequencies without relying in the presence of electrojets is presented. The effect was predicted by theoretical/computational means in a recent letter and given the name Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD). The effect relies on modulated F-region HF heating to generate Magneto-Sonic (MS) waves that drive Hall currents when they reach the E-region. The Hall currents inject ELF waves into the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide and helicon and Shear Alfven (SA) waves in the magnetosphere. The proof-of-concept experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater in Alaska under the BRIOCHE program. Waves between 0.1-70 Hz were measured at both near and far sites. The letter discusses the differences between ICD generated waves and those relying on modulation of electrojets.

  17. Methods for Creation and Detection of Ultra-Strong Artificial Ionization in the Upper Atmosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kendall, E. A.; Watkins, B. J.; Bristow, W. A.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) transmitter in Alaska has been used to produce localized regions of artificial ionization at altitudes between 150 and 250 km. High power radio waves tuned near harmonics of the electron gyro frequency were discovered by Todd Pederson of the Air Force Research Laboratory to produce ionosonde traces that looked like artificial ionization layers below the natural F-region. The initial regions of artificial ionization (AI) were not stable but had moved down in altitude over a period of 15 minutes. Recently, artificial ionization has been produced by the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th harmonics transmissions by the HAARP. In march 2013, the artificial ionization clouds were sustained for more the 5 hours using HAARP tuned to the 4 fce at the full power of 3.6 Mega-Watts with a twisted-beam antenna pattern. Frequency selection with narrow-band sweeps and antenna pattern shaping has been employed for optimal generation of AI. Recent research at HAARP has produced the longest lived and denser artificial ionization clouds using HF transmissions at the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency and ring-shaped radio beams tailored to prevent the descent of the clouds. Detection of artificial ionization employs (1) ionosonde echoes, (2) coherent backscatter from the Kodiak SuperDARN radar, (3) enhanced ion and plasma line echoes from the HAARP MUIR radar at 400 MHz, (4) high resolution optical image from ground sites, and (5) unique stimulated electromagnetic emissions, and (6) strong UHF and L-Band scintillation induced into trans-ionospheric signals from satellite radio beacons. Future HAARP experiments will determine the uses of long-sustained AI for enhanced HF communications.

  18. Artificial Ionization and UHF Radar Response Associated with HF Frequencies near Electron Gyro-Harmonics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Secan, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results from O-mode ionospheric heating experiments at the HAARP facility in Alaska to demonstrate that the magnitude of artificial ionization production is critically dependent on the choice of HF frequency near gyro-harmonics. For O-mode heating in the lower F-region ionosphere, typically about 200 km altitude, artificial ionization enhancements are observed in the lower ionosphere (about 150 - 220 km) and also in the topside ionosphere above about 500 km. Lower ionosphere density enhancements are inferred from HF-enhanced ion and plasma-line signals observed with UHF radar. Upper ionospheric density enhancements have been observed with TEC (total electron content) experiments by monitoring satellite radio beacons where signal paths traverse the HF-modified ionosphere. Both density enhancements and corresponding upward plasma fluxes have also been observed in the upper ionosphere via in-situ satellite observations. The data presented focus mainly on observations near the third and fourth gyro-harmonics. The specific values of the height-dependent gyro-harmonics have been computed from a magnetic model of the field line through the HF heated volume. Experiments with several closely spaced HF frequencies around the gyro-harmonic frequency region show that the magnitude of the lower-ionosphere artificial ionization production maximizes for HF frequencies about 1.0 - 1.5 MHz above the gyro-harmonic frequency. The response is progressively larger as the HF frequency is increased in the frequency region near the gyro-harmonics. For HF frequencies that are initially greater than the gyro-harmonic value the UHF radar scattering cross-section is relatively small, and non-existent or very weak signals are observed; as the signal returns drop in altitude due to density enhancements the HF interaction region passes through lower altitudes where the HF frequency is less than the gyro-harmonic value, for these conditions the radar scattering cross-section is

  19. Initial results of stimulated radiation measurements during the HAARP campaign of September 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellu, A. D.; Scales, W. A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Siefring, C.; Bernhardt, P.

    2018-02-01

    Initial results of stimulated electromagnetic radiation observed during an ionosphere heating experiment conducted at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Program (HAARP) facility are reported. The frequency of the pump wave used in the heating is in the neighborhood of the third harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency, and of interest are simulated electromagnetic emissions (SEEs) within ? kHz of the heating frequency known as narrowband SEE (NSEE) and the commonly known wideband SEE (WSEE) which occur within ? kHz of the pump wave frequency. With the transmit power maintained at maximum, and all other conditions of the experiment invariable, the characteristics of NSEE and WSEE as time progresses from the time the transmitter is switched on are detailed in the results. The dependence of the characteristics of the NSEE and WSEE with temporal evolution into the heating cycle are observed to be fundamentally different.

  20. USCG HF SITOR

    Science.gov Websites

    broadcasts from Boston sharing the same transmitters. See table below for station locations and schedules meteorological observations. Boston(NMF) HF SITOR (NBDP) Broadcast Schedule 6314, 8416.5, 12579 kHz 0140Z3 8416.5

  1. Investigation of Third Gyro-harmonic Heating at HAARP Using Stimulated Radio Emissions, the MUIR and SuperDARN Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, Alireza; Bernhardt, Paul; Ruohoniemi, J. Michael; Isham, Brett; Watkins, Brenton; Scales, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    Use of high frequency (HF) heating experiments has been extended in recent years as a useful methodology for plasma physicists wishing to remotely study the properties and behavior of the ionosphere as well as nonlinear plasma processes. Our recent work using high latitude heating experiments has lead to several important discoveries that have enabled assessment of active geomagnetic conditions, determination of minor ion species and their densities, ion mass spectrometry, electron temperature measurements in the heating ionosphere, as well a deeper understanding of physical processes associated with electron acceleration and formation of field aligned irregularities. The data recorded during two campaigns at HAARP in 2011 and 2012 will be presented. Several diagnostic instruments have been used to detect HAARP heater-generated ionospheric irregularities and plasma waves. These diagnostics include an ionosonde, MUIR (Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar at 446 MHz), SuperDARN HF backscatter radar and ground-based SEE receivers. Variation of the wideband/ narrowband SEE features, SuperDARN echoes, and enhanced ion lines were studied with pump power variation, pump frequency stepping near 3fce as well as changing beam angle relative to the magnetic zenith. In particular, formation of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and upper hybrid (UH) waves through oscillating two-stream instability (OSTI) and resonance instability is studied. During heating, Narrowband SEE (NSEE) showed enhancements that correlated with the enhanced MUIR radar ion lines. IA MSBS (Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter) lines are much narrower than Wideband SEE (WSEE) lines and as a result electron temperature calculated using NSEE line offset has potential to be more accurate. This technique may therefore complement the electron temperature calculation using ISR spectra. Strength of IA MSBS lines correlate with EHIL in the MUIR spectrum during HF pump frequency variation near 3fce. Therefore, NSEE

  2. Interharmonic modulation products as a means to quantify nonlinear D-region interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    Experimental observations performed during dual beam ionospheric HF heating experiments at the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska are used to quantify the relative importance of specific nonlinear interactions that occur within the D region ionosphere. During these experiments, HAARP broadcast two amplitude modulated HF beams whose center frequencies were separated by less than 20 kHz. One beam was sinusoidally modulated at 500 Hz while the second beam was sinusoidally modulated using a 1-7 kHz linear frequency-time chirp. ELF/VLF observations performed at two different locations (3 and 98 km from HAARP) provide clear evidence of strong interactions between all field components of the two HF beams in the form of low and high order interharmonic modulation products. From a theoretical standpoint, the observed interharmonic modulation products could be produced by several different nonlinearities. The two primary nonlinearities take the form of wave-medium interactions (i.e., cross modulation), wherein the ionospheric conductivity modulation produced by one signal crosses onto the other signal via collision frequency modification, and wave-wave interactions, wherein the conduction current associated with one wave mixes with the electric field of the other wave to produce electron temperature oscillations. We are able to separate and quantify these two different nonlinearities, and we conclude that the wave-wave interactions dominate the wave-medium interactions by a factor of two. These results are of great importance for the modeling of transioinospheric radio wave propagation, in that both the wave-wave and the wave-medium interactions could be responsible for a significant amount of anomalous absorption.

  3. Detection of Transionospheric SuperDARN HF Waves by the Radio Receiver Instrument on the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, R. G.; Yau, A. W.; James, H. G.; Hussey, G. C.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) Canadian small-satellite was launched in September 2013. Included in this suite of eight scientific instruments is the Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI). The RRI has been used to measure VLF and HF radio waves from various ground and spontaneous ionospheric sources. The first dedicated ground transmission that was detected by RRI was from the Saskatoon Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar on Nov. 7, 2013 at 14 MHz. Several other passes over the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar have been recorded since then. Ground transmissions have also been observed from other radars, such as the SPEAR, HAARP, and SURA ionospheric heaters. However, the focus of this study will be on the results obtained from the SuperDARN passes. An analysis of the signal recorded by the RRI provides estimates of signal power, Doppler shift, polarization, absolute time delay, differential mode delay, and angle of arrival. By comparing these parameters to similar parameters derived from ray tracing simulations, ionospheric electron density structures may be detected and measured. Further analysis of the results from the other ground transmitters and future SuperDARN passes will be used to refine these results.

  4. Polar azimuth diversity HF propagation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kurt A.; Haines, D. M.; Weijers, Bertus

    1986-03-01

    Presented are the results of an HF Azimuth Diversity Propagation Experiment conducted by RADC over several paths, transauroral and polar, separated in azimuth by 30, 70, and 100 degrees, as part of the RADC Adaptive HF Propagation Program. The data presented give the occurrence of several ionospheric characteristics important to the operation of HF networks in a disturbed environment. The analysis was performed on data collected during the four seasonal periods to obtain statistical samples representative of each season under slightly disturbed as well as quiet conditions. The system used to collect the data was a network of three chirpsounder transmitters and one receiver, each sweeping over a frequency range of 2 to 30 MHz, once every five minutes. The transmitters were located at Ava, N.Y., Grand Forks, N. Dak., and Barter Island, Alaska. The receiving system was located at Thule Air Base, Greenland.

  5. SuperDARN elevation angle calibration using HAARP-induced backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. G.; Thomas, E. G.; Palinski, T. J.; Bristow, W.

    2017-12-01

    SuperDARN radars rely on refraction in the ionosphere to make Doppler measurements of backscatter from ionospheric irregularities or the ground/sea, often to ranges of 4000 km or more. Elevation angle measurements of backscattered signals can be important for proper geolocation, mode identification and Doppler velocity corrections to the data. SuperDARN radars are equipped with a secondary array to make elevation angle measurements, however, calibration is often difficult. One method of calibration is presented here, whereby backscatter from HAARP-induced irregularities, at a known location, is used to independently determine the elevation angle of signals. Comparisons are made for several radars with HAARP in their field-of-view in addition to the results obtained fromray-tracing in a model ionosphere.

  6. Artificial Aurora Generated by HAARP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Kendall, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from the ionospheric heating experiment conducted on March 12, 2013 at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. During the experiment HAARP transmitted X-mode 4.57 MHz waves modulated with the frequency 0.9 mHz and pointed in the direction of the magnetic zenith. The beam was focused to ~20 km spot at the altitude 100 km. The heating produces two effects: First, it generates magnetic field-aligned currents producing D and H components of the magnetic field with frequency 0.9 mHz detected by fluxgate magnetometer in Gakona. Second, the heating produced bright luminous structures in the heated region detected with the SRI telescope in 427.8 nm, 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm wavelengths. We emphasize, that for the best of our knowledge, this is the first experiment where the heating of the ionosphere with X-mode produces luminous structures in the ionosphere. We classify this luminosity as an 'artificial aurora', because it correlate with the intensity of the magnetic field-aligned currents, and such correlation is constantly seen in the natural aurora.

  7. Artificial periodic irregularities in the high-latitude ionosphere excited by the HAARP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Shindin, A. V.; Milikh, G. M.; Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; McCarrick, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present results of the new observations of artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) in the ionosphere using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility carried out in late May and early June 2014.The objective of this work is to detect API using high-latitude facility and analyze possible differences of the temporal and spatial variations of the API echoes in the high (HAARP) and middle (Sura) latitudes. Irregularities were created by the powerful wave of X mode and were sounded using the short probing pulses signals of X mode. API echoes were observed in the D, E, and F regions of the ionosphere. Amplitudes and characteristic times of the API echoes were measured. The API growth and decay times at HAARP (high latitudes) observed were similar to those at the Sura heating facility (midlatitudes).

  8. Characterization of the Auroral Electrojet and the Ambient and Modified D Region for HAARP Using Long-Path VLF Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-15

    order to characterize the auroral electrojet and the ambient and modified D-region directly above and near the HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral...near the HAARP facility and along the west coast of Alaska. In addition in order to characterize the auroral electrojet on a continental scale and to...United States and Canada. Data from the complete array of D-region diagnostic systems was acquired during a number of Fall and Spring HAARP campaigns

  9. Optimizing ELF/VLF generation via HF heating utilizing beam motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Golkowski, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    ELF/VLF (300 Hz - 30 kHz) waves are difficult to generate with conventional antennae due to their extraordinary long wavelengths, and the good conductance of the Earth at these frequencies. Recently, ELF and VLF waves have been generated using HF (3-10 MHz) heating of the lower ionosphere, in the presence of natural currents such as the auroral electrojet, which modulates the ionospheric conductivity and therefore turns the lower ionosphere into a large radiating element. The recently upgraded HAARP facility, near Gakona Alaska, utilizes 3.6 MW of HF power, along with an unprecedented ability to steer the HF heating beam over a large area extremely rapidly. Since the completion of the upgrade in 2007, the first successful implementation of techniques such as geometric modulation [Cohen et al. 2008, Borisov et al. 1998], and beam painting [Papadopoulos et al. 1989] have occurred. These results have shown as much as 7-11 dB improvement in the signal strengths, as well as the first ability to direct ELF/VLF signals via an unprecedented ELF/VLF phased array. Here, we use a combination of experimental and theoretical investigations to discuss the optimization of ELF/VLF generation via HF heating, including the effect of HF and ELF frequency on the amplitude and the directional pattern for various generation techniques. The experimental observations occur over an array of receivers across Alaska. The theoretical formulation utilizes a 3D model of the HF heating and subsequent electron cooling processes, leading to spatial structure of modulated ionospheric conductivities, the results of which are input into a model of ELF/VLF propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide.

  10. Artificial plasma cusp generated by upper hybrid instabilities in HF heating experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold

    2013-05-01

    High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program digisonde was operated in a fast mode to record ionospheric modifications by the HF heating wave. With the O mode heater of 3.2 MHz turned on for 2 min, significant virtual height spread was observed in the heater off ionograms, acquired beginning the moment the heater turned off. Moreover, there is a noticeable bump in the virtual height spread of the ionogram trace that appears next to the plasma frequency (~ 2.88 MHz) of the upper hybrid resonance layer of the HF heating wave. The enhanced spread and the bump disappear in the subsequent heater off ionograms recorded 1 min later. The height distribution of the ionosphere in the spread situation indicates that both electron density and temperature increases exceed 10% over a large altitude region (> 30 km) from below to above the upper hybrid resonance layer. This "mini cusp" (bump) is similar to the cusp occurring in daytime ionograms at the F1-F2 layer transition, indicating that there is a small ledge in the density profile reminiscent of F1-F2 layer transitions. Two parametric processes exciting upper hybrid waves as the sidebands by the HF heating waves are studied. Field-aligned purely growing mode and lower hybrid wave are the respective decay modes. The excited upper hybrid and lower hybrid waves introduce the anomalous electron heating which results in the ionization enhancement and localized density ledge. The large-scale density irregularities formed in the heat flow, together with the density irregularities formed through the parametric instability, give rise to the enhanced virtual height spread. The results of upper hybrid instability analysis are also applied to explain the descending feature in the development of the artificial ionization layers observed in electron cyclotron harmonic resonance heating experiments.

  11. HF-induced airglow structure as a proxy for ionospheric irregularity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility allows scientists to test current theories of plasma physics to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms at work in the lower ionosphere. One powerful technique for diagnosing radio frequency interactions in the ionosphere is to use ground-based optical instrumentation. High-frequency (HF), heater-induced artificial airglow observations can be used to diagnose electron energies and distributions in the heated region, illuminate natural and/or artificially induced ionospheric irregularities, determine ExB plasma drifts, and measure quenching rates by neutral species. Artificial airglow is caused by HF-accelerated electrons colliding with various atmospheric constituents, which in turn emit a photon. The most common emissions are 630.0 nm O(1D), 557.7 nm O(1S), and 427.8 nm N2+(1NG). Because more photons will be emitted in regions of higher electron energization, it may be possible to use airglow imaging to map artificial field-aligned irregularities at a particular altitude range in the ionosphere. Since fairly wide field-of-view imagers are typically deployed in airglow campaigns, it is not well-known what meter-scale features exist in the artificial airglow emissions. Rocket data show that heater-induced electron density variations, or irregularities, consist of bundles of ~10-m-wide magnetic field-aligned filaments with a mean depletion depth of 6% [Kelley et al., 1995]. These bundles themselves constitute small-scale structures with widths of 1.5 to 6 km. Telescopic imaging provides high resolution spatial coverage of ionospheric irregularities and goes hand in hand with other observing techniques such as GPS scintillation, radar, and ionosonde. Since airglow observations can presumably image ionospheric irregularities (electron density variations), they can be used to determine the spatial scale variation, the fill factor, and the lifetime characteristics of

  12. Imaging and Forecasting of Ionospheric Structures and Their System Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-05

    Trapped electrons, Wave/particle interaction, Plasmasphere, Magnetic field, HAARP , Cal/Val 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a...support to the HAARP digisonde (DPS) over the past year, UMLCAR cooperated with AFRL on a campaign during the last week of August 2003. This campaign was...held to develop new diagnostic techniques using the HAARP transmitter, the digisonde, and the all-sky imager as part of a coordinated measurement

  13. Basis of Ionospheric Modification by High-Frequency Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    for conducting ionospheric heating experiments in Gakona, Alaska, as part of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) [5], is being...upgraded. The upgraded HAARP HF transmitting system will be a phased-array antenna of 180 elements. Each element is a cross dipole, which radiates a...supported by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ), the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, and by the Office

  14. Thermal response of the F region ionosphere in artificial modification experiments by HF radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantas, G. P.; Lahoz, C. H.; Carlson, H. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal response of the nighttime F region ionosphere to local heating by HF radio waves has been observed with the incoherent scatter radar at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. The observations consist of high-resolution space and time variation of the electron temperature as a high-power HF transmitter is switched on and off with a period 240 s. As soon as the HF transmitter is turned on, the electron temperature begins to rise rapidly in a narrow altitude region near 300 km, below the F2 layer peak. The electron temperature perturbation subsequently spreads over a broader altitude region. The observations are compared with the anticipated thermal response of the ionosphere based on numerical solutions of the coupled time-dependent heat conduction equations for the electron and composite ion gases and are found to be in good agreement over the entire altitude region covered by the observations.

  15. Mid-latitude Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (NSEE): New Observations and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossa, E.; Mahmoudian, A.; Isham, B.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    High power electromagnetic waves (EM) transmitted from the ground interact with the local plasma in the ionosphere and can produce Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) through the parametric decay instability (PDI). The classical SEE features known as wideband SEE (WSEE) with frequency offset of 1 kHz up to 100 kHz have been observed and studied in detail in the 1980s and 1990s. A new era of ionospheric remote sensing techniques was begun after the recent update of the HF transmitter at the HAARP. Sideband emissions of unprecedented strength have been reported during recent campaigns at HAARP, reaching up to 10 dB relative to the reflected pump wave which are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. These emissions known as narrowband SEE (NSEE) are shifted by only up to a few tens of Hertz from radio-waves transmitted at several megahertz. One of these new NSEE features are emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency and are produced through magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter (MSBS) process. Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) is a strong SEE mode involving a direct parametric decay of the pump wave into an electrostatic wave (ES) and a secondary EM wave that sometimes could be stronger than the HF pump. SBS has been studied in laboratory plasma experiments by the interaction of high power lasers with plasmas. The SBS instability in magnetized ionospheric plasma was observed for the first time at HAARP in 2010. Our recent work at HAARP has shown that MSBS emission lines can be used to asses electron temperature in the heated region, ion mass spectrometry, determine minor ion species and their densities in the ionosphere, study the physics associated with electron acceleration and artificial airglow. Here, we present new observations of narrowband SEE (NSEE) features at the new mid-latitude heating facility at Arecibo. This includes the direct mode conversion of pump wave through MSBS process. Collected

  16. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF (Heating) Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    and Megill, 1974; Carlson, 1974; Bernhardt et al., 1989). During the last years new interesting results have been obtained at HAARP facility (Peterson...Haslett and Megill, 1974; Carlson, 1974; Bernhardt et al., 1989). During the last years new interesting results have been obtained at HAARP facility

  17. Ionospheric very low frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-02-15

    The theme of this paper is to establish a reliable ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) transmitter, which is also broad band. Two approaches are studied that generate VLF waves in the ionosphere. The first, classic approach employs a ground-based HF heater to directly modulate the high latitude ionospheric, or auroral electrojet. In the classic approach, the intensity-modulated HF heater induces an alternating current in the electrojet, which serves as a virtual antenna to transmit VLF waves. The spatial and temporal variations of the electrojet impact the reliability of the classic approach. The second, beat-wave approach also employs a ground-based HFmore » heater; however, in this approach, the heater operates in a continuous wave mode at two HF frequencies separated by the desired VLF frequency. Theories for both approaches are formulated, calculations performed with numerical model simulations, and the calculations are compared to experimental results. Theory for the classic approach shows that an HF heater wave, intensity-modulated at VLF, modulates the electron temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the ionospheric electrojet, which, in turn, induces an ac electrojet current. Thus, the electrojet becomes a virtual VLF antenna. The numerical results show that the radiation intensity of the modulated electrojet decreases with an increase in VLF radiation frequency. Theory for the beat wave approach shows that the VLF radiation intensity depends upon the HF heater intensity rather than the electrojet strength, and yet this approach can also modulate the electrojet when present. HF heater experiments were conducted for both the intensity modulated and beat wave approaches. VLF radiations were generated and the experimental results confirm the numerical simulations. Theory and experimental results both show that in the absence of the electrojet, VLF radiation from the F-region is generated via the beat wave approach. Additionally, the beat wave

  18. Geometric Aspects of Artificial Ionospheric Layers Driven by High-Power HF-Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milikh, G. M.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Djordjevic, B.; Mishin, E. V.; Zawdie, K.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    We have generalized earlier developed multi-scale dynamic model for the creation and propagation of artificial plasma layers in the ionosphere [Eliasson et al, 2012] by including two dimensional effects in the horizontal direction. Such layers were observed during high-power high frequency HF heating experiments at HAARP [Pedersen et al., 2010]. We have numerically investigated the importance of different angles of incidence of ordinary mode waves on the Langmuir turbulence and the resulting electron acceleration that leads to the formation of artificial ionospheric layers. It was shown that the most efficient electron acceleration and subsequent ionization is obtained at angles between magnetic zenith and the vertical, where strong Langmuir turbulence dominates over weak turbulence. A role played by the heating wave propagation near caustics was also investigated. Eliasson, B. et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res. 117, A10321, doi:10.1029/2012JA018105. Pedersen, T., et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L02106, doi:10.1029/2009GL041895.

  19. Ionospheric data assimilation applied to HF geolocation in the presence of traveling ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, C. N.; Rankov, N. R.; Bust, G. S.; Miller, E.; Gaussiran, T.; Calfas, R.; Doyle, J. D.; Teig, L. J.; Werth, J. L.; Dekine, I.

    2017-07-01

    Ionospheric data assimilation is a technique to evaluate the 3-D time varying distribution of electron density using a combination of a physics-based model and observations. A new ionospheric data assimilation method is introduced that has the capability to resolve traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). TIDs are important because they cause strong delay and refraction to radio signals that are detrimental to the accuracy of high-frequency (HF) geolocation systems. The capability to accurately specify the ionosphere through data assimilation can correct systems for the error caused by the unknown ionospheric refraction. The new data assimilation method introduced here uses ionospheric models in combination with observations of HF signals from known transmitters. The assimilation methodology was tested by the ability to predict the incoming angles of HF signals from transmitters at a set of nonassimilated test locations. The technique is demonstrated and validated using observations collected during 2 days of a dedicated campaign of ionospheric measurements at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico in January 2014. This is the first time that full HF ionospheric data assimilation using an ensemble run of a physics-based model of ionospheric TIDs has been demonstrated. The results show a significant improvement over HF angle-of-arrival prediction using an empirical model and also over the classic method of single-site location using an ionosonde close to the midpoint of the path. The assimilative approach is extendable to include other types of ionospheric measurements.

  20. Shear Alfven Wave Injection in the Magnetosphere by Ionospheric Modifications in the Absence of Electrojet Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.

    2011-12-01

    A new concept of generating ionospheric currents in the ULF/ELF range with modulated HF heating using ground-based transmitters even in the absence of electrojet currents is presented. The new concept relies on using HF heating of the F-region to modulate the electron temperature and has been given the name Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD). In ICD, the pressure gradient associated with anomalous or collisional F-region electron heating drives a local diamagnetic current that acts as an antenna to inject mainly Magneto-Sonic (MS) waves in the ionospheric plasma. The electric field associated with the MS wave drives Hall currents when it reaches the E region of the ionosphere. The Hall currents act as a secondary antenna that inject waves in the Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide (EIW) below and shear Alfven waves or EMIC waves upwards towards the conjugate regions. The paper presents: (i) Theoretical results using a cold Hall MHD model to study ICD and the generation of ULF/ELF waves by the modulation of the electron pressure at the F2-region with an intense HF electromagnetic wave. The model solves equations governing the dynamics of the shear Alfven and magnetosonic modes, of the damped modes in the diffusive Pedersen layer, and of the weakly damped helicon wave mode in the Hall-dominated E-region. The model incorporates realistic profile of the ionospheric conductivities and magnetic field configuration. We use the model to simulate propagation and dynamics of the low-frequency waves and their injection into the magnetosphere from the HAARP and Arecibo ionospheric heaters. (ii) Proof of principle experiments using the HAARP ionospheric heater in conjunction with measurements by the DEMETER satellite This work is supported by ONR MURI grant and DARPA BRIOCHE Program

  1. ELF/VLF Wave Generation and Scattering from Modulated Heating of the Ionosphere at Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; McCormick, J.; Cohen, M.; Hosseini, P.; Bittle, J.

    2017-12-01

    The recently completed ionospheric heater at Arecibo Observatory is used for modulated HF (5 or 8 MHz) heating of the ionosphere, to generate ELF/VLF (3 Hz - 30 kHz) waves. Observation of ramp and tone signals at frequencies from hundreds of Hz to several kHz at multiple receivers confirms the ability of the heater to modulate D region currents and create an ELF/VLF antenna in the ionosphere. Observed ELF/VLF signal amplitudes are lower than for similar experiments performed at high latitudes at the HAARP and Tromso facilities, for a variety of reasons including the reduced natural currents at mid latitudes, and the lower HF power of the Arecibo heater. The heating of the overhead ionosphere is also observed to change the Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation characteristics as is evident from simultaneous observations of lightning induced sferics and VLF transmitter signals that propagate under the heated region. The active heating of the ionosphere modifies the reflection of incident VLF (3-30 kHz) waves. We present initial observations of HF heating of the D-region and resulting ELF/VLF wave generation.

  2. Studies of Plasma Instabilities Excited by Ground-Based High Power HF (Heating) Facilities and of X and Gamma Ray Emission in Runaway Breakdown Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    latitude ( HAARP , TROMSO) and mid latitude (SURA) facilities [1]. The very strong and fully reproducible plasma perturbations in ionosphere are observed...beam propagating along magnetic field (θ = 0), in this case factor κs ≈ 1. As an a example we will consider now the HAARP facility. The ERP for HAARP ...as a function of fre- quency f0 is presented in the Table 1. ISTC 2236p 12 Table 1 ERP as function of wave frequency for HAARP (2001) f0 (MHz

  3. Detection and Characterization of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) with GPS and HF sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, K. M.; Paznukhov, V.; Bullett, T. W.; Mackenzie, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recently there has been increasing interest and awareness in the coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere and specifically in processes that cause wave-like non-stationary perturbations in the bottom-side of the F-region. A class of these perturbations having periods greater than about five minutes and wavelengths greater than a kilometer or so are believed to occur routinely and propagate throughout the ionosphere; they are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). In this study we investigate ground-based techniques for detecting and characterizing TIDs with periods ranging from 30-90 minutes and wavelengths of 10s of km or more. These waves are believed to affect the Doppler and propagation angles of high frequency (HF) radio waves refracting through the affected regions. Wave-like perturbations are also commonly observed in GPS total electron content (TEC) data. In the current study we monitor a number of different commercial HF broadcast transmitters from a station in Wallops Island, VA and collect GPS TEC data from numerous stations along the path between the HF receiver at Wallops and specific HF transmitters. The objective is to understand the relationship between TID signatures on HF and GPS sensors and to possibly characterize TIDs using such observations, including propagation velocity, amplitude, wavelength and potentially source. Given that GPS TEC data are now relatively abundant around the globe, establishing a reliable technique for quantifying TIDs with these measurements would yield an important new technique towards developing a global TID monitoring capability that could support ionosphere-thermosphere coupling science as well as potential monitoring capabilities for natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions) with significant TID signatures.

  4. Low frequency electric field variations during HF transmissions on a mother-daughter rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Maynard, M. C.; Holtet, J. A.; Karlsen, N. O.; Egeland, A.; Moe, T. E.; Troim, J.

    1977-01-01

    HF wave propagation experiments were conducted on Mother-Daughter rockets in the polar ionosphere. Swept frequency transmissions from the Mother, nominally covering the range from 0.5 to 5 MHz in both CW and pulse modes, are received by the Daughter. In the most recent rocket of the series, the Mother also contained an AC electric field spectrometer covering the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in four decade bands. The low frequency response of the ionosphere with respect to waves emitted from the onboard HF transmitter is examined.

  5. Optimization of VLf/ELF Wave Generation using Beam Painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A.; Moore, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A novel optimized beam painting algorithm (OBP) is used to generate high amplitude very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) waves in the D-region of the ionosphere above the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory. The OBP method creates a phased array of sources in the ionosphere by varying the azimuth and zenith angles of the high frequency (HF) transmitter to capitalize on the constructive interference of propagating VLF/ELF waves. OBP generates higher amplitude VLF/ELF signals than any other previously proposed method. From April through June during 2014, OBP was performed at HAARP over 1200 times. We compare the BP generated signals against vertical amplitude modulated transmissions at 50 % duty cycle (V), oblique amplitude modulated transmissions at 15 degrees zenith and 81 degrees azimuth at 50 % duty cycle (O), and geometric (circle-sweep) modulation at 15 degrees off-zenith angle at 1562.5 Hz, 3125 Hz, and 5000 Hz. We present an analysis of the directional dependence of each signal, its polarization, and its dependence on the properties of the different source region elements. We find that BP increases the received signal amplitudes of VLF and ELF waves when compared to V, O, and GM methods over a statistically significant number of trials.

  6. Resonant scattering of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt by HAARP-induced ELF/VLF waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shanshan; Zhu, Zhengping; Ni, Binbin; Cao, Xing; Luo, Weihua

    2016-10-01

    Several extremely low-frequency (ELF)/very low-frequency (VLF) wave generation experiments have been performed successfully at High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility and the artificial ELF/VLF signals can leak into the outer radiation belt and contribute to resonant interactions with energetic electrons. Based on the artificial wave properties revealed by many of in situ observations, we implement test particle simulations to evaluate the effects of energetic electron resonant scattering driven by the HAARP-induced ELF/VLF waves. The results indicate that for both single-frequency/monotonic wave and multi-frequency/broadband waves, the behavior of each electron is stochastic while the averaged diffusion effect exhibits temporal linearity in the wave-particle interaction process. The computed local diffusion coefficients show that, the local pitch-angle scattering due to HARRP-induced single-frequency ELF/VLF whistlers with an amplitude of ∼10 pT can be intense near the loss cone with a rate of ∼10-2 rad2 s-1, suggesting the feasibility of HAARP-induced ELF/VLF waves for removal of outer radiation belt energetic electrons. In contrast, the energy diffusion of energetic electrons is relatively weak, which confirms that pitch-angle scattering by artificial ELF/VLF waves can dominantly lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons. Moreover, diffusion rates of the discrete, broadband waves, with the same amplitude of each discrete frequency as the monotonic waves, can be much larger, which suggests that it is feasible to trigger a reasonable broadband wave instead of the monotonic wave to achieve better performance of controlled precipitation of energetic electrons. Moreover, our test particle scattering simulation show good agreement with the predictions of the quasi-linear theory, confirming that both methods are applied to evaluate the effects of resonant interactions between radiation belt electrons and artificially generated

  7. Network of Internet-Controlled HF Receivers for Ionospheric Researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloskov, A. V.; Yampolski, Y. M.; Zalizovski, A. V.; Galushko, V. G.; Kascheev, A. S.; La Hoz, C.; Brekke, A.; Beley, V. S.; Rietveld, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    A network of HF receivers intended for multi-position monitoring of the ionosphere is described. At present, it includes nine observation sites located at high, middle and low latitudes in both hemispheres of the Earth. The basic element of the network is a small- size receiving and measuring units designed at the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU) on the basis of a personal computer equipped with commercial digital receiving modules. Software packages developed by the authors make it possible to remotely control the facilities via the Internet network. The received emissions are HF signals from special transmitters and broadcast radio stations. These are processed using Doppler and pulse selection algorithms. In the Internet-controlled mode, the observation results are transferred to the main server in real time to be automatically processed and visualized at the website of the IRA NASU’s Department of Radiophysics of Geospace. Several examples of using the observation results obtained with the HF receiver network for diagnostics of dynamic processes in the near-Earth plasma are presented. The advantages of the multiposition mode of observations are discussed. The possibility of upgrading the HF facilities to provide measuring angles of arrival of signals is considered.

  8. SATSIN System Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report outlines the design, functions and operation of the HAARP Diagnostic Satellite Scintillation (SATSIN) system that will be used to characterize the structure and dynamics of F region ionospheric irregularities created during HF heating. When in routine operation, the SATSIN system will be located so that the propagation path from satellite radio beacons passes through the heated volume created by HAARP. The signal, altered in phase and amplitude by the irregularities, is received by the SATSIN array of eight antennas and is processed to extract the spatial and temporal characteristics of the scintillation. From this information, the strength, shapemore » and motion of the in situ irregularities generated by HAARP can be implied. The hardware and software components of the system are reviewed, and the installation and operation in conjunction with the HAARP network are outlined.« less

  9. The calibration of an HF radar used for ionospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    From, W. R.; Whitehead, J. D.

    1984-02-01

    The HF radar on Bribie Island, Australia, uses crossed-fan beams produced by crossed linear transmitter and receiver arrays of 10 elements each to simulate a pencil beam. The beam points vertically when all the array elements are in phase, and is steerable by up to 20 deg off vertical at the central one of the three operating frequencies. Phase and gain changes within the transmitters and receivers are compensated for by an automatic system of adjustment. The 10 transmitting antennas are, as nearly as possible, physically identical as are the 10 receiving antennas. Antenna calibration using high flying aircraft or satellites is not possible. A method is described for using the ionospheric reflections to measure the polar diagram and also to correct for errors in the direction of pointing.

  10. Applications of a time-dependent polar ionosphere model for radio modification experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallen, Christopher Thomas

    A time-dependent self-consistent ionosphere model (SLIM) has been developed to study the response of the polar ionosphere to radio modification experiments, similar to those conducted at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Gakona, Alaska. SCIM solves the ion continuity and momentum equations, coupled with average electron and ion gas energy equations; it is validated by reproducing the diurnal variation of the daytime ionosphere critical frequency, as measured with an ionosonde. Powerful high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves can drive naturally occurring electrostatic plasma waves, enhancing the ionospheric reflectivity to ultra-high frequency (UHF) radar near the HF-interaction region as well as heating the electron gas. Measurements made during active experiments are compared with model calculations to clarify fundamental altitude-dependent physical processes governing the vertical composition and temperature of the polar ionosphere. The modular UHF ionosphere radar (MUIR), co-located with HAARP, measured HF-enhanced ion-line (HFIL) reflection height and observed that it ascended above its original altitude after the ionosphere had been HF-heated for several minutes. The HFIL ascent is found to follow from HF-induced depletion of plasma surrounding the F-region peak density layer, due to temperature-enhanced transport of atomic oxygen ions along the geomagnetic field line. The lower F-region and topside ionosphere also respond to HF heating. Model results show that electron temperature increases will lead to suppression of molecular ion recombination rates in the lower F region and enhancements of ambipolar diffusion in the topside ionosphere, resulting in a net enhancement of slant total electron content (TEC); these results have been confirmed by experiment. Additional evidence for the model-predicted topside ionosphere density enhancements via ambipolar diffusion is provided by in-situ measurements of ion density and

  11. Stimulated Brillouin scattering during electron gyro-harmonic heating at EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H. Y.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M. T.; Yeoman, T. K.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Observations of secondary radiation, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based, high-power, high-frequency (HF) radio waves are considered. The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is capable of generating narrowband SEE in the form of stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS) in the SEE spectrum. Such narrowband SEE spectral lines have not been reported using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) heater facility before. This work reports the first EISCAT results of narrowband SEE spectra and compares them to SEE previously observed at HAARP during electron gyro-harmonic heating. An analysis of experimental SEE data shows observations of emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency, interpreted as SBS, during the 2012 July EISCAT campaign. Experimental results indicate that SBS strengthens as the pump frequency approaches the third electron gyro-harmonic. Also, for different heater antenna beam angles, the CUTLASS radar backscatter induced by HF radio pumping is suppressed near electron gyro-harmonics, whereas electron temperature enhancement weakens as measured by EISCAT/UHF radar. The main features of these new narrowband EISCAT observations are generally consistent with previous SBS measurements at HAARP.

  12. The role of Upper Hybrid Turbulence on HF Artificial Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Dennis; Najmi, Amir; Eliasson, Bengt; Milikh, Gennady

    2016-07-01

    One of the most fascinating and scientifically interesting phenomena of active space experiments is the discovery of artificial ionization by Todd Pedersen when the HAARP ERP reached the GW level. The phenomenon has been well documented experimentally. A theoretical model based on ionization by energetic electrons accelerated by 50-100 V/m localized electric fields due to Strong Langmuir Turbulence (SLT) near the reflection surface of the HF pump wave, reproduced the observed dynamics of the descending plasma layer quite accurately. A major defect of the model was that the electron temperature in the SLT region was a free parameter. When taken as the 2000 K representing the ambient electron temperature the SLT driven electron flux was insufficient to produce ionization. An equivalent electron temperature of 5000 K or higher was necessary to reproduce the observations. The needed electron heating was attributed to the interaction of the HF at the Upper Hybrid (UH) resonant layer, approximately 5 Km below the reflection region where the HF electric field is perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The heated electrons expanded upwards along the magnetic field line and interacted with SLT fields near the resonance region. A consequence of this defect was that the theory could not explain the puzzling double resonance effect. Namely the observation that the ionization level was much stronger when the HF frequency and the UH resonance were a multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. To remedy this we used a series of Vlasov simulations to explore the HF-plasma interaction in the vicinity of the UH resonance. The simulations followed the evolution of the spectral density of the electric field over a 7.5 MHz frequency band and cm scale lengths and of the electron distribution function over one millisecond for both double resonant and non-resonant cases. Many new features were revealed by the analysis of the simulations such as: 1. Broadening of the wave

  13. Numerical simulation of the structure of the high-latitude ionospheric F region during meridional HF propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, M. Yu.; Mingaleva, G. I.; Mingalev, V. S.

    2007-08-01

    A previously developed model of the high-latitude ionosphere is used to calculate the distribution of the ionospheric parameters in the polar region. A specific method for specifying input parameters of the mathematical model, using the experimental data obtained by the method of satellite radio tomography, is used in this case. The spatial distributions of the ionospheric parameters characterized by a complex inhomogeneous structure in the high-latitude region, calculated with the help of the mathematical model, are used to simulate the HF propagation along the meridionally oriented radio paths extending from middle to high latitudes. The method for improving the HF communication between a midlatitude transmitter and a polar-cap receiver is proposed.

  14. TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.

  15. Plasma line overshoot Observations during the July 2017 HF campaign at the Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, A. J.; Nossa, E.; Kendall, E. A.; Bhatt, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the 1970's and 80's, enhanced plasma waves were frequently detected by the 430 MHz radar at the Arecibo Observatory within 2 to 8 msec after the HF heater had been turned on (Showen, 1975). This phenomenon is best described as an increase in the return power level of the plasma line by one or two orders of magnitude, followed by a slow decay back to its steady-state value. The formation of short scale striations has frequently been cited as a plausible explanation of the plasma line overshoot. The idea is that as the striations form, they absorb or scatter energy from the HF heater wave. This diminishes the amount of power available to excite the plasma waves detected. Short scale striations are thought to form at the altitude where the frequency of the HF wave matches the upper hybrid resonance - below the altitude of HF reflection. In 1981, the decay of the plasma line overshoot was correlated with the rise of the short scale striations utilizing an HF pulse rate of 4 seconds on/off, with the HF transmitter tuned to 5.1 MHz, and an estimated E.R.P. of 38 MW (Coster et al., 1984). In July 2017, a new series of experiments were performed using the new Arecibo HF facility to reexamine the enhanced plasma line issue, and utilizing the superior diagnostic capabilities available in 2017. These experiments were designed to study possible mechanisms responsible for the formation and decay of the plasma line overshoot. In the experiment, the HF heater was cycled on and off at various sequences including: 8 min on/off, 4 min on/off, and 2 min on/off. The enhanced plasma line was detected throughout the experiment. We will summarize the observations of this experiment, report on the significant findings, and provide suggestions for future experiments.

  16. An overview of high-latitude hf induced aurora from EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M.; Gustavsson, B.; Rietveld, M.

    The EISCAT HF facility is capable of transmitting over 200 MW into the ionosphere below 5.423 MHz using the low-gain antenna array. Over 1000 MW above 5.423 MHz is available using the high-gain antenna array. During O-mode pumping in the hours after sunset, F-region electrons can be accelerated sufficiently to excite the oxygen atoms and nitrogen molecules, resulting in observable optical emissions at 844.6 (O), 630 (O1D), 557.7 (O1S) and 427.8 (N2) nm above EISCAT. Initial success came in February 1999 with optical recordings by ALIS (Auroral Large Imaging System) from various Swedish locations south of EISCAT and DASI (Digital All-Sky Imager) from Skibotn, Norway, 50 km south-east of EISCAT. Several observations have features unique to high latitudes. Novel discoveries include: (1) Very large electron temperature enhancements of a few 1000 K, which maximise along the magnetic field line direction (2) Ion temperature enhancements of a few 100 K accompanied by large ion outflows, (3) The optical emission usually appears near the magnetic field line direction regardless of the HF transmitter beam pointing direction, (4) The optical emission appears below the HF pump reflection altitude as well as the upper-hybrid resonance height, (5) The optical emission and HF coherent radar backscatter disappears when pumping on the 3rd, 4th or 5th gyro-harmonic frequency, (6) The first artificial optical observations at 844.6 (O) and 427.8 (N2) nm and (7) Annular optical structures, which subsequently collapse into blobs.

  17. Electromagnetic interference impact of the proposed emitters for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertshaw, G.A.; Snyder, A.L.; Weiner, M.M.

    1993-05-14

    The proposed HAARP emitters at the Gakona (Alaska) preferred site and at the Clear AFS (Alaska) alternative site are the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR), and the Vertical Incidence Sounder(VIS). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) impact of those emitters on receiving systems in the vicinity of the sites is estimated in this study. The results are intended for use as an input to the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis Process.

  18. Excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator from the ground: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Milikh, G.; Vartanyan, A.; Snyder, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    We report results from numerical and experimental studies of the excitation of ULF shear Alfvén waves inside the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) by heating the ionosphere with powerful HF waves launched from the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Numerical simulations of the two-fluid MHD model describing IAR in a dipole magnetic field geometry with plasma parameters taken from the observations at HAARP during the October-November 2010 experimental campaign reveal that the IAR quality is higher during nighttime conditions, when the ionospheric conductivity is very low. Simulations also reveal that the resonance wave cannot be identified from the magnetic measurements on the ground or at an altitude above 600 km because the magnetic field in this wave has nodes on both ends of the resonator, and the best way to detect IAR modes is by measuring the electric field on low Earth orbit satellites. These theoretical predictions are in good, quantitative agreement with results from observations: In particular, (1) observations from the ground-based magnetometer at the HAARP site demonstrate no significant difference in the amplitudes of the magnetic field generated by HAARP in the frequency range from 0 to 5 Hz, and (2) the DEMETER satellite detected the electric field of the IAR first harmonic at an altitude of 670 km above HAARP during the heating experiment.

  19. Detection of Heater Generated Super Small Scale Striations Using GPS Signal Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A. C.; Milikh, G. M.; Chiang, K.; Psiaki, M.; Secan, J. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J.; Siefring, C. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that super small striations (SSS) of the electron density, on the order of ten centimeters, can be excited by HF waves with frequency close to multiples of the electron gyro frequency [Gurevich et al., 2006]. The first experimental verification of SSS was made at HAARP [Milikh et al., 2008]. We present results of HAARP experiments that include simultaneous observations of GPS carrier phase and SEE observations of ionospheric turbulence. These observations show that SSS excited by HF frequencies near the fourth harmonic of the gyro frequency scatter GPS signals, and in three out of six experiments indicate the presence of strong turbulence, similar to that observed in descending artificial ionized layer experiments [Pedersen et al., 2010]. This turbulence is capable of generating suprathermal electrons, and in one of the experiments, the presence of fast electrons was confirmed by the HAARP incoherent scattering radar. Estimates on the SSS shows that they correspond to 3-10% electron density depletions. Such irregularities affect UHF signals including GPS, and thus can be important in applications. Gurevich, A.V. and K.P. Zybin (2006), Phys. Lett. A, 358, 159. Milikh, G., et al. (2008), Geophys. Res. Let., 35, L22102, doi:10.1029/2008GL035527. Pedersen, T. et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Let., 37, L02106, doi:10.1029/2009GL041895.

  20. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  1. Characteristics of VLF wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the presence of an artificial density duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Dmitry; Demekhov, Andrei

    We study the propagation of VLF waves in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere in the presence of large-scale artificial plasma inhomogeneities which can be created by HF heating facilities like HAARP and ``Sura''. A region with enhanced cold plasma density can be formed due to the action of HF heating. This region is extended along geomagnetic field (up to altitudes of several thousand km) and has rather small size across magnetic field (about 1 degree). The geometric-optical approximation is used to study wave propagation. The plasma density and ion composition are calculated with the use of SAMI2 model, which was modified to take the effect of HF heating into account. We calculate ray trajectories of waves with different initial frequency and wave-normal angles and originating at altitudes of about 100 km in the region near the heating area. The source of such waves could be the lightning discharges, modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, or VLF transmitters. Variation of the wave amplitude along the ray trajectories due to refraction is considered and spatial distribution of wave intensity in the magnetosphere is analyzed. We show that the presence of such a density disturbances can lead to significant changes of wave propagation trajectories, in particular, to efficient guiding of VLF waves in this region. This can result in a drastic increase of the VLF-wave intensity in the density duct. The dependence of wave propagation properties on parameters of heating facility operation regime is considered. We study the variation of the spatial distribution of VLF wave intensity related to the slow evolution of the artificial inhomogeneity during the heating.

  2. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The authorized...

  3. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The authorized...

  4. On the altitude-variation of electron acceleration by HF radio-waves in the F-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Bjorn

    2016-07-01

    I will talk about artificial aurora, the descending layers we have observed at HAARP and the altitude-variations we have observed in enhanced ion and plasma-lines with the EISCAT UHF-radar, and present an empirical model describing these phenomena.

  5. The spatial distribution of VLF transmitters at topside ionosphere and the VLF-induced heating phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, S.; Zhou, C.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the electric field observation at VLF frequency band onboard DEMETER satellite, the spatial distribution was studied about some VLF transmitters at different latitudes on ground, as while the maximal intensity, the attenuation rate and affected areas, including NWC and GBZ with high power, and some transmitters with low radiated power. As while the full wave propagation model is used to simulate the theoretical results at topside ionosphere. The results show that, (1) the intensity of electromagnetic waves at topside ionosphere with 1000kW radiated power is higher as one or two orders of magnitude than those with 500 kW power; (2) at same station, the amplitudes in electric field are larger with high frequency signals than those lower ones at the same station; (3) at same frequency points, the ionospheric background affected strongly the waves penetrating into the ionosphere, for the intensity of same frequency signals differed apparently at different transmitters. Due to the high energy of VLF transmitters, the heating phenomena were also observed extensively at DEMETER satellite. Here the VLF-induced ionospheric heating perturbations were selected and analyzed during the solar minimum years of 2008-2009. There are three main features in VLF heating, (1) the temperature of electron and ion increased, while the electron density and O+ density at topside ionosphere decreased; (2) the low hybrid waves were excited at 10-20kHz; (3) the plasma frequency was emitted at some points around 1.92MHz; (4) the VLF induced heating phenomena were associated closely with the radiated power of transmitters, while the transmitters with power <500kW are hard to cause the ionospheric disturbances directly. Considering the propagation and heating process of VLF electromagnetic wave, these features above were discussed and compared with HF heating processes. By learning for the man-made signals propagating from ground into ionosphere, it is helpful to further understand the

  6. Nonlinear Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we saw a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  7. High Power Radio Wave Interactions within the D-Region Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper highlights the best results obtained during D-region modification experiments performed by the University of Florida at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory between 2007 and 2014. Over this period, we have seen a tremendous improvement in ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency. We have identified methods to characterize ambient and modified ionospheric properties and to discern and quantify specific types of interactions. We have demonstrated several important implications of HF cross-modulation effects, including "Doppler Spoofing" on HF radio waves. Throughout this talk, observations are compared with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model to provide context and guidance for future D-region modification experiments.

  8. The 10 micrometer transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication tests, and engineering model components of a 10.6 mum wideband transceiver system are reported. The effort emphasized the transmitter subsystem, including the development of the laser, the modulator driver, and included productization of both the transmitter and local oscillator lasers. The transmitter subsystem is functionally compatible with the receiver engineering model terminal, and has undergone high data rate communication system testing against that terminal.

  9. 47 CFR 22.625 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter locations. 22.625 Section 22.625... Paging and Radiotelephone Service Point-To-Multipoint Operation § 22.625 Transmitter locations. This... channels will occur. (1) Control transmitter locations. Control transmitter locations must be within 80...

  10. 47 CFR 80.959 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... watts into 50 ohms nominal resistance when operated with its rated supply voltage. The transmitter must... capability of the transmitter, measurements of primary supply voltage and transmitter output power must be... voltage measured at the power input terminals to the transmitter terminated in a matching artificial load...

  11. Determining Energy Distributions of HF-Accelerated Electrons at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    altitude satellites , altitude- resolved side-view optical measurements of artificial airglow emissions combined with full ISR measurements of electron...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...3. DATES COVERED. Indicate the time during which the work was performed and the report was written, e.g., Jun 1997 - Jun 1998; 1-10 Jun 1996; May

  12. IMPROVING SCIENCE EDUCATION AND CAREER OPPORTUNITIES IN RURAL ALASKA:The Synergistic Connection between Educational Outreach Efforts in the Copper Valley, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solie, D. J.; McCarthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Education Outreach is to enhance the science education opportunities in the Copper Valley region in Alaska. In the process, we also educate local residents about HAARP and its research. Funded jointly by US Air Force and Navy, HAARP is located at Gakona Alaska, a very rural region of central Alaska with a predominantly Native population. The main instrument at HAARP is a vertically directed, phased array RF transmitter which is primarily an ionospheric research tool, however, its geophysical research applications range from terrestrial to near-space. Research is conducted at HAARP in collaboration with scientists and institutions world-wide. The HAARP Education Outreach Program, run through the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been active for over six years and in that time has become an integral part of science education in the Copper Valley for residents of all ages. HAARP education outreach efforts are through direct involvement in local schools in the Copper River School District (CRSD) and the Prince William Sound Community College (PWSCC), as well as public lectures and workshops, and intern and student research programs. These outreach efforts require cooperation and coordination between the CRSD, PWSCC, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Physics Department and the NSF sponsored Alaska Native Science & Engineering Program (ANSEP) and HAARP researchers. The HAARP Outreach program also works with other organizations promoting science education in the region, such as the National Park Service (Wrangell- St. Elias National Park) and the Wrangell Institute for Science and Environment (WISE) a newly formed regional non-profit organization. We work closely with teachers in the schools, adapting to their needs and the particular scientific topic they are covering at the time. Because of time and logistic constraints, outreach visits to schools are episodic, occurring roughly

  13. Stimulated Brillouin scatter in a magnetized ionospheric plasma.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, P A; Selcher, C A; Lehmberg, R H; Rodriguez, S P; Thomason, J F; Groves, K M; McCarrick, M J; Frazer, G J

    2010-04-23

    High power electromagnetic waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low-frequency electrostatic waves by magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter. Either an ion-acoustic wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (f(CI)) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above f(CI) can be produced. The coupled equations describing the magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter instability show that the production of both ion-acoustic and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions using the HAARP transmitter have confirmed that only ion-acoustic waves are excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The ion composition can be obtained from the measured EIC frequency.

  14. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  16. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis demonstrating...

  17. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis demonstrating...

  18. Transionospheric Propagation of VLF Transmitter Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters may play a significant role in precipitation of inner belt (L<2.5) energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the total contribution of VLF transmitters utilized models of transionospheric propagation, but some recent studies have suggested that those models may overestimate (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. One possible cause of this discrepancy was suggested to be conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes in the D, E, and F regions, from ionospheric density irregularities, either natural or generated by the transmitter heating itself. The DEMETER satellite built a six year history of continuous and global survey mode data which, when combined, yields detailed pictures of the radiation pattern from many transmitters into space at 680 km, with 25 km resolution, and clear features like the interference pattern on the ground mapped upwards. With both E and B survey mode data, we can also directly approximate the total power injected into the magnetosphere from each transmitter, separately for day and night, as well as the power arriving at the conjugate region. We find no detectable variation of signal intensity with geomagnetic conditions. We find evidence of transmitter heating affecting the transionospheric propagation of other transmitters. We find that the power reaching the conjugate region is a large fraction of the power injected above the transmitter. We then employ a full wave model to simulate VLF transmitter transionospheric propagation, calculating the electromagnetic fields and power flux injected into the magnetosphere. Although the model does not include ionospheric irregularities, the radiation pattern largely matches the observed one, and the total power calculated is within 6 dB of observations for every transmitter, both day and night, and across a range of low to middle latitudes and transmitter powers. We thus conclude that the effect of

  19. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  20. Evaluation of the performance of spectacle lens "transmittance meters".

    PubMed

    Stephens, G L; Pitts, D G

    1994-03-01

    Inexpensive transmittance meters have recently been developed for measuring of mean ultraviolet (UV) radiant transmittance and luminous transmittance of spectacle lenses. Our purpose was to determine how accurately these meters measured transmittance. The mean UV transmittance and the luminous transmittance of a series of lenses were determined using a spectrophotometer. Transmittance meters were then used to measure the same lenses. In general, the meters overestimated total (mean) UV transmittance. Luminous transmittance was relatively accurately measured by those meters which had this capability. Although the meters do not measure UV transmittance accurately, they are still useful for determining if a lens transmits any UV radiation. The relatively narrow response range of the meters, centered at 360 to 380 nm, is responsible for the measurement error of mean UV transmittance.

  1. Mortality, Transmitter Retention, Growth, and Wound Healing in Juvenile Salmon Injected with Micro Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, Stephanie A.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    A cylindrical acoustic transmitter (AT; 0.2 g) has been developed for injection into the peritoneum of fish. Laboratory studies can provide tagging guidelines to minimize the effect of implantation techniques and transmitter burden (relative weight of the transmitter to the weight of the fish) in fish before a transmitter is used in field studies. The goal of this study was to examine response variables (mortality, transmitter expulsion, growth, wound area) of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha; 65–104 mm fork length [FL]) injected with an AT along a wide range of sizes that could lead to a guideline for minimizing taggingmore » effects. The overarching goal was to determine a minimum size threshold for fish that can be injected, while minimizing adverse transmitter effects. Juveniles (n = 700) were separated into four treatments: (1) acoustic transmitter injection (AT), (2) AT and a passive integrated transponder tag injection (AT+PIT), (3) visual implant elastomer injection (Marked control), and (4) unmarked (Unmarked control). Fish were evaluated weekly for four weeks, and again at the end of the study (60 d post-tagging). Fish injected with an AT or an AT+PIT experienced greater mortality than Marked controls. By 60 d post-tagging, transmitter expulsion was 44% for AT fish and 20% for AT+PIT fish. Fish injected with an AT or an AT+PIT grew (FL and weight gain) significantly less than Marked controls, and no minimum size thresholds were detected. Finally, initial size (FL) significantly affected wound area in AT and AT+PIT fish. A size threshold was only identified on Day 7 (85.1 mm) for AT+PIT fish, indicating that wound areas in fish < 85.1 mm were larger than wound areas of fish > 85.1 mm. This research suggests that injecting juveniles with an AT or an AT+PIT had a greater effect on smaller fish than larger fish.« less

  2. Stimulated Brillouin Scatter in a Magnetized Ionospheric Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.

    2010-04-23

    High power electromagnetic waves transmitted from the HAARP facility in Alaska can excite low-frequency electrostatic waves by magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter. Either an ion-acoustic wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency (f{sub CI}) or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave just above f{sub CI} can be produced. The coupled equations describing the magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter instability show that the production of both ion-acoustic and EIC waves is strongly influenced by the wave propagation relative to the background magnetic field. Experimental observations of stimulated electromagnetic emissions using the HAARP transmitter have confirmed that only ion-acoustic waves aremore » excited for propagation along the magnetic zenith and that EIC waves can only be detected with oblique propagation angles. The ion composition can be obtained from the measured EIC frequency.« less

  3. Handling Nonlinearities in ELF/VLF Generation Using Modulated Heating at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.; Spasojevic, M.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    George Jin Maria Spasojevic Morris Cohen Umran Inan Stanford University Modulated HF heating of the D-region ionosphere near the auroral electrojet can generate extremely low frequency (ELF) waves in the kilohertz range. This process is nonlinear and generates harmonics at integer multiples of the ELF modulation frequency. The nonlinear distortion has implications for any communications applications since the harmonics contain a substantial fraction of the signal power and use up bandwidth. We examine two techniques for handling the nonlinearity. First we modulate the HF heating with a non-sinusoidal envelope designed to create a sinusoidal change in the Hall conductivity at a particular altitude in the ionosphere to minimize any generated harmonics. The modulation waveform is generated by inverting a numerical HF heating model, starting from the desired conductivity time series, and obtaining the HF power envelope that will result in that conductivity. The second technique attempts to use the energy in the harmonics to improve bit error rates when digital modulation is applied to the ELF carrier. In conventional quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), where a ELF carrier is phase-shifted by 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° in order to transmit a pair of bits, the even harmonics cannot distinguish between the four possible shifts. By using different phase values, all the energy in the harmonics can contribute to determining the phase of the carrier and thus improve the bit error rate.

  4. A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, Don

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.

  5. Hf thickness dependence of spin-orbit torques in Hf/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaswamy, Rajagopalan; Qiu, Xuepeng; Dutta, Tanmay

    We have studied the spin-orbit torques in perpendicularly magnetized Hf/CoFeB/MgO system, by systematically varying the thickness of Hf underlayer. We have observed a sign change of effective fields between Hf thicknesses of 1.75 and 2 nm, indicating that competing mechanisms, such as the Rashba and spin Hall effects, contribute to spin-orbit torques in our system. For larger Hf thicknesses (>2 nm), both the components of spin-orbit torques arise predominantly from the bulk spin Hall effect. We have also confirmed these results using spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching measurements. Our results could be helpful in designing Hf based SOT devices.

  6. Automatic frequency control for FM transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honnell, M. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic frequency control circuit for an FM television transmitter is described. The frequency of the transmitter is sampled during what is termed the back porch portion of the horizontal synchronizing pulse which occurs during the retrace interval, the frequency sample compared with the frequency of a reference oscillator, and a correction applied to the frequency of the transmitter during this portion of the retrace interval.

  7. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  8. 47 CFR 73.315 - FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmitter location. 73.315 Section 73.315 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.315 FM transmitter location. (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so that...

  9. 47 CFR 73.315 - FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmitter location. 73.315 Section 73.315 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.315 FM transmitter location. (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so that...

  10. Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bast, Rebecca; Scherer, Erik E.; Sprung, Peter; Mezger, Klaus; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Taetz, Stephan; Böhnke, Mischa; Schmid-Beurmann, Hinrich; Münker, Carsten; Kleine, Thorsten; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2017-09-01

    The long-lived 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd radioisotope systems are commonly used chronometers, but when applied to meteorites, they can reveal disturbances. Specifically, Lu-Hf isochrons commonly yield dates up to ∼300 Myr older than the solar system and varying initial 176Hf/177Hf values. We investigated this problem by attempting to construct mineral and whole rock isochrons for eucrites and angrites. Meteorites from different parent bodies exhibit similar disturbance features suggesting that a common process is responsible. Minerals scatter away from isochron regressions for both meteorite classes, with low-Hf phases such as plagioclase and olivine typically being most displaced above (or left of) reference isochrons. Relatively Hf-rich pyroxene is less disturbed but still to the point of steepening Lu-Hf errorchrons. Using our Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data, we tested various Hf and Lu redistribution scenarios and found that decoupling of Lu/Hf from 176Hf/177Hf must postdate the accumulation of significant radiogenic 176Hf. Therefore early irradiation or diffusion cannot explain the excess 176Hf. Instead, disturbed meteorite isochrons are more likely caused by terrestrial weathering, contamination, or common laboratory procedures. The partial dissolution of phosphate minerals may predominantly remove rare earth elements including Lu, leaving relatively immobile and radiogenic Hf behind. Robust Lu-Hf (and improved Sm-Nd) meteorite geochronology will require the development of chemical or physical methods for removing unsupported radiogenic Hf and silicate-hosted terrestrial contaminants without disturbing parent-daughter ratios.

  11. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America Meeting 2009: FAST, IMPROVE-HF, COACH galectin-3 substudy, HF-ACTION nuclear substudy, DAD-HF, and MARVEL-1.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Coletta, Alison P; Sherwi, Nasser; Cleland, John G F

    2010-02-01

    This article presents findings and a commentary on late-breaking trials presented during the meeting of the Heart Failure Society of America in September 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. The FAST trial showed somewhat better performance of intrathoracic impedance for prediction of deterioration in patients with heart failure (HF) when compared with daily weighing. The IMPROVE-HF study reported the benefits of education on the management of patients with systolic HF. Galectin-3 appeared a useful method for improving risk stratification of patients with chronic HF in a substudy of the COACH trial. A nuclear substudy of the HF-ACTION trial failed to demonstrate that resting myocardial perfusion imaging, a measure of myocardial scar and viability, was clinically useful. A small randomized controlled trial (DAD-HF) suggested that the use of low-dose dopamine in patients with acutely decompensated HF was associated with less deterioration in renal function and less hypokalaemia. The MARVEL-1 trial raises further concerns about the safety of myoblast transplantation in ischaemic HF.

  12. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  13. Excitation of Earth-ionosphere waveguide in the ELF and lower VLF bands by modulated ionospheric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, E. C.; Bloom, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    In this report, the principal of reciprocity is used in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80 to 90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a source altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 km.

  14. Ab initio theoretical study of dipole-bound anions of molecular complexes: (HF)3- and (HF)4- anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaekers, Riet; Smith, Dayle M. A.; Smets, Johan; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1997-12-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed to determine structures and vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) of the hydrogen fluoride trimer and tetramer anions, (HF)3- and (HF)4-. In these systems the excess electron is bound by the dipole field of the complex. It was determined that, unlike the neutral complexes which prefer the cyclic structures, the equilibrium geometries of the anions have "zig-zag" shapes. For both complexes the predicted VDEs are positive [210 meV and 363 meV for (HF)3- and (HF)4-, respectively], indicating that the anions are stable systems with respect to the vertical electron detachment. These results were obtained at the coupled-cluster level of theory with single, double and triple excitations [CCSD(T) method; the triple-excitation contribution in this method is calculated approximately using the perturbation approach] with the anion geometries obtained using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. The same approach was also used to determine the adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of (HF)3 and (HF)4. In addition to the electronic contribution, we also calculated the contributions (using the harmonic approximation) resulting from different zero-point vibration energies of the neutral and anionic clusters. The calculations predicted that while the AEA of (HF)3 is positive (44 meV), the AEA for (HF)4 is marginally negative (-16 meV). This suggests that the (HF)3- anion should be a stable system, while the (HF)4- is probably metastable.

  15. Reserve pool neuron transmitter respecification: Novel neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Dulcis, Davide; Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2012-04-01

    The identity of the neurotransmitters expressed by neurons has been thought to be fixed and immutable, but recent studies demonstrate that changes in electrical activity can rapidly and reversibly reconfigure the transmitters and corresponding transmitter receptors that neurons express. Induction of transmitter expression can be achieved by selective activation of afferents recruited by a physiological range of sensory input. Strikingly, neurons acquiring an additional transmitter project to appropriate targets prior to transmitter respecification in some cases, indicating the presence of reserve pools of neurons that can boost circuit function. We discuss the evidence for such reserve pools, their likely locations and ways to test for their existence, and the potential clinical value of such circuit-specific neurotransmitter respecification for treatments of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Terrestrial VLF transmitter injection into the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. B.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-08-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio waves emitted from ground sources (transmitters and lightning) strongly impact the radiation belts, driving electron precipitation via whistler-electron gyroresonance, and contributing to the formation of the slot region. However, calculations of the global impacts of VLF waves are based on models of trans-ionospheric propagation to calculate the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. Limited comparisons of these models to individual satellite passes have found that the models may significantly (by >20 dB) overestimate amplitudes of ground based VLF transmitters in the magnetosphere. To form a much more complete empirical picture of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, we present observations of the radiation pattern from a number of ground-based VLF transmitters by averaging six years of data from the DEMETER satellite. We divide the slice at ˜700 km altitude above a transmitter into pixels and calculate the average field for all satellite passes through each pixel. There are enough data to see 25 km features in the radiation pattern, including the modal interference of the subionospheric signal mapped upwards. Using these data, we deduce the first empirical measure of the radiated power into the magnetosphere from these transmitters, for both daytime and nighttime, and at both the overhead and geomagnetically conjugate region. We find no detectable variation of signal intensity with geomagnetic conditions at low and mid latitudes (L < 2.6). We also present evidence of ionospheric heating by one VLF transmitter which modifies the trans-ionospheric absorption of signals from other transmitters passing through the heated region.

  17. Crystallography of the NiHfSi Phase in a NiAl (0.5 Hf) Single-Crystal Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Noebe, R. D.; Darolia, R.

    1996-01-01

    Small additions of Hf to conventionally processed NiAl single crystals result in the precipitation of a high density of cuboidal G-phase along with a newly identified silicide phase. Both of these phases form in the presence of Si which is not an intentional alloying addition but is a contaminant resulting from contact with the ceramic shell molds during directional solidification of the single-crystal ingots. The morphology, crystal structure and Orientation Relationship (OR) of the silicide phase in a NiAl (0.5 at.%Hf) single-crystal alloy have been determined using transmission electron microscopy, electron microdiffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Qualitative elemental analysis and indexing of the electron microdiffraction patterns from the new phase indicate that it is an orthorhombic NiHfSi phase with unit cell parameters, a = 0.639 nm, b = 0.389 nm and c = 0.72 nm, and space group Pnma. The NiHfSi phase forms as thin rectangular plates on NiAl/111/ planes with an OR that is given by NiHfSi(100))(parallel) NiAl(111) and NiHfSi zone axes(010) (parallel) NiAl zone axes (101). Twelve variants of the NiHfSi phase were observed in the alloy and the number of variants and rectangular morphology of NiHfSi plates are consistent with symmetry requirements. Quenching experiments indicate that nucleation of the NiHfSi phase in NiAI(Hf) alloys is aided by the formation of NiAl group of zone axes (111) vacancy loops that form on the NiAl /111/ planes.

  18. Studies of dispersion energy in hydrogen-bonded systems. H2O-HOH, H2O-HF, H3N-HF, HF-HF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcześniak, M. M.; Scheiner, Steve

    1984-02-01

    Dispersion energy is calculated in the systems H2O-HOH, H2O-HF, H3N-HF, and HF-HF as a function of the intermolecular separation using a variety of methods. M≂ller-Plesset perturbation theory to second and third orders is applied in conjunction with polarized basis sets of 6-311G** type and with an extended basis set including a second set of polarization functions (DZ+2P). These results are compared to a multipole expansion of the dispersion energy, based on the Unsöld approximation, carried out to the inverse tenth power of the intermolecular distance. Pairwise evaluation is also carried out using both atom-atom and bond-bond formulations. The MP3/6-311G** results are in generally excellent accord with the leading R-6 term of the multipole expansion. This expansion, if carried out to the R-10 term, reproduces extremely well previously reported dispersion energies calculated via variation-perturbation theory. Little damping of the expansion is required for intermolecular distances equal to or greater than the equilibrium separation. Although the asymptotic behavior of the MP2 dispersion energy is somewhat different than that of the other methods, augmentation of the basis set by a second diffuse set of d functions leads to quite good agreement in the vicinity of the minima. Both the atom-atom and bond-bond parametrization schemes are in good qualitative agreement with the other methods tested. All approaches produce similar dependence of the dispersion energy upon the angular orientation between the two molecules involved in the H bond.

  19. Lu-Hf systematics of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarro, M.; Baker, J. A.; Haack, H.

    2003-04-01

    We have measured Lu-Hf concentrations and Hf isotope ratios on a number of solar system objects with a new digestion and chemical separation technique (1). The analysed materials include a variety of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites (CC and OC), basaltic eucrites and a diogenite, and work is ongoing on angrites, aubrites and mesosiderites. Nineteen analyses of OC and CC define, for the first time, a statistically significant Lu-Hf isochron with a slope of 0.09465 ± 145 and intercept of 0.279628 ± 47 (2). In contrast to the CC and type 3 OC (176Lu/177Hf = 0.032-0.034), the more highly metamorphosed OC have a large range of 176Lu/177Hf ratios (0.026-0.036). The large range of 176Lu/177Hf values may be related to heterogeneous variations in phosphate abundances in equilibrated OC, which is supported by the observation that most of the observed variation is defined by this type of material. The present-day bulk-earth 176Hf/177Hf ratio calculated from this study, and a 176Lu/177Hf ratio of 0.0332, is identical to the value of (3) and confirms that the chondritic Hf-Hd isotopic composition is displaced (3 ɛ units) to unradiogenic Hf compared to the terrestrial array. The slope and intercept derived from individual regressions of either the OC or the L type alone are identical within analytical uncertainty. Using a mean age of 4.56 Ga for the chondrite forming event, we derive a value for λ176Lu = 1.983 ± 33 time 10-11 y-1 from the regression of the chondrite meteorites, ca. 6% faster than a recent calibration based on terrestrial material, which has important implications for the differentiation of the early Earth (2, 4). The four basaltic eucrites analysed align on the same array as the chondrites and, as such, chondrites and basaltic eucrites also define a statistically significant isochron with a slope of 0.09462 ± 68 and intercept of 0.279627 ± 20, identical to the values derived from the chondrites alone. Moreover, a recent Lu-Hf study of basaltic

  20. APMP Pilot Study on Transmittance Haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Chun; Hwang, Jisoo; Koo, Annette; Wu, Houping; Leecharoen, Rojana; Yu, Hsueh-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Five NMIs within APMP, including CMS/ITRI, MSL, NIM, NIMT and KRISS from TCPR applied to the APMP technical committee initiative project for funding to carry out a pilot comparison of transmittance haze in 2012. The project started in 2014 and the final report was completed at the end of 2016. In this pilot comparison, three different haze standards were adopted, and transmittance haze for each standard was measured according to ASTM D1003 or ISO 14782. This paper presents the first results of an APMP pilot study of transmittance haze and the analysis of the variation among different haze measurement systems which are commonly used. The study shows that the variables such as sphere multiplier, transmittance distribution, fluorescence of samples and optical path of the incident beam cause discrepancies among NMIs and highlight deficiencies in current documentary standards.

  1. The rotational excitation of HF by H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrousseaux, Benjamin; Lique, François

    2018-06-01

    The HF molecule is a key tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Accurate modelling of the HF abundance in such media requires one to model its excitation by both radiation and collisions. In diffuse ISM, the dominant collisional partners are atomic and molecular hydrogen. We report quantum time-independent calculations of collisional cross-sections and rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of HF by H. The reactive hydrogen exchange channels are taken into account in the scattering calculations. For the first time, HF-H rate coefficients are provided for temperature ranging from 10 to 500 K. The strongest collision-induced rotational HF transitions are those with Δj = 1, and the order of magnitude of the new HF-H rate coefficients is similar to that of the HF-H2 ones previously computed. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of HF by both H and H2 in typical diffuse ISM. We show that, depending on the rotational transition, hydrogen atoms increase or decrease the simulated excitation temperatures compared to collisional excitation only due to H2 molecules. Such results suggest that the new HF-H collisional data have to be used for properly modelling the abundance of HF in diffuse ISM.

  2. Low Power Transmitter for Wireless Capsule Endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioe, D. X.; Shafie, S.; Ramiah, H.; Sulaiman, N.; Halin, I. A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the transmitter circuit designed for the application of wireless capsule endoscope to overcome the limitation of conventional endoscope. The design is performed using CMOS 0.13 μm technology. The transmitter is designed to operate at centre frequency of 433.92 MHz, which is one of the ISM band. Active mixer and ring oscillator made up the transmitter and it consumes 1.57 mA of current using a supply voltage of 1.2 V, brings the dc power consumption of the transmitter to be 1.88 mW. Data rate of 3.5 Mbps ensure it can transmit high quality medical imaging.

  3. 47 CFR 97.313 - Transmitter power standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW PEP. (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power output exceeding 200 W PEP: (1) On the 10.10-10.15 MHz segment; (2) On the 3.525-3.60 MHz, 7... within ITU Regions 1 or 3. (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP on the...

  4. Electron holography on HfO2/HfO2-x bilayer structures with multilevel resistive switching properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Sharath, S. U.; Zaumseil, P.; Vogel, S.; Wenger, C.; Hildebrandt, E.; Bhupathi, S.; Perez, E.; Alff, L.; Lehmann, M.; Schroeder, T.; Niermann, T.

    2017-05-01

    Unveiling the physical nature of the oxygen-deficient conductive filaments (CFs) that are responsible for the resistive switching of the HfO2-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices represents a challenging task due to the oxygen vacancy related defect nature and nanometer size of the CFs. As a first important step to this goal, we demonstrate in this work direct visualization and a study of physico-chemical properties of oxygen-deficient amorphous HfO2-x by carrying out transmission electron microscopy electron holography as well as energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy on HfO2/HfO2-x bilayer heterostructures, which are realized by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Furthermore, compared to single layer devices, Pt/HfO2/HfO2-x /TiN bilayer devices show enhanced resistive switching characteristics with multilevel behavior, indicating their potential as electronic synapses in future neuromorphic computing applications.

  5. Solar radio-transmitters on snail kites in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of one- and two-stage solar radio-transmitters in tracking the movements and survival of adult and fledgling Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were evaluated between 1979 and 1983 in southern Florida. Transmitters were attached to birds with back-pack arrangements using teflon ribbon straps. Accessory plastic shields minimized feather coverage of the solar cells. Intact transmitters were seen on birds up to 47 mo after installation. Operating lives ranged from 8 to 21 mo for one-stage, and 10 to 14 mo for two-stage transmitters. Because survival of adult and nestling radio-marked kites was high, we conclude that our transmitter-attachment method had little effect on the birds.

  6. Stable, low cost SAW microwave transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. F.; Yen, K. H.

    1986-06-01

    The design flexibility and application possibilities of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology is discussed. When a highly stable, AM-modulated transmitter is required, a SAW resonator can provide an oscillator Q of up to 20,000 at 1 GHz. When FM modulation is required, the SAW delay line can provide a lower oscillator Q, which represents the optimum tradeoff between frequency stability and FM modulability. The capabilities of SAW oscillators are reviewed, and two example transmitters are presented. One transmitter operates at 1680 MHz and provides an AM-modulated signal. The second operates at the 400 to 406 MHz range and provides an FM-modulated output at one of six frequencies. SAW transmitters are suitable for applications where moderately high stability and low cost are key factors. With direct generation of signals at microwave frequencies and the flexibility of SAW oscillator design, a wide range of performance characteristics can be achieved.

  7. Aircraft-mounted crash-activated transmitter device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoli, R.; Ulrich, B. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft crash location transmitter tuned to transmit on standard emergency frequencies is reported that is shock mounted in a sealed circular case atop the tail of an aircraft by means of a shear pin designed to fail under a G loading associated with a crash situation. The antenna for the transmitter is a metallic spring blade coiled like a spiral spring around the outside of the circular case. A battery within the case for powering the transmitter is kept trickle charged from the electrical system of the aircraft through a break away connector on the case. When a crash occurs, the resultant ejection of the case from the tail due to a failure of the shear pin releases the free end of the antenna which automatically uncoils. The accompanying separation of the connector effects closing of the transmitter key and results in commencement of transmission.

  8. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Korean spinel peridotites: A case for metasomatically induced Nd-Hf decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung Hi; Mukasa, Samuel B.

    2012-12-01

    We determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Baengnyeong and Jeju islands, South Korea, to constrain the timing of melt-depletion events and stabilization of the lithospheric mantle beneath the region. Equilibration temperatures estimated by two-pyroxene thermometry range from 780 to 950 °C, and from 960 to 1010 °C for Baengnyeong and Jeju peridotites, respectively. The Baengnyeong peridotite clinopyroxenes are characterized by extremely radiogenic Hf in association with isotopically less extreme Nd, resulting in strong Nd-Hf decoupling referenced to the mantle array. This is in stark contrast to the well-correlated isotopic compositions of Hf and Nd in the Jeju peridotite clinopyroxenes, which plot along the Nd-Hf mantle array. The Hf abundances and isotopic compositions of the Baengnyeong clinopyroxenes were less affected by relatively recent secondary enrichments that overprinted the light rare earth element abundances and Nd isotopes, causing the decoupling of the Nd-Hf isotopes. The Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the Jeju peridotites appear to have been re-equilibrated, probably as a result of efficient diffusion at the relatively higher temperatures of the Jeju peridotites. Lu-Hf tie lines for clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene from four of the Korean peridotites have negative slopes on a Lu-Hf isochron diagram, yielding negative ages. This is interpreted to indicate recent isotopic exchange in orthopyroxene by reaction with metasomatic agents having low 176Hf/177Hf components. Secondary overprinting in orthopyroxene was facilitated by the considerably lower Hf concentrations than in co-located clinopyroxene. Baengnyeong lherzolite clinopyroxenes yield a Lu-Hf errorchron age of 1.9 ± 0.1 Ga, which is independently supported by a model Os age (based on Re depletion or TRD) of 1.8 Ga on a refractory Baengnyeong peridotite. We interpret this age range to mark the time of stabilization of the mantle

  9. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics of Korean spinel peridotites: A case for metasomatically induced Nd-Hf decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    We determined the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope compositions of spinel peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from Baengnyeong and Jeju islands, South Korea, to constrain the timing of melt-depletion events and stabilization of the lithospheric mantle beneath the region. Equilibration temperatures estimated by two-pyroxene thermometry range from 780 to 950°C, and from 960 to 1010°C for Baengnyeong and Jeju peridotites, respectively. The Baengnyeong peridotite clinopyroxenes are characterized by extremely radiogenic Hf in association with isotopically less extreme Nd, resulting in strong Nd-Hf decoupling referenced to the mantle array. This is in stark contrast to the well-correlated isotopic compositions of Hf and Nd in the Jeju peridotite clinopyroxenes, which plot along the Nd-Hf mantle array. The Hf abundances and isotopic compositions of the Baengnyeong clinopyroxenes were less affected by relatively recent secondary enrichments that overprinted the light rare earth element abundances and Nd isotopes, causing the decoupling of the Nd-Hf isotopes. The Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of the Jeju peridotites appear to have been re-equilibrated, probably as a result of efficient diffusion at the relatively higher temperatures of the Jeju peridotites. Lu-Hf tie lines for clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene from four of the Korean peridotites have negative slopes on a Lu-Hf isochron diagram, yielding negative ages. This is interpreted to indicate recent isotopic exchange in orthopyroxene by reaction with metasomatic agents having low 176Hf/177Hf components. Secondary overprinting in orthopyroxene was facilitated by the considerably lower Hf concentrations than in co-located clinopyroxene. Baengnyeong lherzolite clinopyroxenes yield a Lu-Hf errorchron age of 1.9 ± 0.1 Ga, which is independently supported by a model Os age (based on Re depletion or TRD) of 1.8 Ga on a refractory Baengnyeong peridotite. We interpret this age range to mark the time of stabilization of the mantle

  10. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  11. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  12. 47 CFR 97.313 - Transmitter power standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW PEP. (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power output exceeding 200 W PEP: (1) On the 10.10-10.15 MHz segment; (2) On the 3.525-3.60 MHz, 7... Regions 1 or 3. (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP on the VHF 1.25 m...

  13. 47 CFR 97.313 - Transmitter power standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW PEP. (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power output exceeding 200 W PEP: (1) On the 10.10-10.15 MHz segment; (2) On the 3.525-3.60 MHz, 7... Regions 1 or 3. (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP on the VHF 1.25 m...

  14. 47 CFR 97.313 - Transmitter power standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW PEP. (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power output exceeding 200 W PEP: (1) On the 10.10-10.15 MHz segment; (2) On the 3.525-3.60 MHz, 7... Regions 1 or 3. (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP on the VHF 1.25 m...

  15. 47 CFR 97.313 - Transmitter power standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 1.5 kW PEP. (c) No station may transmit with a transmitter power output exceeding 200 W PEP: (1) On the 10.10-10.15 MHz segment; (2) On the 3.525-3.60 MHz, 7... Regions 1 or 3. (d) No station may transmit with a transmitter power exceeding 25 W PEP on the VHF 1.25 m...

  16. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits

    PubMed Central

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82–0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15–3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47–1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with

  17. High-power transmitter automation, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the transmitter automation development is reported. The work described is applicable to all transmitters in the Deep Space Network. New interface and software designs are described which improve reliability and reduce the time required for subsystem turn on and klystron saturation.

  18. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to...

  19. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will...

  20. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will...

  1. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will...

  2. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will...

  3. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to...

  4. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will...

  5. International Intercomparison of Regular Transmittance Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerle, K. L.; Sutter, E.; Freeman, G. H. C.; Andor, G.; Fillinger, L.

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of the regular spectral transmittance scales of NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (USA); PTB, Braunschweig (FRG); NPL, Teddington, Middlesex (UK); and OMH, Budapest (H) was accomplished using three sets of neutral glass filters with transmittances ranging from approximately 0.92 to 0.001. The difference between the results from the reference spectrophotometers of the laboratories was generally smaller than the total uncertainty of the interchange. The relative total uncertainty ranges from 0.05% to 0.75% for transmittances from 0.92 to 0.001. The sample-induced error was large - contributing 40% or more of the total except in a few cases.

  6. NRL transmittance measurements at DIRT-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.; Gott, C.

    1981-06-01

    This is a final report on NRL experiments at the DIRT-III tests at Fort Polk, Louisiana in April - May 1980. Spectral transmission data at 3 wavelengths 0.55 microns, 1.06 microns and 10.4 microns is reported for 27 events in natural soil and various prepared soils. Spectral transmittance of smoke and dust clouds generated by explosive charges was found to be independent of wavelengths in about 50% of the events where useful data was obtained. When the charge was buried in wet natural soil transmittance at 10.4 microns was transmittance at 0.55 microns .

  7. A Consistency Evaluation and Calibration Method for Piezoelectric Transmitters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Tan, Baohai; Liu, Xianping

    2017-04-28

    Array transducer and transducer combination technologies are evolving rapidly. While adapting transmitter combination technologies, the parameter consistencies between each transmitter are extremely important because they can determine a combined effort directly. This study presents a consistency evaluation and calibration method for piezoelectric transmitters by using impedance analyzers. Firstly, electronic parameters of transmitters that can be measured by impedance analyzers are introduced. A variety of transmitter acoustic energies that are caused by these parameter differences are then analyzed and certified and, thereafter, transmitter consistency is evaluated. Lastly, based on the evaluations, consistency can be calibrated by changing the corresponding excitation voltage. Acoustic experiments show that this method accurately evaluates and calibrates transducer consistencies, and is easy to realize.

  8. A Consistency Evaluation and Calibration Method for Piezoelectric Transmitters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Tan, Baohai; Liu, Xianping

    2017-01-01

    Array transducer and transducer combination technologies are evolving rapidly. While adapting transmitter combination technologies, the parameter consistencies between each transmitter are extremely important because they can determine a combined effort directly. This study presents a consistency evaluation and calibration method for piezoelectric transmitters by using impedance analyzers. Firstly, electronic parameters of transmitters that can be measured by impedance analyzers are introduced. A variety of transmitter acoustic energies that are caused by these parameter differences are then analyzed and certified and, thereafter, transmitter consistency is evaluated. Lastly, based on the evaluations, consistency can be calibrated by changing the corresponding excitation voltage. Acoustic experiments show that this method accurately evaluates and calibrates transducer consistencies, and is easy to realize. PMID:28452947

  9. Low-cost CWDM transmitter package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandarkar, Navin; Castillega, Jaime

    2005-03-01

    A low-cost coarse-wavelength-division multiplexer (CWDM) transmitter that combines four channels (wavelengths) in the infrared spectrum (~1310 nm) in a small form-factor un-cooled package is demonstrated. The package utilizes precision molded optics to multiplex beams from four grating-outcoupled surface-emitting (GSE) lasers into a single beam suitable for coupling into multimode fiber. This paper summarizes the optical and opto-mechanical design, fabrication and assembly of prototypes, and optical, thermal and electrical measurement results of the prototypes. This unique design enables multiplexing of wavelengths without the use of filters, waveguides, couplers and fiber splicing. Commercial fabrication and alignment technology is used to manufacture the package, resulting in a more robust, reliable and low-cost transmitter. The transmitter package is enabled by the unique characteristics of the long-wavelength GSE laser.

  10. Digital coherent receiver based transmitter penalty characterization.

    PubMed

    Geisler, David J; Kaufmann, John E

    2016-12-26

    For optical communications links where receivers are signal-power-starved, such as through free-space, it is important to design transmitters and receivers that can operate as close as practically possible to theoretical limits. A total system penalty is typically assessed in terms of how far the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) is from these limits. It is desirable, but usually difficult, to determine the division of this penalty between the transmitter and receiver. This paper describes a new rigorous and computationally based method that isolates which portion of the penalty can be assessed against the transmitter. There are two basic parts to this approach: (1) use of a coherent optical receiver to perform frequency down-conversion of a transmitter's optical signal waveform to the electrical domain, preserving both optical field amplitude and phase information, and (2): software-based analysis of the digitized electrical waveform. The result is a single numerical metric that quantifies how close a transmitter's signal waveform is to the ideal, based on its BER performance with a perfect software-defined matched-filter receiver demodulator. A detailed description of applying the proposed methodology to the waveform characterization of an optical burst-mode differential phase-shifted keying (DPSK) transmitter is experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Distributed data transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne [Grain Valley, MO; Dunson, David [Kansas City, MO

    2006-08-08

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  12. Distributed data transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne [Grain Valley, MO; Dunson, David [Kansas City, MO

    2008-06-03

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  13. 47 CFR 90.215 - Transmitter measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter measurements. 90.215 Section 90.215... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.215 Transmitter measurements. (a) The licensee of... current station authorization. On authorizations stating only the input power to the final radiofrequency...

  14. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter locations. 22.657 Section 22.657... Paging and Radiotelephone Service 470-512 Mhz Trunked Mobile Operation § 22.657 Transmitter locations... public mobile operations on these channels will occur. The protected TV station locations specified in...

  15. Vibration-Rotation Bands of HF and DF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-23

    98 IZa. Comparison of Observed and Calculated Line Positions of HF, Av = I Sequence ........................... 99 f2b. Comparison of Observed and...Calculated Line Positions of HF, Av = 2 Sequence ........................... 102 12c. Comparison of Observed and Calculated Line Positions of HF, Av = 3...Sequence ........................... 107 i2d. Comparison of Observed and Calculated Line Positions ofHF, Av = 4 Sequence ........................... fi

  16. 47 CFR 101.129 - Transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location. 101.129 Section 101.129... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.129 Transmitter location. (a) The applicant must determine, prior to... adequate to render the service proposed. In cases of questionable antenna locations, it is desirable to...

  17. Characteristics of high-k gate dielectric formed by the oxidation of sputtered Hf/Zr/Hf thin films on the Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. D.; Roh, Y.; Lee, J. E.; Kang, H.-B.; Yang, C.-W.; Lee, N.-E.

    2004-07-01

    We have investigated the effects of high temperature annealing on the physical and electrical properties of multilayered high-k gate oxide [HfSixOy/HfO2/intermixed-layer(IL)/ZrO2/intermixed-layer(IL)/HfO2] in metal-oxide-semiconductor device. The multilayered high-k films were formed after oxidizing the Hf/Zr/Hf films deposited directly on the Si substrate. The subsequent N2 annealing at high temperature (>= 700 °C) not only results in the polycrystallization of the multilayered high-k films, but also causes the diffusion of Zr. The latter transforms the HfSixOy/HfO2/IL/ZrO2/IL/HfO2 film into the Zr-doped HfO2 film, and improves electrical properties in general. However, the thin SiOx interfacial layer starts to form if annealing temperature increases over 700 °C, deteriorating the equivalent oxide thickness. .

  18. The Pfi-Zeke Spectroscopy Study of HfS+ and the Ionization Energy of HfS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, I. O.; Barker, B. J.; Heaven, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    Spectroscopic data for the ground and low-lying states HfS+ have been obtained using the technique of pulse field ionization - zero electron kinetic energy (PFI-ZEKE) spectroscopy. PFI-ZEKE spectra were recorded for the levels X2Σ+ (v=0-18), 2Δ5/2 (v=0-8) and 2Δ3/2 (v=0-3). Assignments of the electronically excited states of HfS+ are based on CCSD(T) and DFT calculations with SDB-aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Rotationally resolved spectra were recorded for the X2Σ+ (v=0) state using single rotational line excitation of the intermediate state. The ionization energy for HfS, term energies and molecular constants for the ground and low-lying states of HfS+ will be reported.

  19. Artificial ionospheric layers during pump frequency stepping near the 4th gyroharmonic at HAARP.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, E; Grach, S; Shindin, A; Mishin, E; Bernhardt, P; Briczinski, S; Isham, B; Broughton, M; LaBelle, J; Watkins, B

    2013-02-08

    We report on artificial descending plasma layers created in the ionosphere F region by high-power high-frequency (HF) radio waves from High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program at frequencies f(0) near the fourth electron gyroharmonic 4f(ce). The data come from concurrent measurements of the secondary escaping radiation from the HF-pumped ionosphere, also known as stimulated electromagnetic emission, reflected probing signals at f(0), and plasma line radar echoes. The artificial layers appeared only for injections along the magnetic field and f(0)>4f(ce) at the nominal HF interaction altitude in the background ionosphere. Their average downward speed ~0.5 km/s holds until the terminal altitude where the local fourth gyroharmonic matches f(0). The total descent increases with the nominal offset f(0)-4f(ce).

  20. 47 CFR 73.759 - Auxiliary transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Auxiliary transmitters. 73.759 Section 73.759... transmitter, necessitating discontinuance of its operation for a period not to exceed 5 days. (This includes... required for periods in excess of 5 days, request therefor shall be in accordance with § 73.3542 of this...

  1. 47 CFR 73.759 - Auxiliary transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Auxiliary transmitters. 73.759 Section 73.759... transmitter, necessitating discontinuance of its operation for a period not to exceed 5 days. (This includes... required for periods in excess of 5 days, request therefor shall be in accordance with § 73.3542 of this...

  2. The initial Hf isotopic composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Boyet, M. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Patchett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    One area of considerable activity in trying to understand the formation and evolution of Earth's crust is the isotopic analysis of Hf in parallel with Sm-Nd and U-Pb zircon studies, either to constrain early crustal growth and evolution [1], or as a complement to detrital zircon studies [2]. The 176Lu decay constant deduced from early planetary and Earth materials have different values. It has been suggested that a period of irradiation in the early Solar System affected the 176Hf production rate in meteoritic and planetary materials [3,4]. In this scenario, the initial Hf isotopic composition of the Solar System and the Earth would be ~4 ∈Hf units lower, affecting tremendously the interpretation of the differentiation history of the early Earth. We investigated Lu-Hf compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, the oldest known objects of the Solar System dated at 4568 Ma [5], to assess the possibility of neutrino irradiation in the solar nebula. Here we report high-precision 176Lu-176Hf systematics of leached and unleached, and spiked and unspiked, bulk fractions and mineral separates of 6 individual CAIs from 2 CV3 chondrites. Isotopic analyses were carried out by Neptune MC-ICPMS at ASU. Analytical details are in [6,7]. The unspiked Hf fractions reveal stable isotope anomalies of μ178Hf= 20 ± 6 and μ180Hf= 31 ± 9 (2SD) for the CAI B4 fractions (n=3) and μ178Hf= -4 ± 10 and μ180Hf= 2 ± 10 (n=2) for BCR-2 relative to the JMC 475 Hf standard. Further high-precision analysis of unspiked Sm and Nd fractions of the samples will be made to correct from nucleosynthetic or neutron capture anomalies [8]. Such Hf stable isotopic anomalies predict no more than 50ppm correction on 176Hf/177Hf. At this stage, we have thus regressed together the spiked and unspiked Hf compositions of CAI fractions (n=13) for isochron calculations. The slope of the Lu-Hf isochron is 0.0882 ± 0.0026 (2SD) which corresponds to a 176Lu decay constant value of 1.852 (± 0.052) ×10

  3. A radio transmitter attachment technique for soras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    We modified a figure-8 leg-loop harness designed for small passerines to attach successfully 1.8-g radio transmitters over the synsacrum of migrant Soras (Porzana carolina). Because of the short caudal region of Soras, addition of a waist loop was critical to securing the transmitter while leg loops were maintained to center the package. Thin gauge (0.6-mm diameter) elastic thread proved ideal for transmitter attachment and allowed for freedom of movement and girth expansion associated with fattening during a 6-10 week stopover. Of 110 Soras radio tagged during three field seasons, only a single mortality was observed and only a single bird lost its transmitter. Migration from the study area was confirmed for 76 (69%) and suspected for another 25 birds (total 92%).

  4. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proch, G. E. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An improved digital transmitter for transmitting serial pulse code modulation (pcm) data at high bit rates over a transmission line is disclosed. When not transmitting, the transmitter features a high output impedance which prevents the transmitter from loading the transmission line. The pcm input is supplied to a logic control circuit which produces two discrete logic level signals which are supplied to an amplifier. The amplifier, which is transformer coupled to the output isolation circuitry, converts the discrete logic level signals to two high current level, ground isolated signals in the secondary windings of the coupling transformer. The latter signals are employed as inputs to the isolation circuitry which includes two series transistor pairs operating into a hybrid transformer functioning to isolate the transmitter circuitry from the transmission line.

  5. Transmittance measurements at DIRT-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.

    1980-07-01

    This is a report on the NRL experiments at the DIRT-II tests sponsored by the Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory at the White Sands Missile Range in July 1970. The NRL experiment was designed to measure spectral transmittance through smoke and dust clouds generated by detonations of various explosive charges and also by impact of artillery rounds. Spectral transmission data as a function of time for 0.55 micrometers, 1.06 micrometers, and 10.37 micrometers were obtained for 63 events comprised of static detonations and artillery rounds. Transmission data for 1.06 micrometers, in most cases were similar and equal to 0.55 micrometers. In dry soil conditions the 10.37 micrometers channel showed higher transmittance values than the visible channel. There are indications that 10.37 micrometers transmittance in wet soil events is lower than visible presumably because of strong liquid water absorption at the IR wavelength.

  6. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF Zr AND Hf HALIDES (in Rumanian)

    SciTech Connect

    Lungu, S.N.

    1962-01-01

    The following standard heats of formation were found: ZrCl/sub 3/, 178.6 plus or minus 3.2; ZrCl/sub 2/, 124.3 plus or minus 3; ZrBr/sub 3/, 151 plus or minus 7; Zr Br/sbu 2/, 100 plus or minus 6; ZrI/sub 3/, 103 plus or minus 6; ZrI/sub 2/, 68 plus or minus 4; and HfCl/sub 4/, 239.4 plus or minus 5.5; HfCl/sub 3/, 186.6; HfCl/sub 2/, 130; HfBr/sub 4/, 200; HfBr/sub 3/, 157; HfBr / sub 2/, 108; HfI/sub 4/, 140; HfI/sub 3/, 113; and HfI/sub 2/, 72 kcal/mole. (R.V.J.)

  7. Space weather and HF propagation along different paths of the Russian chirp sounders network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, V. I.; Litovkin, G. I.; Matyushonok, S. M.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Ivanov, V. A.; Poddelsky, I. N.; Rozanov, S. V.; Uryadov, V. P.

    This paper presents experimental data obtained on long paths (from 2200 km to 5700 km range) of Russian frequency modulated continues wave (chirp) sounders network for the period from 1998 to 2003. Four transmitters (near Magadan, Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Norilsk) and four receivers (near Irkutsk, Yoshkar-Ola, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don) were combined into single network to investigate a influence of geomagnetic storms and substorms on HF propagation in Asian region of Russia. In this region the geographic latitudes are in greatest excess of magnetic latitudes. As a consequence, elements of the large-scale structure, such as the main ionospheric trough, and the zone of auroral ionization, are produced in the ionosphere at the background of a low electron ionization. Coordinated experiments were carried out using 3-day Solar-Geophysical activity forecast presented by NOAA Space Environment Center in Internet. Sounding operations were conducted in the frequency band 4 -- 30 MHz on a round-the-clock basis at 15-min intervals. Oblique-incidence sounding (OIS) ionograms were recorded during 5-7 days every season for some years. The comparison between experimental data and simulation of OIS ionograms using International Reference Ionospheric model (IRI-2001) allowed to estimate the forecast of HF propagation errors both under quiet condition and during geomagnetic disturbances. Strong deviations from median values of maximum observed frequencies on mid-latitude paths in daytime present a real challenge to ionospheric forecast. Subauroral and mid-latitude chirp-sounding paths run, respectively, near the northward and southward walls of the main ionospheric trough. This make sit possible to study the dynamics of the trough's boundaries under different geophysical conditions and assess the influence of ionization gradients and small-scale turbulence on HF signal characteristics. The signals off-great circle propagation were registered over a wide frequency range and for

  8. Excitation of earth-ionosphere waveguide in the ELF and lower VLF bands by modulated ionospheric current. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Field, E.C.; Bloom, R.M.

    1993-05-21

    In this report the authors use the principal of reciprocity in conjunction with a full-wave propagation code to calculate ground-level fields excited by ionospheric currents modulated at frequencies between 50 and 100 Hz with HF heaters. Their results show the dependence on source orientation, altitude, and dimension and therefore pertain to experiments using the HIPAS or HAARP ionospheric heaters. In the end-fire mode, the waveguide excitation efficiency of an ELF HED in the ionosphere is up to 20 dB greater than for a ground-based antenna, provided its altitude does not exceed 80-to-90 km. The highest efficiency occurs for a sourcemore » altitude of around 70 km; if that altitude is raised to 100 km, the efficiency drops by about 20 dB in the day and 10 dB at night. That efficiency does not account for the greater conductivity modulation that might be achieved at altitudes greater than 70 km, however. The trade-off between the altitude dependencies of the excitation efficiency and maximum achievable modulation depends on the ERP of the HF heater, the optimum altitude increasing with increasing ERP. For HIPAS the best modulation altitude is around 70 km, whereas for HAARP there might be marginal value in modulating at attitudes as high as 100 Km. Ionospheric modification, Ionospheric currents, Ionospheric heating.« less

  9. Artificial Ionospheric Turbulence and Radio Wave Propagation (Sura - HAARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    investigations of AIT features, which have allowed to establish dependences of low-frequency AIT properties on PW power, frequency, and polarization , on...that a powerful HF heater wave of ordinary polarization , injected vertically from the ground into the ionosphere F-region, gives rise to secondary...or in direct proportion to the value of striation k- vector ). Basing on experimental data considered above we can conclude that for both narrow

  10. Generation of whistler waves by continuous HF heating of the upper ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Eliasson, B. E.; Sharma, A.; Chang, C.; Parrot, M.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    We report observations of VLF waves by the DEMETER satellite overflying the HAARP facility during ionospheric heating experiments. The detected VLF waves were in the range 8-17 kHz and coincided with times of continuous heating. The experiments indicate whistler generation due to conversion of artificial lower hybrid waves to whistlers on small scale field-aligned plasma density striations. The observations are compared with theoretical models, taking into account both linear and nonlinear processes. Implications of the mode conversion technique on VLF generation with subsequent injection into the radiation belts to trigger particle precipitation are discussed.

  11. Effects of radio transmitters on migrating wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    We quantified the effects of radio transmitters on Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using 4 yr of banding and telemetry data from Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia. Flight performance models suggest that the 1.6-g transmitter shortens the migratory range of Wood Thrushes by only 60 km, and the estimated migratory range is adequate to accomplish migration even with limited fat stores. We used two strengths of line, 5- and 9-kg test-strength braided Dacron, to attach the transmitters using the thigh-harness method. We recaptured 13 returning radio-marked Wood Thrushes, seven of which were still marked. Six of the seven birds marked with the 5-kg test harnesses lost their transmitters within 1 yr while all six of the 9-kg test harnesses were still attached up to 21 mo later. Radio-marking did not reduce the return rates of adults and immatures, and the transmitters did not cause radio-marked birds to lose more mass than banded-only birds. Wood Thrushes can successfully carry a transmitter during migration with no detectable negative effects. We recommend continued use of the thigh-harness method, but we encourage the use of 5-kg cotton line.

  12. 47 CFR 22.573 - Use of base transmitters as repeaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of base transmitters as repeaters. 22.573... of base transmitters as repeaters. As an additional function, base transmitters may be used as repeaters. Licensees must be able to turn the base transmitter on or off from the control point regardless...

  13. 47 CFR 22.573 - Use of base transmitters as repeaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of base transmitters as repeaters. 22.573... of base transmitters as repeaters. As an additional function, base transmitters may be used as repeaters. Licensees must be able to turn the base transmitter on or off from the control point regardless...

  14. 47 CFR 22.573 - Use of base transmitters as repeaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of base transmitters as repeaters. 22.573... of base transmitters as repeaters. As an additional function, base transmitters may be used as repeaters. Licensees must be able to turn the base transmitter on or off from the control point regardless...

  15. 47 CFR 22.573 - Use of base transmitters as repeaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of base transmitters as repeaters. 22.573... of base transmitters as repeaters. As an additional function, base transmitters may be used as repeaters. Licensees must be able to turn the base transmitter on or off from the control point regardless...

  16. Lu-Hf constraints on the evolution of lunar basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-02-15

    Very low Ti basalts andd green glass samples from the moon show high Lu/Hf ratios and low Hf concentrations. Low-Ti lunar basalts show high and variable Lu/Hf ratios and higher Hf concentrations, whereas high-Ti lunar basalts show low Lu/Hf ratios and high Hf concentrations. KREEP basalts have constant Lu/Hf ratios and high but variable Hf concentrations. Using the Lu-Hf behavior as a constraint, we propose a model for the mare basalts evolution. This constraint requires extensive crystallization of the primary lunar magma ocean prior to formation of the lunar mare basalt sources and the KREEP basalts. Mare basalts are producedmore » by the melting of the cumulate rocks, and KREEP basalts represent the residual liquid of the magma ocean.« less

  17. TWT transmitter fault prediction based on ANFIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengyan; Li, Junshan; Li, Shuangshuang; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Fen

    2017-11-01

    Fault prediction is an important component of health management, and plays an important role in the reliability guarantee of complex electronic equipments. Transmitter is a unit with high failure rate. The cathode performance of TWT is a common fault of transmitter. In this dissertation, a model based on a set of key parameters of TWT is proposed. By choosing proper parameters and applying adaptive neural network training model, this method, combined with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), has a certain reference value for the overall health judgment of TWT transmitters.

  18. Behavior of sandhill cranes harnessed with different satellite transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Ellis, D.H.; Landfried, S.E.; Miller, L.H.; Klugman, S.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Vermillion, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of various attachment methods and designs of platform transmitting terminals (PTT's) was tested on captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, during 1989-91. Combinations of attachment and transmitter designs included neoprene cord harness with batteries separate from the transmitter (2 harness designs), Teflon ribbon harness with batteries incorporated into the transmitter package (4 transmitter models), and a package attached directly to the bird with epoxy glue only. Physical effects seen on cranes wearing PTT's ranged from skin lacerations (caused by rubbing of harness material) to no observed effects (other than feather wear). The most successful harness material and design utilized a Teflon ribbon harness with the 4 ribbon ends from the transmitter forming a neck loop and a body loop joined at the sternum. Time spent by sandhill cranes performing most activities did not change after transmitter attachment using this harness method.

  19. Feature Modeling of HfO2 Atomic Layer Deposition Using HfCl4/H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Phillip J.; Adams, Vance; Ventzek, Peter L. G.

    2003-03-01

    A Monte Carlo based feature scale model (Papaya) has been applied to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 using HfCl_4/H_20. The model includes physical effects of transport to surface, specular and diffusive reflection within feature, adsorption, surface diffusion, deposition and etching. Discussed will be the 3D feature modeling of HfO2 deposition in assorted features (vias and trenches). The effect of feature aspect ratios, pulse times, cycle number, and temperature on film thickness, feature coverage, and film Cl fraction (surface/bulk) will be discussed. Differences between HfO2 ALD on blanket wafers and in features will be highlighted. For instance, the minimum pulse times sufficient for surface reaction saturation on blanket wafers needs to be increased when depositing on features. Also, HCl products created during the HfCl4 and H_20 pulses are more likely to react within a feature than at the field, reducing OH coverage within the feature (vs blanket wafer) thus limiting the maximum coverage attainable for a pulse over a feature.

  20. 47 CFR 87.143 - Transmitter control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 87.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., the control point for an automatically controlled enroute station is the computer facility which controls the transmitter. Any computer controlled transmitter must be equipped to automatically shut down...

  1. 47 CFR 87.143 - Transmitter control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 87.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., the control point for an automatically controlled enroute station is the computer facility which controls the transmitter. Any computer controlled transmitter must be equipped to automatically shut down...

  2. 47 CFR 87.143 - Transmitter control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 87.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., the control point for an automatically controlled enroute station is the computer facility which controls the transmitter. Any computer controlled transmitter must be equipped to automatically shut down...

  3. 47 CFR 87.143 - Transmitter control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 87.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., the control point for an automatically controlled enroute station is the computer facility which controls the transmitter. Any computer controlled transmitter must be equipped to automatically shut down...

  4. 47 CFR 87.143 - Transmitter control requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 87.143 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO..., the control point for an automatically controlled enroute station is the computer facility which controls the transmitter. Any computer controlled transmitter must be equipped to automatically shut down...

  5. Optical Communications Transmitter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-11-10

    S65-42598 (10 Nov. 1965) --- Douglas S. Idlly, Electromagnetic Systems Branch, Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division, illustrates an Optical Communications Transmitter (LASER) during a briefing at the news center of the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks <1 week old for more than 2 days because of feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  7. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Number of transmitters per station. 22.507... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station. This section concerns the number of transmitters licensed under each station authorization in the...

  8. 47 CFR 22.377 - Certification of transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.377 Certification of transmitters. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, transmitters used in the Public Mobile Services, including those used with signal boosters, in-building radiation systems and cellular repeaters...

  9. Transmitter switch for high-power microwave output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, C. P.; Leu, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    Combiner system can be used for combining output powers of two transmitters or for switching from one to the other. This can be done when pair of transmitters operate on same frequency and carriers are phase coherent as by excitation from single exciter.

  10. High-power transmitter automation. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosline, R.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the transmitter automation development applicable to all transmitters in the deep space network is described. Interface and software designs are described that improve reliability and reduce the time required for subsystem turn-on and klystron saturation to less than 10 minutes.

  11. Using IRI and GSM TIP model results as environment for HF radio wave propagation model during the geomagnetic storm occurred on September 26-29, 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, D. S.; Klimenko, M. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Zakharov, V. E.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Nosikov, I. A.; Zhao, B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyses the geomagnetic storm on September 26-29, 2011. We compare the calculation results obtained using the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP) and IRI-2012 (Bilitza et al., 2014) model with ground-based ionosonde data of stations at different latitudes and longitudes. We examined physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of ionospheric effects during the main phase of geomagnetic storm that occurred at the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. We used numerical results obtained from IRI-2012 and GSM TIP models as propagation environment for HF signals from an equatorial transmitter during quiet and disturbed conditions. We used the model of HF radio wave propagation developed in I. Kant Baltic Federal University (BFU) that is based on the geometrical optics approximation. We compared the obtained radio paths in quiet conditions and during the main and recovery storm phases and evaluated radio wave attenuation in different media models.

  12. 29 CFR 1921.15 - Transmittal of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmittal of record. 1921.15 Section 1921.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Decision and Order § 1921.15 Transmittal of record. Immediately following the...

  13. 47 CFR 22.377 - Certification of transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.377 Certification of transmitters. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, transmitters used in the Public Mobile... certificated when the station is ready for service, not necessarily at the time of filing an application. (a...

  14. High Latitude Scintillation Monitoring at UHF with the COMMX Experiment on TACSat4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Akins, K.; Nurnberger, M.

    2013-12-01

    UHF Beacon Transmissions at 253 MHz have provided high latitude scintillation monitoring from Gakona Alaska using the COMMX instrument on TACSat4. TACSat4 was constructed by the Naval Research Laboratory and was launched in September 2011 as an experimental communications satellite. Ground UHF transmissions are uplinked to TACSat4 using the 4 meter diameter antenna deployed to view the earth. These signals are coherently translated to other UHF frequency to be rebroadcast to the ground. Scintillation monitoring is achieved by taking the 401.25 MHz signals from ground DORIS beacons located in Cold Bay, Alaska; Yellowknife, Canada; Kauai, Hawaii; and Soccoro Island, Mexico. These signals are translated to 253 MHz and broadcast with the 4 meter antenna pointed to the UHF receiver located at Gakona, Alaska. The satellite antenna gain is 18 dB in this UHF band and the transmitter power is 2 Watts. The satellite is in an elliptical orbit with an inclination of 63 degrees and a perigee of 12,000 km. Doppler frequency shifts allow separation of each uplink from the ground DORIS beacons. This new scintillation monitoring system has been used to detect natural and artificial field aligned irregularity effects on the amplitude and phase of UHF carriers where typical scintillation amplitudes are 2dB or less. Using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska, TACSat4 was used to discover the artificial ionization clouds produce scintillation with as much as 16 dB and amplitude indices S4 greater than unity. This is the first demonstration of significant effects on radio scintillations using high power HF radio waves to disturb the ionosphere.

  15. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  16. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  17. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  18. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  19. 31 CFR 542.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 542.323 Section 542.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 542.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  20. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  1. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  2. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  3. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money transmitter means any...

  4. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; ...

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  5. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  6. Thermoregulatory effects of radiotelemetry transmitters on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakken, G.S.; Reynolds, P.S.; Kenow, K.P.; Korschgen, C.E.; Boysen, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Many telemetry transmitter attachments disrupt downy insulation, and may bias survival studies during cold weather by making ducklings more susceptible to chilling. We compared thermal responses of untreated 1-day-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to ducklings carrying external sutured backpack or subcutaneously implanted transmitters. Ducklings carrying external transmitters showed areas of increased surface temperature in thermographic images. However, open-circuit respirometry studies at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 C and wind speeds of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 m/s indicated no biologically significant differences in total heat production, net heat production, or short-term body mass loss. These results do not exclude the possibility of other negative effects of transmitters on duckling behavior and survival.

  7. An ingestible temperature-transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    Pill-sized transmitter measures deep body temperature in studies of circadian rhythm and indicates general health. Ingestible device is a compromise between accuracy, circuit complexity, size and transmission range.

  8. 47 CFR 80.209 - Transmitter frequency tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... output power of 25 watts or less the frequency tolerance is 10 parts in 10 6. (b) When pulse modulation... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter frequency tolerances. 80.209... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.209 Transmitter frequency...

  9. Effects of radio transmitters on nesting captive mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    Radio packages may subtly affect bird behavior and condition, and thus could bias results from studies using this technique. To assess effects on reproduction of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we tested 3 types of back-mounted radio packages on captive females. Eight paired females were randomly assigned to each of 4 treatments: 4-g transmitter attached with sutures and glue, 10-g or 18-g transmitter attached with a harness, and no transmitter (control). All mallards were fed ad libitum. No differences were detected among treatments in number of clutches, clutch size, nesting interval, egg mass, or body mass; powers (range = 0.15-0.48) of tests were low. Feather wear and skin irritation around radio packages were minimal. Birds retained sutured transmitters for an average of 43.5 days (range = 3-106 days) and harness transmitters for the duration of the study (106 days). Sutures were not reliable and presently are not recommended as an attachment method. Caution is advised in applying these results to radio-equipped mallards in the wild.

  10. Suomi NPP VIIRS solar diffuser screen transmittance model and its applications.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mcintire, Jeff

    2017-11-01

    The visible infrared imaging radiometer suite on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite calibrates its reflective solar bands through observations of a sunlit solar diffuser (SD) panel. Sunlight passes through a perforated plate, referred to as the SD screen, before reaching the SD. It is critical to know whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate. Several factors such as misalignments of the SD panel and the measurement apparatus could lead to errors in the measured transmittance and thus adversely impact on-orbit calibration quality through the SD. We develop a mathematical model to describe the transmittance as a function of the angles that incident light makes with the SD screen, and apply the model to fit the prelaunch measured transmittance. The results reveal that the model does not reproduce the measured transmittance unless the size of the apertures in the SD screen is quite different from the design value. We attribute the difference to the orientation alignment errors for the SD panel and the measurement apparatus. We model the alignment errors and apply our transmittance model to fit the prelaunch transmittance to retrieve the "true" transmittance. To use this model correctly, we also examine the finite source size effect on the transmittance. Furthermore, we compare the product of the retrieved "true" transmittance and the prelaunch SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value to the value derived from on-orbit data to determine whether the prelaunch SD BRDF value is relatively accurate. The model is significant in that it can evaluate whether the SD screen transmittance measured prelaunch is accurate and help retrieve the true transmittance from the transmittance with measurement errors, consequently resulting in a more accurate sensor data product by the same amount.

  11. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  12. Evaluation of 3 radio transmitters and collar designs for Amazona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    I evaluated 3 radio transmitter attachments and designs for adult parrots. Two of the transmitters and attachments were similar to those used previously in the study on fledgling and adult parrots. I designed, in collaboration with the manufacturer, a third transmitter and attachment that provided protection of key areas from chewing and eventual destruction of the attachment or transmitter. This design was used successfully to radio-track parrots an average of 43.4 weeks (range = 35.9-51.6 weeks). It was the only transmitter of the 3 tested to operate without failure (>36 weeks) caused by chewing damage to the transmitter, antenna, collar, or attachment mechanism (Fisher's exact test, 3 df, P = 0.0003). Its adjustable collar, made from 59 kg-test stainless steel wire covered with plastic heat-shrink tubing, was sturdy and easy to apply. Transmitters for parrots should be enclosed in a protective metal case (brass) and have metal crimped tubes (brass or copper) protecting key areas, such as the base of the antenna and mechanism for attachment of the collar.

  13. Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David

    2011-01-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO₂) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO₂ ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500⁰C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO₂ films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition ofmore » the HfO₂ films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO₂ films grown at Ts<200 ⁰C are amorphous while films grown at Ts>200 ⁰C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ⁰C. Nanocrystalline HfO₂ films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO₂ films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO₂-Si interface for HfO₂ films deposited at Ts>200 ⁰C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO₂-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.« less

  14. LU-HF Age and Isotope Systematics of ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial isotope compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd isotope analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during short-lived thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope compositions

  15. Effects of harness-attached transmitters on premigration and reproduction of Brant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David H.; Flint, Paul L.

    1995-01-01

    Radio transmitters are an important tool in waterfowl ecology studies, but little is known about their effects on free-ranging geese. We attached transmitters to female brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) to investigate migration schedules at a fall staging area, return rates to nesting grounds, and nesting rates of returning females in subsequent breeding seasons. Radio-tagged females (n = 62) carried either 35-g back-mounted transmitters attached with ribbon harnesses, or 26- or 32-g back-mounted transmitters affixed with plastic-coated wire harnesses (Dwyer 1972). Arrival and departure schedules at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska, did not differ (P > 0.05) between radio-tagged females and the entire population in 1987-89. Color-banded females with transmitters returned to the breeding colony in subsequent nesting seasons (1988-92) at a lower (P ≤ 0.003) rate (≤4%) than color-banded females without transmitters (57-83%). The 1 returning color-banded female with a transmitter did not breed, while an average 90% of the returning color-banded females without transmitters nested in subsequent breeding seasons (P = 0.005). Back-mounted, harness-attached transmitters may bias data in studies of waterfowl behavior, productivity, and survival.

  16. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  17. 47 CFR 95.667 - CB transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitter power. The dissipation rating of all the semiconductors or electron tubes which supply RF power to the antenna terminals of each CB transmitter must not exceed 10 W. For semiconductors, the dissipation... semiconductor. These values may be temperature de-rated by no more than 50 °C. For an electron tube, the...

  18. 47 CFR 95.667 - CB transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmitter power. The dissipation rating of all the semiconductors or electron tubes which supply RF power to the antenna terminals of each CB transmitter must not exceed 10 W. For semiconductors, the dissipation... semiconductor. These values may be temperature de-rated by no more than 50 °C. For an electron tube, the...

  19. A comparison of forest canopy transmittance estimators

    Treesearch

    E.R. Smith; Kurt H. Riitters

    1994-01-01

    Multiple sensors, and alternate statistical estimators, were tested for measuring canopy transmittance in four stands under a variety of sky conditions. On a given day, stand average transmittance estimates were insensitive to degree of synchronization of the sensors used to measure under-canopy and incoming radiation. In comparisons to periodic measurement of incoming...

  20. Digital transmitter for data bus communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Digital transmitter designed for Manchester coded signals (and all signals with ac waveforms) generated at a rate of one megabit per second includes efficient output isolation circuit. Transmitter consists of logic control section, amplifier, and output isolation section. Output isolation circuit provides dynamic impedance at terminals as function of amplifier output level.

  1. Potential Interference from Wireless Water Tank Transmitters at Goldstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) facility in the Goldstone, California, area is considering installation of a new type of wireless transmitter (M2400S) within the facility. The transmitters will be used to monitor the water levels in several water tanks. Then these water-level signals will be transmitted to the nearby DSN facilities using transmitters operating in the UHF band (900-MHz) or S-band (2.4-GHz). This study is to evaluate the interference effects from the transmitters in adjacent DSN receiving stations. First we perform a terrain profile analysis to identify if there is a line of sight between each transmitter and the nearby DSN stations. After taking into account terrain shielding using high-resolution data, total propagation losses are calculated along each path. Then we perform the link analysis for each site to identify if the interference power exceeds the protection threshold of DSN receiving stations. As a result, we find that, because there is no bandpass filter installed in the transmitter system, interference power from the new transmitter at S-band will greatly exceed the protection criteria of broadband radio astronomy services (RAS) at S-band, such as Deep Space Station (DSS) 12 and DSS 28, by about 50 dB. The interference may also cause problems on all deep-space research stations at S-band, such as the Mars, Apollo, Venus, and Gemini sites. Without a sharp bandpass filter to suppress the out-of-band emissions in the frequency bands that the DSN station and RAS use, the author recommends not installing this type of transmitter within the Goldstone DSN facility area.

  2. 47 CFR 95.639 - Maximum transmitter power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) No GMRS transmitter, under any condition of modulation, shall exceed: (1) 50 W Carrier power (average... transmitter, under any condition of modulation, shall exceed a carrier power or peak envelope TP (single-sideband only) of: (1) 4 W in the 26-27 MHz frequency band, except on channel frequency 27.255 MHz; (2) 25...

  3. Continental sedimentary processes decouple Nd and Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garçon, Marion; Chauvel, Catherine; France-Lanord, Christian; Huyghe, Pascale; Lavé, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    The neodymium and hafnium isotopic compositions of most crustal and mantle rocks correlate to form the "Terrestrial Array". However, it is now well established that whereas coarse detrital sediments follow this trend, fine-grained oceanic sediments have high Hf ratios relative to their Nd isotopic ratios. It remains uncertain whether this "decoupling" of the two isotopic systems only occurs in the oceanic environment or if it is induced by sedimentary processes in continental settings. In this study, the hafnium and neodymium isotopic compositions of sediments in large rivers is expressly used to constrain the behavior of the two isotopic systems during erosion and sediment transport from continent to ocean. We report major and trace element concentrations together with Nd and Hf isotopic compositions of bedloads, suspended loads and river banks from the Ganges River and its tributaries draining the Himalayan Range i.e. the Karnali, the Narayani, the Kosi and the Marsyandi Rivers. The sample set includes sediments sampled within the Himalayan Range in Nepal, at the Himalayan mountain front, and also downstream on the floodplain and at the outflow of the Ganges in Bangladesh. Results show that hydrodynamic sorting of minerals explains the entire Hf isotopic range, i.e. more than 10 εHf units, observed in the river sediments but does not affect the Nd isotopic composition. Bedloads and bank sediments have systematically lower εHf values than suspended loads sampled at the same location. Coarse-grained sediments lie below or on the Terrestrial Array in an εHf vs. εNd diagram. In contrast, fine-grained sediments, including most of the suspended loads, deviate from the Terrestrial Array toward higher εHf relative to their εNd, as is the case for oceanic terrigenous clays. The observed Nd-Hf decoupling is explained by mineralogical sorting processes that enrich bottom sediments in coarse and dense minerals, including unradiogenic zircons, while surface sediments

  4. Study of Direct-Contact HfO2/Si Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Controlling monolayer Si oxide at the HfO2/Si interface is a challenging issue in scaling the equivalent oxide thickness of HfO2/Si gate stack structures. A concept that the author proposes to control the Si oxide interface by using ultra-high vacuum electron-beam HfO2 deposition is described in this review paper, which enables the so-called direct-contact HfO2/Si structures to be prepared. The electrical characteristics of the HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are reviewed, which suggest a sufficiently low interface state density for the operation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) but reveal the formation of an unexpected strong interface dipole. Kelvin probe measurements of the HfO2/Si structures provide obvious evidence for the formation of dipoles at the HfO2/Si interfaces. The author proposes that one-monolayer Si-O bonds at the HfO2/Si interface naturally lead to a large potential difference, mainly due to the large dielectric constant of the HfO2. Dipole scattering is demonstrated to not be a major concern in the channel mobility of MOSFETs. PMID:28817060

  5. Experimental Realization of Tunable Metamaterial Hyper-transmitter

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Joon; Yi, Changhyun; Hwang, Ji Sub; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2016-01-01

    We realized the tunable metamaterial hyper-transmitter in the microwave range utilizing simple planar meta-structure. The single-layer metamaterial hyper-transmitter shows that the transmission peak occurs at 14 GHz. In case of the dual-layer one, it is possible to control the transmission peak from 5 to 10 GHz. Moreover, all the transmission peaks reveal transmission over 100%. We experimentally and theoretically investigated these phenomena through 3-dimensional simulation and measurement. The reason for being over 100% is also elucidated. The suggested hyper-transmitter can be used, for example, in enhancing the operating distance of the electromagnetic wave in Wi-Fi, military radar, wireless power transfer and self-driving car. PMID:27629804

  6. Experimental Realization of Tunable Metamaterial Hyper-transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Yi, Changhyun; Hwang, Ji Sub; Kim, Young Ju; Park, Sang Yoon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, Youngpak

    2016-09-01

    We realized the tunable metamaterial hyper-transmitter in the microwave range utilizing simple planar meta-structure. The single-layer metamaterial hyper-transmitter shows that the transmission peak occurs at 14 GHz. In case of the dual-layer one, it is possible to control the transmission peak from 5 to 10 GHz. Moreover, all the transmission peaks reveal transmission over 100%. We experimentally and theoretically investigated these phenomena through 3-dimensional simulation and measurement. The reason for being over 100% is also elucidated. The suggested hyper-transmitter can be used, for example, in enhancing the operating distance of the electromagnetic wave in Wi-Fi, military radar, wireless power transfer and self-driving car.

  7. Critical Questions about PARADIGM-HF and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) diseases in general and heart failure (HF) in particular are major contributors to death and morbidity and are also recognized as important drivers of health care expenditure. The PARADIGM-HF trial was a pivotal trial designed to compare the long-term effects of LCZ696 with enalapril in patients with symptomatic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). This review article presents an in-depth view of the PARADIGM-HF trial and the implications of the results in the management of patients with HF and is based on peer reviewed manuscripts, editorials, perspectives and opinions written about the PARADIGM-HF trial. The article presents the key safety and efficacy results of the trial with specific emphasis on the clinical implications of these findings. The review highlights the highly statistically significant, 20% reduction in the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, and a 16% reduction in the risk of death from any cause. It also provides an overview of the design, clinical findings, limitations and special areas of clinical interest. The review discusses the future of LCZ696 and additional trials that seek to answer questions in other sub-populations of patients with HF. The article reiterates what has been concluded by many experts in the field of HF- the introduction of LCZ696 into routine clinical care, while dependent on the regulatory approvals in various countries as well as acceptance by physicians, payers and patients, will change the treatment landscape for patients with HFrEF. PMID:27471351

  8. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter construction and installation. 101.131 Section 101.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.131 Transmitter construction and...

  9. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter construction and installation. 101.131 Section 101.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.131 Transmitter construction and...

  10. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter construction and installation. 101.131 Section 101.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.131 Transmitter construction and...

  11. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter construction and installation. 101.131 Section 101.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.131 Transmitter construction and...

  12. 47 CFR 87.91 - Operation of transmitter controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of transmitter controls. 87.91 Section 87.91 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO.... These operators must not perform any internal adjustment of transmitter frequency determining elements...

  13. Resolving Ambiguities in the LF/HF Ratio: LF-HF Scatter Plots for the Categorization of Mental and Physical Stress from HRV.

    PubMed

    von Rosenberg, Wilhelm; Chanwimalueang, Theerasak; Adjei, Tricia; Jaffer, Usman; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Mandic, Danilo P

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which consists of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous systems (PNS), are reflected in the low- (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands in heart rate variability (HRV)-while, not without some controversy, the ratio of the powers in those frequency bands, the so called LF-HF ratio (LF/HF), has been used to quantify the degree of sympathovagal balance. Indeed, recent studies demonstrate that, in general: (i) sympathovagal balance cannot be accurately measured via the ratio of the LF- and HF- power bands; and (ii) the correspondence between the LF/HF ratio and the psychological and physiological state of a person is not unique. Since the standard LF/HF ratio provides only a single degree of freedom for the analysis of this 2D phenomenon, we propose a joint treatment of the LF and HF powers in HRV within a two-dimensional representation framework, thus providing the required degrees of freedom. By virtue of the proposed 2D representation, the restrictive assumption of the linear dependence between the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the LF-HF frequency band powers is demonstrated to become unnecessary. The proposed analysis framework also opens up completely new possibilities for a more comprehensive and rigorous examination of HRV in relation to physical and mental states of an individual, and makes possible the categorization of different stress states based on HRV. In addition, based on instantaneous amplitudes of Hilbert-transformed LF- and HF-bands, a novel approach to estimate the markers of stress in HRV is proposed and is shown to improve the robustness to artifacts and irregularities, critical issues in real-world recordings. The proposed approach for resolving the ambiguities in the standard LF/HF-ratio analyses is verified over a number of real-world stress-invoking scenarios.

  14. Small Volume Isotopic Analysis of Zircon Using LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb and Lu-Hf and Sub-ng Amounts of Hf in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Crust-mantle evolution studies are greatly informed by zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic datasets and the ease with which these data can now be acquired has seen their application become commonplace. In order to deconvolute geochemical change and interpret geologic variation in complexly zoned zircons, this information is most ideally obtained on the smallest volume of zircon by successive SIMS U-Pb and LA-MC-ICP-MS Lu-Hf isotopic analyses. However, due to variations in zircon growth zone geometry at depth, the Lu-Hf analysis may not relate to the lower volume U-Pb analysis, potentially causing inaccuracy of the resultant age-corrected Hf isotope signature. Laser ablation split-stream methods are applied to be certain that U-Pb and Lu-Hf data represent the same volume of zircon, however, the sampling volume remains relatively large at 40x30µm1. Coupled ID-TIMS U-Pb and solution MC-ICP-MS Lu-Hf work traditionally utilize whole-zircon dissolution ( 10-50ng Hf), which has the potential to homogenize different zones of geologic significance within an analysis. Conversely, modern ID-TIMS U-Pb methods utilize microsampling of zircon grains, often providing < 5ng Hf, thereby challenging conventional Lu-Hf acquisition protocols to achieve the required precision. In order to obtain usable precision on minimal zircon volumes, we developed laser ablation methods using successive 25um spot U-Pb and Lu-Hf ablation pits with a combined depth of 18um, and low-volume solution introduction methods without Hf-REE separation utilizing Hf amounts as low as 0.4ng, while retaining an uncertainty level of ca. 1 ɛHf for both methods. We investigated methods of Yb interference correction and the potential for matrix effects, with a particular focus on the accurate quantification of 176Lu/177Hf. These improvements reduce the minimum amount of material required for U-Pb and Hf isotopic analysis of zircon by about an order of magnitude. 1Ibanez-Mejia et al (2015). PreRes, 267, 285-310.

  15. Transmitter Pulse Estimation and Measurements for Airborne TDEM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2013-12-01

    The processing and interpretation of Airborne Time Domain EM data requires precise description of the transmitter parameters, including shape, amplitude and length of the transmitted pulse. There are several ways to measure pulse shape of the transmitter loop. Transmitted pulse can be recorded by a current monitor installed on the loop. The current monitor readings do not give exact image due to own time-domain physical characteristics of the current monitor. Another way is to restore the primary pulse shape from the receiver data recorded on-time, if such is possible. The receiver gives exact image of the primary field projection combined with the ground response, which can be minimized at high altitude pass, usually with a transmitter elevation higher than 1500 ft from the ground. The readings on the receiver are depending on receiver position and orientation. Modeling of airborne TDEM transmitter pulse allows us to compare estimated and measured shape of the pulse and apply required corrections. Airborne TDEM system transmitter pulse shape has been studied by authors while developing P-THEM system. The data has been gathered during in-doors and out-doors ground tests in Canada, as well as during flight tests in Canada and in India. The P-THEM system has three-axes receiver that is suspended on a tow-cable in the midpoint between the transmitter and the helicopter. The P-THEM receiver geometry does not require backing coils to dump the primary field. The system records full-wave data from the receiver and current monitor installed on the transmitter loop, including on-time and off-time data. The modeling of the transmitter pulse allowed us to define the difference between estimated and measured values. The higher accuracy pulse shape can be used for better data processing and interpretation. A developed model can be applied to similar systems and configurations.

  16. RCS of ships and aircraft at HF frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueman, C. W.; Kubina, S. J.; Mishra, S. R.; Larose, C.

    Coastal radar operating at high frequency (HF) has the potential of monitoring iceberg movement and ship and aircraft traffic over a wide area of ocean. The HF radar cross-section of an aircraft-like scatterer of simple geometry is investigated. At these frequencies, the aircraft size is comparable to the wavelength. The aircraft radar cross-section (RCS) is obtained both by computation and by direct measurement. It is demonstrated that at low frequencies in the HF range, the dorsal fin is the dominant scatterer, but at high HF the fuselage can scatter more strongly than the dorsal fin. Aircraft often carry wire antennas for HF communication, and it is shown that such wires can dramatically alter the RCS of the aircraft near the resonant frequencies of the wire. The RCS of a ship modelled as a parallelepiped with mast is 20-30 decibels larger than that of an aircraft, and is dominated at low HF by the contribution of the mast.

  17. 47 CFR 73.515 - NCE FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCE FM transmitter location. 73.515 Section 73.515 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.515 NCE FM transmitter location. The...

  18. 47 CFR 73.515 - NCE FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NCE FM transmitter location. 73.515 Section 73.515 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.515 NCE FM transmitter location. The...

  19. 47 CFR 61.33 - Letters of transmittal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.33 Letters of transmittal. (a) Except as specified in § 61.32(b), all... with Number 1, and must be accompanied by a letter of transmittal, A4 (21 cm×29.7 cm) or 81/2 by 11... purpose of the filing; (2) Specify whether supporting information under § 61.38 is required; (3) State...

  20. Role of Hf on Phase Formation in Ti45Zr(38-x)Hf(x)Ni17 Liquids and Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessels, V.; Sahu, K. K.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Huett, V. T.; Canepari, S.; Goldman, A. I.; Hyers, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.; Rogers, J. R.; Kelton, K. F.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Hafnium and zirconium are very similar, with almost identical sizes and chemical bonding characteristics. However, they behave differently when alloyed with Ti and Ni. A sharp phase formation boundary near 18-21 at.% Hf is observed in rapidly-quenched and as-cast Ti45Zr38-xHfxNi17 alloys. Rapidly-quenched samples that contain less than 18 at.% Hf form the icosahedral quasicrystal phase, whiles samples containing more than 21 at.% form the 3/2 rational approximant phase. In cast alloys, a C14 structure is observed for alloys with Hf lower than the boundary concentration, while a large-cell (11.93 ) FCC Ti2Ni-type structure is found in alloys with Hf concentrations above the boundary. To better understand the role of Hf on phase formation, the structural evolution with supercooling and the solidification behavior of liquid Ti45Zr38-xHfxNi17 alloys (x=0, 12, 18, 21, 38) were studied using the Beamline Electrostatic Levitation (BESL) technique using 125keV x-rays on the 6ID-D beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. For all liquids primary crystallization was to a BCC solid solution phase; interestly, an increase in Hf concentration leads to a decrease in the BCC lattice parameter in spite of the chemical similarity between Zr and Hf. A Reitveld analysis confirmed that as in the cast alloys, the secondary phase that formed was the C14 below the phase formation boundary and a Ti2Ni-type structure at higher Hf concentrations. Both the liquidus temperature and the reduced undercooling change sharply on traversing the phase formation boundary concentration, suggesting a change in the liquid structure. Structural information from a Honeycutt-Anderson index analysis of reverse Monte Carlo fits to the S(q) liquid data will be presented to address this issue.

  1. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong

    2012-07-02

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length ofmore » the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.« less

  2. Discussion on informatization teaching of certain radar transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Guanhui; Lv, Guizhou; Meng, Yafeng

    2017-04-01

    With the development of informatization, the traditional teaching method of certain radar transmitter is more and more difficult to meet the need of cultivating new type of high-quality military talents. This paper first analyzes the problems traditional teaching method of certain radar transmitter, and then puts forward the strategy of informatization teaching, and finally elaborates the concrete steps and contents of informatization teaching. Using the multimedia maintenance training system, information simulation training system and network courses and other informatization means, effectively improves the master degree to radar transmitter by trainees, but also lays a good foundation for repair in the next step.

  3. L-Band Ionosphere Scintillations Observed by A GNSS Receiver Array at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.; Pelgrum, W.; van Graas, F.

    2011-12-01

    As we enter a new solar maximum period, GNSS receivers, especially the ones operating in high latitude and equatorial regions, are facing an increasing threat from ionosphere scintillations. The increased solar activities, however, also offer a great opportunity to collect scintillation data to gain better understandings of scintillation effects on GNSS signals. During the past decade, many GPS receivers have been deployed around the globe to monitor ionosphere scintillations. Most of these GPS receivers are commercial receivers whose tracking mechanisms are not designed to operate under ionosphere scintillation. When strong scintillations occur, these receivers will either generate erroneous outputs or completely lose lock. Even when the scintillation is mild, the tracking loop outputs are not true representation of the signal parameters due the tracking loop transfer function. High quality, unprocessed GNSS receiver front end raw IF samples collected during ionosphere scintillations are necessary to produce realistic scintillation signal parameter estimations. In this presentation, we will update our effort in establishing a unique GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska to collect GPS and GLONASS satellite signals at various stages of the GNSS receiver processing. Signal strength, carrier phase, and relative TEC measurements generated by the receiver array as well as additional on-site diagnostic instrumentation measurements obtained from two active heating experiment campaigns conducted in 2011 will be presented. Additionally, we will also highlight and contrast the artificial heating experiment results with observations of natural scintillation events captured by our receivers using an automatic event trigger mechanism during the past year. These interesting results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations and natural disturbances.

  4. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    PubMed Central

    An, Jing; Song, Jinpeng; Liang, Guoxing; Gao, Jiaojiao; Xie, Juncai; Cao, Lei; Wang, Shiying; Lv, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. PMID:28772821

  5. UWB transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-01-15

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) dual impulse transmitter is made up of a trigger edge selection circuit actuated by a single trigger input pulse; a first step recovery diode (SRD) based pulser connected to the trigger edge selection circuit to generate a first impulse output; and a second step recovery diode (SRD) based pulser connected to the trigger edge selection circuit in parallel to the first pulser to generate a second impulse output having a selected delay from the first impulse output.

  6. 47 CFR 95.621 - GMRS transmitter channel frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... only for certain station classes and station locations. See part 95, subpart A. (b) Each GMRS transmitter for mobile station, small base station and control station operation must be maintained within a frequency tolerance of 0.0005%. Each GMRS transmitter for base station (except small base), mobile relay...

  7. 47 CFR 101.131 - Transmitter construction and installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by the licensee. (b) In any case where the maximum modulating frequency of a transmitter is prescribed by the Commission, the transmitter must be equipped with a low-pass or band-pass modulation filter of suitable performance characteristics. In those cases where a modulation limiter is employed, the...

  8. The Vibrational Deactivation of HF(v = 3) and HF(v = 2) by H Atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-18

    experiments. A silicon flat in front of the photomultiplier restricted the monitored fluores- cence to wavelengths > I 4tm. An RCA C-31034 (GaAs... stent with the present results f’ir HF(v =1) and HI-F(v = 2’ remioval rates but can not explain the fast HF(v = 3) rate. Wilk-ins performed trajectory...Sciences Laboratory: Development of new materials; metal matrix composites and new forms of carbon; test and evaluation of graphite and ceramics in

  9. Study of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnevsky, I. N.; Zheltonozhsky, V. A., E-mail: zhelton@kinr.kiev.ua; Savrasov, A. N.

    Isomeric ratios of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2,g} yields in the (γ, n) reaction and the cross section for the {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} population in the (α, p) reaction are measured for the first time at the end-point energies of 15.1 and 17.5 MeV for bremsstrahlung photons and 26 MeV for alpha particles. The results are σ = (1.1 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 2} for the {sup 176}Lu(α, p){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction and Y{sub m2}/Y{sub g} = (6.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −6} and (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m22} reaction at E{submore » ep} =15.1 and 17.5 MeV, respectively. The experimental data on the relative {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} yield indicate a single-humped shape of the excitation function for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction. Simulation is performed using the TALYS-1.4 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes.« less

  10. Annealing properties of open volumes in HfSiOx and HfAlOx gate dielectrics studied using monoenergetic positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, A.; Ikeuchi, K.; Yamabe, K.; Ohdaira, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, R.; Hamid, A. S.; Chikyow, T.; Torii, K.; Yamada, K.

    2005-07-01

    Thin Hf0.6Si0.4Ox and Hf0.3Al0.7Ox films fabricated by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition and atomic-layer-deposition techniques were characterized using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of the Doppler broadening spectra of annihilation radiation and the lifetime spectra of positions indicated that positrons annihilated from the trapped state by open volumes that exist intrinsically in amorphous structures of the films. For HfSiOx, the mean size of the open volumes and their size distribution decreased with increasing postdeposition annealing (PDA) temperature. For HfAlOx, although the overall behavior of the open volumes in response to annealing was similar to that for HfSiOx, PDA caused a separation of the mean size of the open volumes. When this separation occurred, the value of the line-shape parameter S increased, suggesting an oxygen deficiency in the amorphous matrix. This fragmentation of the amorphous matrix can be suppressed by decreasing the annealing time.

  11. Performance of implantable satellite transmitters in diving seabirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Meyers, P.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Douglas, David C.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first deployment of satellite transmitters in large alcids. In 1995 and 1996, we surgically implanted 51 transmitters in Common and Thick-billed murres (Uria aalge and U. lomvia) and Tufted Puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) at three colonies in Alaska. These devices furnished more than 2,900 locations over succeeding months (eight months maximum transmitter life), some 30-40% of which had calculated errors of <1,000 m. We considered other data to be reliable if locations were repetitive within a short period of time. As measures of data collection efficiency, we calculated location indices (number of locations per hour of transmission) of 0.44 during the breeding season and 0.35 overall. Those values compared favorably with satellite transmitters previously deployed on large mammals at similar latitudes. Transmitters did not last as long as expected because lithium batteries tended to self-discharge when kept at the high internal temperature of a bird. Most importantly, we encountered high mortality of instrumented birds, especially in the interval from 11-20 days after release. Our results suggest that radio transmission itself somehow impaired normal feeding behavior or otherwise compromised the birds' health. Those two problems (battery life and bird mortality) will need to be solved before implantable devices can be applied effectively to the same or similar species in the future. Received 24 August 1999, accepted 10 October 1999.

  12. Hf 3 Fe 4 Sn 4 and Hf 9 Fe 4-x Sn 10+x : Two stannide intermetallics with low-dimensional iron sublattices

    SciTech Connect

    Calta, Nicholas P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-04-01

    This article reports two new Hf-rich intermetallics synthesized using Sn flux: Hf 3Fe 4Sn 4 and Hf 9Fe 4-xSn 10+x. Hf 3Fe 4Sn 4 adopts an ordered variant the Hf 3Cu 8 structure type in orthorhombic space group Pnma with unit cell edges of a=8.1143(5) Å, b=8.8466(5) Å, and c=10.6069(6) Å. Hf 9Fe 4-xSn 10+x, on the other hand, adopts a new structure type in Cmc21 with unit cell edges of a=5.6458(3) Å, b=35.796(2) Å, and c=8.88725(9) Å for x=0. It exhibits a small amount of phase width in which Sn substitutes on one of the Fe sites. Both structuresmore » are fully three-dimensional and are characterized by pseudo one- and two-dimensional networks of Fe–Fe homoatomic bonding. Hf 9Fe 4-xSn 10+x exhibits antiferromagnetic order at TN=46(2) K and its electrical transport behavior indicates that it is a normal metal with phonon-dictated resistivity. Hf 3Fe 4Sn 4 is also an antiferromagnet with a rather high ordering temperature of TN=373(5) K. Single crystal resistivity measurements indicate that Hf 3Fe 4Sn 4 behaves as a Fermi liquid at low temperatures, indicating strong electron correlation.« less

  13. Effects of external radio transmitters on fish

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; McCormick, J.H.

    1981-04-01

    Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were studied to determine the effects of externally attached radio transmitter tags. Perch that had been tagged with dummy radio tags were more susceptible to predation and more sensitive to environmental stress than were controls. Feeding and respiration rates were similar among dummy tagged and control groups of perch over a 6-week period. The feeding rate of dummy tagged largemouth bass was lower than that of untagged fish over a 3,5-week period. On the basis of these studies, we conclude that weights of external transmitters in water should be less thanmore » 1.5% of the fish weight. Design considerations should include streamlining components and an anterior attachment wire at the extreme leading edge of an external transmitter to prevent entanglement of the tag in surrounding vegetation.« less

  14. Aqueous Isolation of 17-Nuclear Zr-/Hf- Oxide Clusters during the Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZrO2/HfO2.

    PubMed

    Sung, Qing; Liu, Caiyun; Zhang, Guanyun; Zhang, Jian; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng

    2018-06-21

    Novel 17-nuclear Zr-/Hf- oxide clusters ({Zr17} and {Hf17}) are isolated from aqueous systems. In the clusters, Zr/Hf ions are connected via μ3-O, μ3-OH and μ2-OH linkages into a pinwheel core which is wrapped with SO42-, HCOO- and aqua ligands. Octahedral hexanuclear Zr-/Hf- oxide clusters ({Zr6}oct and {Hf6}oct) are also isolated from the same hydrothermal system by decreasing the synthesis temperature. Structural analysis, synthetic conditions, vibrational spectra and ionic conductivity of the clusters are studied. Structural studies and synthesis inspection suggest that formation of {Zr6}oct and {Zr17} involves assembly of the same transferable building blocks, but the condensation degree and thermodynamic stability of the products increase with hydrothermal temperature. The role of {Zr6}oct and {Zr17} in the formation of ZrO2 nanocrystals are then discussed in the scenario of nonclassical nucleation theory. Besides, the Zr-oxide clusters exhibit ionic conductivity due to the mobility of protons. This study not only adds new members to the Zr-/Hf- oxide cluster family, but also establishes a connection from Zr4+ ions to ZrO2 in the hydrothermal preparation of zirconium oxide nanomaterials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Arecibo - HF experiments in the E_region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossa, E.; Jain, K.; Sulzer, M. P.; Perillat, P.

    2017-12-01

    The new Arecibo Observatory - HF facility started operations in 2015. The HF facility is fully operational, acquiring consecutive days of data without unwanted interruptions. It has a maximum transmitted power of 600kW, with center frequencies at 5.125 MHz and 8.175 MHz. The 8.175 (5.125) MHz band frequency has a gain of 25.5 (22) dB and HPBW of 8.5 (13) degrees. The effects of the HF experiments in the ionosphere are being observed with the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR). The ISR has two beams that simultaneously could sense the modified region and the region outside of the affected volume. The ISR has height resolution of 300 m. and allows to observe from altitudes 95 km to the topside ionosphere. Observation of the E-region - HF experiments are sparse but possible at Arecibo. High ionization at a height 100 km are needed to modify the region artificially. This paper presents examples of E-region enhanced plasma lines (See Figure). Diagnostic of the layers is made using the ISR to estimate electron density, temperatures, ion drifts, among others. The data shows exceptional modifications of the ionosphere that range from creating artificial cavities and layers, induced irregularities, substantial variations in temperature profiles to enhanced ion and plasma densities.Previously, the HF experiments were performed to study specific effects in a narrow region. However, the extent of the data collected with the ISR during 2017 is revealing new features and different kind of forces that artificially modify extended regions of the ionosphere. This paper exhibits examples where the interaction between the E and F-region when HF experiments are evident. A theory of a correlation between the two layers due to different conductivities is explored to illustrate how the enhancement of irregularities is produced and maintained over time. Examples of strong artificially induced irregularities formed at F-region heights when Sporadic E-layer is present are shown to

  16. SciTech Connect

    Noor, Fatimah A., E-mail: fatimah@fi.itb.ac.id; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    In this paper, we discuss the electron transmittance and tunneling current in high-k-based-MOS capacitors with trapping charge by including the off-diagonal effective-mass tensor elements and the effect of coupling between transverse and longitudinal energies represented by an electron velocity in the gate. The HfSiO{sub x}N/SiO{sub 2} dual ultrathin layer is used as the gate oxide in an n{sup +} poly- Si/oxide/Si capacitor to replace SiO{sub 2}. The main problem of using HfSiO{sub x}N is the charge trapping formed at the HfSiO{sub x}N/SiO{sub 2} interface that can influence the performance of the device. Therefore, it is important to develop a modelmore » taking into account the presence of electron traps at the HfSiO{sub x}N/SiO{sub 2} interface in the electron transmittance and tunneling current. The transmittance and tunneling current in n{sup +} poly- Si/HfSiO{sub x}N/trap/SiO2/Si(100) capacitors are calculated by using Airy wavefunctions and a transfer matrix method (TMM) as analytical and numerical approaches, respectively. The transmittance and tunneling current obtained from the Airy wavefunction are compared to those computed by the TMM. The effects of the electron velocity on the transmittance and tunneling current are also discussed.« less

  17. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  18. Preening behavior of adult gyrfalcons tagged with backpack transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; Fuller, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Radio transmitters provide data that enhance understanding of raptor biology (Walls and Kenward 2007) and are now used to answer a multitude of research questions (Meyburg and Fuller 2007). However, transmitters affect the birds that carry them (Barron et al. 2010), and it is important to document and evaluate such effects (Casper 2009). For example, decreased survival has been documented in Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus; Steenhof et al. 2006), Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis; Reynolds et al. 2004), and Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis; Paton et al. 1991) tagged with radio transmitters. However, no such effects were reported for Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus; Fuller et al. 1998, McGrady et al. 2002) and a number of other species (Kenward 2001). White and Garrott (1990) noted that in general, animals tagged with radio transmitters often altered their behaviors for 1–14 d after release during an adjustment period that included increased preening and grooming frequencies. Although more than 90 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) have been tagged with radio transmitters (e.g., Burnham 2007, McIntyre et al. 2009, T. Booms unpubl. data), the effects of transmitters on this species are not well documented. Anecdotal information suggests some Gyrfalcons might be negatively affected by radio-tagging (Booms et al. 2008). As part of a study investigating Gyrfalcon breeding biology, we conducted opportunistic, focused observations on two radio-tagged adult female Gyrfalcons and their unmarked mates. We here describe and quantify preening behavior of Gyrfalcons shortly after radio-tagging.

  19. Study on molecular sieve absorption of ground state HF molecules in a non-chain pulsed HF Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lianying; Zhou, Songqing; Chao, Huang; Huang, Ke; Zhu, Feng; Luan, Kunpeng; Chen, Hongwei

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the principle of non-chain pulsed HF laser, and analyzes the reason why the laser energy dropped severely with the accumulation of shots when the HF laser was in repetitive operation. In order to solve this problem, a molecular sieve absorption device was designed and mounted in the recirculation loop of the HF laser. Measurements of flow velocity indicated that the absorption device would just introduce a small decrease of flow velocity which would not influence the laser operation. Several types of molecular sieve (3A,4A,5A,13X) were used in absorbing experiments and the experiment results inferred that 3A molecular sieve was the most effective sorbent. All the experiments showed that the average drop of the output energy was not more than 5% after 1000 shots at 50Hz/20s. Compared to the energy drop of about 40% without the device, the absorption device could significantly improve the stability of the HF laser output energy and prolong the lifespan of laser medium gases.

  20. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y−(HF)n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF)n. The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y− produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y−(HF)n (Y=F, O2), where larger clusters with n≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F−(HF)n, and O2−(HF)n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F−(HF)n (n=1–3), the energies for the loss of HF from F−(HF)3, F−(HF)2, and F−(HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy (ECM). These ECM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O2(HF)n]− (n=1–4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O2H–F−(HF)n and O2−H–F(HF)n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O2(HF)4]− separated into O2H and F−(HF)3. PMID:28966900

  1. Optical Tunable-Based Transmitter for Multiple Radio Frequency Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor); Freeman, Jon C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical tunable transmitter is used to transmit multiple radio frequency bands on a single beam. More specifically, a tunable laser is configured to generate a plurality of optical wavelengths, and an optical tunable transmitter is configured to modulate each of the plurality of optical wavelengths with a corresponding radio frequency band. The optical tunable transmitter is also configured to encode each of the plurality of modulated optical wavelengths onto a single laser beam for transmission of a plurality of radio frequency bands using the single laser beam.

  2. Leaf bidirectional reflectance and transmittance in corn and soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, E. A.; Norman, J. M.; Blad, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Bidirectional optical properties of leaves must be adequately characterized to develop comprehensive and reliably predictive canopy radiative-transfer models. Directional reflectance and transmittance factors of individual corn and soybean leaves were measured at source incidence angles (SIAs) 20, 45, and 70 deg and numerous view angles in the visible and NIR. Bidirectional reflectance distributions changed with increasing SIA, with forward scattering most pronounced at 70 deg. Directional-hemispherical reflectance generally increased and transmittance decreased with increased SIA. Directional-hemispherical reflectance factors were higher and transmittances were lower than the nadir-viewed reflectance component.

  3. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  4. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afzal, Robert S.; Yu, Anthony W.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Melak, Anthony; Lukemir, Alan; Ramos-Izqueirdo, L.; Mamakos, William

    2007-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), launched in January 2003, is a laser altimeter and lidar for the Earth Observing System's (EOS) ICESat mission. GLAS accommodates three, sequentially operated, diode-pumped, solid-state, Nd:YAG laser transmitters. The laser transmitter requirements, design and qualification test results for this space-based remote sensing instrument is summarized and presented

  5. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    PubMed

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Chandra Kr., E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com; Bhamu, K. C.; Sharma, Ramesh, E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3} by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO{sub 3} doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. Themore » doped BaHfO{sub 3} is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO{sub 3} is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.« less

  7. A routine high-precision method for Lu-Hf isotope geochemistry and chronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1981-01-01

    A method for chemical separation of Lu and Hf from rock, meteorite and mineral samples is described, together with a much improved mass spectrometric running technique for Hf. This allows (i) geo- and cosmochronology using the176Lu???176Hf+??- decay scheme, and (ii) geochemical studies of planetary processes in the earth and moon. Chemical yields for the three-stage ion-exchange column procedure average 90% for Hf. Chemical blanks are <0.2 ng for Lu and Hf. From 1 ??g of Hf, a total ion current of 0.5??10-11 Ampere can be maintained for 3-5 h, yielding 0.01-0.03% precision on the ratio176Hf/177Hf. Normalisation to179Hf/177Hf=0.7325 is used. Extensive results for the Johnson Matthey Hf standard JMC 475 are presented, and this sample is urged as an international mass spectrometric standard; suitable aliquots, prepared from a single batch of JMC 475, are available from Denver. Lu-Hf analyses of the standard rocks BCR-1 and JB-1 are given. The potential of the Lu-Hf method in isotope geochemistry is assessed. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  8. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Number of transmitters per station. 22.507 Section 22.507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station...

  9. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number of transmitters per station. 22.507 Section 22.507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station...

  10. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number of transmitters per station. 22.507 Section 22.507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station...

  11. 47 CFR 22.507 - Number of transmitters per station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Number of transmitters per station. 22.507 Section 22.507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Paging and Radiotelephone Service § 22.507 Number of transmitters per station...

  12. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  13. HF-START: A Regional Radio Propagation Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hozumi, K.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Nakata, H.; Rougerie, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Jin, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Ishii, M.

    2017-12-01

    HF-START (HF Simulator Targeting for All-users' Regional Telecommunications) is a user-friendly simulator developed to meet the needs of space weather users. Prediction of communications failure due to space weather disturbances is of high priority. Space weather users from various backgrounds with high economic impact, i.e. airlines, telecommunication companies, GPS-related companies, insurance companies, international amateur radio union, etc., recently increase. Space weather information provided by Space Weather Information Center of NICT is, however, too professional to be understood and effectively used by the users. To overcome this issue, I try to translate the research level data to the user level data based on users' needs and provide an immediate usable data. HF-START is positioned to be a space weather product out of laboratory based truly on users' needs. It is originally for radio waves in HF band (3-30 MHz) but higher frequencies up to L band are planned to be covered. Regional ionospheric data in Japan and southeast Asia are employed as a reflector of skywave mode propagation. GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy) model will be used as ionospheric input for global simulation. To evaluate HF-START, an evaluation campaign for Japan region will be launched in coming months. If the campaign successes, it will be expanded to southeast Asia region as well. The final goal of HF-START is to provide the near-realtime necessary radio parameters as well as the warning message of radio communications failure to the radio and space weather users.

  14. Characterization of Ionosphere Waveguide Propagation by Monitoring HAARP HF Transmissions in Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-17

    hhh hhhh hh (7а)  .)cos(cos)sincoscos( cos)coscossin( cos 1sin 0 2)(22 0 2)( 00 )( 00 )()( 00 )( 00)(22 0 2 0 )( 2,1         s x i...z i xz si z i xxs xz s hhhh hhh hh   7b) Here the top sign stands for )(1 s , while the lower sign stands for )(2 s . It is also taken into

  15. Further Investigations of Ionospheric Total Electron Content and Scintillation Effects on Transionospheric Radiowave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-12

    HAARP ). 14. SUBJECT TERMS Global Positioning System (GPS), High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ), ionosphere, radiowave...Scintillation Simulation 23 4.10 Automated Calibrations 23 5. HAARP Activities 24 5.1 Development of HAARP Diagnostics 24 5.2 Facilitation of... HAARP Operations and Broader Scientific Collaborations 27 5.3 Public Relations 28 6. Publications 30 References 30 Acronyms and Initials 30 Appendix

  16. Evolution of continental crust and mantle heterogeneity: Evidence from Hf isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonathan, Patchett P.; Kouvo, O.; Hedge, C.E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1982-01-01

    We present initial 176Hf/177 Hf ratios for many samples of continental crust 3.7-0.3 Gy old. Results are based chiefly on zircons (1% Hf) and whole rocks: zircons are shown to be reliable carriers of essentially the initial Hf itself when properly chosen on the basis of U-Pb studies. Pre-3.0 Gy gneisses were apparently derived from an unfractionated mantle, but both depleted and undepleted mantle are evident as magma sources from 2.9 Gy to present. This mantle was sampled mainly from major crustal growth episodes 2.8, 1.8 and 0.7 Gy ago, all of which show gross heterogeneity of 176Hf/177Hf in magma sources from ??Hf=0 to +14, or about 60% of the variability of the present mantle. The approximate ??Hf=2??Nd relationship in ancient and modern igneous rocks shows that 176Lu/177Hf fractionates in general twice as much as 147Sm/144Nd in mantle melting processes. This allows an estimation of the relative value of the unknown bulk solid/liquid distribution coefficient for Hf. DLu/DHf=??? 2.3 holds for most mantle source regions. For garnet to be an important residual mantle phase, it must hold Hf strongly in order to preserve Hf-Nd isotopic relationships. The ancient Hf initials are consistent with only a small proportion of recycled older cratons in new continental crust, and with quasi-continuous, episodic growth of the continental crust with time. However, recycling of crust less than 150 My old cannot realistically be detected using Hf initials. The mantle shows clearly the general positive ??Hf resulting from a residual geochemical state at least back to 2.9 Gy ago, and seems to have repeatedly possessed a similar degree of heterogeneity, rather than a continuously-developing depletion. This is consistent with a complex dynamic disequilibrium model for the creation, maintenance and destruction of heterogeneity in the mantle. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Temperature dependence of vibrational relaxation in the HF, DF, HF-CO2, and DF-CO2 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucht, R. A.; Cool, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The laser excited fluorescence method has been employed to determine rate constants for V to V, R and V to R, T relaxation HF (nu = 1) and DF(nu = 1) by CO2 over the temperature range from 295 to 670 K. The self-deactivation rates for HF(nu = 1) and DF(nu = 1) by ground state molecules and the rate of V to V, R transfer from HF(nu = 1) and DF(nu = 1) to the CO2 (00/0/1) state exhibit a marked decrease with increasing temperature. The results provide additional evidence for the conversion of the large vibrational energy defects of the present systems into rotational motion of the hydrogen halide under the influence of a sizable attractive intermolecular potential well.

  18. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108 Section 73.4108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site map...

  19. Lu-Hf total-rock age for the Amitsoq gneisses, West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettingill, H. S.; Patchett, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lu-Hf total-rock data for the Amitsoq gneisses of West Greenland yield an age of 3.55 + or - 0.22 billion years, based on the decay constant for Lu-176 of 1.96 x 10 to the -11th/year, and an initial Hf-176/Hf-177 ratio of 0.280482 + or - 33. The result is in good agreement with Rb-Sr total-rock and U-Pb zircon ages. In spite of severe metamorphism of the area at 2.9 billion years, zircons from two of the samples have remained on the total-rock line, and define points close to the initial Hf ratio. The initial Hf-176/Hf-177 lies close to a chondritic Hf isotopic evolution curve from 4.55 billion years to present. This is consistent with the igneous precursors to the Amitsoq gneisses having been derived from the mantle at or shortly before 3.6 billion years. Anomalous relationships between Hf concentration and the Lu-176/Hf-177 ratio may suggest that trace element abundances in the Amitsoq gneisses are partly controlled by processes related to metamorphism.

  20. Transmittance and Tunneling Current through a Trapezoidal Barrier under Spin Polarization Consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, F. A.; Nabila, E.; Mardianti, H.; Ariani, T. I.; Khairurrijal

    2018-04-01

    The transmittance and tunneling current in heterostructures under spin polarization consideration were studied by employing a zinc-blended structure for the heterostructures. An electron tunnels through a potential barrier by applying a bias voltage to the barrier, which is called the trapezoidal potential barrier. In order to study the transmittance, an Airy wave function approach was employed to find the transmittance. The obtained transmittance was then utilized to compute the tunneling current by using a Gauss quadrature method. It was shown that the transmittances were asymmetric with the incident angle of the electron. It was also shown that the tunneling currents increased as the bias voltage increased.

  1. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  2. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  3. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  4. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  5. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  6. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of <10 min. Incidental recoveries of tagged Brant indicate a high degree of transmitter retention. Five recaptured birds (4-6 weeks after deployment) and eight killed by hunters (3-6 mo after deployment) retained their GPS transmitters. For studies involving the use of relatively large transmitters, the double-anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  7. Influence of oxygen vacancies in ALD HfO2-x thin films on non-volatile resistive switching phenomena with a Ti/HfO2-x/Pt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrey Sergeevich; Jeon, Yu-Rim; Kim, Sohyeon; Ku, Boncheol; Lim, Donghwan; Han, Hoonhee; Chae, Myeong Gyoon; Lee, Jaeho; Ha, Beom Gil; Choi, Changhwan

    2018-03-01

    We report a modulation of oxygen vacancies profile in atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO2-x thin films by reducing oxidant pulse time (0.7 s-0.1 s) and study its effect on resistive switching behavior with a Ti/HfO2-x/Pt structure. Hf 4f spectra of x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) and depth profile confirm varied oxygen vacancies profiles by shifts of binding energies of Hf 4f5/2 and Hf 4f7/2 main peaks and its according HfO2-x sub-oxides for each device. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) confirms different electron affinity (χ) of HfO2 and HfO2-x thin films, implying that barrier height at Ti/oxide interface is reduced. Current transport mechanism is dictated by Ohmic conduction in fully oxidized HfO2 thin films - Device A (0.7 s) and by Trap Filled Space Charge Limited Conduction (TF-SCLC) in less oxidized HfO2-x thin films - Device B (0.3 s) and Device C (0.1 s). A switching mechanism related to the oxygen vacancies modulation in Ti/HfO2-x/Pt based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices is used to explain carefully notified current transport mechanism variations from device-to-device. A proper endurance and long-time retention characteristics of the devices are also obtained.

  8. 13. View of southerly side of transmitter building no. 101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of southerly side of transmitter building no. 101 from south, showing tracking radar (tr) on top of transmitter building no. 102 in background left and abandoned radome on top of transmitter building no. 101 in middle of photograph with utilidor passageway link to right of photograph. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. Distributed Localization of Active Transmitters in a Wireless Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Distributed Localization of Active Transmitters in a Wireless Sensor Network THESIS Oba L. Vincent, 2nd Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/12-41 DEPARTMENT...protection in the United States. AFIT/GE/ENG/12-41 Distributed Localization of Active Transmitters in a Wireless Sensor Network THESIS Presented to the...Transmitters in a Wireless Sensor Network Oba L. Vincent, B.S.E.E. 2nd Lieutenant, USAF Approved: /signed/ 29 Feb 2012 Maj. Mark D. Silvius, Ph.D. (Chairman

  10. Project Echo: 960-Megacycle, 10-Kilowatt Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, J. P.; Brandt, R. H.

    1961-01-01

    A 10-kw transmitter operating at 960 to 961 Mc was used at the eastern terminus of the Project Echo communications experiment. This transmitter is located on Crawford's Hill near Holmdel, New Jersey. The 10-kw output feeds into a waveguide line leading to a 60-foot dish antenna. Exciter-driver units are available to drive the power amplifier with various modulations, such as wide-deviation FM, low-index phase modulation, single-sideband or double-sideband modulation with or without carrier, 960.05 or 961.05 Mc constant-frequency CW, and radar on-off pulses at 961.05 Mc. The main output amplifier consists primarily of a four-stage, externally-tuned-cavity, water-cooled klystron, operating at a beam voltage of 16 to 18 kv. The transmitter has been operated during many Moonbounce, tropospheric scatter, and Echo I tests with very satisfactory results. This paper describes its use before March 1, 1961.

  11. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  12. Implanting radio transmitters in wintering canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Dein, F. Joshua; Haramis, G. Michael; Jorde, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    To conduct telemetry studies of wintering canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay [Maryland, USA], we needed to devise a suitable method of radio transmitter attachment. We describe as aseptic, intraabdominal surgical technique, using the inhalation anesthetic isoflurane, to implant 20-g radio transmitters in free-ranging canvasbacks. We evaluated the technique over 3 winters (1987-89), when an annual average of 83 female canvasbacks received implant surgery during a 9-day period in mid-December. Of 253 ducks, 248 (98%) were implanted successfully, and 200 (80.65) completed the 70-day study until early March. No mortality or abnormal behavior from surgery was identified post-release.

  13. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB above...

  14. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB above...

  15. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB above...

  16. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB above...

  17. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB above...

  18. Multi-beam transmitter geometries for free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jason A.; Schmidt, Jason D.

    2010-02-01

    Free-space optical communications systems provide the opportunity to take advantage of higher data transfer rates and lower probability of intercept compared to radio-frequency communications. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence, such as for airborne laser communication over long paths, results in intensity variations at the receiver and a corresponding degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance. Previous literature has shown that two transmitters, when separated sufficiently, can effectively average out the intensity varying effects of the atmospheric turbulence at the receiver. This research explores the impacts of adding more transmitters and the marginal reduction in the probability of signal fades while minimizing the overall transmitter footprint, an important design factor when considering an airborne communications system. Analytical results for the cumulative distribution function are obtained for tilt-only results, while wave-optics simulations are used to simulate the effects of scintillation. These models show that the probability of signal fade is reduced as the number of transmitters is increased.

  19. Upper Hybrid Effects in Artificial Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Eliasson, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    A most fascinating result of recent ionospheric experiments has been the discovery of artificial ionization by Pedersen et al. (GRL, 37, L02106, 2010). The Artificial Ionospheric Layers (AIL) were the result of F-region O-mode HF irradiation using the HAARP ionospheric heater operating at 3.6 MW power. As demonstrated by Eliasson et al. (JGR, 117, A10321, 2012) the physics controlling the observed phenomenon and its threshold can be summarized as: " Collisional ionization due to high energy (~ 20 eV) electron tails generated by the interaction of strong Langmuir turbulence with plasma heated at the upper hybrid resonance and transported at the reflection height". The objective of the current presentation is to explore the role of the upper hybrid heating in the formation of AIL and its implications to future experiments involving HF heaters operating in middle and equatorial latitudes.

  20. First results from the energetic particle instrument on the OEDIPUS-C sounding rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, M. P.; Hardy, D. A.; James, H. G.

    The Canadian / US OEDIPUS-C rocket was flown from the Poker Flat Rocket Range November 6th 1995 as a mother-son sounding rocket. It was designed to study auroral ionospheric plasma physics using active wave sounding and prove tether technology. The payload separated into two sections reaching a separation of 1200m along the Earth's magnetic field. One section included a frequency stepped HF transmitter and the other included a synchronised HF receiver. Both sections included Energetic Particle Instruments, EPI, stepped in energy synchronously with the transmitter steps. On-board EPI particle processing in both payloads provided direct measurements of electron heating, wave-particle interactions via particle correlators, and a high resolution measurement of wave induced particle heating via transmitter synchronised fast sampling. Strong electron heating was observed at times when the HF transmitter frequency was equal to a harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency, f_ce, or equal to the upper hybrid frequency, f_uh.

  1. 31 CFR 537.323 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 537.323 Section 537.323 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 537.323 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money...

  2. 31 CFR 538.319 - U.S. registered money transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false U.S. registered money transmitter. 538.319 Section 538.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... General Definitions § 538.319 U.S. registered money transmitter. The term U.S. registered money...

  3. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Seligmann, Daniel A.; Moss, William C.; Valk, Theodore C.; Conder, Alan D.

    1995-01-01

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch.

  4. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engagedmore » in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.« less

  5. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engagedmore » in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.« less

  6. HF band filter bank multi-carrier spread spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Laraway, Stephen Andrew; Moradi, Hussein; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    Abstract—This paper describes modifications to the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) system, that was presented in [1] and [2], to enable transmission of this waveform in the HF skywave channel. FB-MC-SS is well suited for the HF channel because it performs well in channels with frequency selective fading and interference. This paper describes new algorithms for packet detection, timing recovery and equalization that are suitable for the HF channel. Also, an algorithm for optimizing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the FBMC- SS waveform is presented. Application of this algorithm results in a waveform with low PAPR.more » Simulation results using a wide band HF channel model demonstrate the robustness of this system over a wide range of delay and Doppler spreads.« less

  7. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site map submissions. See Memorandum Opinion and Order and Public Notice, adopted October 24, 1986. 1 FCC Rcd 381 (1986...

  8. Flat-topped beam transmittance in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Yalçın; Baykal, Yahya

    2017-10-01

    Turbulence affects optical propagation, and, as a result, the intensity is attenuated along the path of propagation. The attenuation becomes significant when the turbulence becomes stronger. Transmittance is a measure indicating how much power is collected at the receiver after the optical wave propagates in the turbulent medium. The on-axis transmittance is formulated when a flat-topped optical beam propagates in a marine atmosphere experiencing anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Variations in the transmittance are evaluated versus the beam source size, beam number, link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, and structure constant. It is found that larger beam source sizes and beam numbers yield higher transmittance values; however, as the link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, or structure constant increase, transmittance values are lowered. Our results will help in the performance evaluations of optical wireless communication and optical imaging systems operating in a marine atmosphere.

  9. Pathologic and physiologic effects associated with long-term intracoelomic transmitters in captive Siberian sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, S. Shaun; Divers, Stephen J.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Hernandez, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracoelomic transmitters are commonly used to evaluate migratory patterns, distribution, and habitat use of many species of fish. Currently, transmitter implantation relies mostly on the assumption that transmitters do not cause any adverse physiological or pathological effects on the animal. To investigate these effects, we surgically implanted 60 Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri with transmitters that weighed less than 2% of their body weight. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, 26, and 55 weeks to evaluate surgical healing and transmitter retention. Blood samples were collected before and after the 55-week study for serum cortisol analysis. Overall transmitter loss was 32%. Minor to moderate adhesions were noted at necropsy but did not appear to affect organ function. One fish was noted to have an intraintestinal transmitter at necropsy, but the fish was in overall good health. Long-term transmitter presence does not appear to increase serum cortisol levels or affect overall growth more than nontransmitter fish. Although long-term telemetry studies can be undertaken with minimal concern for negative physiological or pathological effects from transmitters, researchers should be aware that transmitter loss rates may be higher than previously thought. Mechanisms for transmitter loss may include expulsion through the surgical incision, expulsion through the mucocutaneous junction between the large intestine and the vent, or intraintestinal capture and expulsion through the vent. Received February 10, 2013; accepted June 10, 2013

  10. Testing tail-mounted transmitters with Myocastor coypus (nutria)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merino, S.; Carter, J.; Thibodeaux, G.

    2007-01-01

    We developed a tail-mounted radio-transmitter for Myocastor coypus (nutria) that offers a practical and efficient alternative to collar or implant methods. The mean retention time was 96 d (range 57-147 d, n = 7), making this a practical method for short-term studies. The tail-mounts were less injurious to animals than collars and easier for field researchers to implement than either collars or surgically implanted transmitters.

  11. Effects on transionospheric HF propagation observed by ISIS at middle and auroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    In 1978, an experiment on transionospheric HF propagation was carried out using a transmitter at Ottawa and the sounder receivers of the ISIS-I and ISIS-II spacecraft. Over 100 ISIS-II passes were successfully recorded using a fixed frequency of 9.303 MHz. A survey of the data has allowed some reproducible characteristics of transionospheric propagation to be identified. A number of ISIS-II ionograms are published here to illustrate those characteristics. A systematic feature of the pulses is their partial splitting into ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) parts, producing a tripartite compound pulse at the satellite. Equatorward pulses are comparatively sharp and occasionally exhibit periodic fades with beat frequencies between about 1 and 4 Hz. Features of the fades indicate that focussing of rays is a better explanation for the fades than diffraction. Rays near the limits of the reception zone can result in dispersed pulses, thought to indicate forward scattering. Swept-frequency ionograms interleaved with fixed-frequency measurements allowed two-dimensional density distributions to be modeled in altitude and latitude. Three-dimensional ray tracing plus a Newton’s-iteration algorithm were used to find rays that connected the transmitter with the position of the satellite at any time along its path. The latitudinal extent of the zone irradiated at ISIS-II altitude thus computed is approximately as observed, albeit sensitively dependent upon north south density gradients. Within this “iris” of accessibility, the maximum intensity of waves recorded at the spacecraft is within 10 dB of what is computed with a link calculation based on ray optics, but there are many dropouts of 20 30 dB below this maximum envelope. Toward the equator, propagation directions come to within about 10° of the magnetic-field axis. This research supports planning for coordinated ground-space radio experiments in the upcoming e-POP satellite mission.

  12. An Energy Harvesting Underwater Acoustic Transmitter for Aquatic Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Lu, Jun

    This paper presents a self-powered underwater acoustic transmitter using a piezoelectric beam to harvest the mechanical energy from fish swimming. This transmitter does not require a battery and is demonstrated in live fish. It transmits an acoustic waveform as the implanted fish swims. It enables long-term monitoring of aquatic animals.

  13. Toward maximum transmittance into absorption layers in solar cells: investigation of lossy-film-induced mismatches between reflectance and transmittance extrema.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Lai, Chi-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    The mismatch in film thickness and incident angle between reflectance and transmittance extrema due to the presence of lossy film(s) is investigated toward the maximum transmittance design in the active region of solar cells. Using a planar air/lossy film/silicon double-interface geometry illustrates important and quite opposite mismatch behaviors associated with TE and TM waves. In a typical thin-film CIGS solar cell, mismatches contributed by TM waves in general dominate. The angular mismatch is at least 10° in about 37%-53% of the spectrum, depending on the thickness combination of all lossy interlayers. The largest thickness mismatch of a specific interlayer generally increases with the thickness of the layer itself. Antireflection coating designs for solar cells should therefore be optimized in terms of the maximum transmittance into the active region, even if the corresponding reflectance is not at its minimum.

  14. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of...

  15. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of...

  16. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of...

  17. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of...

  18. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. 90.471 Section 90.471 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of...

  19. A 20-GHz IMPATT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, J. L.; Sun, C.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20 GHz frequency band. The development effort involved a variety of disciplines including IMPATT device development, circulator design, simple and multiple diode circuits designs, and amplifier integration and test.

  20. Fiber-Based, Trace-Gas, Laser Transmitter Technology Development for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzalez, Brayler; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter.In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  1. Fiber-based, trace-gas, laser transmitter technology development for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Mark; Yu, Anthony; Chen, Jeffrey; Nicholson, Jeffrey; Engin, Doruk; Mathason, Brian; Wu, Stewart; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Gonzales, Brayler; Han, Lawrence; Numata, Kenji; Storm, Mark; Abshire, James

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is working on maturing the technology readiness of a laser transmitter designed for use in atmospheric CO2 remote-sensing. GSFC has been developing an airplane-based CO2 lidar instrument over several years to demonstrate the efficacy of the instrumentation and measurement technique and to link the science models to the instrument performance. The ultimate goal is to make space-based satellite measurements with global coverage. In order to accomplish this, we must demonstrate the technology readiness and performance of the components as well as demonstrate the required power-scaling to make the link with the required signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). To date, all the instrument components have been shown to have the required performance with the exception of the laser transmitter. In this program we are working on a fiber-based master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) laser transmitter architecture where we will develop a ruggedized package and perform the relevant environmental tests to demonstrate TRL-6. In this paper we will review our transmitter architecture and progress on the performance and packaging of the laser transmitter.

  2. What Hf isotopes in zircon tell us about crust-mantle evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Itano, Keita; Hibiya, Yuki; Suzuki, Kazue

    2017-03-01

    The 176Lu-176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to study planetary crust-mantle differentiation. Of considerable utility in this regard is zircon, a resistant mineral that can be precisely dated by the U-Pb chronometer and record its initial Hf isotope composition due to having low Lu/Hf. Here we review zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic data mainly obtained over the last two decades and discuss their contributions to our current understanding of crust-mantle evolution, with emphasis on the Lu-Hf isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), early differentiation of the silicate Earth, and the evolution of the continental crust over geologic history. Meteorite zircon encapsulates the most primitive Hf isotope composition of our solar system, which was used to identify chondritic meteorites best representative of the BSE (176Hf/177Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Hadean-Eoarchean detrital zircons yield highly unradiogenic Hf isotope compositions relative to the BSE, providing evidence for the development of a geochemically enriched silicate reservoir as early as 4.5 Ga. By combining the Hf and O isotope systematics, we propose that the early enriched silicate reservoir has resided at depth within the Earth rather than near the surface and may represent a fractionated residuum of a magma ocean underlying the proto-crust, like urKREEP beneath the anorthositic crust on the Moon. Detrital zircons from world major rivers potentially provide the most robust Hf isotope record of the preserved granitoid crust on a continental scale, whereas mafic rocks with various emplacement ages offer an opportunity to trace the Hf isotope evolution of juvenile continental crust (from εHf[4.5 Ga] = 0 to εHf[present] = + 13). The river zircon data as compared to the juvenile crust composition highlight that the supercontinent cycle has controlled the evolution of the continental crust by regulating the rates of crustal generation and intra

  3. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A.; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. PMID:22666022

  4. Compact self-contained electrical-to-optical converter/transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Seligmann, D.A.; Moss, W.C.; Valk, T.C.; Conder, A.D.

    1995-11-21

    A first optical receiver and a second optical receiver are provided for receiving a calibrate command and a power switching signal, respectively, from a remote processor. A third receiver is provided for receiving an analog electrical signal from a transducer. A calibrator generates a reference signal in response to the calibrate command. A combiner mixes the electrical signal with the reference signal to form a calibrated signal. A converter converts the calibrated signal to an optical signal. A transmitter transmits the optical signal to the remote processor. A primary battery supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter. An optically-activated switch supplies power to the calibrator, the combiner, the converter, and the transmitter in response to the power switching signal. An auxiliary battery supplies power continuously to the switch. 13 figs.

  5. Investigation and Development of Data-Driven D-Region Model for HF Systems Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Space Environment Corporation (SEC) and RP Consultants (RPC) are to develop and validate a weather-capable D region model for making High Frequency (HF) absorption predictions in support of the HF communications and radar communities. The weather-capable model will assimilate solar and earth space observations from NASA satellites. The model will account for solar-induced impacts on HF absorption, including X-rays, Solar Proton Events (SPE's), and auroral precipitation. The work plan includes: I . Optimize D-region model to quickly obtain ion and electron densities for proper HF absorption calculations. 2. Develop indices-driven modules for D-region ionization sources for low, mid, & high latitudes including X-rays, cosmic rays, auroral precipitation, & solar protons. (Note: solar spectrum & auroral modules already exist). 3. Setup low-cost monitors of existing HF beacons and add one single-frequency beacon. 4. Use PENEX HF-link database with HF monitor data to validate D-region/HF absorption model using climatological ionization drivers. 5. Develop algorithms to assimilate NASA satellite data of solar, interplanetary, and auroral observations into ionization source modules. 6. Use PENEX HF-link & HF-beacon data for skill score comparison of assimilation versus climatological D-region/HF absorption model. Only some satellites are available for the PENEX time period, thus, HF-beacon data is necessary. 7. Use HF beacon monitors to develop HF-link data assimilation algorithms for regional improvement to the D-region/HF absorption model.

  6. Remote control radioactive-waste removal system uses modulated laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Kopia, L. P.; Rowland, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    Laser remote control system consists of transmitter, auto tracker, and receiver. Transmitter and tracker, packaged together and bore sighted, constitute control station, receiver is slave station. Model has five command channels and optical link operating range of 110 m.

  7. Subcutaneous implantation of satellite transmitters with percutaneous antennae into male polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Garner, Gerald W.

    1999-01-01

    Male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have not been successfully instrumented with satellite transmitters because they readily shed collar-mounted transmitters. Seven male polar bears were captured on the pack ice off the northern coast of Alaska and surgically implanted with satellite transmitters with percutaneous antennae into the subcutaneous space of the dorsal cervical region. Transmitters failed prematurely with lifetimes of 30-161 days (x̄ = 97 days). Efforts to relocate implanted bears after transmitters failed were not successful. The mean number of location solutions per transmitter was 204 (range 118-369). An average of 10% and 19% of the locations were accurate to <150 m and to 150-350 m, respectively. Our successful tracking of male polar bears, the high quality of locations obtained from transmitters with percutaneous antennae implanted in the subcutaneous space, and the low visibility of such units make further technical development worthwhile if the reason for premature failure of the transmitters can be determined.

  8. Orbital-angular-momentum-multiplexed free-space optical communication link using transmitter lenses.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Ahmed, Nisar; Huang, Hao; Zhao, Zhe; Liao, Peicheng; Lavery, Martin P J; Yan, Yan; Bao, ChangJing; Wang, Zhe; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we explore the potential benefits and limitations of using transmitter lenses in an orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexed free-space optical (FSO) communication link. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that within certain transmission distances, using lenses at the transmitter to focus OAM beams could reduce power loss in OAM-based FSO links and that this improvement might be more significant for higher-order OAM beams. Moreover, the use of transmitter lenses could enhance system tolerance to angular error between transmitter and receiver, but they might degrade tolerance to lateral displacement.

  9. Influence of the Helicopter Time Domain Electromagnetic System Off-Time Response by the Transmitter Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.; Mejzr, I.

    2010-12-01

    While developing a new Helicopter Time Domain Electromagnetic system (P-THEM), Pico Envirotec Inc (PEI) has studied the effect of the transmitter assembly on the acquired data. The P-THEM system consists of a loop-transmitter assembly, powered by a motor generator, 3-axis coil receiver attached at the midpoint of a tow cable and an additional Z-axis (dB/dt) receiver installed on the rear section of the transmitter loop. The system is towed by a helicopter on a 230 foot long tow cable. The transmitter loop is designed to produce a peak magnetic moment of approximately 250,000 NIA with a base frequency of 30 Hz (adjustable to 25Hz) and a quarter length duty cycle (4 ms on-time). The secondary field acquired with a dB/dt receiver coil consists of a ground response and a system response: SF=Rg+Rsys, where SF - the secondary field, Rg - ground response, Rsys - system response. The system itself, especially the transmitter assembly, being a conductor in an induced magnetic field, creates a magnetic anomaly. The influence of the transmitter assembly anomaly on the received signal depends on the position of the receiver coil against the transmitter, the intensity of on-time pulse and transmitter electro-magnetic properties. At the same time, the ground response acquired with a receiver coil depends on the length and the moment of transmitter pulse, as well as the position and distance of the receiver coil from the ground. This can be for vertical field (Z) receiver coil described as RXz(t)=e(t)pz(t)Rgz(t)+d(t)k(t)j(t)TXz(t), where RXz(t) - receiver response, e(t) - elevation of the receiver over the ground, pz(t) - horizontal projection of the receiver coil, Rgz(t) - vertical component of ground response, d(t) - distance (elevation) between the receiver coil and the transmitter loop, k(t) - the position of the receiver in the transmitter field, j(t) - the transmitter assembly electromagnetic properties, TXz(t) -transmitter field (Primary field on-time, and transmitter

  10. Lu-Hf CONSTRAINTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF LUNAR BASALTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Tatsumoto, Mistunobu

    1984-01-01

    The authors show that a cumulate-remelting model best explains the recently acquired data on the Lu-Hf systematics of lunar mare basalts. The authors model is first constructed using the Lu and Hf concentration data and it is then further strengthened by the Hf isotopic evidence. The authors also show that the similarity of MgO/FeO ratios and the Cr//2O//3 contents between high-Ti and low-Ti basalts, which have been given significance by A. E. Ringwood and D. H. Green are not important constraints for lunar basalt petrogenesis. The authors principal aim is to revive the remelting model for further consideration with the powerful constraints of Lu-Hf systematics of lunar basalts.

  11. Synthesis of MAX Phases in the Hf-Al-C System.

    PubMed

    Lapauw, Thomas; Tunca, Bensu; Cabioc'h, Thierry; Lu, Jun; Persson, Per O Å; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2016-11-07

    For the first time, MAX phases in the Hf-Al-C system were experimentally synthesized using reactive hot pressing. HfC was observed as the main competing phase. The lattice parameters of Hf 2 AlC and Hf 3 AlC 2 were determined by Rietveld refinement based on the X-ray diffraction data. The atomic stacking sequence was revealed by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Mixtures of 211 and 312 stacking were observed within the same grain, including 523 layers. This transition in atomic structure is discussed.

  12. Solid state Ku-band spacecraft transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisseman, W. R.; Tserng, H. Q.; Coleman, D. J.; Doerbeck, F. H.

    1977-01-01

    A transmitter is considered that consists of GaAs IMPATT and Read diodes operating in a microstrip circuit environment to provide amplification with a minimum of 63 db small signal gain and a minimum compressed gain at 5 W output of 57 db. Reported are Schottky-Read diode design and fabrication, microstrip and circulator optimization, preamplifier development, power amplifier development, dc-to-dc converter design, and integration of the breadboard transmitter modules. A four-stage power amplifier in cascade with a three-stage preamplifier had an overall gain of 56.5 db at 13.5 GHz with a power output of 4.5 W. A single-stage Read amplifier delivered 5.9 W with 4 db gain at 22% efficiency.

  13. Lu-Hf AND Sm-Nd EVOLUTION IN LUNAR MARE BASALTS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data for mare basalts combined with Rb-Sr and total REE data taken from the literature suggest that the mare basalts were derived by small ( less than equivalent to 10%) degrees of partial melting of cumulate sources, but that the magma ocean from which these sources formed was light REE and hf-enriched. Calculated source compositions range from lherzolite to olivine websterite. Nonmodal melting of small amounts of ilmenite ( less than equivalent to 3%) in the sources seems to be required by the Lu/Hf data. A comparison of the Hf and Nd isotopic characteristics between the mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts reveals that the epsilon Hf/ epsilon Nd ratios in low-Ti mare basalts are much higher than in terrestrial ocean basalts.

  14. Micro-miniature radio frequency transmitter for communication and tracking applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Emery, M.S.; Falter, K.G.

    1996-12-31

    A micro-miniature radio frequency (rf) transmitter has been developed and demonstrated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of the rf transmitter development was to maximize the transmission distance while drastically shrinking the overall transmitter size, including antenna. Based on analysis and testing, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a 16-GHz gallium arsenide (GaAs) oscillator and integrated on-chip antenna was designed and fabricated using microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) technology. Details of the development and the results of various field tests will be discussed. The rf transmitter is applicable to covert surveillance and tracking scenarios due to its smallmore » size of 2.2 x 2.2 mm, including the antenna. Additionally, the 16-GHz frequency is well above the operational range of consumer-grade radio scanners, providing a degree of protection from unauthorized interception. Variations of the transmitter design have been demonstrated for tracking and tagging beacons, transmission of digital data, and transmission of real-time analog video from a surveillance camera. Preliminary laboratory measurements indicate adaptability to direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmission, providing a low probability of intercept and/or detection. Concepts related to law enforcement applications will be presented.« less

  15. Stratospheric HF and HCl observations /15 June 1981/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W. A.; Chance, K. V.

    1981-01-01

    Balloon measurements of the stratospheric HF/HCl ratio are reported. Seven far-infrared rotational lines of HF and HCl were observed at elevation angles of 25, 18 and 8 deg by a far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer on board a balloon platform at 28.5 km. Analysis of line intensities yields an average HF/HCl ratio of 0.18 + or - 0.02 at an effective altitude of 33 km, with a water vapor mixing ratio of about 4 ppmv. Results are noted to be in reasonable agreement with the calculated profile of Sze and Ko (1981) with 4.5 ppmv H2O.

  16. Mid-Latitude Mobile Wideband HF- NVIS Channel Analysis: Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-14

    Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY High frequency (HF) links (2 to 30 MHz) are an alternative to the cost and tactical fragility of commercial satellite...43 4.5 HIGH -LATITUDE HF AND HF-NVIS MODELS...ionosphere without vehicle speed..................... B-6 xi 1. REPORT OUTLINE This report analyzes a mid-latitude wideband high frequency nearly vertical

  17. Measurement device for high-precision spectral transmittance of solar blind filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Qian, Yunsheng; Lv, Yang; Feng, Cheng; Liu, Jian

    2017-02-01

    In order to measure spectral transmittance of solar-blind filter ranging from ultraviolet to visible light accurately, a high-precision filter transmittance measuring system based on the ultraviolet photomultiplier is developed. The calibration method is mainly used to measure transmittance in this system, which mainly consists of an ultraviolet photomultiplier as core of the system and a lock-in amplifier combined with an optical modulator as the aided measurement for the system. The ultraviolet photomultiplier can amplify the current signal through the filter and have the characteristics of low dark current and high luminance gain. The optical modulator and the lock-in amplifier can obtain the signal from the photomultiplier and inhibit dark noise and spurious signal effectively. Through these two parts, the low light passing through the filters can be detected and we can calculate the transmittance by the optical power detected. Based on the proposed system, the limit detection of the transmittance can reach 10-12, while the result of the conventional approach is merely 10-6. Therefore, the system can make an effective assessment of solar blind ultraviolet filters.

  18. 47 CFR 80.855 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... series network of 10 ohms resistance and 200 picofarads capacitance, or an artificial antenna of 50 ohms... radiotelephone installation normally installed on board ship, may be required. (e) The transmitter must provide...

  19. 47 CFR 80.855 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... series network of 10 ohms resistance and 200 picofarads capacitance, or an artificial antenna of 50 ohms... radiotelephone installation normally installed on board ship, may be required. (e) The transmitter must provide...

  20. 47 CFR 80.855 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... series network of 10 ohms resistance and 200 picofarads capacitance, or an artificial antenna of 50 ohms... radiotelephone installation normally installed on board ship, may be required. (e) The transmitter must provide...

  1. 47 CFR 80.855 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... series network of 10 ohms resistance and 200 picofarads capacitance, or an artificial antenna of 50 ohms... radiotelephone installation normally installed on board ship, may be required. (e) The transmitter must provide...

  2. Surgical insertions of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo Rub, A. Michelle; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Moser, L; Weber III, E. P. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic transmitter and monitoring systems to track movements of aquatic animals has increased continuously since the inception of these systems in the mid-1950s. The purpose of the present report is to provide information about veterinary principles and their incorporation into surgical implantation procedures for fish. We also intend to provide insight into the unique challenges of field-based aquatic surgical studies. Within this context, 4 aspects of the process for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish (ie, handling, aseptic technique, anesthesia, and implantation) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical implantation, the principles and protocols described here (other than incision and suture placement) are also applicable to studies that involve injection of transmitters into fish.

  3. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Methane Using Pulsed Laser Transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Wu, Stewart; Gonzalez, Brayler; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William; Fahey, Molly; Yu, Anthony; Stephen, Mark; Mao, Jianping; hide

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. At NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) we have been developing a laser-based technology needed to remotely measure CH4 from orbit. We report on our development effort for the methane lidar, especially on our laser transmitters and recent airborne demonstration. Our lidar transmitter is based on an optical parametric process to generate near infrared laser radiation at 1651 nanometers, coincident with a CH4 absorption. In an airborne flight campaign in the fall of 2015, we tested two kinds of laser transmitters --- an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The output wavelength of the lasers was rapidly tuned over the CH4 absorption by tuning the seed laser to sample the CH4 absorption line at several wavelengths. This approach uses the same Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) technique we have used for our CO2 lidar for ASCENDS. The two laser transmitters were successfully operated in the NASAs DC-8 aircraft, measuring methane from 3 to 13 kilometers with high precision.

  4. 47 CFR 80.909 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements of § 80.923 of this part; and (2) The transmitter, with normal operating voltages applied, has... effective resistance and 200 picofarads capacitance or an artificial antenna of 50 ohms nominal impedance...

  5. 47 CFR 80.855 - Radiotelephone transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... series network of 10 ohms resistance and 200 picofarads capacitance, or an artificial antenna of 50 ohms... protected from excessive currents and voltages. (g) A durable nameplate must be mounted on the transmitter...

  6. Do transmitters affect survival and body condition of American beavers Castor canadensis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Windels, Steve K.; Wolf, Tiffany; Klaver, Robert W.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    One key assumption often inferred with using radio-equipped individuals is that the transmitter has no effect on the metric of interest. To evaluate this assumption, we used a known fate model to assess the effect of transmitter type (i.e. tail-mounted or peritoneal implant) on short-term (one year) survival and a joint live—dead recovery model and results from a mark—recapture study to compare long-term (eight years) survival and body condition of ear-tagged only American beavers Castor canadensis to those equipped with radio transmitters in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Short-term (1-year) survival was not influenced by transmitter type (wi = 0.64). Over the 8-year study period, annual survival was similar between transmitter-equipped beavers (tail-mounted and implant transmitters combined; 0.76; 95% CI = 0.45–0.91) versus ear-tagged only (0.78; 95% CI = 0.45–0.93). Additionally, we found no difference in weight gain (t9 = 0.25, p = 0.80) or tail area (t11 = 1.25, p = 0.24) from spring to summer between the two groups. In contrast, winter weight loss (t22 = - 2.03, p = 0.05) and tail area decrease (t30 = - 3.04, p = 0.01) was greater for transmitterequipped (weight = - 3.09 kg, SE = 0.55; tail area = - 33.71 cm2, SE = 4.80) than ear-tagged only (weight = - 1.80 kg, SE = 0.33; tail area = - 12.38 cm2, SE = 5.13) beavers. Our results generally support the continued use of transmitters on beavers for estimating demographic parameters, although we recommend additional assessments of transmitter effects under different environmental conditions.

  7. Comparison of different measurement methods for transmittance haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hsueh-Ling; Hsaio, Chin-Chai

    2009-08-01

    Transmittance haze is increasingly important to the LCD and solar cell industry. Most commercial haze measurement instruments are designed according to the method recommended in the documentary standards like ASTM D 1003 (ASTM 2003 Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics), JIS K 7361 (JIS 1997 Plastics—Determination of the Total Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Materials—Part 1: Single Beam Instrument) and ISO 14782 (ISO 1997 Plastics—Determination of Haze of Transparent Materials). To improve the measurement accuracy of the current standards, a new apparatus was designed by the Center for Measurement Standards (Yu et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 N29-36). Besides the methods mentioned above, a double-beam method is used in the design of some instruments. There are discrepancies between the various methods. But no matter which method is used, a white standard is always needed. This paper compares the measurement results from different methods, presents the effect of the white standard, and analyses the measurement uncertainty.

  8. Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.

    2014-11-01

    We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.

  9. Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Cai, Yue; Goldstein, Steven L.; Yang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ∼630 °C to ∼900 °C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.

  10. Examination of an optical transmittance test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Bengoechea, Jaione; Bokria, Jayesh G.

    2013-09-24

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and moremore » appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).« less

  11. In-Flight Performance of the Mercury Laser Altimeter Laser Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Steven X.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which was launched on August 3, 2004. MLA maps Mercury's shape and topographic landforms and other surface characteristics using a diode-pumped solid-state laser transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode receiver that measures the round-trip time of individual laser pulses. The laser transmitter has been operating nominally during planetary flyby measurements and in orbit about Mercury since March 2011. In this paper, we review the MLA laser transmitter telemetry data and evaluate the performance of solid-state lasers under extended operation in a space environment.

  12. 30. View of mezzanine floor level in transmitter building no. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of mezzanine floor level in transmitter building no. 102 showing control transmitter electronic cabinets and control modules. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  13. A novel process for preparation of titanium dioxide from Ti-bearing electric furnace slag: NH4HF2-HF leaching and hydrolyzing process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Guo, Yufeng; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Sui, Yulei; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Lingzhi

    2018-02-15

    A novel process to prepare titanium dioxide from Ti-bearing electric furnace slag by NH 4 HF 2 -HF leaching and hydrolyzing process has been developed. In this present study, the effects of [NH 4 + ]/[F] mXolar ratio, leaching temperature, [F] concentration, liquid/solid mass ratio, leaching time on the Ti extraction, and the phase transformations have been investigated to reveal the leaching mechanism of Ti-bearing electric furnace slag in NH 4 HF 2 -HF solution. In the NH 4 HF 2 -HF leaching process, the MgTi 2 O 5 and Al 2 TiO 5 are converted to TiF 6 2- and Mg-Al-bearing precipitate. Ti extraction rate reached 98.84% under the optimal conditions. In addition, 98.25% iron ions can be removed in the presence of NaCl prior to hydrolysis process. The effects of pH and temperature on the selective hydrolysis of TiF 6 2- during hydrolysis process were also studied. In the hydrolysis process, the TiF 6 2- is converted to (NH 4 ) 2 TiOF 4 . By calcination, high grade TiO 2 powder with its purity of 99.88% was obtained, using which the products, well crystallized anatase and rutile, were obtained through roasting at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Palliative Care in Heart Failure (PAL-HF) Trial: Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Robert J.; Tulsky, James A.; Granger, Bradi B.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Adams, Patricia A.; Dodson, Gwen C.; Fiuzat, Mona; Johnson, Kimberly S.; Patel, Chetan B.; Steinhauser, Karen E.; Taylor, Donald H.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Rogers, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progressive nature of heart failure (HF) coupled with high mortality and poor quality of life mandates greater attention to palliative care as a routine component of advanced HF management. Limited evidence exists from randomized, controlled trials supporting the use of interdisciplinary palliative care in HF. Methods The Palliative Care in Heart Failure trial (PAL-HF) is a prospective, controlled, unblinded, single-center study of an interdisciplinary palliative care intervention in 200 patients with advanced HF estimated to have a high likelihood of mortality or re-hospitalization in the ensuing 6 months. The 6-month PAL-HF intervention focuses on physical and psychosocial symptom relief, attention to spiritual concerns and advanced care planning. The primary endpoint is health-related quality of life measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy with Palliative Care Subscale score at 6 months. Secondary endpoints include changes in anxiety/depression, spiritual well-being, caregiver satisfaction, cost and resource utilization, and a composite of death, HF hospitalization and quality of life. Conclusions PAL-HF is a randomized, controlled clinical trial that will help evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of palliative care in advanced HF using a patient-centered outcome as well as clinical and economic endpoints. PMID:25440791

  15. Atomistic study of the electronic contact resistivity between the half-Heusler alloys (HfCoSb, HfZrCoSb, HfZrNiSn) and the metal Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuping; Léonard, François; Spataru, Catalin D.

    2018-06-01

    Half-Heusler (HH) alloys have shown promising thermoelectric properties in the medium- and high-temperature range. To harness these material properties for thermoelectric applications, it is important to realize electrical contacts with low electrical contact resistivity. However, little is known about the detailed structural and electronic properties of such contacts and the expected values of contact resistivity. Here, we employ atomistic ab initio calculations to study electrical contacts in a subclass of HH alloys consisting of the compounds HfCoSb, HfZrCoSb, and HfZrNiSn. By using Ag as a prototypical metal, we show that the termination of the HH material critically determines the presence or absence of strong deformations at the interface. Our study includes contacts to doped materials, and the results indicate that the p -type materials generally form ohmic contacts while the n -type materials have a small Schottky barrier. We calculate the temperature dependence of the contact resistivity in the low- to medium-temperature range and provide quantitative values that set lower limits for these systems.

  16. On the Additional Absorption of Radio Emission from Discrete Cosmic Sources Under HF Modification of the Lower Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrodny, V. G.; Charkina, O. V.; Yampolski, Yu. M.

    2015-12-01

    The possibilities of modification of a weakly ionized plasma are investigated theoretically and experimentally within different electron density behavior models. The dependence of the additional absorption of radiation of discreet cosmic sources Cassiopeia A and Cygnus A in the artificially disturbed ionospheric D-region on the amplitude of heating signal during the special measuring campaigns of February and October 2008 has been analyzed. The ionosphere has been modified with using the world most powerful HAARP heater, Alaska, USA. The 64 beam riometer located in the immediate vicinity of the heater was used as the recording system.

  17. Accurate method for luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients measurements in sunglasses lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    The international standard ISO 12312-1 proposes transmittance tests that quantify how dark sunglasses lenses are and whether or not they are suitable for driving. To perform these tests a spectrometer is required. In this study, we present and analyze theoretically an accurate alternative method for performing these measurements using simple components. Using three LEDs and a four-channel sensor we generated weighting functions similar to the standard ones for luminous and traffic lights transmittances. From 89 sunglasses lens spectroscopy data, we calculated luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients using our obtained weighting functions and the standard ones. Mean-difference Tukey plots were used to compare the results. All tested sunglasses lenses were classified in the right category and correctly as suitable or not for driving. The greatest absolute errors for luminous transmittance and red, yellow, green and blue signal detection quotients were 0.15%, 0.17, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.18, respectively. This method will be used in a device capable to perform transmittance tests (visible, traffic lights and ultraviolet (UV)) according to the standard. It is important to measure rightly luminous transmittance and relative visual attenuation quotients to report correctly whether or not sunglasses are suitable for driving. Moreover, standard UV requirements depend on luminous transmittance.

  18. In space performance of the lunar orbiter laser altimeter (LOLA) laser transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Shaw, George B.; Novo-Gradac, Ann Marie; Li, Steven X.; Cavanaugh, John

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the final configuration of the space flight laser transmitter as delivered to the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument along with some in-space operation performance data. The LOLA instrument is designed to map the lunar surface and provide unprecedented data products in anticipation of future manned flight missions. The laser transmitter has been operating on orbit at the Moon continuously since July 2009 and accumulated over 1.8 billion laser shots in space. The LOLA laser transmitter design has heritage dated back to the MOLA laser transmitter launched more than 10 years ago and incorporates lessons learned from previous laser altimeter missions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  19. Neuro-transmitters in the central nervous system & their implication in learning and memory processes.

    PubMed

    Reis, Helton J; Guatimosim, Cristina; Paquet, Maryse; Santos, Magda; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Kummer, Arthur; Schenatto, Grace; Salgado, João V; Vieira, Luciene B; Teixeira, Antônio L; Palotás, András

    2009-01-01

    This review article gives an overview of a number of central neuro-transmitters, which are essential for integrating many functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as learning, memory, sleep cycle, body movement, hormone regulation and many others. Neurons use neuro-transmitters to communicate, and a great variety of molecules are known to fit the criteria to be classified as such. A process shared by all neuro-transmitters is their release by excocytosis, and we give an outline of the molecular events and protein complexes involved in this mechanism. Synthesis, transport, inactivation, and cellular signaling can be very diverse when different neuro-transmitters are compared, and these processes are described separately for each neuro-transmitter system. Here we focus on the most well known neuro-transmitters: acetyl-choline, catechol-amines (dopamine and nor-adrenalin), indole-amine (serotonin), glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Glutamate is the major excitatory neuro-transmitter in the brain and its actions are counter-balanced by GABA, which is the major inhibitory substance in the CNS. A balance of neuronal transmission between these two neuro-transmitters is essential to normal brain function. Acetyl-choline, serotonin and catechol-amines have a more modulatory function in the brain, being involved in many neuronal circuits. Apart from summarizing the current knowledge about the synthesis, release and receptor signaling of these transmitters, some disease states due to alteration of their normal neuro-transmission are also described.

  20. Importance of the Lu-Hf isotopic system in studies of planetary chronology and chemical evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The 176Lu-176Hf isotope method and its applications in earth sciences are discussed. Greater fractionation of Lu/Hf than Sm/Nd in planetary magmatic processes makes 176Hf 177Hf a powerful geochemical tracer. In general, proportional variations of 176Hf 177Hf exceed those of 143Nd l44Nd by factors of 1.5-3 in terrestrial and lunar materials. Lu-Hf studies therefore have a major contribution to make in understanding of terrestrial and other planetary evolution through time, and this is the principal importance of Lu-Hf. New data on basalts from oceanic islands show unequivocally that whereas considerable divergences occur in 176Hf 177Hf- 87Sr 86Sr and 143Nd l44Nd- 87Sr 86Sr diagrams, 176Hf 177Hf and 143Nd 144Nd display a single, linear isotopic variation in the suboceanic mantle. These discordant 87Sr 86Sr relationships may allow, with the acquisition of further Hf-Nd-Sr isotopic data, a distinction between processes such as mantle metasomatism, influence of seawater-altered material in the magma source, or recycling of sediments into the mantle. In order to evaluate the Hf-Nd isotopic correlation in terms of mantle fractionation history, there is a need for measurements of Hf distribution coefficients between silicate minerals and liquids, and specifically for a knowledge of Hf behavior in relation to rareearth elements. For studying ancient terrestrial Hf isotopic variations, the best quality Hf isotope data are obtained from granitoid rocks or zircons. New data show that very U-Pb discordant zircons may have upwardly-biased 176Hf 177Hf, but that at least concordant to slightly discordant zircons appear to be reliable carriers of initial 176Hf 177Hf. Until the controls on addition of radiogenic Hf to zircon are understood, combined zircon-whole rock studies are recommended. Lu-Hf has been demonstrated as a viable tool for dating of ancient terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples, but because it offers little advantage over existing methods, is unlikely to find

  1. Transmittance measurements at DIRT-III, a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.

    1981-03-01

    This preliminary report describes the visible and infrared transmittances measured through dust clouds and rain at the Dusty Infrared Test-III (DIRT-III), Fort Polk, Louisiana, April - May 1980. The measurement system was the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) transmissometer operating at 0.55, 1.06, and 10.37 micrometers. Data were collected through dust clouds produced by various types of munitions and high explosives in the natural soil and tailored soils consisting of sand, silt, clay, and various mixtures. The onset of a rainstorm also provided the opportunity to measure transmittances for varying precipitation rates.

  2. Effects of implanted transmitters on adult bluegills at two temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knights, Brent C.; Lasee, Becky A.

    1996-01-01

    Laterally compressed panfishes are small and have limited intraperitoneal space; thus, they may suffer adversely from surgically implanted transmitters even if the transmitter meets the generally recommended ratio of transmitter weight to fish weight of 2%. We studied the effects of intraperitoneal transmitters (2.81 g) on survival, growth, healing, and health of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus (mean weight 133 g) held for 8 weeks at 6 degree C and 20 degree C. Radio-tagged bluegills at 20 degree C had a mortality rate of 10% and tag loss rate of 15%. At 6 degree C, bluegills had no mortality or tag loss. Radio-tagged and reference fish fed in both 20 degree C raceways; however, a few reference fish appeared dominant at feeding time. This dominance by a few reference fish was also indicated by a large weight gain for three reference fish in each 20 degree C raceway. At 6 degree C, neither reference fish nor radio-tagged fish fed activity. Radio-tagged fish held at 20 degree C exhibited pelvic fin erosion, erythema and necrosis at the antenna exit and at suture insertions, and lost or loose sutures, effects not observed in other test fishes. Examination of fish held at 20 degree C also showed enclosure of the transmitters in a fibrous capsule and adhesion of visceral organs. Epithelialization over the incision occurred in radio-tagged bluegills at both temperatures, but there was little further healing at 6 degree C. At 20 degree C, tissue responses included chronic inflammation and dermal granulation. Radio-tagged fish did not appear to be more susceptible than reference fish to bacterial infection. Mortality, adverse morphological effects, altered behavior, and limited healing in bluegills suggest that implanted transmitters impaired their health. Thus, movement and habitat use data collected by telemetry for this species and perhaps for other panfishes should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    Treesearch

    Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse...

  4. Loss from harlequin ducks of abdominally implanted radio transmitters equipped with percutaneous antennas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Esler, Daniel N.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    We documented extrusion and loss of abdominally implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas from adult female Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus). Birds were captured during wing molt (late August to mid-September) in 1995-1997. Of 44 Harlequin Ducks implanted with radios and recaptured, 7 (16%) had lost their transmitters and 5 (11%) had radios in the process of extruding. Most (11 of 12) extrusions and losses occurred in birds implanted with radios in 1996 and recaptured in 1997. We suggest that transmitter extrusions and losses were due largely to changes in transmitter design made between 1095 and 1996. Transmitters implanted in 1996 were cylindrical rather than spherical, had a flat end with an abrupt edge, and the lower portion of the antenna was reinforced. Radio losses occurred after the 7-mo monitoring period and caused no apparent harm to the birds. Investigators using implanted radios with percutaneous antennas for long-term projects should be aware of the potential for radio extrusion and should minimize the problem by using transmitters that have no sharp edges and that are wide, rather than narrow.

  5. Prediction of transmittance spectra for transparent composite electrodes with ultra-thin metal layers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhao; Alford, T. L., E-mail: TA@asu.edu; Khorasani, Arash Elhami

    2015-11-28

    Recent interest in indium-free transparent composite-electrodes (TCEs) has motivated theoretical and experimental efforts to better understand and enhance their electrical and optical properties. Various tools have been developed to calculate the optical transmittance of multilayer thin-film structures based on the transfer-matrix method. However, the factors that affect the accuracy of these calculations have not been investigated very much. In this study, two sets of TCEs, TiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}, were fabricated to study the factors that affect the accuracy of transmittance predictions. We found that the predicted transmittance can deviate significantly from measured transmittance for TCEs thatmore » have ultra-thin plasmonic metal layers. The ultrathin metal layer in the TCE is typically discontinuous. When light interacts with the metallic islands in this discontinuous layer, localized surface plasmons are generated. This causes extra light absorption, which then leads to the actual transmittance being lower than the predicted transmittance.« less

  6. Application of a modified harness design for attachment of radio transmitters to shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzenbacher, Peter M.; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, Lewis W.

    2000-01-01

    Radio transmitter attachment methodology is important to the design of radio telemetry studies. In 1998, we attached 5 transmitters to a captive population of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and 7 transmitters to wild Killdeer (Charadriusv ociferus) using a modified version of the Rappole and Tipton (1991) figure-8 leg-loop harness. Captive birds fitted with harnesses did not exhibit quantifiable differences in behavior relative to control birds. Based on initial success in using the leg-loop harnesses, we used harnesses to attach transmitters in the wild to 30 Killdeer and 49 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) during the winters of 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. This was part of a study on movements of wintering shorebirds in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA. Wild birds showed no adverse effects of the harnesses.Thus, the described harness is a practical method for attachment of transmitters to shorebirds. Advantages of this harness method include a reduction in handling time at capture, elimination of the need to clip feathers for attachment, and increased transmitter retention time.

  7. A new topology and control method for electromagnetic transmitter power supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiming; Zhang, Jialin; Yuan, Dakang

    2017-04-01

    As essential equipment for electromagnetic exploration, electromagnetic transmitter reverse the steady power supply with desired frequency and transmit the power through grounding electrodes. To obtain effective geophysical data during deep exploration, the transmitter needs to be high-voltage, high-current, with high-accuracy output, and yet compact and light. The researches on the power supply technologies for high-voltage high-power electromagnetic transmitter is of significant importance to the deep geophysical explorations. Therefore, the performance of electromagnetic transmitter is mainly subject to the following two aspects: the performance of emission current and voltage, and the power density. These requirements bring technical difficulties to the development of power supplies. Conventionally, high-frequency switching power supplies are applied in the design of a high-power transmitter power supply. However, the structure of the topology is complicate, which may reduce the controllability of the output voltage and the reliability of the system. Without power factor control, the power factor of the structure is relatively low. Moreover high switching frequency causes high loss. With the development of the PWM (pulse width modulation) technique, its merits of simple structure, low loss, convenient control and unit power factor have made it popular in electrical energy feedback, active filter, and power factor compensation. Studies have shown that using PWM converters and space vector modulation have become the trend in designing transmitter power supply. However, the earth load exhibits different impedances at different frequencies. Thus ensuing high-accuracy and a stable output from a transmitter power supply in harsh environment has become a key topic in the design of geophysical exploration instruments. Based on SVPWM technology, an electromagnetic transmitter power supply has been designed and its control strategy has been studied. The transmitting

  8. The role of phosphates for the Lu-Hf chronology of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Van Orman, James; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Amelin, Yuri

    2017-09-01

    The 176Lu-176Hf isotopic system is widely used for dating and tracing cosmochemical and geological processes, but still suffers from two uncertainties. First, Lu-Hf isochrons for some early Solar System materials have excess slope of unknown origin that should not be expected for meteorites with ages precisely determined with other isotopic chronometers. This observation translates to an apparent Lu decay constant higher than the one calculated by comparing ages obtained with various dating methods on terrestrial samples. Second, unlike the well constrained Sm/Nd value (to within 2%) for the chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR), the Lu/Hf ratios in chondrites vary up to 18% when considering all chondrites, adding uncertainty to the Lu/Hf CHUR value. In order to better understand the Lu-Hf systematics of chondrites, we analyzed mineral fractions from the Richardton H5 chondrite to construct an internal Lu-Hf isochron, and set up a numerical model to investigate the effect of preferential diffusion of Lu compared to Hf from phosphate, the phase with the highest Lu-Hf ratio in chondrites, to other minerals. The isochron yields an age of 4647 ± 210 million years (Myr) using the accepted 176Lu decay constant of 1.867 ± 0.008 ×10-11yr-1. Combining this study with the phosphate fractions measured in a previous study yields a slope of 0.08855 ± 0.00072, translating to a 176Lu decay constant of 1.862 ± 0.016 ×10-11yr-1 using the Pb-Pb age previously obtained, in agreement with the accepted value. The large variation of the Lu/Hf phosphates combined with observations in the present study identify phosphates as the key in perturbing Lu-Hf dating and generating the isochron slope discrepancy. This is critical as apatite has substantially higher diffusion rates of rare earth elements than most silicate minerals that comprise stony meteorites. Results of numerical modeling depending of temperature peak, size of the grains and duration of the metamorphic event, show that

  9. Real-time Specification and Forecasting for HF Links During Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, D.; Hunsuker, R. D.; Eccles, J.; Sojka, J. J.

    2004-05-01

    The HF communications community has long been dependent on climatological ionosphere descriptions to support HF propagation programs. Additionally, these programs include solar zenith angle and frequency-squared variation of HF absorption but do not include space weather effects due to solar x-ray events and sporadic E layers. The usefulness of real-time specification and forecasting of HF links is desired in programs such as Operational Space Environment Network Display (OpSend). The creation of HF illumination maps requires proper specifications of D, E and F regions of the ionosphere. We present results and validation efforts of the Data-Driven D region (DDDR) model of HF absorption for mid-latitude HF paths. The DDDR programs assimilate real-time data such as the NOAA/GOES 12 x-ray measurements to produce space weather related absorption predictions. The data-driven model is being validated with observations from the HF Investigation of D-Region Ionospheric Variation Experiment (HIDIVE). Monitoring of standard time-frequency HF stations has been employed for the past three decades. The passive monitoring technique used in HIDIVE was mainly applied for studies of the high-latitude and equatorial ionosphere, thus long-term, quantitative data on the mid-latitude ionosphere are difficult to find in archival literature. HIDIVE is a careful examination of long-term observations HF absorption to study seasonal variation and space weather events. Simultaneous continuous measurements of NOAA/GOES 12 solar x-ray flux and calibrated HF signal strength were initiated in December 2002 to provide validation data for the DDDR model. Continuous recording of transmissions of standard time-frequency stations (WWV and WWVH) over the range of 2.5 to 20.0 MHz and 5-minute averages of 1.0 to 8.0 nm solar x-ray flux have been studied for 35 solar flares ranging from Class C to Class X from March through August 2003 during the descending phase of solar cycle 23. The monitoring

  10. Hf-Nd Isotopic Correlation in the Deccan Flood Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, A.; Basu, A. R.; Barling, J.; Anbar, A. D.; Hooper, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    Hafnium isotopes along with other isotopic and geochemical characteristics, including incompatible trace elements, of several of the lower formations of the Deccan Flood Basalt Province were analyzed to characterize petrogenesis of different tholeiitic lava suites, especially with respect to potential mantle and crustal sources. The rare earth elements of the different formations (from top to bottom- Mahabaleshwar, Ambenali, Bushe, Khandala and Neral) all show an LREE-enriched signature, concentrations varying between 30 to 60 times chondrite for La. (La/Lu)n values range from 4.1 to above 8 with the exception of Ambenali, which has a less LREE-enriched signature with (La/Lu)n values ranging between 3.6 to 5.3. Hafnium isotopic data of the lower formations of the Deccan show initial \\epsilonHf(T) values covering a range from -3 to -28. 176Lu/177Hf varies between 0.20 to 0.70. f(Lu/Hf) varies within a narrow range, between -0.90 to -0.97 while f(Sm/Nd) ranges from -0.84 to -0.86. Bushe gives the lowest range of \\epsilonHf(T) from -21 to -28 with the corresponding \\epsilonNd(T) varying between -4.0 and -16.9, while Khandala for almost the same range of neodymium isotopic values has \\epsilonHf(T) between -11 and -15. The \\epsilonHf(T) values of Neral is in between those of Khandala and Bushe, around -19. Ambenali, has the narrowest range with \\epsilonHf(T) of -3 and \\epsilonNd(T) between 3 and 5. The Ambenali suite reflects the least contaminated of the Deccan suite of lavas as analyzed here and previously confirmed by other isotopic studies. In Hf-Nd isotope correlation plot, the lower Deccan formations of Neral, Khandala and Bushe define individual subparallel arrays that are shallower than the oceanic basalt array and the overall terrestrial array, including the crustal array, although the bulk of the lower formation data fall within the crustal array of Vervoort et al (1999). From these subparallel Hf-Nd arrays, it is evident that the other end

  11. Photonic integrated transmitter and receiver for NG-PON2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Ana; Lopes, Ana; Rodrigues, Cláudio; Mãocheia, Paulo; Mendes, Tiago; Brandão, Simão.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Ferreira, Ricardo; Teixeira, António

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the authors present a monolithic Photonic Integrated Circuit which includes a transmitter and a receiver for NG-PON2. With this layout it is possible to build an OLT and, by redesigning some filters, also an ONU. This technology allows reducing the losses in the transmitter and in the receiver, increasing power budget, and also reducing the OEO conversions, which has been a major problem that operators want to surpass.

  12. 50 Mb/s, 220-mW Laser-Array Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Donald M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Laser transmitter based on injection locking produces single-wavelength, diffraction-limited, single-lobe beam. Output stage is array of laser diodes producing non-diffraction-limited, multi-mode beam in absence of injection locking. Suitable for both free-space and optical-fiber communication systems. Because beam from transmitter focused to spot as small as 5 micrometers, devices usable for reading and writing optical disks at increased information densities. Application also in remote sensing and ranging.

  13. Exciter For X-Band Transmitter And Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes developmental X-band exciter for X-band uplink subsystem of Deep Space Network. X-band transmitter-exciting signal expected to have fractional frequency stability of 5.2 X 10 to negative 15th power during 1,000-second integration period. Generates coherent test signals for S- and X-band Block III translator of Deep Space Network, Doppler-reference signal for associated Doppler-extractor system, first-local-oscillator signal for associated receiver, and reference signal for associated ranging subsystem. Tests of prototype exciter show controlling and monitoring and internal phase-correcting loops perform according to applicable design criteria. Measurements of stability of frequency and of single-sideband noise spectral density of transmitter-exciting signal made subsequently.

  14. Technique for implanting radio transmitters subcutaneously in day-old ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, C.E.; Kenow, K.P.; Green, W.L.; Samuel, M.D.; Sileo, L.

    1996-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a surgical procedure for implanting radio transmitters in 1-d-old Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) ducklings. Transmitters (1.5 g) were implanted subcutaneously on the back of ducklings while under a general anesthetic, isoflurane, within a few hours of hatching. Evaluations indicate that the procedure is a reliable method for radio-marking ducklings.

  15. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  16. Distribution of p-process 174Hf in early solar system materials and the origin of nucleosynthetic Hf and W isotope anomalies in Ca-Al rich inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Stefan T. M.; Münker, Carsten; Pfeifer, Markus; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Sprung, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Some nuclides that were produced in supernovae are heterogeneously distributed between different meteoritic materials. In some cases these heterogeneities have been interpreted as the result of interaction between ejecta from a nearby supernova and the nascent solar system. Particularly in the case of the oldest objects that formed in the solar system - Ca-Al rich inclusions (CAIs) - this view is confirm the hypothesis that a nearby supernova event facilitated or even triggered solar system formation. We present Hf isotope data for bulk meteorites, terrestrial materials and CAIs, for the first time including the low-abundance isotope 174Hf (∼0.16%). This rare isotope was likely produced during explosive O/Ne shell burning in massive stars (i.e., the classical "p-process"), and therefore its abundance potentially provides a sensitive tracer for putative heterogeneities within the solar system that were introduced by supernova ejecta. For CAIs and one LL chondrite, also complementary W isotope data are reported for the same sample cuts. Once corrected for small neutron capture effects, different chondrite groups, eucrites, a silicate inclusion of a IAB iron meteorite, and terrestrial materials display homogeneous Hf isotope compositions including 174Hf. Hafnium-174 was thus uniformly distributed in the inner solar system when planetesimals formed at the <50 ppm level. This finding is in good agreement with the evidently homogeneous distributions of p-process isotopes 180W, 184Os and possibly 190Pt between different iron meteorite groups. In contrast to bulk meteorite samples, CAIs show variable depletions in p-process 174Hf with respect to the inner solar system composition, and also variable r-process (or s-process) Hf and W contributions. Based on combined Hf and W isotope compositions, we show that CAIs sampled at least one component in which the proportion of r- and s-process derived Hf and W deviates from that of supernova ejecta. The Hf and W isotope

  17. Temporal Stability of GPS Transmitter Group Delay Variations.

    PubMed

    Beer, Susanne; Wanninger, Lambert

    2018-05-29

    The code observable of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is influenced by group delay variations (GDV) of transmitter and receiver antennas. For the Global Positioning System (GPS), the variations can sum up to 1 m in the ionosphere-free linear combination and thus can significantly affect precise code applications. The contribution of the GPS transmitters can amount to 0.8 m peak-to-peak over the entire nadir angle range. To verify the assumption of their time-invariance, we determined daily individual satellite GDV for GPS transmitter antennas over a period of more than two years. Dual-frequency observations of globally distributed reference stations and their multipath combination form the basis for our analysis. The resulting GPS GDV are stable on the level of a few centimeters for C1, P2, and for the ionosphere-free linear combination. Our study reveals that the inconsistencies of the GDV of space vehicle number (SVN) 55 with respect to earlier studies are not caused by temporal instabilities, but are rather related to receiver properties.

  18. Lu-Hf total-rock age for the Amîtsoq gneisses, West Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettingill, H.S.; Patchett, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Lu-Hf total-rock data for the Amîtsoq gneisses of West Greenland yield an age of 3.55±0.22Gy(2σ), based on the decay constant λ176Lu=1.96×10−11y−1, and an initial176Hf/177Hf ratio of 0.280482±33. The result is in good agreement with Rb-Sr total-rock and U-Pb zircon ages. In spite of severe metamorphism of the area at 2.9 Gy, zircons from two of the samples have remained on the total-rock line, and define points close to the initial Hf ratio. The initial176Hf/177Hf lies close to a chondritic Hf isotopic evolution curve from 4.55 Gy to present. This is consistent with the igneous precursors to the Amîtsoq gneisses having been derived from the mantle at or shortly before 3.6 Gy. Anomalous relationships between Hf concentration and the176Lu/177Hf ratio may suggest that trace element abundances in the Amîtsoq gneisses are partly controlled by processes related to metamorphism.

  19. Single-chip fully integrated direct-modulation CMOS RF transmitters for short-range wireless applications.

    PubMed

    El-Desouki, Munir M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor; BenSaleh, Mohammed; Deen, M Jamal

    2013-08-02

    Ultra-low power radio frequency (RF) transceivers used in short-range application such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require efficient, reliable and fully integrated transmitter architectures with minimal building blocks. This paper presents the design, implementation and performance evaluation of single-chip, fully integrated 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz RF transmitters using direct-modulation power voltage-controlled oscillators (PVCOs) in addition to a 2.0 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) based transmitter. All three RF transmitters have been fabricated in a standard mixed-signal CMOS 0.18 µm technology. Measurement results of the 2.4 GHz transmitter show an improvement in drain efficiency from 27% to 36%. The 2.4 GHz and 433 MHz transmitters deliver an output power of 8 dBm with a phase noise of -122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 15.4 mA of current and an output power of 6.5 dBm with a phase noise of -120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, while drawing 20.8 mA of current from 1.5 V power supplies, respectively. The PLL transmitter delivers an output power of 9 mW with a locking range of 128 MHz and consumes 26 mA from 1.8 V power supply. The experimental results demonstrate that the RF transmitters can be efficiently used in low power WSN applications.

  20. Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}: Two stannide intermetallics with low-dimensional iron sublattices

    SciTech Connect

    Calta, Nicholas P.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G., E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    This article reports two new Hf-rich intermetallics synthesized using Sn flux: Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}. Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} adopts an ordered variant the Hf{sub 3}Cu{sub 8} structure type in orthorhombic space group Pnma with unit cell edges of a=8.1143(5) Å, b=8.8466(5) Å, and c=10.6069(6) Å. Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}, on the other hand, adopts a new structure type in Cmc2{sub 1} with unit cell edges of a=5.6458(3) Å, b=35.796(2) Å, and c=8.88725(9) Å for x=0. It exhibits a small amount of phase width in which Sn substitutes on one of the Fe sites. Bothmore » structures are fully three-dimensional and are characterized by pseudo one- and two-dimensional networks of Fe–Fe homoatomic bonding. Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x} exhibits antiferromagnetic order at T{sub N}=46(2) K and its electrical transport behavior indicates that it is a normal metal with phonon-dictated resistivity. Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} is also an antiferromagnet with a rather high ordering temperature of T{sub N}=373(5) K. Single crystal resistivity measurements indicate that Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} behaves as a Fermi liquid at low temperatures, indicating strong electron correlation. - Graphical abstract: Slightly different growth conditions in Sn flux produce two new intermetallic compounds: Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x}. - Highlights: • Single crystals of both Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} and Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x} were grown using Sn flux. • The crystal structures were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. • The Fe moments in Hf{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}Sn{sub 4} display AFM order below T{sub N}=373 K. • The Fe moments in Hf{sub 9}Fe{sub 4−x}Sn{sub 10+x} display AFM order below T{sub N}=46 K.« less

  1. Bistatic radar sea state monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruck, G. T.; Barrick, D. E.; Kaliszewski, T.

    1972-01-01

    Bistatic radar techniques were examined for remote measurement of the two-dimensional surface wave height spectrum of the ocean. One technique operates at high frequencies (HF), 3-30 MHz, and the other at ultrahigh frequencies (UHF), approximately 1 GHz. Only a preliminary theoretical examination of the UHF technique was performed; however the principle underlying the HF technique was demonstrated experimentally with results indicating that an HF bistatic system using a surface transmitter and an orbital receiver would be capable of measuring the two-dimensional wave height spectrum in the vicinity of the transmitter. An HF bistatic system could also be used with an airborne receiver for ground truth ocean wave spectrum measurements. Preliminary system requirements and hardware configurations are discussed for both an orbital system and an aircraft verification experiment.

  2. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  3. Promise and Pitfalls of Lu/Hf-Sm/Nd Garnet Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. L.; Vervoort, J. D.; Kohn, M. J.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Hart, G. L.; Corrie, S. L.; Cheng, H.

    2007-12-01

    Our ability to routinely measure Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes in garnet allows broad new applications in geochronology, petrology, and tectonics. However, applications of these data can be limited by challenges in interpreting the petrologic record and preparing garnets for analysis. Here, we examine petrologic and chemical pitfalls encountered in garnet geochronology. Petrologic factors influencing trace element compositions in garnet include reactions that modify REE availability and partitioning (1,2), kinetically limited transfer of REEs to garnet (3), and bulk compositional heterogeneities (4). Interpreting the effects of these processes on Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf ages requires characterizing REE zonation prior to isotope analysis and age interpretation. Because garnet fractions are traditionally picked from crushed samples without regard to intracrystalline origins or chemistries, isochrons will represent mixtures derived to varying degrees from all periods of garnet growth. While measured zoning might generally indicate what garnet portion dominates the Lu/Hf or Sm/Nd budget, traditional mineral separation will rarely realize the chronologic potential afforded by high precision Hf and Nd isotope measurements. The potential use of alternative techniques, such as microsampling, necessitates selective digestion and/or leaching to eliminate inclusions within garnet. For Sm/Nd geochronology, H2SO4 leaching removes LREE-rich phosphates (e.g. apatite), but not silicates (e.g. epidote), precluding Sm-Nd dating of some rocks. For Lu/Hf geochronology, ubiquitous zircon microinclusions (c. 1 μm) can significantly disrupt age determinations. Microinclusions cannot be detected optically or separated physically, requiring selective chemical digestion. If complete digestion methods, such as bomb digestion, are used for garnet fractions, then "common Hf" from zircon will be contained in final solutions. These mixed analyses are of dubious utility and will fall into one of two

  4. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  5. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  6. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  7. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VHF transmitter. 80.911 Section 80.911 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF...

  8. A Comparison of Science and Technology Funding for DoD’s Space and Nonspace Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-15

    Artificial intelligence for HAARP Multispectral signature libraries Environmental conditions that Ionospheric prediction HAARP Weather software for...Hardware and software for solar HAARP Electromagnetic interference for Plasma theory in the space Subproject details were not available Subproject

  9. Investigations of the Nature and Behavior of Plasma-Density Disturbances That May Impact GPS and Other Transionospheric Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-31

    association with the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ). In addition to a classic riometer and a GPS Total Electron Content (TEC...sensor previously operating at the HAARP site, NWRA also operates a set of Transit receivers for measurements of TEC and scintillation at VHF and UHF...supplementing the receiver at HAARP with a receiver north of the site and an additional receiver installed south of the HAARP site.

  10. Calcium channel blockers and transmitter release at the normal human neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Protti, D A; Reisin, R; Mackinley, T A; Uchitel, O D

    1996-05-01

    Transmitter release evoked by nerve stimulation is highly dependent on Ca2+ entry through voltage-activated plasma membrane channels. Calcium influx may be modified in some neuromuscular diseases like Lambert-Eaton syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We studied the pharmacologic sensitivity of the transmitter release process to different calcium channel blockers in normal human muscles and found that funnel web toxin and omega-Agatoxin-IVA, both P-type calcium channel blockers, blocked nerve-elicited muscle action potentials and inhibited evoked synaptic transmission. The transmitter release was not affected either by nitrendipine, an L-type channel blocker, or omega-Conotoxin-GVIA, an N-type channel blocker. The pharmacologic profile of neuromuscular transmission observed in normal human muscles indicates that P-like channels mediate transmitter release at the motor nerve terminals.

  11. High Power mm-Wave Transmitter System for Radar or Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stride, S. L.; McMaster, R. L.; Pogorzelski, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Future NASA deep space missions able to provide tens of kilo-watts of spacecraft DC power, make it feasible to employ high power RF telecommunications systems. Traditional flight systems (e.g., Cassini), constrained by limited DC power, used a single high-gain 4m Cassegrain reflector fed by a single lower power (20W) transmitter. Increased available DC power means that high power (1000 W) transmitters can be used. Rather than continue building traditional single-transmitter systems it now becomes feasible to engineer and build multi-element active arrays that can illuminate a dish. Illuminating a 2m dish with a spherical wavefront from an offset 1kW active array can provide sufficient ERP (Effective Radiated Power) when compared to a larger Cassegrain dish. Such a system has the advantage of lower mass, lower volume, improved reliability, less stringent pointing requirements, lower cost and risk. We propose to design and build a prototype Ka-band transmit antenna with an active sub-array using 125W TWTAs. The system could be applied to a telecommunications downlink or radar transmitter used for missions such as JIMO.

  12. Metal-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor: Its enhanced charge trapping properties with S-treated substrate and atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2} layer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Sung; Jung, Yong Chan; Seong, Sejong

    2015-01-15

    The charge trapping properties of metal-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor as a nonvolatile memory have been investigated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S-treated Ge substrate and atomic-layer-deposited HfO{sub 2} layer. The interfacial layer generated by (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S-treated Ge substrate reveals a trace of -S- bonding, very sharp interface edges, and smooth surface morphology. The Ru-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S-treated Ge substrate shows an enhanced interface state with little frequency dispersion, a lower leakage current, and very reliable properties with the enhanced endurance and retention than Ru-HfO{sub 2}-Ge capacitor with cyclic-cleaned Ge substrate.

  13. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd evolution in lunar mare basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Unruh, D.M.; Stille, P.; Patchett, P.J.

    1984-02-15

    Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data for mare basalts combined with Rb-Sr and total REE data taken from the literature suggest that the mare basalts were derived by small (< or =10%) degrees of partial melting of cumulate sources, but that the magma ocean from which these sources formed was light REE and Hf-enriched. Calculated source compositions range fromm lherzolite to olivine websterite. Nonmodal melting of small amounts of ilmenite (< or =3%) in the sources seems to be required by the Lu/Hf data. A comparison of the Hf and Nd isotopic characteristics between the mare basalts and terrestrial oceanic basalts revealsmore » that the epsilonHf/epsilonNd ratios of low-Ti mare basalts are much higher than in terrestrial oceanic basalts. The results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that terrestrial basalt sources are partial melt residues whereas mare basalt sources are cumulates. Alternatively, the results may imply that the terrestrial mantle has evolved in two (or more) stages of evolution, and that the net effect was depletion of the mantle during the first approx.1-3 b.y. followed by enrichment during the last 1-2 b.y.; or simply that there is a difference in Lu-Hf crystal-liquid partitioning (relative to Sm-Nd) between the lunar and terrestrial mantles.« less

  14. Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Bengoechea, J.; Bokria, J.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and moremore » appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).« less

  15. 47 CFR 61.33 - Letters of transmittal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inches (21.6 cm×27.9 cm) in size. All letters of transmittal must (1) Concisely explain the nature and... No. Secretary, Federal Communications Commission; Washington, DC 20554 Attention: Wireline...

  16. 47 CFR 22.1009 - Transmitter locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter locations. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... zones specified in § 22.1007. Offshore stations must not transmit from locations within 241 kilometers...

  17. Effects on transionospheric HF propagation observed by ISIS at middle and auroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, G.

    During the months of May through July 1978, an experiment on transionospheric HF propagation was carried out using a transmitter at Ottawa and the sounder receivers of the ISIS-I and ISIS-II spacecraft. Fixed- and synchronous swept-frequency recordings were made. Over 100 ISIS-II passes were successfully recorded at 9.303 MHz, the highest fixed frequency of receiver operation. Several tens of these passes have been analyzed in an attempt to establish the salient characteristics of the propagation. From these characteristics, the goal is to improve understanding of the processes experienced by waves passing through the ionosphere, e.g., focusing or scattering. This research supports planning for coordinated ground-space radio experiments in the upcoming Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe satellite mission, to be flown for the Canadian Space Agency. Swept-frequency ionograms interleaved with the aforementioned fixed-frequency measurements allowed two-dimensional density distributions to be modeled in altitude and latitude. Computer code was developed for three-dimensional ray tracing. A Newton's-iteration algorithm was used for efficient searches for solution rays that connect the transmitter with the position of the satellite at any time along its path. The latitudinal extent of the zone irradiated at ISIS-II altitude thus computed is approximately as observed, albeit sensitively dependent upon north-south density gradients. Within this "iris" of accessibility, the peak intensity of waves recorded at the spacecraft is within 10 dB of that found with a link calculation based on ray optics. Density inhomogeneities influence the transmitted O and X mode waves, in various ways. Poleward rays result in dispersed pulses, indicating quasi-perpendicular propagation that is forward scattered. Toward the equator, propagation directions come to within about 10 of the magnetic-field axis. Equatorward pulses are comparatively sharp and occasionally exhibit periodic fades with beat

  18. 15. View of southeasterly side of transmitter building no. 102 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of southeasterly side of transmitter building no. 102 with TR in middle and small satcom communication dome lower right. Note site well system building to lower right of transmitter building no. 102 southeast corner. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. 12. View from east side of corner of transmitter building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View from east side of corner of transmitter building no. 102 looking over top of utilidor passageway link, DR 2 antenna in background left and abandoned radome on top of transmitter building no. 101. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Electronic and thermodynamic properties of layered Hf2Sfrom first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandadasa, Chandani; Yoon, Mina; Kim, Seong-Gon; Erwin, Steve; Kim, Sungho; Kim, Sung Wng; Lee, Kimoon

    Theoretically we explored two stable phases of inorganic fullerene-like structure of the layered dihafnium sulfide (Hf2 S) . We investigated structural and electronic properties of the two phases of Hf2 S by using first-principles calculations. Our calculation identifies experimentally observed anti-NbS2 structure of Hf2 S . Our electronic calculation results indicate that the density of states of anti- NbS2 structure of Hf2 S at fermi level is less than that of the other phase of Hf2 S . To study the relative stability of different phases at finite temperature Helmholtz free energies of two phases are obtained using density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory. The free energy of the anti-NbS2 structure of Hf2 S always lies below the free energy of the other phase by confirming the most stable structure of Hf2 S . The phonon dispersion, phonon density of states including partial density of states and total density of states are obtained within density functional perturbation theory. Our calculated zero-pressure phonon dispersion curves confirm that the thermodynamic stability of Hf2 S structures. For further investigation of thermodynamic properties, the temperature dependency of thermal expansion, heat capacities at constant pressure and volume are evaluated within the quasiharmonic approximations (QHA).

  1. Evaluation of three miniature radio transmitter attachment methods for small passerines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Carpenter, J.W.; Holzman, S.; Geissler, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-two immature common yellowthroats were used to evaluate three methods of attaching radio transmitters to the backs of small passerines: adhesive, velcro, and harness. There were no significant differences between the three methods; however, the adhesive method of transmitter attachment to small birds was found to be the preferred technique.

  2. A study of the structure of the ν1(HF) absorption band of the СH3СN…HF complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromova, E. I.; Glazachev, E. V.; Bulychev, V. P.; Koshevarnikov, A. M.; Tokhadze, K. G.

    2015-09-01

    The ν1(HF) absorption band shape of the CH3CN…HF complex is studied in the gas phase at a temperature of 293 K. The spectra of gas mixtures CH3CN/HF are recorded in the region of 4000-3400 cm-1 at a resolution from 0.1 to 0.005 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS-120 HR vacuum Fourier spectrometer in a cell 10 cm in length with wedge-shaped sapphire windows. The procedure used to separate the residual water absorption allows more than ten fine-structure bands to be recorded on the low-frequency wing of the ν1(HF) band. It is shown that the fine structure of the band is formed primarily due to hot transitions from excited states of the low-frequency ν7 librational vibration. Geometrical parameters of the equilibrium nuclear configuration, the binding energy, and the dipole moment of the complex are determined from a sufficiently accurate quantum-chemical calculation. The frequencies and intensities for a number of spectral transitions of this complex are obtained in the harmonic approximation and from variational solutions of anharmonic vibrational problems.

  3. Mantle sources for Central Atlantic Magmatic Province basalts from Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, L. J.; Marzoli, A.; Bizimis, M.; Meyzen, C. M.; Callegaro, S.; Sorsen, N.; Lassiter, J. C.; Ernesto, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) was one of the most voluminous LIP events in Earth history and likely triggered the end-Triassic mass extinction. The tectonic and mantle processes that produced such significant magmatic emplacement are thus of great interest. To further explore the origins of CAMP, we present new 176Hf/177Hf isotope data for a broad geographic sampling of CAMP dikes, sills, and basalt flows. We find that basaltic intrusions from the Carolinas in Eastern North America trend along a shallower slope than the terrestrial array on a diagram of 176Hf/177Hf vs. 143Nd/144Nd. This trend may reflect the presence of variable quantities of sediment-derived material in the mantle source region. This is consistent with previous suggestions that the asthenosphere beneath CAMP has been partially metasomatised by fluids derived from subducted sediments, as well as with isotopic trends observed in other LIP, such as Karoo [Jourdan et al., 2007, Jour. Petrology, doi:10.1093/petrology/egm010]. Distinct from the Carolina trend, we further observe that high-TiO2 basalts from Amazonia exhibit unusually radiogenic 176Hf/177Hf for a given 208Pb/206Pb ratio. The high-TiO­2 basalts, which trend towards EM1-type compositions, may be asthenospheric melts that have experienced the addition of melts from local subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Similarly high-TiO2 CAMP rocks from Sierra Leone may likewise have incorporated enriched lithospheric melts of lamproite-like composition in the source region [Callegaro et al., JPet, accepted; GSA Abstract #302853, 2017]. Low-TiO2 basalts from the same region in Brazil and of similar age to the high-TiO2 basalts lack the observed radiogenic 176Hf/177Hf ratios. This suggests that the melt source region beneath Brazil was heterogeneous, containing variable material with relatively radiogenic 176Hf/177Hf ratios, perhaps due to the greater age of subcontinental lithosphere and the presence of garnet. It remains unclear

  4. Nonlethal gill biopsy does not affect juvenile chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.; Shively, R.S.; Holmberg, G.S.; Sheer, M.B.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Using gastric and surgical transmitter implantation, we compared radio-tagged juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (T(O)) with tagged fish also having a gill biopsy (T(B)) to determine biopsy effects on fish implanted with radio transmitters. We found no evidence during the 21-d period to suggest that a gill biopsy reduced survival, growth, or gross condition of the tagged-biopsy group, regardless of transmitter implantation technique. We recorded 100% survival of all treatment groups. Relative growth rates of T(O) and T(B) fish did not differ significantly. Leukocrit and lysozyme levels were not significantly different among groups, suggesting that no signs of infection were present. Our findings suggest that small chinook salmon can tolerate the combination of transmitter implantation and gill biopsy without compromising condition relative to fish receiving only the transmitter. We believe a gill biopsy can be used in field telemetry studies, especially when physiological data are needed in addition to behavioral data.

  5. [Measurement and comparison of the spectral transmittance of cerinate porcelain and human enamel].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Feng; Wei, Zhang-Rui; Wang, Hui; Zhao, San-Jun

    2006-12-01

    To measure the spectral transmittance of Cerinate porcelain veneer and enamel in different color and different thickness. Samples of Cerinate porcelain veneers were prepared in different thickness (0.50 mm, 0.75 mm, 1.00 mm) and different Vita shade (A1, A2, A3). Enamel samples in shade A2 were made with three thickness (0.50 mm, 0.75 mm, 1.00 mm). A spectrophotometer with spectra range (380-800 nm) was employed to measure the spectral transmittance. Spectral transmittance decreased with the increasing in the thickness of specimens and decreasing in the color darkness. The transmittance of Cerinate porcelain veneer material and enamel in the same color and same thickness hadn't significant difference. The key factor to spectral transmittance of porcelain veneer materials is veneer's thickness, and the color of the materials has also some influence on it. Cerinate porcelain veneers can properly recover the transparency of teeth.

  6. 47 CFR 101.139 - Authorization of transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.139 Authorization of transmitters. (a) Unless...-point microwave and point-to-multipoint services under this part must be a type that has been verified...

  7. 47 CFR 101.139 - Authorization of transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.139 Authorization of transmitters. (a) Unless...-point microwave and point-to-multipoint services under this part must be a type that has been verified...

  8. 47 CFR 101.139 - Authorization of transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.139 Authorization of transmitters. (a) Unless...-point microwave and point-to-multipoint services under this part must be a type that has been verified...

  9. 47 CFR 101.139 - Authorization of transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.139 Authorization of transmitters. (a) Unless...-point microwave and point-to-multipoint services under this part must be a type that has been verified...

  10. Study of bulk Hafnium oxide (HfO2) under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Santanu; Mandal, Guruprasad; Das, Parnika

    2018-04-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is a technologically important material. This material has K-value of 25 and band gap 5.8 eV. A k value of 25-30 is preferred for a gate dielectric [1]. As it shows good insulating and capacitive properties, HfO2 is being considered as a replacement to SiO2 in microelectronic devices as gate dielectrics. On the other hand because of toughening mechanism due to phase transformation induced by stress field observed in these oxides, HFO2 has been a material of investigations in various configurations for a very long time. However the controversies about phase transition of HfO2 under pressure still exists. High quality synchrotron radiation has been used to study the structural phase transition of HfO2 under pressure.

  11. The 20 GHz spacecraft IMPATT solid state transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, T.; Ngan, Y. C.

    1986-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid-state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20-GHz frequency range is described. This effort involved a multitude of disciplines including IMPATT device development, circulator design, multiple-diode circuit design, and amplifier integration and test. The objective was to develop a transmitter amplifier demonstrating the feasibility of providing an efficient, reliable, lightweight solid-state transmitter to be flown on a 30 to 20 GHz communication demonstration satellite. The work was done under contract from NASA/Lewis Research Center for a period of three years. The result was the development of a GaAs IMPACT diode amplifier capable of an 11-W CW output power and a 2-dB bandwidth of 300 MHz. GaAs IMPATT diodes incorporating diamond heatsink and double-Read doping profile capable of 5.3-W CW oscillator output power and 15.5% efficiency were developed. Up to 19% efficiency was also observed for an output power level of 4.4 W. High performance circulators with a 0.2 dB inserting loss and bandwidth of 5 GHz have also been developed. These represent a significant advance in both device and power combiner circuit technologies in K-band frequencies.

  12. Meteorite zircon constraints on the bulk Lu-Hf isotope composition and early differentiation of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hibiya, Yuki; Amelin, Yuri

    2015-04-28

    Knowledge of planetary differentiation is crucial for understanding the chemical and thermal evolution of terrestrial planets. The (176)Lu-(176)Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to constrain the timescales and mechanisms of silicate differentiation on Earth, but the data interpretation requires accurate estimation of Hf isotope evolution of the bulk Earth. Because both Lu and Hf are refractory lithophile elements, the isotope evolution can be potentially extrapolated from the present-day (176)Hf/(177)Hf and (176)Lu/(177)Hf in undifferentiated chondrite meteorites. However, these ratios in chondrites are highly variable due to the metamorphic redistribution of Lu and Hf, making it difficult to ascertain the correct reference values for the bulk Earth. In addition, it has been proposed that chondrites contain excess (176)Hf due to the accelerated decay of (176)Lu resulting from photoexcitation to a short-lived isomer. If so, the paradigm of a chondritic Earth would be invalid for the Lu-Hf system. Herein we report the first, to our knowledge, high-precision Lu-Hf isotope analysis of meteorite crystalline zircon, a mineral that is resistant to metamorphism and has low Lu/Hf. We use the meteorite zircon data to define the Solar System initial (176)Hf/(177)Hf (0.279781 ± 0.000018) and further to identify pristine chondrites that contain no excess (176)Hf and accurately represent the Lu-Hf system of the bulk Earth ((176)Hf/(177)Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; (176)Lu/(177)Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Our results provide firm evidence that the most primitive Hf in terrestrial zircon reflects the development of a chemically enriched silicate reservoir on Earth as far back as 4.5 billion years ago.

  13. Meteorite zircon constraints on the bulk Lu−Hf isotope composition and early differentiation of the Earth

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hibiya, Yuki; Amelin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of planetary differentiation is crucial for understanding the chemical and thermal evolution of terrestrial planets. The 176Lu−176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to constrain the timescales and mechanisms of silicate differentiation on Earth, but the data interpretation requires accurate estimation of Hf isotope evolution of the bulk Earth. Because both Lu and Hf are refractory lithophile elements, the isotope evolution can be potentially extrapolated from the present-day 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf in undifferentiated chondrite meteorites. However, these ratios in chondrites are highly variable due to the metamorphic redistribution of Lu and Hf, making it difficult to ascertain the correct reference values for the bulk Earth. In addition, it has been proposed that chondrites contain excess 176Hf due to the accelerated decay of 176Lu resulting from photoexcitation to a short-lived isomer. If so, the paradigm of a chondritic Earth would be invalid for the Lu−Hf system. Herein we report the first, to our knowledge, high-precision Lu−Hf isotope analysis of meteorite crystalline zircon, a mineral that is resistant to metamorphism and has low Lu/Hf. We use the meteorite zircon data to define the Solar System initial 176Hf/177Hf (0.279781 ± 0.000018) and further to identify pristine chondrites that contain no excess 176Hf and accurately represent the Lu−Hf system of the bulk Earth (176Hf/177Hf = 0.282793 ± 0.000011; 176Lu/177Hf = 0.0338 ± 0.0001). Our results provide firm evidence that the most primitive Hf in terrestrial zircon reflects the development of a chemically enriched silicate reservoir on Earth as far back as 4.5 billion years ago. PMID:25870298

  14. Hydrodynamic effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    PubMed

    Watson; Granger

    1998-09-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed to measure the effect of a satellite transmitter on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas). A full-scale turtle model was constructed from an 11.5 kg specimen with a 48 cm carapace length, and a transmitter model was constructed from a Telonics ST-6. The turtle model was tested in a wind tunnel with and without the transmitter, which was mounted on the forward, topmost part of the carapace. Drag, lift and pitch moment were measured for several speeds and flow angles, and the data were scaled for application to the marine environment. At small flow angles representative of straight-line swimming, the transmitter increased drag by 27-30 %, reduced lift by less than 10 % and increased the pitch moment by 11-42 %. On the basis of the drag data at zero angle of attack, it is estimated that the backpack will reduce swimming speed by 11 %, assuming that the turtle produces the same thrust with the unit attached. The drag data are also used to estimate the effect of a transmitter on the swimming energetics of an adult green turtle. Design guidelines are included to minimize the adverse forces and moments caused by the transmitter.

  15. Nucleon Alignment and Shape Competition at High Spin in ^180Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandel, U. S.; Chowdhury, P.; Tandel, S. K.; Sheppard, S.; Cline, D.; Wu, C. Y.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.

    2006-10-01

    In light even-N Hf isotopes (N = 96-106), the first i13/2 neutron alignment occurs at hφ< 0.3 MeV. In contrast, no alignment was observed up to ˜ 0.4 MeV in ^180,182Hf (N = 108,110) [1]. Theoretical calculations predict that oblate collective rotation becomes yrast at high spins in ^180Hf [2, 3]. In the present work, the yrast band of ^180Hf has been extended to high spins, via inelastic excitation, using a 1300 MeV ^180Hf beam incident on a thin ^232Th target. The γ rays were detected by Gammasphere, with event by event Doppler correction and Q-value selectivity provided by CHICO. The data reveal onset of the first nucleon alignment in ^180Hf at hφ ˜ 0.43 MeV, which is significantly higher than predictions (˜ 0.35 MeV). Interestingly, the γ-vibrational band is crossed by a band with apparent high moment-of-inertia at ˜ 0.25 MeV. This structure, which becomes near yrast at the highest observed spins will be discussed in the context of nucleon alignment and shape competition at high spin in ^180Hf. [1] E. Ngijoi-Yogo, Ph.D. thesis, U.Mass. Lowell (2004) [2] R.R. Hilton and H.J. Mang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1979 (1979). [3] F.R. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. C62, 014301 (2000).

  16. Mixing effects in a ternary Hf-Zr-Ni metallic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, B.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Yang, F.; Evenson, Z.; Meyer, A.

    2018-03-01

    We study the effect of the substitution of Zr by Hf on the dynamical behavior in the Zr36Ni64 melt. A reduced measured self-diffusion coefficient and a higher measured melt viscosity for an increased amount of Hf were observed. The ternary Hf10Zr25Ni65 melt, which exhibits a pronounced deviation from Arrhenius behavior over a studied temperature range of 550 K, can be accurately described by the scaling law of mode-coupling theory (MCT) with almost equal parameters for the self-diffusion and the viscosity. Although we only substitute alloy components with a nearly equal atomic size and the measured overall packing fraction remains almost unchanged, the dynamics in Hf10Zr25Ni65 are slower compared to Zr36Ni64 . This corresponds also to a higher critical temperature Tc and might be induced by different chemical interactions in the melts. The increased Tc results in a significantly smaller difference between liquidus and critical temperature Δ TLC=TL-Tc for the ternary melt in comparison with Zr36Ni64 , which may favor the glass formation in the Hf10Zr25Ni65 melt.

  17. Proposed truncated Cu-Hf tight-binding potential to study the crystal-to-amorphous phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Li, Jiahao; Dai, Ye; Liu, Baixin

    2010-09-01

    Proposed truncated Cu-Hf tight-binding potential was constructed by fitting the physical properties of Cu, Hf, and their stable compounds, i.e., Cu5Hf, Cu8Hf3, Cu10Hf7, and CuHf2. Based on the constructed potentials, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to compare the relative stability of the crystalline solid solution and the disordered state. Simulation results not only reveal that the physical origin of crystal-to-amorphous transition is the crystalline lattice collapsing when the solute atoms exceeding the critical concentration, but also predict that the glass forming range (GFR) of the Cu-Hf system is 21-77 at. % Cu, which covers the GFRs determined by various metallic glass-producing techniques. Ion beam mixing experiments of the Cu-Hf system were conducted using 200 keV xenon ions and the results show that a uniform amorphous phase can be obtained in the Cu23Hf77 sample, matching well with the GFR determined by the interatomic potential, which, in turn, provides additional evidence to the relevance of the constructed Cu-Hf potential.

  18. Solar Radiation Alert System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    18 December 2007). 19. HAARP , The Hgh Frequency Actve Auroral Research Program. Glossary of Solar and Geophysical Terms. Avalable at...www.haarp.alaska.edu/ haarp /glos.html (accessed: 4 September 2007). 13 20. IZMIRAN. Pushkov Insttute of Terrestral Mag- netsm, Ionosphere and Radowave

  19. High-energy, 2µm laser transmitter for coherent wind LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady J.

    2017-11-01

    A coherent Doppler lidar at 2μm wavelength has been built with higher output energy (300 mJ) than previously available. The laser transmitter is based on the solid-state Ho:Tm:LuLiF, a NASA Langley Research Center invented laser material for higher extraction efficiency. This diode pumped injection seeded MOPA has a transform limited line width and diffraction limited beam quality. NASA Langley Research Center is developing coherent wind lidar transmitter technology at eye-safe wavelength for satellite-based observation of wind on a global scale. The ability to profile wind is a key measurement for understanding and predicting atmospheric dynamics and is a critical measurement for improving weather forecasting and climate modeling. We would describe the development and performance of an engineering hardened 2μm laser transmitter for coherent Doppler wind measurement from ground/aircraft/space platform.

  20. Current-induced spin-orbit torque switching of perpendicularly magnetized Hf|CoFeB|MgO and Hf|CoFeB|TaO{sub x} structures

    SciTech Connect

    Akyol, Mustafa; Department of Physics, University of Çukurova, Adana 01330; Yu, Guoqiang

    2015-04-20

    We study the effect of the oxide layer on current-induced perpendicular magnetization switching properties in Hf|CoFeB|MgO and Hf|CoFeB|TaO{sub x} tri-layers. The studied structures exhibit broken in-plane inversion symmetry due to a wedged CoFeB layer, resulting in a field-like spin-orbit torque (SOT), which can be quantified by a perpendicular (out-of-plane) effective magnetic field. A clear difference in the magnitude of this effective magnetic field (H{sub z}{sup FL}) was observed between these two structures. In particular, while the current-driven deterministic perpendicular magnetic switching was observed at zero magnetic bias field in Hf|CoFeB|MgO, an external magnetic field is necessary to switch the CoFeBmore » layer deterministically in Hf|CoFeB|TaO{sub x}. Based on the experimental results, the SOT magnitude (H{sub z}{sup FL} per current density) in Hf|CoFeB|MgO (−14.12 Oe/10{sup 7} A cm{sup −2}) was found to be almost 13× larger than that in Hf|CoFeB|TaO{sub x} (−1.05 Oe/10{sup 7} A cm{sup −2}). The CoFeB thickness dependence of the magnetic switching behavior, and the resulting  H{sub z}{sup FL} generated by in-plane currents are also investigated in this work.« less

  1. 14. View of southerly side of transmitter building no. 101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of southerly side of transmitter building no. 101 from west looking easterly showing radar scanner building no. 104 to right with passageway link between, abandoned radome on top of transmitter building no. 101 and DR 1 antenna in background. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun D.

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercialmore » tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. Furthermore, the findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.« less

  3. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transmitter

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun D.

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercialmore » tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. Furthermore, the findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.« less

  4. Effects of sol aging on resistive switching behaviors of HfOx resistive memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Sun, Jhen-Kai; Tsao, Che-Chang; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-03-01

    This work investigates effects of long-term sol-aging time on sol-gel HfOx resistive random access memories (RRAMs). A nontoxic solvent of ethanol is used to replace toxic 2-methoxyethanol, which is usually used in sol-gel processes. The top electrodes are fabricated by pressing indium balls onto the HfOx surface rather than by using conventional sputtering or evaporation processes. The maximum process temperature is limited to be 100 ℃. Therefore, influences of plasma and high temperature on HfOx film can be avoided. Under this circumstance, effects of sol aging time on the HfOx films can be more clearly studied. The current conduction mechanisms in low and high electric regions of the HfOx RRAM are found to be dominated by Ohmic conduction and trap-filled space charge limited conduction (TF-SCLC), respectively. When the sol aging time increases, the resistive switching characteristic of the HfOx layer becomes unstable and the transition voltage from Ohmic conduction to TF-SCLC is also increased. This suggests that an exceedingly long aging time will give a HfOx film with more defect states. The XPS results are consistent with FTIR analysis and they can further explain the unstable HfOx resistive switching characteristic induced by sol aging.

  5. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. 90.473 Section 90.473 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control...

  6. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. 90.473 Section 90.473 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control...

  7. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. 90.473 Section 90.473 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control...

  8. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. 90.473 Section 90.473 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control...

  9. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. 90.473 Section 90.473 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control...

  10. Comment on "Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 212 (2017) 303-323

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Elias; Watkins, James; Ganguly, Jibamitra

    2018-06-01

    In a recent paper, Bast et al. (2017) present an impressive set of mineral and whole rock isochrons and use them to investigate the cause(s) of excess 176Hf in eucrite and angrite meteorites. They argue that during terrestrial weathering of these samples, phosphates present as isolated grains or inclusions underwent partial dissolution during which Lu was mobilized more effectively than Hf. If this residual, unsupported Hf were not effectively excluded from analyses, then the data points would be shifted above the actual isochron, creating scatter and potentially spurious Lu-Hf ages. Bast et al. (2017) conclude that: (1) diffusive fractionation of Lu from Hf during a thermal metamorphic event on the parent body, as suggested by Bloch et al. (2017) and Debaille et al. (2011), did not contribute significantly to the anomalous Lu-Hf ages, and (2) terrestrial weathering effects are the primary cause of the older-than-solar-system Lu-Hf mineral ages retrieved from some eucrites and angrites (e.g. Bast et al., 2012; Bizzarro et al., 2012; Lapen et al., 2015; Sanborn et al., 2015). We find these conclusions to be unjustified in light of the authors' selective and incomplete consideration of results from the modeling by Bloch et al. (2017).

  11. Integration and test of high-speed transmitter electronics for free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Nitin J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, has developed the electronics for a free-space, direct-detection laser communications system demonstration. Under the High-Speed Laser Integrated Terminal Electronics (Hi-LITE) Project, NASA Lewis has built a prototype full-duplex, dual-channel electronics transmitter and receiver operating at 325 megabit S per second (Mbps) per channel and using quaternary pulse-position modulation (QPPM). This paper describes the integration and testing of the transmitter portion for future application in free-space, direct-detection laser communications. A companion paper reviews the receiver portion of the prototype electronics. Minor modifications to the transmitter were made since the initial report on the entire system, and this paper addresses them. The digital electronics are implemented in gallium arsenide integrated circuits mounted on prototype boards. The fabrication and implementation issues related to these high-speed devices are discussed. The transmitter's test results are documented, and its functionality is verified by exercising all modes of operation. Various testing issues pertaining to high-speed circuits are addressed. A description of the transmitter electronics packaging concludes the paper.

  12. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212... powered, it must comply with the AC line conducted requirements found in § 15.207. AC or DC power lines...

  13. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212... powered, it must comply with the AC line conducted requirements found in § 15.207. AC or DC power lines...

  14. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212... powered, it must comply with the AC line conducted requirements found in § 15.207. AC or DC power lines...

  15. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212... powered, it must comply with the AC line conducted requirements found in § 15.207. AC or DC power lines...

  16. 47 CFR 15.212 - Modular transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modular transmitters. 15.212 Section 15.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.212... powered, it must comply with the AC line conducted requirements found in § 15.207. AC or DC power lines...

  17. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and on the ship-to-shore working frequencies necessary to communicate with public coast stations... transmission of speech normally produces peak modulation within the limits 75 percent and 100 percent. (c) The transmitter must be certificated to transmit between 20 watts and 25 watts, on each of the frequencies 156.300...

  18. Structural stability and electronic structure of transition metal compound: HfN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwan, Madhu; Shukoor, V. Abdul; Singh, Sadhna

    2018-05-01

    The structural stability of transition metal nitride (HfN) has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with the help of Quantum-espresso codes. Our calculations confirm that the hafnium nitride (HfN) is stable in zinc-blende (B3) and rock-salt (B1) type structure. We have also reported the structural and electronic properties of HfN compound. These structural properties have been compared with experimental and theoretical data available on this compound.

  19. QAPP for Analysis of Data Received from Nine Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Service Companies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This QAPP provides information concerning the Water Acquisition, Chemical Mixing, Well Injection, and Flowback and Produced Water stages of the HF water cycle as found in Figure 1 of the HF QMP and as described in HF Study Plan.

  20. Mixed Messages from Garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Wang, D.; Johnson, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Garnet geochronology provides important information on the timing and conditions of metamorphism. As a major indicator mineral formed during metamorphism, its direct dating can not only help establish the timing of metamorphism, provide the "t" for P-T-t paths, but also, if the dated garnet can be placed in a textural context, can provide information on the timing of deformational features. With advances in chemistry and mass spectrometry, garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology has become an important geochronological tool and we can now reliably (if not routinely) date a wide variety of garnet compositions formed under diverse conditions. In the course of dating a variety of lithologies using both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systems, however, some intriguing results have emerged. Although there are many examples where the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd systems give the same date within uncertainty, there are also many cases where these systems yield significantly different dates, and the differences between these dates can be considerable—many 10's of Ma of and even 100's of Ma. For example, in garnet-bearing Mesoproterozoic gneisses from across the Blue Ridge Province in Virginia, both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd analyses (determined on the same solutions) define narrow time spans, but with the Sm-Nd dates systematically younger (for orthogneisses Lu-Hf dates are 1032 to 1019 Ma whereas Sm-Nd dates are 965 to 949 Ma—a difference of 67 to 80 Ma). There are many other examples of systematically younger Sm-Nd garnet dates in both the literature and with our ongoing research. Potential explanations for these differences include: 1) strong partitioning of Lu into garnet during growth yielding ages weighted toward the beginning of growth; 2) faster Lu diffusion from high Lu regions after garnet formation, potentially leading to isochron rotation and anomalously old Lu-Hf dates; and 3) differences in closure temperatures of the two isotope systems. We will review several examples of divergent Lu-Hf

  1. Synergy of adaptive thresholds and multiple transmitters in free-space optical communication.

    PubMed

    Louthain, James A; Schmidt, Jason D

    2010-04-26

    Laser propagation through extended turbulence causes severe beam spread and scintillation. Airborne laser communication systems require special considerations in size, complexity, power, and weight. Rather than using bulky, costly, adaptive optics systems, we reduce the variability of the received signal by integrating a two-transmitter system with an adaptive threshold receiver to average out the deleterious effects of turbulence. In contrast to adaptive optics approaches, systems employing multiple transmitters and adaptive thresholds exhibit performance improvements that are unaffected by turbulence strength. Simulations of this system with on-off-keying (OOK) showed that reducing the scintillation variations with multiple transmitters improves the performance of low-frequency adaptive threshold estimators by 1-3 dB. The combination of multiple transmitters and adaptive thresholding provided at least a 10 dB gain over implementing only transmitter pointing and receiver tilt correction for all three high-Rytov number scenarios. The scenario with a spherical-wave Rytov number R=0.20 enjoyed a 13 dB reduction in the required SNR for BER's between 10(-5) to 10(-3), consistent with the code gain metric. All five scenarios between 0.06 and 0.20 Rytov number improved to within 3 dB of the SNR of the lowest Rytov number scenario.

  2. The deep-tow marine controlled-source electromagnetic transmitter system for gas hydrate exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Deng, Ming; Wu, Zhongliang; Luo, Xianhu; Jing, Jianen; Chen, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) method has been recognized as an important and effective tool to detect electrically resistive structures, such as oil, gas, and gas hydrate. The MCSEM performance is strongly influenced by the transmitter system design. We have developed a deep-tow MCSEM transmitter system. In this paper, some new technical details will be present. A 10,000 m optical-electrical composite cable is used to support high power transmission and fast data transfer; a new clock unit is designed to keep the synchronization between transmitter and receivers, and mark the time stamp into the transmission current full waveform; a data link is established to monitor the real-time altitude of the tail unit; an online insulation measuring instrument is adopted to monitor current leakage from high voltage transformer; a neutrally buoyant dipole antenna of copper cable and flexible electrodes are created to transmit the large power current into seawater; a new design method for the transmitter, which is called "real-time control technology of hardware parallelism", is described to achieve inverting and recording high-power current waveform, controlling functions, and collecting auxiliary information. We use a gas hydrate exploration test to verify the performance of the transmitter system, focusing on more technical details, rather than applications. The test shows that the transmitter can be used for gas hydrate exploration as an effective source.

  3. Effects of implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas on the behavior of Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ruhl, G.A.; Pearce, John M.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tomeo, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether surgically-implanted radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas affected behavior of Lesser Canada Geese (Branta canadensis parvipes) in Anchorage, Alaska. We implanted either a 26-g VHF radio transmitter or a larger VHF radio that was the same mass (35 g) and shape as a satellite transmitter in the coelom of adult females captured during molt in 2000. A control group of females was marked with leg bands. We simultaneously observed behavior of radio-marked and control females from 4-62 d following capture. We observed no differences in the proportion of time birds in different treatments allocated among grazing, resting, comfort, walking, and alert behavior. Females in different treatments spent a similar proportion of time in the water. Implantation of radio transmitters did not affect the frequency of agonistic interactions. We conclude that coelomic radio transmitters with percutaneous antennas had minimal effects on the behavior of Canada Geese.

  4. Lu-Hf isotope systematics of fossil biogenic apatite and their effects on geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Münker, Carsten; Tütken, Thomas; Hoffmann, J. Elis; Wittke, Andreas; Barbier, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Reliable methods for direct dating of biogenic apatite from pre-Pleistocene fossils are currently not available, and recent attempts using the Lu-Hf decay system yielded highly inaccurate ages for both bones and teeth. The geological processes accounting for this poor accuracy of Lu-Hf chronometry are not yet understood. Here we explore Lu-Hf systematics in fossil bones and teeth in detail, by applying five different sample digestion techniques that are tested on bones and composites of bone and sediment. Our current dataset implies that dissolution methods only slightly affect the resulting Lu-Hf ages, while clear differences between the individual digestion techniques became apparent for element concentrations. By analysing the insoluble leftovers from incomplete sample dissolution, four main reservoirs of Hf in fossil bones were identified: (1) a radiogenic end-member associated with apatite; (2) an unradiogenic end-member represented by the authigenic minerals or the embedding sediment; (3) a highly unradiogenic end-member that can be attributed to detrital zircon; and (4) a moderately soluble phase (probably a Zr(Hf)-phosphate) that yielded very low Lu/Hf but a highly radiogenic Hf isotope composition at the same time. This Zr(Hf)-phase must have been precipitated within the fossil bone sample at a late stage of burial history, thereby incorporating radiogenic 176Hf released from apatite surfaces over geological timescales. A second focus of our study is the effect of different sediment matrices and of crystal size on the preservation of pristine Lu-Hf isotope compositions in bioapatite. Because near-depositional Lu-Hf ages of phosphate fossils have previously been reported for the London Clay (England) and a calcareous marl from Tendaguru (Tanzania), we herein investigate specimens fossilised in carbonate matrices (calcareous marl from Oker, Germany; carbonate concretions from the Santana Formation, Brazil; carbonate from the Eifel, Germany) and argillaceous

  5. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) substance flow analysis for safe and sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junbeum; Hwang, Yongwoo; Yoo, Mijin; Chen, Sha; Lee, Ik-Mo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the chemical substance flow of hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, HF) in domestic chemical industries in 2014 was analyzed in order to provide a basic material and information for the establishment of organized management system to ensure safety during HF applications. A total of 44,751 tons of HF was made by four domestic companies (in 2014); import amount was 95,984 tons in 2014 while 21,579 tons of HF was imported in 2005. The export amount of HF was 2180 tons, of which 2074 ton (China, 1422 tons, U.S. 524 tons, and Malaysia, 128 tons) was exported for the manufacturing of semiconductors. Based on the export and import amounts, it can be inferred that HF was used for manufacturing semiconductors. The industries applications of 161,123 tons of HF were as follows: manufacturing of basic inorganic chemical substance (27,937 tons), manufacturing of other chemical products such as detergents (28,208 tons), manufacturing of flat display (24,896 tons), and manufacturing of glass container package (22,002 tons). In this study, an analysis of the chemical substance flow showed that HF was mainly used in the semiconductor industry as well as glass container manufacturing. Combined with other risk management tools and approaches in the chemical industry, the chemical substance flow analysis (CSFA) can be a useful tool and method for assessment and management. The current CSFA results provide useful information for policy making in the chemical industry and national systems. Graphical abstract Hydrogen fluoride chemical substance flows in 2014 in South Korea.

  6. Electron Microprobe Analysis of Hf in Zircon: Suggestions for Improved Accuracy of a Difficult Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is not commonly recognized as such, but the accurate measurement of Hf in zircon is not a trivial analytical issue. This is important to assess because Hf is often used as an internal standard for trace element analyses of zircon by LA-ICPMS. The issues pertaining to accuracy revolve around: (1) whether the Hf Ma or the La line is used; (2) what accelerating voltage is applied if Zr La is also measured, and (3) what standard for Hf is used. Weidenbach, et al.'s (2004) study of the 91500 zircon demonstrated the spread (in accuracy) of possible EPMA values for six EPMA labs, 2 of which used Hf Ma, 3 used Hf La, and one used Hf Lb, and standards ranged from HfO2, a ZrO2-HfO2 compound, Hf metal, and hafnon. Weidenbach, et al., used the ID-TIMS values as the correct value (0.695 wt.% Hf.), for which not one of the EPMA labs came close to that value (3 were low and 3 were high). Those data suggest: (1) that there is a systematic underestimation error of the 0.695 wt% Hf (ID-TIMS Hf) value if Hf Ma is used; most likely an issue with the matrix correction, as the analytical lines and absorption edges of Zr La, Si Ka and Hf Ma are rather tightly packed in the electromagnetic spectrum. Mass absorption coefficients are easily in error (e.g., Donovan's determination of the MAC of Hf by Si Ka of 5061 differs from the typically used Henke value of 5449 (Donovan et al, 2002); and (2) For utilization of the Hf La line, however, the second order Zr Ka line interferes with Hf La if the accelerating voltage is greater than 17.99 keV. If this higher keV is used and differential mode PHA is applied, only a portion of the interference is removed (e.g., removal of escape peaks), causing an overestimation of Hf content. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to apply an interference correction in this case, as it is impossible to locate Hf-free Zr probe standard. We have examined many of the combinations used by those six EPMA labs and concluded that the optimal EPMA is done with Hf

  7. Transmittance and scattering during wound healing after refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, Santiago; Martinez-Garcia, C.; Blanco, J. T.; Torres, R. M.; Gonzalez, V. R.; Najera, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Merayo, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) are frequent techniques performed to correct ametropia. Both methods have been compared in their way of healing but there is not comparison about transmittance and light scattering during this process. Scattering in corneal wound healing is due to three parameters: cellular size and density, and the size of scar. Increase in the scattering angular width implies a decrease the contrast sensitivity. During wound healing keratocytes activation is induced and these cells become into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Hens were operated using PRK and LASIK techniques. Animals used in this experiment were euthanized, and immediately their corneas were removed and placed carefully into a cornea camera support. All optical measurements have been done with a scatterometer constructed in our laboratory. Scattering measurements are correlated with the transmittance -- the smaller transmittance is the bigger scattering is. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data of the corneal transparency and scattering, in order to supply data that they allow generate a more complete model of the corneal transparency.

  8. VLBI Observations of ALSEP Transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    The technique of differential very-long-baseline inteferometry (VLBI) Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package was used to measure the relative positions of the (ALSEP) transmitters at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 lunar landing sites with uncertainties less than 0.005 sec of the geocentric arc. These measurements yielded improved determinations of the selenodetic coordinates of the Apollo landing sites, and of the physical libration of the moon.

  9. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, Safer; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer responses based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better understanding of the factors that have an impact on printing quality. In order to avoid the additional optical non-linearities produced by light reflection on paper, we have limited the present investigation to transparency prints. The proposed model succeeded to predict the transmittance spectra of printed wedges combining two color toner layers with a mean deviation less than CIE-LAB (Delta) E equals 2.5.

  10. Tunable transmittance in anisotropic two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nualpijit, Phusit; Sinner, Andreas; Ziegler, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    A uniaxial strain applied to graphenelike materials moves the Dirac nodes along the boundary of the Brillouin zone. An extreme case is the merging of the Dirac node positions to a single degenerate spectral node, which gives rise to a new topological phase. Then isotropic Dirac nodes are replaced by a node with a linear behavior in one and a parabolic behavior in the other direction. This anisotropy influences substantially the optical properties. We propose a method to determine characteristic spectral and transport properties in black phosphorus layers, which were recently studied by several groups with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and discuss how the transmittance, the reflectance, and the optical absorption of this material can be tuned. In particular, we demonstrate that the transmittance of linearly polarized incident light varies from nearly 0% to almost 100% in the microwave and far-infrared regime.

  11. Empirical Study of the Multiaxial, Thermomechanical Behavior of NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Dhwanil; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner Aaron P.

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study was conducted to characterize the multiaxial, thermomechanical responses of new high temperature NiTiHf alloys. The experimentation included loading thin walled tube Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 29.7)Hf(sub 20) alloy samples along both proportional and nonproportional axial-torsion paths at different temperatures while measuring surface strains using stereo digital image correlation. A Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 33.7)Hf(sub 16) alloy was also studied in tension and compression to document the effect of slightly depleting the Hf content on the constitutive responses of NiTiHf alloys. Samples of both alloys were made from nearly texture free polycrystalline material processed by hot extrusion. Analysis of the data shows that very small changes in composition significantly alter NiTiHf alloy properties, as the austenite finish (Af) temperature of the 16-at Hf alloy was found to be approximately 60 C less than the 20-at Hf alloy (approximately 120 C vs. 180 C). In addition, the 16-at Hf alloy exhibited smaller compressive transformation strains (2 vs. 2.5 percent). Multi-axial characterization of the 20-at % Hf alloy showed that while the random polycrystal transformation strains in tension (4 percent) and compression (2.5 percent) are modest in comparison with binary NiTi (6 percent, 4 percent), the torsion performance is superior (7 vs. 4 shear strain width to the pseudoelastic plateau).

  12. Oxygen defect induced photoluminescence of HfO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jie; Zhou, Qin; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2008-07-01

    Amorphous HfO2 films prepared by e-beam deposition exhibited room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the visible range, i.e., at ˜620 and 700nm, due to oxygen vacancies involved during deposition. This PL can be enhanced by two orders in intensity by crystallizing the amorphous films in flowing argon, where a large amount of oxygen vacancies were introduced, and can be diminished by removal of the oxygen vacancies by annealing HfO2 films in oxygen. This study could help understand the defect-property relationship and provides ways to tune the PL property of HfO2 films.

  13. Calculating Solar Ultraviolet Irradiation Of The Human Cornea And Corresponding Required Sunglass Lens Transmittances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Herbert L.; Marsaud, Serge G.

    1986-05-01

    Tinted ophthalmic lenses are used primarily for eye comfort in a brightly lit environment. An ancillary benefit is the attenuation of ultraviolet radiation. Some national product standards specify quantitative limits for ultraviolet transmittances. Such limits ought to be founded on quantitative estimates of solar irradiances of ocular tissues, with actinic effectiveness taken into account. We use the equations of Green and coworkers for direct and diffuse solar irradiance at the earth's surface to calculate average sky and ground spectral radiances. We use the geometric factors derived by us for the coupling of radiation from these sources to the human cornea. Actinically weighted corneal spectral irradiances integrated over wavelength and time yield peak irradiances and accumulated exposure doses that are compared with recommended exposure limits. This provides the maximal effective ultraviolet transmittances of tinted ophthalmic lenses such that these exposure limits will not be exceeded in the selected exposure environment. The influences on corneal irradiation of such exposure parameters as solar zenith angle, altitude of the exposure site, characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, and ground reflectances are illustrated. The relationships between the effective transmittance (which is a function of the environmental radiation and any actinicweighting function) and readily determined characteristics of the lens itself, viz., its mean transmittance, and a selected spectral transmittance, are derived for three lens transmittance curves. Limits of lens transmittance for the UV-B and UV-A wavelength regions are presented for several representative exposure sites in Europe and the U.S.A.

  14. View of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 Transmitter Building foundation, showing Fire Control Stations (Buildings 621 and 622) and concrete stairway (top left) camera facing southwest - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  15. An uncovered risk factor of sonothrombolysis: Substantial fluctuation of ultrasound transmittance through the human skull.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuojun; Komatsu, Teppei; Mitsumura, Hidetaka; Nakata, Norio; Ogawa, Takeki; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-05-01

    Sonothrombolysis is one of the most feasible methods for enhancing clot lysis with a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in cases of acute ischemic strokes. For safe and efficient clinical practices of sonothrombolysis, accurate estimation of ultrasound transmittance through the human skull is critical. Previously, we reported substantial and periodic fluctuation of ultrasound transmittance through a bone-phantom plate following changes to ultrasound frequency, the thickness of the bone-phantom plate, and the distance between a transducer and the bone-phantom plate. In the present study, we clarify the transmittance behavior of medium-frequency ultrasound (from 400kHz to 600kHz) through the human skull, and examine reduction of the transmittance fluctuation. For the study, we measured transmittance of sinusoidal ultrasound waves at 400kHz, 500kHz, and 600kHz at 13 temple spots on 3 human skulls by changing the distance between a transducer and the skull bone, and found substantial and periodic fluctuation in the transmittance behaviors for these sinusoidal voltage excitations. Degrees of the fluctuation varied depending on the measurement spots. A fluctuation ratio between the maximum transmittance and the minimum transmittance reached 3 in some spots. This large transmittance fluctuation is considered to be a risk factor for sonothrombolysis therapies. We examined a modulated ultrasound wave to reduce the fluctuation, and succeeded in obtaining considerable reduction. The average fluctuation ratios for 400-kHz, 500-kHz, and 600-kHz waves were 2.38, 2.38, and 2.07, respectively. We successfully reduced the ratio to 1.72 by using a periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF)-type of modulation wave. The thus obtained results indicate that attention to the fluctuation in ultrasound transmittance through the skull is necessary for safe and effective sonothrombolysis therapies, and that modulated ultrasound waves constitute a powerful method for reducing

  16. Integrated Inductors for RF Transmitters in CMOS/MEMS Smart Microsensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Wan; Takao, Hidekuni; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of an inductor by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes for integrated smart microsensor systems that have been developed to monitor the motion and vital signs of humans in various environments. Integration of radio frequency transmitter (RF) technology with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor/micro electro mechanical systems (CMOS/MEMS) microsensors is required to realize the wireless smart microsensors system. The essential RF components such as a voltage controlled RF-CMOS oscillator (VCO), spiral inductors for an LC resonator and an integrated antenna have been fabricated and evaluated experimentally. The fabricated RF transmitter and integrated antenna were packaged with subminiature series A (SMA) connectors, respectively. For the impedance (50 Ω) matching, a bonding wire type inductor was developed. In this paper, the design and fabrication of the bonding wire inductor for impedance matching is described. Integrated techniques for the RF transmitter by CMOS compatible processes have been successfully developed. After matching by inserting the bonding wire inductor between the on-chip integrated antenna and the VCO output, the measured emission power at distance of 5 m from RF transmitter was -37 dBm (0.2 μW).

  17. Design of a fiber-optic transmitter for microwave analog transmission with high phase stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Primas, L. E.; Maleki, L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal considerations in the design of fiber-optic transmitters for highly phase-stable radio frequency and microwave analog transmission are discussed. Criteria for a fiber-optic transmitter design with improved amplitude and phase-noise performance are developed through consideration of factors affecting the phase noise, including low-frequency laser-bias supply noise, the magnitude and proximity of external reflections into the laser, and temperature excursions of the laser-transmitter package.

  18. Equator and High-Latitude Ionosphere-to-Magnetosphere Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-04

    characterizing plasma velocity profile in the heated region above HAARP has been clearly established. Specification of D region absorption from Digisonde...Electron density profile, Ground truth, Cal/Val, Doppler skymap, HAARP , Plasma velocity profile, Ionogram autoscaling, D region absorption...2  3  HAARP INVESTIGATIONS ............................................................................ 5  3.1

  19. Functional support of glutamate as a vestibular hair cell transmitter in an amniote

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, S. L.; Correia, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Although hair cells in the cochlea and in the vestibular endorgans of anamniotes are thought to release glutamate or a similar compound as their transmitter, there is little evidence in amniotes (which, unlike anamniotes, possess both type I and II hair cells) as to the nature of the hair cell transmitters in the vestibular labyrinth. We have recorded extracellularly from single semicircular canal afferents in the turtle labyrinth maintained in vitro and have bath-applied a number of transmitter agonists and antagonists to relate the effects of these substances to the actions of the endogenous transmitter substances. Both glutamate and aspartate strongly excite the afferents while GABA and carbachol have negligible or weak effects. In contrast to its lack of effect on afferent activity in some anamniotes, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) was also found to excite these afferents. Kynurenic acid reversibly reduced the resting firing rates of the afferents and the increases in firing due to the application of glutamate and aspartate. These findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that glutamate (or a related compound) is also a vestibular hair cell transmitter in amniotes.

  20. White Nail Radio Transmitter: Billion Dollar Savings through Energy Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    increase efficiency and reduce overall energy consumption ashore by 50 percent CNO, Navy Energy Vision, P 10 White Nail Vision Your Cell Phone Cell...Estimated Total Number of transmitters 3,000,000 Estimated total power saved Watt 1,250,000,000 Cell Phone Transmitter Efficiency 1.25 Gigawatts saved...Greenhouse Gas Power 4 1 Energy Navy Use 7.3 Billion kWh White Nail Cell Phone Savings 11 Billion kWh One and a half times!!! Saves the output of four of