Gravitational interaction of hadrons: Band-spinor representations of GL(n,R)
Ne'eman, Yuval
1977-01-01
We demonstrate the existence of double-valued linear (infinite) spinorial representations of the group of general coordinate transformations. We discuss the topology of the group of general coordinate transformations and its subgroups GA(nR), GL(n,R), SL(nr) for n = 2,3,4, and the existence of a double covering. We present the construction of band-spinor representations of GL(n,R) in terms of Harish-Chandra modules. It is suggested that hadrons interact with gravitation as band-spinors of that type. In the metric-affine extension of general relativity, the hadron intrinsic hypermomentum is minimally coupled to the connection, in addition to the coupling of the energy momentum tensor to the vierbeins. The relativistic conservation of intrinsic hypermomentum fits the observed regularities of hadrons: SU(6) (∼ spin independence), scaling, and complex-J trajectories. The latter correspond to volume-preserving deformations (confinement?) exciting rotational bands. PMID:16592443
K. Orginos
2011-12-01
In this talk I am reviewing recent calculations of properties of multi-hadron systems in lattice QCD. In particular, I am reviewing results of elastic scattering phase shifts in meson-meson, meson-baryon and baryon-baryon systems, as well as discussing results indicating possible existence of bound states in two baryon systems. Finally, calculations of properties of systems with more than two hadrons are presented.
Bunce, G.
1984-05-30
Is all hadronic physics ultimately describable by QCD. Certainly, many disparate phenomena can be understood within the QCD framework. Also certainly, there are important questions which are open, both theoretically (little guidance, as yet) and experimentally, regarding confinement. Are there dibaryons, baryonium, glueballs. In addition, there are experimental results which at present do not have an explanation. This talk, after a short section on QCD successes and difficulties, will emphasize two experimental topics which have recent results - glueball spectroscopy and exclusive reactions at large momentum transfer. Both are experimentally accessible in the AGS/LAMPF II/AGS II/TRIUMF II/SIN II energy domain.
Cooper, S.
1985-10-01
Heavy quark systems and glueball candidates, the particles which are relevant to testing QCD, are discussed. The review begins with the heaviest spectroscopically observed quarks, the b anti-b bound states, including the chi state masses, spins, and hadronic widths and the non-relativistic potential models. Also, P states of c anti-c are mentioned. Other heavy states are also discussed in which heavy quarks combine with lighter ones. The gluonium candidates iota(1460), theta(1700), and g/sub T/(2200) are then covered. The very lightest mesons, pi-neutral and eta, are discussed. 133 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs. (LEW)
Light-cone quantization and hadron structure
Brodsky, S.J.
1996-04-01
Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics.
High energy hadron-hadron collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, T. T.
Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e(sup +)e(sup (minus)) annihilation. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which is still dipole in form but contains an energy-dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic (bar p)p scattering very well from the ISR to S(bar p)pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results in good agreement with the (bar p)p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S(bar p)pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e(sup +)e(sup (minus)) annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. The cluster size of emitted hadrons increases gradually with energy. Aside from high-energy collisions, the giant fullerene molecules were studied and precise algebraic eigenvalue expressions of the Hueckel problem for carbon-240 were obtained.
QCD in hadron-hadron collisions
Albrow, M.
1997-03-01
Quantum Chromodynamics provides a good description of many aspects of high energy hadron-hadron collisions, and this will be described, along with some aspects that are not yet understood in QCD. Topics include high E{sub T} jet production, direct photon, W, Z and heavy flavor production, rapidity gaps and hard diffraction.
High energy hadron-hadron collisions
Chou, T.T.
1990-11-01
Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (i) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (ii) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (iii) the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. For elastic collisions, a simple expression for the proton matter distribution is proposed which fits well the elastic {bar p}p scattering from ISR to S{bar p}pS energies within the geometrical model. The proton form factor is of the dipole form with an energy-dependent range parameter. The {bar p}p elastic differential cross section at Tevatron energies obtained by extrapolation is in good agreement with experiments. For multiparticle emission processes a unified physical picture for hadron-hadron and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions was proposed. A number of predictions were made, including the one that KNO-scaling does not obtain for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} two-jet events. An extension of the considerations within the geometrical model led to a theory of the momentum distributions of the outgoing particles which are found in good agreement with current experimental data. Extrapolations of results to higher energies have been made. The cluster size of hadrons produced in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation is found to increase slowly with energy.
Theory of hadronic nonperturbative models
Coester, F.; Polyzou, W.N.
1995-08-01
As more data probing hadron structure become available hadron models based on nonperturbative relativistic dynamics will be increasingly important for their interpretation. Relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics of few-body systems (constituent-quark models) and many-body systems (parton models) provides a precisely defined approach and a useful phenomenology. However such models lack a quantitative foundation in quantum field theory. The specification of a quantum field theory by a Euclidean action provides a basis for the construction of nonperturbative models designed to maintain essential features of the field theory. For finite systems it is possible to satisfy axioms which guarantee the existence of a Hilbert space with a unitary representation of the Poincare group and the spectral condition which ensures that the spectrum of the four-momentum operator is in the forward light cone. The separate axiom which guarantees locality of the field operators can be weakened for the construction for few-body models. In this context we are investigating algebraic and analytic properties of model Schwinger functions. This approach promises insight into the relations between hadronic models based on relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics on one hand and Bethe-Salpeter Green`s-function equations on the other.
Wiedner, Ulrich
2011-10-24
The new FAIR facility in Darmstadt has a broad program in the field of hadron and nuclear physics utilizing ion beams with unprecedented intensity and accuracy. The hadron physics program centers around the the high-energy storage ring HESR for antiprotons and the PANDA experiment that is integrated in it. The physics program includes among others topics like hadron spectroscopy in the charmonium mass region and below, hyperon physics, electromagnetic processes and charm in nuclei.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardulli, G.
2005-04-01
I give a summary of Section E of the sixth edition of the Conference Quark confinement and the hadron spectrum. Papers were presented on different subjects, from spectroscopy, including pentaquarks and hadron structure, to new physics effects (non commutative field theories, supersymmetry and extra dimensions) and the problem of color confinement, both in ordinary Yang-Mills models and in supersymmetric Yang-Mills.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanasse, Jared
2011-11-01
For 50 years the field of hadronic parity violation has been unresolved. Since the 1980's the standard theoretical framework for hadronic parity violation has been the DDH model. However, discrepancies between the DDH model and experiment have called the use of this model into question. At low energies a new model independent analysis of hadronic parity violation can be carried out via pionless effective field theory. With the use of pionless effective field theory and new precision experiments, focusing on systems with A<=4 in order to eliminate nuclear physics uncertainties, the field of hadronic parity violation at low energies will finally be understood. This talk will give an overview of the theory and possible future experiments in this old yet still exciting field.
Chung, S.U.; Kern, W.; Willutzki, H.J.
1990-08-01
A description is given of the physics opportunities at RHIC regarding quark-gluon spectroscopy. The basic idea is to isolate with appropriate triggers the subprocesses pomeron + pomeron {yields} hadrons and {gamma}* + {gamma}* {yields} hadrons with the net effective mass of hadrons in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 GeV, in order to study the hadronic states composed of u, d, and s and gluons. The double-pomeron interactions are expected to produce glueballs and hybrids preferentially, while the two-offshell-photon initial states should couple predominantly to quarkonia and multiquark states. A plethora of J{sup PC}-exotic mesons can be produced either directly in both types of interactions or in association with a single recoil photon in the final state. 8 refs., 2 figs.
Karl, G.
1985-06-30
Current hadron spectroscopy is concerned with quark and glounic degrees of freedom which are imaged from the many meson resonances and their decay mechanisms. Interest in the J/psi and the phi resonances is discussed.
Tang, Alfred
2002-08-01
Hadron production cross sections are calculated in the perturbative QCD frame work. Parton distribution functions are obtained from a strip-soliton model. The fragmentation functions are derived from the Lund model of string breaking.
Renormdynamics and Hadronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhaldiani, Nugzar
2016-01-01
Independently radiating valence quarks and corresponding negative binomial distribution presents phenomenologically preferable mechanism of hadronization in multiparticle production processes. Main properties of the renormdynamics, corresponding motion equations and their solutions are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streit-Bianchi, Marilena
2008-08-01
Radiobiological studies of hadrons beams are essential for optimizing tumour treatments. Whit hadrons when clinical facilities are running radiobiological studies are also done to ensure beam optimization and quality control as well as for the understanding of tumour and normal tissue reactions and late effects. Beam characteristic determinations nowadays are carried out according to well established radiobiological standard parameters and using well established biological reference systems. Some of the most recent studies on the topic are reported here.
Streit-Bianchi, Marilena
2008-08-11
Radiobiological studies of hadrons beams are essential for optimizing tumour treatments. Whit hadrons when clinical facilities are running radiobiological studies are also done to ensure beam optimization and quality control as well as for the understanding of tumour and normal tissue reactions and late effects. Beam characteristic determinations nowadays are carried out according to well established radiobiological standard parameters and using well established biological reference systems. Some of the most recent studies on the topic are reported here.
Holography inspired stringy hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sonnenschein, Jacob
2017-01-01
Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.
Albino, S.
2010-07-15
The description of inclusive production of single unpolarized light hadrons using fragmentation functions in the framework of the factorization theorem is reviewed. The factorization of observables into perturbatively calculable quantities and these universal fragmentation functions are summarized and some improvements beyond the standard fixed order approach are discussed. The extraction of fragmentation functions for light charged ({pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, and p/p) and neutral (K{sub S}{sup 0} and {Lambda}/{Lambda}) hadrons using these theoretical tools is discussed through global fits to experimental data from reactions at various colliders, in particular from accurate e{sup +}e{sup -} reactions at the Large Electron-Position Collider (LEP), and the subsequent successful predictions of other experimental data, such as data gathered at Hadron Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA), the Tevatron, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), from these fitted fragmentation functions as allowed by factorization universality. These global fits also impose competitive constraints on {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}). Emphasis is placed on the need for accurate data from pp(p) and ep reactions in which the hadron species is identified in order to constrain the separate fragmentation functions of the gluon and each quark flavor for each hadron species.
Dudek, Jozef
2016-03-01
I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel πK, ηK scattering. The very recent extension to the case where an external current acts is also presented, considering the reaction πγ* → ππ, from which the unstable ρ → πγ transition form factor is extracted. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.
Hadron Physics with Antiprotons
Wiedner, Ulrich
2005-10-26
The new FAIR facility which comes into operation at GSI in the upcoming years has a dedicated program of utilizing antiprotons for hadron physics. In particular, the planned PANDA experiment belongs to the group of core experiments at the new FAIR facility in Darmstadt/Germany. PANDA will be a universal detector to study the strong interaction by utilizing the annihilation process of antiprotons with protons and nuclear matter. The current paper gives an introduction into the hadron physics with antiprotons and part of the planned physics program with PANDA.
High intensity hadron accelerators
Teng, L.C.
1989-05-01
This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.
Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment
Lennox, Arlene
2003-09-10
The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.
Exotic hadron bound state production at hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yi; Li, Shi-Yuan; Liu, Yan-Rui; Meng, Lu; Si, Zong-Guo; Zhang, Xiao-Feng
2017-08-01
The non-relativistic wave function framework is applied to study the production and decay of exotic hadrons, which can be effectively described as bound states of other hadrons. Employing the factorized formulation, with the help of event generators, we investigate the production of exotic hadrons in multiproduction processes at high energy hadron colliders. This study provides crucial information for the measurements of the relevant exotic hadrons. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (ZR2014AM016, ZR2016AM16) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275115, 11325525, 11635009)
Weibull model of multiplicity distribution in hadron-hadron collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dash, Sadhana; Nandi, Basanta K.; Sett, Priyanka
2016-06-01
We introduce the use of the Weibull distribution as a simple parametrization of charged particle multiplicities in hadron-hadron collisions at all available energies, ranging from ISR energies to the most recent LHC energies. In statistics, the Weibull distribution has wide applicability in natural processes that involve fragmentation processes. This provides a natural connection to the available state-of-the-art models for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron collisions, which involve QCD parton fragmentation and hadronization. The Weibull distribution describes the multiplicity data at the most recent LHC energies better than the single negative binomial distribution.
Pondrom, L.
1991-10-03
An introduction to the techniques of analysis of hadron collider events is presented in the context of the quark-parton model. Production and decay of W and Z intermediate vector bosons are used as examples. The structure of the Electroweak theory is outlined. Three simple FORTRAN programs are introduced, to illustrate Monte Carlo calculation techniques. 25 refs.
Phase variation of hadronic amplitudes
Dedonder, J.-P.; Gibbs, W. R.; Nuseirat, Mutazz
2008-04-15
The phase variation with angle of hadronic amplitudes is studied with a view to understanding the underlying physical quantities that control it and how well it can be determined in free space. We find that unitarity forces a moderately accurate determination of the phase in standard amplitude analyses but that the nucleon-nucleon analyses done to date do not give the phase variation needed to achieve a good representation of the data in multiple scattering calculations. Models are examined that suggest its behavior near forward angles is related to the radii of the real and absorptive parts of the interaction. The dependence of this phase on model parameters is such that if these radii are modified in the nuclear medium (in combination with the change due to the shift in energy of the effective amplitude in the medium) then the larger magnitudes of the phase needed to fit the data might be attainable but only for negative values of the phase variation parameter.
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deshpande, Abhay L.; Gao, Haiyan; McKeown, Robert D.; Meyer, Curtis A.; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Milner, Richard G.; Qiu, Jianwei; Richards, David G.; Roberts, Craig D.
2015-02-26
This White Paper presents the recommendations and scientific conclusions from the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadronic Physics that took place in the period 13-15 September 2014 at Temple University as part of the NSAC 2014 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in coordination with the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD and included a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. The goals of the meeting were to report and highlight progress in hadron physics in the seven years since the 2007 Long Range Plan (LRP07), and present a vision for the future by identifying the key questions and plausible paths to solutions which should define the next decade. The introductory summary details the recommendations and their supporting rationales, as determined at the Town Meeting on QCD and Hadron Physics, and the endorsements that were voted upon. The larger document is organized as follows. Section 2 highlights major progress since the 2007 LRP. It is followed, in Section 3, by a brief overview of the physics program planned for the immediate future. Finally, Section 4 provides an overview of the physics motivations and goals associated with the next QCD frontier: the Electron-Ion-Collider.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakulina, E. V.; Maksimenko, N. V.
2017-09-01
Spin polarizabilities of spin-1 particles typical of spin-1/2 hadrons are established within the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau formalism using the relativistically invariant effective tensor representation of Lagrangians of two-photon interaction with hadrons. New spin polarizabilities of spin-1 particles associated with the presence of tensor polarizabilities are also determined.
Hadronization processes in neutrino interactions
Katori, Teppei; Mandalia, Shivesh
2015-10-15
Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments utilize details of hadronic final states to improve the precision of neutrino interaction measurements. The hadronic system was often neglected or poorly modelled in the past, but they have significant effects on high precision neutrino oscillation and cross-section measurements. Among the physics of hadronic systems in neutrino interactions, the hadronization model controls multiplicities and kinematics of final state hadrons from the primary interaction vertex. For relatively high invariant mass events, many neutrino experiments rely on the PYTHIA program. Here, we show a possible improvement of this process in neutrino event generators, by utilizing expertise from the HERMES experiment. Finally, we estimate the impact on the systematics of hadronization models for neutrino mass hierarchy analysis using atmospheric neutrinos such as the PINGU experiment.
Chou, T.T.
1992-01-01
Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e[sup +]e[sup [minus
Summary: Hadron dynamics sessions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carroll, A. S.; Londergan, J. T.
Four sessions on Hadron Dynamics were organized at this workshop. The first topic, QCD Exclusive Reactions and Color Transparency, featured talks by Ralston, Heppelman, and Strikman; the second, QCD and Inclusive Reactions had talks by Garvey, Speth, and Kisslinger. The third dynamics session, Medium Modification of Elementary Interactions had contributions from Kopeliovich, Alves, and Gyulassy; the fourth session, Pre-QCD Dynamics and Scattering, had talks by Harris, Myhrer, and Brown. An additional joint Spectroscopy/Dynamics session featured talks by Zumbro, Johnson, and McClelland. These contributions are reviewed briefly in this summary. Two additional joint sessions between Dynamics and eta physics are reviewed by the organizers of the eta sessions. In such a brief review there is no way the authors can adequately summarize the details of the physics presented here. As a result, they concentrate only on brief impressionistic sketches of the physics topics discussed and their interrelations. They include no bibliography in this summary, but simply refer to the talks given in more detail in the workshop proceedings. They focus on topics which were common to several presentations in these sessions. First, nuclear and particle descriptions of phenomena are now clearly converging, in both a qualitative and quantitative sense; they show several examples of this convergence. Second, an important issue in hadron dynamics is the extent to which elementary interactions are modified in nuclei at high energies and/or densities, and they illustrate some of these medium effects. Finally, they focus on those dynamical issues where hadron facilities can make an important, or even a unique, contribution to the knowledge of particle and nuclear physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirstius, Andreas
2008-11-01
In the mid-1990s, when CERN physicists made their first cautious estimates of the amount of data that experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would produce, the microcomputer component manufacturer Intel had just released the Pentium Pro processor. Windows was the dominant operating system, although Linux was gaining momentum. CERN had recently made the World Wide Web public, but the system was still a long way from the all-encompassing network it is today. And a single gigabyte (109 bytes) of disk space cost several hundred dollars.
Physics of very high energy hadron-hadron colliders
Hinchliffe, I.
1986-09-01
A review is given of the physics accessible at a very high energy hadron-hadron collider. Emphasis is placed on the reliability of the predicted rates, and upon the energy and luminosity required to explore new physics options. 38 refs., 19 figs.
High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report
Chou, T.T.
1992-12-31
Results of a study on high energy collisions with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (1) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (2) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (3) e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. For elastic scattering, a modified form for the hadronic matter form factor of the proton was proposed which is still dipole in form but contains an energy--dependent range parameter. This new expression of the opacity function fits the elastic {bar p}p scattering very well from the ISR to S{bar p}pS energies. Extrapolation of this theory also yielded results {bar p}p in good agreement with the {bar p}p differential cross section measured at the Tevatron. For inelastic hadron-hadron collisions, we have made a systematic investigation of the single-particle momentum spectra in the entire S{bar p}pS energy region. Results are useful for the extrapolation of angular distribution to the higher SSC energies. In e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, a detailed analysis of all available experimental multiplicity data from PETRA to LEP energies has been performed. The cluster size of emitted hadrons increases gradually with energy. Aside from high-energy collisions, the giant fullerene molecules were studied and precise algebraic eigenvalue expressions of the Hueckel problem for carbon-240 were obtained.
Review on DTU-parton model for hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions
Chiu, C.B.
1980-08-01
The parton picture of color separation of dual string and its subsequent breakup is used to motivate the DTU-parton model for high energy small p/sub T/ multiparticle productions in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions. A brief survey on phenomenological applications of the model: such as the inclusive spectra for various hh processes and central plateau heights predicted, hA inclusive spectra and the approximate anti v-universalities is presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schultz, James E.; Waters, Michael S.
2000-01-01
Discusses representations in the context of solving a system of linear equations. Views representations (concrete, tables, graphs, algebraic, matrices) from perspectives of understanding, technology, generalization, exact versus approximate solution, and learning style. (KHR)
Quarkonia production with leptons and hadrons
V. Papadimitriou
2004-06-09
We discuss current issues and present the latest measurements on quarkonia production from experiments monitoring hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron collisions. These measurements include cross section and polarization results for charmonium and bottomonium states.
Gamma-hadron families and scaling violation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.; Wrotniak, J. A.
1985-01-01
For three different interaction models we have simulated gamma-hadron families, including the detector (Pamir emulsion chamber) response. Rates of gamma families, hadrons, and hadron-gamma ratios were compared with experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahill, R. T.
1992-06-01
A review is given of progress in deriving the effective action for hadronic physics, S[π, ϱ, ω,.., overlineN, N,..] , from the fundamental defining action of QCD, S[ overlineq, q, A μa] . This is a problem in quantum field theory and the most success so far has been achieved using functional integral calculus (FIC) techniques. This formulates the problem as an exercise in changing the variables of integration in the functional integrals, from those of the quark and gluon fields to those of the (bare) meson and baryon fields. The appropriate variables are determined by the dynamics of QCD, and the final hadronic variables (essentially the 'normal modes' of QCD) are local fields describing the 'centre-of-mass' motion of extended bound states of quarks. The quarks are extensively dressed by the gluons, and the detailed aspects of the hidden chiral symmetry emerge naturally from the formalism. Particular attention is given to covariant integral equations which determine bare nucleon structure (i.e. in the quenched approximation). These equations, which arise from the closed double-helix diagrams of the FIC analysis, describe the baryons in terms of quark-diquark structure, in the form of Faddeev equations. This hadronisation of QCD also generates the dressing of these baryons by the pions, and the non-local πNN coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, Stephen Lars
2015-04-01
QCD-motivated models for hadrons predict an assortment of "exotic" hadrons that have structures that are more complex than the quark-antiquark mesons and three-quark baryons of the original quark-parton model. These include pentaquark baryons, the six-quark H-dibaryon, and tetraquark, hybrid and glueball mesons. Despite extensive experimental searches, no unambiguous candidates for any of these exotic configurations have been identified. On the other hand, a number of meson states, one that seems to be a proton-antiproton bound state, and others that contain either charmed-anticharmed quark pairs or bottom-antibottom quark pairs, have been recently discovered that neither fit into the quark-antiquark meson picture nor match the expected properties of the QCD-inspired exotics. Here I briefly review results from a recent search for the H-dibaryon, and discuss some properties of the newly discovered states -the proton-antiproton state and the so-called XY Z mesons- and compare them with expectations for conventional quark-antiquark mesons and the predicted QCD-exotic states.
Quarkonium production in hadronic collisions
Gavai, R.; Schuler, G.A.; Sridhar, K.
1995-07-01
We summarize the theoretical description of charmonium and bottonium production in hadronic collisions and compare it to the available data from hadron-nucleon interactions. With the parameters of the theory established by these data, we obtain predictions for quarkonium production at RHIC and LHC energies.
Energy dependence of hadronic activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriel, T. A.; Groom, D. E.; Job, P. K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Stevenson, G. R.
1994-01-01
Two features of high-energy hadronic cascades have long been known to shielding specialists: a) in a high-energy hadronic cascade in a given material (incident E ≳ 10 GeV), the relative abundance and spectrum of each hadronic species responsible for most of the energy deposition is independent of the energy or species of the incident hadron, and b) because π0 production bleeds off more and more energy into the electromagnetic sector as the energy of the incident hadron increases, the absolute level of this low-energy hadronic activity ( E ≲ 1 GeV) rises less rapidly than the incident energy, and in fact rises very nearly as a power of the incident energy. Both features are of great importance in hadron calorimetry, where it is the "universal spectrum" which makes possible the definition of an intrinsic {e}/{h}, and the increasing fraction of the energy going into π0's which leads to the energy dependence of {e}/{π}. We present evidence for the "universal spectrum," and use an induction argument and simulation results to demonstrate that the low-energy activity ss Em, with 0.80 ≲ m ≲ 0.85. The hadronic activity produced by incident pions is 15-20% less than that initiated by protons.
Krein, Gastão
2016-01-22
I review the present status in the theoretical and phenomenological understanding of hadron properties in strongly interacting matter. The topics covered are the EMC effect, nucleon structure functions in cold nuclear matter, spectral properties of light vector mesons in hot and cold nuclear matter, and in-medium properties of heavy flavored hadrons.
Heavy hadrons in nuclear matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, Atsushi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Shigehiro
2017-09-01
Current studies on heavy hadrons in nuclear medium are reviewed with a summary of the basic theoretical concepts of QCD, namely chiral symmetry, heavy quark spin symmetry, and the effective Lagrangian approach. The nuclear matter is an interesting place to study the properties of heavy hadrons from many different points of view. We emphasize the importance of the following topics: (i) charm/bottom hadron-nucleon interaction, (ii) structure of charm/bottom nuclei, and (iii) QCD vacuum properties and hadron modifications in nuclear medium. We pick up three different groups of heavy hadrons, quarkonia (J / ψ, ϒ), heavy-light mesons (D/ D ¯ , B ¯ / B) and heavy baryons (Λc, Λb). The modifications of those hadrons in nuclear matter provide us with important information to investigate the essential properties of heavy hadrons. We also give the discussions about the heavy hadrons, not only in infinite nuclear matter, but also in finite-size atomic nuclei with finite baryon numbers, to serve future experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Boris A.
2013-02-01
The HARP and NA61/SHINE hadroproduction experiments as well as their implications for neutrino physics are discussed. HARP measurements have already been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve the atmospheric neutrino flux predictions and to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. First measurements released recently by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment. Both HARP and NA61/SHINE experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.
Physics at future hadron colliders
U. Baur et al.
2002-12-23
We discuss the physics opportunities and detector challenges at future hadron colliders. As guidelines for energies and luminosities we use the proposed luminosity and/or energy upgrade of the LHC (SLHC), and the Fermilab design of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We illustrate the physics capabilities of future hadron colliders for a variety of new physics scenarios (supersymmetry, strong electroweak symmetry breaking, new gauge bosons, compositeness and extra dimensions). We also investigate the prospects of doing precision Higgs physics studies at such a machine, and list selected Standard Model physics rates.
Heavy quarks in hadronic collisions
Brodsky, S.J.; Peterson, C.
1982-03-01
It is suggested that the presence of c anti c-pairs on the 1 to 2% level in the hadron Fock state decomposition (intrinsic charm) gives a natural description of the ISR data for charm hadron production. The theoretical foundations of the intrinsic charm hypothesis together with its consequences for lepton- and hadron-induced reactions are discussed in some detail. There is no contradiction with the EMC data on F/sub 2//sup c/ provided the appropriate threshold dependence is taken into account.
Hadron collider physics at UCR
Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.
1997-07-01
This paper describes the research work in high energy physics by the group at the University of California, Riverside. Work has been divided between hadron collider physics and e{sup +}-e{sup {minus}} collider physics, and theoretical work. The hadron effort has been heavily involved in the startup activities of the D-Zero detector, commissioning and ongoing redesign. The lepton collider work has included work on TPC/2{gamma} at PEP and the OPAL detector at LEP, as well as efforts on hadron machines.
Simulation of soft hadron hadron collisions at ultrarelativistic energies
Werner, K.
1987-01-01
An event generator to simulate ultrarelativistic hadron hadron collisions is proposed. It is based on the following main assumptions: the process can be divided into two independent steps, string formation and string fragmentation; strings are formed as a consequence of color exchange between a quark of the projectile and a quark of the target; the fragmentation of strings is the same as in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation or in lepton nucleon scattering. 11 refs., 4 figs.
Forward physics of hadronic colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, I. P.
2013-12-01
These lectures were given at the Baikal Summer School on Physics of Elementary Particles and Astrophysics in July 2012. They can be viewed as a concise introduction to hadronic diffraction, to the physics of the Pomeron and related topics.
Late effects from hadron therapy
Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.
2004-06-01
Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaffe, R. L.
2008-05-01
Resonances and enhancements in meson-meson scattering can be divided into two classes distinguished by their behavior as the number of colors (Nc) in QCD becomes large: The first are ordinary mesons that become stable as Nc → ∞. This class includes textbook qbar q mesons as well as glueballs and hybrids. The second class, extraordinary mesons, are enhancements that disappear as Nc → ∞; they subside into the hadronic continuum. This class includes indistinct and controversial objects that have been classified as qbarqbar qq mesons or meson-meson molecules. Peláez's study of the Nc dependence of unitarized chiral dynamics illustrates both classes: the p-wave ππ and Kπ resonances, the ρ (770) and K∗ (892), behave as ordinary mesons; the s-wave ππ and Kπ enhancements, the σ (600) and κ (800), behave like extraordinary mesons. Ordinary mesons resemble Feshbach resonances while extraordinary mesons look more like effects due to potentials in meson-meson scattering channels. I build and explore toy models along these lines. Finally I discuss some related dynamical issues affecting the interpretation of extraordinary mesons.
Alonso, J.R.
1995-05-01
Radiation therapy with ``hadrons`` (protons, neutrons, pions, ions) has accrued a 55-year track record, with by now over 30,000 patients having received treatments with one of these particles. Very good, and in some cases spectacular results are leading to growth in the field in specific well-defined directions. The most noted contributor to success has been the ability to better define and control the radiation field produced with these particles, to increase the dose delivered to the treatment volume while achieving a high degree of sparing of normal tissue. An additional benefit is the highly-ionizing, character of certain beams, leading to creater cell-killing potential for tumor lines that have historically been very resistant to radiation treatments. Until recently these treatments have been delivered in laboratories and research centers whose primary, or original mission was physics research. With maturity in the field has come both the desire to provide beam facilities more accessible to the clinical setting, of a hospital, as well as achieving, highly-efficient, reliable and economical accelerator and beam-delivery systems that can make maximum advantage of the physical characteristics of these particle beams. Considerable work in technology development is now leading, to the implementation of many of these ideas, and a new generation of clinically-oriented facilities is beginning to appear. We will discuss both the physical, clinical and technological considerations that are driving these designs, as well as highlighting, specific examples of new facilities that are either now treating, patients or that will be doing so in the near future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maguire, Charles F.
2013-08-01
The measurements of the anisotropic flow of single particles and particle pairs have provided some of the most compelling evidence for the creation of a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) in relativistic heavy ion collisions, first at RHIC, and more recently at the LHC. Using PbPb collision data taken in the 2010 and 2011 heavy ion runs at the LHC, the CMS experiment has investigated a broad scope of these flow phenomena. The v2 elliptic flow coefficient has been extracted with four different methods to cross-check contributions from initial state fluctuations and non-flow correlations. The measurements of the v2 elliptic anisotropy have been extended to a transverse momentum of 60 GeV/c, which will enable the placement of new quantitative constraints on parton energy loss models as a function of path length in the sQGP medium. Additionally, for the first time at the LHC, the CMS experiment has extracted precise elliptic anisotropy coefficients for the π0 meson in the centrality range 20-80% and over a transverse momentum range 1.6 to 8 GeV/c. These results are compared with both the π0 results reported by the PHENIX detector at RHIC, and with the inclusive charged particle anisotropy results reported from the LHC. Finally, the CMS experiment has mounted an extensive study of charged hadron pair azimuthal correlations using a Fourier harmonic decomposition to fit the data. The relationship between these pair coefficients and the single particle harmonic flow coefficients can be explored for its insight into the early dynamics of this viscous medium.
Identifying Multiquark Hadrons from Heavy Ion Collisions
Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro
2011-05-27
Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.
QCD thermodynamics and missing hadron states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petreczky, Peter
2016-03-01
Equation of State and fluctuations of conserved charges in hot strongly interacting matter are being calculated with increasing accuracy in lattice QCD, and continuum results at physical quark masses become available. At sufficiently low temperature the thermodynamic quantities can be understood in terms of hadron resonance gas model that includes known hadrons and hadronic resonances from Particle Data Book. However, for some quantities it is necessary to include undiscovered hadronic resonances (missing states) that are, however, predicted by quark model and lattice QCD study of hadron spectrum. Thus, QCD thermodynamics can provide indications for the existence of yet undiscovered hadron states.
Quenched hadron spectrum of QCD
Kim, Seyong.
1992-12-01
We calculate hadron spectrum of quantum chromodynamics without dynamical fermions on a 32[sup 3] [times] 64 lattice volume at [beta] = 6.5. Using two different wall sources of staggered fermion whose mass is 0.01, 0.005 and 0.0025 under the background gauge configurations, we extract local light hadron masses and the [triangle] masses and compare these hadron masses with those from experiments. The numerical simulation is executed on the Intel Touchstone Delta computer. We employ multihit metropolis algorithm with over-relaxation method steps to update gauge field configuration and gauge field configuration are collected at every 1000 sweeps. After the gauge field configuration is fixed to Coulomb gauge, the conjugate gradient method is used for Dirac matrix inversion.
Quenched hadron spectrum of QCD
Kim, Seyong
1992-12-01
We calculate hadron spectrum of quantum chromodynamics without dynamical fermions on a 32{sup 3} {times} 64 lattice volume at {beta} = 6.5. Using two different wall sources of staggered fermion whose mass is 0.01, 0.005 and 0.0025 under the background gauge configurations, we extract local light hadron masses and the {triangle} masses and compare these hadron masses with those from experiments. The numerical simulation is executed on the Intel Touchstone Delta computer. We employ multihit metropolis algorithm with over-relaxation method steps to update gauge field configuration and gauge field configuration are collected at every 1000 sweeps. After the gauge field configuration is fixed to Coulomb gauge, the conjugate gradient method is used for Dirac matrix inversion.
Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davier, M.; Hoecker, A.; Malaescu, B.; Zhang, Z.
2016-10-01
Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle-antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e- annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingredients to high precision tests of the Standard Theory.
History of hadron therapy accelerators.
Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo
2015-06-01
In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed.
The segmentation of hadron calorimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, He Sheng
1987-05-01
Optimization of the segmentation of large hadron calorimeters is important in order to obtain good resolution for jet physics at minimum construction cost for the next generation of high energy experiments. The principles of the segmentation of hadron calorimeters are discussed. As an example, the Monte Carlo optimization of the segmentation of the L3 hadron calorimeter barrel at CERN is described. Comparisons of results for the reconstructed jet shapes show that the optimum number ADC channels is about 20K for the readout of 450K wires of the proportional chambers. The matching between the sandwiched φ towers and Z towers is the dominant factor for angular resolution. Based on these Monte Carlo simulations, an optimized tower structure is obtained.
Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD
Briceno, Raul
2016-12-01
The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.
Properties of b-flavored hadrons
Jaros, J.A.
1983-10-01
Experimental progress in the study of b-flavored hadrons is reviewed. The observation of the B meson, properties of hadronic B decays, semi-leptonic B decays, and the B lifetime are discussed. 30 references.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
W. Melnitchouk
2000-09-01
Quark-hadron duality addresses some of the most fundamental issues in strong interaction physics, in particular the nature of the transition from the perturbative to non-perturbative regions of QCD. I summarize recent developments in quark-hadron duality in lepton-hadron scattering, and outline how duality can be studied at future high-luminosity facilities such as Jefferson Lab at 12 GeV, or an electron-hadron collider such as EPIC.
Sudden Hadronization in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean
2000-11-27
We formulate and study a mechanical instability criterion for sudden hadronization of dense matter fireballs formed in 158A GeV Pb-Pb collisions. Considering properties of quark-gluon matter and hadron gas we obtain the phase boundary between these two phases and demonstrate that the required deep quark-gluon-plasma supercooling prior to sudden hadronization has occurred.
Wilkinson, III, Richard Paul
1997-01-01
We present evidence for hadronic W decays in t$\\bar{t}$ → lepton + neutrino + ≥ 4 jet events using a 109 pb ^{-1} data sample of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF).
Hadronic Interactions from Lattice QCD
Konstantinos Orginos
2006-03-19
In this talk I discuss a few recent results on lattice calculations of scattering lengths in hadronic processes. In particular, I present the scattering length of the pion-pion scattering in the I=2 channel and the nucleon-nucleon {sup 1}S{sub 0} channel and {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} coupled channels.
Exciting Developments in Hadron Spectroscopy
Seth, Kamal K.
2006-02-11
There has been a renaissance in hadron spectroscopy during the last couple of years. Long lost states have been tracked down. Unexpected states are showing up all over, and numerous measurements with unprecedented precision are being reported. A review is presented.
Hadron production simulation by FLUKA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battistoni, G.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.
2013-02-01
For the purposes of accelerator based neutrino experiments, the simulation of parent hadron production plays a key role. In this paper a quick overview of the main ingredients of the PEANUT event generator implemented in the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is given, together with some benchmarking examples.
Butler, J.N.; /Fermilab
2005-09-01
This paper discusses the physics opportunity and challenges for doing high precision B physics experiments at hadron colliders. It describes how these challenges have been addressed by the two currently operating experiments, CDF and D0, and how they are addressed by three experiments, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, at the LHC.
Future hadron physics at Fermilab
Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab
2005-09-01
Today, hadron physics research occurs at Fermilab as parts of broader experimental programs. This is very likely to be the case in the future. Thus, much of this presentation focuses on our vision of that future--a future aimed at making Fermilab the host laboratory for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Given the uncertainties associated with the ILC--the level of needed R&D, the ILC costs, and the timing--Fermilab is also preparing for other program choices. I will describe these latter efforts, efforts focused on a Proton Driver to increase the numbers of protons available for experiments. As examples of the hadron physics which will be coming from Fermilab, I summarize three experiments: MIPP/E907 which is running currently, and MINERvA and Drell-Yan/E906 which are scheduled for future running periods. Hadron physics coming from the Tevatron Collider program will be summarized by Arthur Maciel in another talk at Hadron05.
Dimensional Reduction and Hadronic Processes
Signer, Adrian; Stoeckinger, Dominik
2008-11-23
We consider the application of regularization by dimensional reduction to NLO corrections of hadronic processes. The general collinear singularity structure is discussed, the origin of the regularization-scheme dependence is identified and transition rules to other regularization schemes are derived.
Key Issues in Hadronic Physics
Simon Capstick; et. Al.
2000-12-01
A group of fifty physicists met in Duck, NC, Nov. 6-9 to discuss the current status and future goals of hadronic physics. The main purpose of the meeting was to define the field by identifying its key issues, challenges, and opportunities. The conclusions, incorporating considerable input from the community at large, are presented in this white paper.
The very large hadron collider
1998-09-01
This paper reviews the purposes to be served by a very large hadron collider and the organization and coordination of efforts to bring it about. There is some discussion of magnet requirements and R&D and the suitability of the Fermilab site.
Theoretical predictions for exotic hadrons
Barnes, T. |
1996-12-31
In this contribution the authors discuss current theoretical expectations for the properties of light meson exotica, which are meson resonances outside the q{anti q} quark model. Specifically they discuss expectations for gluonic hadrons (glueballs and hybrids) and multiquark systems (molecules). Experimental candidates for these states are summarized, and the relevance of a TCF to these studies is stressed.
The CMS central hadron calorimeter
Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration
1996-12-31
The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.
Anomalous correlation between hadron and electromagnetic particles in hadron and gamma-ray families
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tamada, M.
1985-01-01
Correlations between hadrons and electromagnetic particles were studied in the hadron-gamma families observed in the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber experiment. It is found that there exist a number of hadrons which associate electromagnetic showers in extraordinarily close vicinity. The probability to have such a large number of hadrons associating electromagnetic showers, expected from background calculation, is found to be negligibly small and it means there exists anomalous correlation between hadrons and electromagnetic particles in the characteristic spread of atmospheric electromagnetic cascade.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuntz, Aaron M.
2010-01-01
What can be known and how to render what we know are perpetual quandaries met by qualitative research, complicated further by the understanding that the everyday discourses influencing our representations are often tacit, unspoken or heard so often that they seem to warrant little reflection. In this article, I offer analytic memos as a means for…
Single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions
Bacchetta, A.; Bomhof, C.J.; Mulders, P.J.; Pijlman, F.
2005-08-01
We study weighted azimuthal single spin asymmetries in hadron-hadron scattering using the diagrammatic approach at leading order and assuming factorization. The effects of the intrinsic transverse momenta of the partons are taken into account. We show that the way in which T-odd functions, such as the Sivers function, appear in these processes does not merely involve a sign flip when compared with semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, such as in the case of the Drell-Yan process. Expressions for the weighted scattering cross sections in terms of distribution and fragmentation functions folded with hard cross sections are obtained by introducing modified hard cross sections, referred to as gluonic-pole cross sections.
Theoretical study of EAS hadronic structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Popova, L.
1985-01-01
The structure of extensive air showers (EAS) is determined mainly by the energetic hadrons. They are strongly collimated in the core of the shower and essential difficulties are encountered for resolution of individual hadrons. The properties for resolution are different from the variety of hadron detectors used in EAS experiments. This is the main difficulty in obtaining a general agreement between actually registered data with different detectors. The most plausible source for disagreement is the uncertainty in determination of the energy of individual hadrons. This research demonstrates that a better agreement can be obtained with the average tendency of hadronic measurements if one assumes a larger coefficient of inelasticity and stronger energy increase of the total inelastic cross section in high energy pion interactions. EAS data above 10 to the 5th power GeV are revealing a faster development of hadronic cascades in the air then can be expected by extrapolating the parameters of hadron interactions obtained in accelerator measurements.
Thermalization of hadrons via Hagedorn states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beitel, M.; Gallmeister, K.; Greiner, C.
2014-10-01
Hagedorn states are characterized by being very massive hadron-like resonances and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. To generate such a zoo of different Hagedorn states, a covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved by ensuring energy conservation and conservation of baryon number B, strangeness S, and electric charge Q. The numerical solution of this equation provides Hagedorn spectra, which also enable us to obtain the decay width for Hagedorn states needed in cascading decay simulations. A single Hagedorn state cascades by various two-body decay channels subsequently into final stable hadrons. All final hadronic observables such as masses, spectral functions, and decay branching ratios for hadronic feed-down are taken from a hadronic transport model. Strikingly, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons are exponential, showing a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature.
Future Electron-Hadron Colliders
Litvinenko, V.
2010-05-23
Outstanding research potential of electron-hadron colliders (EHC) was clearly demonstrated by first - and the only - electron-proton collider HERA (DESY, Germany). Physics data from HERA revealed new previously unknown facets of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). EHC is an ultimate microscope probing QCD in its natural environment, i.e. inside the hadrons. In contrast with hadrons, electrons are elementary particles with known initial state. Hence, scattering electrons from hadrons provides a clearest pass to their secrets. It turns EHC into an ultimate machine for high precision QCD studies and opens access to rich physics with a great discovery potential: solving proton spin puzzle, observing gluon saturation or physics beyond standard model. Access to this physics requires high-energy high-luminosity EHCs and a wide reach in the center-of-mass (CM) energies. This paper gives a brief overview of four proposed electron-hadron colliders: ENC at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), ELIC/MEIC at TJNAF (Newport News, VA, USA), eRHIC at BNL (Upton, NY, USA) and LHeC at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). Future electron-hadron colliders promise to deliver very rich physics not only in the quantity but also in the precision. They are aiming at very high luminosity two-to-four orders of magnitude beyond the luminosity demonstrated by the very successful HERA. While ENC and LHeC are on opposite side of the energy spectrum, eRHIC and ELIC are competing for becoming an electron-ion collider (EIC) in the U.S. Administrations of BNL and Jlab, in concert with US DoE office of Nuclear Physics, work on the strategy for down-selecting between eRHIC and ELIC. The ENC, EIC and LHeC QCD physics programs to a large degree are complimentary to each other and to the LHC physics. In last decade, an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) collaboration held about 25 collaboration meetings to develop physics program for EIC with CM energy {approx}100 GeV. One of these meetings was held at GSI, where ENC topic was in the
Hadron therapy information sharing prototype
Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose
2013-01-01
The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components. PMID:23824127
Quark description of hadronic phases
Schaefer, T.; Wilczek, F.
1999-10-01
We extend our proposal that major universality classes of hadronic matter can be understood, and in favorable cases calculated, directly in the microscopic quark variables, to allow for a splitting between strange and light quark masses. A surprisingly simple but apparently viable picture emerges, featuring essentially three phases, distinguished by whether strangeness is conserved (standard nuclear matter), conserved modulo 2 (hypernuclear matter), or locked to color (color flavor locking). These are separated by sharp phase transitions. There is also, potentially, a quark phase matching hadronic {ital K} condensation. The smallness of the secondary gap in two-flavor color superconductivity corresponds to the disparity between the primary dynamical energy scales of QCD and the much smaller energy scales of nuclear physics. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Modeling QCD for Hadron Physics
Tandy, P. C.
2011-10-24
We review the approach to modeling soft hadron physics observables based on the Dyson-Schwinger equations of QCD. The focus is on light quark mesons and in particular the pseudoscalar and vector ground states, their decays and electromagnetic couplings. We detail the wide variety of observables that can be correlated by a ladder-rainbow kernel with one infrared parameter fixed to the chiral quark condensate. A recently proposed novel perspective in which the quark condensate is contained within hadrons and not the vacuum is mentioned. The valence quark parton distributions, in the pion and kaon, as measured in the Drell Yan process, are investigated with the same ladder-rainbow truncation of the Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations.
The PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector
Durham, J. M.
2009-03-10
Dielectron measurements by the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC are limited by the combinatorial background from electrons and positrons which are not produced in the same pair. The Hadron Blind Detector will allow a substantial reduction of this background by correctly identifying dielectrons from photon conversions and pion Dalitz decays which dominate the signal in the low mass region of the spectrum. Triple GEM stacks, with a CsI photocathode deposited on the uppermost GEM, detect Cherenkov light produced by electrons in a CF{sub 4} radiator. The transparency of CF{sub 4}, high quantum efficiency of CsI in the UV, and absence of a window between the gas radiator and the GEMs allow a large photoelectron yield, while minimizing the hadron signal. Results from the HBD in RHIC's Run-7 and preparations for upcoming runs are discussed.
Lifetime measurements for bottom hadrons
Wolf, G.
1984-09-01
The review of lifetime measurements of bottom hadrons begins with a first measurement by JADE, followed by similar measurements by MAC and MKII groups. New MAC data are reviewed based on a total of 75,000 multihadron events taken at a c.m. energy of 29 GeV. According to Monte Carlo calculations, 18% of the lepton candidates stem from charm decay and roughly 30% were misidentified hadrons. DELCO studied electrons obtained from 42,000 multihadron events at 29 GeV. The electrons were identified by means of Cerenkov counters. JADE analayzed 22,000 multihadron events at 35 GeV. Data were analyzed using two methods - one using a sample of b-enriched events, and the other using weighted distributions. The TASSO results were obtained with two different configurations of the detector - one of which used a drift chamber and the other a vertex detector. (LEW)
Exotic Hadrons from B Factories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fulsom, Bryan
2017-01-01
The first generation of B-Factories, BaBar and Belle, operated over the previous decade and produced many world-leading measurements related to flavor physics. One of the most important discoveries was that of an apparent four-quark particle, named X(3872). It was the first of a growing X, Y, Z alphabet of exotic hadrons, now numbering more than a dozen, found by the e + e - collider experiments. These multi-quark states represent an unusual departure from the standard description that hadronic matter consists of only two or three quarks. These discoveries have led to the emergence of a new category of physics within heavy meson spectroscopy. This talk will review some of these key experimental results, and highlight the potential of the next generation B-Factory, Belle II, as it begins operation in the coming year.
Hard processes in hadronic interactions
Satz, H. |; Wang, X.N.
1995-07-01
Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason - and in fact its original trigger - is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, we discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behaviour it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time and work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERn in Geneva andin July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley.
Hadron Properties with FLIC Fermions
James Zanotti; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anthony Williams; J Zhang
2003-07-01
The Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermion action provides a new form of nonperturbative O(a)-improvement in lattice fermion actions offering near continuum results at finite lattice spacing. It provides computationally inexpensive access to the light quark mass regime of QCD where chiral nonanalytic behavior associated with Goldstone bosons is revealed. The motivation and formulation of FLIC fermions, its excellent scaling properties and its low-lying hadron mass phenomenology are presented.
Cross sections at hadron colliders
Paige, F.E.
1982-01-01
The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.
Compensation effects in hadron calorimeters
Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.; Brau, J.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Goodman, M.; Wilson, R.
1984-01-01
The pros and cons of utilizing a fissionable material such as /sup 238/U to compensate for the nuclear binding energy losses in a hadron calorimeter are discussed. Fissionable material can return some lost energy to the particle cascade in terms of low-energy neutrons and gamma rays, but electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies (often called transition effects) and the detection medium which tries to convert this energy to a useable signal are just as important. 12 references.
Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD
John Bulava; Robert Edwards; George Fleming; K. Jimmy Juge; Adam C. Lichtl; Nilmani Mathur; Colin Morningstar; David Richards; Stephen J. Wallace
2007-06-16
The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.
Hadronic Resonances from Lattice QCD
Lichtl, Adam C.; Bulava, John; Morningstar, Colin; Edwards, Robert; Mathur, Nilmani; Richards, David; Fleming, George; Juge, K. Jimmy; Wallace, Stephen J.
2007-10-26
The determination of the pattern of hadronic resonances as predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics requires the use of non-perturbative techniques. Lattice QCD has emerged as the dominant tool for such calculations, and has produced many QCD predictions which can be directly compared to experiment. The concepts underlying lattice QCD are outlined, methods for calculating excited states are discussed, and results from an exploratory Nucleon and Delta baryon spectrum study are presented.
Hard processes in hadronic interactions
Satz, H. |; Wang, X.N.
1995-07-01
Quantum chromodynamics is today accepted as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, even though most hadronic collisions lead to final states for which quantitative QCD predictions are still lacking. It therefore seems worthwhile to take stock of where we stand today and to what extent the presently available data on hard processes in hadronic collisions can be accounted for in terms of QCD. This is one reason for this work. The second reason--and in fact its original trigger--is the search for the quark-gluon plasma in high energy nuclear collisions. The hard processes to be considered here are the production of prompt photons, Drell-Yan dileptons, open charm, quarkonium states, and hard jets. For each of these, the authors discuss the present theoretical understanding, compare the resulting predictions to available data, and then show what behavior it leads to at RHIC and LHC energies. All of these processes have the structure mentioned above: they contain a hard partonic interaction, calculable perturbatively, but also the non-perturbative parton distribution within a hadron. These parton distributions, however, can be studied theoretically in terms of counting rule arguments, and they can be checked independently by measurements of the parton structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering. The present volume is the work of Hard Probe Collaboration, a group of theorists who are interested in the problem and were willing to dedicate a considerable amount of their time to work on it. The necessary preparation, planning and coordination of the project were carried out in two workshops of two weeks` duration each, in February 1994 at CERN in Geneva and in July 1994 at LBL in Berkeley. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Hadron physics from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bietenholz, Wolfgang
2016-07-01
We sketch the basic ideas of the lattice regularization in Quantum Field Theory, the corresponding Monte Carlo simulations, and applications to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This approach enables the numerical measurement of observables at the non-perturbative level. We comment on selected results, with a focus on hadron masses and the link to Chiral Perturbation Theory. At last, we address two outstanding issues: topological freezing and the sign problem.
A hadronic tile calorimeter report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boca, Gianluigi; Gourlay, S.; Chung, Yeon Sei; Lee, Kyoung-Beom; Malvezzi, S.; Sala, A.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Merlo, M.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.
1998-02-01
The design and first performances of a new hadronic calorimeter for the experiment Focus (E831) at Fermilab are presented. It is a sampling calorimeter, with 28 iron (passive) and scintillator (active) planes. The active planes are composed of tiles read out by WaveLength Shifter fibers spliced to clear fibers. This is the first tile calorimeter actually used (1997)in a running experiment.
Three Lectures on Hadron Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Craig D.
2016-04-01
These lectures explain that comparisons between experiment and theory can expose the impact of running couplings and masses on hadron observables and thereby aid materially in charting the momentum dependence of the interaction that underlies strong-interaction dynamics. The series begins with a primer on continuum QCD, which introduces some of the basic ideas necessary in order to understand the use of Schwinger functions as a nonperturbative tool in hadron physics. It continues with a discussion of confinement and dynamical symmetry breaking (DCSB) in the Standard Model, and the impact of these phenomena on our understanding of condensates, the parton structure of hadrons, and the pion electromagnetic form factor. The final lecture treats the problem of grand unification; namely, the contemporary use of Schwinger functions as a symmetry-preserving tool for the unified explanation and prediction of the properties of both mesons and baryons. It reveals that DCSB drives the formation of diquark clusters in baryons and sketches a picture of baryons as bound-states with Borromean character. Planned experiments are capable of validating the perspectives outlined in these lectures.
Understanding forward B hadron production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauld, Rhorry
2017-05-01
The LHCb collaboration has recently performed a measurement of the production rate of inclusive B hadron production ( pp → BX) at both 7 and 13 TeV centre-of-mass (CoM) energies. As part of this measurement, the ratio of these two cross section measurements has been presented differentially in B hadron pseudorapidity within the range of η B ∈ [2 .0 , 5 .0]. A large tension (4 σ) is observed for the ratio measurement in the lower pseudorapidity range of η B ∈ [2 .0 , 3 .0], where the data is observed to exceed theoretical predictions, while consistency is found at larger η B values. This behaviour is not expected within perturbative QCD, and can only be achieved by introducing ad-hoc features into the structure of the non-perturbative gluon PDF within the region of x ∈ [10-3 , 10-4]. Specifically, the gluon PDF must grow extremely quickly with decreasing x within this kinematic range, closely followed by a period of decelerated growth. However, such behaviour is highly disfavoured by global fits of proton structure. Further studies of the available LHCb B and D hadron cross section data, available for a range of CoM energies, indicate systematic tension in the (pseudo)rapidity region of [2 .0 , 2 .5].
Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-detected Blazars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böttcher, M.; Reimer, A.; Sweeney, K.; Prakash, A.
2013-05-01
We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei in a temporary steady state. For the leptonic model, a temporary equilibrium between particle injection/acceleration, radiative cooling, and escape from a spherical emission region is evaluated, and the self-consistent radiative output is calculated. For the hadronic model, a temporary equilibrium between particle injection/acceleration, radiative and adiabatic cooling, and escape is evaluated for both primary electrons and protons. A new, semianalytical method to evaluate the radiative output from cascades initiated by internal γγ pair production is presented. We use our codes to fit snapshot spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a representative set of Fermi-LAT-detected blazars. We find that the leptonic model provides acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. However, the hard γ-ray spectrum of AO 0235+164, in contrast to the very steep IR-optical-UV continuum, poses a severe problem for the leptonic model. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. However, in the case of two quasars the characteristic break at a few GeV energies cannot be well modeled. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range Lp ~ 1047-1049 erg s-1.
Applications of instantons to hadronic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zetocha, Valeriu Ioan
Instantons constitute an important part of QCD as they provide a way to reach beyond the perturbative region. In the introductory chapters we present the ideas that constitute the backbone of instanton computation on a simple standard integral. We then turn our attention to QCD instantons and briefly show the steps to compute the effective lagrangian. The effective lagrangian is then used as a main tool for studying instanton contributions to hadronic decays of the scalar glueball, the pseudoscalar charmonium state etac, and the scalar charmonium state chic. Hadronic decays of the eta c are of particular interest. The three main decay channels are KK¯pi, etapipi and eta'pipi, each with an unusually large branching ratio of ˜5%. We show that the total decay rate into three pseudoscalar mesons can be reproduced using an instanton size distribution consistent with phenomenology and lattice results. Instantons correctly reproduce the ratio B(etapipi)/ B(eta'pipi) but over-predict the ratio B(KK¯pi)/B(etapipi). In the next part we study the contribution of instantons to OZI violation in the axial-vector channel. We consider, in particular, the f1-a 1 meson splitting, the flavor singlet and triplet axial coupling of a constituent quark, and the axial coupling constant of the nucleon. Instantons provide a short distance contribution to OZI violating correlation functions which is repulsive in the f1 meson channel and adds to the flavor singlet three-point function of a constituent quark. We compute long distance contributions using numerical simulations of the instanton liquid. We find that the iso-vector axial coupling constant of a constituent quark is (g A3)Q = 0.9 and that of a nucleon is g A3 = 1.28, in good agreement with experiment. The flavor singlet coupling of quark is close to one, while that of a nucleon is suppressed gA0 = 0.8. This number is still significantly larger than the experimental value gA0 = (0.28--0.41). In the last part we present an algorithm
Hadron Structure in Holographic Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Gutsche, T.; Schmidt, I.
2017-08-01
Hadrons and multiquark states are discussed within the context of holographic quantum chromodynamics. This approach is based on an action that describes the hadron structure with breaking of conformal and chiral symmetry and includes confinement through the presence of a background dilaton field. According to gauge/gravity duality, five-dimensional boson and fermion fields, moving in AdS space, are dual to the four-dimensional fields on the surface of the AdS sphere, which correspond to hadrons. In this framework, the hadron wave functions - the building blocks of the hadron properties - are dual to the profiles of the AdS fields in the fifth (holographic) dimension, which is identified with a scale. As applications, we consider the properties of hadrons and multiquark states.
Hadron Physics with PANDA at FAIR
Wiedner, Ulrich
2011-10-21
The recently established FAIR facility in Darmstadt has a broad program in the field of hadron and nuclear physics utilizing ion beams with unprecedented intensity and accuracy. The PANDA experiment, which is integrated in the HESR storage ring for antiprotons is at the center of the hadron physics program. It includes among others topics like hadron spectroscopy in the charmonium mass region and below, hyperon physics and electromagnetic processes.
Validation of Hadronic Models in GEANT4
Koi, Tatsumi; Wright, Dennis H.; Folger, Gunter; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Starkov, Nikolai; Heikkinen, Aatos; Truscott, Peter; Lei, Fan; Wellisch, Hans-Peter
2007-09-26
Geant4 is a software toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. It has abundant hadronic models from thermal neutron interactions to ultra relativistic hadrons. An overview of validations in Geant4 hadronic physics is presented based on thin target measurements. In most cases, good agreement is available between Monte Carlo prediction and experimental data; however, several problems have been detected which require some improvement in the models.
Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter
Dupre, Raphael
2015-05-01
Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.
The Emergence of Hadrons from QCD Color
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, William; Color Dynamics in Cold Matter (CDCM) Collaboration
2015-10-01
The formation of hadrons from energetic quarks, the dynamical enforcement of QCD confinement, is not well understood at a fundamental level. In Deep Inelastic Scattering, modifications of the distributions of identified hadrons emerging from nuclei of different sizes reveal a rich variety of spatial and temporal characteristics of the hadronization process, including its dependence on spin, flavor, energy, and hadron mass and structure. The EIC will feature a wide range of kinematics, allowing a complete investigation of medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung by the propagating quarks, leading to partonic energy loss. This fundamental process, which is also at the heart of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions, can be studied for light and heavy quarks at the EIC through observables quantifying hadron ``attenuation'' for a variety of hadron species. Transverse momentum broadening of hadrons, which is sensitive to the nuclear gluonic field, will also be accessible, and can be used to test our understanding from pQCD of how this quantity evolves with pathlength, as well as its connection to partonic energy loss. The evolution of the forming hadrons in the medium will shed new light on the dynamical origins of the forces between hadrons, and thus ultimately on the nuclear force. Supported by the Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) of Chile.
Exotic hadrons from heavy ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Sungtae; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Maeda, Saori; Miyahara, Kenta; Morita, Kenji; Nielsen, Marina; Ohnishi, Akira; Sekihara, Takayasu; Song, Taesoo; Yasui, Shigehiro; Yazaki, Koichi
2017-07-01
High energy heavy ion collisions are excellent ways for producing heavy hadrons and composite particles, including the light (anti)nuclei. With upgraded detectors at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it has become possible to measure hadrons beyond their ground states. Therefore, heavy ion collisions provide a new method for studying exotic hadrons that are either molecular states made of various hadrons or compact system consisting of multiquarks. Because their structures are related to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), studying exotic hadrons is currently one of the most active areas of research in hadron physics. Experiments carried out at various accelerator facilities have indicated that some exotic hadrons may have already been produced. The present review is a summary of the current understanding of a selected set of exotic particle candidates that can be potentially measured in heavy ion collisions. It also includes discussions on the production of resonances, exotics and hadronic molecular states in these collisions based on the coalescence model and the statistical model. A more detailed discussion is given on the results from these models, leading to the conclusion that the yield of a hadron that is a compact multiquark state is typically an order of magnitude smaller than if it is an excited hadronic state with normal quark numbers or a loosely bound hadronic molecule. Attention is also given to some of the proposed heavy exotic hadrons that could be produced with sufficient abundance in heavy ion collisions because of the significant numbers of charm and bottom quarks that are produced at RHIC and even larger numbers at LHC, making it possible to study them in these experiments. Further included in the discussion are the general formalism for the coalescence model that involves resonance particles and its implication on the present estimated yield for resonance production. Finally
Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons
Heusch, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)
Heavy Hadron Spectroscopy at CDF
Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo
2010-12-22
We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include measurements of charm and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -{Sigma}}{sub b}*{sup -} baryon's masses, lifetimes and masses of {Omega}{sub b}{sup -,} {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} and B{sub c}{sup -} and a measurement of exclusive B{sup +}, B{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b} lifetimes as well as lifetime ratios (charge conjugate modes are implied throughout the text). We also summarize new measurements of exotic particles X(3872) and Y(4140).
Heavy hadron spectroscopy at CDF
Fernandez Ramos, Juan Pablo; /Madrid, CIEMAT
2011-01-01
We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include measurements of charm and {Sigma}{sub b}{sup -}{Sigma}*{sub b}{sup -} baryon's masses, lifetimes and masses of {Omega}{sub b}{sup -}, {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} and B{sub c}{sup -} and a measurement of exclusive B{sup +}, B{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b} lifetimes as well as lifetime ratios (charge conjugate modes are implied throughout the text). We also summarize new measurements of exotic particles X(3872) and Y(4140).
The theory of hadronic systems
Gibbs, W.R.
1995-03-16
This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; subthreshold amplitudes in the {pi}N system; neutron-proton charge-exchange; transparency in pion production; energy dependence of pion DCX; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; pion absorption in nuclei; modification of nucleon structure in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei.
Recent results from hadron colliders
Frisch, H.J. )
1990-12-10
This is a summary of some of the many recent results from the CERN and Fermilab colliders, presented for an audience of nuclear, medium-energy, and elementary particle physicists. The topics are jets and QCD at very high energies, precision measurements of electroweak parameters, the remarkably heavy top quark, and new results on the detection of the large flux of B mesons produced at these machines. A summary and some comments on the bright prospects for the future of hadron colliders conclude the talk. 39 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.
LHC: The Large Hadron Collider
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The Large Hadron Collider (or LHC) is the worldâs most powerful particle accelerator. In 2012, scientists used data taken by it to discover the Higgs boson, before pausing operations for upgrades and improvements. In the spring of 2015, the LHC will return to operations with 163% the energy it had before and with three times as many collisions per second. Itâs essentially a new and improved version of itself. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln explains both some of the absolutely amazing scientific and engineering properties of this modern scientific wonder.
Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jicai; Hwa, Rudolph C.
1992-12-01
The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ecco is extended to three-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in lnpT, and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle φ. The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent ν=1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined.
Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, J.; Hwa, R. C.
1992-06-01
The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ECCO is extended to 3-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in 1np(sub T), and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle (phi). The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent nu = 1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined.
Quark forces from hadronic spectroscopy.
Pirjol, Dan; Schat, Carlos
2009-04-17
We consider the implications of the most general two-body quark-quark interaction Hamiltonian for the spin-flavor structure of the negative parity L = 1 excited baryons. Assuming the most general two-body quark interaction Hamiltonian, we derive two correlations among the masses and mixing angles of these states, which constrain the mixing angles, and can be used to test for the presence of three-body quark interactions. We find that the pure gluon-exchange model is disfavored by data, independently of any assumptions about hadronic wave functions.
LHC: The Large Hadron Collider
Lincoln, Don
2015-03-04
The Large Hadron Collider (or LHC) is the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. In 2012, scientists used data taken by it to discover the Higgs boson, before pausing operations for upgrades and improvements. In the spring of 2015, the LHC will return to operations with 163% the energy it had before and with three times as many collisions per second. It’s essentially a new and improved version of itself. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains both some of the absolutely amazing scientific and engineering properties of this modern scientific wonder.
Novel Perspectives for Hadron Physics
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC
2012-03-09
I discuss several novel and unexpected aspects of quantum chromodynamics. These include: (a) the nonperturbative origin of intrinsic strange, charm and bottom quarks in the nucleon at large x; the breakdown of pQCD factorization theorems due to the lensing effects of initial- and final-state interactions; (b) important corrections to pQCD scaling for inclusive reactions due to processes in which hadrons are created at high transverse momentum directly in the hard processes and their relation to the baryon anomaly in high-centrality heavy-ion collisions; and (c) the nonuniversality of quark distributions in nuclei. I also discuss some novel theoretical perspectives in QCD: (a) light-front holography - a relativistic color-confining first approximation to QCD based on the AdS/CFT correspondence principle; (b) the principle of maximum conformality - a method which determines the renormalization scale at finite order in perturbation theory yielding scheme independent results; (c) the replacement of quark and gluon vacuum condensates by 'in-hadron condensates' and how this helps to resolve the conflict between QCD vacuum and the cosmological constant.
State of hadron collider physics
Grannis, P.D. |
1993-12-01
The 9th Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics in Tsukuba Japan demonstrated clearly the enormous breadth of physics accessible in hadron cowders. Although no significant chinks were reported in the armor of the Standard Model, new results presented in this meeting have expanded our knowledge of the electroweak and strong interactions and have extended the searches for non-standard phenomena significantly. Much of the new data reported came from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Fermilab cowder. Superb operation of the Tevatron during the 1992-1993 Run and significant advances on the detector fronts -- in particular, the emergence of the new D0 detector as a productive physics instrument in its first outing and the addition of the CDF silicon vertex detector -- enabled much of this advance. It is noteworthy however that physics from the CERN collider experiments UA1 and UA4 continued to make a large impact at this meeting. In addition, very interesting summary talks were given on new results from HERA, cosmic ray experiments, on super-hadron collider physics, and on e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} experiments at LEP and TRISTAN. These summaries are reported in elsewhere in this volume.
TOPOLOGICAL THEORY OF HADRONS II: BARYONS
Stapp, Henry P.
1981-10-01
The first paper of this series described a method for incorporating spin into the meson sector of the topological theory of hadrons. This second paper extends the theory to all hadrons. It also incorporates into the covariant S-matrix topological framework the group-theoretic properties of the constituent quark model.
A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.
PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.
2007-06-25
Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.
Status and Prospects for Hadron Production Experiments
Schroeter, Raphaeel
2010-03-30
The latest results from the HARP, MIPP and NA61 Hadron Production Experiments are reviewed and their implications for neutrinos physics experiments are discussed. We emphasize three neutrino sources: accelerator-based neutrino beams, advanced neutrino sources and atmospheric neutrinos. Finally, prospects from additional forthcoming hadron production measurements are presented.
Hadron production at PEP/PETRA
Yamamoto, H.
1985-12-01
Recent results on hadron production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at PEP and PETRA are summarized. The topics included are: (1) inclusive hadron production, (2) gluon vs quark jet, (3) analysis of 3 jet events and (4) p - anti p correlations. Experimental data are compared with predictions of several models to reveal underlying physics. 47 refs., 18 figs.
Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab
Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; et. al.,
2014-10-01
Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.
Hadron therapy: history, status, prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klenov, G. I.; Khoroshkov, V. S.
2016-08-01
A brief historical review is given of external radiation therapy (RT), one of the main cancer treatment methods along with surgery and chemotherapy. Cellular mechanisms of radiation damage are described. Special attention is paid to hadron (proton and ion) therapy, its history, results, problems, challenges, current trends, and prospects. Undeniably great contributions to proton therapy have been made by Russian researchers, notably at the experimental centers that have operated since the mid-20th century at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, the A I Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), and the B P Konstantinov Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics. A quarter of the global clinical experience was accumulated by 1990 at the world's largest ITEP-hosted multicabin proton therapy center.
Nuclear Physics and Hadron Therapy
Braunn, B.
2011-12-13
Hadron therapy uses light charged particles beams (mainly proton and {sup 12}C ions) to irradiate tumors. These beams present a ballistic advantage with a maximum energy deposition at the end of the path. A large dose can be delivered inside a deep tumor while the surrounding healthy tissues are preserved. There is an obvious advantage in using these beams but the beam control has to be achieved and all the physical processes leading to the energy deposition have to be fully under control. This treatment protocol requires accurate control devices and a good knowledge of the physical processes occurring all along the path of the projectile in human tissues. In this report, we will present one example of a beam monitor for the proton therapy. We will also present the experimental program which has been initiated to obtain fundamental data on the nuclear fragmentation process.
Collins Asymmetry at Hadron Colliders
Yuan, Feng
2008-01-17
We study the Collins effect in the azimuthal asymmetricdistribution of hadrons inside a high energy jet in the single transversepolarized proton proton scattering. From the detailed analysis ofone-gluon and two-gluon exchange diagrams contributions, the Collinsfunction is found the same as that in the semi-inclusive deep inelasticscattering and e+e- annihilations. The eikonal propagators in thesediagrams do not contribute to the phase needed for the Collins-typesingle spin asymmetry, and the universality is derived as a result of theWard identity. We argue that this conclusion depends on the momentum flowof the exchanged gluon and the kinematic constraints in the fragmentationprocess, and is generic and model-independent.
Baryon resonance yields after QGP hadronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann
2008-10-01
Yields of baryon resonances which have been studied at RHIC, considering their decay (e.g. δ(1232) ->N+π , σ(1385) ->λ+π), are studied in the framework of a kinetic master equations. The detailed balance requirement implied that they can be also produced by back-reaction. Particularly interesting is the case of entropy rich QGP fast hadronization leading to initial above chemical equilibrium yields of hadrons. In this case the resonance yield in a rapidly expanding system does not always develop towards global chemical equilibrium. We find that a significant additional hadron resonance yields can be produced by the back-reaction of the over-abundance of the decay products of resonances. A more complex situation arises for a relatively narrow resonance such as λ(1520), which can be in part seen as a stable state, which is depopulated to increase the heavier resonance yield. We find that a suppression of yield of such resonances, as compared to statistical hadronization model is possible. The pattern of deviation of hadron resonance yields from expectations based on statistical hadronization model are another characteristic signature for a fast hadronization of entropy rich QGP. The total yields of the ground state baryons used in analysis of data (such as N, λ) are not affected.
Hadron cascades produced by electromagnetic cascades
Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, T.M.; Ranft, J.
1986-12-01
A method for calculating high energy hadron cascades induced by multi-GeV electron and photon beams is described. Using the EGS4 computer program, high energy photons in the EM shower are allowed to interact hadronically according to the vector meson dominance (VMD) model, facilitated by a Monte Carlo version of the dual multistring fragmentation model which is used in the hadron cascade code FLUKA. The results of this calculation compare very favorably with experimental data on hadron production in photon-proton collisions and on the hadron production by electron beams on targets (i.e., yields in secondary particle beam lines). Electron beam induced hadron star density contours are also presented and are compared with those produced by proton beams. This FLUKA-EGS4 coupling technique could find use in the design of secondary beams, in the determination high energy hadron source terms for shielding purposes, and in the estimation of induced radioactivity in targets, collimators and beam dumps.
Di-hadron production at Jefferson Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; CLAS Collaboration
2015-04-01
Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Pair of hadrons (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complements single-hadron SIDIS. The study of di-hadrons allow us to study higher twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs (f 1, g 1, h 1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations which provide direct and unique insights into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.
Non-perturbative QCD and hadron physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobos-Martínez, J. J.
2016-10-01
A brief exposition of contemporary non-perturbative methods based on the Schwinger-Dyson (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE) of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and their application to hadron physics is given. These equations provide a non-perturbative continuum formulation of QCD and are a powerful and promising tool for the study of hadron physics. Results on some properties of hadrons based on this approach, with particular attention to the pion distribution amplitude, elastic, and transition electromagnetic form factors, and their comparison to experimental data are presented.
Modeling Hadronic Showers in MINERvA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velasquez, Juan; Minerva Collaboration
2011-04-01
The MINERνA Test Beam (TB) detector took data in a low energy test beam at Fermilab with particle energies from 400 MeV to 1.2 GeV. These data will be used to calibrate the MINERνA neutrino detector. One of the goals of this work is to characterize the length and radius of the hadronic showers produced in the TB data, important for the MINERνA DIS studies. Within the same study, we will perform a comparison of these hadronic showers with the different hadronic models available in GEANT4. The status of this study will be presented.
Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudek, Jozef J.
2016-05-01
I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study ππ elastic scattering, including the ρ resonance, as well as coupled-channel π >K, ηK scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.
Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter
Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de
2012-08-01
We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons. We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.
Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results
Niculescu, Maria Ioana
2016-08-01
The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.
Hadron scattering and resonances in QCD
Dudek, Jozef J.
2016-05-01
I describe how hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes are related to the eigenstates of QCD in a finite cubic volume. The discrete spectrum of such eigenstates can be determined from correlation functions computed using lattice QCD, and the corresponding scattering amplitudes extracted. I review results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration who have used these finite volume methods to study pi pi elastic scattering, including the rho resonance, as well as coupled-channel pi K, eta K scattering. Ongoing calculations are advertised and the outlook for finite volume approaches is presented.
Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-12-01
Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)
SHARE: Statistical hadronization with resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrieri, G.; Steinke, S.; Broniowski, W.; Florkowski, W.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.
2005-05-01
interaction feed-down corrections, the observed hadron abundances are obtained. SHARE incorporates diverse physical approaches, with a flexibility of choice of the details of the statistical hadronization model, including the selection of a chemical (non-)equilibrium condition. SHARE also offers evaluation of the extensive properties of the source of particles, such as energy, entropy, baryon number, strangeness, as well as the determination of the best intensive input parameters fitting a set of experimental yields. This allows exploration of a proposed physical hypothesis about hadron production mechanisms and the determination of the properties of their source. Method of solving the problem: Distributions at freeze-out of both the stable particles and the hadronic resonances are set according to a statistical prescription, technically calculated via a series of Bessel functions, using CERN library programs. We also have the option of including finite particle widths of the resonances. While this is computationally expensive, it is necessary to fully implement the essence of the strong interaction dynamics within the statistical hadronization picture. In fact, including finite width has a considerable effect when modeling directly detectable short-lived resonances ( Λ(1520),K, etc.), and is noticeable in fits to experimentally measured yields of stable particles. After production, all hadronic resonances decay. Resonance decays are accomplished by addition of the parent abundances to the daughter, normalized by the branching ratio. Weak interaction decays receive a special treatment, where we introduce daughter particle acceptance factors for both strongly interacting decay products. An interface for fitting to experimental particle ratios of the statistical model parameters with the help of MINUIT[1] is provided. The χ function is defined in the standard way. For an investigated quantity f and experimental error Δ f, χ=((N=N-N. (note that systematic and statistical
Exotic hadrons in the constituent quark model.
Lipkin, H. J.; High Energy Physics; Weizmann Institute of Science; Tel Aviv Univ.
2007-01-01
Exotic hadrons are important because their existence or absence can provide important clues to understanding how QCD makes hadrons from quarks and gluons. The first experimentally confirmed exotic will be the first hadron containing both qq and {bar q}q pairs and the first hadron containing color sextet and color octet pairs. Theoretical models are not very useful because there is no accepted model for multiquark systems with color-space correlations. The constituent quark model is the only phenomenological model with predictive power that has given experimentally tested universal predictions for both mesons and baryons. This paper reviews its explanation for why there are no bound exotics and its guidance to the search for heavy-flavored exotic tetraquarks and pentaquarks. A possible supersymmetry between mesons and baryons leading to meson-baryon mass relations not easily obtained otherwise is discussed.
Hadronic and nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics
Brodsky, S.J.
1987-06-01
Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involves processes at intermediate energies. We discuss a range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena - exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction - as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Many of these processes can be studied in electroproduction, utilizing internal targets in storage rings. We also review several areas where there has been significant theoretical progress in determining the form of hadron and nuclear wavefunctions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. 98 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs.
Hadron spectroscopy and B physics at RHIC
Chung, S.U.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.
1991-11-01
A description is given of the physics opportunities at RHIC regarding quark-gluon spectroscopy. The basic idea is to isolate with appropriate triggers the sub-processes pomeron + pomeron {yields} hadrons and {gamma}{sup *} + {gamma}{sup *} {yields} hadrons with the net effective mass of hadrons in the range of 1.0 to 10.0 GeV, in order to study the hadronic states composed of quarks and gluons. The double-pomeron interactions are expected to produce glueballs and hybrids preferentially, while the two-offshell-photon initial states should couple predominantly to quarkonia and multiquark states. Of particular interest is the possibility of carrying out a CP-violation study in the self-tagging B decays, B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} and {bar B}{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}. 20 refs., 4 figs.
J/ ψ-hadron correlations at STAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikoła, Daniel
2011-05-01
Despite over 30 years of theoretical studies of quarkonia production, the consistent description of J/ ψ production mechanism is still missing. At RHIC energies, the main difficulty is the separation of different contributions to the inclusive J/ ψ yield, which are direct production, feed-down from excited charmonium states and b-hadron decays. The information about production rates for these processes is also crucial to understand J/ ψ in-medium interaction which has been an active field of research for the last 20 years. In this article we discuss the recent results of J/ ψ-hadron correlation reported by the STAR collaboration. This measurement was used to constrain the contribution from b-hadron decays to inclusive J/ ψ yield at high transverse momentum. We also discuss prospects for using quarkonia-hadron correlation to study quarkonia direct production.
The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update
Freeman, J.
1998-06-01
The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.
Hadron thermodynamics in relativistic nuclear collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ammiraju, P.
1985-01-01
Various phenomenological models based on statistical thermodynamical considerations were used to fit the experimental data at high P sub T to a two temperature distribution. Whether this implies that the two temperatures belong to two different reaction mechanisms, or consequences of Lorentz-contraction factor, or related in a fundamental way to the intrinsic thermodynamics of Space-Time can only be revealed by further theoretical and experimental investigations of high P sub T phenomena in extremely energetic hadron-hadron collisions.
Hadrons and Quark-Gluon Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letessier, Jean; Rafelski, Johann
2002-06-01
Before matter as we know it emerged, the universe was filled with the primordial state of hadronic matter called quark gluon plasma. This hot soup of quarks and gluon is effectively an inescapable consequence of our current knowledge about the fundamental hadronic interactions, quantum chromodynamics. This book covers the ongoing search to verify this prediction experimentally and discusses the physical properties of this novel form of matter.
Hadron formation from interaction among quarks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Z. G.; Yang, C. B.
2015-06-01
This paper deals with the hadronization process of quark system. A phenomenological potential is introduced to describe the interaction between a quark pair. The potential depends on the color charge of those quarks and their relative distances. Those quarks move according to classical equations of motion. Due to the color interaction, coloring quarks are separated to form color neutral clusters which are supposed to be the hadrons.
Light Hadron Physics at the B Factories
Li, Selina Z.; /SLAC
2008-10-20
We report measurements of hadronic final states produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations from the BABAR and Belle experiments. In particular, we present cross sections measured in several different processes, including two-photon physics, Initial-State Radiation, and exclusive hadron productions at center-of-mass energies near 10.58 GeV. Results are compared with theoretical predictions.
Hadron spectroscopy at RHIC and KAON
Chung, S.U.
1990-01-01
A description is given of the physics opportunities at RHIC regarding quark-gluon spectroscopy. The basic idea is to isolate with appropriate triggers the sub-processes pomeron + pomeron {yields} hadrons and {gamma}{sup +}+{gamma}{sup +} {yields} hadrons with the net effective mass of hadrons in the range of 1.0 to 10.0 GeV, in order to study the hadronic states composed of u, d, c, b and gluons. The double-pomeron interactions are expected to produce glueballs and hybrids preferentially, while the two-offshell-photon initial states should couple predominantly to quarkonia and multiquark states. Of particular interest is the possibility of carrying out a CP-violation study in the B decays. The KAON facility, proposed for TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada, is an intense hadron factory with a proton flux some 25 times higher than that available at the BNL AGS with the Booster. Therefore, a general purpose hadron spectrometer will be able to tackle the problem of studying gluonic and multiquark degrees of freedom in strangeonia. 19 refs., 3 figs.
Very large hadron collider (VLHC)
1998-09-01
A VLHC informal study group started to come together at Fermilab in the fall of 1995 and at the 1996 Snowmass Study the parameters of this machine took form. The VLHC as now conceived would be a 100 TeV hadron collider. It would use the Fermilab Main Injector (now nearing completion) to inject protons at 150 GeV into a new 3 TeV Booster and then into a superconducting pp collider ring producing 100 TeV c.m. interactions. A luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned. Our plans were presented to the Subpanel on the Planning for the Future of US High- Energy Physics (the successor to the Drell committee) and in February 1998 their report stated ``The Subpanel recommends an expanded program of R&D on cost reduction strategies, enabling technologies, and accelerator physics issues for a VLHC. These efforts should be coordinated across laboratory and university groups with the aim of identifying design concepts for an economically and technically viable facility`` The coordination has been started with the inclusion of physicists from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Cornell University. Clearly, this collaboration must expanded internationally as well as nationally. The phrase ``economically and technically viable facility`` presents the real challenge.
Geometric representation of fundamental particles' inertial mass
Schachter, L.; Spencer, James
2015-07-22
A geometric representation of the (N = 279) masses of quarks, leptons, hadrons and gauge bosons was introduced by employing a Riemann Sphere facilitating the interpretation of the N masses in terms of a single particle, the Masson, which might be in one of the N eigen-states. Geometrically, its mass is the radius of the Riemann Sphere. Dynamically, its derived mass is near the mass of the nucleon regardless of whether it is determined from all N particles of only the hadrons, the mesons or the baryons separately. Ignoring all the other properties of these particles, it is shown that the eigen-values, the polar representation θ_{ν} of the masses on the Sphere, satisfy the symmetry θ_{ν} + θ_{N+1-ν} = π within less than 1% relative error. In addition, these pair correlations include the pairs θ_{γ} + θ_{top} ≃ π and θ_{gluon} + θ_{H} ≃ π as well as pairing the weak gauge bosons with the three neutrinos.
A correlated-cluster model and the ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward
2017-03-01
A study of the near-side ridge phenomenon in hadron-hadron collisions based on a cluster picture of multiparticle production is presented. The near-side ridge effect is shown to have a natural explanation in this context provided that clusters are produced in a correlated manner in the collision transverse plane.
Hadronic interactions in the MINOS detectors
Kordosky, Michael Alan
2004-08-01
MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, will study neutrino flavor transformations using a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and a Far detector located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The MINOS collaboration also constructed the CalDet (calibration detector), a smaller version of the Near and Far detectors, to determine the topological and signal response to hadrons, electrons and muons. The detector was exposed to test-beams in the CERN Proton Synchrotron East Hall during 2001-2003, where it collected events at momentum settings between 200 MeV/c and 10 GeV/c. In this dissertation we present results of the CalDet experiment, focusing on the topological and signal response to hadrons. We briefly describe the MINOS experiment and its iron-scintillator tracking-sampling calorimters as a motivation for the CalDet experiment. We discuss the operation of the CalDet in the beamlines as well as the trigger and particle identification systems used to isolate the hadron sample. The method used to calibrate the MINOS detector is described and validated with test-beam data. The test-beams were simulated to model the muon flux, energy loss upstream of the detector and the kaon background. We describe the procedure used to discriminate between pions and muons on the basis of the event topology. The hadron samples were used to benchmark the existing GEANT3 based hadronic shower codes and determine the detector response and resolution for pions and protons. We conclude with comments on the response to single hadrons and to neutrino induced hadronic showers.
Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; Lorce, Cedric
2016-05-25
An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin–spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π , ρ , K , K* and Φ meson families as well as to the N , Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ* , Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. Here, we also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.
Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; ...
2016-05-25
An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin–spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Ourmore » analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π , ρ , K , K* and Φ meson families as well as to the N , Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ* , Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. Here, we also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.« less
Theoretical studies of hadrons and nuclei
COTANCH, STEPHEN R
2007-03-20
This report details final research results obtained during the 9 year period from June 1, 1997 through July 15, 2006. The research project, entitled Theoretical Studies of Hadrons and Nuclei , was supported by grant DE-FG02-97ER41048 between North Carolina State University [NCSU] and the U. S. Department of Energy [DOE]. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator [PI], Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, conducted a theoretical research program investigating hadrons and nuclei and devoted to this program 50% of his time during the academic year and 100% of his time in the summer. Highlights of new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following three sections corresponding to the respective sub-programs of this project (hadron structure, probing hadrons and hadron systems electromagnetically, and many-body studies). Recent progress is also discussed in a recent renewal/supplemental grant proposal submitted to DOE. Finally, full detailed descriptions of completed work can be found in the publications listed at the end of this report.
Evidences for two scales in hadrons
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Povh, B.
2007-11-01
Some unusual features observed in hadronic collisions at high energies can be understood assuming that gluons in hadrons are located within small spots occupying only about 10% of the hadrons' area. Such a conjecture about the presence of two scales in hadrons helps to explain the following: why diffractive gluon radiation is so suppressed; why the triple-Pomeron coupling shows no t dependence; why total hadronic cross sections rise so slowly with energy; why diffraction cones shrink so slowly, and why {alpha}{sub P}{sup '}<<{alpha}{sub R}{sup '}; why the transition from hard to soft regimes in the structure functions occurs at rather large Q{sup 2}; why the observed Cronin effect at collider energies is so weak; why hard reactions sensitive to primordial parton motion (direct photon, Drell-Yan dileptons, heavy flavors, back-to-back dihadrons, seagull effect, etc.) demand such a large transverse momenta of the projectile partons, which is not explained by next-to-leading order calculations; why the onset of nuclear shadowing for gluons is so delayed compared to quarks; and why shadowing is so weak.
Universal effective hadron dynamics from superconformal algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter; Lorcé, Cédric
2016-08-01
An effective supersymmetric QCD light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks, which includes a spin-spin interaction between the hadronic constituents, is constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. A specific breaking of conformal symmetry inside the graded algebra determines a unique effective quark-confining potential for light hadrons, as well as remarkable connections between the meson and baryon spectra. The results are consistent with the empirical features of the light-quark hadron spectra, including a universal mass scale for the slopes of the meson and baryon Regge trajectories and a zero-mass pion in the limit of massless quarks. Our analysis is consistently applied to the excitation spectra of the π, ρ, K, K* and ϕ meson families as well as to the N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Σ*, Ξ and Ξ* in the baryon sector. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. The mass of light hadrons is expressed in a universal and frame-independent decomposition in the semiclassical approximation described here.
Hadronic vacuum polarization in QCD and its evaluation in Euclidean spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Rafael, Eduardo
2017-07-01
We discuss a new technique to evaluate integrals of QCD Green's functions in the Euclidean based on their Mellin-Barnes representation. We present as a first application the evaluation of the lowest order hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon 1/2 (gμ-2 )HVP≡aμHVP . It is shown that with a precise determination of the slope and curvature of the HVP function at the origin from lattice QCD (LQCD), one can already obtain a result for aμHVP which may serve as a test of the determinations based on experimental measurements of the e+e- annihilation cross section into hadrons.
Technical Design of Hadron Therapy Facilities
Alonso, J.R.
1993-08-01
Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Lorna Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).
Technical design of hadron therapy facilities
Alonso, J.R.
1993-08-01
Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Loma Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).
Freeze-out, Hadronization and Statistical Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castorina, Paolo
2016-01-01
The comparison of the statistical hadronization model with experimental data and lattice QCD results is not always straightforward. Indeed, the interpretation of the ϕ meson production, of the proton to pion multiplicity ratio at LHC and the agreement of the freeze-out curve with the lattice critical line in the T — µB plane, require further analyses. Moreover the dynamics of the hadronization has to be compatible with: 1) the statitical behavior also observed in elementary high energy collisions; 2) a universal hadronization temperature for all high energy collisions; 3) the freeze-out criteria. In these lecture notes the SHM is recalled and some explanations of the puzzling aspects of its comparison with data are discussed.
Dynamic versus Static Hadronic Structure Functions
Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC
2009-01-09
'Static' structure functions are the probabilistic distributions computed from the square of the light-front wavefunctions of the target hadron. In contrast, the 'dynamic' structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering include the effects of rescattering associated with the Wilson line. Initial- and final-state rescattering, neglected in the parton model, can have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, producing single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, nuclear shadowing, and non-universal nuclear antishadowing|novel leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also review how 'direct' higher-twist processes--where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess itself--can explain the anomalous proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.
A New Slant on Hadron Structure
Anthony Thomas; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Will Detmold; Stewart Wright; Derek Leinweber
2001-09-01
Rather than regarding the restriction of current lattice QCD simulations to quark masses that are 5--10 times larger than those observed, we note that this presents a wonderful opportunity to deepen our understanding of QCD. Just as it has been possible to learn a great deal about QCD by treating N{sub c} as a variable, so the study of hadron properties as a function of quark mass is leading us to a much deeper appreciation of hadron structure. As examples we cite recent progress in using the chiral properties of QCD to connect hadron masses, magnetic moments, charge radii and structure functions calculated at large quark masses within lattice QCD with the values observed physically.
Hadronization of QCD and effective interactions
Frank, M.R.
1994-07-01
An introductory treatment of hadronization through functional integral calculus and bifocal Bose fields is given. Emphasis is placed on the utility of this approach for providing a connection between QCD and effective hadronic field theories. The hadronic interactions obtained by this method are nonlocal due to the QCD substructure, yet, in the presence of an electromagnetic field, maintain the electromagnetic gauge invariance manifest at the quark level. A local chiral model which is structurally consistent with chiral perturbation theory is obtained through a derivative expansion of the nonlocalities with determined, finite coefficients. Tree-level calculations of the pion form factor and {pi} {minus} {pi} scattering, which illustrate the dual constituent-quark-chiral-model nature of this approach, are presented.
Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction
Syukurilla, L. Mart, T.
2014-09-25
We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the KΛN vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.
Uechi, Hiroshi; Uechi, Schun T.
2011-05-06
Density-dependent relations among the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter and hyperonic matter, and properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars are shown by applying the conserving nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} hadronic mean-field theory. Nonlinear interactions are renormalized self-consistently as effective coupling constants, effective masses, and sources of equations of motion by maintaining thermodynamic consistency to the mean-field approximation. Effective masses and coupling constants at the saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter simultaneously determine the binding energy and saturation properties of hyperonic matter. The coupling constants expected from the hadronic mean-field model and SU(6) quark model for the vector coupling constants are compared by calculating masses of hadron-quark neutron stars. The nonlinear {sigma}-{omega}-{rho} mean-field approximation with vacuum fluctuation corrections and strange quark matter defined by the MIT-bag model were employed to examine properties of hadron-(strange) quark stars. We found that hadron-(strange) quark stars become more stable at high densities compared to pure hadronic and strange quark stars.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.
This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…
Understanding Representation in Design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodker, Susanne
1998-01-01
Discusses the design of computer applications, focusing on understanding design representations--what makes design representations work, and how, in different contexts. Examines the place of various types of representation (e.g., formal notations, models, prototypes, scenarios, and mock-ups) in design and the role of formalisms and representations…
Monte Carlo implementation of polarized hadronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.
2017-01-01
We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of the hadronization process with a finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary q →q'+h transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank 2. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and we propose a quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence of unphysical azimuthal modulations of the computed polarized FFs, and by precisely reproducing the earlier derived explicit results for rank-2 pions. Finally, we present the full results for pion unpolarized and Collins FFs, as well as the corresponding analyzing powers from high statistics MC simulations with a large number of produced hadrons for two different model input elementary SFs. The results for both sets of input functions exhibit the same general features of an opposite signed Collins function for favored and unfavored channels at large z and, at the same time, demonstrate the flexibility of the quark-jet framework by producing significantly different dependences of the results at mid to low z for the two model inputs.
Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons
Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, Richard F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; R. Pennington, M.; Peters, K.; M. Richard, J.; P. Shen, C.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; S. Swanson, E.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.
2016-04-01
The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.
Muller, David
2006-02-11
The BABAR experiment at SLAC is designed to measure CP violation in the B meson system, however the very high statistics combined with the different e+ and e- beam energies, the detector design and the open trigger allow a wide variety of spectroscopic measurements. We are beginning to tap this potential via several production mechanisms. Here we present recent results from initial state radiation, hadronic jets, few body B and D hadron decays, and interactions in the detector material. We also summarize measurements relevant to Ds meson spectroscopy, pentaquarks and charmonium spectroscopy from multiple production mechanisms.
Muller, David; /SLAC
2005-10-26
The BaBar experiment at SLAC is designed to measure CP violation in the B meson system, however the very high statistics combined with the different e{sup +} and e{sup -} beam energies, the detector design and the open trigger allow a wide variety of spectroscopic measurements. We are beginning to tap this potential via several production mechanisms. Here we present recent results from initial state radiation, hadronic jets, few body B and D hadron decays, and interactions in the detector material. We also summarize measurements relevant to D{sub s} meson spectroscopy, pentaquarks and charmonium spectroscopy from multiple production mechanisms.
Top quark studies at hadron colliders
Sinervo, P.K.
1997-01-01
The techniques used to study top quarks at hadron colliders are presented. The analyses that discovered the top quark are described, with emphasis on the techniques used to tag b quark jets in candidate events. The most recent measurements of top quark properties by the CDF and DO Collaborations are reviewed, including the top quark cross section, mass, branching fractions, and production properties. Future top quark studies at hadron colliders are discussed, and predictions for event yields and uncertainties in the measurements of top quark properties are presented.
High energy hadrons in extensive air showers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tonwar, S. C.
1985-01-01
Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.
Hadron polarizability data analysis: GoAT
Stegen, H. Hornidge, D.; Collicott, C.; Martel, P.; Ott, P.
2015-12-31
The A2 Collaboration at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz, Germany, is working towards determining the polarizabilities of hadrons from nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics through Compton scattering experiments at low energies. The asymmetry observables are directly related to the scalar and spin polarizabilities of the hadrons. Online analysis software, which will give real-time feedback on asymmetries, efficiencies, energies, and angle distributions, has been developed. The new software is a big improvement over the existing online code and will greatly develop the quality of the acquired data.
Hadron spectroscopy in double pomeron exchange experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrow, Michael G.
2017-03-01
Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p → p + X + p, where the + represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.
Hadron polarizability data analysis: GoAT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stegen, H.; Collicott, C.; Hornidge, D.; Martel, P.; Ott, P.
2015-12-01
The A2 Collaboration at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz, Germany, is working towards determining the polarizabilities of hadrons from nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics through Compton scattering experiments at low energies. The asymmetry observables are directly related to the scalar and spin polarizabilities of the hadrons. Online analysis software, which will give real-time feedback on asymmetries, efficiencies, energies, and angle distributions, has been developed. The new software is a big improvement over the existing online code and will greatly develop the quality of the acquired data.
Hadron Spectroscopy in Double Pomeron Exchange Experiments
Albrow, Michael
2016-11-15
Central exclusive production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energies, for example p + p -> p + X + p, where the "+" represents a large rapidity gap, is a valuable process for spectroscopy of mesonic states X. At collider energies the gaps can be large enough to be dominated by pomeron exchange, and then the quantum numbers of the state X are restricted. Isoscalar JPC = 0++ and 2++ mesons are selected, and our understanding of these spectra is incomplete. In particular, soft pomeron exchanges favor gluon-dominated states such as glueballs, which are expected in QCD but not yet well established. I will review some published data.
Improved modelling of independent parton hadronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biddulph, Phillip; Thompson, Graham
1989-04-01
A modification is proposed to current versions of the Field-Feynman ansatz for the hadronization of a quark in Monte Carlo models of QCD interactions. This faster-running algorithm has no more parameters and imposes a better degree of energy conservation. It results in naturally introducing a limitation of the transverse momentum distribution, similar to the experimentally observed "seagull" effect. There is now a much improved conservation of quantum numbers between the original parton and resultant hadrons, and the momentum of the emitted parton is better preserved in the summed momentum vectors of the final state particles.
Gaps between jets in hadronic collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepka, O.; Marquet, C.; Royon, C.
2011-02-01
We propose a model to describe diffractive events in hadron-hadron collisions where a rapidity gap is surrounded by two jets. The hard color-singlet object exchanged in the t-channel and responsible for the rapidity gap is described by the perturbative QCD Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov Pomeron, including corrections due to next-to-leading logarithms. We allow the rapidity gap to be smaller than the interjet rapidity interval, and the corresponding soft radiation is modeled using the HERWIG Monte Carlo. Our model is able to reproduce all Tevatron data, and allows one to estimate the jet-gap-jet cross section at the LHC.
Resummed Results for Hadron Collider Observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAslan, Heather
2016-07-01
Event shapes are invaluable QCD tools for theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. We revise the definition of these observables in e+e- annihilation and in hadron collisions, and give a review of the state-of-the-art results for their resummation. Then we detail how recent work on the re-summation of event shapes in electron-positron annihilation can provide us with the tools to extend resummation of generic hadronic event shapes to NNLL accuracy. We match our findings to fixed-order results at NNLO accuracy, showing the sizeable effects of resummation in the relevant regions of phase space.
The QCD vacuum, hadrons and superdense matter
Shuryak, E.
1986-01-01
This is probably the only textbook available that gathers QCD, many-body theory and phase transitions in one volume. The presentation is pedagogical and readable. Contents: The QCD Vacuum: Introduction; QCD on the Lattice Topological Effects in Gauges Theories. Correlation Functions and Microscopic Excitations: Introduction; Operator Product Expansion; The Sum Rules beyond OPE; Nonpower Contributions to Correlators and Instantons; Hadronic Spectroscopy on the Lattice. Dense Matter: Hadronic Matter; Asymptotically Dense Quark-Gluon Plasma; Instantons in Matter; Lattice Calculations at Finite Temperature; Phase Transitions; Macroscopic Excitations and Experiments: General Properties of High Energy Collisions; ''Barometers'', ''Thermometers'', Interferometric ''Microscope''; Experimental Perspectives.
Beyond CP Violation: Hadronic Physics at BaBar
Sciolla, G.
2005-03-14
I report on recent studies of hadronic physics performed by the BaBar Collaboration. Emphasis is given to the measurement of the properties of newly discovered charmed hadrons and to the searches for light and heavy pentaquarks. I report on recent studies of hadronic physics performed by the BaBar Collaboration. Emphasis is given to the measurement of the properties of newly discovered charmed hadrons and to the searches for light and heavy pentaquarks.
Medium Modification of Hadronic Interactions from Low Energy Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedman, E.
Medium-modification of hadronic interactions is defined as the differences between hadron-hadron interaction in the nuclear medium and the corresponding interaction in free space. Deeply penetrating hadrons provide such information and we discuss here pionic atoms and scattering by nuclei of 21.5 MeV pions. Brief mention is made also of the interaction of 500-700 MeV/c K+ with nuclei.
Multistrange particle production and the statistical hadronization model
Petran, Michal; Rafelski, Johann
2010-07-15
We consider the chemical freeze-out of XI, XI, and phi multistrange hadrons within a statistical hadronization model inspired approach. We study particle yields across a wide range of reaction energy and centrality from NA49 at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiments. We constrain the physical conditions present in the fireball source of strange hadrons and anticipate results expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Hadron Spectroscopy and Wavefunctions in QCD and the AdS/CFT Correspondence
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /SLAC /Costa Rica U.
2005-10-13
The AdS/CFT correspondence has led to important insights into the properties of quantum chromodynamics even though QCD is a broken conformal theory. We have recently shown how a holographic model based on a truncated AdS space can be used to obtain the hadronic spectrum of light q{bar q}, qqq and gg bound states. Specific hadrons are identified by the correspondence of string modes with the dimension of the interpolating operator of the hadron's valence Fock state, including orbital angular momentum excitations. The predicted mass spectrum is linear M {proportional_to} L at high orbital angular momentum, in contrast to the quadratic dependence M{sup 2} {proportional_to} L found in the description of spinning strings. Since only one parameter, the QCD scale LQCD, is introduced, the agreement with the pattern of physical states is remarkable. In particular, the ratio of D to nucleon trajectories is determined by the ratio of zeros of Bessel functions. The light-front quantization of gauge theories in light-cone gauge provides a frame-independent wavefunction representation of relativistic bound states, simple forms for current matrix elements, explicit unitarity, and a trivial vacuum. The light-front Fock-state wavefunctions encode the bound state properties of hadrons in terms of their quark and gluon degrees of freedom at the amplitude level. One can also use the extended AdS/CFT space-time theory to obtain a model for hadronic light-front wavefunctions, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level. The model wavefunctions display confinement at large inter-quark separation and conformal symmetry at short distances. In particular, the scaling and conformal properties of the LFWFs at high relative momenta agree with perturbative QCD. These AdS/CFT model wavefunctions could be used as an initial ansatz for a variational treatment of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian. We also show how hadron form factors in both the space-like and
Hadron Spectroscopy and Wavefunctions in QCD and the AdS/CFT Correspondence
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de
2006-02-11
The AdS/CFT correspondence has led to important insights into the properties of quantum chromodynamics even though QCD is a broken conformal theory. We have recently shown how a holographic model based on a truncated AdS space can be used to obtain the hadronic spectrum of light qq-bar, qqq and gg bound states. Specific hadrons are identified by the correspondence of string modes with the dimension of the interpolating operator of the hadron's valence Fock state, including orbital angular momentum excitations. The predicted mass spectrum is linear M {proportional_to} L at high orbital angular momentum, in contrast to the quadratic dependence M2 {proportional_to} L found in the description of spinning strings. Since only one parameter, the QCD scale {lambda}QCD, is introduced, the agreement with the pattern of physical states is remarkable. In particular, the ratio of {delta} to nucleon trajectories is determined by the ratio of zeros of Bessel functions. The light-front quantization of gauge theories in light-cone gauge provides a frame-independent wavefunction representation of relativistic bound states, simple forms for current matrix elements, explicit unitarity, and a trivial vacuum. The light-front Fock-state wavefunctions encode the bound state properties of hadrons in terms of their quark and gluon degrees of freedom at the amplitude level. One can also use the extended AdS/CFT space-time theory to obtain a model for hadronic light-front wavefunctions, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons in QCD at the amplitude level. The model wavefunctions display confinement at large inter-quark separation and conformal symmetry at short distances. In particular, the scaling and conformal properties of the LFWFs at high relative momenta agree with perturbative QCD. These AdS/CFT model wavefunctions could be used as an initial ansatz for a variational treatment of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian. We also show how hadron form factors in both the space
Clustering of Hadronic Showers with a Structural Algorithm
Charles, M.J.; /SLAC
2005-12-13
The internal structure of hadronic showers can be resolved in a high-granularity calorimeter. This structure is described in terms of simple components and an algorithm for reconstruction of hadronic clusters using these components is presented. Results from applying this algorithm to simulated hadronic Z-pole events in the SiD concept are discussed.
Longitudinally-invariant k⊥-clustering algorithms for hadron-hadron collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catani, S.; Dokshitzer, Yu. L.; Seymour, M. H.; Webber, B. R.
1993-09-01
We propose a version of the QCD-motivated " k⊥" jet-clustering algorithm for hadron-hadron collisions which is invariant under boosts along the beam directions. This leads to improved factorization properties and closer correspondence to experimental practice at hadron colliders. We examine alternative definitions of the resolution variables and cluster recombination scheme, and show that the algorithm can be implemented efficiently on a computer to provide a full clustering history of each event. Using simulated data at √ S = 1.8 TeV, we study the effects of calorimeter segmentation, hadronization and the soft underlying event, and compare the results with those obtained using a conventional cone-type algorithm.
New Hadron Spectroscopy with BaBar
Mohanty, Gagan B.; /Warwick U.
2005-09-30
We review hadron spectroscopy at BABAR with emphasis on recent results from the studies of the X(3872) state, inclusive charmonia on recoil, double charmonium production, and the broad structure observed at around 4.26 GeV/c{sup 2}. These results are preliminary, unless otherwise specified.
Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates
Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.
2011-02-01
Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for D{sub s} semileptonic decay is known to be (17.0{+-}5.3)% lower than those for D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing b quarks, this method implies that the B{sub s} semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for B semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy-quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub b})/{Gamma}(B)=1.13{+-}0.03 of total decay rates.
Future hadron physics facilities at Fermilab
Appel, Jeffrey A.; /Fermilab
2004-12-01
Fermilab's hadron physics research continues in all its accelerator-based programs. These efforts will be identified, and the optimization of the Fermilab schedules for physics will be described. In addition to the immediate plans, the Fermilab Long Range Plan will be cited, and the status and potential role of a new proton source, the Proton Driver, is described.
Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roy, Arunava
2011-01-01
The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…
Hadron physics at the COMPASS experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krinner, Fabian
2015-05-01
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, in principle describes the interaction of quark and gluon fields. However, due to the self-coupling of the gluons, quarks and gluons are confined into hadrons and cannot exist as free particles. The quantitative understanding of this confinement phenomenon, which is responsible for about 98% of the mass of the visible universe, is one of the major open questions in particle physics. The measurement of the excitation spectrum of hadrons and of their properties gives valuable input to theory and phenomenology. In the Constituent Quark Model (CQM) two types of hadrons exist: mesons, made out of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which consist of three quarks. But more advanced QCD-inspired models and Lattice QCD calculations predict the existence of hadrons with exotic properties interpreted as excited glue (hybrids) or even pure gluonic bound states (glueballs). The Compass experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new JPC = 1++ state, the a1(1420), is observed with a mass and width in the ranges m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2.
Scaling violation in hadron-nucleus interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verbetski, Y. G.; Garsevanishvili, L. P.; Kotlyarevski, D. M.; Ladaria, N. K.; Tatalashvili, N. G.; Tsomaya, P. V.; Sherer, N. I.; Shabelski, Y. M.; Stemanetyan, G. Z.
1985-01-01
The scaling violation within the pionization region in the energy range of 0.2 to 2.0 TeV is shown on the basis of the analysis of angular characteristics in the interactions of the cosmic radiation hadrons with the nuclei of various substances (CH2, Al, Cu, Pb).
Pion double charge exchange and hadron dynamics
Johnson, M.B.
1991-01-01
This paper will review theoretical results to show how pion double charge exchange is contributing to our understanding of hadron dynamics in nuclei. The exploitation of the nucleus as a filter is shown to be essential in facilitating the comparison between theory and experiment. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR HIGH POWER HADRON BEAMS
Aleksandrov, Alexander V
2013-01-01
This presentation will describe developments in the beam diagnostics which support the understanding and operation of high power hadron accelerators. These include the measurement of large dynamic range transverse and longitudinal beam profiles, beam loss detection, and non-interceptive diagnostics.
Lattice studies of hadrons with heavy flavors
Christopher Aubin
2009-07-01
I will discuss recent developments in lattice studies of hadrons composed of heavy quarks. I will mostly cover topics which are at a state of direct comparison with experiment, but will also discuss new ideas and promising techniques to aid future studies of lattice heavy quark physics.
Recent measurements of the B hadron lifetime
Ong, R.A.
1987-12-01
Recent measurements of the B hadron lifetime from PEP and PETRA experiments are presented. These measurements firmly establish that the B lifetime is long (approx.1 psec), implying that the mixing between the third generation of quarks and the lighter quarks is much weaker that the mixing between the first two generations.
Evidences for two scales in hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Povh, B.; Schmidt, Ivan
2007-11-01
Some unusual features observed in hadronic collisions at high energies can be understood assuming that gluons in hadrons are located within small spots occupying only about 10% of the hadrons’ area. Such a conjecture about the presence of two scales in hadrons helps to explain the following: why diffractive gluon radiation is so suppressed; why the triple-Pomeron coupling shows no t dependence; why total hadronic cross sections rise so slowly with energy; why diffraction cones shrink so slowly, and why αP'≪αR'; why the transition from hard to soft regimes in the structure functions occurs at rather large Q2; why the observed Cronin effect at collider energies is so weak; why hard reactions sensitive to primordial parton motion (direct photon, Drell-Yan dileptons, heavy flavors, back-to-back dihadrons, seagull effect, etc.) demand such a large transverse momenta of the projectile partons, which is not explained by next-to-leading order calculations; why the onset of nuclear shadowing for gluons is so delayed compared to quarks; and why shadowing is so weak.
Hard hadronic collisions: extrapolation of standard effects
Ali, A.; Aurenche, P.; Baier, R.; Berger, E.; Douiri, A.; Fontannaz, M.; Humpert, B.; Ingelman, G.; Kinnunen, R.; Pietarinen, E.
1984-01-01
We study hard hadronic collisions for the proton-proton (pp) and the proton-antiproton (p anti p) option in the CERN LEP tunnel. Based on our current knowledge of hard collisions at the present CERN p anti p Collider, and with the help of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we extrapolate to the next generation of hadron colliders with a centre-of-mass energy E/sub cm/ = 10 to 20 TeV. We estimate various signatures, trigger rates, event topologies, and associated distributions for a variety of old and new physical processes, involving prompt photons, leptons, jets, W/sup + -/ and Z bosons in the final state. We also calculate the maximum fermion and boson masses accessible at the LEP Hadron Collider. The standard QCD and electroweak processes studied here, being the main body of standard hard collisions, quantify the challenge of extracting new physics with hadron colliders. We hope that our estimates will provide a useful profile of the final states, and that our experimental physics colleagues will find this of use in the design of their detectors. 84 references.
Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roy, Arunava
2011-01-01
The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…
Altsybeev, Igor
2016-01-22
In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions.
Highlights from Compass in hadron spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krinner, Fabian
2015-06-01
Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for 98% of the mass in the visible universe. Measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons consisting of a quark and an antiquark and baryons, which are made of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD, predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be, e.g., described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the Compass experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to study the light-quark meson and baryon spectra with unmatched precision. The overview shown here focuses on the light meson sector, presenting a detailed Partial-Wave Analysis of the processes: π- p → π-π+π- p and π- p → π-π0π0 p. A new state, the a1(1420) with JPC = 1++, is observed. Its Breit-Wigner parameters are found to be in the ranges: m = 1412 - 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 - 150MeV/c2. In the same analysis, a signal in a wave with JPC = 1- + is observed. A resonant origin of this signal would not be explicable within the CQM. In addition to this possibility of an exotic state, possible non-resonant origin of this signal is discussed.
Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.
2016-10-01
For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.
R. KELSEY
2001-02-01
For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.
Bose-Einstein correlation within the framework of hadronic mechanics
Burande, Chandrakant S.
2015-03-10
The Bose-Einstein correlation is the phenomenon in which protons and antiprotons collide at extremely high energies; coalesce one into the other resulting into the fireball of finite dimension. They annihilate each other and produces large number of mesons that remain correlated at distances very large compared to the size of the fireball. It was believed that Einstein’s special relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics are the valid frameworks to represent this phenomenon. Although, these frameworks are incomplete and require arbitrary parameters (chaoticity) to fit the experimental data which are prohibited by the basic axioms of relativistic quantum mechanics, such as that for the vacuum expectation values. Moreover, correlated mesons can not be treated as a finite set of isolated point-like particles because it is non-local event due to overlapping of wavepackets. Therefore, the Bose-Einstein correlation is incompatible with the axiom of expectation values of quantum mechanics. In contrary, relativistic hadronic mechanics constructed by Santilli allows an exact representation of the experimental data of the Bose-Einstein correlation and restore the validity of the Lorentz and Poincare symmetries under nonlocal and non-Hamiltonian internal effects. Further, F. Cardone and R. Mignani observed that the Bose-Einstein two-point correlation function derived by Santilli is perfectly matched with experimental data at high energy.
Issues and opportunities in exotic hadrons
Briceno, Raul A.; Cohen, Thomas D.; Coito, S.; ...
2016-04-01
The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. Consequently, it is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimentalmore » and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented.« less
The Large Hadron Collider: Redefining High Energy
Demers, Sarah
2007-06-19
Particle physicists have a description of the forces of nature known as the Standard Model that has successfully withstood decades of testing at laboratories around the world. Though the Standard Model is powerful, it is not complete. Important details like the masses of particles are not explained well, and realities as fundamental as gravity, dark matter, and dark energy are left out altogether. I will discuss gaps in the model and why there is hope that some puzzles will be solved by probing high energies with the Large Hadron Collider. Beginning next year, this machine will accelerate protons to record energies, hurling them around a 27 kilometer ring before colliding them 40 million times per second. Detectors the size of five-story buildings will record the debris of these collisions. The new energy frontier made accessible by the Large Hadron Collider will allow thousands of physicists to explore nature's fundamental forces and particles from a fantastic vantage point.
Hadronic density of states from string theory.
Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Vaman, Diana
2003-09-12
We present an exact calculation of the finite temperature partition function for the hadronic states corresponding to a Penrose-Güven limit of the Maldacena-Nùñez embedding of the N=1 super Yang-Mills (SYM) into string theory. It is established that the theory exhibits a Hagedorn density of states. We propose a semiclassical string approximation to the finite temperature partition function for confining gauge theories admitting a supergravity dual, by performing an expansion around classical solutions characterized by temporal windings. This semiclassical approximation reveals a hadronic energy density of states of a Hagedorn type, with the coefficient determined by the gauge theory string tension as expected for confining theories. We argue that our proposal captures primarily information about states of pure N=1 SYM theory, given that this semiclassical approximation does not entail a projection onto states of large U(1) charge.
Hadron Production in Quark and Antiquark Jets
Muller, David
1999-09-27
We present a number of jet fragmentation measurements e{sup +}e{sup -} --> hadrons. The ALEPH collaboration measures inclusive rho{sup 0}(770), f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 2}(1270) production rates, improving the world averages. The SLD collaboration measures pi{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}} and p/anti-p production in light-, c- and b-flavor Z{sup 0} decays, as well as leading hadrons in light-quark jets, precisely. The DELPHI collaboration measures the average charged multiplicity in light- and b-flavor events at 183 and 189 GeV, verifying a precise prediction of QCD and excluding flavor-independent fragmentation.
Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions
Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin
2004-10-01
The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.
Superconformal Algebraic Approach to Hadron Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Téramond, Guy F.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deur, Alexandre; Dosch, Hans Günter; Sufian, Raza Sabbir
2017-03-01
Fundamental aspects of nonperturbative QCD dynamics which are not obvious from its classical Lagrangian, such as the emergence of a mass scale and confinement, the existence of a zero mass bound state, the appearance of universal Regge trajectories and the breaking of chiral symmetry are incorporated from the onset in an effective theory based on superconformal quantum mechanics and its embedding in a higher dimensional gravitational theory. In addition, superconformal quantum mechanics gives remarkable connections between the light meson and nucleon spectra. This new approach to hadron physics is also suitable to describe nonperturbative QCD observables based on structure functions, such as GPDs, which are not amenable to a first-principle computation. The formalism is also successful in the description of form factors, the nonperturbative behavior of the strong coupling and diffractive processes. We also discuss in this article how the framework can be extended rather successfully to the heavy-light hadron sector.
Probing leptophilic dark sectors with hadronic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo
2017-08-01
We study vector portal dark matter models where the mediator couples only to leptons. In spite of the lack of tree-level couplings to colored states, radiative effects generate interactions with quark fields that could give rise to a signal in current and future experiments. We identify such experimental signatures: scattering of nuclei in dark matter direct detection; resonant production of lepton-antilepton pairs at the Large Hadron Collider; and hadronic final states in dark matter indirect searches. Furthermore, radiative effects also generate an irreducible mass mixing between the vector mediator and the Z boson, severely bounded by ElectroWeak Precision Tests. We use current experimental results to put bounds on this class of models, accounting for both radiatively induced and tree-level processes. Remarkably, the former often overwhelm the latter.
Exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hölscher, Andreas
1991-06-01
The recent experimental results on exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons obtained by the ARGUS collaboration are presented in the talk. The results include exclusive hadronic decays involving a b → c transition, namely B decays with a D, D ∗ plus several pions and B decays to J/ψ or ψ' mesons plus Kaons have been studied. The measurements of branching ratios for two-body B decays involving a J/ψ or ψ' meson are of wide interest in the light of proposals for the study of CP violation in future experiments. The branching ratios are compared with the predictions of the model of Bauer, Stech and Wirbel and with a model of A.V. Dobrovolskaya. Using the cleanest decay channels, the masses and mass difference of the charged and neutral B meson are obtained. This mass difference is then compared with the mass splitting in other isospinmultipletts and with theoretical models.
Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering
Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel
2004-08-01
The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.
Theory of hadronic production of heavy quarks
Peterson, C.
1981-07-01
Conventional theoretical predictions for hadronic production of heavy quarks (Q anti Q) are reviewed and confronted with data. Perturbative hard scattering predictions agree qualitatively well with hidden Q anti Q production (e.g., psi, chi, T) whereas for open Q anti Q-production (e.g., pp ..-->.. ..lambda../sub c//sup +/X) additional mechanisms or inputs are needed to explain the forwardly produced ..lambda../sub c//sup +/ at ISR. It is suggested that the presence of c anti c-pairs on the 1 to 2% level in the hadron Fock state decomposition (intrinsic charm) gives a natural description of the ISR data. The theoretical foundations of the intrinsic charm hypotheses together with its consequences for lepton-induced reactions is discussed in some detail.
Many body theory in hadronic physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llanes-Estrada, Felipe Jose
2000-11-01
This dissertation presents the development of several many body techniques of widespread use in Atomic, Nuclear and Solid State to Hadronic, the low energy Particle Physics that studies strong interactions. For the high energy, asymptotically free, quarks and gluons described by Quantum Chromodynamics, a canonical (BCS) transformation is performed to generate effective low energy degrees of freedom. Then a model Hamiltonian is approximately diagonalized in Fock space using the TDA and RPA formulations. The relativistic wave equations resulting in each sector are numerically solved, yielding mass eigenvalues for the hadronic spectrum. The TDA provides a reasonable approximation for the glueball and meson spectra, with the exception of the light pseudoscalar mesons, where only the RPA correctly incorporates chiral symmetry and the Goldstone boson nature of the pion. Particular attention is devoted to charmed and hybrid mesons, especially exotic states, given the existing data from BNL and prospects of detection at both TJNAF (Hall D) and CERN (Compass).
Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters
Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.
1988-12-01
Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH/sub 3/)/sub 4/) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h approx. 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Production of heavy quarkonia in hadronic experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Likhoded, A. K.; Luchinsky, A. V.; Poslavsky, S. V.
2015-12-01
The phenomenology of the production of P-wave χ c,b mesons and S-wave η c,b mesons in highenergy hadron-hadron collisions was studied on the basis of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD). Available experimental data on χ c -meson production were analyzed, and nonperturbative NRQCDmatrix elements were determined from a fit to these data. It is shown that the observed transversemomentum ( pT) spectrum of χ c mesons is basically formed by color-singlet contributions. At the same time, the ratio σ( χ c2)/ σ( χ c1) depends greatly on color-octet contributions; this ratio therefore becomes a highly sensitive tool for separating different NRQCD contributions. Predictions for χ b -meson production are obtained on the basis of NRQCD scaling rules. For the case of η c -meson production, it is shown that the observed cross sections agree with the color-singlet model featuring phenomenological parameters.
Trends in accelerator technology for hadron therapy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostromin, S. A.; Syresin, E. M.
2013-12-01
Hadron therapy with protons and carbon ions is one of the most effective branches in radiation oncology. It has advantages over therapy using gamma radiation and electron beams. Fifty thousand patients a year need such treatment in Russia. A review of the main modern trends in the development of accelerators for therapy and treatment techniques concerned with respiratory gated irradiation and scanning with the intensity modulated pencil beams is given. The main stages of formation, time structure, and the main parameters of the beams used in proton therapy, as well as the requirements for medicine accelerators, are considered. The main results of testing with the beam of the C235-V3 cyclotron for the first Russian specialized hospital proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad are presented. The use of superconducting accelerators and gantry systems for hadron therapy is considered.
Hadronic Physics with Antiprotons at FAIR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettoni, Diego
2011-09-01
The physics program of the future FAIR facility covers a wide range of topics that address central issues of strong interactions and QCD. The antiproton beam of unprecedented quality in the momentum range from 1 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c will allow to make high precision, high statistics measurements, from charmonium spectroscopy to the search for exotic hadrons and the study of nucleon structure, from the study of in-medium modifications of hadron masses to the physics of hypernuclei. These topics form the scientific program of the PANDA experiment. In addition to that the possibility to polarize antiprotons will provide the possibility to perform new, unique measurements of single- and double-spin observables, which are part of the experimental program of PAX.
Photon and hadron production of heavy flavors
DeJongh, F.
1993-11-01
Recent experiments have obtained large clean samples of charmed and bottom hadrons, and have measured both single-quark inclusive cross-sections and quark-antiquark correlations. Predictions for these production properties are available from next-to-leading order QCD. We review recent results from fixed target hadroproduction of charm and bottom, fixed target photoproduction of charm, and production of bottom at proton-antiproton colliders.
Hadronic wavefunctions in light-cone quantization
Hyer, Thomas
1994-05-01
The analysis of light-cone wavefunctions seems the most promising theoretical approach to a detailed understanding of the structure of relativistic bound states, particularly hadrons. However, there are numerous complications in this approach. Most importantly, the light-cone approach sacrifices manifest rotational invariance in exchange for the elimination of negative-energy states. The requirement of rotational invariance of the full theory places important constraints on proposed light-cone wavefunctions, whether they are modelled or extracted from some numerical procedure. A formulation of the consequences of the hidden rotational symmetry has been sought for some time; it is presented in Chapter 2. In lattice gauge theory or heavy-quark effective theory, much of the focus is on the extraction of numerical values of operators which are related to the hadronic wavefunction. These operators are to some extent interdependent, with relations induced by fundamental constraints on the underlying wavefunction. The consequences of the requirement of unitarity are explored in Chapter 3, and are found to have startling phenomenological relevance. To test model light-cone wavefunctions, experimental predictions must be made. The reliability of perturbative QCD as a tool for making such predictions has been questioned. In Chapter 4, the author presents a computation of the rates for nucleon-antinucleon annihilation, improving the reliability of the perturbative computation by taking into account the Sudakov suppression of exclusive processes at large transverse impact parameter. In Chapter 5, he develops the analysis of semiexclusive production. This work focuses on processes in which a single isolated meson is produced perturbatively and recoils against a wide hadronizing system. At energies above about 10 GeV, semiexclusive processes are shown to be the most sensitive experimental probes of hadronic structure.
Search for hadronic b-->u decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albrecht, H.; Gläser, R.; Harder, G.; Krüger, A.; Nilsson, A. W.; Nippe, A.; Oest, T.; Reidenbach, M.; Schäfer, M.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R. D.; Drescher, A.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Scheck, H.; Schweda, G.; Spaan, B.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Paulini, M.; Reim, K.; Volland, U.; Wegener, H.; Funk, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ball, S.; Gabriel, J. C.; Geyer, C.; Hölscher, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holzer, B.; Khan, S.; Spengler, J.; Charlesworth, C. E. K.; Edwards, K. W.; Frisken, W. R.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; Macfarlene, D. B.; McLean, K. W.; Orr, R. S.; Parsons, J. A.; Patel, P. M.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Swain, J. D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Yoon, T.-S.; Ruf, T.; Schael, S.; Schubert, K. R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Boštjančič, B.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Cronström, H. I.; Jönsson, L.; Babaev, A.; Danilo, M.; Fominykh, B.; Golutvin, A.; Gorelov, I.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Semenov, A.; Semenov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Soloshenko, V.; Tchistilin, V.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Childers, R.; Darden, C. W.; Argus Collaboration
1990-05-01
Using the ARGUS detector at the e +e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we searched for b→u transitions in exclusive hadronic B meson decays. A systematic analysis of B decays into pions has been performed for decay modes with 2-7 pions in the final state. In none of the decays a positive signal was observed. The upper limits obtained on various branching ratios are consistent with the current model predictions.
Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.
2005-08-29
Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.
Large scale calculations for hadron spectroscopy
Rebbi, C.
1985-01-01
The talk reviews some recent Monte Carlo calculations for Quantum Chromodynamics, performed on Euclidean lattices of rather large extent. Purpose of the calculations is to provide accurate determinations of quantities, such as interquark potentials or mass eigenvalues, which are relevant for hadronic spectroscopy. Results obtained in quenched QCD on 16/sup 3/ x 32 lattices are illustrated, and a discussion of computational resources and techniques required for the calculations is presented. 18 refs.,3 figs., 2 tabs.
High energy hadron collisions in QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, E. M.; Ryskin, M. G.
1990-05-01
In this review we present the microscopic approach to large cross section physics at high energy, based on the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD and the reggeon diagram technique. We insist that at high energy the main source of secondary hadrons is the production and fragmentation of the gluon minijets with transverse momentum qt ≈ q0, which rapidly growswith energy, namely q2t≈ q20≈Λ 2 exp(2.5√ln s). Such a large value of the transverse momentum allows us to adopt perturbative QCD for high hadron collisions. The completely avoid the unknown confinement problem, a new scale overlineQ0 ( overlineQ0≈1 GeV, α s( overlineQ20)<1) is introduced in our calculations and only momenta qt> overlineQ0 for gluons are taken into account in any integration. All our results only slightly depend on the value of overlineQ0. It is shown that perturbative QCD is able to describe the main properties of the hedron interactions at high energy, namely, the inclusive spectra of secondary hadrons as functions of y and qt, including small qt⪅300MeV, in a wide energy range √ s=50-900 GeV, the multiplicity distribution, the mean transverse momentum versus multiplicity and so on. We use only three phenomenological parameters in such a description of the experimental data; these values are in agreement with theoretical estimates. Our approach predicts a rapid increase of the mean transverse momentum for secondary hadrons, qt≈ q0, where q0=2.5 GeV at √ S=0.5 TeV, and q0⋍7 GeV at √ S=40 TeV, the total multiplicity N≈ q20, the total cross section σ t≈ln 2s and a comparatively slow increase of the diffraction dissociation cross section σ D≈ln s.
Perspectives of hadron therapy in Mexico
Contreras, J. G.
2008-08-11
The need for a hadron therapy center in Mexico is presented. The question if such a facility is affordable in Mexico is discussed, addressing the economical factor as well as the expertise and know how available in both the private and the public sector. To conclude, a possible path, and the first steps on it, to move forward towards a medical facility in Mexico devoted to proton therapy are sketched.
Really large hadron collider working group summary
Dugan, G.; Limon, P.; Syphers, M.
1996-12-01
A summary is presented of preliminary studies of three 100 TeV center-of-mass hadron colliders made with magnets of different field strengths, 1.8T, 9.5T and 12.6T. Descriptions of the machines, and some of the major and most challenging subsystems, are presented, along with parameter lists and the major issues for future study.
Hadron physics as Seiberg dual of QCD
Kitano, Ryuichiro
2012-07-27
We try to identify the light hadron world as the magnetic picture of QCD. We take both phenomenological and theoretical approaches to this hypothesis, and find that the interpretation seems to show interesting consistencies. In particular, one can identify the {rho} and {omega} mesons as the magnetic gauge bosons, and the Higgs mechanism for them provides a dual picture of the color confinement{sup 1}.
Embedded Data Representations.
Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre
2017-01-01
We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.
Reading Visual Representations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rubenstein, Rheta N.; Thompson, Denisse R.
2012-01-01
Mathematics is rich in visual representations. Such visual representations are the means by which mathematical patterns "are recorded and analyzed." With respect to "vocabulary" and "symbols," numerous educators have focused on issues inherent in the language of mathematics that influence students' success with mathematics communication.…
Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel
2013-01-01
We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…
Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel
2013-01-01
We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…
The hadronic final state at HERA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Paul R.; Wing, Matthew
2014-07-01
The hadronic final state in electron-proton collisions at HERA has provided a rich testing ground for development of the theory of the strong force, QCD. In this review, over 200 publications from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are summarized. Short distance physics, the measurement of processes at high-energy scales, has provided rigorous tests of perturbative QCD and constrained the structure of the proton as well as allowing precise determinations of the strong coupling constant to be made. Nonperturbative or low-energy processes have also been investigated and results on hadronization interpreted together with those from other experiments. Searches for exotic QCD objects, such as pentaquarks, glueballs, and instantons, have been performed. The subject of diffraction has been reinvigorated through its precise measurement, such that it can now be described by perturbative QCD. After discussion of HERA, the H1 and ZEUS detectors, and the techniques used to reconstruct differing hadronic final states, the above subject areas are elaborated on. The major achievements are then condensed further in a final section summarizing what has been learned.
Fourth Annual Large Hadron Collider Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The fourth annual Large Hadron Collider Physics (LHCP2016) conference will be held in Lund, Sweden, in the period of June 13-18, 2016. The conference is hosted by Lund University. The LHCP conference series has emerged in 2013 as a successful result of fusion of two international conferences, Physics at Large Hadron Collider Conference and Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. The program will be devoted to a detailed review of the latest experimental and theoretical results on collider physics, particularly the first results of the LHC Run II, and discussions on further research directions within the high energy particle physics community, both in theory and experiment. The main goal of the conference is to provide intense and lively discussions between experimenters and theorists in such research areas as the Standard Model Physics and Beyond, the Higgs Boson, Supersymmetry, Heavy Quark Physics and Heavy Ion Physics as well as to share a recent progress in the high luminosity upgrades and future colliders developments. Chairpersons: Gregorio Bernardi (LPNHE-Paris CNRS/IN2P3), Guenakh Mitselmakher (University of Florida (US)), Leif Lönnblad (Lund University (SE)), Torsten Akesson (Lund University (SE)) Editorial Board Johan Bijnens (Lund University) Andreas Hoecker (CERN) Jim Olsen (Princeton University)
Optimizing integrated luminosity of future hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedikt, Michael; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank
2015-10-01
The integrated luminosity, a key figure of merit for any particle-physics collider, is closely linked to the peak luminosity and to the beam lifetime. The instantaneous peak luminosity of a collider is constrained by a number of boundary conditions, such as the available beam current, the maximum beam-beam tune shift with acceptable beam stability and reasonable luminosity lifetime (i.e., the empirical "beam-beam limit"), or the event pileup in the physics detectors. The beam lifetime at high-luminosity hadron colliders is largely determined by particle burn off in the collisions. In future highest-energy circular colliders synchrotron radiation provides a natural damping mechanism, which can be exploited for maximizing the integrated luminosity. In this article, we derive analytical expressions describing the optimized integrated luminosity, the corresponding optimum store length, and the time evolution of relevant beam parameters, without or with radiation damping, while respecting a fixed maximum value for the total beam-beam tune shift or for the event pileup in the detector. Our results are illustrated by examples for the proton-proton luminosity of the existing Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at its design parameters, of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), and of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh).
Emergent phenomena and partonic structure in hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Craig D.; Mezrag, Cédric
2017-03-01
Modern facilities are poised to tackle fundamental questions within the Standard Model, aiming to reveal the nature of confinement, its relationship to dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) - the origin of visible mass - and the connection between these two, key emergent phenomena. There is strong evidence to suggest that they are intimately connected with the appearance of momentum-dependent masses for gluons and quarks in QCD, which are large in the infrared: mg 500MeV and Mq 350MeV. DCSB, expressed in the dynamical generation of a dressed-quark mass, has an enormous variety of verifiable consequences, including an enigmatic result that the properties of the (almost) massless pion are the cleanest expression of the mechanism which is responsible for almost all the visible mass in the Universe. This contribution explains that these emergent phenomena are expressed with particular force in the partonic structure of hadrons, e.g. in valence-quark parton distribution amplitudes and functions, and, consequently, in numerous hadronic observables, so that we are now in a position to exhibit the consequences of confinement and DCSB in a wide range of hadron observables, opening the way to empirical verification of their expression in the Standard Model.
Natural h{yields}4g in supersymmetric models and R-hadrons at the LHC
Luty, Markus A.; Phalen, Daniel J.; Pierce, Aaron
2011-04-01
We construct a simple and natural supersymmetric model where the dominant Higgs decay is h{yields}aa followed by a{yields}gg. In this case m{sub h}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narison, Stephan
2007-07-01
About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narison, Stephan
2004-05-01
About Stephan Narison; Outline of the book; Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. General Introduction: 1. A short flash on particle physics; 2. The pre-QCD era; 3. The QCD story; 4. Field theory ingredients; Part II. QCD Gauge Theory: 5. Lagrangian and gauge invariance; 6. Quantization using path integral; 7. QCD and its global invariance; Part III. MS scheme for QCD and QED: Introduction; 8. Dimensional regularization; 9. The MS renormalization scheme; 10. Renormalization of operators using the background field method; 11. The renormalization group; 12. Other renormalization schemes; 13. MS scheme for QED; 14. High-precision low-energy QED tests; Part IV. Deep Inelastic Scattering at Hadron Colliders: 15. OPE for deep inelastic scattering; 16. Unpolarized lepton-hadron scattering; 17. The Altarelli-Parisi equation; 18. More on unpolarized deep inelastic scatterings; 19. Polarized deep-inelastic processes; 20. Drell-Yan process; 21. One 'prompt photon' inclusive production; Part V. Hard Processes in e+e- Collisions: Introduction; 22. One hadron inclusive production; 23. gg scatterings and the 'spin' of the photon; 24. QCD jets; 25. Total inclusive hadron productions; Part VI. Summary of QCD Tests and as Measurements; Part VII. Power Corrections in QCD: 26. Introduction; 27. The SVZ expansion; 28. Technologies for evaluating Wilson coefficients; 29. Renormalons; 30. Beyond the SVZ expansion; Part VIII. QCD Two-Point Functions: 31. References guide to original works; 32. (Pseudo)scalar correlators; 33. (Axial-)vector two-point functions; 34. Tensor-quark correlator; 35. Baryonic correlators; 36. Four-quark correlators; 37. Gluonia correlators; 38. Hybrid correlators; 39. Correlators in x-space; Part IX. QCD Non-Perturbative Methods: 40. Introduction; 41. Lattice gauge theory; 42. Chiral perturbation theory; 43. Models of the QCD effective action; 44. Heavy quark effective theory; 45. Potential approaches to quarkonia; 46. On monopole and confinement; Part X. QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Stoecker, Horst
2017-01-01
We analyze the sensitivity of thermal fits to heavy-ion hadron yield data of ALICE and NA49 collaborations to the systematic uncertainties in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model related to the modeling of the eigenvolume interactions. We find a surprisingly large sensitivity in extraction of chemical freeze-out parameters to the assumptions regarding eigenvolumes of different hadrons. We additionally study the effect of including yields of light nuclei into the thermal fits to LHC data and find even larger sensitivity to the modeling of their eigenvolumes. The inclusion of light nuclei yields, thus, may lead to further destabilization of thermal fits. Our results show that modeling of eigenvolume interactions plays a crucial role in thermodynamics of HRG and that conclusions based on a non-interacting HRG are inconclusive.
Near-integrability and confinement for high-energy hadron-hadron collisions
Orland, Peter
2008-03-01
We investigate an effective Hamiltonian for QCD at large s, in which longitudinal gauge degrees of freedom are suppressed, but not eliminated. In an axial gauge the effective field theory is a set of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal-chiral models, which are completely integrable. The confinement problem is solvable in this context, and we find the longitudinal and transverse string tensions with techniques already used for a similar Hamiltonian in (2+1) dimensions. We find some a posteriori justification for the effective Hamiltonian as an eikonal approximation. Hadrons in this approximation consist of partons, which are quarks and solitonlike excitations of the sigma models. Diffractive hadron-hadron scattering appears primarily due to exchange of longitudinal flux between partons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böttcher, Markus; Reimer, Anita; Zhang, Haocheng
2013-12-01
We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. The new model implementations are used to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars from the first LAT AGN catalogue. We find that the leptonic model is capable of producing acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with reasonable parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, our fits indicate that the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We also find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range 1047 - 1049 erg/s. As a potential way to distinguish between the leptonic and hadronic high-energy emission models considered here, we suggest diagnostics based on the predicted X-ray and γ-ray polarization, which are drastically different for the two types of models.
Hadron Production in Heavy Ion Collisions
Ritter, Hans Georg; Xu, Nu
2009-05-19
Heavy ion collisions are an ideal tool to explore the QCD phase diagram. The goal is to study the equation of state (EOS) and to search for possible in-medium modifications of hadrons. By varying the collision energy a variety of regimes with their specific physics interest can be studied. At energies of a few GeV per nucleon, the regime where experiments were performed first at the Berkeley Bevalac and later at the Schwer-Ionen-Synchrotron (SIS) at GSI in Darmstadt, we study the equation of state of dense nuclear matter and try to identify in-medium modifications of hadrons. Towards higher energies, the regime of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the Super-Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, we expect to produce a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). The physics goal is to identify the QGP and to study its properties. By varying the energy, different forms of matter are produced. At low energies we study dense nuclear matter, similar to the type of matter neutron stars are made of. As the energy is increased the main constituents of the matter will change. Baryon excitations will become more prevalent (resonance matter). Eventually we produce deconfined partonic matter that is thought to be in the core of neutron stars and that existed in the early universe. At low energies a great variety of collective effects is observed and a rather good understanding of the particle production has been achieved, especially that of the most abundantly produced pions and kaons. Many observations can be interpreted as time-ordered emission of various particle species. It is possible to determine, albeit model dependent, the equation of state of nuclear matter. We also have seen indications, that the kaon mass, especially the mass of the K{sup +}, might be modified by the medium created in heavy ion collisions. At AGS energies and above, emphasis shifts towards
Hadron production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. QCD and hadronization
Yamamoto, H.
1985-12-01
Recent results on hadron production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are summarized. The topics included are: (1) inclusive hadron production, (2) comparison of light (u,d,s) and heavy (c,b) quark jets; (3) p - anti p correlations; (4) gluon vs. quark jets; (5) analysis of 3 jet events; (6) measurement of the strong coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub s/; and (7) forward-backward asymmetries of quarks and leptons. Experimental data are compared with predictions of several models to reveal underlying physics. 62 refs., 22 figs.
Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strugalski, Z.
1985-01-01
It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.
Hadronic modeling of TeV AGN: Gammas and neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerruti, M.; Zech, A.; Emery, G.; Guarin, D.
2017-01-01
Blazar emission models are usually divided into two big families, leptonic and hadronic, according to the particles which are responsible for the gamma-ray component of their spectral energy distributions. Even though leptonic models have been successful in explaining the gamma-ray emission from most blazars, hadronic models still present an intriguing alternative. They have the unique advantage to link the emission of photons, neutrinos, and cosmic rays from the astrophysical source. We have developed a stationary one-zone lepto-hadronic code to model the emission from blazars in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios. In this contribution we focus on hadronic modeling of a few selected TeV blazars of the BL Lac type and the radio galaxy Centaurus A detected by Cherenkov telescopes. We study in particular their associated neutrino emission, for different hadronic scenarios, and how it compares to the sensitivity of current neutrino detectors.
Quark–hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Atazadeh, K.
2016-11-15
We study the quark–hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark–hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Accessing the Distribution of Linearly Polarized Gluons in Unpolarized Hadrons
Boer, Daniel; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian; /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari
2011-08-19
Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos2{phi} asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron collisions. Future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) or Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) experiments are ideally suited for this purpose. Here we estimate the maximum asymmetries for EIC kinematics.
A hadron calorimeter with scintillators parallel to the beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Gorin, A.; Gurzhiev, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Yu.; Kostritskii, A.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Podstavkov, V.; Polyakov, V.; Shtannikov, A.; Tereschenko, S.; Turchanovich, L.; Zaichenko, A.
1997-02-01
A hadron calorimeter in which scintillators are arranged nearly parallel to the incident particle direction and light is collected by optical fibres with WLS, has been built. The iron absorber plates are of the tapered shape to fit a barrel structure of the collider geometry. The performance of the calorimeter studied with hadron beam is presented as a function of tilt angle without and with electromagnetic calorimeter in front of the hadron one.
The Role of Produced Hadrons in J/psi Suppression
Cheuk-Yin Wong; T. Barnes; E. S. Swanson; Horace W. Crater
2003-03-01
Hadrons produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions can suppress the production of J/psi and other charmonium states by charmonium spontaneous dissociation as the hot hadronic environment alters the interaction between the charm quark and charm antiquark. Furthermore, hadrons can thermalize a charmonium to excite it to higher charmonium states which subsequently dissociate spontaneously. They can also collide with a charmonium to lead to its prompt dissociation into an open charm pair.
Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atazadeh, K.
2016-11-01
We study the quark-hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark-hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
A New Look at the Electroweak Interactions of Hadrons
Chia, Swee-Ping
2008-05-20
The Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, in terms of quarks and leptons, is in good agreement with experimental observations. But unlike the leptons, quarks do not exist in free states. They are instead tightly bound in hadrons, which consist of mesons and baryons, which are themselves quark-antiquark states and 3-quark states respectively. Processes involving hadrons are however, complicated. Quarks are subjected to strong forces which are described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Because quarks are tightly bound in hadrons by QCD forces, calculations obtained at the quark level cannot be extended, in a straight-forward way, to physical processes involving hadrons. But quarks tightly bound inside hadrons behave like free particles. In this paper we take advantage of this property and formulate a simple model for the effective description of the electroweak interactions of quarks bound in hadrons. We assume that quarks in hadrons are dressed because of the QCD effects, and are represented by their effective dressed masses in electroweak processes. We apply this simple model to the semi-leptonic decays of hadrons, which are described, at the quark level, by the tree level weak interaction. The experiment decay rates are utilized to obtain estimates for the dressed quark masses in hadrons. A reasonable set of values for such dressed masses are obtained.
Energy-range relations for hadrons in nuclear matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strugalski, Z.
1985-01-01
Range-energy relations for hadrons in nuclear matter exist similarly to the range-energy relations for charged particles in materials. When hadrons of GeV kinetic energies collide with atomic nuclei massive enough, events occur in which incident hadron is stopped completely inside the target nucleus without causing particle production - without pion production in particular. The stoppings are always accompanied by intensive emission of nucleons with kinetic energy from about 20 up to about 400 MeV. It was shown experimentally that the mean number of the emitted nucleons is a measure of the mean path in nuclear matter in nucleons on which the incident hadrons are stopped.
K(s)0 Hadronization Following DIS at CLAS
K. Hicks, A. Daniel
2009-10-01
The hadronization of K{sup 0} particles was measured in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) kinematics for several nuclear targets using the CLAS detector. Multiplicity ratios and Δp{sup 2}{sub T} values were extracted from the data. These results may be compared with similar values for π{sup +} hadronization from CLAS (at the same kinematics) and K{sup +} hadronization from HERMES (at higher energy transfer). The physics goal of these measurements is to understand the space-time evolution as the struck quark becomes a full-blown hadron as it propagates through nuclear matter.
The Brief Life of a Hadron: QCD unquenched
Pennington, Michael R.
2015-03-01
Once upon a time, the picture of hadrons was of mesons made of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons of three quarks. Though hadrons heavier than the ground states inevitably decay by the strong interaction, the successes of the quark model might suggest their decays are a mere perturbation. However, Eef van Beveren, whose career we celebrate here, recognised that decays are an integral part of the life of a hadron. The channels into which they decay are often essential to their very existence. These hold the secrets of strong coupling QCD and teach us the way quarks really build hadrons.
Microbunched electron cooling for high-energy hadron beams.
Ratner, D
2013-08-23
Electron and stochastic cooling are proven methods for cooling low-energy hadron beams, but at present there is no way of cooling hadrons as they near the TeV scale. In the 1980s, Derbenev suggested that electron instabilities, such as free-electron lasers, could create collective space charge fields strong enough to correct the hadron energies. This Letter presents a variation on Derbenev's electron cooling scheme using the microbunching instability as the amplifier. The large bandwidth of the instability allows for faster cooling of high-density beams. A simple analytical model illustrates the cooling mechanism, and simulations show cooling rates for realistic parameters of the Large Hadron Collider.
Fast Equilibration of Hadrons in an Expanding Fireball
Noronha-Hostler, J.; Greiner, C.; Shovkovy, I. A.
2008-06-27
Because of long chemical equilibration times for standard hadronic reactions in a hadron gas in relativistic heavy ion collisions, it was suggested that hadrons are born into equilibrium after the quark gluon plasma is formed. We develop a dynamical scheme, using master equations, in which Hagedorn states contribute to fast chemical equilibration times of baryons and kaons, just below the critical temperature, estimates of which are derived analytically. The hadrons quickly equilibrate for an initial over- or underpopulation of Hagedorn states. Our particle ratios compared to BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider show a close match.
Function, anticipation, representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bickhard, Mark. H.
2001-06-01
Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.
Hadron bubble evolution into the quark sea
Freese, K. ); Adams, F.C. )
1990-04-15
A solution is presented for the evolution of hadron bubbles which nucleate in the quark sea if there is a first-order quark-hadron phase transition at a temperature {ital T}{sub {ital c}} on the order of 100 MeV. We make three assumptions: (1) the dominant mechanism for transport of latent heat is radiative, e.g., neutrinos; (2) the distance between nucleation sites is greater than the neutrino mean free path; and (3) the effects of hydrodynamic flow can be neglected. Bubbles nucleate with a characteristic radius 1 fm/{Delta}, where {Delta} is a dimensionless parameter for the undercooling (we take {Delta}{ge}10{sup {minus}4}, so that the expansion of the Universe can be neglected). We argue that bubbles grow stably and remain spherical until the radius becomes as large as the neutrino mean free path, {ital l}{congruent}10 cm. The growth then becomes diffusion limited and the bubbles become unstable to formation of dendrites, or fingerlike structures, because latent heat can diffuse away more easily from long fingers than from spheres. We study the nonlinear evolution of structure with a geometrical model'' and argue that the hadron bubbles ultimately look like stringy seaweed. The percolation of seaweed-shaped bubbles can leave behind regions of quark phase that are quite small. In fact, one might expect the typical scale to be {ital L}{sub {ital Q}}={ital l}{congruent}10 cm. Protons can easily diffuse out of such small regions (and neutrons back in). Thus, these instabilities can lead to important modifications of inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis, which requires {ital L}{sub {ital Q}}{approx gt}1 m.
Hadronic and nuclear interactions in QCD
Not Available
1982-01-01
Despite the evidence that QCD - or something close to it - gives a correct description of the structure of hadrons and their interactions, it seems paradoxical that the theory has thus far had very little impact in nuclear physics. One reason for this is that the application of QCD to distances larger than 1 fm involves coherent, non-perturbative dynamics which is beyond present calculational techniques. For example, in QCD the nuclear force can evidently be ascribed to quark interchange and gluon exchange processes. These, however, are as complicated to analyze from a fundamental point of view as is the analogous covalent bond in molecular physics. Since a detailed description of quark-quark interactions and the structure of hadronic wavefunctions is not yet well-understood in QCD, it is evident that a quantitative first-principle description of the nuclear force will require a great deal of theoretical effort. Another reason for the limited impact of QCD in nuclear physics has been the conventional assumption that nuclear interactions can for the most part be analyzed in terms of an effective meson-nucleon field theory or potential model in isolation from the details of short distance quark and gluon structure of hadrons. These lectures, argue that this view is untenable: in fact, there is no correspondence principle which yields traditional nuclear physics as a rigorous large-distance or non-relativistic limit of QCD dynamics. On the other hand, the distinctions between standard nuclear physics dynamics and QCD at nuclear dimensions are extremely interesting and illuminating for both particle and nuclear physics.
High-energy hadron-hadron (dipole-dipole) scattering from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, Matteo; Meggiolaro, Enrico
2008-10-01
In this paper the problem of high-energy hadron-hadron (dipole-dipole) scattering is approached (for the first time) from the point of view of lattice QCD, by means of Monte Carlo numerical simulations. In the first part, we give a brief review of how high-energy scattering amplitudes can be reconstructed, using a functional-integral approach, in terms of certain correlation functions of two Wilson loops, and we also briefly recall some relevant analyticity and crossing-symmetry properties of these loop-loop correlation functions, when going from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory. In the second part, we shall see how these (Euclidean) loop-loop correlation functions can be evaluated in lattice QCD, and we shall compare our numerical results with some nonperturbative analytical estimates that appeared in the literature, discussing, in particular, the question of the analytic continuation from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory and its relation to the still unsolved problem of the asymptotic s dependence of the hadron-hadron total cross sections.
Heavy Hadron Spectroscopy and Production at Tevatron
Gorelov, Igor V.; /New Mexico U.
2011-10-01
Using data from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV recorded by the CDFII and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron, we present recent results on charm and bottom hadrons. The most recent CDF results on properties of the four bottom baryon resonant states {Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)-}, {Sigma}{sub b}{sup (*)+}. New results on exotic {Upsilon}(4140) state observed by CDF are also reported. A precise measurement of production rates of the lowest lying bottom baryon, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}, produced in the D0 detector is presented.
Neutron stars: A cosmic hadron physics laboratory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pines, David
1989-01-01
A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.
Diquarks: properties and their role in hadrons
Maris, P.
2005-05-06
Diquark correlations are important in baryons, which can be modeled as quark-diquark bound states. In addition, diquarks could play a role in non-standard hadrons such as tetraquarks and pentaquarks. Here, we obtain properties of these diquarks from the corresponding bound state equation, using a model for the effective quark-quark interaction that has proved successful in the light meson sector. Subsequently, we use the same model to estimate the masses of the lightest diquark-diquark and diquark-antidiquark states.
Signatures for Majorana neutrinos at hadron colliders.
Han, Tao; Zhang, Bin
2006-10-27
The Majorana nature of neutrinos may only be experimentally verified via lepton-number violating processes involving charged leptons. We explore the Delta L = 2 like-sign dilepton production at hadron colliders to search for signals of Majorana neutrinos. We find significant sensitivity for resonant production of a Majorana neutrino in the mass range of 10-80 GeV at the current run of the Tevatron with 2 fb(-1) integrated luminosity and in the range of 10-400 GeV at the CERN LHC with 100 fb(-1).
Quark-hadron duality in structure functions
Wally Melnitchouk
2011-09-01
We review recent progress in the study of quark-hadron duality in electron–nucleon structure functions. New developments include insights into the local aspects of duality obtained using truncated moments of structure functions, which allow duality-violating higher-twist contributions to be identified in individual resonance regions. Preliminary studies of pion electropro-duction have also showed the first glimpses of duality in semi-inclusive cross sections, which if confirmed would greatly expand the scope of constraining the flavor and spin dependence of parton distributions.
Photodetectors for the CMS hadron calorimeters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elias, J. E.; CMS Hadron Calorimeter Readout Group
1997-02-01
Hadronic energy measurements in the central and end cap regions of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will be made using sampling calorimeter techniques with plastic scintillator tiles as the sensitive layers. Plastic fibers doped with wavelength shifting fluors embedded in each tile are used to extract the scintillation light. Clear plastic wave guide fibers carry the shifted light to photodetectors located on the outer surface of the calorimeter structure. Environmental constraints and physics performance requirements for these photodetectors are presented. Candidate photodetector technologies are discussed, and the hybrid photomultiplier tube technology is identified as most promising.
Single hadron transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS
Bradamante, Franco
2007-06-13
Transverse spin physics is an important part of the scientific programme of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The analysis of the data taken with the target polarized orthogonally to the 160 GeV/c muon beam momentum has allowed to measure for the first time the Collins and Sivers asymmetries of the deuteron. Both for the positive and the negative hadrons produced in semi-inclusive DIS the measured asymmetries are small and, within errors, compatible with zero. New results for {pi}{+-} ans K{+-} are presented here.
Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khvorostukhin, A. S.; Toneev, V. D.
2017-01-01
A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.
Neutron stars - A cosmic hadron physics laboratory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pines, David
1989-01-01
A progress report is given on neutron stars as a cosmic hadron physics laboratory. Particular attention is paid to the crustal neutron superfluid, and to the information concerning its properties which may be deduced from observations of pulsar glitches and postglitch behavior. Current observational evidence concerning the softness or stiffness of the high density neutron matter equation of state is reviewed briefly, and the (revolutionary) implications of a confirmation of the existence of a 0.5 ms pulsar at the core of (Supernova) SN1987A are discussed.
Partial restoration of chiral symmetry inside hadrons
Iritani, Takumi; Cossu, Guido; Hashimoto, Shoji
2016-01-22
We investigate the spatial distribution of the chiral condensate around static color sources for both quark-antiquark and three-quark systems. In the QCD vacuum a tube-like structure of chromo fields appears between color sources, which leads to a linearly confining potential. We show that the magnitude of the condensate is reduced inside the flux-tube, which suggests that chiral symmetry is partially restored inside the hadrons. By using a static baryon source in a periodic box as a model of the nuclear matter, we estimate the restoration of chiral symmetry with finite baryon number density.
Oscillating Hadron and Jet Multiplicity Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochs, W.
2004-01-01
Recently, the moments of multiplicity distributions in e^{+e- annihilation and the ratios Hq (cumulant over factorial moments Kq/Fq) have been determined both for the hadronic final state and for jets at variable resolution. These ratios show an oscillatory behaviour as function of q with strong dependence of the amplitude and length of oscillation on the jet resolution parameter ycut. The recent explanation of this phenomenon based on perturbative QCD calculations is discussed.}
Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava
2011-12-01
The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film ``Angels and Demons.'' In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society1 website featured an article on BH formation at the LHC.2 This article examines some aspects of mini BHs and explores the possibility of their detection at the LHC.
Slepton Pair Production at Hadron Colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuks, B.
2007-04-01
In R-parity conserving supersymmetric models, sleptons are produced in pairs at hadron colliders. We show that measurements of the longitudinal single-spin asymmetry at possible polarization upgrades of existing colliders allow for a direct extraction of the slepton mixing angle. A calculation of the transverse-momentum spectrum shows the importance of resummed contributions at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy in the small and intermediate transverse-momentum regions and little dependence on unphysical scales and non-perturbative contributions.
Uniformity requirements in CMS hadron calorimetry
Green, D.
1996-02-01
Practical considerations of calorimeter systems require a specification of the allowed manufacturing tolerances. The tightness of these requirements directly makes an impact on the assembly costs of the calorimeter. For that reason, a precise and well defined set of criteria is mandatory. In addition, the intrinsic limitations of hadron calorimetry define the level of accuracy needed in the manufacture of such devices. Therefore, considerations of the limitations on energy measurement accuracy due to Physics should define the needed level of effort to produce a uniform calorimetric device.
Properties of heavy flavoured hadrons at CDF
Fernandez, Juan Pablo; /Madrid, CIEMAT
2009-01-01
We present recent CDF results on the properties of hadrons containing heavy quarks. These include the measurements of mass, lifetime and relative cross section of the B{sub c} meson and an updated measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime. We also summarize new measurements of the mass of the {Sigma}{sub b} baryon. We expect more results from the Tevatron which will accumulate more data until the end of Run II currently scheduled to conclude in 2010.
The Large Hadron Collider and Grid computing.
Geddes, Neil
2012-02-28
We present a brief history of the beginnings, development and achievements of the worldwide Large Hadron Collider Computing Grid (wLCG). The wLCG is a huge international endeavour, which is itself embedded within, and directly influences, a much broader computing and information technology landscape. It is often impossible to identify true cause and effect, and they may appear very different from the different perspectives (e.g. information technology industry or academic researcher). This account is no different. It represents a personal view of the developments over the last two decades and is therefore inevitably biased towards those things in which the author has been personally involved.
Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei
Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )
1989-01-01
These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. 38 refs.
Hadronic and Semileptonic B Decays at Babar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rama, M.
2003-02-01
We present a review of a selection of hadronic and semileptonic B decays reconstructed with the BaBar detector on a data sample of 22.7 million Bbar B pairs. Measurements of the exclusive branching ratios of B0 → D*+D*- and B -> D{( * )} ˜ D{( * )} K and the ratio of branching fractions of B± → J/ψh± and B- → D0 h- (h = π, K) decays are presented. Measurements of the inclusive semileptonic branching fractions of charged and neutral B mesons are described and a measurement of |Vcb| is presented.
QCD SPIN PHYSICS IN HADRONIC INTERACTIONS.
VOGELSANG,W.
2007-06-19
We discuss spin phenomena in high-energy hadronic scattering, with a particular emphasis on the spin physics program now underway at the first polarized proton-proton collider, RHIC. Experiments at RHIC unravel the spin structure of the nucleon in new ways. Prime goals are to determine the contribution of gluon spins to the proton spin, to elucidate the flavor structure of quark and antiquark polarizations in the nucleon, and to help clarify the origin of transverse-spin phenomena in QCD. These lectures describe some aspects of this program and of the associated physics.
Charmless b-hadrons decays at CDF
Morello, Michael Joseph; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa
2008-10-01
We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for Bd, Bs and Lb decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions, kaons and protons). The data-set for these measurements amounts to 1fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at a center of mass energy 1.96TeV. We report on the first observation of the Bs->Kpi, Lb-ppi and Lb->pK decay modes and on the measurement of their branching fractions and direct CP asymmetries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kauder, Kolja
A unique state of matter is created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). It displays the properties of a near-perfect liquid of quarks and gluons (partons) interacting collectively via the strong force. Properties of this medium can be explored using high-energy probes created in the form of back-to-back pairs (jets) in hard scatterings. A distinct feature of the QGP is jet quenching, which describes the large energy loss of such probes observed in measurements of hadron distributions in head-on heavy ion collisions. A more differential measurement of jet quenching is achieved using di-hadron correlations, where relative angular distributions are studied with respect to a leading (high energy) "trigger" hadron. Two striking features found in di-hadron correlations are the emergence of a long-range plateau on the near-side (at small relative azimuth), the so-called "ridge", and a broadening and deformation of the away-side, back to back with the trigger. Using 200 GeV central gold-gold and minimum bias deuteron-gold collision data collected by the STAR detector at RHIC, a systematic study of the dependence of di-hadron correlation structures on the identity of the trigger particle is carried out in this work by statistically separating pion from non-pion (i.e. proton and kaon) triggers, offering new insights into the hadronization mechanisms in the QGP. The jet-like yield at small relative angles is found enhanced for leading pions in Au+Au data with respect to the d+Au reference, while leading non-pions (protons and kaons) do not elicit such an enhancement. These findings are discussed within the context of quark recombination. At large angles, the correlated yield is significantly higher for leading non-pions than pions. Parameters extracted from two-dimensional model fits are used to test consistency with the constituent quark scaling assumptions
Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthey, Marinette, Ed.
1997-01-01
Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent…
Charged kaon and proton production in B-hadron decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tegenfeldt, Fredrik Per
The production of charged kaons and protons in B-hadron decays has been measured in e+e- annihilations at centre-of-mass energies corresponding to the Z0 mass. In total 1.6 million hadronic Z0 decays were analysed, corresponding to about 690000 B-hadron decays. They were collected using the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider at CERN during 1994 and 1995. Events containing B-hadron decays were identified using special characteristics of the B-hadron decay topology. In particular, the long lifetime of the B-hadron leads to decay vertices significantly displaced relative the interaction point. These so called secondary vertices were reconstructed using a powerful micro vertex detector. In order to discriminate B-hadron decay products from fragmentation tracks, a method was used where the impact parameter measured by the vertex detector was employed as a discriminating variable. The tracks were thus divided into two classes, one compatible with the interaction point and the other compatible with a secondary vertex. An unfolding method was used to extract the true B-hadron decay tracks from the two classes. Charged kaons and protons were identified using the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector and corrected for misidentification using an efficiency matrix. The analysis resulted in charged kaon and proton spectra from B-hadron decays, including previously unmeasured momentum regions. Integrating the spectra yielded the following multiplicities
Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities
Geesaman, D.F.
1993-11-01
This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.
Diffractive hadron production at ultrahigh energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anisovich, V. V.; Matveev, M. A.; Nikonov, V. A.
2015-03-01
Diffractive production is considered in the ultrahigh energy region where pomeron exchange amplitudes are transformed into black disk ones due to rescattering corrections. The corresponding corrections in hadron reactions h1 + h3 → h1 + h2 + h3 with small momenta transferred (q2{1-> 1} ˜ m2/ln;2s, q2{3-> 3} ˜ m2/ln;2s) are calculated in terms of the K-matrix technique modified for ultrahigh energies. Small values of the momenta transferred are crucial for introducing equations for amplitudes. The three-body equation for hadron diffractive production reaction h1 + h3 → h1 + h2 + h3 is written and solved precisely in the eikonal approach. In the black disk regime final state scattering processes do not change the shapes of amplitudes principally but dump amplitudes by a factor 1/4; initial state rescatterings result in additional factor 1/2. In the resonant disk regime initial and final state scatterings damp strongly the production amplitude that corresponds to σinel/σtot → 0 at √ {s}->∞ in this mode.
Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.
2017-03-01
Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.
Hadron production measurements for neutrino physics
Panman, Jaap
2008-02-21
One of the limiting factors for the precision of neutrino oscillation experiments is the uncertainty in the composition and spectrum of the neutrino flux. Recently, dedicated hadron production experiments have been taking data and are being planned to supply measurements which can significantly reduce these uncertainties. The HARP experiment has presented results on the measurements of the double-differential production cross-section of charged pions in proton interactions with beryllium, carbon, aluminium, copper, tin, tantalum and lead targets. These results are relevant for a detailed understanding of neutrino flux in accelerator neutrino experiments K2K (p-Al data) and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE (p-Be data), for a better prediction of atmospheric neutrino fluxes (p-C, {pi}{sup +}-C and {pi}{sup -}-C data) as well as for a systematic improvement of hadron production models. The E910 experiment at BNL has recently published their p-Be data. NA49 has measured pion production spectra in p-C interactions and a new experiment, NA61, is starting to take data using essentially the same detector. NA61 plans to measure production spectra for the T2K experiment and for the calculation of extended air showers. MIPP has taken data with a copy of the NuMI target and is progressing in the analysis of these data. An upgrade of the readout of this experiment can greatly increase its potential.
Elementary and brief introduction of hadronic chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangde, Vijay M.
2013-10-01
The discipline, today known as Quantum Chemistry for atomic and subatomic level interactions has no doubt made a significant historical contributions to the society. Despite of its significant achievements, quantum chemistry is also known for its widespread denial of insufficiencies it inherits. An Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures without any quantitative scientific contents. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper-mathematics [1-4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli's mathematics[3-5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6-8]. In the present discussion, we have briefly reviewed the conceptual foundations of Hadronic Chemistry that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules.
Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
China Lattice QCD Collaboration; Li, Xin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Guo-Zhan; Feng, Xu; Gong, Ming; He, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bo
2007-06-01
We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Lüscher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume.
Strong interaction physics from hadronic atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batty, C. J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
1997-08-01
Hadronic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying strong interactions and nuclear medium effects at zero kinetic energy. Previous results from analyses of strong-interaction data consisting of level shifts, widths and yields in π-, K -, p¯ and ∑ - atoms are reviewed. Recent results from fits to comprehensive sets of data in terms of density-dependent optical potentials that respect the low-density limit, where the interaction tends to the free hadron nucleon value, are discussed. The importance of using realistic nuclear density distributions is highlighted. The introduction of density dependence in most cases significantly improves the fit to the data and leads to some novel results. For K - atoms, a substantial attraction of order 200 MeV in nuclear matter is suggested, with interesting repercussions for K¯ condensation and the evolution of strangeness in high-density stars. For p¯ atoms it is found that a reasonable p-wave strength can be accommodated in the fitted optical potential, in agreement with the energy dependence observed for some low-energy p¯N reactions. For ∑ - atoms, the fitted potential becomes repulsive inside the nucleus, implying that Σ hyperons generally do not bind in nuclei in agreement with recent measurements. This repulsion significantly affects calculated masses of neutron stars.
Hadron intensity and energy spectrum at 4380 m above level
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cananov, S. D.; Chadranyan, E. K.; Khizanishvili, L. A.; Ladaria, N. K.; Roinishvili, N. N.
1985-01-01
The flux value of hadrons with E (sup gamma) h or = 5 TeV, where E (sup gamma) h or = is the energy transferred into electromagnetic component is presented. It is shown that the energy spectrum slope beta of hadrons with E h or = 20 TeV is equal to 1.9.
Search For Hadronic Axions Emitted From The Sun
Ljubicic, A.; Kekez, D.; Krecak, Z.
2007-10-26
We made a search for hadronic axions, which could be emitted from the Sun in the axiobremsstrahlung process and absorbed in the HPGe detector by axioelectric effect. An upper limit on hadronic axion mass of 100 eV is obtained at the 95% confidence level.
Using analytic continuation for the hadronic vacuum polarization computation
Feng, Xu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Hotzel, Grit; Jansen, Karl; Petschlies, Marcus; B, Renner Dru
2014-11-01
We present two examples of applications of the analytic continuation method for computing the hadronic vacuum polarization function in space- and time-like momentum regions. These examples are the Adler function and the leading order hadronic contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We comment on the feasibility of the analytic continuation method and provide an outlook for possible further applications.
Hadron physics at the new CW electron accelerators
Burkert, V.D.
1990-01-01
Major trends of the physics program related to the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy at the new high current, high duty cycle electron machines are discussed. It is concluded that planned experiments at these machines may have important impact on our understanding of the strong interaction by studying the internal structure and spectroscopy of the nucleon and lower mass hyperon states.
Muon g-2 and Hadronic Vacuum Polarization: Recent Developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eidelman, Simon
2016-04-01
We discuss various experiments on e+e- annihilation into hadrons relevant to the problem of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. They include a status of the ISR measurements of the e+e- → π+π- as well as studies of numerous hadronic final states in experiments with the CMD-3 and SND detectors at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider.
Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiantika, F. R.
2017-04-01
This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.
Grassmannian sparse representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azary, Sherif; Savakis, Andreas
2015-05-01
We present Grassmannian sparse representations (GSR), a sparse representation Grassmann learning framework for efficient classification. Sparse representation classification offers a powerful approach for recognition in a variety of contexts. However, a major drawback of sparse representation methods is their computational performance and memory utilization for high-dimensional data. A Grassmann manifold is a space that promotes smooth surfaces where points represent subspaces and the relationship between points is defined by the mapping of an orthogonal matrix. Grassmann manifolds are well suited for computer vision problems because they promote high between-class discrimination and within-class clustering, while offering computational advantages by mapping each subspace onto a single point. The GSR framework combines Grassmannian kernels and sparse representations, including regularized least squares and least angle regression, to improve high accuracy recognition while overcoming the drawbacks of performance and dependencies on high dimensional data distributions. The effectiveness of GSR is demonstrated on computationally intensive multiview action sequences, three-dimensional action sequences, and face recognition datasets.
On properties of the exotic hadrons from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri
2016-11-01
We discuss the specific features of extracting properties of the exotic polyquark hadrons (tetraquarks, pentaquarks) compared to the usual hadrons by the QCD sum-rule approach. In the case of the ordinary hadrons, already the one-loop leading-order O(α0s) correlation functions provide the bulk of the hadron observables, e.g., of the form factor; inclusion of radiative corrections O(αs) modifies already nonzero one-loop contributions. In the case of an exotic hadron, the situation is qualitatively different: discussing strong decays of an exotic tetraquark meson, which provide the main contribution to its width, we show that the disconnected leading-order diagrams are not related to the tetraquark properties. For a proper description of the tetraquark decay width, it is mandatory to calculate specific radiative corrections which generate the connected diagrams.
Exclusive processes and the fundamental structure of hadrons
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2015-01-20
I review the historical development of QCD predictions for exclusive hadronic processes, beginning with constituent counting rules and the quark interchange mechanism, phenomena which gave early validation for the quark structure of hadrons. The subsequent development of pQCD factorization theorems for hard exclusive amplitudes and the development of evolution equations for the hadron distribution amplitudes provided a rigorous framework for calculating hadronic form factors and hard scattering exclusive scattering processes at high momentum transfer. I also give a brief introduction to the field of "light-front holography" and the insights it brings to quark confinement, the behavior of the QCD coupling in the nonperturbative domain, as well as hadron spectroscopy and the dynamics of exclusive processes.
Exclusive processes and the fundamental structure of hadrons
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2015-01-20
I review the historical development of QCD predictions for exclusive hadronic processes, beginning with constituent counting rules and the quark interchange mechanism, phenomena which gave early validation for the quark structure of hadrons. The subsequent development of pQCD factorization theorems for hard exclusive amplitudes and the development of evolution equations for the hadron distribution amplitudes provided a rigorous framework for calculating hadronic form factors and hard scattering exclusive scattering processes at high momentum transfer. I also give a brief introduction to the field of "light-front holography" and the insights it brings to quark confinement, the behavior of the QCD couplingmore » in the nonperturbative domain, as well as hadron spectroscopy and the dynamics of exclusive processes.« less
Hadronic forward scattering: Predictions for the Large Hadron Collider and cosmic rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Block, M. M.
2006-12-01
The status of hadron-hadron interactions is reviewed, with emphasis on the forward and near-forward scattering regions. Using unitarity, the optical theorem is derived. Analyticity and crossing symmetry, along with integral dispersion relations, are used to connect particle-particle and antiparticle-particle total cross sections and ρ-values, e.g., σpp, σ, ρpp and ρ, where ρ is the ratio of the real to the imaginary portion of the forward scattering amplitude. Real analytic amplitudes are then introduced to exploit analyticity and crossing symmetry. Again, from analyticity, finite energy sum rules (FESRs) are introduced from which new analyticity constraints are derived. These new analyticity conditions exploit the many very accurate low-energy experimental cross sections, i.e., they constrain the values of the asymptotic cross sections and their derivatives at low energies just above the resonance regions, allowing us new insights into duality. A robust fitting technique-using a minimization of the Lorentzian squared followed by the “Sieve” algorithm-is introduced in order to ‘clean up’ large data samples that are contaminated by outliers, allowing us to make much better fits to hadron-hadron scattering data over very large regions of energy. Experimental evidence for factorization theorems for γγ, γp and nucleon-nucleon collisions is presented. The Froissart bound is discussed-what do we mean here by the saturation of the Froissart bound? Using our analyticity constraints, new methods of fitting high-energy hadronic data are introduced which result in much more precise estimates of the fit parameters, allowing accurate extrapolations to much higher energies. It's shown that the γp, π±p and nucleon-nucleon cross sections all go asymptotically as ln2 s, saturating the bound, while conclusively ruling out lns and sα ( α∼0.08) behavior. Implications of this saturation for predictions of σpp and ρpp at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and for
Learning network representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyano, Luis G.
2017-02-01
In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.
Spacecraft Attitude Representations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis
1999-01-01
The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.
Di-hadron fragmentation and mapping of the nucleon structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisano, Silvia; Radici, Marco
2016-06-01
The fragmentation of a colored parton directly into a pair of colorless hadrons is a non-perturbative mechanism that offers important insights into the nucleon structure. Di-hadron fragmentation functions can be extracted from semi-inclusive electron-positron annihilation data. They also appear in observables describing the semi-inclusive production of two hadrons in deep-inelastic scattering of leptons off nucleons or in hadron-hadron collisions. When a target nucleon is transversely polarized, a specific chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function can be used as the analyzer of the net density of transversely polarized quarks in a transversely polarized nucleon, the so-called transversity distribution. The latter can be extracted through suitable single-spin asymmetries in the framework of collinear factorization, thus in a much simpler framework with respect to the traditional one in single-hadron fragmentation. At subleading twist, the same chiral-odd di-hadron fragmentation function provides the cleanest access to the poorly known twist-3 parton distribution e( x) , which is intimately related to the mechanism of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. When sensitive to details of transverse-momentum dynamics of partons, the di-hadron fragmentation functions for a longitudinally polarized quark can be connected to the longitudinal jet handedness to explore possible effects due to CP -violation of the QCD vacuum. In this review, we outline the formalism of di-hadron fragmentation functions, we discuss different observables where they appear and we present measurements and future worldwide plans.
Favor referential representations.
Frazier, L; McNamara, P
1995-06-01
Avrutin and Hickok (1993) argue that agrammatic patients have the ability to represent nonreferential or "government" chains ("who ... e") but not referential or "binding" chains ("which girl ... e"). By contrast, we propose the "referential representation hypothesis," which suggests that agrammatics attempt to cope with their well-known capacity limitations by favoring referential or content-based representations. This predicts that agrammatic patients' performance should degrade noticeably as task demands increase, and referential demands should take priority over computational ones. In a semantic task, referential phrases should lead to better or more accurate performances. In syntactic tasks, the availability of a referential or content-based representation will interfere with the development of a syntactic representation, resulting in worse syntactic performance on the referential phrases than on nonreferential ones. This predicts that agrammatic patients should incorrectly accept (resumptive) pronoun sentences with a referential wh-phrase because the pronouns will find the semantic or discourse referent of the referential wh-phrase and take it as an antecedent for the pronoun. However, they should reject a (resumptive) pronoun in a sentence with the nonreferential question constituent "who" or "what." "Who" and "what" will remain in syntactic form, since they have only grammatical content and therefore will have only a "nonreferential" syntactic representation. Consequently, they cannot serve as the antecedent of the pronoun. These predictions were largely confirmed by the results of a grammaticality judgement study. Agrammatics performed well on questions with pragmatic biases but failed to distinguish reliably between grammatical and ungrammatical questions where pragmatic biases were neutralized. They assigned especially low ratings to object gap sentences with referential wh-constituents, as predicted. They assigned relatively high ratings to
Early representations of ownership.
Blake, Peter R; Harris, Paul L
2011-01-01
To navigate a world filled with private property, children must be able to assign ownership information to objects and update that information when appropriate. In this chapter, the authors propose that children include ownership as an attribute of their object representations. Children can learn about ownership attributes either by witnessing owners acting on their property, a visual source, or by receiving information from the testimony of others, a verbal source. The authors consider the differences between these two forms of information and how they might conflict at the representational level, leading to difficulties in learning about ownership. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Implicit and explicit representations.
Rougier, Nicolas P
2009-03-01
During the past decades, the symbol grounding problem, as has been identified by Harnard [Harnard, S. (1990). The symbol grounding problem. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 42, 335-346], became a prominent problem in the cognitive science society. The idea that a symbol is much more than a mere meaningless token that can be processed through some algorithm, sheds new light on higher brain functions such as language and cognition. We present in this article a computational framework that may help in our understanding of the nature of grounded representations. Two models are briefly introduced that aim at emphasizing the difference we make between implicit and explicit representations.
Umbra's system representation.
McDonald, Michael James
2005-07-01
This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.
Single particle momentum and angular distributions in hadron-hadron collisions at ultrahigh energies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, T. T.; Chen, N. Y.
1985-01-01
The forward-backward charged multiplicity distribution (P n sub F, n sub B) of events in the 540 GeV antiproton-proton collider has been extensively studied by the UA5 Collaboration. It was pointed out that the distribution with respect to n = n sub F + n sub B satisfies approximate KNO scaling and that with respect to Z = n sub F - n sub B is binomial. The geometrical model of hadron-hadron collision interprets the large multiplicity fluctuation as due to the widely different nature of collisions at different impact parameters b. For a single impact parameter b, the collision in the geometrical model should exhibit stochastic behavior. This separation of the stochastic and nonstochastic (KNO) aspects of multiparticle production processes gives conceptually a lucid and attractive picture of such collisions, leading to the concept of partition temperature T sub p and the single particle momentum spectrum to be discussed in detail.
Observation of exclusive electron-positron production in hadron-hadron collisions.
Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Caron, B; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; Daronco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; Cecco, S De; Deisher, A; Lentdecker, G De; Dell'orso, M; Paoli, F Delli; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Pedis, D De; Derwent, P F; Giovanni, G P Di; Dionisi, C; Ruzza, B Di; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pinfold, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S
2007-03-16
We present the first observation of exclusive e(+)e(-) production in hadron-hadron collisions, using pp[over] collision data at (square root) s = 1.96 TeV taken by the run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 532 pb(-1). We require the absence of any particle signatures in the detector except for an electron and a positron candidate, each with transverse energy E(T) > 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |eta| < 2. With these criteria, 16 events are observed compared to a background expectation of 1.9+/-0.3 events. These events are consistent in cross section and properties with the QED process pp[over] --> p + e(+)e(-) + p[over] through two-photon exchange. The measured cross section is 1.6(-0.3)(+0.5)(stat) +/- 0.3(syst) pb. This agrees with the theoretical prediction of 1.71+/-0.01 pb.
On a microscopic representation of space-time IV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahm, Rolf
2017-05-01
We summarize some previous work on SU(4) describing hadron representations and transformations as well as its noncompact "counterpart" SU*(4) being the complex embedding of SL(2,H). So after having related the 16-dim Dirac algebra to SU*(4), on the one hand we have access to real, complex, and quaternionic Lie group chains and their respective algebras, on the other hand it is of course possible to relate physical descriptions to the respective representations. With emphasis on the common maximal compact subgroup USp(4), we are led to projective geometry of the real 3-space and various transfer principles which we use to extend the previous work on the rank 3-algebras above. On real spaces, such considerations are governed by the groups SO( n, m) with n + m = 6. The central thread, however, focuses here on line and Complex geometry which finds its well-known counterparts in descriptions of electromagnetism and special relativity as well as—using transfer principles—in Dirac, gauge, and quantum field theory. We discuss a simple picture where Complexe of second grade play the major and dominant rôle to unify (real) projective geometry, complex representation theory and line/Complex representations in order to proceed to dynamics.
Hadron-Hadron Interactions in the Constituent Quark Model: Results and Extensions
Eric S. Swanson
2001-01-01
Hadronic interactions are discussed within the context of the constituent quark model. The ''Quark Born Diagram'' methodology is outlined, extensive applications to meson-meson and meson-baryon interactions are discussed, and general features of these interactions are highlighted. The second half of this document deals with shortcomings of the quark model approach and methods to overcome them. These include relativistic kinematics, unitarity, nonlocal potentials, coupled channel effects, and the chiral nature of the pion.
A gist of comprehensive review of hadronic chemistry and its applications
Tangde, Vijay M.
2015-03-10
20{sup th} century theories of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry are exactly valid only when considered to represent the atomic structures. While considering the more general aspects of atomic combinations these theories fail to explain all the related experimental data from first unadulterated axiomatic principles. According to Quantum Chemistry two valence electrons should repel each other and as such there is no mathematical representation of a strong attractive forces between such valence electrons. In view of these and other insufficiencies of Quantum Chemistry, an Italian-American Scientist Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli during his more than five decades of dedicated and sustained research has denounced the fact that quantum chemistry is mostly based on mere nomenclatures. Professor R M Santilli first formulated the iso-, geno- and hyper- mathematics [1, 2, 3, 4] that helped in understanding numerous diversified problems and removing inadequacies in most of the established and celebrated theories of 20th century physics and chemistry. This involves the isotopic, genotopic, etc. lifting of Lie algebra that generated Lie admissible mathematics to properly describe irreversible processes. The studies on Hadronic Mechanics in general and chemistry in particular based on Santilli’s mathematics[3, 4, 5] for the first time has removed the very fundamental limitations of quantum chemistry [2, 6, 7, 8]. In the present discussion, a comprehensive review of Hadronic Chemistry is presented that imparts the completeness to the Quantum Chemistry via an addition of effects at distances of the order of 1 fm (only) which are assumed to be Non-linear, Non-local, Non-potential, Non-hamiltonian and thus Non-unitary, stepwise successes of Hadronic Chemistry and its application in development of a new chemical species called Magnecules.
Strange and heavy mesons in hadronic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Daniel; Abreu, Luciano M.; Bratkovskaya, Elena; Ilner, Andrej; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Ramos, Angels; Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.
2014-04-01
We present selected results on the properties of strange and heavy-flavoured mesons in a hot and dense nuclear medium, with emphasis in selfconsistent coupled-channel approaches based on the chiral Lagrangian. In the strangeness sector, we discuss how the enhanced reactivity of light strange vectors at FAIR conditions can be tied to in-medium effects on their predominant decay modes (e.g. bar K* → bar Kπ) and to the excitation of strange baryons in vector-meson nucleon interactions. In the heavy-flavour sector, we focus on recent determinations of the transport coefficients of charmed and bottomed mesons in a hadron gas at vanishing baryonic chemical potential. We comment on the role of microscopic transport simulations to establish a connection between theoretical models and experimental observables from heavy-ion collisions (HICs).
Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS
Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab
2008-11-01
CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.
Hadron scattering lengths in lattice QCD
Fukugita, M. |; Kuramashi, Y.; Okawa, M.; Mino, H.; Ukawa, A.
1995-09-01
For {ital N}-{ital N} scattering a phenomenological study with one-boson exchange potentials indicate that the deuteron becomes unbound if the quark mass is increased beyond 30--40% of the physical value. Simulations with the Wilson action on a 20{sup 4} lattice with heavy quarks with {ital m}{sub {pi}}/{ital m}{sub {rho}}{approx}0.74--0.95 show that the nucleon-nucleon force is attractive for both spin triplet and singlet channels, and that the scatteirng lengths are substantially larger compared to those for the {pi}-{pi} and {pi}-{ital N} cases even for such heavy quarks. The problem of statistical errors, which has to be overcome toward a more realistic calculation of hadron scattering lengths, is discussed.
Illuminating new electroweak states at hadron colliders
Ismail, Ahmed; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian
2016-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel powerful strategy to perform searches for new electroweak states. Uncolored electroweak states appear in generic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) and yet are challenging to discover at hadron colliders. This problem is particularly acute when the lightest state in the electroweak multiplet is neutral and all multiplet components are approximately degenerate. In this scenario, production of the charged fields of the multiplet is followed by decay into nearly invisible states; if this decay occurs promptly, the only way to infer the presence of the reaction is through its missing energy signature. Our proposal relies on emission of photon radiation from the new charged states as a means of discriminating the signal from SM backgrounds. Lastly, we demonstrate its broad applicability by studying two examples: a pure Higgsino doublet and an electroweak quintuplet field.
Illuminating new electroweak states at hadron colliders
Ismail, Ahmed; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian
2016-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel powerful strategy to perform searches for new electroweak states. Uncolored electroweak states appear in generic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) and yet are challenging to discover at hadron colliders. This problem is particularly acute when the lightest state in the electroweak multiplet is neutral and all multiplet components are approximately degenerate. In this scenario, production of the charged fields of the multiplet is followed by decay into nearly invisible states; if this decay occurs promptly, the only way to infer the presence of the reaction is through its missing energy signature. Ourmore » proposal relies on emission of photon radiation from the new charged states as a means of discriminating the signal from SM backgrounds. Lastly, we demonstrate its broad applicability by studying two examples: a pure Higgsino doublet and an electroweak quintuplet field.« less
Report of the Snowmass hadronization group
Derrick, M.; Gottschalk, T.
1984-01-01
Most of the data on jets and the relationship to the parent partons has come from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation which provides a particularly simple laboratory. A number of Monte Carlo (MC) models have been developed that are quite successful in describing the overall character e/sup +/e/sup -/ events. Although such comparisons provide an essential foundation, hadronic interactions are much more complicated and the detailed modeling of these processes is at a more primitive level of development. In this report, we review in detail the state-of-the-art of this modeling, including some comparisons with data. We highlight the experiments that are needed in order to guide the future developments of the models and give a detailed discussion of the relevant theoretical issues. Finally, we consider what can be measured at the SSC itself and make some suggestions for further work in this area. 128 references, 50 figures.
Schematic model for QCD. III. Hadronic states
Nunez, M.V.; Lerma, S.H.; Hess, P.O.; Jesgarz, S.; Civitarese, O.; Reboiro, M.
2004-09-01
The hadronic spectrum obtained in the framework of a QCD-inspired schematic model is presented. The model is the extension of a previous version, whose basic degrees of freedom are constituent quarks, antiquarks, and gluons. The interaction between quarks and gluons is a phenomenological interaction and its parameters are fixed from data. The classification of the states, in terms of quark and antiquark and gluon configurations is based on symmetry considerations, and it is independent of the chosen interaction. Following this procedure, nucleon and {delta} resonances are identified, as well as various penta- and hepta-quarks states. The lowest pentaquarks state is predicted at 1.5 GeV and it has negative parity, while the lowest hepta-quarks state has positive parity and its energy is of the order of 2.5 GeV.
Large Hadron Collider momentum calibration and accuracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todesco, E.; Wenninger, J.
2017-08-01
As a result of the excellent quality of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experimental detectors and the accurate calibration of the luminosity at the LHC, uncertainties on the LHC beam energy may contribute significantly to the measurement errors on certain observables unless the relative uncertainty is well below 1%. Direct measurements of the beam energy using the revolution frequency difference of proton and lead beams combined with the magnetic model errors are used to provide the energy uncertainty of the LHC beams. Above injection energy the relative uncertainty on the beam energy is determined to be ±0.1 %. The energy values as reconstructed and distributed online to the LHC experiments do not require any correction above injection energy. At injection a correction of +0.31 GeV /c must be applied to the online energy values.
QCD and jets at hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapeta, Sebastian
2016-07-01
We review various aspects of jet physics in the context of hadron colliders. We start by discussing the definitions and properties of jets and recent development in this area. We then consider the question of factorization for processes with jets, in particular for cases in which jets are produced in special configurations, like for example in the region of forward rapidities. We review numerous perturbative methods for calculating predictions for jet processes, including the fixed-order calculations as well as various matching and merging techniques. We also discuss the questions related to non-perturbative effects and the role they play in precision jet studies. We describe the status of calculations for processes with jet vetoes and we also elaborate on production of jets in forward direction. Throughout the article, we present selected comparisons between state-of-the-art theoretical predictions and the data from the LHC.
Illuminating new electroweak states at hadron colliders
Ismail, Ahmed; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian
2016-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel powerful strategy to perform searches for new electroweak states. Uncolored electroweak states appear in generic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) and yet are challenging to discover at hadron colliders. This problem is particularly acute when the lightest state in the electroweak multiplet is neutral and all multiplet components are approximately degenerate. In this scenario, production of the charged fields of the multiplet is followed by decay into nearly invisible states; if this decay occurs promptly, the only way to infer the presence of the reaction is through its missing energy signature. Our proposal relies on emission of photon radiation from the new charged states as a means of discriminating the signal from SM backgrounds. Lastly, we demonstrate its broad applicability by studying two examples: a pure Higgsino doublet and an electroweak quintuplet field.
Legendre Expansions for Two-Hadron Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strakovsky, Igor; Azimov, Yakov; Briscoe, William
2017-01-01
Modern experimental facilities and detectors provide tremendous volumes of detailed data. For two-hadron reactions, they are usually presented as a set of multiple panels, e . g . , angular distributions at many particular energies. Such presentations lose visuality, and their physical content may be extracted only through some model-dependent treatment. Instead, we suggest to use expansion into the Legendre series with a relatively small number of essential coefficients. This approach was applied in several experimental investigations and demonstrated its higher visualization. This talk presents some general properties of the Legendre coefficients which allow one to extract physical information even without any model-dependent assumptions. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Numbers DE-SC0014133 and DE-SC0016582 and the Russian Science Foundation, Award No.14-22-00281.
Fixed-target hadron production experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Boris A.
2015-08-01
Results from fixed-target hadroproduction experiments (HARP, MIPP, NA49 and NA61/SHINE) as well as their implications for cosmic ray and neutrino physics are reviewed. HARP measurements have been used for predictions of neutrino beams in K2K and MiniBooNE/SciBooNE experiments and are also being used to improve predictions of the muon yields in EAS and of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes as well as to help in the optimization of neutrino factory and super-beam designs. Recent measurements released by the NA61/SHINE experiment are of significant importance for a precise prediction of the J-PARC neutrino beam used for the T2K experiment and for interpretation of EAS data. These hadroproduction experiments provide also a large amount of input for validation and tuning of hadron production models in Monte-Carlo generators.
Unraveling duality violations in hadronic tau decays
Cata, Oscar; Cata, Oscar; Golterman, Maarten; Peris, Santiago
2008-03-03
There are some indications from recent determinations of the strong coupling constant alpha_s and the gluon condensate that the Operator Product Expansion may not be accurate enough to describe non-perturbative effects in hadronic tau decays. This breakdown of the Operator Product Expansion is usually referred to as being due to"Duality Violations." With the help of a physically motivated model, we investigate these duality violations. Based on this model, we argue how they may introduce a non-negligible systematic error in the current analysis, which employs finite-energy sum rules with pinched weights. In particular, this systematic effect might affect the precision determination of alpha_s from tau decays. With a view to a possible future application to real data, we present an alternative method for determining the OPE coefficients that might help estimating, and possibly even reducing, this systematic error.
The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshäuser, H.; Bächler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R. A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C. O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F. P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H. L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G. E.; Cramer, J. G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M. I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H. G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gaździcki, M.; Gładysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Günther, J.; Harris, J. W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L. A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Hümmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P. G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lévai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A. I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G. L.; Mock, A.; Molnár, J.; Nelson, J. M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R. J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D. J.; Pühlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J. G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H. G.; Röhrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schäfer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schönfelder, S.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G. T. A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Ströbele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymański, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F. Q.; Weerasundara, D. D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T. A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.
1999-07-01
The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via d E/d x. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.
Lifetimes of heavy hadrons beyond leading logarithms
Ulrich Nierste
2002-09-19
The lifetime splitting between the B{sup +} and B{sub d}{sup 0} mesons has recently been calculated in the next-to-leading order of QCD. These corrections are necessary for a reliable theoretical prediction, in particular for the meaningful use of hadronic matrix elements computed with lattice QCD. Using results from quenched lattice QCD we find {tau}(B{sup +})/{tau}(B{sub d}{sup 0}) = 1.053 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.017, where the uncertainties from unquenching and 1/m{sub b} corrections are not included. The lifetime difference of heavy baryons {Xi}{sub b}{sup 0} and {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} is also discussed.
Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei
Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )
1989-12-01
These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs.
Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giudice, Gian Francesco
2012-03-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.
A feedback microprocessor for hadron colliders
Herrup, D.A.; Chapman, L.; Franck, A.; Groves, T.; Lublinsky, B.
1992-12-01
A feedback microprocessor has been built for the TEVATRON. It has been constructed to be applicable to hadron colliders in general. Its inputs are realtime accelerator measurements, data describing the state of the TEVATRON, and ramp tables. The microprocessor software includes a finite state machine. Each state corresponds to a specific TEVATRON operation and has a state-specific TEVATRON model. Transitions between states are initiated by the global TEVATRON clock. Each state includes a cyclic routine which is called periodically and where all calculations are performed. The output corrections are inserted onto a fast TEVATRON-wide link from which the power supplies will read the realtime corrections. We also store all of the input data and output corrections in a set of buffers which can easily be retrieved for diagnostic analysis. In this paper we will describe this device and its use to control the TEVATRON tunes as well as other possible applications.
The Tevatron Hadron Collider: A short history
Tollestrup, A.V.
1994-11-01
The subject of this presentation was intended to cover the history of hadron colliders. However this broad topic is probably better left to historians. I will cover a much smaller portion of this subject and specialize my subject to the history of the Tevatron. As we will see, the Tevatron project is tightly entwined with the progress in collider technology. It occupies a unique place among accelerators in that it was the first to make use of superconducting magnets and indeed the basic design now forms a template for all machines using this technology. It was spawned in an incredibly productive era when new ideas were being generated almost monthly and it has matured into our highest energy collider complete with two large detectors that provide the major facility in the US for probing high Pt physics for the coming decade.
Illuminating new electroweak states at hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Ahmed; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian
2016-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel powerful strategy to perform searches for new electroweak states. Uncolored electroweak states appear in generic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) and yet are challenging to discover at hadron colliders. This problem is particularly acute when the lightest state in the electroweak multiplet is neutral and all multiplet components are approximately degenerate. In this scenario, production of the charged fields of the multiplet is followed by decay into nearly invisible states; if this decay occurs promptly, the only way to infer the presence of the reaction is through its missing energy signature. Our proposal relies on emission of photon radiation from the new charged states as a means of discriminating the signal from SM backgrounds. We demonstrate its broad applicability by studying two examples: a pure Higgsino doublet and an electroweak quintuplet field.
Decay behaviors of the Pc hadronic molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yong-Hui; Shen, Chao-Wei; Guo, Feng-Kun; Zou, Bing-Song
2017-06-01
The Pc(4380 ) and Pc(4450 ) states observed recently by the LHCb experiment were proposed to be either D ¯Σc* or D¯*Σc bound states. We analyze the decay behaviors of two such types of hadronic molecules within the effective Lagrangian framework. With branching ratios of ten possible decay channels calculated, it is found that the two types of hadronic molecules have distinguishable decay patterns. While the D ¯Σc* molecule decays dominantly to the D¯*Λc channel with a branching ratio by 2 orders of magnitude larger than to D ¯Λc, the D¯*Σc molecule decays to these two channels with a difference of less than a factor of 2. Our results show that the total decay width of Pc(4380 ) as the spin-parity-3/2- D ¯Σc* molecule is about a factor of 2 larger than the corresponding value for the D¯*Σc molecule. It suggests that the assignment of the D ¯Σc* molecule for Pc(4380 ) is more favorable than the D¯*Σc molecule. In addition, Pc(4450 ) seems to be a D¯*Σc molecule with JP=5/2+ in our scheme. Based on these partial decay widths of the Pc states, we estimate the cross sections for the reactions γ p →J /ψ p and π p →J /ψ p through the s-channel Pc states. The forthcoming γ p experiment at JLAB and the π p experiment at JPARC should be able to pin down the nature of these Pc states.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tervo, Juuso
2012-01-01
In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…
Compact Information Representations
2016-08-02
detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases, and search. Fundamentally, compact data representations are highly beneficial because they...Blessing of Dimensionality: Recovering Mixture Data via Dictionary Pursuit, to appear in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence... Machine Learning (ICML), 2016 11. Ping Li, One Scan 1-Bit Compressed Sensing, in International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics
Knowledge Representation in PARKA
1990-02-01
the color of Poodle could be restricted to being just black or white, while the color of Irish-Setter could be set to red. Note that this would allow a...sub- field of knowledge representation with considerable subtlety and a history of interesting, difficult problems (see, e.g. [10]). Winston et. al
Reading Students' Representations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.
2011-01-01
Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…
Women and political representation.
Rathod, P B
1999-01-01
A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.
Reading Students' Representations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.
2011-01-01
Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tervo, Juuso
2012-01-01
In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…
1983-06-07
appear to contain visual, auditory, kinesthetic , and emotive components, in addition to the more abstract com- ponents necessary for the kinds of causal...it gets interpreted. . . . . . . . . o,. Rumelhart and Norman Representation in Memory June 7, 1983 81 being learned. The learner is expected to
Hadronic Energy Distributions in Deep-Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crombie, Michael Byrne
An outline of QCD, the theory of string interactions, is given and several QCD Monte Carlo models are described in detail. Energy distributions of the hadronic system produced in neutral current electron-proton deep-inelastic scattering at a centre of mass energy of 296 GeV are presented. Comparisons of the results with the models show that QCD radiation has a strong influence on the characteristics of the hadronic final state. The data is reasonably well produced by the Lund model based on a matrix element calculation in first order of the strong coupling, followed by appropriate parton showers. The colour dipole model also gives a reasonable representation of the data. Neither the first order matrix elements alone nor the Lund parton shower model, without the matrix element calculation, reproduce the data. The HERWIG parton shower model is also deficient. The data was taken with the ZEUS detector at the HERA accelerator in Hamburg, Germany. A general description of the detector design and principles of operation is provided. A three level trigger system is required to handle the high luminosity delivered by HERA. The first two levels involve the local processing of component data. The third level makes a decision based on the global information from an event. It accepts events at 100 Hz, or 20 MBytes/sec, at the design luminosity and reduces this to around 5 Hz. The architecture and implementation of the third level trigger system is discussed.
Quark-hadron phase transition and strangeness conservation constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saeed-Uddin
1999-01-01
The implications of the strangeness conservation in a hadronic resonance gas (HRG) on the expected phase transition to the quark gluon plasma (QGP) are investigated. It is assumed that under favourable conditions a first order hadron-quark matter phase transition may occur in the hot hadronic matter such as those produced in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at CERN and BNL. It is however shown that the criteria of strict strangeness conservation in the HRG may not permit the occurrence of a strict first order equilibrium quark-hadron phase transition unlike a previous study. This emerges as a consequence of the application of a realistic equation of state (EOS) for the HRG and QGP phases, which account for the finite-size effect arising from the short range hard-core hadronic repulsion in the HRG phase and the perturbative QCD interactions in the QGP phase. For a first order hadron-quark matter phase transition to occur one will therefore require large fluctuations in the critical thermal parameters, which might arise due to superheating, supercooling or other nonequlibrium effects. We also discuss a scenario proposed earlier, leading to a possible strangeness separation process during hadronization.
An estimate of the bulk viscosity of the hadronic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarwar, Golam; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Alam, Jane
2017-05-01
The bulk viscosity (ζ) of the hadronic medium has been estimated within the ambit of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) model including the Hagedorn density of states. The HRG thermodynamics within a grand canonical ensemble provides the mean hadron number as well as its fluctuation. The fluctuation in the chemical composition of the hadronic medium in the grand canonical ensemble can result in non-zero divergence of the hadronic fluid flow velocity, allowing us to estimate the ζ of the hadronic matter up to a relaxation time. We study the influence of the hadronic spectrum on ζ and find its correlation with the conformal symmetry breaking measure, ε -3P. We estimate ζ along the contours with constant, S/{N}B (total entropy/net baryon number) in the T-μ plane (temperature-baryonic chemical potential) for S/{N}B=30,45 and 300. We also assess the value of ζ on the chemical freeze-out curve for various centers of mass energy (\\sqrt{{s}{NN}}) and find that the bulk viscosity to entropy density ratio, \\zeta /s is larger in the energy range of the beam energy scan program of RHIC, low energy SPS run, AGS, NICA and FAIR, than LHC energies.
Fast Dynamical Evolution of Hadron Resonance Gas via Hagedorn States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beitel, M.; Gallmeister, K.; Greiner, C.
2017-01-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature TH which in our understanding equals the critical temperature Tc . A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number B, strangeness S and electric charge Q. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc. are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles as the Ξ0- and the Ω--baryon. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature TH . Box calculations including these Hagedorn states are performed. Indeed, the time scales leading to equilibration of the system are drastically reduced down to 2. . . 5 fm/c.
Equilibration of hadrons in HICs via Hagedorn States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beitel, M.; Gallmeister, K.; Greiner, C.
2016-08-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature TH which in our understanding equals the critical temperature Tc. A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number B, strangeness S and electric charge Q. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc. are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature TH. Box calculations including these Hagedorn states are performed. Indeed, the time scales leading to equilibration of the system are drastically reduced down to 2... 5fm/c.
Equilibration of hadrons in HICs via Hagedorn States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beitel, M.; Gallmeister, K.; Greiner, C.
2016-01-01
Hagedorn states (HS) are a tool to model the hadronization process which occurs in the phase transition region between the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadron resonance gas (HRG). These states are believed to appear near the Hagedorn temperature TH which in our understanding equals the critical temperature Tc. A covariantly formulated bootstrap equation is solved to generate the zoo of these particles characterized baryon number B, strangeness S and electric charge Q. These hadron-like resonances are characterized by being very massive and by not being limited to quantum numbers of known hadrons. All hadronic properties like masses, spectral functions etc. are taken from the hadronic transport model Ultra Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Decay chains of single Hagedorn states provide a well description of experimentally observed multiplicity ratios of strange and multi-strange particles. In addition, the final energy spectra of resulting hadrons show a thermal-like distribution with the characteristic Hagedorn temperature TH. Box calculations including these Hagedorn states are performed. Indeed, the time scales leading to equilibration of the system are drastically reduced down to 2…5fm/c.
Signatures of non-universal gaugino and scalar masses at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
Bhattacharya, Subhaditya
2008-11-23
We perform a multichannel analysis in context of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for supersymmetric (SUSY) theories with high-scale non-universal gaugino masses arising from different non-singlet representations of SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups in a SUSY-GUT scenario and non-universal scalar masses in form of squark-slepton non-universality, third family scalar non-universality and that arising due to SO(10) D-terms. We present the numerical predictions over a wide region of parameter space using event generator Pythia. Certain broad features emerge from the study which may be useful to identify these non-universal schemes and distinguish them from the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) framework.
Heavy quark-antiquark free energy and thermodynamics of string-hadron avoided crossings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Megías, E.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Salcedo, L. L.
2016-11-01
The correlation function between two Polyakov loops encodes the free-energy shift due to a pair of separated color-conjugated sources in the hot QCD medium. This is analyzed in terms of a novel Källén-Lehmann spectral representation for the separating distance, implying an increasing and concave free-energy at all temperatures. We express the heavy Q ¯ Q free-energy shift below the phase transition in QCD in terms of color-neutral purely hadronic states with no explicit reference to quarks and gluons. Good agreement with lattice data is achieved when considering the avoided crossing mechanism underlying string breaking and with standard quenched values of the string tension known from charmonium and bottomonium phenomenology. We also address the role of the corresponding entropy shift and its renormalization group properties.
PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.
2012-07-01
The 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics was held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai from 31 October to 4 November 2011. This workshop series, supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy (BRNS, DAE), Govt. of India, began ten years ago with the first one being held at BARC, Mumbai in October 2002. The second one was held at Puri in 2005, organized jointly by Institute of Physics, Bhubneswar and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. The 3rd and 4th ones took place, respectively, at Shantineketan in 2006, organized by Visva Bharati University, and at Aligarh in 2008, organized by Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The aim of the present workshop was to bring together the experts and young researchers in the field of hadron physics (both experiment and theory) and to have in-depth discussions on the current research activities in this field. The format of the workshop was: a series of review lectures by various experts from India and abroad, the presentation of advanced research results by researchers in the field, and a review of major experimental programs being planned and pursued in major laboratories in the field of hadron physics, with the aim of providing a platform for the young participants for interaction with their peers. The upcoming international FAIR facility at GSI is a unique future facility for studies of hadron physics in the charm sector and hyper nuclear physics. The Indian hadron physics community is involved in this mega science project and is working with the PANDA collaboration on the development of detectors, simulation and software tools for the hadron physics programme with antiprotons at FAIR. A one-day discussion session was held at this workshop to discuss India-PANDA activities, the current collaboration status and the work plan. This volume presents the workshop proceedings consisting of lectures and seminars which were delivered during the workshop. We are thankful to
Searching for the rules that govern hadron construction
Shepherd, Matthew R.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Mitchell, Ryan E.
2016-06-22
Just as quantum electrodynamics describes how electrons are bound in atoms by the electromagnetic force, mediated by the exchange of photons, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) describes how quarks are bound inside hadrons by the strong force, mediated by the exchange of gluons. QCD seems to allow hadrons constructed from increasingly many quarks to exist, just as atoms with increasing numbers of electrons exist, yet such complex constructions seemed, until recently, not to be present in nature. In this paper, we describe advances in the spectroscopy of mesons that are refining our understanding of the rules for predicting hadron structure from QCD.
Prospects for heavy flavor physics at hadron colliders
Butler, J.N.
1997-09-01
The role of hadron colliders in the observation and study of CP violation in B decays is discussed. We show that hadron collider experiments can play a significant role in the early studies of these phenomena and will play an increasingly dominant role as the effort turns towards difficult to measure decays, especially those of the B{sub s} meson, and sensitive searches for rare decays and subtle deviations from Standard Model predictions. We conclude with a discussion of the relative merits of hadron collider detectors with `forward` vs `central` rapidity coverage.
Nuclear modification of charged hadron production at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De, Somnath; Srivastava, Dinesh K.
2013-07-01
We analyze recent results for the suppressed production of charged hadrons for Pb+Pb collisions at the center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV/nucleon-pair. We closely follow the treatment recently used by us in which partons lose energy due to the radiation of gluons following multiple scatterings while traversing the quark-gluon plasma, before fragmenting into hadrons at the center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV/nucleon-pair. We obtain an empirical value for the momentum transport coefficient (\\widehat{q}) and provide predictions for azimuthal anisotropy of hadron momenta for non-central collisions. Communicated by Steffen Bass
Excited-state hadron masses from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morningstar, C.; Bulava, J.; Foley, J.; Jhang, Y. C.; J, K. J.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C. H.
2012-09-01
Progress in computing the spectrum of excited baryons and mesons in lattice QCD is described. Large sets of spatially-extended hadron operators are used. The need for multi-hadron operators in addition to single-hadron operators is emphasized, necessitating the use of a new stochastic method of treating the low-lying modes of quark propagation which exploits Laplacian Heaviside quark-field smearing. A new glueball operator is tested and computing the mixing of this glueball operator with a quark-antiquark operator and multiple two-pion operators is shown to be feasible.
Searching for the rules that govern hadron construction
Shepherd, Matthew R.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Mitchell, Ryan E.
2016-06-22
Just as quantum electrodynamics describes how electrons are bound in atoms by the electromagnetic force, mediated by the exchange of photons, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) describes how quarks are bound inside hadrons by the strong force, mediated by the exchange of gluons. QCD seems to allow hadrons constructed from increasingly many quarks to exist, just as atoms with increasing numbers of electrons exist, yet such complex constructions seemed, until recently, not to be present in nature. In this paper, we describe advances in the spectroscopy of mesons that are refining our understanding of the rules for predicting hadron structure from QCD.
Computing the hadronic vacuum polarization function by analytic continuation
Feng, Xu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Hotzel, Grit; ...
2013-08-29
We propose a method to compute the hadronic vacuum polarization function on the lattice at continuous values of photon momenta bridging between the spacelike and timelike regions. We provide two independent demonstrations to show that this method leads to the desired hadronic vacuum polarization function in Minkowski spacetime. We present with the example of the leading-order QCD correction to the muon anomalous magnetic moment that this approach can provide a valuable alternative method for calculations of physical quantities where the hadronic vacuum polarization function enters.
K-p one-hadron-exchange potential model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trisnayadi, K.; Salam, A.; Fachruddin, I.
2017-07-01
We present a model of K-p one-hadron-exchange potential. The hadrons being exchanged include σ, ρ, ω, Λ and Σ. The potential's parameters are determined by fitting to experimental data of K-p scattering, which are the spin-averaged differential cross sections. The energies being considered are between 51 MeV and 884 MeV. We calculate K-p scattering on a three-dimensional basis. The set of fitted parameters consists of cut-off parameters for the hadron form factors, σ mass, and coupling constants.
Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain
2011-01-01
Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…
Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain
2011-01-01
Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…
Standard model of knowledge representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Wensheng
2016-09-01
Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.
Total cross sections for hadron collisions on the basis of the HPR1R2 model
Belousov, V. I. Ezhela, V. V.; Kuyanov, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, N. P.
2016-01-15
The results of a quantitative, statistically complete, description of the total-cross-section data obtained worldwide for hadron–hadron (photon–hadron) collisions and compiled in the Particle Data Group surveys are presented for several versions of a universal analytic parametrization of amplitudes for forward hadron–hadron (photon-hadron) scattering.
Khvorostukhin, A. S. Toneev, V. D.; Voskresensky, D. N.
2011-04-15
The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscosities are calculated in a quasiparticle relaxation-time approximation for a hadron matter described within the relativistic mean-field-based model with scaled hadron masses and couplings. Comparison with results of other models is presented. We demonstrate that a small value of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio required for explaining a large elliptic flow observed at RHIC may be reached in the hadron phase. Relatively large values of the bulk viscosity are noted in the case of a baryon-enriched matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.; Silva, P. V. R. G.
2017-08-01
In the present investigation we study the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data. The parametrization used for the hadron-hadron total cross sections at high energy is inspired by recent results obtained by Giordano and Meggiolaro [J. High Energy Phys. 03 (2014) 002, 10.1007/JHEP03(2014)002] using a nonperturbative approach in the framework of QCD, and it reads σtot˜B ln2s +C ln s ln ln s . We critically investigate if B and C can be obtained by means of best-fits to data for proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering, including recent data obtained at the LHC, and also to data for other meson-baryon and baryon-baryon scattering processes. In particular, following the above-mentioned nonperturbative QCD approach, we also consider fits where the parameters B and C are set to B =κ Bth and C =κ Cth, where Bth and Cth are universal quantities related to the QCD stable spectrum, while κ (treated as an extra free parameter) is related to the asymptotic value of the ratio σel/σtot. Different possible scenarios are then considered and compared.
Naturalising Representational Content
Shea, Nicholas
2014-01-01
This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661
Representation in incremental learning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.
Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas
2004-01-01
The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…
Representations in Mental Models
1990-09-01
five, ojposed of c jmputer scientists, experimental psychologists, linguit philosophe and connectionists met to share views on representations and their... difficulty in developing an integrated, focussed discipline typical of the older Natural Sciences or of the more recently formed Neurosciences. The Problem for...into a useful, integrated framework. (See Peters and Kaplan.) The Nature of Cognitive Science The difficulty the group had in sharing a common
Multiple Sparse Representations Classification
Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik
2015-01-01
Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and
Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations
Polyzou, Wayne
2016-06-20
The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In addition to computing bound state
Physics Program at COSY-Juelich with Polarized Hadronic Probes
Kacharava, Andro
2009-08-04
Hadron physics aims at a fundamental understanding of all particles and their interactions that are subject to the strong force. Experiments using hadronic probes could contribute to shed light on open questions on the structure of hadrons and their interaction as well as the symmetries of nature. The COoler SYnchrotron COSY at the Forschungszentrum Juelich accelerates protons and deuterons with momenta up to 3.7 GeV/c. The availability of both an electron cooler as well as a stochastic beam cooling system allows for precision measurements, using polarized proton and deuteron beams in combination with polarized Hydrogen or Deuterium targets.This contribution summarizes the ongoing physics program at the COSY facility using ANKE, WASA and TOF detector systems with polarized hadronic probes, highlighting recent results and outlining the new developments.
E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA
Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH
2005-10-03
A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.
Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS
Avakian, Harut; Pisano, Silvia
2016-08-01
The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions
Charmless Hadronic B Decays at BaBar
Burke, James P.; /Liverpool U.
2007-12-04
We report recent measurements for the branching fractions of charmless hadronic B decays obtained from data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
Summary of the parallel session on hadron dynamics
Corcoran, M.D.; Carroll, A.S.
1994-12-31
The hadron dynamics sessions focussed on A-dependent effects in hard interactions and heavy quark production, as well as color transparency effects. Other topics covered included exclusive processes and spin effects.
SUMMARY OF THE 2006 HADRONIC SHOWER SIMULATION WORKSHOP
WATERS, LAURIE S.
2007-01-19
The 2006 Hadronic Shower Simulation Workshop, held September 6-8, 2006 at Fermi National Laboratory brought together an international assembly of experts in the field of hadronic shower development. The overall goal was to present the current understanding of the physics of hadronic showers, and to study examples of how this is measured in particle-physics calorimetry. The modeling of such events is critical, and the major Monte Carlo codes, FLUKA, GEANT, MARS, MCNPX, and PHTS were represented at the workshop. A wide range of physics, much of which is used by the simulation codes was also discussed, ranging from the hadronic CEM, LAQGSM, and DTUJET models, down to low energy neutronics capabilities. Special purpose codes and methodologies used for specific applications such as muon and neutrino physics were also shown. The results of a code benchmarking exercises were presented and extensively discussed. This paper summarizes the key topics presented in the workshop.
Higgs boson production at hadron colliders: Signal and background processes
David Rainwater; Michael Spira; Dieter Zeppenfeld
2004-01-12
We review the theoretical status of signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders. Particular emphasis is given to missing NLO results, which will play a crucial role for the Tevatron and the LHC.
Muon–hadron detector of the carpet-2 array
Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kudzhaev, A. U. Klimenko, N. F.
2016-05-15
The 1-GeV muon–hadron detector of the Carpet-2 multipurpose shower array at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (INR, Moscow, Russia) is able to record simultaneously muons and hadrons. The procedure developed for this device makes it possible to separate the muon and hadron components to a high degree of precision. The spatial and energy features of the muon and hadron extensive-air-shower components are presented. Experimental data from the Carpet-2 array are contrasted against data from the EAS-TOP and KASCADE arrays and against the results of the calculations based on the CORSIKA (GHEISHA + QGSJET01) code package and performed for primary protons and iron nuclei.
Muon-hadron detector of the carpet-2 array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Klimenko, N. F.
2016-05-01
The 1-GeV muon-hadron detector of the Carpet-2 multipurpose shower array at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (INR, Moscow, Russia) is able to record simultaneously muons and hadrons. The procedure developed for this device makes it possible to separate the muon and hadron components to a high degree of precision. The spatial and energy features of the muon and hadron extensive-air-shower components are presented. Experimental data from the Carpet-2 array are contrasted against data from the EAS-TOP and KASCADE arrays and against the results of the calculations based on the CORSIKA (GHEISHA + QGSJET01) code package and performed for primary protons and iron nuclei.
The COMPASS setup for physics with hadron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbon, P.; Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ciliberti, P.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Cotte, D.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Desforge, D.; Dinkelbach, A. M.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Durand, D.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giganon, A.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Gregori, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d`Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jörg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Menon, G.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Moinester, M. A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pesaro, V.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pires, C.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Reymond, J.-M.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Rousse, J.-Y.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rychter, A.; Samartsev, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Terça, G.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Weitzel, Q.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2015-04-01
The main characteristics of the COMPASS experimental setup for physics with hadron beams are described. This setup was designed to perform exclusive measurements of processes with several charged and/or neutral particles in the final state. Making use of a large part of the apparatus that was previously built for spin structure studies with a muon beam, it also features a new target system as well as new or upgraded detectors. The hadron setup is able to operate at the high incident hadron flux available at CERN. It is characterised by large angular and momentum coverages, large and nearly flat acceptances, and good two and three-particle mass resolutions. In 2008 and 2009 it was successfully used with positive and negative hadron beams and with liquid hydrogen and solid nuclear targets. This paper describes the new and upgraded detectors and auxiliary equipment, outlines the reconstruction procedures used, and summarises the general performance of the setup.
The overview of the ATLAS local hadronic calibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pospelov, Guennadi; ATLAS Hadronic Calibration Group
2009-04-01
We present the concept of the local hadronic calibration for the ATLAS calorimeter system as a tool to get calibrated jets at particle level for any jet algorithm. The procedure is based on detailed Geant4 simulations providing information on energy deposits in all parts of the ATLAS detector. Calibration starts from topological clusters reconstructed and calibrated at the electromagnetic scale. First classification step tags clusters as mainly electromagnetic, or hadronic depending on cluster shape variables. Clusters which are identified as being electromagnetic are kept at the electromagnetic scale. Hadronic clusters receive cell weights to correct for the invisible energy deposits of hadrons. Next steps are out-of-cluster corrections for lost energy deposited in calorimeter cells outside of reconstructed clusters and dead material corrections for energy deposited outside of active calorimeter volumes. Finally out-of-jet corrections are applied to get the final jet energy scale.
Containment and resolution of hadronic showers at the FCC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carli, T.; Helsens, C.; Henriques Correia, A.; Solans Sánchez, C.
2016-09-01
The particles produced at a potential Future Circular Collider with √s = 100 TeV are of unprecented energies. In this document we present the hadronic shower containment and resolution parametrizations based on Geant4 simulations for the Hadronic calorimetry needed for conceptual detector design at this energy. The Geant4 toolkit along with FTFP_BERT physics list are used in this study. Comparisons are made with test-beam data from the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter. These simulations motivate a 12 λ calorimeter in order to contain at 98% level TeV single hadron showers and multi-TeV jets and keep a pion energy resolution constant term of approximately 3%.
Calibration of a digital hadron calorimeter with muons
Bilki, Burak; Butler, John; Cundiff, Tim; Drake, Gary; Haberichter, William; Hazen, Eric; Hoff, Jim; Holm, Scott; Kreps, Andrew; May, Ed; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; /Fermilab /Iowa U. /Argonne /Boston U. /Argonne, PHY
2008-02-01
The calibration procedure of a finely granulated digital hadron calorimeter with Resistive Plate Chambers as the active elements is described. Results obtained with a stack of nine layers exposed to muons from the Fermilab test beam are presented.
The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ATLAS Collaboration; Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B. A.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Achenbach, R.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D. L.; Adamyan, F.; Addy, T. N.; Aderholz, M.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, P. F.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, S. M.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alimonti, G.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, J.; Alves, R.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amaral, S. P.; Ambrosini, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Anderson, B.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderssen, E. C.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andricek, L.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Apsimon, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, S. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Athar, B.; Atkinson, T.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, A.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bailey, D. C.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Ballester, F.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbier, G.; Barclay, P.; Bardin, D. Y.; Bargassa, P.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barriuso Poy, A.; Barros, N.; Bartheld, V.; Bartko, H.; Bartoldus, R.; Basiladze, S.; Bastos, J.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Batraneanu, S.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Batusov, V.; Bauer, F.; Bauss, B.; Baynham, D. E.; Bazalova, M.; Bazan, A.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beaugiraud, B.; Beccherle, R. B.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Becks, K. H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Belanger, G. A. N.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellachia, F.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Beltramello, O.; Belymam, A.; Ben Ami, S.; Ben Moshe, M.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benes, J.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, S.; Bergsma, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernabéu, J.; Bernardet, K.; Berriaud, C.; Berry, T.; Bertelsen, H.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besson, N.; Beteille, A.; Bethke, S.; Bialas, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieri, M.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Binet, S.; Bingefors, N.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzell, J. P.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blaising, J. J.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boehm, M.; Boek, J.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bonino, R.; Bonis, J.; Bonivento, W.; Bonneau, P.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Boosten, M.; Booth, C. N.; Booth, P. S. L.; Booth, P.; Booth, J. R. A.; Borer, K.; Borisov, A.; Borjanovic, I.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosi, F.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Botchev, B.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouzakis, K.; Boyd, G. R.; Boyd, J.; Boyer, B. H.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Braccini, S.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Braun, H. M.; Bravo, S.; Brawn, I. P.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N. D.; Breugnon, P.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Broklova, Z.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brouwer, G.; Broz, J.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Budagov, I. A.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E. J.; Bujor, F.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Burdin, S.; Burns, R.; Busato, E.; Buskop, J. J. F.; Buszello, K. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Cabruja Casas, E.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calderón Terol, D.; Callahan, J.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camard, A.; Camarena, F.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campabadal Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Canale, V.; Cantero, J.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Carcagno, Y.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardeira, C.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Cardini, A.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carr, F. S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. 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G.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Towndrow, E. F.; Trefzger, T.; Treichel, M.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tribanek, W.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trilling, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trka, Z.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; C-L Tseng, J.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Turala, M.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Ueda, I.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Ullán Comes, M.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urkovsky, E.; Usai, G.; Usov, Y.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van der Bij, H.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Van Berg, R.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Varanda, M.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Vataga, E.; Vaz, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vedrine, P.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, S.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Vigeolas, E.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villate, J.; Villella, I.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincent, P.; Vincke, H.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives, R.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Vollmer, C. F.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von Boehn-Buchholz, R.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorozhtsov, A. S.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Vos, M.; Voss, K. C.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vovenko, A. S.; Vranjes, N.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vuaridel, B.; Vudragovic, M.; Vuillemin, V.; Vuillermet, R.; Wänanen, A.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wallny, R. S.; Walsh, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, J. C.; Wappler, F.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warner, G. P.; Warren, M.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watts, G.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Webel, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P. M.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wellisch, H. P.; Wells, P. S.; Wemans, A.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werneke, P.; Werner, P.; Werthenbach, U.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wijnen, T.; Wildauer, A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilmut, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winton, L.; Witzeling, W.; Wlodek, T.; Woehrling, E.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wright, C.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Xella-Hansen, S.; Xiang, A.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, J. C.; Yang, S.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yarradoddi, K.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajac, J.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, A. Yu; Zalite, Yo K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Z.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhichao, L.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, S.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H. Z.; Zhuang, X. A.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zychacek, V.
2008-08-01
The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.
Hadron distributions at higher rapidity using the BRAHMS forward spectrometer
Moskowitz, B.
1995-07-15
Different conditions, and therefore different physics, are expected to exist over the range of rapidities at RHIC. The BRAHMS Forward Spectrometer will measure identified hadron distributions up to y=4, giving it a unique place in the RHIC experimental program.
Hadron distributions at higher rapidity using the BRAHMS forward spectrometer
Moskowitz, B.
1995-03-01
Different conditions, and therefore different physics, are expected to exist over the range of rapidities at RHIC. The BRAHMS Forward Spectrometer will measure identified hadron distributions up to y = 4, giving it a unique place in the RHIC experimental program.
Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds
Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J.
2013-03-25
An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.
The field representation language.
Tsafnat, Guy
2008-02-01
The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.
Translation between representation languages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanbaalen, Jeffrey
1994-01-01
A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.
[Time perceptions and representations].
Tordjman, S
2015-09-01
Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been
Hadron spectroscopy in lattice QCD with dynamical quark loops
Fukugita, M.; Oyanagi, Y.; Ukawa, A.
1986-08-25
Hadron mass calculations are carried out in lattice QCD on a 9/sup 3/ x 18 lattice for flavor-nonsinglet mesons and baryons. Dynamical quark loops are fully incorporated with the Langevin technique. The contribution of dynamical quark loops significantly modifies the hadron masses in lattice units, but its dominant part can be absorbed into a shift of the coupling constant for the quark mass range we explored.
Test beam performance of the CDF plug upgrade hadron calorimeter
de Barbaro, P.; CDF Plug Upgrade Group
1998-01-13
We report on the performance of the CDF End Plug Hadron Calorimeter in a test beam. The sampling calorimeter is constructed using 2 inch iron absorber plates and scintillator planes with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The linearity and energy resolution of the calorimeter response to pions, and the transverse uniformity of the response to muons and pions are presented. The parameter e/h, representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to hadronic response, is extracted from the data.
Onset of quark-hadron duality in pion electroproduction.
Navasardyan, T; Adams, G S; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Bertoncini, C; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Breuer, H; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Cui, Y; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; El Khayari, N; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gan, L; Gaskell, D; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Hungerford, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Joo, K; Kalantarians, N; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kubarovski, V; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McGrath, E; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Opper, A K; Ostapenko, T; Reimer, P; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zhu, H
2007-01-12
A large data set of charged-pion (pi+/-) electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-->pion production mechanisms.
The state of the art in hadron beam cooling
Prost, L.R.; Derwent, P.; /Fermilab
2008-09-01
Cooling of hadron beams (including heavy-ions) is a powerful technique by which accelerator facilities around the world achieve the necessary beam brightness for their physics research. In this paper, we will give an overview of the latest developments in hadron beam cooling, for which high energy electron cooling at Fermilab's Recycler ring and bunched beam stochastic cooling at Brookhaven National Laboratory's RHIC facility represent two recent major accomplishments. Novel ideas in the field will also be introduced.
Hadron structure and spectroscopy at COMPASS. Overview of certain tasks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisenko, I.; Guskov, A.; Mitrofanov, E.
2017-07-01
COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN with a long history and intense and diverse physics programme. In the Review we consider particular points of the existing and possible future programme: test of the chiral theory predictions with hadron beam, search for exotic charmonia, study of the EMC effect in the Drell-Yan process, search for production of bound p\\overline p states and study of prompt photon production in hadronic interactions.
Role of heavy quarks in light hadron fragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epele, Manuel; García Canal, Carlos; Sassot, R.
2016-08-01
We investigate the role of heavy quarks in the production of light flavored hadrons and in the determination of the corresponding nonperturbative hadronization probabilities. We define a general mass variable flavor number scheme for fragmentation functions that accounts for heavy quark mass effects, and perform a global QCD analysis to an up-to-date data set including very precise Belle and BABAR results. We show that the mass dependent picture provides a much more accurate and consistent description of the data.
INTRA-BEAM SCATTERING SCALING FOR VERY LARGE HADRON COLLIDERS.
WEI,J.; PARZEN,G.
2001-06-18
For Very Large Hadron Colliders (VLHC), flat hadron beams [2] with their vertical emittance much smaller than their horizontal emittance are proposed to maximize the design luminosity. Emittance growth caused by intra-beam scattering (IBS) is a concern on the realization of such flat-beam conditions. Based on existing IBS formalism on beams of Gaussian distribution, we analytically derive [6] the IBS growth rate and determine the IBS limit on the aspect ratio for a flat beam.
The Onset of Quark-Hadron Duality in Pion Electroproduction
Tigran Navasardyan; Gary Adams; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Tatiana Angelescu; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Nawal Benmouna; Crystal Bertoncini; Henk Blok; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Herbert Breuer; Michael Christy; Simon Connell; Yonggang Cui; Mark Dalton; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; T. Dodario; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Najib Elkhayari; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Valera Frolov; Liping Gan; David Gaskell; Kawtar Hafidi; Wendy Hinton; Roy Holt; Tanja Horn; Garth Huber; Ed Hungerford; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; V. Kubarovski; Ya Li; Yongguang Liang; Simona Malace; Pete Markowitz; Erin McGrath; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Brian Moziak; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Allena Opper; Tanya Ostapenko; Paul Reimer; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Stephen Rock; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C. Smith; G.R. Smith; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Maurizio Ungaro; Alicia Uzzle; Sandra Vidakovic; Anthony Villano; William Vulcan; Miao Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Stephen Wood; Chuncheng Xu; Lulin Yuan; Xiaochao Zheng; Hong Guo Zhu
2006-08-29
A large data set of charged-pion electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-to- pion production mechanisms.
Constraining high energy interaction mechanisms by studying forward hadron production at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostapchenko, S.; Bleicher, M.; Pierog, T.; Werner, K.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate that underlying assumptions concerning the structure of constituent parton Fock states in hadrons make a strong impact on the predictions of hadronic interaction models for forward hadron spectra and for long-range correlations between central and forward hadron production. Our analysis shows that combined studies of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider by central and forward-looking detectors have a rich potential for discriminating between the main model approaches.
The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2015-02-26
Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.
Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korzenev, Alexander
2015-07-01
A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments - NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) - are reviewed.
Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams
Korzenev, Alexander
2015-07-15
A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming x{sub F} scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed.
Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermolaev, B. I.; Troyan, S. I.
2017-03-01
Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K_T-and collinear factorizations.
Peculiarities of biological action of hadrons of space radiation.
Akoev, I G; Yurov, S S
1975-01-01
Biological investigations in space enable one to make a significant contribution on high-energy hadrons to biological effects under the influence of factors of space flights. Physical and molecular principles of the action of high-energy hadrons are analysed. Genetic and somatic hadron effects produced by the secondary radiation from 70 GeV protons have been studied experimentally. The high biological effectiveness of hadrons, great variability in biological effects, and specifically of their action, are associated with strong interactions of high-energy hadrons. These are the probability of nuclear interaction with any atom nucleus, generation of a great number of secondary particles (among them, probably, highly effective multicharged and heavy nuclei, antiprotons, pi(-)-mesons), and the spatial distribution of secondary particles as a narrow cone with extremely high density of particles in its first part. The secondary radiation generated by high- and superhigh-energy hadrons upon their interaction with the spaceship is likely to be the greatest hazard of radiation to the crew during space flights.
A large hadron electron collider at CERN
Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.
2015-04-06
This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously withmore » the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb–1. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.« less
The Hadron Blind Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blatnik, Marie; Zajac, Stephanie; Hemmick, Tom
2013-10-01
Heavy Ion Collisions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab have hinted at the existence of a new form of matter at high gluon density, the Color Glass Condensate. High energy electron scattering off of nuclei, focusing on the low-x components of the nuclear wave function, will definitively measure this state of matter. However, when a nucleus contributes a low x parton, the reaction products are highly focused in the electron-going direction and have large momentum in the lab system. High-momentum particle identification is particularly challenging. A particle is identifiable by its mass, but tracking algorithms only yield a particle's momentum based on its track's curvature. The particle's velocity is needed to identify the particle. A ring-imaging Cerenkov detector is being developed for the forward angle particle identification from the technological advancements of PHENIX's Hadron-Blind Detector (HBD), which uses Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and pixelated pad planes to detect Cerenkov photons. The new HBD will focus the Cerenkov photons into a ring to determine the parent particle's velocity. Results from the pad plane simulations, construction tests, and test beam run will be presented.
Advances in hadronic structure from Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Constantinou, Martha
2017-01-01
Understanding nucleon structure is considered a milestone of hadronic physics and new facilities are planned devoted to its study. A future Electron-Ion-Collider proposed by the scientific community will greatly deepen our knowledge on the fundamental constituents of the visible world. To achieve this goal, a synergy between the experimental and theoretical sectors is imperative, and Lattice QCD is in a unique position to provide input from first principle calculations. In this talk we will discuss recent progress in nucleon structure from Lattice QCD, focusing on the evaluation of matrix elements using state-of-the-art simulations with pion masses at their physical value. The axial form factors, electromagnetic radii, the quark momentum fraction and the spin content of the nucleon will be discussed. We will also highlight quantities that may guide New Physics searches, such as the scalar and tensor charges. Finally, we will give updates on a new direct approach to compute quark parton distributions functions on the lattice.
Parity violation in the hadronic weak interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balascuta, Septimiu
This thesis deals with the first measurements done with a cold neutron beam at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental technique consisted of capturing polarized cold neutrons by nuclei to measure parity-violation in the angular distribution of the gamma rays following neutron capture. The measurements presented here for the nuclei Chlorine (35Cl) and Aluminum (27Al) are part of a program with the ultimate goal of measuring the asymmetry in the angular distribution of gamma rays emitted in the capture of neutrons on protons, with a precision better than 10-8, in order to extract the weak hadronic coupling constant due to pion exchange interaction with isospin change equal with one (hpi 1). Based on theoretical calculations asymmetry in the angular distribution of the gamma rays from neutron capture on protons has an estimated size of 5·10 -8. This implies that the Al parity violation asymmetry and its uncertainty have to be known with a precision smaller than 4·10 -8. The proton target is liquid Hydrogen (H2) contained in an Aluminum vessel. Results are presented for parity violation and parity-conserving asymmetries in Chlorine and Aluminum. The systematic and statistical uncertainties in the calculation of the parity-violating and parity-conserving asymmetries are discussed.
Di-hadron SIDIS measurements at CLAS
Pisano, Silvia
2014-06-01
Semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) is an essential tool to probe nucleon internal structure. Through single hadron SIDIS processes, indeed, it is possible to access the TMDs, containing information on both the longitudinal and transverse motion of the partons. In recent years, moreover, an increasing attention has been devoted to dihadron SIDIS. It constitutes the golden channel to access the higher-twist collinear Parton Distribution Functions e(x) and h{sub L}(x), so far only marginally known, whose extraction will complete the collinear description of the nucleon at the twist-3 level. The CLAS detector in the Hall-B at JLab, thanks to its large acceptance, is particularly suited for such measurements. Analyses aiming at the extraction of dihadron SIDIS Beam and Target-Spin Asymmetries are presently in progress. In these proceedings, preliminary results for the Beam-Spin Asymmetry are reported, together with a summary of the dihadron SIDIS experimental program at JLab.
The Large Hadron Collider, a personal recollection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Lyndon
2014-03-01
The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavor spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing LEP tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8 m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of an idea first proposed by Bob Palmer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1978, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact 2-in-1 structure was essential for the LHC due to both the limited space available in the existing Large Electron-Positron collider tunnel and the cost. The second innovation was the bold move to use superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor. In this article, no attempt is made to give a comprehensive review of the machine design. This can be found in the LHC Design Report [1], which gives a detailed description of the machine as it was built and comprehensive references. A more popular description of the LHC and its detectors can be found in [2]. Instead, this is a more personal account of the project from approval to commissioning, describing some of the main technologies and some of the trials and tribulations encountered in bringing this truly remarkable machine alive.
Production of heavy quarkonia in hadronic experiments
Likhoded, A. K. Luchinsky, A. V. Poslavsky, S. V.
2015-12-15
The phenomenology of the production of P-wave χ{sub c,b} mesons and S-wave η{sub c,b} mesons in highenergy hadron–hadron collisions was studied on the basis of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD). Available experimental data on χ{sub c}-meson production were analyzed, and nonperturbative NRQCDmatrix elements were determined from a fit to these data. It is shown that the observed transversemomentum (pT) spectrum of χ{sub c} mesons is basically formed by color-singlet contributions. At the same time, the ratio σ(χ{sub c2})/σ(χ{sub c1}) depends greatly on color-octet contributions; this ratio therefore becomes a highly sensitive tool for separating different NRQCD contributions. Predictions for χ{sub b}-meson production are obtained on the basis of NRQCD scaling rules. For the case of η{sub c}-meson production, it is shown that the observed cross sections agree with the color-singlet model featuring phenomenological parameters.
Simulating graviton production at hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Aquino, Priscila; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Li, Qiang; Maltoni, Fabio
2011-06-01
Spin-2 particles and in particular gravitons are predicted in many new physics scenarios at the TeV scale. Depending on the details of models such new states might show up as a continuum, massless particles, or TeV scale resonances. Correspondingly, very different discovery signatures should be exploited, from the search of excesses in events with multi jets and large missing transverse energy, to resonances in weak boson or jet pair productions. We present a very general and flexible implementation in M ad-G raph/M adE vent of spin-2 particles interacting with the standard model particles via the energy momentum tensor, which encompasses all of the most popular TeV scale models featuring gravitons. By merging matrix elements with parton shower, we can generate inclusive samples of graviton + jets at the hadron colliders in several scenarios (ADD, zero-mass graviton and RS). We compare and validate our results against the corresponding next-to-leading order QCD calculations.
A large hadron electron collider at CERN
Abelleira Fernandez, J. L.
2015-04-06
This document provides a brief overview of the recently published report on the design of the Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC), which comprises its physics programme, accelerator physics, technology and main detector concepts. The LHeC exploits and develops challenging, though principally existing, accelerator and detector technologies. This summary is complemented by brief illustrations of some of the highlights of the physics programme, which relies on a vastly extended kinematic range, luminosity and unprecedented precision in deep inelastic scattering. Illustrations are provided regarding high precision QCD, new physics (Higgs, SUSY) and eletron-ion physics. The LHeC is designed to run synchronously with the LHC in the twenties and to achieve an integrated luminosity of O(100)fb^{–1}. It will become the cleanest high resolution microscope of mankind and will substantially extend as well as complement the investigation of the physics of the TeV energy scale, which has been enabled by the LHC.
Measurements of hadron form factors at BESIII
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Cristina Morales
2016-05-01
BEPCII is a symmetric e+e--collider located in Beijing running at center-of-mass energies between 2.0 and 4.6 GeV. This energy range allows the BESIII-experiment to measure hadron form factors both from direct e+e--annihilation and from initial state radiation processes. In this paper, results on e+e- → p p ¯ based on data collected by BESIII in 2011 and 2012 are presented. We also present preliminary results on e+e- → Λ Λ ¯ based on the same data samples at 4 center-of-mass energies. BESIII results obtained from e+e- → π+π- using the initial state radiation technique at the center-of-mass energy of 3.773 GeV are also summarized. Finally, expectations on the measurement of baryon electromagnetic form factors from the BESIII high luminosity energy scan in 2015 and from initial state radiation processes at different center-of-mass energies are also explained.
Synchrotron radiation issues in future hadron colliders
P. Bauer, C. Darve and I. Terechkine
2002-11-21
Hadron machines mostly use high field superconducting magnets operating at low temperatures. Therefore the issue of extracting a SR power heat load becomes more critical and costly. Conceptual solutions to the problem exist in the form of beam screens and photon stops. Cooled beam screens are more expensive in production and operation than photon stops, but they are, unlike photon stops, routinely used in existing machines. Photon stops are the most economical solution because the heat load is extracted at room temperature. They presently consider it most prudent to work with a combined beam screen and photon stop approach, in which the photon stop absorbs most of the SR power, and the beam screen serves only the vacuum purpose. Provided that the recently launched photon stop R and D [10] supports it, we would like to explore solutions with photon stops only. This would allow to reduce the magnet apertures to a certain extent with respect to those required to accommodate high SR power compliant beam screens and reduce cost. The possibility of magnet designs, which have larger vertical apertures where large cooling capillaries can be housed at no additional cost, would allow to soften this statement somewhat and should therefore be pursued as well.
Hadron collider limits on anomalous WWγ couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barger, Kevin R.; Reno, M. H.
1995-01-01
A next-to-leading log calculation of the reactions pp and pp¯-->W+/-γX is presented including a triboson gauge coupling from non-standard-model contributions. The additional term arises by considering the standard model as a low energy effective theory. Two approaches are made for comparison. The first approach considers the triboson WWγ coupling as being uniquely fixed by tree level unitarity at high energies to its standard model form and, consequently, suppresses the non-standard-model contributions with form factors. The second approach is to ignore such considerations and calculate the contributions to non-standard-model triboson gauge couplings without such suppressions, using the first term in the momentum expansion of an effective chiral Lagrangian. It is found that at Fermilab Tevatron energies the two approaches do not differ much in quantitative results, while at large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies the two approaches give significantly different predictions for production rates. At the Tevatron and LHC, however, the sensitivity limits on the anomalous coupling of WWγ are too weak to usefully constrain parameters in the chiral Lagrangian.
Averages of $b$-hadron, $c$-hadron, and $\\tau$-lepton properties as of summer 2014
Amhis, Y.; et al.
2014-12-23
This article reports world averages of measurements of $b$-hadron, $c$-hadron, and $\\tau$-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through summer 2014. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, $CP$ violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.
Averages of $b$-hadron, $c$-hadron, and $\\tau$-lepton properties as of summer 2016
Amhis, Y.; et al.
2016-12-21
This article reports world averages of measurements of $b$-hadron, $c$-hadron, and $\\tau$-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through summer 2016. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, \\CP~violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.
Observation of Exclusive Electron-Positron Production in Hadron-Hadron Collisions
Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.
2006-11-01
We present the first observation of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} production in hadron-hadron collisions, using p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV taken by the Run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 532 pb{sup -1}. We require the absence of any particle signatures in the detector except for an electron and a positron candidate, each with transverse energy E{sub T} > 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |{eta}| < 2. With these criteria, 16 events are observed compared to a background expectation of 1.9 {+-} 0.3 events. These events are consistent in cross section and properties with the QED process p{bar p} {yields} p + e{sup +}e{sup -} + {bar p} through two-photon exchange. The measured cross section is 1.6{sub -0.3}{sup +0.5}(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst) pb. This agrees with the theoretical prediction of 1.71 {+-} 0.01 pb.
On a microscopic representation of space-time
Dahm, R.
2012-10-15
We start from a noncompact Lie algebra isomorphic to the Dirac algebra and relate this Lie algebra in a brief review to low-energy hadron physics described by the compact group SU(4). This step permits an overall physical identification of the operator actions. Then we discuss the geometrical origin of this noncompact Lie algebra and 'reduce' the geometry in order to introduce in each of these steps coordinate definitions which can be related to an algebraic representation in terms of the spontaneous symmetry breakdown along the Lie algebra chain su*(4) {yields} usp(4) {yields} su(2) Multiplication-Sign u(1). Standard techniques of Lie algebra decomposition(s) as well as the (physical) operator identification give rise to interesting physical aspects and lead to a rank-1 Riemannian space which provides an analytic representation and leads to a 5-dimensional hyperbolic space H{sub 5} with SO(5, 1) isometries. The action of the (compact) symplectic group decomposes this (globally) hyperbolic space into H{sub 2} Circled-Plus H{sub 3} with SO(2, 1) and SO(3, 1) isometries, respectively, which we relate to electromagnetic (dynamically broken SU(2) isospin) and Lorentz transformations. Last not least, we attribute this symmetry pattern to the algebraic representation of a projective geometry over the division algebra H and subsequent coordinate restrictions.
Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane
2011-01-01
In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were presented inside or outside a frame that should activate the container schema. We found that performance to pictures was influenced by the frame in congruence with the metaphorical mapping (same category—inside bounded region; different category—not in same bounded region). These results show that the concept categories is metaphorically represented by containers.
Computer aided surface representation
Barnhill, R.E.
1990-02-19
The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.
Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Briceño, R. A.; Cohen, T. D.; Coito, S.; Dudek, J. J.; Eichten, E.; Fischer, C. S.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; Lebed, R. F.; Machado, F. A.; Mitchell, R. E.; Morningstar, C. J.; Peardon, M.; Pennington, M. R.; Peters, K.; Richard, J. M.; Shen, C. P.; Shepherd, M. R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Swanson, E. S.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Yuan, C. Z.
2016-04-01
The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy (Cohen); the Institute of Modern Physics and Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Y104160YQ0 and agreement No. 2015-BH-02 (Coito); the U.S. Department of Energy, for grant DE-AC05-06OR23177, under which Jefferson Science Associates, LLC, manages and operates Jefferson Laboratory and DE-SC0006765, Early Career award (Dudek); Fermilab, operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract number DEAC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy (Eichten); BMBF, under contract No. 06GI7121, and the DAAD under contract No. 56889822 and by the Helmholtz International Center for FAIR within the LOEWE program of the State of Hesse (Fischer); the German Research Foundation DFG under contract number Collaborative Research Centre CRC-1044 (Gradl); the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq, Grant No. 305894/2009-9 and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP, Grant No. 2013/01907-0 (Krein); U.S. National Science Foundation, under grants PHY-1068286 and PHY-1403891 (Lebed); the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development under grant CNPq/CAPES-208188/2014-2 (Machado); U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-05ER41374
Bounds on hadronic axions from stellar evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raffelt, Georg G.; Dearborn, David S. P.
1987-10-01
We consider in detail the effect of the emission of ``hadronic'' invisible axions (which do not couple to electrons) from the interior of stars on stellar evolution. To this end we calculate plasma emission rates for axions due to the Primakoff process for the full range of conditions encountered in a giant star. Much attention is paid to plasma, degeneracy, and screening effects. We reconsider the solar bound by evolving a 1.0 Msolar star to solar age and lowering the presolar helium abundance so as to obtain the correct present-day luminosity of the Sun. The previous bound on the axion-photon coupling of G9<~2.5 (corresponding to ma<~17 eV R where R is a model-dependent factor of order unity) is confirmed, where G9 is the coupling constant G in units of 10-9 GeV-1. We then follow the evolution of a 1.3Msolar star from zero age to the top of the giant branch. Helium ignites for all values of G consistent with the solar bound; however, the core mass, surface temperature, and luminosity at the helium flash exceed the standard values. The luminosity at the helium flash is larger than about twice the standard value unless G9<~0.3 (corresponding to ma<~2 eV R), in conflict with observational data, which are statistically weak, however. We find our most stringent limits from the helium-burning lifetime. In the absence of axion cooling we calculate a lifetime of 1.2×108 yr which corresponds well with the value 1.5×108 yr derived from the number of red giants in the ``clump'' of the open cluster M67 and with the value 1.3×108 yr derived from the number of such stars in the old galactic disk population. We obtain a conservative limit of G9<0.3 which, at saturation, results in a helium-burning lifetime an order of magnitude low. We believe that G9<~0.1 (ma<~0.7 eV R) is a reasonably safe limit which, if saturated, leads to a calculated helium-burning lifetime a factor of 2 below the observed value. Our results exclude the recently suggested possibility of detecting
Perspective on the Origin of Hadron Masses
Roberts, Craig D.
2017-01-01
The energy-momentum tensor in chiral QCD, T-mu nu, exhibits an anomaly, viz. Theta(0) := T-mu mu not equal 0. Measured in the proton, this anomaly yields m(p)(2), where m(p) is the proton's mass; but, at the same time, when computed in the pion, the answer is m(pi)(2) = 0. Any attempt to understand the origin and nature of mass, and identify observable expressions thereof, must explain and unify these two apparently contradictory results, which are fundamental to the nature of our Universe. Given the importance of Poincare-invariance in modern physics, the utility of a frame-dependent approach to this problem seems limited. That is especially true of any approach tied to a rest-frame decomposition of T-mu nu because a massless particle does not possess a rest-frame. On the other hand, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking paradigm, connected with a Poincare-covariant treatment of the continuum bound-state problem, provides a straightforward, simultaneous explanation of both these identities, and also a diverse array of predictions, testable at existing and proposed facilities. From this perspective,
Perspective on the Origin of Hadron Masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Craig D.
2017-01-01
The energy-momentum tensor in chiral QCD, T_{μ ν }, exhibits an anomaly, viz. \\varTheta _0 := T_{μ μ } ne 0. Measured in the proton, this anomaly yields m_p^2, where m_p is the proton's mass; but, at the same time, when computed in the pion, the answer is m_π ^2=0. Any attempt to understand the origin and nature of mass, and identify observable expressions thereof, must explain and unify these two apparently contradictory results, which are fundamental to the nature of our Universe. Given the importance of Poincaré-invariance in modern physics, the utility of a frame-dependent approach to this problem seems limited. That is especially true of any approach tied to a rest-frame decomposition of T_{μ ν } because a massless particle does not possess a rest-frame. On the other hand, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking paradigm, connected with a Poincaré-covariant treatment of the continuum bound-state problem, provides a straightforward, simultaneous explanation of both these identities, and also a diverse array of predictions, testable at existing and proposed facilities. From this perspective, < π | \\varTheta _0 |π rangle =0 owing to exact, symmetry-driven cancellations which occur between one-body dressing effects and two-body-irreducible binding interactions in any well-defined computation of the forward scattering amplitude that defines this expectation value in the pseudoscalar meson. The cancellation is incomplete in any other hadronic bound state, with a remainder whose scale is set by the size of one-body dressing effects.
Overview of ALICE results on hadronic resonance production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badalà, Angela
2017-04-01
The measurement of hadronic resonance production in heavy-ion collisions is a valuable tool to study the properties of the hadronic phase. In addition, these measurements contribute to the study of particle production mechanisms, such as recombination and statistical hadronization, and can give information on the parton energy loss in the hot QCD medium. Measurement of a wide set of resonances with different lifetimes is useful to better characterize the hadronic phase and the time span between chemical and thermal freezeout. Proton-proton (pp) collisions have been used extensively as a reference for the study of larger colliding systems, but recent measurements performed in high-multiplicity pp and proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions at the LHC have shown features that are reminiscent of those observed in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions. Resonance measurements in small systems serve as a reference for heavy-ion collisions and contribute to searches for collective effects. An overview of recent results on hadronic resonance production measured in ALICE will be presented. Transverse momentum (pT) spectra, ratios of yield to that of long-lived hadrons of the K*(892)0 and ϕ(1020) mesons in pp, p-Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies will be discussed. The most recent results include the measurement of resonance production in pp collisions at 7 TeV as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, that will be compared to the results for other light hadrons as pions, kaons, protons, KS0, Λ, Ξ-, Ω-. In addition, the pT spectra and yields of the ρ(770)0 meson in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and of Σ(1385)± and Ξ(1530)0 baryons in p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV will be presented.
Clothed particle representation in quantum field theory: Mass renormalization
Korda, V.Yu.; Shebeko, A.V.
2004-10-15
We consider the neutral pion and nucleon fields interacting via the pseudoscalar (PS) Yukawa-type coupling. The method of unitary clothing transformations is used to handle the so-called clothed particle representation, where the total field Hamiltonian and the three boost operators in the instant form of relativistic dynamics take on the same sparse structure in the Hilbert space of hadronic states. In this approach the mass counterterms are cancelled (at least, partly) by commutators of the generators of clothing transformations and the field interaction operator. This allows the pion and nucleon mass shifts to be expressed through the corresponding three-dimensional integrals whose integrands depend on certain covariant combinations of the relevant three-momenta. The property provides the momentum independence of mass renormalization. The present results prove to be equivalent to the results obtained by Feynman techniques.
Light-Front Holography and Hadronization at the Amplitude Level
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de; Shrock, Robert
2008-10-13
The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Light-front holography is a remarkable feature of AdS/CFT: it allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and the behavior of the QCD coupling in the infrared. We suggest that the spatial support of QCD condensates is restricted to the interior of hadrons, since they arise due to the interactions of confined quarks and gluons. Chiral symmetry is thus broken in a limited domain of size 1/m{sub {pi}}, in analogy to the limited physical extent of superconductor phases. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.
Light-Front Holography and Hadronization at the Amplitude Level
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy; Shrock, Robert
2008-07-25
The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Light-front holography is a remarkable feature of AdS/CFT: it allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. Some novel features of QCD are discussed, including the consequences of confinement for quark and gluon condensates and the behavior of the QCD coupling in the infrared. We suggest that the spatial support of QCD condensates is restricted to the interior of hadrons, since they arise due to the interactions of confined quarks and gluons. Chiral symmetry is thus broken in a limited domain of size 1=m{sub {pi}} in analogy to the limited physical extent of superconductor phases. A new method for computing the hadronization of quark and gluon jets at the amplitude level, an event amplitude generator, is outlined.
Light flavour hadron production in the ALICE experiment at LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badalà, Angela
2016-05-01
Unique among the LHC experiments, ALICE has excellent particle identification capabilities for the measurement of light-flavour hadrons. A large number of hadron species from pions to multi-strange baryons and light nuclei have been measured over a large transverse momentum region. The measurement of the production of these particles is a valuable tool to study the properties of the medium formed in heavy-ion collisions. In particular they give information on the collective phenomena of the fireball, on the parton energy loss in the hot QCD medium and on the hadronization mechanisms such as recombination and statistical hadronization. The measurements in pp and in p-nucleus collisions provide the necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to investigate the effects of the ordinary nuclear matter. In this paper some of the main ALICE results on identified light-flavour hadron production in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV will be presented.
Spinfoams in the holomorphic representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, Eugenio; Magliaro, Elena; Perini, Claudio
2010-12-01
We study a holomorphic representation for spinfoams. The representation is obtained via the Ashtekar-Lewandowski-Marolf-Mourão-Thiemann coherent state transform. We derive the expression of the 4d spinfoam vertex for Euclidean and for Lorentzian gravity in the holomorphic representation. The advantage of this representation rests on the fact that the variables used have a clear interpretation in terms of a classical intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of space. We show how the peakedness on the extrinsic geometry selects a single exponential of the Regge action in the semiclassical large-scale asymptotics of the spinfoam vertex.
Improving Evolvability through Generative Representations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hornby, Gregory S.
2004-01-01
One of the main limitations of computer automated design systems is the representation used for encoding designs. Using computer programs as an analogy, representations can be thought of as having the properties of combination, control-flow and abstraction. Generative representations are those which have the ability to reuse elements in an encoding through either iteration, a form of control-flow, or abstraction. Here we argue that generative representations improve the evolvability of designs by capturing design dependencies in a way that makes them easier to change, and we support this with examples from two design substrates.
Resource representation in COMPASS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, Barry R.
1991-01-01
A set of viewgraphs on resource representation in COMPASS is given. COMPASS is an incremental, interactive, non-chronological scheduler written in Ada with an X-windows user interface. Beginning with an empty schedule, activities are added to the schedule one at a time, taking into consideration the placement of the activities already on the timeline and the resources that have been reserved for them. The order that the activities are added to the timeline and their location on the timeline are controlled by selection and placement commands invoked by the user. The order that activities are added to the timeline and their location are independent. The COMPASS code library is a cost effective platform for the development of new scheduling applications. It can be effectively used off the shelf for compatible scheduling applications or it can be used as a parts library for the development of custom scheduling systems.
Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Preester, Helena
2002-09-01
Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.
Age Differences in Symbolic Representation: Fluidity in Representational Construction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reifel, Stuart
This paper reports a cross-sectional, developmental study of the fluidity of children's mental functioning (representational skills) in contexts involving the representational use of blocks. Data were collected from a sample of 40 children from a laboratory school: 20 four-year-olds and 20 seven-year-olds, with an equal number of boys and girls in…
Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Braswell, Gregory S.
2017-01-01
The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…
Computer aided surface representation
Barnhill, R.E.
1991-04-02
Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.
Hadron Spectroscopy, exotics and BC + physics at LHCb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Biplab
2016-11-01
The LHCb experiment is designed to study properties and decays of heavy flavored hadrons produced from pp collisions at the LHC. During Run 1, it has recorded the world's largest data sample of beauty and charm hadrons, enabling precision spectroscopy studies of such particles. Several important results obtained by LHCb, such as the discovery of the first pentaquark states and the first unambiguous determination of the Zc (4430) - as an exotic state, have dramatically increased the interest in spectroscopy of heavy hadrons. An overview of the latest LHCb results on the subject, including the discovery of four strange exotic states decaying as X → J/ψϕ, is presented. LHCb has also made significant contributions to the field of BC + physics, the lowest bound state of the heavy flavor ̅b and c quarks. A synopsis of the latest results is given.
Hot Neutron Stars with Hadron-Quark Crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki
2016-12-01
The effects of the hadron-quark crossover on the bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars (NSs) are studied. We suggested a new phenomenological equation of state (EOS), which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0), and found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M⊙ can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition where the quark matter inevitably leads to soft EOS. The interpolated EOS is also generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition due to the color degrees of freedom.
Finite-size effect in lattice QCD hadron spectroscopy
Fukugita, M.; Mino, H.; Okawa, M.; Ukawa, A. Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi University, Kofu 400 National Laboratory for High Energy Physics , Ibaraki 305 Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 )
1992-02-10
A hadron spectrum calculation with two light dynamical quark flavors was carried out with the Kogut-Susskind quark action at {beta}=5.7 on lattices of spatial size 8{sup 3}, 12{sup 3}, and 20{sup 3} for {ital m}{sub {ital q}}=0.01 and 0.02 in lattice units, with emphasis given to a systematic study of the finite-lattice-size effect. It is found that hadron masses on a 16{sup 3} spatial lattice at this {beta} still suffer from a significant finite-lattice effect at least for {ital m}{sub {ital q}}=0.01, showing the importance of a quantitative control over the finite-size effect in comparing simulation results with the experimental hadron masses even for a fairly large lattice. A comparison is also made to the analytic prediction for the finite-size effect from chiral perturbation theory.
Updated measurements of hadronic B decays at CDF
Morello, Michael J.
2012-01-01
The CDF experiment at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider established that extensive and detailed exploration of the b-quark dynamics is possible in hadron collisions, with results competitive and supplementary to those from e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. This provides a rich, and highly rewarding program that has currently reached full maturity. In the following I report some recent results on hadronic decays: the evidence for the charmless annihilation decay mode B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B{sup -} {yields} D({yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})K{sup -} and B{sup -} {yields} D({yields} K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -}.
Masses of constituent quarks confined in open bottom hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borka Jovanović, V.; Borka, D.; Jovanović, P.; Milošević, J.; Ignjatović, S. R.
2014-12-01
We apply color-spin and flavor-spin quark-quark interactions to the meson and baryon constituent quarks, and calculate constituent quark masses, as well as the coupling constants of these interactions. The main goal of this paper was to determine constituent quark masses from light and open bottom hadron masses, using the fitting method we have developed and clustering of hadron groups. We use color-spin Fermi-Breit (FB) and flavor-spin Glozman-Riska (GR) hyperfine interaction (HFI) to determine constituent quark masses (especially b quark mass). Another aim was to discern between the FB and GR HFI because our previous findings had indicated that both interactions were satisfactory. Our improved fitting procedure of constituent quark masses showed that on average color-spin (FB) HFI yields better fits. The method also shows the way how the constituent quark masses and the strength of the interaction constants appear in different hadron environments.
The gluon condensation at high energy hadron collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Wei; Lan, Jiangshan
2017-03-01
We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing-antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton-proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron-hadron colliders.
Hadronic resonance production measured by the ALICE experiment at LHC
Malaev, Mikhail
2016-01-22
Hadronic resonances are among the most interesting probes of the hot and dense matter created in Pb-Pb collisions. Due to their short lifetime, they are sensitive to the anticipated chiral symmetry restoration as well as to suppression and regeneration due to hadronic interactions in the final state. At intermediate and high transverse momenta the hadron resonances, which cover the range of masses between the light pions and heavier protons, contribute to the systematic study of the baryon anomaly and parton energy loss in the dense medium. Measurements in pp collisions are used as a reference for collision of heavier systems and contribute to precision tests of pQCD and of the currently available parameterizations of fragmentation functions. Studies in p-Pb collisions are important for the interpretation of heavy ion results as they allow the decoupling of the initial nuclear effects from hot matter final state effects.
Dynamical scheme for hadronization with first-order phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bohao; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2017-02-01
We present a dynamical scheme for hadronization with first-order confinement phase transition. The thermodynamical conditions of phase equilibrium, the fluid velocity profile, and the dissipative effect determine the macroscopic changes of the parton volume and the corresponding hadron volume during the phase transition. The macroscopic volume changes are the basis for building up a dynamical scheme by considering microscopic transition processes from partons to hadrons and backwards. The established scheme is proved by comparing the numerical results with the analytical solutions in the case of a one-dimensional expansion of a dissipative fluid with Bjorken boost invariance. The comparisons show almost perfect agreements, which demonstrate the applicability of the introduced scheme.
Lattice QCD Calculation of Hadronic Light-by-Light Scattering.
Green, Jeremy; Gryniuk, Oleksii; von Hippel, Georg; Meyer, Harvey B; Pascalutsa, Vladimir
2015-11-27
We perform a lattice QCD calculation of the hadronic light-by-light scattering amplitude in a broad kinematical range. At forward kinematics, the results are compared to a phenomenological analysis based on dispersive sum rules for light-by-light scattering. The size of the pion pole contribution is investigated for momenta of typical hadronic size. The presented numerical methods can be used to compute the hadronic light-by-light contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Our calculations are carried out in two-flavor QCD with the pion mass in the range of 270-450 MeV and contain so far only the diagrams with fully connected quark lines.
Hadronic light-by-light scattering in muonium hyperfine splitting
Karshenboim, S. G.; Shelyuto, V. A.; Vainshtein, A. I.
2008-09-15
We consider an impact of hadronic light-by-light scattering on the muonium hyperfine structure. A shift of the hyperfine interval {delta}{nu}(Mu){sub HLBL} is calculated with the light-by-light scattering approximated by the exchange of pseudoscalar and pseudovector mesons. Constraints from the operator product expansion in QCD are used to fix parameters of the model similar to the one used earlier for the hadronic light-by-light scattering in calculations of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. The pseudovector exchange is dominant in the resulting shift, {delta}{nu}(Mu){sub HLBL}=-0.0065(10) Hz. Although the effect is tiny it is useful in understanding the level of hadronic uncertainties.
Hadronic Spectrum of a Holographic Dual of QCD
Teramond, Guy F. de; Brodsky, Stanley J.
2005-05-27
We compute the spectrum of light hadrons in a holographic dual of QCD defined on AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} which has conformal behavior at short distances and confinement at large interquark separation. Specific hadrons are identified by the correspondence of string modes with the dimension of the interpolating operator of the hadron's valence Fock state. Higher orbital excitations are matched quanta to quanta with fluctuations about the AdS background. Since only one parameter, the QCD scale {lambda}{sub QCD}, is used, the agreement with the pattern of physical states is remarkable. In particular, the ratio of delta to nucleon trajectories is determined by the ratio of zeros of Bessel functions.
Soft color exchanges and the hadronic final state
Rathsman, J.
2000-01-20
The models for soft color interactions and color string re-interactions, implemented in the Monte Carlo program LEPTO, are investigated regarding hadronic final states in inclusive and diffractive deep inelastic scattering. The hadronic final state in inclusive and diffractive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) can give a better understanding of the interplay between soft and hard processes in QCD. Whereas hard interactions are well described by perturbative QCD, soft interactions are not calculable within perturbation theory. Instead more phenomenological models are used to transform the perturbative partonic final state into an observable hadronic final state. It is normally assumed that the color topology of an event is given by the planar approximation in perturbation theory, so that terms of order 1/N{sub c}{sup 2} are neglected, and that this topology is not altered by soft interactions.
The Hadronic Spectrum of a Holographic Dual of QCD
de T'eramond, G.
2005-01-04
We compute the spectrum of light hadrons in a holographic dual of QCD defined on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} which has conformal behavior at short distances and confinement at large interquark separation. Specific hadrons are identified by the correspondence of string modes with the dimension of the interpolating operator of the hadron's valence Fock state. Higher orbital excitations are matched quanta to quanta with fluctuations about the AdS background. Since only one parameter, the QCD scale {Lambda}{sub QCD}, is used, the agreement with the pattern of physical states is remarkable. In particular, the ratio of Delta to nucleon trajectories is determined by the ratio of zeroes of Bessel functions.
CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilki, Burak; CMS HCAL Collaboration
2011-04-01
When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1, the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm × 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R&D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.
NEUTRON-ENHANCED CALORIMETRY FOR HADRONS (NECH): FINAL REPORT
Andrew Stroud, Lee Sawyer
2012-08-31
We present the results of a project to apply scintillator technology recently developed at Louisiana Tech University to hadronic calorimetry. In particular, we developed a prototype calorimeter module incorporating scintillator embedded with metal oxide nanoparticles as the active layers. These metal oxide nanoparticles of gadolinium oxide, have high cross-sections for interactions with slow neutrons. As a part fo this research project, we have developed a novel method for producing plastic scintillators with metal oxide nanoparticles evenly distributed through the plastic without aggregation.We will test the performance of the calorimeter module in test beam and with a neutron source, in order to measure the response to the neutron component of hadronic showers. We will supplement our detector prototyping activities with detailed studies of the effect of neutron component on the resolution of hadronic energy measurements, particular in the next generation of particle flow calorimeters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deur, Alexandre; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter
2015-11-01
A primary question in hadron physics is how the mass scale for hadrons consisting of light quarks, such as the proton, emerges from the QCD Lagrangian even in the limit of zero quark mass. If one requires the effective action which underlies the QCD Lagrangian to remain conformally invariant and extends the formalism of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan to light-front Hamiltonian theory, then a unique, color-confining potential with a mass parameter κ emerges. The actual value of the parameter κ is not set by the model - only ratios of hadron masses and other hadronic mass scales are predicted. The result is a nonperturbative, relativistic light-front quantum mechanical wave equation, the Light-Front Schrödinger Equation which incorporates color confinement and other essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics, including a massless pion for zero quark mass and linear Regge trajectories with the identical slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. The same light-front equations for mesons with spin J also can be derived from the holographic mapping to QCD (3+1) at fixed light-front time from the soft-wall model modification of AdS5 space with a specific dilaton profile. Light-front holography thus provides a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. One can also extend the analysis to baryons using superconformal algebra - 2 × 2 supersymmetric representations of the conformal group. The resulting fermionic LF bound-state equations predict striking similarities between the meson and baryon spectra. In fact, the holographic QCD light-front Hamiltonians for the states on the meson and baryon trajectories are identical if one shifts the internal angular momenta of the meson (LM) and baryon (LB) by one unit: LM = LB + 1. We also show how the mass scale κ
PREFACE: 4th International Hadron Physics Conference (TROIA'14)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dağ, Hüseyin; Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ
2014-11-01
The 4th International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'14, was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 1-5 July 2014. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. It aimed at bringing together the experts and the young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 50 participants from 10 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: . Chiral Perturbation Theory . QCD Sum Rules . Effective Field Theory . Exotic Hadrons . Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD . Experimental Results and Future Perspectives . Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks. The speakers of the invited talks were: C. Alexandrou, A. Gal, L. Tolos, J.R. Pelaez and M. Schindler. We had also guest speakers D. A. Demir and T. Senger. The conference venue was a resort hotel around Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient Troia town and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to supporting agencies and to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Bora Işıldak, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 30.10.2014 The Editors
PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics (TROIA'11)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erkol, Güray; Küçükarslan, Ayşe; Özpineci, Altuğ
2012-03-01
The 3rd International Conference on Hadron Physics, TROIA'11 was held at Canakkale, Turkey on 22-25 August 2011. Ozyegin University, Middle East Technical University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and HadronPhysics2 Consortium sponsored the conference. Its aim was to bring together the experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical hadron physics. About 60 participants from 12 countries attended the conference. The topics covered included: Chiral Perturbation Theory QCD Sum Rules Effective Field Theory Exotic Hadrons Hadron Properties from Lattice QCD Experimental Results and Future Perspectives Hadronic Distribution Amplitudes The conference presentations were organized such that the morning sessions contained invited talks and the afternoon sessions were devoted to contributed talks and poster presentations. The speakers of the invited talks were: D Melikhov, M Nielsen, M Oka, E Oset, S Scherer, T T Takahashi and R Wanke. The conference venue was a resort hotel near Canakkale. As a social program, a guided full-day excursion to the excavation site of the ancient town of Troia and Assos was organized. We believe that this conference provided a medium for young scientists and experts in the field to effectively communicate and share ideas. We would like to express our sincere thanks to all participants for their contributions and stimulating discussions. We are also grateful to the Scientific Secretary, Kadir Utku Can, and all other members of the Organizing Committee for their patience and efforts. 13 February 2012 The Editors Güray Erkol Ayşe Küçükarslan Altuğ Özpineci Conference photograph
Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki
2016-03-01
Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.
Selected Topics on Hadronic B Decays From BaBar
Suzuki, K.; /SLAC
2011-11-23
Recent measurements of branching fractions and decay-rate asymmetries in charmless hadronic B decays at the BaBar experiment are presented. The selected topics include Dalitz plot analyses of B {yields} K{sup +} {pi}{sup -}{pi} and signal searches in B {yields} PP and PV, where isoscalar mesons are involved, and in B {yields} b{sub 1}P, P and V denote a pseudoscalar and vector meson, respectively. Several measurements in charmless hadronic B decays have indicated possible deviations from the theoretical predictions within the Standard Model. The measurements presented would contribute to searching for and resolving such puzzles.
Production of Electroweak Bosons at Hadron Colliders: Theoretical Aspects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangano, Michelangelo L.
2016-10-01
Since the W± and Z0 discovery, hadron colliders have provided a fertile ground, in which continuously improving measurements and theoretical predictions allow to precisely determine the gauge boson properties, and to probe the dynamics of electroweak and strong interactions. This article will review, from a theoretical perspective, the role played by the study, at hadron colliders, of electroweak boson production properties, from the better understanding of the proton structure, to the discovery and studies of the top quark and of the Higgs, to the searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model.
Exotic Hadrons and Underlying Z2,3 Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adil, Belhaj; Salah Eddine, Ennadifi; Moulay Brahim, Sedra
2015-12-01
The recent observation of higher quark combinations, tetraquarks and pentaquarks, is a strong indication of more exotic hadrons. Using Z2 and Z3 symmetries and standard model data, a general quark combination producing new hadronic states is proposed in terms of polygon geometries according to the Dynkin diagrams of Ân affine Lie algebras. It has been shown that Z2,3 invariance is crucial in the determination of the mesonic or the baryonic nature of these states. The hexagonal geometry is considered in some details producing both mesonic and baryonic states. A general class of this family is also presented.
Regge trajectories of exotic hadrons in the flux tube model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandan, Hemwati; Ranjan, Akhilesh
2016-02-01
We have investigated the Regge trajectories of exotic hadrons by considering different possible pentaquark configurations with finite quark mass in the flux tube model. Significant deviation is observed in the linear behavior of the Regge trajectories for pentaquark systems in view of the universal value of the Regge slope parameter for hadrons. The modified Regge trajectories are also compared with the available experimental and lattice data. It is observed that the nonlinear Regge trajectories of such pentaquark systems can be well described by the relativistic corrections in view of the current quark masses and the high rotational speed of the quarks at the end of flux tube structure.
A preliminary measurement of the average B hadron lifetime
Manly, S.L.; SLD Collaboration
1994-09-01
The average B hadron lifetime was measured using data collected with the SLD detector at the SLC in 1993. From a sample of {approximately}50,000 Z{sup 0} events, a sample enriched in Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} was selected by applying an impact parameter tag. The lifetime was extracted from the decay length distribution of inclusive vertices reconstructed in three dimensions. A binned maximum likelihood method yielded an average B hadron lifetime of {tau}{sub B} = 1.577{plus_minus}0.032(stat.){plus_minus}0.046(syst.) ps.
A preliminary, precise measurement of the average B hadron lifetime
SLD Collaboration
1994-07-01
The average B hadron lifetime was measured using data collected with the SLD detector at the SLC in 1993. From a sample of {approximately}50,000 Z{sup 0} events, a sample enriched in Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} was selected by applying an impact parameter tag. The lifetime was extracted from the decay length distribution of inclusive vertices reconstructed in three dimensions. A binned maximum likelihood method yielded an average B hadron lifetime of {tau}{sub B} = 1.577 {plus_minus} 0.032(stat.) {plus_minus} 0.046(syst.) ps.
Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber
Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Eidelman, Y. I.
2015-06-25
Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.
Hadron Formation in DIS in a nuclear environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muccifora, Valeria
2002-10-01
The influence of the nuclear medium on the production of charged hadrons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering has been studied by the HERMES experiment at DESY using 27.5 GeV positrons. A substantial reduction of the multiplicity of charged hadrons and identified charged pions from nuclei relative to that from deuterium has been measured as function of the relevant kinematic variables. The preliminary results on krypton show a larger reduction of the multiplicity ratio RMh with respect to the one previously measured on nitrogen and suggest a possible modification of the quark fragmentation process in the nuclear environment.
Hadronic nuclear energy: An approach towards green energy
Das Sarma, Indrani B.
2015-03-10
Nuclear energy is undoubtedly the largest energy source capable of meeting the total energy requirements to a large extent in long terms. However the conventional nuclear energy involves production of high level of radioactive wastes which possesses threat, both to the environment and mankind. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review of Hadronic nuclear energy by intermediate controlled nuclear synthesis and particle type like stimulated neutron decay and double beta decay has been presented.
Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noonan, D.
2017-02-01
The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadronic calorimeter. The phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeter requires the replacement of the current photomultiplier tubes, as well as the installation of a new front-end readout system. The new photomultiplier tubes contain a thinner window as well as multi-anode readout. The front-end electronics will use the QIE10 ASIC which combines signal digitization with timing information. The major components of the upgrade as well as the current status are described in this paper.
Exotic hadron production in a quark combination model
Han Wei; Shao Fenglan; Li Shiyuan; Shang Yonghui; Yao Tao
2009-09-15
The philosophy on production of exotic hadrons (multiquark states) in the framework of the quark combination model is investigated, taking f{sub 0}(980) as an example. The production rate and p{sub T} spectra of f{sub 0}(980) considered as (ss) or (sqsq), respectively, are calculated and compared in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. The unitarity of various combination models, when open for exotic hadron production, is addressed.
Spectroscopy and Decay of $B$ Hadrons at the Tevatron
Paulini, Manfred
2007-02-01
The authors review recent results on heavy quark physics focusing on Run II measurements of B hadron spectroscopy and decay at the Tevatron. A wealth of new B physics measurements from CDF and D0 has been available. These include the spectroscopy of excited B states (B**, B**{sub s}) and the observation of the {Sigma}{sub b} baryon. The discussion of the decays of B hadrons and measurements of branching fractions focuses on charmless two-body decays of B {yields} h{sup +}h{sup -}. They report several new B{sub s}{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} decay channels.
Development of Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment in Europe
Dosanjh, Manjit
2008-08-11
The European Network for LIGht ion Hadron Therapy aims at a coordinated effort towards ion beam research in Europe. ENLIGHT network is formed by the European Hadron Therapy Community which consists of more than 150 researchers and specialists, belonging to more than fifty European Universities and research Institutes from sixteen European countries. ENLIGHT has demonstrated the advantages of regular and organised exchanges of data, information, best practices as well as information on treatment procedures, protocols and strategies. A major success of ENLIGHT has been the creation of a multidisciplinary platform, uniting traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy work together.
Two-photon physics as a probe of hadron dynamics
Brodsky, S.J.
1981-05-01
Two-photon collisions provide an ideal laboratory for testing many features of quantum chromodynamics, especially the interplay between the vector-meson-dominated and point-like hadronic interactions of the photon. A number of QCD applications are discussed, including: jet and single-particle production at large transverse momentum; the photon structure function and its relationship to the ..gamma.. ..-->.. q anti q wave function; and the possible role of gluonium states in the ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. rho/sup 0/rho/sup 0/ channel. Evidence that even low momentum transfer photon-hadron interactions are sensitive to the point-like ..gamma.. ..-->.. q anti q coupling is discussed.
Effect of hadron dynamics on the proton lifetime
Silbar, R. R.; Goldhaber, A. S.; Goldman, T.
2002-01-01
A detailed, quantitative re-examination of the effect of hadron dynamics on baryon decay, modeled in terms of Skyrme-field tunneling, indicates that any hadronic suppression should be quite mild. This appears to be another illustration of the 'Cheshire-cat' phenomenon, that variation of the apportionment between description of the nucleon as a bag of quarks and description as a Skyrme field configuration has little influence on many nucleon properties. Perhaps the largest remaining uncertainty in evaluating the decay rate has to do with the overlap between a specified quark-antiquark configuration and a final meson state.
Status of Theory and Experiment in Hadronic Parity Violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snow, W. M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Bowman, J. D.; Crawford, C.; Fomin, N.; Gao, H.; Gericke, M. T.; Gudkov, V.; Holstein, B. R.; Howell, C. R.; Huffman, P.; van Oers, W. T. H.; Penttilä, S.; Wu, Y. K.
2016-02-01
Hadronic parity violation uses quark-quark weak interactions to probe nonperturbative strong interaction dynamics through two nonperturbative QCD scales: ΛQCD and the fine-tuned MeV scales of NN bound states in low energy nuclear physics. The current and projected availability of high-intensity neutron and photon sources coupled with ongoing experiments and continuing developments in theoretical methods provide the opportunity to greatly expand our understanding of hadronic parity violation in few-nucleon systems. The current status of these efforts and future plans are discussed.
Causality constraints on hadron production in high energy collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut
2014-04-01
For hadron production in high energy collisions, causality requirements lead to the counterpart of the cosmological horizon problem: the production occurs in a number of causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) must be conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. This provides a theoretical basis for the observed suppression of strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e+e-). In contrast, the space-time superposition of many collisions in heavy ion interactions largely removes these causality constraints, resulting in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full equilibrium.
Spectral functions and in-medium properties of hadrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripolt, R.-A.; von Smekal, L.; Wambach, J.
The in-medium modifications of hadron properties such as masses and decay widths have been a major focus of the scientific work of Gerry Brown and the insights gained by him and his collaborators made them major drivers of this field for several decades. Their prediction of experimental signals in di-lepton pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions was instrumental in initiating large experimental campaigns which continue till today. In this chapter, we review recent results which elucidate the relation of hadronic spectral properties at finite temperature and density to the restoration of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry.
Representation of Fuzzy Symmetric Relations
1986-03-19
Std Z39-18 REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. Valverde Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda...REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. "Valverde* Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda. Diagonal, 649
Scientific Representation and Science Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matta, Corrado
2014-01-01
In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…
Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.
Feldman, Jacob
2012-04-01
Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science.
Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldman, Jacob
2012-01-01
Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…
Learning with Interactive Graphical Representations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saljo, Roger, Ed.
1999-01-01
The seven articles of this theme issue deal with the use of computer-based interactive graphical representations. Studying their use will bring answers to users of static graphics in traditional paper-based media and those who plan instruction using graphical representations that allow semantically direct manipulation. (SLD)
Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.
2013-01-01
Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…
Scientific Representation and Science Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matta, Corrado
2014-01-01
In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…
Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.
2013-01-01
Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…
The Representational Value of Hats
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.
2008-01-01
The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…
The Representational Value of Hats
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.
2008-01-01
The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…
A generalized wavelet extrema representation
Lu, Jian; Lades, M.
1995-10-01
The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.
Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.
Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J
2013-06-01
Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.
Archival Representation in the Digital Age
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Jane
2012-01-01
This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…
Final state interactions in hadronic B decays
Cheng, H.-Y.; Chua, C.-K.; Soni, Amarjit
2005-01-01
There exist many experimental indications that final-state interactions (FSIs) may play a prominent role not only in charmful B decays but also in charmless B ones. We examine the final-state rescattering effects on the hadronic B decay rates and their impact on direct CP violation. The color-suppressed neutral modes such as B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0},{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0},{rho}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0},K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} can be substantially enhanced by long-distance rescattering effects. The direct CP-violating partial rate asymmetries in charmless B decays to {pi}{pi}/{pi}K and {rho}{pi} are significantly affected by final-state rescattering, and their signs are generally different from that predicted by the short-distance (SD) approach. For example, direct CP asymmetry in B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} is increased to around 60% due to final-state rescattering effects whereas the short-distance picture gives about 1%. Evidence of direct CP violation in the decay B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is now established, while the combined BABAR and Belle measurements of B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} imply a 3.6{sigma} direct CP asymmetry in the {rho}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} mode. Our predictions for CP violation agree with experiment in both magnitude and sign, whereas the QCD factorization predictions (especially for {rho}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) seem to have some difficulty with the data. Direct CP violation in the decay B{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} is very small ((less-or-similar sign)1%) in the standard model even after the inclusion of FSIs. Its measurement will provide a nice way to search for new physics as in the standard model QCD penguins cannot contribute (except by isospin violation). Current data on {pi}K modes seem to violate the isospin sum-rule relation, suggesting the presence of electroweak penguin contributions. We have also investigated whether a large transverse polarization in B{yields}{phi}K* can arise from the
Hadronic weak decay Bb(1/2+)→B (1/2+, 3/2+)+V
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fayyazuddin; Aslam, M. Jamil
2017-06-01
It is shown that for the effective Lagrangian with the factorization ansatz considered here, in the two-body hadronic decay Bb(1/2+)→B (1/2+,3/2+)+V , with Bb(1/2+) belonging to the representation 3 ¯, the only allowed decay channel is Bb(1/2+)→B (1/2+)+V , where B (1/2+) belongs to the representation 8 of S U (3 ). However, for Bb(1/2+) belonging to the sextet representation 6, the allowed decay channels are Bb(1/2+)→B (1/2+,3/2+)+V , where B (1/2+) and B (3/2+) belong to the octet representation 8' and the decuplet 10 of S U (3 ), respectively. The decay channel Bb(1/2+)→B (1/2+)+V is analyzed in detail. The decay rate (Γ ) and the asymmetry parameters α ,α',β ,γ , and γ' are expressed in terms of four amplitudes. In particular, for the decay Λb→Λ +J /ψ it is shown that within the factorization framework, using heavy quark spin symmetry, the decay rate and the asymmetry parameters can be expressed in terms of two form factors F1 and F2/F1, which are to be evaluated in some model. By using the values of these form factors calculated in a quark model, the branching ratio and the asymmetry parameters α and α' are calculated numerically. For other heavy quarks belonging to the triplet and sextet representations, the results can be easily obtained by using S U (3 ) symmetry and a phase-space factor. Finally, the decay Ωb-→Ω-+J /ψ is analyzed within the factorization framework. It is shown that the asymmetry parameter α in this particular decay is zero. The branching ratio obtained in the first approximation is compared with the experimental value.
Sauter, W. K.; Goncalves, V. P.
2010-11-12
The vector meson production in coherent hadron-hadron interactions at LHC energies is addressed assuming that the color singlet t-channel exchange carries large momentum transfer. We consider the non-forward solution of the BFKL equation at high energy and large momentum transfer and estimate the rapidity distribution and total cross section for the process h{sub 1}h{sub 2{yields}}h{sub 1}J/{Psi}X, where h{sub i} can be a proton or a nucleus. We predict large rates, which implies that the experimental identification could be feasible at the LHC.
Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012
Amhis, Y.; et al.
2012-07-01
This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.
Multiple Representations of Buoyancy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James
2009-10-01
For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf
Representation of research hypotheses
2011-01-01
Background Hypotheses are now being automatically produced on an industrial scale by computers in biology, e.g. the annotation of a genome is essentially a large set of hypotheses generated by sequence similarity programs; and robot scientists enable the full automation of a scientific investigation, including generation and testing of research hypotheses. Results This paper proposes a logically defined way for recording automatically generated hypotheses in machine amenable way. The proposed formalism allows the description of complete hypotheses sets as specified input and output for scientific investigations. The formalism supports the decomposition of research hypotheses into more specialised hypotheses if that is required by an application. Hypotheses are represented in an operational way – it is possible to design an experiment to test them. The explicit formal description of research hypotheses promotes the explicit formal description of the results and conclusions of an investigation. The paper also proposes a framework for automated hypotheses generation. We demonstrate how the key components of the proposed framework are implemented in the Robot Scientist “Adam”. Conclusions A formal representation of automatically generated research hypotheses can help to improve the way humans produce, record, and validate research hypotheses. Availability http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/cs/research/cb/projects/robotscientist/results/ PMID:21624164