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Sample records for haematococcus pluvialis chlorophyceae

  1. Carotenoid Distribution in Living Cells of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Aaron M.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Han, Danxiang; Hu, Qiang; Beechem, Thomas E.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Evens, Terence

    2011-09-06

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater unicellular green microalga belonging to the class Chlorophyceae and is of commercial interest for its ability to accumulate massive amounts of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'-dione). Using confocal Raman microscopy and multivariate analysis, we demonstrate the ability to spectrally resolve resonance–enhanced Raman signatures associated with astaxanthin and β-carotene along with chlorophyll fluorescence. By mathematically isolating these spectral signatures, in turn, it is possible to locate these species independent of each other in living cells of H. pluvialis in various stages of the life cycle. Chlorophyll emission was found only in the chloroplast whereas astaxanthin was identified within globular and punctate regions of the cytoplasmic space. Moreover, we found evidence for β-carotene to be co-located with both the chloroplast and astaxanthin in the cytosol. These observations imply that β-carotene is a precursor for astaxanthin and the synthesis of astaxanthin occurs outside the chloroplast. Finally, our work demonstrates the broad utility of confocal Raman microscopy to resolve spectral signatures of highly similar chromophores in living cells.

  2. Isolation of a novel oil globule protein from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Peled, Ehud; Leu, Stefan; Zarka, Aliza; Weiss, Meira; Pick, Uri; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Boussiba, Sammy

    2011-09-01

    Cytoplasmic oil globules of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and analyzed for pigments, lipids and proteins. Astaxanthin appeared to be the only pigment deposited in the globules. Triacyglycerols were the main lipids (more than 90% of total fatty acids) in both the cell-free extract and in the oil globules. Lipid profile analysis of the oil globules showed that relative to the cell-free extract, they were enriched with extraplastidial lipids. A fatty acids profile revealed that the major fatty acids in the isolated globules were oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Protein extracts from the globules revealed seven enriched protein bands, all of which were possible globule-associated proteins. A major 33-kDa globule protein was partially sequenced by MS/MS analysis, and degenerate DNA primers were prepared and utilized to clone its encoding gene from cDNA extracted from cells grown in a nitrogen depleted medium under high light. The sequence of this 275-amino acid protein, termed the Haematococcus Oil Globule Protein (HOGP), revealed partial homology with a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii oil globule protein and with undefined proteins from other green algae. The HOGP transcript was barely detectable in vegetative cells, but its level increased by more than 100 fold within 12 h of exposure to nitrogen depletion/high light conditions, which induced oil accumulation. HOGP is the first oil-globule-associated protein to be identified in H. pluvialis, and it is a member of a novel gene family that may be unique to green microalgae. PMID:21732215

  3. Molecular mechanisms of the coordination between astaxanthin and fatty acid biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanqun; Wang, Baobei; Han, Danxiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Lu, Yinghua; Chen, Feng; Hu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a red ketocarotenoid with strong antioxidant activity and high commercial value, possesses important physiological functions in astaxanthin-producing microalgae. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates up to 4% fatty acid-esterified astaxanthin (by dry weight), and is used as a model species for exploring astaxanthin biosynthesis in unicellular photosynthetic organisms. Although coordination of astaxanthin and fatty acid biosynthesis in a stoichiometric fashion was observed in H. pluvialis, the interaction mechanism is unclear. Here we dissected the molecular mechanism underlying coordination between the two pathways in H. pluvialis. Our results eliminated possible coordination of this inter-dependence at the transcriptional level, and showed that this interaction was feedback-coordinated at the metabolite level. In vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that astaxanthin esterification drove the formation and accumulation of astaxanthin. We further showed that both free astaxanthin biosynthesis and esterification occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum, and that certain diacylglycerol acyltransferases may be the candidate enzymes catalyzing astaxanthin esterification. A model of astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis was subsequently proposed. These findings provide further insights into astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis.

  4. Temperature and Irradiance Impacts on the Growth, Pigmentation and Photosystem II Quantum Yields of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow has been the subject of a number of studies concerned with maximizing astaxanthin production for use in animal feeds and for human consumption. Several of these studies have specifically attempted to ascertain the optimal temperature and irradiance combi...

  5. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  6. A strategy for promoting astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changsu; Choi, Yoon-E; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2016-10-20

    The green algae Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater unicellular microalga belonging to Chlorophyceae. It is one of the best natural sources of astaxanthin, a secondary metabolite commonly used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Due to the importance of astaxanthin, various efforts have been made to increase its production. In this study, we attempted to develop a strategy for promoting astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis using 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor of ethylene (normally known as an aging hormone in plants). Our results demonstrated that ACC could enhance the growth of H. pluvialis, thereby promoting astaxanthin accumulation. Therefore, ACC has an indirect influence on astaxanthin production. We further verified the effect of ACC with a direct treatment of ethylene originated from banana peels. These results indicate that ethylene could be applied as an indirect method for enhancing growth and astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:27544287

  7. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, non-motile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  8. Enhanced astaxanthin production from Haematococcus pluvialis using butylated hydroxyanisole.

    PubMed

    Shang, Minmin; Ding, Wei; Zhao, Yongteng; Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Ma, Huixian; Yu, Xuya

    2016-10-20

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a promising natural source of high-value antioxidant astaxanthin under stress conditions. Biotic or abiotic elicitors are effective strategies for improving astaxanthin production in H. pluvialis. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was identified as an effective inducer for H. pluvialis LUGU. Under a treatment of 2mgL(-1) BHA (BHA2), astaxanthin content reached a maximum of 29.03mgg(-1) dry weight (DW) (2.03-fold of that in the control) after 12day of the mid-exponential growth phase. Subsequently, H. pluvialis LUGU was subjected to BHA2 at different growth phases because an appropriate time node for adding elicitors is vital for the entire production to succeed. As a result, the highest astaxanthin content (29.3mgg(-1) DW) was obtained in cells on day 14 (BHA2 14) of the late-exponential growth phase. Furthermore, the samples treated with BHA2 14 and the control group were compared in terms of the transcriptional expression of seven carotenogenesis genes, fatty acid composition, and total accumulated astaxanthin. All selected genes exhibited up-regulated expression profiles, with chy, crtO, and bkt exhibiting higher maximum transcriptional levels than the rest. Oleic acid content increased 33.15-fold, with acp, fad, and kas expression being enhanced on the day when astaxanthin was produced rapidly. PMID:27590093

  9. Growth of Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow in alternative media.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Berchielli-Morais, F A; Scardoeli-Truzzi, B

    2015-11-01

    Current study investigates the effect of two alternative media NPK (20-5-20) fertilizer and NPK plus macrophyte (M+NPK) compared to the commercial medium (WC) under growth rate and physiological parameters in batch culture mode (2-L), and verifies whether the use of fertilizer (NPK) and macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes) would be a good tool for Haematococcus pluvialis culture in the laboratory. The highest number of cells of H. pluvialis has been reported in NPK medium (5.4 × 105 cells.mL-1) on the 28th day, and in the M+NPK and WC media (4.1 × 105 cells.mL-1 and 2.1 × 105 cells.mL-1) on the 26th day, respectively. Chlorophyll-a contents were significantly higher (p<0.05) in NPK medium (41-102 µg.L-1) and lower in WC and M+NPK media (14-61 µg.L-1). The astaxanthin content was less than 0.04 mg.L-1. Production cost of 10-L of H. pluvialis was low in all media, and NPK and M+NPK media had a cost reduction of 65% and 82%, respectively when compared with commercial medium (WC). The use of a medium based on commercial fertilizer and macrophyte (E. crassipes) produced a new medium formulation that proved to be efficient, at least in batch culture mode, in promoting high density culture of H. pluvialis. NPK and macrophyte (E. crassipes) medium seems to be an adequate alternative to replace the conventional one (WC). PMID:26675899

  10. Label-free hyperspectral nonlinear optical microscopy of the biofuel micro-algae Haematococcus Pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Aaron M; Slepkov, Aaron D; Ridsdale, Andrew; McGinn, Patrick J; Stolow, Albert

    2014-10-01

    We consider multi-modal four-wave mixing microscopies to be ideal tools for the in vivo study of carotenoid distributions within the important biofuel microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. We show that hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy generates non-invasive, quantitative real-time concentrations maps of intracellular carotenoid distributions in live algae.

  11. Production, extraction, and quantification of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous or Haematococcus pluvialis: standardized techniques.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bocanegra, Alma Rosa

    2012-01-01

    For many years, benefits and disadvantages of pigments production either by microalgae or yeasts have been under analysis. In this contribution we shall deal with Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (formerly Phaffia rhodozyma) and Haematococcus pluvialis, which are known as major prominent microorganisms able to synthesize astaxanthin pigment. Then, the usual trend is to look for optimal conditions to conduct astaxanthin synthesis. From one side, pigment production by H. pluvialis is promoted under cellular stress conditions like nutrient deprivation, exposition to high light intensity, aeration. On the other side, X. dendrorhous is able to show significant increase in astaxanthin synthesis when grown in natural carbon sources like coconut milk, grape juice. The main aim of this chapter is to describe optimal environmental conditions for astaxanthin production by X. dendrorhous or H. pluvialis. PMID:22711125

  12. Interaction of TGA@CdTe Quantum Dots with an Extracellular Matrix of Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Detected Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Pérez, Elisa; Aguilar-Hernández, Iris; López-Luke, Tzarara; Piazza, Valeria; Carriles, Ramón; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; de la Rosa, Elder

    2016-09-01

    The present study reports the localization and interaction of thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (TGA@CdTe QDs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) microalgae (HPM) after an incubation period of 5 min. Changes in the Raman spectrum of HPM induced by the adsorption of the TGA@CdTe QDs are successfully found by using naked gold anisotropic structures as nano-sensors for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS effect). Raman spectroscopy results show that TGA@CdTe QDs interact with the biomolecules present in the ECM. Sample preparation and characterization by complementary techniques such as confocal and electron microscopy are also used to confirm the presence and localization of the nanoparticles in the algae. This research shows new evidence on early accumulation of QDs in plant cells and would further improve our understanding about their environmental impact. PMID:27381350

  13. Interaction of TGA@CdTe Quantum Dots with an Extracellular Matrix of Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae Detected Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Pérez, Elisa; Aguilar-Hernández, Iris; López-Luke, Tzarara; Piazza, Valeria; Carriles, Ramón; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; de la Rosa, Elder

    2016-09-01

    The present study reports the localization and interaction of thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (TGA@CdTe QDs) within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) microalgae (HPM) after an incubation period of 5 min. Changes in the Raman spectrum of HPM induced by the adsorption of the TGA@CdTe QDs are successfully found by using naked gold anisotropic structures as nano-sensors for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS effect). Raman spectroscopy results show that TGA@CdTe QDs interact with the biomolecules present in the ECM. Sample preparation and characterization by complementary techniques such as confocal and electron microscopy are also used to confirm the presence and localization of the nanoparticles in the algae. This research shows new evidence on early accumulation of QDs in plant cells and would further improve our understanding about their environmental impact.

  14. Enhancement of astaxanthin production using Haematococcus pluvialis with novel LED wavelength shift strategy.

    PubMed

    Xi, Tianqi; Kim, Dae Geun; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Choi, Yoon-E

    2016-07-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a green microalga of particular interest, since it is considered the best potential natural source of astaxanthin, which is widely used as an additive for natural pigmentation. In addition, astaxanthin has recently garnered commercial interest as a nutraceutical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical. However, producing astaxanthin from H. pluvialis necessitates separation with distinctive culture conditions, dividing between the microalgae growth and the astaxanthin production stages. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have emerged as a replacement for traditional light sources, and LED applications are now rapidly expanding to multiple areas in fields such as biotechnology. However, further detail application into microalgae biotechnology remains limited. In this study, we have attempted to establish new protocols based on the specific wavelength of LEDs for the cultivation and production of astaxanthin using H. pluvialis. Specifically, we applied red LEDs for microalgae cell growth and then switched to blue LEDs to induce astaxanthin biosynthesis. The result showed that astaxanthin productions based on a wavelength shift from red to blue were significantly increased, compared to those with continuous illumination using red LEDs. Furthermore, additional increase of astaxanthin production was achieved with simultaneous application of exogenous carbon with blue LED illumination. Our approach based on the proper manipulation of LED wavelengths upon H. pluvialis cell stages will enable the improvement of biomass and enhance astaxanthin production using H. pluvialis. PMID:26860938

  15. Astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bocanegra, A R; Ponce-Noyola, T; Torres-Muñoz, J A

    2007-06-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) and Haematococcus pluvialis are known as the major prominent microorganisms able to synthesize astaxanthin natural pigment. Important research efforts have been made to determine optimal conditions for astaxanthin synthesis. When the focus is on astaxanthin production, the maximal reported value of 9.2 mg/g cell is obtained within H. pluvialis grown on BAR medium, under continuous illumination (345 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1)) and without aeration. Whereas fermentation by mutated R1 yeast grown on coconut milk produced 1,850 microg/g yeast. However, when looking at astaxanthin productivity, the picture is slightly different. The figures obtained with P. rhodozyma are rather similar to those of H. pluvialis. Maximal reported values are 170 microg/g yeast per day with a wild yeast strain and 370 microg/g yeast per day with mutated R1 yeast. In the case of H. pluvialis, maximal values ranged from 290 to 428 microg/g cell per day depending on the media (BG-11 or BAR), light intensity (177 micromol photon m(-2) s(-1)), aeration, etc. The main aim of this work was to examine how astaxanthin synthesis, by P. rhodozyma and H. pluvialis, could be compared. The study is based on previous works by the authors where pigment productions have been reported. PMID:17333170

  16. Enhancement of astaxanthin production using Haematococcus pluvialis with novel LED wavelength shift strategy.

    PubMed

    Xi, Tianqi; Kim, Dae Geun; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Choi, Yoon-E

    2016-07-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a green microalga of particular interest, since it is considered the best potential natural source of astaxanthin, which is widely used as an additive for natural pigmentation. In addition, astaxanthin has recently garnered commercial interest as a nutraceutical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical. However, producing astaxanthin from H. pluvialis necessitates separation with distinctive culture conditions, dividing between the microalgae growth and the astaxanthin production stages. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have emerged as a replacement for traditional light sources, and LED applications are now rapidly expanding to multiple areas in fields such as biotechnology. However, further detail application into microalgae biotechnology remains limited. In this study, we have attempted to establish new protocols based on the specific wavelength of LEDs for the cultivation and production of astaxanthin using H. pluvialis. Specifically, we applied red LEDs for microalgae cell growth and then switched to blue LEDs to induce astaxanthin biosynthesis. The result showed that astaxanthin productions based on a wavelength shift from red to blue were significantly increased, compared to those with continuous illumination using red LEDs. Furthermore, additional increase of astaxanthin production was achieved with simultaneous application of exogenous carbon with blue LED illumination. Our approach based on the proper manipulation of LED wavelengths upon H. pluvialis cell stages will enable the improvement of biomass and enhance astaxanthin production using H. pluvialis.

  17. Temperature and irradiance impacts on the growth, pigmentation and photosystem II quantum yield of Haemotococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow has been the subject of a number of studies concerned with maximizing astaxanthin production for use in animal feeds and for human consumption. Several of these studies have specifically attempted to ascertain the optimal temperature and irradiance combi...

  18. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Md Mahfuzur R; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  19. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Md. Mahfuzur R.; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J.; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as “super anti-oxidant.” Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation. PMID:27200009

  20. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Md Mahfuzur R; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation. PMID:27200009

  1. Transcriptome Analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis: Astaxanthin Induction by Salicylic Acid (SA) and Jasmonic Acid (JA)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guanxun; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Haifeng; Deng, Suzhen; Shen, Yicheng; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Ruihao; Meng, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is an astaxanthin-rich microalga that can increase its astaxanthin production by salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA) induction. The genetic transcriptome details of astaxanthin biosynthesis were analyzed by exposing the algal cells to 25 mg/L of SA and JA for 1, 6 and 24 hours, plus to the control (no stress). Based on the RNA-seq analysis, 56,077 unigenes (51.7%) were identified with functions in response to the hormone stress. The top five identified subcategories were cell, cellular process, intracellular, catalytic activity and cytoplasm, which possessed 5600 (~9.99%), 5302 (~9.45%), 5242 (~9.35%), 4407 (~7.86%) and 4195 (~7.48%) unigenes, respectively. Furthermore, 59 unigenes were identified and assigned to 26 putative transcription factors (TFs), including 12 plant-specific TFs. They were likely associated with astaxanthin biosynthesis in Haematococcus upon SA and JA stress. In comparison, the up-regulation of differential expressed genes occurred much earlier, with higher transcript levels in the JA treatment (about 6 h later) than in the SA treatment (beyond 24 h). These results provide valuable information for directing metabolic engineering efforts to improve astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:26484871

  2. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen; Wang, Chang-Xiu; Wu, Hong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a novel carotenoid nutraceutical occurring in many crustaceans and red yeasts. It has exhibited various biological activities including prevention or amelioration of cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for the effective extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Some parameters such as extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 48.0% ethanol in ethyl acetate, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 20:1 (mL/g), and extraction for 16.0 min at 41.1 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of astaxanthin was 27.58 ± 0.40 mg/g. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of Haematococcus pluvialis, which also indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting astaxanthin from marine life. PMID:23697948

  3. Transformation of the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis with a Phytoene Desaturase for Accelerated Astaxanthin Biosynthesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrenner, Jens; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid which is used as a pigmentation source in fish aquaculture. Additionally, a beneficial role of astaxanthin as a food supplement for humans has been suggested. The unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a suitable biological source for astaxanthin production. In the context of the strong biotechnological relevance of H. pluvialis, we developed a genetic transformation protocol for metabolic engineering of this green alga. First, the gene coding for the carotenoid biosynthesis enzyme phytoene desaturase was isolated from H. pluvialis and modified by site-directed mutagenesis, changing the leucine codon at position 504 to an arginine codon. In an in vitro assay, the modified phytoene desaturase was still active in conversion of phytoene to ζ-carotene and exhibited 43-fold-higher resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. Upon biolistic transformation using the modified phytoene desaturase gene as a reporter and selection with norflurazon, integration into the nuclear genome of H. pluvialis and phytoene desaturase gene and protein expression were demonstrated by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, respectively, in 11 transformants. Some of the transformants had a higher carotenoid content in the green state, which correlated with increased nonphotochemical quenching. This measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence can be used as a screening procedure for stable transformants. Stress induction of astaxanthin biosynthesis by high light showed that there was accelerated accumulation of astaxanthin in one of the transformants compared to the accumulation in the wild type. Our results strongly indicate that the modified phytoene desaturase gene is a useful tool for genetic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:17012596

  4. Stability and changes in astaxanthin ester composition from Haematococcus pluvialis during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Fengping; Geng, Yahong; Lu, Dayan; Zuo, Jincheng; Li, Yeguang

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of temperature, oxygen, antioxidants, and corn germ oil on the stability of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis under different storage conditions, and changes in the composition of astaxanthin esters during storage using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Oxygen and high temperatures (22-25°C) significantly reduced the stability of astaxanthin esters. Corn germ oil and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and vitamin E) failed to protect astaxanthin from oxidation, and actually significantly increased the instability of astaxanthin. A change in the relative composition of astaxanthin esters was observed after 96 weeks of long-term storage. During storage, the relative amounts of free astaxanthin and astaxanthin monoesters declined, while the relative amount of astaxanthin diesters increased. Thus, the ratio of astaxanthin diester to monoester increased, and this ratio could be used to indicate if astaxanthin esters have been properly preserved. If the ratio is greater than 0.2, it suggests that the decrease in astaxanthin content could be higher than 20%. Our results show that storing algal powder from H. pluvialis or other natural astaxanthin products under vacuum and in the dark below 4°C is the most economical and applicable storage method for the large-scale production of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. This storage method can produce an astaxanthin preservation rate of at least 80% after 96 weeks of storage.

  5. Transient Photoresponses of a Phototactic Microorganism, Haematococcus Pluvialis, Revealed by Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Franco; Ascoli, Cesare; Frediani, Carlo; Petracchi, Donatella

    1986-01-01

    A new method, using incoherent light scattering, has been developed to measure the flagellar beating frequency of swimming microorganisms. By means of this method, transient changes of flagellar beating frequency in response to white light flashes have been revealed in samples of a phototactic microorganism, Haematococcus pluvialis. An increase of flagellar beating frequency occurs when the flash dose (flash intensity × flash duration) is sufficient. Reciprocity between light intensity and flash duration holds for durations not exceeding 60-80 ms. For lower doses a bimodal distribution of flagellar beating frequency is revealed. No effect is observed for very low flashes or for red stimuli, whereas green light is effective. A detailed analysis of experimental results has allowed us to determine the characteristic time of the effect and follow its evolution. The correlation of this effect with visually observed behavior is discussed and a possible underlying mechanism is suggested. ImagesFIGURE 1

  6. Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofuel has been the focus of intensive global research over the past few years. The development of 4th generation biofuel production (algae-to-biofuels) based on metabolic engineering of algae is still in its infancy, one of the main barriers is our lacking of understanding of microalgal growth, metabolism and biofuel production. Although fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis pathway genes have been all cloned and biosynthesis pathway was built up in some higher plants, the molecular mechanism for its regulation in microalgae is far away from elucidation. Results We cloned main key genes for FA biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis, a green microalga as a potential biodiesel feedstock, and investigated the correlations between their expression alternation and FA composition and content detected by GC-MS under different stress treatments, such as nitrogen depletion, salinity, high or low temperature. Our results showed that high temperature, high salinity, and nitrogen depletion treatments played significant roles in promoting microalgal FA synthesis, while FA qualities were not changed much. Correlation analysis showed that acyl carrier protein (ACP), 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase (KAS), and acyl-ACP thioesterase (FATA) gene expression had significant correlations with monounsaturated FA (MUFA) synthesis and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) synthesis. Conclusions We proposed that ACP, KAS, and FATA in H. pluvialis may play an important role in FA synthesis and may be rate limiting genes, which probably could be modified for the further study of metabolic engineering to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production. PMID:22448811

  7. Determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis by first-order derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Juan; Juan, Liu Xiao; Wu, Ying Hua; Hua, Wu Ying; Zhao, Li Chao; Chao, Zhao Li; Xiao, Su Yao; Yao, Xiao Su; Zhou, Ai Mei; Mei, Zhou Ai; Liu, Xin; Xin, Liu

    2011-01-01

    A highly selective, convenient, and precise method, first-order derivative spectrophotometry, was applied for the determination of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis. Ethyl acetate and ethanol (1:1, v/v) were found to be the best extraction solvent tested due to their high efficiency and low toxicity compared with nine other organic solvents. Astaxanthin coexisting with chlorophyll and beta-carotene was analyzed by first-order derivative spectrophotometry in order to optimize the conditions for the determination of astaxanthin. The results show that when detected at 432 nm, the interfering substances could be eliminated. The dynamic linear range was 2.0-8.0 microg/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9916. The detection threshold was 0.41 microg/mL. The RSD for the determination of astaxanthin was in the range of 0.01-0.06%; the results of recovery test were 98.1-108.0%. The statistical analysis between first-order derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC by T-testing did not exceed their critical values, revealing no significant differences between these two methods. It was proved that first-order derivative spectrophotometry is a rapid and convenient method for the determination of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis that can eliminate the negative effect resulting from the coexistence of astaxanthin with chlorophyll and beta-carotene. PMID:22320081

  8. Regenerative Astaxanthin Extraction from a Single Microalgal (Haematococcus pluvialis) Cell Using a Gold Nano-Scalpel.

    PubMed

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Gwak, Raekeun; Kang, Mijeong; Shim, Tae Soup; Cho, Soojeong; Lee, Jiye; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Kyubock; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-10-14

    Milking of microalgae, the process of reusing the biomass for continuous production of target compounds, can strikingly overcome the time and cost constraints associated with biorefinery. This process can significantly improve production efficiency of highly valuable chemicals, for example, astaxanthin (AXT) from Haematococcus pluvialis. Detailed understanding of the biological process of cell survival and AXT reaccumulation after extraction would be of great help for successful milking. Here we report extraction of AXT from a single cell of H. pluvialis through incision of the cell wall by a gold nanoscalpel (Au-NS), which allows single-cell analysis of wound healing and reaccumulation of AXT. Interestingly, upon the Au-NS incision, the cell could reaccumulate AXT at a rate two times faster than the control cells. Efficient extraction as well as minimal cellular damage, keeping cells alive, could be achieved with the optimized shape and dimensions of Au-NS: a well-defined sharp tip, thickness under 300 nm, and 1-3 μm of width. The demonstration of regenerative extraction of AXT at a single cell level hints toward the potential of a milking process for continuous recovery of target compounds from microalgae while keeping the cells alive. PMID:26397314

  9. Ethanol induced astaxanthin accumulation and transcriptional expression of carotenogenic genes in Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zewen; Liu, Zhiyong; Hou, Yuyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Fangjian

    2015-10-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the most promising natural sources of astaxanthin. However, inducing the accumulation process has become one of the primary obstacles in astaxanthin production. In this study, the effect of ethanol on astaxanthin accumulation was investigated. The results demonstrated that astaxanthin accumulation occurred with ethanol addition even under low-light conditions. The astaxanthin productivity could reach 11.26 mg L(-1) d(-1) at 3% (v/v) ethanol, which was 2.03 times of that of the control. The transcriptional expression patterns of eight carotenogenic genes were evaluated using real-time PCR. The results showed that ethanol greatly enhanced transcription of the isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase genes (ipi-1 and ipi-2), which were responsible for isomerization reaction of IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This finding suggests that ethanol induced astaxanthin biosynthesis was up-regulated mainly by ipi-1 and ipi-2 at transcriptional level, promoting isoprenoid synthesis and substrate supply to carotenoid formation. Thus ethanol has the potential to be used as an effective reagent to induce astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis.

  10. Regenerative Astaxanthin Extraction from a Single Microalgal (Haematococcus pluvialis) Cell Using a Gold Nano-Scalpel.

    PubMed

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Gwak, Raekeun; Kang, Mijeong; Shim, Tae Soup; Cho, Soojeong; Lee, Jiye; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Kyubock; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-10-14

    Milking of microalgae, the process of reusing the biomass for continuous production of target compounds, can strikingly overcome the time and cost constraints associated with biorefinery. This process can significantly improve production efficiency of highly valuable chemicals, for example, astaxanthin (AXT) from Haematococcus pluvialis. Detailed understanding of the biological process of cell survival and AXT reaccumulation after extraction would be of great help for successful milking. Here we report extraction of AXT from a single cell of H. pluvialis through incision of the cell wall by a gold nanoscalpel (Au-NS), which allows single-cell analysis of wound healing and reaccumulation of AXT. Interestingly, upon the Au-NS incision, the cell could reaccumulate AXT at a rate two times faster than the control cells. Efficient extraction as well as minimal cellular damage, keeping cells alive, could be achieved with the optimized shape and dimensions of Au-NS: a well-defined sharp tip, thickness under 300 nm, and 1-3 μm of width. The demonstration of regenerative extraction of AXT at a single cell level hints toward the potential of a milking process for continuous recovery of target compounds from microalgae while keeping the cells alive.

  11. Nondestructive monitoring of carotenogenesis in Haematococcus pluvialis via whole-cell optical density spectra.

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, Alexei; Aflalo, Claude; Lukyanov, Alexander; Boussiba, Sammy

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the feasibility of rapid, nondestructive assay of carotenoid-to-chlorophyll (Car/Chl) ratio and total carotenoids (Car) in cell suspensions of the carotenogenic chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow under stressful conditions. Whole-cell spectra are characterized by variable nonlinear contributions of Car and chlorophylls (Chl), with a strong influence of Car packaging and sieve effect inherent to stressed H. pluvialis cells. Nevertheless, nondestructive assay of Car/Chl in the range of 0.55-31.2 (Car content up to 188 mg L(-1); 5.4 % of the cell dry weight) turned to be achievable with a simple spectrophotometer lacking an integrating sphere upon deposition of the cells on glass fiber filters. The scattering-corrected optical density (OD) in the blue-green region of the whole-cell spectrum, normalized to that in the red maximum of Chl absorption (OD500/OD678), was tightly related (r (2) = 0.96) with the Car/Chl ratio found in extracts. Some features such as the amplitude and position of the minimum of the normalized first-derivative OD whole-cell spectra also exhibited a strong (r (2) > 0.90) nonlinear correlation with Car/Chl. These spectral indices were also tightly related with Car, but the slope of the relationship varied with the stressor intensity. The importance of calibration over the widest possible range of pigment contents and a correct choice of biomass load per filter are emphasized. The advantages and limitations of nondestructive monitoring of carotenogenesis in H. pluvialis are discussed in view of its possible application in optical sensors for laboratory cultivation and mass production systems of the algae.

  12. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

  13. Strain H2-419-4 of Haematococcus pluvialis induced by ethyl methanesulphonate and ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lin, Wei

    2008-05-01

    Two strains H2-410 and H2-419 were obtained from the chemically mutated survivors of wild Haematococcus pluvialis 2 by using ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS). Strains H2-410 and H2-419 showed a fast cell growth with 13% and 20% increase in biomass compared to wild type, respectively. Then H2-419-4, a fast cell growth and high astaxanthin accumulation strain, was obtained by exposing the strain H2-419 to ultraviolet radiation (UV) further. The total biomass, the astaxanthin content per cell, astaxanthin production of H2-419-4 showed 68%, 28%, and 120% increase compared to wild H. pluvialis 2, respectively. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) data showed also an obvious proportional variation of different carotenoid compositions in the extracts of H2-419-4 and the wild type, although no peak of carotenoids appeared or disappeared. Therefore, the main compositions in strain H2-419-4, like its wild one, were free of astaxanthin, monoester, and diester of astaxanthin. The asexual reproduction in survivors after exposed to UV was not synchronous, and different from the normal synchronous asexual reproduction as the mother cells were motile instead of non-motile. Interestingly, some survivors from UV irradiation produced many mini-spores (or gamete?), the spores moved away from the mother cell gradually 4 or 5 days later. This is quite similar to sexual reproduction described by Elliot in 1934. However, whether this was sexual reproduction remains questionable, as no mating process has been observed.

  14. Hydrolysis kinetics of astaxanthin esters and stability of astaxanthin of Haematococcus pluvialis during saponification.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J P; Chen, F

    1999-01-01

    The reaction kinetics for the hydrolysis of astaxanthin esters and the degradation of astaxanthin during saponification of the pigment extract from the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis were investigated. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide in methanol were used for the saponification under nitrogen in darkness at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) followed by the analysis of astaxanthins and other carotenoids using an HPLC method. The concentration of methanolic NaOH solution was important for promoting the hydrolysis of astaxanthin esters and minimizing the degradation of astaxanthin during saponification. With a higher concentration of methanolic NaOH solution, the reaction rate of hydrolysis was high, but the degradation of astaxanthin occurred significantly. The rate constants of the hydrolysis reaction (first order) of astaxanthin esters and the degradation reaction (zero-order) of astaxanthin were directly proportional to the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the saponified solution. Although the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the saponified solution was 0.018 M, complete hydrolysis of astaxanthin esters was achieved in 6 h for different concentrations (10-100 mg/L) of pigment extracts. Results also indicated that a higher temperature should be avoided to minimize the degradation of astaxanthin. In addition, during saponification, no loss of lutein, beta-carotene, and canthaxanthin was found.

  15. Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis Prevents Oxidative Stress on Human Endothelial Cells without Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Régnier, Philippe; Bastias, Jorge; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Violeta; Caballero-Casero, Noelia; Caballo, Carmen; Sicilia, Dolores; Fuentes, Axelle; Maire, Murielle; Crepin, Michel; Letourneur, Didier; Gueguen, Virginie; Rubio, Soledad; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant, is a good candidate for the prevention of intracellular oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of astaxanthin present in two natural extracts from Haematococcus pluvialis, a microalgae strain, with that of synthetic astaxanthin. Natural extracts were obtained either by solvent or supercritical extraction methods. UV, HPLC-DAD and (HPLC-(atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)+)/ion trap-MS) characterizations of both natural extracts showed similar compositions of carotenoids, but different percentages in free astaxanthin and its ester derivatives. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay showed that natural extracts containing esters displayed stronger antioxidant activities than free astaxanthin. Their antioxidant capacities to inhibit intracellular oxidative stress were then evaluated on HUVEC cells. The intracellular antioxidant activity in natural extracts was approximately 90-times higher than synthetic astaxanthin (5 µM). No modification, neither in the morphology nor in the viability, of vascular human cells was observed by in vitro biocompatibility study up to 10 µM astaxanthin concentrations. Therefore, these results revealed the therapeutic potential of the natural extracts in vascular human cell protection against oxidative stress without toxicity, which could be exploited in prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25962124

  16. The effect of temperature on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation of Haematococcus pluvialis during a light-dark cyclic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Minxi; Zhang, Jingkui; Hou, Dongmei; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang; Huang, Jianke; Wang, Jun

    2014-09-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is the best source of natural astaxanthin known as "the king of antioxidants". The mass outdoor culture is the most workable strategy for astaxanthin production, but the effects of daytime and night temperatures on the biomass concentration and astaxanthin content of H. pluvialis have received little attention. This study indicated that, raising the daytime or night temperature could stimulate night accumulation of astaxanthin until temperature up to 28°C; the night biomass loss increased firstly and then decreased along with the daytime temperature reducing; decreasing the night temperature can lessen night biomass loss; the daytime temperature of 28°C and the night temperature below 28°C were optimal for achieving high biomass and astaxanthin content. Subsequently, the outdoor culture strategy has been improved and can increase the net biomass and astaxanthin productivities by 5 and 2.9-fold as compared to the former strategy.

  17. Patterns of carbohydrate and fatty acid changes under nitrogen starvation in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed

    Recht, Lee; Zarka, Aliza; Boussiba, Sammy

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of nitrogen starvation on the production of two major secondary metabolites, fatty acids and carbohydrates, in two microalgae: Nannochloropsis sp. and Haematococcus pluvialis. The major response to nitrogen starvation in both algae occurred within the first 2 days, accompanied by a sharp reduction in chlorophyll content. However, the pattern of the response differed between the two microalgae. In H. pluvialis, the first response to nitrogen starvation was intensive production of carbohydrates, accumulating to up to 63% of dry weight by day 1; on day 2, the total carbohydrate content decreased and was partially degraded, possibly to support fatty acid synthesis. Under these conditions, H. pluvialis accumulated up to 35% total fatty acids in the biomass. In Nannochloropsis sp., the immediate and major response, which was maintained throughout the entire period of exposure to stress, was production of fatty acids, accumulating up to 50% of dry weight, while carbohydrate content in the biomass remained stable at 18%. In addition, we tested the effect of the lipid-synthesis inhibitor sesamol, known to inhibit malic enzyme, on the balance between total fatty acid and carbohydrate contents in H. pluvialis and Nannochloropsis sp. In both cultures, sesamol inhibited fatty acid accumulation, but the carbohydrate content was reduced as well, albeit to a lesser extent. These findings demonstrate the complexity of the stress-response and the potential link between fatty acid and carbohydrate synthesis.

  18. A new paradigm for producing astaxanthin from the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Baobei; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Li, Yuanguang; Han, Danxiang

    2016-10-01

    The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis has been exploited as a cell factory to produce the high-value antioxidant astaxanthin for over two decades, due to its superior ability to synthesize astaxanthin under adverse culture conditions. However, slow vegetative growth under favorable culture conditions and cell deterioration or death under stress conditions (e.g., high light, nitrogen starvation) has limited the astaxanthin production. In this study, a new paradigm that integrated heterotrophic cultivation, acclimation of heterotrophically grown cells to specific light/nutrient regimes, followed by induction of astaxanthin accumulation under photoautotrophic conditions was developed. First, the environmental conditions such as pH, carbon source, nitrogen regime, and light intensity, were optimized to induce astaxanthin accumulation in the dark-grown cells. Although moderate astaxanthin content (e.g., 1% of dry weight) and astaxanthin productivity (2.5 mg L(-1)  day(-1) ) were obtained under the optimized conditions, a considerable number of cells died off when subjected to stress for astaxanthin induction. To minimize the susceptibility of dark-grown cells to light stress, the algal cells were acclimated, prior to light induction of astaxanthin biosynthesis, under moderate illumination in the presence of nitrogen. Introduction of this strategy significantly reduced the cell mortality rate under high-light and resulted in increased cellular astaxanthin content and astaxanthin productivity. The productivity of astaxanthin was further improved to 10.5 mg L(-1)  day(-1) by implementation of such a strategy in a bubbling column photobioreactor. Biochemical and physiological analyses suggested that rebuilding of photosynthetic apparatus including D1 protein and PsbO, and recovery of PSII activities, are essential for acclimation of dark-grown cells under photo-induction conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2088-2099. © 2016 The Authors

  19. A new paradigm for producing astaxanthin from the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Baobei; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis has been exploited as a cell factory to produce the high‐value antioxidant astaxanthin for over two decades, due to its superior ability to synthesize astaxanthin under adverse culture conditions. However, slow vegetative growth under favorable culture conditions and cell deterioration or death under stress conditions (e.g., high light, nitrogen starvation) has limited the astaxanthin production. In this study, a new paradigm that integrated heterotrophic cultivation, acclimation of heterotrophically grown cells to specific light/nutrient regimes, followed by induction of astaxanthin accumulation under photoautotrophic conditions was developed. First, the environmental conditions such as pH, carbon source, nitrogen regime, and light intensity, were optimized to induce astaxanthin accumulation in the dark‐grown cells. Although moderate astaxanthin content (e.g., 1% of dry weight) and astaxanthin productivity (2.5 mg L−1 day−1) were obtained under the optimized conditions, a considerable number of cells died off when subjected to stress for astaxanthin induction. To minimize the susceptibility of dark‐grown cells to light stress, the algal cells were acclimated, prior to light induction of astaxanthin biosynthesis, under moderate illumination in the presence of nitrogen. Introduction of this strategy significantly reduced the cell mortality rate under high‐light and resulted in increased cellular astaxanthin content and astaxanthin productivity. The productivity of astaxanthin was further improved to 10.5 mg L−1 day−1 by implementation of such a strategy in a bubbling column photobioreactor. Biochemical and physiological analyses suggested that rebuilding of photosynthetic apparatus including D1 protein and PsbO, and recovery of PSII activities, are essential for acclimation of dark‐grown cells under photo‐induction conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2088–2099.

  20. Carotenoid genes transcriptional regulation for astaxanthin accumulation in fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis by gibberellin A3 (GA3).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Gao, Hongzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Shitan; Liu, Banghui; Su, Yuanfeng; Ye, Naihao

    2013-12-01

    The fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a promising natural source of astaxanthin. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression of carotenoid genes for astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). With treatments of 20 and 40 mg/L of gibberllin A3 (GA3), five genes ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated with different expression profiles. GA20 (20 mg/L of GA3) treatment had a greater effect on transcriptional expression of bkt2 than on ipi-1 ipi-2, psy and pds (> 4-fold up-regulation). However, GA40 (40 mg/L of GA3) induced more transcriptional expression of ipi-2, psy and bkt2 than both ipi-1 and pds. The expression of lyc, crtR-B and crtO for astaxanthin biosynthesis was not affected by GA3 in H. piuvialis. In the presence of GA3, astaxanthin biosynthesis genes of ipi-1, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated at transcriptional level, psy at post-transcriptional level, whereas ipi-2 was up-regulated at both levels. The study could potentially lead to a scale application of exogenous GA3 in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis just like GAs perform in increasing crops production and it would provide new insight about the multifunctional roles of carotenogenesis in response to GA3. PMID:24772980

  1. Organization of Astaxanthin within Oil Bodies of Haematococcus pluvialis Studied with Polarization-Dependent Harmonic Generation Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; El-Ansari, Omar; Espie, George S.; Fekl, Ulrich; Barzda, Virginijus

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy was used to image the localization of astaxanthin accumulation in the green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. Polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy was applied to study the crystalline organization of astaxanthin molecules in light-stressed H. pluvialis in vivo. Since astaxanthin readily forms H- and J-aggregates in aqueous solutions, PIPO THG studies of astaxanthin aggregates contained in red aplanospores were compared to PIPO THG of in vitro self-assembled H- and J-aggregates of astaxanthin. The PIPO THG data clearly showed an isotropic organization of astaxanthin in red aplanospores of H. pluvialis. This is in contrast to the highly anisotropic organization of astaxanthin in synthetic H- and J-aggregates, which showed to be uniaxial. Since carotenoids in vitro preferentially form H- and J-aggregates, but in vivo form a randomly organized structure, this implies that astaxanthin undergoes a different way of packing in biological organisms, which is either due to the unique physical environment of the alga or is controlled enzymatically. PMID:25215522

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenhui; Li, Huan; Zhao, Peipei; Yu, Ruixue; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2014-01-01

    Under high light (HL) stress, astaxanthin-accumulating Haematococcus pluvialis and β-carotene-accumulating Dunaliella salina showed different responsive patterns. To elucidate cellular-regulating strategies photosynthetically and metabolically, thylakoid membrane proteins in H. pluvialis and D. salina were extracted and relatively quantified after 0 h, 24 h and 48 h of HL stress. Proteomic analysis showed that three subunits of the cytochrome b6/f complex were greatly reduced under HL stress in H. pluvialis, while they were increased in D. salina. Additionally, the major subunits of both photosystem (PS) II and PSI reaction center proteins were first reduced and subsequently recovered in H. pluvialis, while they were gradually reduced in D. salina. D. salina also showed a greater ability to function using the xanthophyll-cycle and the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer pathway compared to H. pluvialis. We propose a reoriented and effective HL-responsive strategy in H. pluvialis, enabling it to acclimate under HL. The promising metabolic pathway described here contains a reorganized pentose phosphate pathway, Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway participating in carbon sink formation under HL in H. pluvialis. Additionally, the efficient carbon reorientation strategy in H. pluvialis was verified by elevated extracellular carbon assimilation and rapid conversion into astaxanthin. PMID:25335577

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenhui; Li, Huan; Zhao, Peipei; Yu, Ruixue; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; He, Linwen; Wang, Guangce

    2014-01-01

    Under high light (HL) stress, astaxanthin-accumulating Haematococcus pluvialis and β-carotene-accumulating Dunaliella salina showed different responsive patterns. To elucidate cellular-regulating strategies photosynthetically and metabolically, thylakoid membrane proteins in H. pluvialis and D. salina were extracted and relatively quantified after 0 h, 24 h and 48 h of HL stress. Proteomic analysis showed that three subunits of the cytochrome b6/f complex were greatly reduced under HL stress in H. pluvialis, while they were increased in D. salina. Additionally, the major subunits of both photosystem (PS) II and PSI reaction center proteins were first reduced and subsequently recovered in H. pluvialis, while they were gradually reduced in D. salina. D. salina also showed a greater ability to function using the xanthophyll-cycle and the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer pathway compared to H. pluvialis. We propose a reoriented and effective HL-responsive strategy in H. pluvialis, enabling it to acclimate under HL. The promising metabolic pathway described here contains a reorganized pentose phosphate pathway, Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway participating in carbon sink formation under HL in H. pluvialis. Additionally, the efficient carbon reorientation strategy in H. pluvialis was verified by elevated extracellular carbon assimilation and rapid conversion into astaxanthin.

  4. Optimal design of scalable photo-bioreactor for phototropic culturing of Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Byung Woo; Sim, Sang Jun

    2012-01-01

    The unicellular green microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, has been examined as a microbial source for the production of astaxanthin, which has been suggested as a food supplement for humans and is also prescribed as an ingredient in eye drops because of its powerful anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we estimated the effects of the slope of a V-shaped bottom design, the volumetric flow rate of air, height/diameter (H/D) ratio, and diameter of an air sparger on the performance of a photo-bioreactor. These parameters were selected because they are recognized as important factors effecting the mixing that produces increased cell density in the reactor. The mixing effect can be measured by changes in optical density in the bioreactor over a period of time. A 6 L indoor photo-bioreactor was prepared in a short time period of 24 h for the performance study. A bioreactor designed with a V-shaped bottom with a slope of 60° showed an optical density change of 0.052 at 680 nm, which was sixfold less than the change in a photo-bioreactor designed with a flat bottom. Studies exploring the effects of bioreactor configuration and a porous metal sparger with a 10 μm pore size showed the best performance at an H/D ratio of 6:1 and a sparger diameter of 1.3 cm, respectively. The optimal rate of air flow was 0.2 vvm. The indoor culture of microalgae in the photo-bioreactor was subsequently carried for an application study using the optimal values established for the important factors. The indoor culture system was composed of a light source controlled according to cell phase, a carbon dioxide feeder, a bag-type reactor with an H/D ratio of 6:1, and a temperature controller. Results demonstrated the efficient production of microalgal cells and astaxanthin in the amounts of 2.62 g/L and 78.37 mg/L, respectively, when using adequate hydrodynamic mixing. Furthermore, the optimal design of a photo-bioreactor can be applied for the phototropic culturing of other microalgae for

  5. Gradient domestication of Haematococcus pluvialis mutant with 15% CO2 to promote biomass growth and astaxanthin yield.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Ke; Yang, Zongbo; Lu, Hongxiang; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    In order to increase biomass yield and reduce culture cost of Haematococcus pluvialis with flue gas from coal-fired power plants, a screened mutant by nuclear irradiation was gradually domesticated with 15% CO2 to promote biomass dry weight and astaxanthin yield. The biomass yield of mutant after 10 generations of 15% CO2 domestication increased to 1.3 times as that with air. With the optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, the biomass dry weight was further increased by 62%. The astaxanthin yield induced with 15% CO2 and high light of 135 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) increased to 87.4mg/L, which was 6 times higher than that induced with high light in air.

  6. Gradient domestication of Haematococcus pluvialis mutant with 15% CO2 to promote biomass growth and astaxanthin yield.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Ke; Yang, Zongbo; Lu, Hongxiang; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    In order to increase biomass yield and reduce culture cost of Haematococcus pluvialis with flue gas from coal-fired power plants, a screened mutant by nuclear irradiation was gradually domesticated with 15% CO2 to promote biomass dry weight and astaxanthin yield. The biomass yield of mutant after 10 generations of 15% CO2 domestication increased to 1.3 times as that with air. With the optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, the biomass dry weight was further increased by 62%. The astaxanthin yield induced with 15% CO2 and high light of 135 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) increased to 87.4mg/L, which was 6 times higher than that induced with high light in air. PMID:27259189

  7. Enhancing the growth rate and astaxanthin yield of Haematococcus pluvialis by nuclear irradiation and high concentration of carbon dioxide stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Ke; Yang, Zongbo; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-03-01

    Unicellular green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis was mutated with (60)Co-γ irradiation to promote growth rate and increase astaxanthin yield under high concentration of CO2 stress. The average specific growth rate of H. pluvialis mutated with 4000 Gy γ-ray irradiation was increased by 15% compared with the original strain with air aeration. The mutant grew best with 6% CO2 (the maximum specific growth rate was 0.60/d) when it was cultured with high concentrations of CO2 (2-10%). The peak biomass productivity (0.16 g/L/d) of the mutant cultured with 6% CO2 was 82% higher than that of the mutant with air. The astaxanthin yield and lipid content of the mutant induced with 6% CO2 and high light (108 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) increased to 46.0mg/L and 45.9%, which were 2.4 and 1.3 times higher than those of the wild-type strain, respectively.

  8. Enhanced autotrophic astaxanthin production from Haematococcus pluvialis under high temperature via heat stress-driven Haber-Weiss reaction.

    PubMed

    Hong, Min-Eui; Hwang, Sung Kwan; Chang, Won Seok; Kim, Byung Woo; Lee, Jeewon; Sim, Sang Jun

    2015-06-01

    High temperatures (30-36 °C) inhibited astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis under photoautotrophic conditions. The depression of carotenogenesis was primarily attributed to excess intracellular less reactive oxygen species (LROS; O2 (-) and H2O2) levels generated under high temperature conditions. Here, we show that the heat stress-driven inefficient astaxanthin production was improved by accelerating the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction to convert LROS into more reactive oxygen species (MROS; O2 and OH·), thereby facilitating lipid peroxidation. As a result, during 18 days of photoautotrophic induction, the astaxanthin concentration of cells cultured in high temperatures in the presence of iron (450 μM) was dramatically increased by 75 % (30 °C) and 133 % (36 °C) compared to that of cells exposed to heat stress alone. The heat stress-driven Haber-Weiss reaction will be useful for economically producing astaxanthin by reducing energy cost and enhancing photoautotrophic astaxanthin production, particularly outdoors utilizing natural solar radiation including heat and light for photo-induction of H. pluvialis.

  9. Comparative analysis of astaxanthin and its esters in the mutant E1 of Haematococcus pluvialis and other green algae by HPLC with a C30 column.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Xiang, WenZhou; Tang, QuanMing; Sun, Ni; Chen, Feng; Yuan, JianPing

    2008-12-01

    A gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a C30 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of astaxanthin, astaxanthin monoesters and astaxanthin diesters in the green algae Chlorococcum sp., Chlorella zofingiensis, Haematococcus pluvialis and the mutant E1, which was obtained from the mutagenesis of H. pluvialis by exposure to UV-irradiation and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) with subsequent screening using nicotine. The results showed that the contents of total astaxanthins including free astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters ranged from 1.4 to 30.9 mg/g dry biomass in these green algae. The lower total astaxanthin levels (< 2 mg/g dry biomass) were detected in the green algae Chlorococcum sp. and C. zofingiensis. The higher total astaxanthin levels (>16 mg/g dry biomass) were found in the green alga H. pluvialis and its mutant E1. It is notable that the mutant E1 is found to have considerably higher amounts of total astaxanthin (30.9 mg/g) as compared to the wild strain of H. pluvialis (16.1 mg/g). This indicates that UV-irradiation and EMS compound mutagenesis with subsequent screening using nicotine is an effective method for breeding of a high-producing astaxanthin strain of H. pluvialis. In addition, the green alga C. zofingiensis had a remarkably higher percentage of astaxanthin diesters (76.3% of total astaxanthins) and a remarkably lower percentage of astaxanthin monoesters (18.0% of total astaxanthins) in comparison with H. pluvialis (35.5% for diesters and 60.9% for monoesters), the mutant E1 (49.1% and 48.1%) and Chlorococcum sp. (18.0% and 58.6%).

  10. From genetic improvement to commercial-scale mass culture of a Chilean strain of the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis with enhanced productivity of the red ketocarotenoid astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Patricia I.; Inostroza, Ingrid; Pizarro, Mario; Pérez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a red ketocarotenoid, widely used as a natural red colourant in marine fish aquaculture and poultry and, recently, as an antioxidant supplement for humans and animals. The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the richest natural sources of this pigment. However, its slow growth rate and complex life cycle make mass culture difficult for commercial purposes. The aims of this research were (i) to standardize and apply a genetic improvement programme to a Chilean strain of H. pluvialis in order to improve its carotenogenic capacity and (ii) to evaluate the performance of a selected mutant strain in commercial-sized (125 000 L) open ponds in the north of Chile. Haematococcus pluvialis strain 114 was mutated by ethyl methanesulfonate. The level of mutagen dose (exposure time and concentration) was one that induced at least 90 % mortality. Surviving colonies were screened for resistance to the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor diphenylamine (25 µM). Resistant mutants were grown in a 30-mL volume for 30 days, after which the total carotenoid content was determined by spectrophotometry. Tens of mutants with improved carotenogenic capacity compared with the wild-type strain were isolated by the application of these standardized protocols. Some mutants exhibited curious morphological features such as spontaneous release of astaxanthin and loss of flagella. One of the mutants was grown outdoors in commercial-sized open ponds of 125 000 L in the north of Chile. Grown under similar conditions, the mutant strain accumulated 30 % more astaxanthin than the wild-type strain on a per dry weight basis and 72 % more on a per culture volume basis. We show that random mutagenesis/selection is an effective strategy for genetically improving strains of H. pluvialis and that improved carotenogenic capacity is maintained when the volume of the cultures is scaled up to a commercial size. PMID:23789055

  11. Effects of temperature on the astaxanthin productivity and light harvesting characteristics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Luca; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, which accumulates astaxanthin at an optimal temperature of 20°C, was cultivated under temperatures of 20°C, 23.5°C, 27°C, and 30.5°C, in order to assess the effects on algal metabolism during the growth phase. The culture growth rate declined with above-optimal increases in temperature, and the final maximum cell concentration at 30.5°C reached only 35% of that attained at 20°C. On the contrary, the biomass productivity was increased under all the high-temperature conditions, probably reflecting the metabolism switch from cell duplication to energy accumulation that is typically observed in algal cultures subjected to environmental stress. Moreover, an increase in the light-harvesting capability of the alga was observed by means of the total pigment balance and the photosynthesis-intensity (PI) curve measured under the different cultivation conditions. Cultures kept at higher temperatures were able to better harvest and utilize the impinging light due to photo-acclimation. Finally, the differences in the astaxanthin metabolism were elucidated by subjecting the cultures to nitrogen starvation at 20°C and 27°C. In the culture at 27°C, a 1.4-fold increase in the astaxanthin productivity was observed when compared to that at 20°C, and the latter required almost two-fold more energy for the astaxanthin production compared with the 27°C culture. PMID:25441445

  12. Effect of red cyst cell inoculation and iron(II) supplementation on autotrophic astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis under outdoor summer conditions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Min-Eui; Choi, Yoon Young; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-01-20

    The negative effect of heat stress on the autotrophic astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis has been observed during outdoor culture in summer. Under the summer conditions, the proliferation of vegetative cells was highly halted in the green stage and the inducibility in the biosynthesis of astaxanthin was partly hindered in the red stage. Herein, under outdoor summer conditions in which variations of the diurnal temperature occur, heat-stress-driven inefficient vegetative growth of H. pluvialis was highly improved by inoculating the red cyst cells; thereby, maintaining relatively moderate intracellular carotenoid levels in the green stage. Subsequently, a remarkably enhanced astaxanthin titer was successfully obtained by supplementing 50 μM iron(II) to induce the heat stress-driven Haber-Weiss reaction in the red stage. As a result, the productivity of astaxanthin in the cells cultured under summer temperature conditions (23.4-33.5 °C) using the two methods of red cell (cyst) inoculation and the iron(Fe(2+)) supplementation was increased by 147% up to 5.53 mg/L day compared with that of the cells cultured under spring temperature conditions (17.5-27.3 °C). Our technical solutions will definitely improve the annual natural astaxanthin productivity in H. pluvialis in locations confronted by hot summer weather, particularly in large-scale closed photobioreactor systems.

  13. Comparison of different cells of Haematococcus pluvialis reveals an extensive acclimation mechanism during its aging process: from a perspective of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Gao, Shan; Zhou, Wei; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2013-01-01

    Both biomass dominated green vegetative cells (GV) and astaxanthin-dominated orange resting cells (OR) affect the final astaxanthin yield in industry. Examination of Haematococcus pluvialis revealed that the OR cells greatly varied from the GV cells at both cellular and subcellular levels. In particular, the thylakoid membranes in the OR were disassembled and fragmented. Furthermore, the OR conserved most of the photosynthetic pigments, with elevated concentrations of violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and neoxanthin. Notably, moderate photosynthesis was detected in OR, even though most of the thylakoid membranes were disassembled, when compared with those in the GV. However, the energy distribution pattern between photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) in the OR favored PSI, which was also confirmed by 77-K fluorescence. As zeaxanthin was not detected in the OR, we attribute the acclimation role to astaxanthin, instead of xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, proteomic-scale comparison analysis of thylakoids of the OR and GV indicated no photosynthetically remarkable variations. However, an extensive acclimation mechanism of H. pluvialis was proposed, in which proteins in thylakoid of GV were noted to be involved in biomass accumulation and those in OR were involved in stress response. Conclusions of the comparative analysis might provide some physiological background of OR for astaxanthin production by using H. pluvialis. PMID:23922648

  14. Cellular Capacities for High-Light Acclimation and Changing Lipid Profiles across Life Cycle Stages of the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baobei; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Lu, Yinghua; Han, Danxiang

    2014-01-01

    The unicellular microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has emerged as a promising biomass feedstock for the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin and neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Motile flagellates, resting palmella cells, and cysts are the major life cycle stages of H. pluvialis. Fast-growing motile cells are usually used to induce astaxanthin and triacylglycerol biosynthesis under stress conditions (high light or nutrient starvation); however, productivity of biomass and bioproducts are compromised due to the susceptibility of motile cells to stress. This study revealed that the Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center D1 protein, the manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO, and several major membrane glycerolipids (particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol), decreased dramatically in motile cells under high light (HL). In contrast, palmella cells, which are transformed from motile cells after an extended period of time under favorable growth conditions, have developed multiple protective mechanisms—including reduction in chloroplast membrane lipids content, downplay of linear photosynthetic electron transport, and activating nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms—while accumulating triacylglycerol. Consequently, the membrane lipids and PSII proteins (D1 and PsbO) remained relatively stable in palmella cells subjected to HL. Introducing palmella instead of motile cells to stress conditions may greatly increase astaxanthin and lipid production in H. pluvialis culture. PMID:25221928

  15. Digital image processing-an alternate tool for monitoring of pigment levels in cultured cells with special reference to green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Sandesh B; Chidambar, Shalini; Brinda, B R; Kumar, M A; Sarada, R; Ravishankar, G A

    2005-11-15

    A method for analyzing carotenoid content in Haematococcus pluvialis, a green alga was developed using digital image processing (DIP) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model. About 90 images of algal cells in various phases of growth were processed with the tools of DIP. A good correlation of R(2)=0.967 was observed between carotenoid content as estimated by analytical method and DIP. Similar correlation was also observed in case of chlorophyll. Since the conventional methods of carotenoid estimation are time consuming and result in loss of pigments during analysis, DIP method was found to be an effective online monitoring method. This method will be useful in measurement of pigments in cultured cells.

  16. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements. PMID:27322248

  17. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements. PMID:27322248

  18. Enriched Astaxanthin Extract from Haematococcus pluvialis Augments Growth Factor Secretions to Increase Cell Proliferation and Induces MMP1 Degradation to Enhance Collagen Production in Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chou, Hsin-Yu; Lee, Chelsea; Pan, Jian-Liang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shu-Hung; Lan, Chi-Wei John; Liu, Wang-Ta; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-06-16

    Among many antioxidants that are used for the repairing of oxidative stress induced skin damages, we identified the enriched astaxanthin extract (EAE) from Haematococcus pluvialis as a viable ingredient. EAE was extracted from the red microalgae through supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. To compare the effectiveness, EAE wastreated on human dermal fibroblasts with other components, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and doxycycline. With sirius red staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found that PMA decreased the collagen concentration and production while overall the addition of doxycycline and EAE increased the collagen concentration in a trial experiments. EAE increased collagen contents through inhibited MMP1 and MMP3 mRNA expression and induced TIMP1, the antagonists of MMPs protein, gene expression. As for when tested for various proteins through western blotting, it was seen that the addition of EAE increased the expression of certain proteins that promote cell proliferation. Testing those previous solutions using growth factor assay, it was noticeable that EAE had a positive impact on cell proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than doxycycline, indicating that it was a better alternative treatment for collagen production. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agentsand food supplements.

  19. Metabolite profiling and integrative modeling reveal metabolic constraints for carbon partitioning under nitrogen starvation in the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Recht, Lee; Töpfer, Nadine; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Gibon, Yves; Fait, Aaron; Nikoloski, Zoran; Boussiba, Sammy; Zarka, Aliza

    2014-10-31

    The green alga Hematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of individual pathways has been well investigated, little is known about the systemic effects of the stress response mechanism. Here we present time-resolved metabolite, enzyme activity, and physiological data that capture the metabolic response of H. pluvialis under nitrogen starvation and high light. The data were integrated into a putative genome-scale model of the green alga to in silico test hypotheses of underlying carbon partitioning. The model-based hypothesis testing reinforces the involvement of starch degradation to support fatty acid synthesis in the later stages of the stress response. In addition, our findings support a possible mechanism for the involvement of the increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in carbon repartitioning. Finally, the in vitro experiments and the in silico modeling presented here emphasize the predictive power of large scale integrative approaches to pinpoint metabolic adjustment to changing environments.

  20. Metabolite Profiling and Integrative Modeling Reveal Metabolic Constraints for Carbon Partitioning under Nitrogen Starvation in the Green Algae Haematococcus pluvialis*

    PubMed Central

    Recht, Lee; Töpfer, Nadine; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Gibon, Yves; Fait, Aaron; Nikoloski, Zoran; Boussiba, Sammy; Zarka, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    The green alga Hematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of individual pathways has been well investigated, little is known about the systemic effects of the stress response mechanism. Here we present time-resolved metabolite, enzyme activity, and physiological data that capture the metabolic response of H. pluvialis under nitrogen starvation and high light. The data were integrated into a putative genome-scale model of the green alga to in silico test hypotheses of underlying carbon partitioning. The model-based hypothesis testing reinforces the involvement of starch degradation to support fatty acid synthesis in the later stages of the stress response. In addition, our findings support a possible mechanism for the involvement of the increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in carbon repartitioning. Finally, the in vitro experiments and the in silico modeling presented here emphasize the predictive power of large scale integrative approaches to pinpoint metabolic adjustment to changing environments. PMID:25183014

  1. Metabolite profiling and integrative modeling reveal metabolic constraints for carbon partitioning under nitrogen starvation in the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Recht, Lee; Töpfer, Nadine; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Gibon, Yves; Fait, Aaron; Nikoloski, Zoran; Boussiba, Sammy; Zarka, Aliza

    2014-10-31

    The green alga Hematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of individual pathways has been well investigated, little is known about the systemic effects of the stress response mechanism. Here we present time-resolved metabolite, enzyme activity, and physiological data that capture the metabolic response of H. pluvialis under nitrogen starvation and high light. The data were integrated into a putative genome-scale model of the green alga to in silico test hypotheses of underlying carbon partitioning. The model-based hypothesis testing reinforces the involvement of starch degradation to support fatty acid synthesis in the later stages of the stress response. In addition, our findings support a possible mechanism for the involvement of the increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in carbon repartitioning. Finally, the in vitro experiments and the in silico modeling presented here emphasize the predictive power of large scale integrative approaches to pinpoint metabolic adjustment to changing environments. PMID:25183014

  2. Effect of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid on different growth stages of Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thi-Thao; Lee, Changsu; Han, Sang-Il; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sok; Choi, Yoon-E

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of ACC on other stages of H. pluvialis. Interestingly, even though ACC displayed a dose-dependent effect on astaxanthin production, it is evident that astaxanthin production could be facilitated whenever the cells were treated at the early red stage. The transcriptional levels of BKT, CHY, SOD, and CAT genes supported enhanced astaxanthin biosynthesis upon ACC treatment at the early red stage. The combinatorial synergistic effect of ACC and light intensity was also confirmed. Finally, two-step application of ACC at the vegetative phase to increase biomass production and at the early-red stage to promote astaxanthin biosynthesis was proposed to maximize the efficiency of ACC treatment. PMID:27566516

  3. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: further insight into the nature of the P-S-M fluctuation and its relationship with the "low-wave" phenomenon at steady-state.

    PubMed

    Fratamico, Anthony; Tocquin, Pierre; Franck, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is an information-rich signal which provides an access to the management of light absorbed by PSII. A good example of this is the succession of fast fluorescence fluctuations during light-induced photosynthetic induction after dark-adaptation. During this period, the fluorescence trace exhibits several inflexion points: O-J-I-P-S-M-T. Whereas the OJIP part of this kinetics has been the subject of many studies, the processes that underly the PSMT transient are less understood. Here, we report an analysis of the PSMT phase in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in terms of electron acceptors and light use by photochemistry, fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). We identify additional sub-phases between P and S delimited by an inflexion point, that we name Q, found in the second time scale. The P-Q phase expresses a transient photochemical quenching specifically due to alternative electron transport to oxygen. During the transition from Q to S, the NPQ increases and then relaxes during the S-M phase in about 1 min. It is suggested that this transient NPQ observed during induction is a high energy state quenching (qE) dependent on the alternative electron transport to molecular oxygen. We further show that this NPQ is of the same nature than the NPQ, known as the low-wave phenomenon, which is transiently observed after a saturating light pulse given at steady-state. In both cases, the NPQ is oxygen-dependent. This NPQ is observed at external pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, which seems correlated with faster saturation of the PQ pool at pH 6.0. PMID:26980274

  4. Microencapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins with different fatty acid composition: Kinetic stability of astaxanthin and alpha-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Andrés; Masson, Lilia; Velasco, Joaquín; del Valle, José Manuel; Robert, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a natural source of astaxanthin (AX). However, AX loses its natural protection when extracted from this microalga. In this study, a supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of H. pluvialis was obtained and added to oils with different fatty acid compositions (sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO)). The oleoresins of H. pluvialis ((SO+SFE) and (HOSO+SFE)) were encapsulated with Capsul by spray drying. The stability of the oleoresins and powders were studied at 40, 50 and 70° C. AX and alpha-tocopherol (AT) degradation followed a zero-order and first-order kinetic model, respectively, for all systems. The encapsulation of oleoresins improved the stability of AX and AT to a greater extent in oleoresins with a monounsaturated fatty acid profile, as shown by the significantly lowest degradation rate constants and longest half-lives. Therefore, the encapsulation of H. pluvialis oleoresins is an alternative to developing a functional ingredient for healthy food design. PMID:26213069

  5. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  6. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  7. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  8. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  9. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  10. Astaxanthin preparation by fermentation of esters from Haematococcus pluvialis algal extracts with Stenotrophomonas species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Li, Xuemin; Xue, Changhu; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2016-05-01

    Natural astaxanthin (Ax) is an additive that is widely used because of its beneficial biochemical functions. However, the methods used to produce free Ax have drawbacks. Chemical saponification methods produce several by-products, and lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis methods are not cost effective. In this study, a bacterial strain of Stenotrophomonas sp. was selected to enzymatically catalyze the saponification of Ax esters to produce free all-trans-Ax. Through single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken design, the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: a seed culture age of 37.79 h, an inoculum concentration of 5.92%, and an initial broth pH of 6.80. Under these conditions, a fermentation curve was drawn, and the optimal fermentation time was shown to be 60 h. At 60 h, the degradation rate of the Ax esters was 98.08%, and the yield of free all-trans-Ax was 50.130 μg/mL. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:649-656, 2016.

  11. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genome data representing nine green algae in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Louise A; Lewis, Paul O

    2016-06-01

    The chloroplast genomes of green algae are highly variable in their architecture. In this article we summarize gene content across newly obtained and published chloroplast genomes in Chlorophyceae, including new data from nine of species in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). We present genome architecture information, including genome synteny analysis across two groups of species. Also, we provide a phylogenetic tree obtained from analysis of gene order data for species in Chlorophyceae with fully sequenced chloroplast genomes. Further analyses and interpretation of the data can be found in "Chloroplast phylogenomic data from the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) reveal complex patterns of sequence evolution" (Fučíková et al., In review) [1]. PMID:27054159

  12. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genome data representing nine green algae in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Louise A.; Lewis, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast genomes of green algae are highly variable in their architecture. In this article we summarize gene content across newly obtained and published chloroplast genomes in Chlorophyceae, including new data from nine of species in Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). We present genome architecture information, including genome synteny analysis across two groups of species. Also, we provide a phylogenetic tree obtained from analysis of gene order data for species in Chlorophyceae with fully sequenced chloroplast genomes. Further analyses and interpretation of the data can be found in “Chloroplast phylogenomic data from the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) reveal complex patterns of sequence evolution” (Fučíková et al., In review) [1]. PMID:27054159

  13. Production of terpenes in the culture of Chlorophyceae and Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Hashimoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terpenes show high reactivity in the troposphere, contributing to organic aerosol reactions with OH radicals. One of the main sources of terpenes in the atmosphere is terrestrial plants. It has been recently reported that marine phytoplankton also produce monoterpenes (Yassaa et al: 2008). Because aerosol production of natural origin affects the cloud cover over the open ocean, it is important to investigate the origin of aerosol generation in the open ocean. In this study, we investigated the production of terpenes and isoprene with a focus on Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae) and Rhodella maculata (Rhodophyta). Concentrations of terpenes and isoprene were measured using a dynamic headspace (GERSTEL DHS)—gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)—mass spectrometer (Agilent 5975C). In addition, chlorophyll a was measured using a fluorometer (Turner TD-700). The results showed that isoprene, α-pinene, and β-pinene were produced by Chlamydomonas sp. and that isoprene, limonene, and camphene were produced by Rhodella maculata. Chlamydomonas sp. produced α-pinene and β-pinene, similar to land plants. The ratio of the pinene/isoprene concentrations in the atmosphere over seawater where phytoplankton are blooming has been reported as approximately 0.7 (Yassaa et al: 2008). In this experiment, the pinene/isoprene concentration ratios in the cultures were approximately 0.1. This result indicates that marine phytoplankton may not be ignored in the marine atmosphere chemistry of terpenes.

  14. Enhancing Photon Utilization Efficiency for Astaxanthin Production from Haematococcus lacustris Using a Split-Column Photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Ho-Sang; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-07-28

    A split-column photobioreactor (SC-PBR), consisting of two bubble columns with different sizes, was developed to enhance the photon utilization efficiency in an astaxanthin production process from Haematococcus lacustris. Among the two columns, only the smaller column of SC-PBR was illuminated. Astaxanthin productivities and photon efficiencies of the SC-PBRs were compared with a standard bubble-column PBR (BC-PBR). Astaxanthin productivity of SC-PBR was improved by 28%, and the photon utilization efficiencies were 28-366% higher than the original BC-PBR. The results clearly show that the effective light regime of SC-PBR could enhance the production of astaxanthin.

  15. Selective extraction of free astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using a tandem organic solvent system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Duk; Sim, Sang Jun

    2007-01-01

    A novel tandem solvent process of dodecane and methanol was developed for the selective extraction of free astaxanthin from red encysted Haematococcus culture. The process consists of dodecane extraction for astaxanthin mixture from the culture (stage 1) and methanol extraction for free astaxanthin from the dodecane extract (stage 2). In the first stage, astaxanthin mixture was directly extracted to dodecane from the culture broth without cell harvest process, followed by a rapid separation of the dodecane extract and the culture medium containing cell debris by simple settling. In the second stage, free astaxanthin was selectively collected to methanol from the dodecane extract, accompanied with saponification of astaxanthin-esters by the addition of NaOH to methanol. During saponification, use of the optimum NaOH concentration (0.02 M) and low temperature (4 degrees C) reaction minimized the degradation of free astaxanthin, resulting in a total recovery yield of free astaxanthin of over 85%. The free-astaxanthin-containing methanol extract was also simply separated from dodecane by gravity settling, after which the astaxanthin-free dodecane was effectively recycled to the first stage, yielding a stable extractability of astaxanthin mixture during repeated extraction. Our results indicate the potential of the proposed tandem solvent process as an alternative extraction technology for the high-value antioxidant Haematococcus astaxanthin.

  16. Phylogeny of Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales (Chlorophyceae): inferences from sequence-structure analysis of ITS2

    PubMed Central

    Buchheim, Mark A.; Sutherland, Danica M.; Schleicher, Tina; Förster, Frank; Wolf, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The green algal class Chlorophyceae comprises five orders (Chlamydomonadales, Sphaeropleales, Chaetophorales, Chaetopeltidales and Oedogoniales). Attempts to resolve the relationships among these groups have met with limited success. Studies of single genes (18S rRNA, 26S rRNA, rbcL or atpB) have largely failed to unambiguously resolve the relative positions of Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales (the OCC taxa). In contrast, recent genomics analyses of plastid data from OCC exemplars provided a robust phylogenetic analysis that supports a monophyletic OCC alliance. Methods An ITS2 data set was assembled to independently test the OCC hypothesis and to evaluate the performance of these data in assessing green algal phylogeny at the ordinal or class level. Sequence-structure analysis designed for use with ITS2 data was employed for phylogenetic reconstruction. Key Results Results of this study yielded trees that were, in general, topologically congruent with the results from the genomic analyses, including support for the monophyly of the OCC alliance. Conclusions Not all nodes from the ITS2 analyses exhibited robust support, but our investigation demonstrates that sequence-structure analyses of ITS2 provide a taxon-rich means of testing phylogenetic hypotheses at high taxonomic levels. Thus, the ITS2 data, in the context of sequence-structure analysis, provide an economical supplement or alternative to the single-marker approaches used in green algal phylogeny. PMID:22028463

  17. Proliferation of group II introns in the chloroplast genome of the green alga Oedocladium carolinianum (Chlorophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Otis, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background The chloroplast genome sustained extensive changes in architecture during the evolution of the Chlorophyceae, a morphologically and ecologically diverse class of green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta; however, the forces driving these changes are poorly understood. The five orders recognized in the Chlorophyceae form two major clades: the CS clade consisting of the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales, and the OCC clade consisting of the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales. In the OCC clade, considerable variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) structure, size, gene order, and intron content have been observed. The large inverted repeat (IR), an ancestral feature characteristic of most green plants, is present in Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales) but is lacking in the examined members of the Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales. Remarkably, the Oedogonium 35.5-kb IR houses genes that were putatively acquired through horizontal DNA transfer. To better understand the dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution in the Oedogoniales, we analyzed the cpDNA of a second representative of this order, Oedocladium carolinianum. Methods The Oedocladium cpDNA was sequenced and annotated. The evolutionary distances separating Oedocladium and Oedogonium cpDNAs and two other pairs of chlorophycean cpDNAs were estimated using a 61-gene data set. Phylogenetic analysis of an alignment of group IIA introns from members of the OCC clade was performed. Secondary structures and insertion sites of oedogonialean group IIA introns were analyzed. Results The 204,438-bp Oedocladium genome is 7.9 kb larger than the Oedogonium genome, but its repertoire of conserved genes is remarkably similar and gene order differs by only one reversal. Although the 23.7-kb IR is missing the putative foreign genes found in Oedogonium, it contains sequences coding for a putative phage or bacterial DNA primase and a hypothetical protein. Intergenic sequences are 1.5-fold longer and

  18. Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Whittingham, M J

    2005-04-01

    Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%.

  19. Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Whittingham, M J

    2005-04-01

    Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%. PMID:15685442

  20. Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica gen. et sp. nov. (Chlorophyceae), a New Flagellated Alga from the Mauritanian Desert: Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Phylogenetic Framing.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Laura; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Etebari, Maryam; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lupetti, Pietro; Lenzi, Paola; Verni, Franco; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular-sequence data were used to assess the phylogenetic position of a tetraflagellate green alga isolated from soil samples of a saline dry basin near F'derick, Mauritania. This alga can grow as individual cells or form non-coenobial colonies of up to 12 individuals. It has a parietal chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid covered by a starch sheath and traversed by single parallel thylakoids, and an eyespot located in a parietal position opposite to the flagellar insertion. Lipid vacuoles are present in the cytoplasm. Microspectroscopy indicated the presence of chlorophylls a and b, with lutein as the major carotenoid in the chloroplast, while the eyespot spectrum has a shape typical of green-algal eyespots. The cell has four flagella, two of them long and two considerably shorter. Sequence data from the 18S rRNA gene and ITS2 were obtained and compared with published sequences for green algae. Results from morphological and ultrastructural examinations and sequence analysis support the placement of this alga in the Chlorophyceae, as Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica L. Barsanti et A. Barsanti, gen. et sp. nov. PMID:27008399

  1. Seasonal appearance of Chlorophyceae phytoplankton bloom by river discharge off Paradeep at Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Shaw, B P; Sahu, B K; Mishra, S; Senga, Y

    2009-02-01

    Characteristics of the monsoonal bloom of phytoplankton at Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal were studied through bimonthly observation from April 2001 to December 2002. Three photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a (Chl a), chlorophyll-b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car) were analyzed by absorption spectroscopic method. The seasonal variation of Chl a included phytoplankton bloom in the coastal area during monsoon period. The water column integrated Chl a reached to 68 mg m(-2) at the station-1(St1), and amounted to 20 mg m(-2) at 30 km off the river mouth during August 2001. In contrast the same amount was found at 15 km off the Mahanadi river mouth during August 2002. Salinity during this period varied from 5 psu at the St1 to 27 psu at the edge of the bloom area. The total amount of river discharge in the monsoon period calculated from daily river discharge data reported by Water Resources Department in India was 84 x 10(9) m(3) during 2001 and 20 x 10(9) m(3) during 2002. Both nitrate and phosphate concentrations showed negative quadratic relationship with salinity throughout the observation period. Extrapolated nitrate and phosphate concentration discharge from the Mahanadi river were 10.8 and 4 microg-at l(-1), respectively. Microscopic identification revealed dominance of fluvial Chlorophyceae and diatoms during the monsoon period showing influence of the freshwater discharge.

  2. Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica gen. et sp. nov. (Chlorophyceae), a New Flagellated Alga from the Mauritanian Desert: Morphology, Ultrastructure, and Phylogenetic Framing.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Laura; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Evangelista, Valtere; Etebari, Maryam; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Lupetti, Pietro; Lenzi, Paola; Verni, Franco; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular-sequence data were used to assess the phylogenetic position of a tetraflagellate green alga isolated from soil samples of a saline dry basin near F'derick, Mauritania. This alga can grow as individual cells or form non-coenobial colonies of up to 12 individuals. It has a parietal chloroplast with an embedded pyrenoid covered by a starch sheath and traversed by single parallel thylakoids, and an eyespot located in a parietal position opposite to the flagellar insertion. Lipid vacuoles are present in the cytoplasm. Microspectroscopy indicated the presence of chlorophylls a and b, with lutein as the major carotenoid in the chloroplast, while the eyespot spectrum has a shape typical of green-algal eyespots. The cell has four flagella, two of them long and two considerably shorter. Sequence data from the 18S rRNA gene and ITS2 were obtained and compared with published sequences for green algae. Results from morphological and ultrastructural examinations and sequence analysis support the placement of this alga in the Chlorophyceae, as Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica L. Barsanti et A. Barsanti, gen. et sp. nov.

  3. The effect of lead on the growth, content of primary metabolites, and antioxidant response of green alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja; Bajguz, Andrzej; Talarek, Marta; Bralska, Monika; Zambrzycka, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Green unicellular alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Turpin) Hegewald et Hanagata (SAG strain no. 276-6) (Chlorophyceae) was used for determination of phytotoxicity of lead (Pb) at the range of concentrations 0.01-500 μM during 7 days of culture. The accumulation of Pb in algal cells was found to be increased in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner. The highest Pb uptake value was obtained in response to 500 μM Pb on the seventh day of cultivation. The decrease in the number and the size of cells and the contents of selected primary metabolites (photosynthetic pigments, monosaccharides, and proteins) in A. obliquus cells were observed under Pb stress. Heavy metal stimulated also formation of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and oxidative damage as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the deleterious effects of Pb resulting from the cellular oxidative state can be alleviated by enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione) antioxidant systems. These results suggest that A. obliquus is a promising bioindicator of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic environment, and it has been identified as good scavenger of Pb from aqueous solution. PMID:26233754

  4. Seasonal appearance of Chlorophyceae phytoplankton bloom by river discharge off Paradeep at Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Shaw, B P; Sahu, B K; Mishra, S; Senga, Y

    2009-02-01

    Characteristics of the monsoonal bloom of phytoplankton at Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal were studied through bimonthly observation from April 2001 to December 2002. Three photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a (Chl a), chlorophyll-b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car) were analyzed by absorption spectroscopic method. The seasonal variation of Chl a included phytoplankton bloom in the coastal area during monsoon period. The water column integrated Chl a reached to 68 mg m(-2) at the station-1(St1), and amounted to 20 mg m(-2) at 30 km off the river mouth during August 2001. In contrast the same amount was found at 15 km off the Mahanadi river mouth during August 2002. Salinity during this period varied from 5 psu at the St1 to 27 psu at the edge of the bloom area. The total amount of river discharge in the monsoon period calculated from daily river discharge data reported by Water Resources Department in India was 84 x 10(9) m(3) during 2001 and 20 x 10(9) m(3) during 2002. Both nitrate and phosphate concentrations showed negative quadratic relationship with salinity throughout the observation period. Extrapolated nitrate and phosphate concentration discharge from the Mahanadi river were 10.8 and 4 microg-at l(-1), respectively. Microscopic identification revealed dominance of fluvial Chlorophyceae and diatoms during the monsoon period showing influence of the freshwater discharge. PMID:18302000

  5. New Design Strategy for Development of Specific Primer Sets for PCR-Based Detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in Environmental Samples▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Valiente Moro, Claire; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  6. New design strategy for development of specific primer sets for PCR-based detection of Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Crouzet, Olivier; Rasconi, Séréna; Thouvenot, Antoine; Coffe, Gérard; Batisson, Isabelle; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Studying aquatic microalgae is essential for monitoring biodiversity and water quality. We designed new sets of 18S rRNA PCR primers for Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae by using the ARB software and implementing a virtual PCR program. The results of specificity analysis showed that most of the targeted algal families were identified and nontargeted organisms, such as fungi or ciliates, were excluded. These newly developed PCR primer sets were also able to amplify microalgal rRNA genes from environmental samples with accurate specificity. These tools could be of great interest for studying freshwater microalgal ecology and for developing bioindicators of the health status of aquatic environments. PMID:19592531

  7. JENUFA GEN. NOV.: A NEW GENUS OF COCCOID GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYCEAE, INCERTAE SEDIS) PREVIOUSLY RECORDED BY ENVIRONMENTAL SEQUENCING(1).

    PubMed

    Němcová, Yvonne; Eliáš, Marek; Škaloud, Pavel; Hodač, Ladislav; Neustupa, Jiří

    2011-08-01

    The diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms is far from fully described, as indicated by the vast number of unassigned genotypes retrieved by environmental sequencing or metagenomics. We isolated several strains of unicellular green algae from algal biofilms growing on tree bark in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest and determined them to be relatives of an unidentified lineage of environmental 18S rDNA sequences, thus uncovering its cellular identity. Light, confocal, and electron microscope observations and sequencing the 18S rRNA gene revealed that the strains represent two different species within an apparently new genus, described here as Jenufa gen. nov. Both species formed minute coccoid cells with an irregular globular outline, a smooth cell wall, and a single parietal chloroplast without a pyrenoid. The two species, described herein as J. perforata and J. minuta, differed in chloroplast morphology and cell wall structure. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA gene sequences showed a firm relationship between the two species and placed the Jenufa lineage in an unresolved position within the CS clade (Chlamydomonadales + Sphaeropleales) of the class Chlorophyceae, although possible affinities to the genus Golenkinia were suggested both by maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods. Furthermore, two almost identical environmental 18S rDNA sequences from an endolithic microbial community occurring in dolomite rock in the central Alps turned out to be specifically related to, yet apparently distinct from, the sequence of J. minuta, indicating the existence of an undescribed Jenufa species occurring in the temperate zone. PMID:27020027

  8. The chloroplast genome of the green alga Schizomeris leibleinii (Chlorophyceae) provides evidence for bidirectional DNA replication from a single origin in the chaetophorales.

    PubMed

    Brouard, Jean-Simon; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique

    2011-01-01

    In the Chlorophyceae, the chloroplast genome is extraordinarily fluid in architecture and displays unique features relative to other groups of green algae. For the Chaetophorales, 1 of the 5 major lineages of the Chlorophyceae, it has been shown that the distinctive architecture of the 223,902-bp genome of Stigeoclonium helveticum is consistent with bidirectional DNA replication from a single origin. Here, we report the 182,759-bp chloroplast genome sequence of Schizomeris leibleinii, a member of the earliest diverging lineage of the Chaetophorales. Like its Stigeoclonium homolog, the Schizomeris genome lacks a large inverted repeat encoding the rRNA operon and displays a striking bias in coding regions that is associated with a bias in base composition along each strand. Our results support the notion that these two chaetophoralean genomes replicate bidirectionally from a putative origin located in the vicinity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Their shared structural characteristics were most probably inherited from the common ancestor of all chaetophoralean algae. Short dispersed repeats account for most of the 41-kb size variation between the Schizomeris and Stigeoclonium genomes, and there is no indication that homologous recombination between these repeated elements led to the observed gene rearrangements. A comparison of the extent of variation sustained by the Stigeoclonium and Schizomeris chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) with that observed for the cpDNAs of the chlamydomonadalean Chlamydomonas and Volvox suggests that gene rearrangements as well as changes in the abundance of intergenic and intron sequences occurred at a slower pace in the Chaetophorales than in the Chlamydomonadales. PMID:21546564

  9. DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW MONOECIOUS SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. VOLVOX (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE), BASED ON COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CULTURED MATERIAL(1).

    PubMed

    Isaka, Nanako; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Species of Volvox sect. Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) are unique because they have thick cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells and spiny-walled zygotes. This section is taxonomically important because the genus Volvox is polyphyletic. However, taxonomic studies of species in Volvox sect. Volvox have not been carried out on cultured material. Here, we performed a taxonomic study of monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox based on the comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA using various strains originating from Japan and two preserved strains from the USA. The strains were clearly divided into four species, V. globator L., V. barberi W. Shaw, V. kirkiorum sp. nov., and V. ferrisii sp. nov., on the basis of differences in numbers of zygotes (eggs) in the sexual spheroids, form of zygote wall, and somatic cell shape. Sequences for ITS of nuclear rDNA resolved that the two new species have phylogenetic positions separated from V. globator, V. barberi, V. capensis F. Rich et Pocock, and V. rousseletii G. S. West UTEX 1862 within Volvox sect. Volvox. PMID:27011093

  10. Adaptation of Selenastrum capricornutum (Chlorophyceae) to copper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Leland, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    Selenastrum capricornutum Printz, growing in a chemically defined medium, was used as a model for studying adaptation of algae to a toxic metal (copper) ion. Cells exhibited lag-phase adaptation to 0.8 ??M total Cu (10-12 M free ion concentration) after 20 generations of Cu exposure. Selenastrum adapted to the same concentration when Cu was gradually introduced over an 8-h period using a specially designed apparatus that provided a transient increase in exposure concentration. Cu adaptation was not attributable to media conditioning by algal exudates. Duration of lag phase was a more sensitive index of copper toxicity to Selenastrum that was growth rate or stationary-phase cell density under the experimental conditions used. Chemical speciation of the Cu dosing solution influenced the duration of lag phase even when media formulations were identical after dosing. Selenastrum initially exposed to Cu in a CuCl2 injection solution exhibited a lag phase of 3.9 d, but this was reduced to 1.5 d when a CuEDTA solution was used to achieve the same total Cu and EDTA concentrations. Physical and chemical processes that accelerated the rate of increase in cupric ion concentration generally increased the duration of lag phase. ?? 1986.

  11. Influence of TiO2 nanoparticles on growth and phenolic compounds production in photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Comotto, Mattia; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Caratto, Valentina; Ferretti, Maurizio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (pure anatase and 15% N doped anatase) on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Arthrospira platensis was investigated. Results showed that pure anatase can lead to a significant growth inhibition of C. vulgaris and A. platensis (17.0 and 74.1%, resp.), while for H. pluvialis the nanoparticles do not cause a significant inhibition. Since in these stress conditions photosynthetic microorganisms can produce antioxidant compounds in order to prevent cell damages, we evaluated the polyphenols content either inside the cells or released in the medium. Although results did not show a significant difference in C. vulgaris, the phenolic concentrations of two other microorganisms were statistically affected by the presence of titanium dioxide. In particular, 15% N doped anatase resulted in a higher production of extracellular antioxidant compounds, reaching the concentration of 65.2 and 68.0 mg gDB (-1) for H. pluvialis and A. platensis, respectively. PMID:25610914

  12. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Growth and Phenolic Compounds Production in Photosynthetic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Comotto, Mattia; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Caratto, Valentina; Ferretti, Maurizio; Perego, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (pure anatase and 15% N doped anatase) on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Arthrospira platensis was investigated. Results showed that pure anatase can lead to a significant growth inhibition of C. vulgaris and A. platensis (17.0 and 74.1%, resp.), while for H. pluvialis the nanoparticles do not cause a significant inhibition. Since in these stress conditions photosynthetic microorganisms can produce antioxidant compounds in order to prevent cell damages, we evaluated the polyphenols content either inside the cells or released in the medium. Although results did not show a significant difference in C. vulgaris, the phenolic concentrations of two other microorganisms were statistically affected by the presence of titanium dioxide. In particular, 15% N doped anatase resulted in a higher production of extracellular antioxidant compounds, reaching the concentration of 65.2 and 68.0 mg gDB−1 for H. pluvialis and A. platensis, respectively. PMID:25610914

  13. Biotechnological production of astaxanthin with Phaffia rhodozyma/Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Isabell; Schewe, Hendrik; Gassel, Sören; Jin, Chao; Buckingham, John; Hümbelin, Markus; Sandmann, Gerhard; Schrader, Jens

    2011-02-01

    The oxygenated β-carotene derivative astaxanthin exhibits outstanding colouring, antioxidative and health-promoting properties and is mainly found in the marine environment. To satisfy the growing demand for this ketocarotenoid in the feed, food and cosmetics industries, there are strong efforts to develop economically viable bioprocesses alternative to the current chemical synthesis. However, up to now, natural astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis, Phaffia rhodozyma or Paracoccus carotinifaciens has not been cost competitive with chemically synthesized astaxanthin, thus only serving niche applications. This review illuminates recent advances made in elucidating astaxanthin biosynthesis in P. rhodozyma. It intensely focuses on strategies to increase astaxanthin titers in the heterobasidiomycetous yeast by genetic engineering of the astaxanthin pathway, random mutagenesis and optimization of fermentation processes. This review emphasizes the potential of P. rhodozyma for the biotechnological production of astaxanthin in comparison to other natural sources such as the microalga H. pluvialis, other fungi and transgenic plants and to chemical synthesis. PMID:21046372

  14. Swimming patterns of the quadriflagellate Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydomonadales are elective subjects for the investigation of the problems related to locomotion and transport in biological fluid dynamics, whose resolution could enhance searching efficiency and assist in the avoidance of dangerous environments. In this paper, we elucidate the swimming behavior of Tetraflagellochloris mauritanica, a unicellular-multicellular alga belonging to the order Chlamydomonadales. This quadriflagellate alga has a complex swimming motion consisting of alternating swimming phases connected by in-place random reorientations and resting phases. It is capable of both forward and backward swimming, both being normal modes of swimming. The complex swimming behavior resembles the run-and-tumble motion of peritrichous bacteria, with in-place reorientation taking the place of tumbles. In the forward swimming, T. mauritanica shows a very efficient flagellar beat, with undulatory retrograde waves that run along the flagella to their tip. In the backward swimming, the flagella show a nonstereotypical synchronization mode, with a pattern that does not fit any of the modes present in the other Chlamydomonadales so far investigated. PMID:27037586

  15. Nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet light mutagenesis in Eudorina elegans (chlorophyceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Toby, A.L.; Kemp, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    Reversion of an acetate requiring strain and the induction of sectored colonies are used to establish optimal conditions for nitrosoguanidine and ultraviolet light mutagenesis in Eudorina elegans Ehrenberg. Nitrosoguanidine is more effective in causing reversion of the acetate requiring strain and inducing auxotrophs. Morphogenetic mutants are more readily induced by ultraviolet light. The effectiveness of ultraviolet light as a mutagen is cell cycle dependent whereas the mutagenic action of nitrosoguanidine is not.

  16. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  17. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  18. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-07

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  19. Erratum: Water Science and Technology 72 (7): Development of a new wastewater treatment process for resource recovery of carotenoids, H. Sato, H. Nagare, T. N. C. Huynh and H. Komatsu, doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.330.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment process that involves coagulation, ozonation, and microalgae cultivation has been developed. Here, two challenges are discussed. The first was minimizing phosphorus removal during coagulation in order to maximize algal production. The second was to optimize microalgae cultivation; algal species that grow rapidly and produce valuable products are ideal for selection. Haematococcus pluvialis, which produces the carotenoid astaxanthin, was used. Growth rate, nutrient removal ability, and astaxanthin production of H. pluvialis in coagulated wastewater were investigated. After coagulation with chitosan, the turbidity and suspended solids decreased by 89% ± 8% and 73% ± 16%, respectively. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the supernatant remained at 86% ± 6% and 67% ± 24%, respectively. These results indicate that coagulation with chitosan can remove turbidity and SS while preserving nutrients. H. pluvialis grew well in the supernatant of coagulated wastewater. The astaxanthin yield from coagulated wastewater in which microalgae were cultured was 3.26 mg/L, and total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased 99% ± 1% and 90% ± 8% (Days 31-35), respectively. PMID:27508383

  20. Chlorella zofingiensis as an Alternative Microalgal Producer of Astaxanthin: Biology and Industrial Potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Zheng; Gerken, Henri; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione), a high-value ketocarotenoid with a broad range of applications in food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries, has been gaining great attention from science and the public in recent years. The green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chlorella zofingiensis represent the most promising producers of natural astaxanthin. Although H. pluvialis possesses the highest intracellular astaxanthin content and is now believed to be a good producer of astaxanthin, it has intrinsic shortcomings such as slow growth rate, low biomass yield, and a high light requirement. In contrast, C. zofingiensis grows fast phototrophically, heterotrophically and mixtrophically, is easy to be cultured and scaled up both indoors and outdoors, and can achieve ultrahigh cell densities. These robust biotechnological traits provide C. zofingiensis with high potential to be a better organism than H. pluvialis for mass astaxanthin production. This review aims to provide an overview of the biology and industrial potential of C. zofingiensis as an alternative astaxanthin producer. The path forward for further expansion of the astaxanthin production from C. zofingiensis with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:24918452

  1. Ketocarotenoid biosynthesis in transgenic microalgae expressing a foreign β-C-4-carotene oxygenase gene.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marta; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio; León, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Ketocarotenoids are obtained by the action of the β-carotene ketolase, which catalyses the addition of a keto-group at the C4 position of carotenoids β-ion-rings. Most microalgae and higher plants do not posses the carotene ketolase activity and consequently do not synthesize ketocarotenoids, which are highly demanded as feed supplements and as nutraceutical for human nutrition. Here we propose the use of the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to express the Bkt (β-carotene ketolase) gene from Haematococcus pluvialis and synthesize a new ketocarotenoid that the vegetative cells of Chlamydomonas do not synthesize in the natural way. The methodology needed to successfully achieve metabolic engineering of ketocarotenoids synthesis in Chlamydomonas is described in this chapter, including the construction of a vector containing the Bkt gene, transformation of Chlamydomonas, selection of transformants, and carotenoids analysis.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Ran; Tian, Gui-Qiao; Shen, Hong-Jie; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Zeaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid that is used in nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and animal feed industries. Zeaxanthin is chemically synthesized or purified from microorganisms as a natural product; however, increasing demand requires development of alternative sources such as heterologous biosynthesis by recombinant bacteria. For this purpose, we molecularly engineered Escherichia coli to optimize the synthesis of zeaxanthin from lycopene using fusion protein-mediated substrate channeling as well as by the introduction of tunable intergenic regions. The tunable intergenic regions approach was more efficient compared with protein fusion for coordinating expression of lycopene β-cyclase gene crtY and β-carotene 3-hydroxylase gene crtZ. The influence of the substrate channeling effect suggests that the reaction catalyzed by CrtZ is the rate-limiting step in zeaxanthin biosynthesis. Then Pantoea ananatis, Pantoea agglomerans and Haematococcus pluvialis crtZ were compared. Because P. ananatis crtZ is superior to that of P. agglomerans or H. pluvialis for zeaxanthin production, we used it to generate a recombinant strain of E. coli BETA-1 containing pZSPBA-2(P37-crtZPAN) that produced higher amounts of zeaxanthin (11.95 ± 0.21 mg/g dry cell weight) than other engineered E. coli strains described in the literature.

  3. Highly efficient biosynthesis of astaxanthin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by integration and tuning of algal crtZ and bkt.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingping; Ye, Lidan; Xie, Wenping; Lv, Xiaomei; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a highly valued carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity and has wide applications in aquaculture, food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. The market demand for natural astaxanthin promotes research in metabolic engineering of heterologous hosts for astaxanthin production. In this study, an astaxanthin-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was created by successively introducing the Haematococcus pluvialis β-carotenoid hydroxylase (crtZ) and ketolase (bkt) genes into a previously constructed β-carotene hyperproducer. Further integration of strategies including codon optimization, gene copy number adjustment, and iron cofactor supplementation led to significant increase in the astaxanthin production, reaching up to 4.7 mg/g DCW in the shake-flask cultures which is the highest astaxanthin content in S. cerevisiae reported to date. Besides, the substrate specificity of H. pluvialis CrtZ and BKT and the probable formation route of astaxanthin from β-carotene in S. cerevisiae were figured out by expressing the genes separately and in combination. The yeast strains engineered in this work provide a basis for further improving biotechnological production of astaxanthin and might offer a useful general approach to the construction of heterologous biosynthetic pathways for other natural products. PMID:26156241

  4. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce zeaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Ran; Tian, Gui-Qiao; Shen, Hong-Jie; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    Zeaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid that is used in nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and animal feed industries. Zeaxanthin is chemically synthesized or purified from microorganisms as a natural product; however, increasing demand requires development of alternative sources such as heterologous biosynthesis by recombinant bacteria. For this purpose, we molecularly engineered Escherichia coli to optimize the synthesis of zeaxanthin from lycopene using fusion protein-mediated substrate channeling as well as by the introduction of tunable intergenic regions. The tunable intergenic regions approach was more efficient compared with protein fusion for coordinating expression of lycopene β-cyclase gene crtY and β-carotene 3-hydroxylase gene crtZ. The influence of the substrate channeling effect suggests that the reaction catalyzed by CrtZ is the rate-limiting step in zeaxanthin biosynthesis. Then Pantoea ananatis, Pantoea agglomerans and Haematococcus pluvialis crtZ were compared. Because P. ananatis crtZ is superior to that of P. agglomerans or H. pluvialis for zeaxanthin production, we used it to generate a recombinant strain of E. coli BETA-1 containing pZSPBA-2(P37-crtZPAN) that produced higher amounts of zeaxanthin (11.95 ± 0.21 mg/g dry cell weight) than other engineered E. coli strains described in the literature. PMID:25533633

  5. Antihepatotoxic nature of Ulva reticulata (Chlorophyceae) on acetaminophen-induced hepatoxicity in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Balaji Raghavendra Rao, H; Sathivel, A; Devaki, T

    2004-01-01

    Ulva reticulata, a marine edible green alga, is a known source of proteins, vitamins, and sulfated polysaccharides. Though there are many reports in the literature regarding the composition and antiviral property of Ulva sp., studies of the antihepatotoxic property of green seaweeds in animal model are scarce. We have studied the antihepatotoxic nature of this marine green edible alga, U. reticulata, in a hot water extract (150 mg/kg of body weight for a period of 15 days) against acetaminophen- induced hepatotoxicity in experimental albino rats. The acetaminophen-induced rats showed significant elevation in levels of the serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase and of lipid peroxides in liver tissue with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. The levels of reduced glutathione and vitamins (E and C) were also decreased in the liver tissue of acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. The oral pretreatment with a hot water extract of U. reticulata reduced the hepatotoxicity triggered by acetaminophen considerably by improving the antioxidant status in experimental animals with depleted levels of lipid peroxides. These results indicate that the oral pretreatment with a hot water extract of U. reticulata in rats is effective in reducing the hepatic oxidative stress via free radical scavenging properties, suggesting an antihepatotoxic activity. PMID:15671697

  6. Phylogeny of chloromonas (chlorophyceae): A study of 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheim, M.A.; Buchheim, J.A.; Chapman, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The unicellular, biflagellate genus Chloromonas differs from its ally, Chlamydomonas, primarily by the absence of pyrenoids in the vegetative stage of the former. As with most green flagellate genera, little is known about phylogenetic affinities within and among Chloromonas species. Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences demonstrate that a sampling of five Chloromonas taxa, obtained from major culture collections, do not form a monophyletic group. However, only three of these isolates, Chloromonas clathrata, Chloromonas serbinowi, and Chloromonas rosae, are diagnosable morphologically as Chloromonas species by the absence of a pyrenoid in the vegetative stage. The three diagnosable Chloromonas taxa form an alliance with two pyrenoid-bearing chlamydomonads, Chlamydomonas augustae and Chlamydomonas macrostellata. With the exception of Chloromonas serbinowi, which represents the basal lineage within the clade, each of the diagnosable Chloromonas taxa and their pyrenoid-bearing Chlamydomonas allies were isolated originally from mountain soils, snow, or cold peat. These observations suggest that hibitat, independent of pyrenoid status, may be most closely linked to the natural history of this clade of chlamydomonad flagellates. 51 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A new record of the rare alga Pachycladella P. C. Silva (Chlorophyceae) in New England

    PubMed Central

    Fučíková, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A rarely reported taxon, the microscopic green alga Pachycladella, was found in a pond in Connecticut. Due to an unresolved taxonomic debate within the genus, the species-level identity of the newly discovered population cannot be determined with absolute certainty. However, according to the currently accepted classification the Connecticut specimens best match Pachycladella zatoriensis, heretofore only known from Europe. The find represents not only the first record of Pachycladella in Connecticut, but also in the entire New England region. This study highlights the need for continuing floristic surveys even in regions previously well explored. PMID:26491383

  8. Induction of Secondary Carotenogenesis in New Halophile Microalgae from the Genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, A E; Selivanova, E A; Chekanov, K A; Sidorov, R A; Nemtseva, N V; Lobakova, E S

    2015-11-01

    We report on the effects of high light irradiance (480 µmol quanta/(m(2)·s)) and salinity (160 and 200 g/liter NaCl) on culture growth as well as on cell lipid pigment and fatty acid (FA) composition in three novel strains of halophile microalga from the genus Dunaliella. Based on the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence and on the capability of accumulation of secondary (uncoupled from the photosynthetic apparatus) β-carotene, the strains Dunaliella sp. BS1 and BS2 were identified as D. salina and Dunaliella sp. R5 as D. viridis. Under conditions optimal for growth, chlorophylls and primary carotenoids (mainly lutein) dominated the pigment profile of all investigated strains. The main FA were represented by unsaturated C18 FA typical of thylakoid membrane structural lipids. In all studied cells, stressors caused a decline in chlorophylls and an increase in unsaturated C16 and C18 FA associated with reserve lipids. The carotenogenic species D. salina demonstrated 10-fold increase in carotenoids accompanied by a decline in lutein and a drastic increase in β-carotene (up to 75% of total carotenoids). In D. viridis, only 1.5-fold increase in carotenoid content took place, the ratio of major carotenoids remaining essentially unchanged. The role of the carotenogenic response in mechanisms of protection against photooxidative damage is discussed in view of halophile microalgae stress tolerance and application of the new Dunaliella strains for biotechnological production of β-carotene.

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of ionizing-radiation tolerance of a Chlorophyceae green micro-alga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, E.; Rivasseau, C.; Gromova, M.; Compagnon, E.; Marzloff, V.; Ollivier, J.; Boisson, A. M.; Bligny, R.; Natali, F.; Russo, D.; Couté, A.

    2008-03-01

    Micro-organisms living in extreme environments are captivating in the peculiar survival processes they have developed. Deinococcus radiodurans is probably the most famous radio-resistant bacteria. Similarly, a specific ecosystem has grown in a research reactor storage pool, and has selected organisms which may sustain radiative stress. An original green micro-alga which was never studied for its high tolerance to radiations has been isolated. It is the only autotrophic eukaryote that develops in this pool, although contamination possibilities coming from outside are not unusual. Studying what could explain this irradiation tolerance is consequently very interesting. An integrative study of the effects of irradiation on the micro-algae physiology, metabolism, internal dynamics, and genomics was initiated. In the work presented here, micro-algae were stressed with irradiation doses up to 20 kGy (2 Mrad), and studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, looking for modifications in the metabolism, and on the IN13 neutron backscattering instrument at the ILL, looking for both dynamics and structural macromolecular changes in the cells.

  10. NOVEL ICE-BINDING PROTEINS FROM A PSYCHROPHILIC ANTARCTIC ALGA (CHLAMYDOMONADACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A; Janech, Michael G; Fritsen, Christian H

    2009-02-01

    Many cold-adapted unicellular plants express ice-active proteins, but at present, only one type of such proteins has been described, and it shows no resemblance to higher plant antifreezes. Here, we describe four isoforms of a second and very active type of extracellular ice-binding protein (IBP) from a unicellular chlamydomonad alga collected from an Antarctic intertidal location. The alga is a euryhaline psychrophile that, based on sequences of the alpha tubulin gene and an IBP gene, appears to be the same as a snow alga collected on Petrel Island, Antarctica. The IBPs, which do not resemble any known antifreezes, have strong recrystallization inhibition activity and have an ability to slow the drainage of brine from sea ice. These properties, by maintaining liquid environments, may increase survival of the cells in freezing environments. The IBPs have a repeating TXT motif, which has previously been implicated in ice binding in insect antifreezes and a ryegrass antifreeze. PMID:27033652

  11. Delineating a New Heterothallic Species of Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) Using New Strains of "Volvox africanus".

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Kayoko; Kawachi, Masanobu; Takahashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The volvocine algae represent an excellent model lineage in which to study evolution of female and male genders based on comparative analyses of related species. Among these species, Volvox carteri has been extensively studied as a model of an oogamous and complex organism. However, it may have unique derived features that are not present in other species of Volvox. Therefore, information regarding the characteristics of sexual reproduction of other species of Volvox is also important. In 1971, Starr studied four types of sexuality in several global strains identified as Volvox africanus; however, further taxonomic studies of these strains have been lacking, and strains of three of the four sexual types are not available. Here, we studied the morphology, sexual reproduction, and taxonomy of two V. africanus-like species isolated recently from Lake Biwa, Japan. These two species were very similar to two sexual types described by Starr in 1971: one producing dioecious sexual spheroids in heterothallic strains and the other forming both male spheroids and monoecious spheroids in a single strain. The former species produced zygotes with a reticulate cell wall, whereas a smooth zygote wall was observed in the latter species as in V. africanus previously reported from various localities around the world. Our multigene phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these are sister species to each other. However, the presence of a compensatory base change in the most conserved region of the secondary structure of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer-2, hybrid inviability demonstrated by intercrossing experiments, and morphological differences in the density of abutment between the gelatinous material of adjacent cells (individual sheaths) in the spheroid supported the recognition of the two species, V. africanus having a smooth zygote wall and V. reticuliferus Nozaki sp. nov. having a reticulate zygote wall. PMID:26562165

  12. Induction of Secondary Carotenogenesis in New Halophile Microalgae from the Genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Solovchenko, A E; Selivanova, E A; Chekanov, K A; Sidorov, R A; Nemtseva, N V; Lobakova, E S

    2015-11-01

    We report on the effects of high light irradiance (480 µmol quanta/(m(2)·s)) and salinity (160 and 200 g/liter NaCl) on culture growth as well as on cell lipid pigment and fatty acid (FA) composition in three novel strains of halophile microalga from the genus Dunaliella. Based on the ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequence and on the capability of accumulation of secondary (uncoupled from the photosynthetic apparatus) β-carotene, the strains Dunaliella sp. BS1 and BS2 were identified as D. salina and Dunaliella sp. R5 as D. viridis. Under conditions optimal for growth, chlorophylls and primary carotenoids (mainly lutein) dominated the pigment profile of all investigated strains. The main FA were represented by unsaturated C18 FA typical of thylakoid membrane structural lipids. In all studied cells, stressors caused a decline in chlorophylls and an increase in unsaturated C16 and C18 FA associated with reserve lipids. The carotenogenic species D. salina demonstrated 10-fold increase in carotenoids accompanied by a decline in lutein and a drastic increase in β-carotene (up to 75% of total carotenoids). In D. viridis, only 1.5-fold increase in carotenoid content took place, the ratio of major carotenoids remaining essentially unchanged. The role of the carotenogenic response in mechanisms of protection against photooxidative damage is discussed in view of halophile microalgae stress tolerance and application of the new Dunaliella strains for biotechnological production of β-carotene. PMID:26615443

  13. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae) in response to heavy metals stress.

    PubMed

    Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2004-12-01

    The microalgae genus Scenedesmus is commonly found in freshwater bodies, wastewater facilities and water polluted with heavy metals. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus has been documented in response to a wide variety of conditions; however, heavy metals have not been comprehensively documented as phenotypic plasticity inducers. In this study, we report the phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus incrassatulus (a non-spiny, four-cell coenobium forming species) in response to EC(50) value of copper, cadmium and hexavalent chromium. S. incrassatulus was grown in batch cultures in the presence of each metal. Chlorophyll-a content, cell size, parameters derived from the schematic energy-flux model for photosystem II, and morphotype expressions were recorded. Divalent cation metals induced unicellular forms, and hexavalent chromium produced out-of-shape coenobia corresponding to various stages of autospore formation. The changes induced by divalent metals were interpreted as phenotypic plasticity, because they were always associated to population doublings and were reversible when toxicant pressure was removed (only for Cu). Copper was the best inductor of unicellular forms and also affected significantly all the photosynthetic parameters measured. The developed morphotypes could confer ecological advantages to S. incrassatulus in metal stressed environments.

  14. Growth, photosynthetic and respiratory responses to sub-lethal copper concentrations in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; González-Moreno, Sergio; Montes-Horcasitas, Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2007-05-01

    In the present paper we investigated the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of Cu2+ in the growth and metabolism of Scenedesmus incrassatulus. We found that the effect of Cu2+ on growth, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and metabolism do not follow the same pattern. Photosynthesis was more sensitive than respiration. The analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient shows that the effect of sub-lethal Cu2+ concentration in vivo, causes a reduction of the active PSII reaction centers and the primary charge separation, decreasing the quantum yield of PSII, the electron transport rate and the photosynthetic O2 evolution. The order of sensitivity found was: Growth>photosynthetic pigments content=photosynthetic O2 evolution>photosynthetic electron transport>respiration. The uncoupled relationship between growth and metabolism is discussed.

  15. The lurlenes, a new class of plastoquinone-related mating pheromones from Chlamydomonas allensworthii (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Jaenicke, L; Starr, R C

    1996-10-15

    Chlamydomonas allensworthii is a recently described species, which differs phenotypically and in its reproductive behaviour from other members of this genus of flagellated green protists. Its female cells temporarily or constantly excrete a luring signal into the medium to attract the male cells for mating. The sperm is susceptible to the pheromone either all the time or only after a maturation process. Maturation in this species is accompanied with a colour shift from green to khaki (strain from Lemon cove CA) or to olive (strain from Catarina TX), apparently due to degradation of chloroplast material. In the bioassay with polyacrylamide beads (plain or DEAE-substituted) to which the lures are bound, acting as mock females, Catarina-strain males are only attracted to Catarina strain lures, whereas Lemon-Cove-strain males are attracted to Lemon-Cove-strain lures and to a lesser extent, to Catarina-strain lures. Being amphiphilic acid, Lemon-Cove-strain lure is more tightly bound to DEAE beads. Catarina-strain lure is an uncharged amphiphile. The two signal compounds have been isolated and identified by chemical analysis and mass and NMR spectroscopies as O(5)-beta-D-xylosylated degradation products of the chloroplast electron transporter hydroplastoquinone, its polyprenoid side chain being oxidatively cleaved at the fourth double bond. Lurlenic acid (lurlene L) is the resulting acid and lurlenol (lurlene C) the corresponding alcohol. The pheromonal activities of both compounds have a threshold at 1 pM, and are destroyed by deglycosylation and subsequent oxidation to the quinonoid aglycon. This class of amphiphilic lures, having the same basic glycosylated hydroquinone structure, is named lurlenes.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF SALT CONCENTRATIONS FOR A HIGHER CAROTENOID PRODUCTION IN DUNALIELLA SALINA (CHLOROPHYCEAE)(1).

    PubMed

    Farhat, Nèjia; Rabhi, Mokded; Falleh, Hanen; Jouini, Jihène; Abdelly, Chedly; Smaoui, Abderrazak

    2011-10-01

    Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodor, when treated over 25 d with a wide range of NaCl salinities (0.6-4.5 M), showed its maximal growth potentialities at 1.5-3.0 M NaCl and was able to survive even at 4.5 M NaCl. Sodium concentrations increased significantly at the supraoptimal salinities, reaching up to 5 mmol · g(-1) dry weight (dwt) at 4.5 M NaCl. Interestingly, ability of D. salina to take up essential mineral nutrients was not impaired by increased salinity. As for growth, chl concentrations were maximal in the 1.5-3.0 M NaCl range. Interestingly, carotenoid concentrations increased with the increasing salinity. The highest values of total antioxidant activity (5.2-6.9 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g(-1) dwt), antiradical activity, and reducing power were measured at 1.5-3.0 M NaCl. As a whole, these results showed that at 1.5-3.0 M NaCl, D. salina produce appreciable antioxidant level. But, once it reaches its growth maximum, a salt addition up to 4.5 M could enhance its carotenoid yield.

  17. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae) in response to heavy metals stress.

    PubMed

    Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Esparza-García, Fernando; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2004-12-01

    The microalgae genus Scenedesmus is commonly found in freshwater bodies, wastewater facilities and water polluted with heavy metals. Phenotypic plasticity in Scenedesmus has been documented in response to a wide variety of conditions; however, heavy metals have not been comprehensively documented as phenotypic plasticity inducers. In this study, we report the phenotypic plasticity of Scenedesmus incrassatulus (a non-spiny, four-cell coenobium forming species) in response to EC(50) value of copper, cadmium and hexavalent chromium. S. incrassatulus was grown in batch cultures in the presence of each metal. Chlorophyll-a content, cell size, parameters derived from the schematic energy-flux model for photosystem II, and morphotype expressions were recorded. Divalent cation metals induced unicellular forms, and hexavalent chromium produced out-of-shape coenobia corresponding to various stages of autospore formation. The changes induced by divalent metals were interpreted as phenotypic plasticity, because they were always associated to population doublings and were reversible when toxicant pressure was removed (only for Cu). Copper was the best inductor of unicellular forms and also affected significantly all the photosynthetic parameters measured. The developed morphotypes could confer ecological advantages to S. incrassatulus in metal stressed environments. PMID:15519408

  18. Growth, photosynthetic and respiratory responses to sub-lethal copper concentrations in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; González-Moreno, Sergio; Montes-Horcasitas, Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2007-05-01

    In the present paper we investigated the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of Cu2+ in the growth and metabolism of Scenedesmus incrassatulus. We found that the effect of Cu2+ on growth, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and metabolism do not follow the same pattern. Photosynthesis was more sensitive than respiration. The analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient shows that the effect of sub-lethal Cu2+ concentration in vivo, causes a reduction of the active PSII reaction centers and the primary charge separation, decreasing the quantum yield of PSII, the electron transport rate and the photosynthetic O2 evolution. The order of sensitivity found was: Growth>photosynthetic pigments content=photosynthetic O2 evolution>photosynthetic electron transport>respiration. The uncoupled relationship between growth and metabolism is discussed. PMID:17267014

  19. Flow Cytometric Methods for Indirect Analysis and Quantification of Gametogenesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomkins, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Induction of sexual reproduction in the facultatively sexual Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is cued by depletion of nitrogen. We explore the capacity for indirect monitoring of population variation in the gametogenic process using flow cytometry. We describe a high-throughput method capable of identifying fluorescence, ploidy and scatter profiles that track vegetative cells entering and undergoing gametogenesis. We demonstrate for the first time, that very early and late growth phases reduce the capacity to distinguish putative gametes from vegetative cells based on scatter and fluorescence profiles, and that early/mid-logarithmic cultures show the optimal distinction between vegetative cells and gamete scatter profiles. We argue that early/mid logarithmic cultures are valuable in such high throughput comparative approaches when investigating optimisation or quantification of gametogenesis based on scatter and fluorescence profiles. This approach provides new insights into the impact of culture conditions on gametogenesis, while documenting novel scatter and fluorescence profile shifts which typify the process. This method has potential applications to; enabling quick high-throughput monitoring, uses in increasing efficiency in the quantification of gametogenesis, as a method of comparing the switch between vegetative and gametic states across treatments, and as criteria for enrichment of gametic phenotypes in cell sorting assays. PMID:27676075

  20. Effect of diets supplemented with different sources of astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value.

  1. Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Jaoon Y H; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-06-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have received much attention as a microbial source of diverse useful biomaterials through CO(2) fixation and various types of photo-bioreactors have been developed for efficient microalgal cultivation. Herein, we developed a novel thin-film photo-bioreactor, which was made of cast polypropylene film, considering outdoor mass cultivation. To develop optimal design of photo-bioreactor, we tested performance of three shapes of thin-film photo-bioreactors (flat, horizontal and vertical tubular shapes) and various parts in the bioreactor. Collectively, vertical tubular bioreactor with H/D ratio 6:1 and cylindrical stainless steel spargers showed the most outstanding performance. Furthermore, the photo-bioreactor was successfully applied to the cultivation of other microalgae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. The scalability of photo-bioreactor was confirmed by gradually increasing culture volume from 4 to 25 L and the biomass productivity of each reactor was quite consistent (0.05-0.07 g/L/day) during the cultivation of H. pluvialis under indoor and outdoor conditions. Especially, we also achieved dry cell weight of 4.64 g/L and astaxanthin yield of 218.16 mg/L through long-term cultivation (100 days) under outdoor condition in 15 L photo-bioreactor using Haematococcus pluvialis, which means that the astaxanthin yield from outdoor cultivation is equal or superior to that obtained from controlled indoor condition. Therefore, these results indicate that we can apply this approach to development of optimal photo-bioreactor for the large-scale culture of microalgae and production of useful biomaterials under outdoor condition. PMID:23361185

  2. Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Jaoon Y H; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-06-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have received much attention as a microbial source of diverse useful biomaterials through CO(2) fixation and various types of photo-bioreactors have been developed for efficient microalgal cultivation. Herein, we developed a novel thin-film photo-bioreactor, which was made of cast polypropylene film, considering outdoor mass cultivation. To develop optimal design of photo-bioreactor, we tested performance of three shapes of thin-film photo-bioreactors (flat, horizontal and vertical tubular shapes) and various parts in the bioreactor. Collectively, vertical tubular bioreactor with H/D ratio 6:1 and cylindrical stainless steel spargers showed the most outstanding performance. Furthermore, the photo-bioreactor was successfully applied to the cultivation of other microalgae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. The scalability of photo-bioreactor was confirmed by gradually increasing culture volume from 4 to 25 L and the biomass productivity of each reactor was quite consistent (0.05-0.07 g/L/day) during the cultivation of H. pluvialis under indoor and outdoor conditions. Especially, we also achieved dry cell weight of 4.64 g/L and astaxanthin yield of 218.16 mg/L through long-term cultivation (100 days) under outdoor condition in 15 L photo-bioreactor using Haematococcus pluvialis, which means that the astaxanthin yield from outdoor cultivation is equal or superior to that obtained from controlled indoor condition. Therefore, these results indicate that we can apply this approach to development of optimal photo-bioreactor for the large-scale culture of microalgae and production of useful biomaterials under outdoor condition.

  3. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyanobacteria and algae in laboratory strains and in natural algal assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bácsi, István; B-Béres, Viktória; Kókai, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Sándor; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    In recent years measurable concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown in the aquatic environment as a result of increasing human consumption. Effects of five frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, diflunisal, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and piroxicam in 0.1 mg ml(-1) concentration) in batch cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus, Microcystis aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), and eukaryotic algae (Desmodesmus communis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Cryptomonas ovata) were studied. Furthermore, the effects of the same concentrations of NSAIDs were investigated in natural algal assemblages in microcosms. According to the changes of chlorophyll-a content, unicellular cyanobacteria seemed to be more tolerant to NSAIDs than eukaryotic algae in laboratory experiments. Growth of eukaryotic algae was reduced by all drugs, the cryptomonad C. ovata was the most sensitive to NSAIDs, while the flagellated green alga H. pluvialis was more sensitive than the non-motile green alga D. communis. NSAID treatments had weaker impact in the natural assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria than in the ones dominated by eukaryotic algae, confirming the results of laboratory experiments. Diversity and number of functional groups did not change notably in cyanobacteria dominated assemblages, while they decreased significantly in eukaryotic algae dominated ones compared to controls. The results highlight that cyanobacteria (especially unicellular ones) are less sensitive to the studied, mostly hardly degradable NSAIDs, which suggest that their accumulation in water bodies may contribute to the expansion of cyanobacterial mass productions in appropriate environmental circumstances by pushing back eukaryotic algae. Thus, these contaminants require special attention during wastewater treatment and monitoring of surface waters.

  4. Temperature dependence of photosynthesis and thylakoid lipid composition in the red snow alga Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Lukeš, Martin; Procházková, Lenka; Shmidt, Volha; Nedbalová, Linda; Kaftan, David

    2014-08-01

    Here, we report an effect of short acclimation to a wide span of temperatures on photosynthetic electron transfer, lipid and fatty acid composition in the snow alga Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis. The growth and oxygen evolution capacity were low at 2 °C yet progressively enhanced at 10 °C and were significantly higher at temperatures from 5 to 15 °C in comparison with the mesophilic control Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In search of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the adaptation of photosynthesis to low temperatures, we have found unprecedented high rates of QA to QB electron transfer. The thermodynamics of the process revealed the existence of an increased structural flexibility that we explain with the amino acid changes in the D1 protein combined with the physico-chemical characteristics of the thylakoid membrane composed of > 80% negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol.

  5. Diversity of the nitrogen starvation responses in subarctic Desmodesmus sp. (Chlorophyceae) strains isolated from symbioses with invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Baulina, Olga; Gorelova, Olga; Solovchenko, Alexei; Chivkunova, Olga; Semenova, Larisa; Selyakh, Irina; Scherbakov, Pavel; Burakova, Olga; Lobakova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    We report on common and strain-specific responses to nitrogen (N) starvation recorded in four closely related symbiotic Desmodesmus strains from taxonomically very distant animals (hydroids, a sponge and a polychaete) dwelling in the White Sea. A number of common for the studied strains and free-living microalgae as well as some specific patterns of acclimation to the N starvation were documented. The common responses included a slowdown of cell division, a reduction of photosynthetic apparatus and a vast expansion of storage subcompartments of the cell. Although these responses were qualitatively similar to those known in free-living chlorophytes, in the studied strains they occurred in a strain-specific manner. The specific N-starvation responses comprised formation of chloroplast envelope membrane twirls, thinning of the appressed thylakoid membranes and a loss of the luminal depositions and channeling of the fixed carbon to cell wall polysaccharide layer. Desmodesmus sp. from a hydroid featured a unique, among the studied strains, capability of 'emergency' degradation of Rubisco, apparently to salvage the N contained in this protein. The obtained results are discussed in view of the remarkable physiological plasticity of the symbiotic Desmodesmus spp. and their survival under the harsh conditions of the subarctic sea habitat. PMID:26880784

  6. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanità; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 microM). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one. PMID:15177949

  7. A study of the native cell wall structures of the marine alga Ventricaria ventricosa (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Eslick, Enid M; Beilby, Mary J; Moon, Anthony R

    2014-04-01

    A substantial proportion of the architecture of the plant cell wall remains unknown with a few cell wall models being proposed. Moreover, even less is known about the green algal cell wall. Techniques that allow direct visualization of the cell wall in as near to its native state are of importance in unravelling the spatial arrangement of cell wall structures and hence in the development of cell wall models. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the native cell wall of living cells of Ventricaria ventricosa (V. ventricosa) at high resolution under physiological conditions. The cell wall polymers were identified mainly qualitatively via their structural appearance. The cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) were easily recognizable and the imaging results indicate that the V. ventricosa cell wall has a cross-fibrillar structure throughout. We found the native wall to be abundant in matrix polysaccharides existing in different curing states. The soft phase matrix polysaccharides susceptible by the AFM scanning tip existed as a glutinous fibrillar meshwork, possibly incorporating both the pectic- and hemicellulosic-type substances. The hard phase matrix producing clearer images, revealed coiled fibrillar structures associated with CMFs, sometimes being resolved as globular structures by the AFM tip. The coiling fibrillar structures were also seen in the images of isolated cell wall fragments. The mucilaginous component of the wall was discernible from the gelatinous cell wall matrix as it formed microstructural domains over the surface. AFM has been successful in imaging the native cell wall and revealing novel findings such as the 'coiling fibrillar structures' and cell wall components which have previously not been seen, that is, the gelatinous matrix phase.

  8. Nucleotide diversity of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta): high for the mitochondrial telomeres, surprisingly low everywhere else.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Roy; Lee, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Silent-site nucleotide diversity data (π(silent)) can provide insights into the forces driving genome evolution. Here we present π(silent) statistics for the mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs of Polytomella parva, a nonphotosynthetic green alga with a highly reduced, linear fragmented mitochondrial genome. We show that this species harbors very little genetic diversity, with the exception of the mitochondrial telomeres, which have an excess of polymorphic sites. These data are compared with previously published π(silent) values from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, which are close relatives of P. parva, and are used to understand the modes and tempos of genome evolution within green algae. PMID:21762422

  9. Delineating a New Heterothallic Species of Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) Using New Strains of “Volvox africanus”

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Kayoko; Kawachi, Masanobu; Takahashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The volvocine algae represent an excellent model lineage in which to study evolution of female and male genders based on comparative analyses of related species. Among these species, Volvox carteri has been extensively studied as a model of an oogamous and complex organism. However, it may have unique derived features that are not present in other species of Volvox. Therefore, information regarding the characteristics of sexual reproduction of other species of Volvox is also important. In 1971, Starr studied four types of sexuality in several global strains identified as Volvox africanus; however, further taxonomic studies of these strains have been lacking, and strains of three of the four sexual types are not available. Here, we studied the morphology, sexual reproduction, and taxonomy of two V. africanus-like species isolated recently from Lake Biwa, Japan. These two species were very similar to two sexual types described by Starr in 1971: one producing dioecious sexual spheroids in heterothallic strains and the other forming both male spheroids and monoecious spheroids in a single strain. The former species produced zygotes with a reticulate cell wall, whereas a smooth zygote wall was observed in the latter species as in V. africanus previously reported from various localities around the world. Our multigene phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these are sister species to each other. However, the presence of a compensatory base change in the most conserved region of the secondary structure of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer-2, hybrid inviability demonstrated by intercrossing experiments, and morphological differences in the density of abutment between the gelatinous material of adjacent cells (individual sheaths) in the spheroid supported the recognition of the two species, V. africanus having a smooth zygote wall and V. reticuliferus Nozaki sp. nov. having a reticulate zygote wall. PMID:26562165

  10. Effect of temperature and irradiance on the growth and reproduction of Enteromorpha prolifera J. Ag. (Chlorophycophyta, Chlorophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gang; Yao, Jianting; Liu, Fuli; Liu, Jidong; Wang, Xiuliang; Fu, Wandong; Li, Dapeng; Zhou, Mingjiang; Sun, Song; Duan, Delin

    2008-11-01

    Effect of temperature and irradiance on growth and reproduction of Enteromorpha prolifera that bloomed offshore along the Qingdao coast in summer 2008, was studied. It was showed that E. prolifera propagated mainly asexually with specific growth rate (SGR) of 10.47 at 25°C/40 μmol m-2s-1. Under this condition, gametes with two flagellate formed and released in 5 days. At the beginning of the development, the unicell gamete divided into two cells with heteropolarity, and then the apical cell developed into thalli primordial cells, whereas the basal cell developed into rhizoid primordial cells. In 8-day culture, the monoplast gamete developed into juvenile germling of 240 μm in length. Unreleased gametes can develop directly within the alga body. E. prolifera could either reproduce through lateral branching or fragmenting except apomixis revealed by Microscopic observation. On aged tissue of E. prolifera, although the degraded pigments partially remained in faded algal filaments, numerous vegetative cells could still divide actively in the algal tissues.

  11. Structure and chemistry of a new chemical race of Botryococcus braunii (chlorophyceae) that produces lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, P.; Allard, B.; Casadevall, E. ); Berkaloff, C.; Coute, A. )

    1990-06-01

    New strains of the hydrocarbon rich alga Botryococcus braunii Kuetzing were isolated from water samples collected in three tropical freshwater lakes. These strains synthesize lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid metabolite, as their sole hydrocarbon. The morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of these algae are similar to those reported for previously described strains which produce either alkadienes or botryococcenes. The pyriform shaped cells are embedded in a colonial matrix formed by layers of closely appressed external walls; this dense matrix is impregnated by the hydrocarbon and some other lipids. We believe the new strains synthesizing lycopadiene form a third chemical race in B. braunii, besides the alkadiene and botryococcene races, rather than a different species. Like the other two types of hydrocarbons, lycopadiene was produced primarily during the exponential and linear growth phases. The major fatty acid in the three races was oleic acid. This fatty acid was predominant in the alkadiene race; palmitic and octacosenoic acid also were present in appreciable amounts in the three races. Cholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol, 24-methylcholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3{beta}-ol occurred in the three races; three unidentified sterols also were detected in the lycopadiene race. Moreover, the presence of very long chain alkenyl-phenols in the lipids of algae of the alkadiene race was not observed in the botryococcene and lycopadiene races. Of the polysaccharides released in the medium, galactose appeared as a primary component: it predominated in the botryococcene race. The other major constituents were fucose for the alkadiene race and glucose and fucose for the lycopadiene race.

  12. In Vitro Effects of Some Botanicals with Anti-Inflammatory and Antitoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Gianandrea; Giovazzino, Angela; Rubino, Valentina; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Centenaro, Sara; Fraccaroli, Elena; Cortese, Laura; Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Several extrinsic factors, like drugs and chemicals, can foster autoimmunity. Tetracyclines, in particular oxytetracycline (OTC), appear to correlate with the emergence of immune-mediated diseases. Accumulation of OTC, the elective drug for gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious disease treatment in broiler chickens, was reported in chicken edible tissues and could represent a potential risk for pets and humans that could assume this antibiotic as residue in meat or in meat-derived byproducts. We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of a pool of thirteen botanicals as a part of a nutraceutical diet, with proven immunomodulatory activity. In addition, we evaluated the effect of such botanicals in contrasting the in vitro proinflammatory toxicity of OTC. Our results showed a significant reduction in interferon- (INF-) γ production by human and canine lymphocytes in presence of botanicals (⁎p < 0.05). Increased INF-γ production, dependent on 24-hour OTC-incubation of T lymphocytes, was significantly reduced by the coincubation with Haematococcus pluvialis, with Glycine max, and with the mix of all botanicals (⁎p < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of these botanicals was shown to be able to contrast OTC-toxicity and could represent a new approach for the development of functional foods useful to enhance the standard pharmacological treatment in infections as well as in preventing or reducing the emergence of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27597982

  13. Catalytic improvement and structural analysis of atrazine chlorohydrolase by site-saturation mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Panjie; Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Xiaolong; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Defu

    2016-07-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of atrazine chlorohydrolase (AtzA), amino acid residues involved in substrate binding (Gln71) and catalytic efficiency (Val12, Ile393, and Leu395) were targeted to generate site-saturation mutagenesis libraries. Seventeen variants were obtained through Haematococcus pluvialis-based screening, and their specific activities were 1.2-5.2-fold higher than that of the wild type. For these variants, Gln71 tended to be substituted by hydrophobic amino acids, Ile393 and Leu395 by polar ones, especially arginine, and Val12 by alanine, respectively. Q71R and Q71M significantly decreased the Km by enlarging the substrate-entry channel and affecting N-ethyl binding. Mutations at sites 393 and 395 significantly increased the kcat/Km, probably by improving the stability of the dual β-sheet domain and the whole enzyme, owing to hydrogen bond formation. In addition, the contradictory relationship between the substrate affinity improvement by Gln71 mutation and the catalytic efficiency improvement by the dual β-sheet domain modification was discussed. PMID:27010688

  14. Solar spectral conversion for improving the photosynthetic activity in algae reactors.

    PubMed

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Schmidt, Markus A; Borchardt, Rudolf; Scheiner, Simon; Seemann, Benjamin; Schweizer, Peter; Brabec, Christoph J

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable biomass production is expected to be one of the major supporting pillars for future energy supply, as well as for renewable material provision. Algal beds represent an exciting resource for biomass/biofuel, fine chemicals and CO2 storage. Similar to other solar energy harvesting techniques, the efficiency of algal photosynthesis depends on the spectral overlap between solar irradiation and chloroplast absorption. Here we demonstrate that spectral conversion can be employed to significantly improve biomass growth and oxygen production rate in closed-cycle algae reactors. For this purpose, we adapt a photoluminescent phosphor of the type Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S, which enables efficient conversion of the green part of the incoming spectrum into red light to better match the Qy peak of chlorophyll b. Integration of a Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S backlight converter into a flat panel algae reactor filled with Haematococcus pluvialis as a model species results in significantly increased photosynthetic activity and algae reproduction rate.

  15. In Vitro Effects of Some Botanicals with Anti-Inflammatory and Antitoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Gianandrea; Giovazzino, Angela; Rubino, Valentina; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Centenaro, Sara; Fraccaroli, Elena; Cortese, Laura; Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Several extrinsic factors, like drugs and chemicals, can foster autoimmunity. Tetracyclines, in particular oxytetracycline (OTC), appear to correlate with the emergence of immune-mediated diseases. Accumulation of OTC, the elective drug for gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious disease treatment in broiler chickens, was reported in chicken edible tissues and could represent a potential risk for pets and humans that could assume this antibiotic as residue in meat or in meat-derived byproducts. We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of a pool of thirteen botanicals as a part of a nutraceutical diet, with proven immunomodulatory activity. In addition, we evaluated the effect of such botanicals in contrasting the in vitro proinflammatory toxicity of OTC. Our results showed a significant reduction in interferon- (INF-) γ production by human and canine lymphocytes in presence of botanicals (⁎p < 0.05). Increased INF-γ production, dependent on 24-hour OTC-incubation of T lymphocytes, was significantly reduced by the coincubation with Haematococcus pluvialis, with Glycine max, and with the mix of all botanicals (⁎p < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of these botanicals was shown to be able to contrast OTC-toxicity and could represent a new approach for the development of functional foods useful to enhance the standard pharmacological treatment in infections as well as in preventing or reducing the emergence of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  17. Solar spectral conversion for improving the photosynthetic activity in algae reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Schmidt, Markus A.; Borchardt, Rudolf; Scheiner, Simon; Seemann, Benjamin; Schweizer, Peter; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable biomass production is expected to be one of the major supporting pillars for future energy supply, as well as for renewable material provision. Algal beds represent an exciting resource for biomass/biofuel, fine chemicals and CO2 storage. Similar to other solar energy harvesting techniques, the efficiency of algal photosynthesis depends on the spectral overlap between solar irradiation and chloroplast absorption. Here we demonstrate that spectral conversion can be employed to significantly improve biomass growth and oxygen production rate in closed-cycle algae reactors. For this purpose, we adapt a photoluminescent phosphor of the type Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S, which enables efficient conversion of the green part of the incoming spectrum into red light to better match the Qy peak of chlorophyll b. Integration of a Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S backlight converter into a flat panel algae reactor filled with Haematococcus pluvialis as a model species results in significantly increased photosynthetic activity and algae reproduction rate.

  18. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for the industrial production of astaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáiz, Marta; de la Fuente, Juan Luis; Barredo, José Luis

    2010-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a red xanthophyll (oxygenated carotenoid) with large importance in the aquaculture, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis and the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous are currently known as the main microorganisms useful for astaxanthin production at the industrial scale. The improvement of astaxanthin titer by microbial fermentation is a requirement to be competitive with the synthetic manufacture by chemical procedures, which at present is the major source in the market. In this review, we show how the isolation of new strains of X. dendrorhous from the environment, the selection of mutants by the classical methods of random mutation and screening, and the rational metabolic engineering, have provided improved strains with higher astaxanthin productivity. To reduce production costs and enhance competitiveness from an industrial point of view, low-cost raw materials from industrial and agricultural origin have been adopted to get the maximal astaxanthin productivity. Finally, fermentation parameters have been studied in depth, both at flask and fermenter scales, to get maximal astaxanthin titers of 4.7 mg/g dry cell matter (420 mg/l) when X. dendrorhous was fermented under continuous white light. The industrial scale-up of this biotechnological process will provide a cost-effective method, alternative to synthetic astaxanthin, for the commercial exploitation of the expensive astaxanthin (about $2,500 per kilogram of pure astaxanthin). PMID:20711573

  19. In Vitro Effects of Some Botanicals with Anti-Inflammatory and Antitoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Gianandrea; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Giovazzino, Angela; Rubino, Valentina; Palatucci, Anna Teresa; Centenaro, Sara; Fraccaroli, Elena; Cortese, Laura; Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Ruggiero, Giuseppina; Canello, Sergio; Terrazzano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Several extrinsic factors, like drugs and chemicals, can foster autoimmunity. Tetracyclines, in particular oxytetracycline (OTC), appear to correlate with the emergence of immune-mediated diseases. Accumulation of OTC, the elective drug for gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious disease treatment in broiler chickens, was reported in chicken edible tissues and could represent a potential risk for pets and humans that could assume this antibiotic as residue in meat or in meat-derived byproducts. We investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of a pool of thirteen botanicals as a part of a nutraceutical diet, with proven immunomodulatory activity. In addition, we evaluated the effect of such botanicals in contrasting the in vitro proinflammatory toxicity of OTC. Our results showed a significant reduction in interferon- (INF-) γ production by human and canine lymphocytes in presence of botanicals ((⁎) p < 0.05). Increased INF-γ production, dependent on 24-hour OTC-incubation of T lymphocytes, was significantly reduced by the coincubation with Haematococcus pluvialis, with Glycine max, and with the mix of all botanicals ((⁎) p < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of these botanicals was shown to be able to contrast OTC-toxicity and could represent a new approach for the development of functional foods useful to enhance the standard pharmacological treatment in infections as well as in preventing or reducing the emergence of inflammatory diseases. PMID:27597982

  20. Solar spectral conversion for improving the photosynthetic activity in algae reactors.

    PubMed

    Wondraczek, Lothar; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Schmidt, Markus A; Borchardt, Rudolf; Scheiner, Simon; Seemann, Benjamin; Schweizer, Peter; Brabec, Christoph J

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable biomass production is expected to be one of the major supporting pillars for future energy supply, as well as for renewable material provision. Algal beds represent an exciting resource for biomass/biofuel, fine chemicals and CO2 storage. Similar to other solar energy harvesting techniques, the efficiency of algal photosynthesis depends on the spectral overlap between solar irradiation and chloroplast absorption. Here we demonstrate that spectral conversion can be employed to significantly improve biomass growth and oxygen production rate in closed-cycle algae reactors. For this purpose, we adapt a photoluminescent phosphor of the type Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S, which enables efficient conversion of the green part of the incoming spectrum into red light to better match the Qy peak of chlorophyll b. Integration of a Ca0.59Sr0.40Eu0.01S backlight converter into a flat panel algae reactor filled with Haematococcus pluvialis as a model species results in significantly increased photosynthetic activity and algae reproduction rate. PMID:23797513

  1. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  2. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Emily C.; LaFayette, Peter R.; Ortega, María A.; Joyce, Blake L.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Parrott, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds. PMID:26376481

  3. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Emily C; LaFayette, Peter R; Ortega, María A; Joyce, Blake L; Kopsell, Dean A; Parrott, Wayne A

    2015-01-01

    The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis) to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  4. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Zanotta, Danilo; Puricelli, Silvana; Bonoldi, Guido

    2014-01-01

    A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin) plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104) were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation). They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001). Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. PMID:24523587

  5. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanlong; Hu, Bin; Du, Shipeng; Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Defu

    2016-01-01

    We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli), Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame) of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli. PMID:27135411

  6. Functional characterization of various algal carotenoid ketolases reveals that ketolating zeaxanthin efficiently is essential for high production of astaxanthin in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu-Juan; Huang, Jun-Chao; Liu, Jin; Li, Yin; Jiang, Yue; Xu, Zeng-Fu; Sandmann, Gerhard; Chen, Feng

    2011-06-01

    Extending the carotenoid pathway to astaxanthin in plants is of scientific and industrial interest. However, expression of a microbial β-carotene ketolase (BKT) that catalyses the formation of ketocarotenoids in transgenic plants typically results in low levels of astaxanthin. The low efficiency of BKTs in ketolating zeaxanthin to astaxanthin is proposed to be the major limitation for astaxanthin accumulation in engineered plants. To verify this hypothesis, several algal BKTs were functionally characterized using an Escherichia coli system and three BKTs were identified, with high (up to 85%), moderate (∼38%), and low (∼1%) conversion rate from zeaxanthin to astaxanthin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrBKT), Chlorella zofingiensis (CzBKT), and Haematococcus pluvialis (HpBKT3), respectively. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the CrBKT developed orange leaves which accumulated astaxanthin up to 2 mg g(-1) dry weight with a 1.8-fold increase in total carotenoids. In contrast, the expression of CzBKT resulted in much lower astaxanthin content (0.24 mg g(-1) dry weight), whereas HpBKT3 was unable to mediate synthesis of astaxanthin in A. thaliana. The none-native astaxanthin was found mostly in a free form integrated into the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II in young leaves but in esterified forms in senescent leaves. The alteration of carotenoids did not affect chlorophyll content, plant growth, or development significantly. The astaxanthin-producing plants were more tolerant to high light as shown by reduced lipid peroxidation. This study advances a decisive step towards the utilization of plants for the production of high-value astaxanthin. PMID:21398427

  7. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of haptophytes (Isochrysis species).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Binod; Vadakedath, Nithya; Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; General, Thiyam; Cho, Man-Gi; Lein, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Isochrysis galbana and Isochrysis sp. are economically important microalgae from the division of haptophytes. Here, we report Agrobacterium-mediated stable DNA transfer into their nuclear genomes. Initial studies were performed to standardize co-cultivation media and determine the sensitivity of the microalgae to selective agents. Up to 1 mg/ml of the antibiotic hygromycin did not inhibit growth, whereas both the haptophytes bleached in artificial seawater (ASW) medium containing micromolar concentrations of the herbicide norflurazon. Co-cultivation of Isochrysis sp. and I. galbana with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1380-pds-L504R yielded norflurazon-resistant (NR) colonies visible on selective plates after 20-30 days. pCAMBIA 1380-pds-L540R was constructed by cloning a mutated genomic phytoene desaturase (pds) gene from Haematococcus pluvialis as a selectable marker gene into the binary vector system pCAMBIA 1380. Co-cultivation of Isochrysis sp. with A. tumefaciens in ASW medium containing 200 μM of acetosyringone for 72 h produced the highest number of NR cells. For I. galbana, 100 μM of acetosyringone, ASW medium, and 48 h co-cultivation period appeared to be optimum co-cultivation parameters. The NR colonies kept their resistance phenotype for at least 24 months, even in the absence of selective pressure. The transfer of the pds gene in NR cells was shown by PCR amplification of the T-DNA sequences from the genomic DNA of NR cells and Southern blot analysis using T-DNA sequences as probes. The genetic manipulation described here will allow metabolic engineering and a better understanding of several biochemical pathways in the future.

  8. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlong; Hu, Bin; Du, Shipeng; Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Defu

    2016-01-01

    We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli), Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame) of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli.

  9. Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Mechanism of Dunaliella salina Ds-26-16 Gene Enhancing Salt Tolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlong; Hu, Bin; Du, Shipeng; Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Defu

    2016-01-01

    We previously screened the novel gene Ds-26-16 from a 4 M salt-stressed Dunaliella salina cDNA library and discovered that this gene conferred salt tolerance to broad-spectrum organisms, including E. coli (Escherichia coli), Haematococcus pluvialis and tobacco. To determine the mechanism of this gene conferring salt tolerance, we studied the proteome of E. coli overexpressing the full-length cDNA of Ds-26-16 using the iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) approach. A total of 1,610 proteins were identified, which comprised 39.4% of the whole proteome. Of the 559 differential proteins, 259 were up-regulated and 300 were down-regulated. GO (gene ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) enrichment analyses identified 202 major proteins, including those involved in amino acid and organic acid metabolism, energy metabolism, carbon metabolism, ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging, membrane proteins and ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, and peptidoglycan synthesis, as well as 5 up-regulated transcription factors. Our iTRAQ data suggest that Ds-26-16 up-regulates the transcription factors in E. coli to enhance salt resistance through osmotic balance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress protection. Changes in the proteome were also observed in E. coli overexpressing the ORF (open reading frame) of Ds-26-16. Furthermore, pH, nitric oxide and glycerol content analyses indicated that Ds-26-16 overexpression increases nitric oxide content but has no effect on glycerol content, thus confirming that enhanced nitric oxide synthesis via lower intercellular pH was one of the mechanisms by which Ds-26-16 confers salt tolerance to E. coli. PMID:27135411

  10. Molecular taxonomy of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae), with a special focus on D. salina: ITS2 sequences revisited with an extensive geographical sampling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We used an ITS2 primary and secondary structure and Compensatory Base Changes (CBCs) analyses on new French and Spanish Dunallela salina strains to investigate their phylogenetic position and taxonomic status within the genus Dunaliella. Our analyses show a great diversity within D. salina (with only some clades not statistically supported) and reveal considerable genetic diversity and structure within Dunaliella, although the CBC analysis did not bolster the existence of different biological groups within this taxon. The ITS2 sequences of the new Spanish and French D. salina strains were very similar except for two of them: ITC5105 "Janubio" from Spain and ITC5119 from France. Although the Spanish one had a unique ITS2 sequence profile and the phylogenetic tree indicates that this strain can represent a new species, this hypothesis was not confirmed by CBCs, and clarification of its taxonomic status requires further investigation with new data. Overall, the use of CBCs to define species boundaries within Dunaliella was not conclusive in some cases, and the ITS2 region does not contain a geographical signal overall. PMID:22520929

  11. Quantification of toxic effects of the herbicide metolachlor on marine microalgae Ditylum brightwellii (Bacillariophyceae), Prorocentrum minimum (Dinophyceae), and Tetraselmis suecica (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Ebenezer, Vinitha; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2013-02-01

    Toxic effects of the herbicide metolachlor (MC) were evaluated for three marine microalgae, Tetraselmis suecica (chlorophyte), Ditylum brightwellii (diatom), and Prorocentrum minimum (dinoflagellate). MC showed a significant reduction in cell counts and chlorophyll a levels. Median effective concentration (EC50) was calculated based on chlorophyll a levels after a 72-h MC exposure. EC50 values for T. suecica, D. brightwellii, and P. minimum were 21.3, 0.423, and 0.07 mg/L, respectively. These values showed that the dinoflagellate was most sensitive when exposed to the herbicide, at a concentration comparable to freshwater algae, suggesting its potential as an appropriate model organism for ecotoxicity assessments in marine environments. PMID:23456723

  12. Molecular taxonomy of Dunaliella (Chlorophyceae), with a special focus on D. salina: ITS2 sequences revisited with an extensive geographical sampling.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Patrícia; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; de la Jara, Adelina; Carmona, Laura; Freijanes, Karen; Mendoza, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    We used an ITS2 primary and secondary structure and Compensatory Base Changes (CBCs) analyses on new French and Spanish Dunallela salina strains to investigate their phylogenetic position and taxonomic status within the genus Dunaliella. Our analyses show a great diversity within D. salina (with only some clades not statistically supported) and reveal considerable genetic diversity and structure within Dunaliella, although the CBC analysis did not bolster the existence of different biological groups within this taxon. The ITS2 sequences of the new Spanish and French D. salina strains were very similar except for two of them: ITC5105 "Janubio" from Spain and ITC5119 from France. Although the Spanish one had a unique ITS2 sequence profile and the phylogenetic tree indicates that this strain can represent a new species, this hypothesis was not confirmed by CBCs, and clarification of its taxonomic status requires further investigation with new data. Overall, the use of CBCs to define species boundaries within Dunaliella was not conclusive in some cases, and the ITS2 region does not contain a geographical signal overall.

  13. Engineering of a plasmid-free Escherichia coli strain for improved in vivo biosynthesis of astaxanthin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The xanthophyll astaxanthin is a high-value compound with applications in the nutraceutical, cosmetic, food, and animal feed industries. Besides chemical synthesis and extraction from naturally producing organisms like Haematococcus pluvialis, heterologous biosynthesis in non-carotenogenic microorganisms like Escherichia coli, is a promising alternative for sustainable production of natural astaxanthin. Recent achievements in the metabolic engineering of E. coli strains have led to a significant increase in the productivity of carotenoids like lycopene or β-carotene by increasing the metabolic flux towards the isoprenoid precursors. For the heterologous biosynthesis of astaxanthin in E. coli, however, the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin is obviously the most critical step towards an efficient biosynthesis of astaxanthin. Results Here we report the construction of the first plasmid-free E. coli strain that produces astaxanthin as the sole carotenoid compound with a yield of 1.4 mg/g cdw (E. coli BW-ASTA). This engineered E. coli strain harbors xanthophyll biosynthetic genes from Pantoea ananatis and Nostoc punctiforme as individual expression cassettes on the chromosome and is based on a β-carotene-producing strain (E. coli BW-CARO) recently developed in our lab. E. coli BW-CARO has an enhanced biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and produces β-carotene in a concentration of 6.2 mg/g cdw. The expression of crtEBIY along with the β-carotene-ketolase gene crtW148 (NpF4798) and the β-carotene-hydroxylase gene (crtZ) under controlled expression conditions in E. coli BW-ASTA directed the pathway exclusively towards the desired product astaxanthin (1.4 mg/g cdw). Conclusions By using the λ-Red recombineering technique, genes encoding for the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway were stably integrated into the chromosome of E. coli. The expression levels of chromosomal integrated recombinant biosynthetic genes were

  14. MANOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN THE MARINE ALGA GIGARTINA

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Robert; Green, Lowell

    1934-01-01

    A manometric method for measuring photosynthesis in marine algae is described. Photosynthesis in the red alga Gigartina harveyana is shown to be similar in all important respects to photosynthesis in Chlorella and other Chlorophyceae. PMID:19872816

  15. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT, a Bacterium Isolated from Horse Flies (Haematopota sp.).

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2016-09-22

    Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4c(T) was isolated from a horse fly (Haematopota sp.; probably Haematopota pluvialis) collected at Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, in 1991. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT, a Bacterium Isolated from Horse Flies (Haematopota sp.).

    PubMed

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4c(T) was isolated from a horse fly (Haematopota sp.; probably Haematopota pluvialis) collected at Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, in 1991. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:27660788

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT, a Bacterium Isolated from Horse Flies (Haematopota sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT was isolated from a horse fly (Haematopota sp.; probably Haematopota pluvialis) collected at Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, in 1991. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:27660788

  19. Quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five-ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of five ions, NO3-, PO43-, K+, Na+ and Cl- on growth rates and cell densities were quantified for Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophycea) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophycea) in batch cultures. A five dimensional experimental design, the five component mixture design projected across a total i...

  20. Flagellar apparatus absolute orientations and the phylogeny of the green algae.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, C J; Floyd, G L

    The absolute orientation of the flagellar apparatus in green algal motile cells is a feature of considerable value in studies of green algal systematics and phylogeny. The absolute orientation patterns found in those algae for which this feature is known or can be deduced are reviewed. Counterclockwise absolute orientation occurs in all classes except the Chlorophyceae and is considered primitive, while the clockwise absolute orientation present in most members of the Chlorophyceae is the result of progressive clockwise rotation of components during evolution. Extant intermediates documenting this rotation include Hafniomonas vegetative cells, which show counterclockwise absolute orientation, and Chaetopeltis quadriflagellate zoospores, in which the flagellar apparatus is strictly cruciate except for a slight clockwise offset of the microtubular rootlets. The V-shaped arrangement of the basal bodies in the flagellar apparatus, as well as the presence of proximal sheaths and of two layers of scales on the cell body, further identifies the Chaetopeltis zoospore as a primitive cell type within the Chlorophyceae . Trends towards the exsertion of basal bodies from a flagellar pit, either apically or laterally, the elimination of quadriflagellate cells, and, in the Chlorophyceae , an increasing amount of basal body offset, indicate advancement within the classes. Absolute orientation is conserved during flagellar apparatus replication and development. Events after flagellar apparatus division in the algae studied may be subdivided into component assembly, which is universal and preserves phylogenetically-useful features, and component reorientation, which occurs in relatively few green algae and adapts the flagellar apparatus to specialized functions. From these flagellar apparatus orientation studies, a major reevaluation of evolution within the Chlorophyceae is proposed, with weakly- thalloid algae possessing desmoschisis (e.g. Chaetopeltis ) considered primitive, and

  1. Eight independent nuclear genes support monophyly of the plovers: the role of mutational variance in gene trees.

    PubMed

    Baker, Allan J; Yatsenko, Yuri; Tavares, Erika Sendra

    2012-11-01

    Molecular phylogenies of Charadriiformes based on mtDNA genes and one to three nuclear loci do not support the traditional placement of Pluvialis in the plovers (Charadriidae), assigning it instead to oystercatchers, stilts, and avocets (Haematopodidae and Recurvirostridae). To investigate this hypothesis of plover paraphyly, the relationships among Pluvialis and closely related families were revisited by sequencing two individuals of all taxa except Peltohyas for eight independent single copy nuclear protein-coding loci selected for their informativeness at this phylogenetic depth. The species tree estimated jointly with the gene trees in the coalescent programme (*)BEAST strongly supported plover monophyly, as did Bayesian analysis of the concatenated matrix. The data sets that supported plover paraphyly in Baker et al. (2007) and Fain and Houde (2007) reflect two to four independent gene histories, and thus discordance with the plover monophyly species tree might have arisen by chance through stochastic mutational variance. For the plovers we conclude there is no conclusive evidence of coalescent variance from ancient incomplete lineage sorting across the interior branch leading to Pluvialis in the species tree. Rather, earlier studies seem have been misled by faster evolving mtDNA genes with high mutational variance, and a few nuclear genes that had low resolving power at the Pluvialis sister group level. These findings are of general relevance in avian phylogenetics, as they show that careful attention needs to be paid to the number and the phylogenetic informativeness of genes required to obtain accurate estimates of the species tree, especially where there is mutational heterogeneity in gene trees.

  2. Bioérosion des concrétions coralligènes de Méditerranée par les organismes perforants: essai de quantification des processus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartoretto, Stéphane

    1998-12-01

    An experimental study of the bioerosion of 'coralligène' concretions of the Provence coasts demonstrates that the first stages of colonisation are characterised by a weak presence of microperforating organisms. After 12 months of exposure, the only species of microborer present at -60 m is a Chlorophycea ( Ostreobium queckettt). At -20 m, the diversity is higher with two Chlorophycea and two Cyanobacteria. Among macroborers, Spionid annelids represent the pioneering stage of colonisation; they appear within the first three months. As from 6 months, the bivalve Hiatella arctica colonises the experimental substratum; it becomes the main borer after 12 months. The mass of CaCO 3 eroded by the macroborers changes with depth. After a year, it reaches a maximum of 5.73±0.77 CaCO 3· m -2 to -20 m and does not go beyond 1.50±0.99 g CaCO 3· m -2 to -60 m.

  3. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    PubMed

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  4. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  5. Inorganic and organic contaminants in Alaskan shorebird eggs.

    PubMed

    Saalfeld, David T; Matz, Angela C; McCaffery, Brian J; Johnson, Oscar W; Bruner, Phil; Lanctot, Richard B

    2016-05-01

    Many shorebird populations throughout North America are thought to be declining, with potential causes attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, reduced prey availability, increased predation, human disturbance, and increased exposure to environmental pollutants. Shorebirds may be particularly vulnerable to contaminant exposure throughout their life cycle, as they forage primarily on invertebrates in wetlands, where many contaminants accumulate disproportionately in the sediments. Therefore, it is important to document and monitor shorebird populations thought to be at risk and assess the role that environmental contaminants may have on population declines. To investigate potential threats and provide baseline data on shorebird contaminant levels in Alaskan shorebirds, contaminant concentrations were evaluated in shorebird eggs from 16 species residing in seven geographic distinct regions of Alaska. Similar to previous studies, low levels of most inorganic and organic contaminants were found, although concentrations of several inorganic and organic contaminants were higher than those of previous studies. For example, elevated strontium levels were observed in several species, especially black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) sampled in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Additionally, contaminant concentrations varied among species, with significantly higher concentrations of inorganic contaminants found in eggs of pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos), semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla), black oystercatcher, and bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica). Similarly, significantly higher concentrations of some organic contaminants were found in the eggs of American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), bar-tailed godwit, and semipalmated sandpiper. Despite these elevated levels, current concentrations of contaminants in shorebird eggs suggest that breeding environments are

  6. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in wintering shorebirds from Washington and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Myers, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dunlins Caldris alpina , and black-bellied plovers, Pluvialis squatarola , were collected in Washington and California during the winter of 1984-85; long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus , were collected in California. Pooled breast muscles were analyzed for organochlorines and pooled livers for mercury and selenium. DDE was detected in all eight dunlin, three of five dowitcher, and two of nine plover muscle pools. Estimated DDE concentrations in dunlin carcasses at two sites in California were greater than 3 ppm wet wt, a dietary concentration associated with eggshell thinning and decreased reproductive success in raptors. Detectable concentrations of mercury and selenium were found in all liver pools.

  7. Effects of simetryne on growth of various freshwater algal taxa.

    PubMed

    Kasai, F; Takamura, N; Hatakeyama, S

    1993-01-01

    The sensitivity of 56 algal strains, representing 7 taxonomic groups to the triazine herbicide, simetryne, was examined using EC50 values for growth. There was a wide range of values from 6.5 to 1500 microg litre(-1). The Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) and Cyanophyceae (Cyanophyta) as a whole were the most sensitive, whereas the Desmidiales (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) and Bacillariophyceae (Chromophyta) were the most tolerant, although sensitivity differed among strains of a single species. Sensitive and tolerant species were both isolated from samples collected at the same site. The results suggest that changes in species composition and relative abundance will occur when herbicides are applied in natural habitats.

  8. Occurrence of non-hydrolysable amides in the macromolecular constituent of Scenedesmus quadricauda cell wall as revealed by [sup 15]N NMR: Origin of n-alkylnitriles in pyrolysates of ultralaminai-containing kerogens

    SciTech Connect

    Derenne, S.; Largeau, C. ); Taulelle, F. )

    1993-02-01

    New structures, termed ultralaminae, were recently shown to occur in kerogens from numerous oil shales and source rocks. Morphological and chemical studies revealed that ultralaminae originate from the selective preservation of the non-hydrolysable biomacromolecules (algaenans) building up the thin outer walls of several Chlorophyceae (green microalgae) including the cosmopolitan general Scenedesmus and Chlorella. The chemical correlation between such algaenans and fossil ultralaminae was mainly based on the production, on pyrolysis, of nitrogen compounds, n-alkylnitriles, with specific distributions depending on the lacustrine of marine origin of the considered samples. In addition, these bio-and geopolymers were characterized by quite high N levels.

  9. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.

    PubMed

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8-26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  10. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  11. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium.

    PubMed

    Marchello, Adriano E; Lombardi, Ana T; Dellamano-Oliveira, Maria José; de Souza, Clovis W O

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated) were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli ) variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 10 (7) cells.mL (-1) independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9%) in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae), with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae), with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent.

  12. Suitability of Phytosterols Alongside Fatty Acids as Chemotaxonomic Biomarkers for Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Sami J; Hiltunen, Minna; Vuorio, Kristiina; Peltomaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The composition and abundance of phytoplankton is an important factor defining ecological status of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chemotaxonomic markers (e.g., pigments and fatty acids) are needed for monitoring changes in a phytoplankton community and to know the nutritional quality of seston for herbivorous zooplankton. Here we investigated the suitability of sterols along with fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers using multivariate statistics, by analyzing the sterol and fatty acid composition of 10 different phytoplankton classes including altogether 37 strains isolated from freshwater lakes. We were able to detect a total of 47 fatty acids and 29 sterols in our phytoplankton samples, which both differed statistically significantly between phytoplankton classes. Due to the high variation of fatty acid composition among Cyanophyceae, taxonomical differentiation increased when Cyanophyceae were excluded from statistical analysis. Sterol composition was more heterogeneous within class than fatty acids and did not improve separation of phytoplankton classes when used alongside fatty acids. However, we conclude that sterols can provide additional information on the abundance of specific genera within a class which can be generated by using fatty acids. For example, whereas high C16 ω-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) indicates the presence of Chlorophyceae, a simultaneous high amount of ergosterol could specify the presence of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae). Additionally, we found specific 4α-methyl sterols for distinct Dinophyceae genera, suggesting that 4α-methyl sterols can potentially separate freshwater dinoflagellates from each other. PMID:26973664

  13. Biodiversity of microalgae in Western and Eastern Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, A; Kumar, R Praveen; Dhanasekaran, D; Thajuddin, N

    2012-10-01

    The systematic study was conducted on the microalgal flora of Western Ghats and other parts of Eastern Ghats revealed a rich wetland algal resource for biotechnological exploration. The present study reveals with the diversity of microalgal flora in the region of Kodaikanal (10 degrees 14' N, 77 degrees 28' E), Gudalur (9 degrees 19'N 77 degrees 12'E), Agasthiyar falls (9 degrees 58'N, 78 degrees 10'E) and Kolli hills (10 degrees 12'N, 77 degrees 56'E) located in Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamilnadu, India collected in May 2011. In total, 97 species of micro algae belonging to three taxonomic groups were identified, of which 41 species belonging to Cyanophyceae, 38 species from Chlorophyceae and 18 species from Bacillariophyceae. The predominant species in Cyanophyceae were Aphanothece microscopica, Chroococcus minutus, Coelospharium dubium, Hydrococcus rivularism, Oscillatoria princeps, Nostoc muscorum, Nostoc puncteforme, Nostoc commune, Gleotricha gausii, Calothrix braunii, Rivellaria sp., Tolypothrix tenuis, Scytonema schmidtii, whereas in Chlorophyceae, Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Pediastrum duplex, Cosmarium consperum, Euastrum elagans, Micrasterias americana and in Bacillariophyceae, Navicula hallophyla, Rhophaldia gebrella, Fragellaria intermedia, Pinnularia virdis, Nitzchia palliate. Physicochemical nature of water samples were analyzed and correlated with the total microalgal diversity. Based on the correlation coefficient data, the micro algae showed positive relationship with dissolved oxygen, salinity, nutrients and negative relationship with temperature and turbidity. The species diversity index (H'), Species Richness (SR) and species evenness (J') were calculated and analyzed for microalgal population dynamic variation in the Western and Eastern Ghats.

  14. Microalgae population dynamics in photobioreactors with secondary sewage effluent as culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Marchello, Adriano E.; Lombardi, Ana T.; Dellamano-Oliveira, Maria José; de Souza, Clovis W.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus present in sewage can be used for microalgae growth, possibiliting cost reduction in the production of microalgae at the same time that it decreases the eutrophication potential of the effluent. This research aimed at monitoring the native community of microalgae and coliform bacteria in a secondary effluent from anaerobic municipal sewage treatment. Two treatments (aerated and non-aerated) were performed to grow microalgae under semi-controlled conditions in semi-closed photobioreactors in a greenhouse. The results showed no significant pH and coliforms (total and Escherichia coli ) variation between treatments. Nutrient concentrations were reduced supporting microalgae growth up to 10 7 cells.mL −1 independent of aeration. Exponential growth was obtained from the first day for the non-aerated, but a 5 day lag phase of growth was obtained for the aerated. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant microalgae (99.9%) in both treatments. In the aerated, 5 algae classes were detected (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae), with 12 taxa, whereas in the non-aerated, 2 classes were identified (Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae), with 5 taxa. We concluded that effluent is viable for microalgae growth, especially Chlorella vulgaris, at the same time that the eutrophication potential and coliforms are decreased, contributing for better quality of the final effluent. PMID:26221091

  15. Responses of planktonic microorganisms from tropical reservoirs to paraquat and deltamethrin exposure.

    PubMed

    Leboulanger, Christophe; Bouvy, Marc; Pagano, Marc; Dufour, Rose-Aimée; Got, Patrice; Cecchi, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of two pesticides, paraquat (herbicide) and deltamethrin (insecticide), which are two common molecules used intensively in Burkina Faso. Natural bacterial populations, phytoplankton cultures (one cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and one chlorophycea, Monoraphidium sp.), and two species of zooplankton (Diaphanosoma excisum and Moina micrura) were isolated from aquatic communities and were used as biological targets in the experimental protocols. Paraquat was moderately toxic to bacteria and phytoplankton, whereas deltamethrin was significantly toxic only to the zooplankton species. Paradoxically, the chlorophycea Monoraphidium sp. exhibited a significant increase of in vitro fluorescence after 48 h at the highest doses. Preliminary tests were also performed from natural water extract of the main drinking water supply of the country (Loumbila Reservoir) by using solid-phase extraction. Obviously, the natural extract proved to be toxic to the same biological targets. Despite the absence of any determination of pesticides in the natural extract, the question of contamination and toxicity of these waters affects concerns about the safety of water supply and the effect of human pressure on the dynamics of planktonic communities of freshwater reservoirs in arid regions of western Africa. PMID:18427708

  16. Derivation of Ecological Protective Concentration using the Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment applicable for Korean Water Environment: (I) Cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) for deriving ecological protective concentration (EPC) was previously suggested in USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Netherland. This study suggested the EPC of cadmium (Cd) based on the PERA to be suitable to Korean aquatic ecosystem. First, we collected reliable ecotoxicity data from reliable data without restriction and reliable data with restrictions. Next, we sorted the ecotoxicity data based on the site-specific locations, exposure duration, and water hardness. To correct toxicity by the water hardness, EU’s hardness corrected algorithm was used with slope factor 0.89 and a benchmark of water hardness 100. EPC was calculated according to statistical extrapolation method (SEM), statistical extrapolation methodAcute to chronic ratio (SEMACR), and assessment factor method (AFM). As a result, aquatic toxicity data of Cd were collected from 43 acute toxicity data (4 Actinopterygill, 29 Branchiopoda, 1 Polychaeta, 2 Bryozoa, 6 Chlorophyceae, 1 Chanophyceae) and 40 chronic toxicity data (2 Actinopterygill, 23 Branchiopoda, 9 Chlorophyceae, 6 Macrophytes). Because toxicity data of Cd belongs to 4 classes in taxonomical classification, acute and chronic EPC (11.07 μg/l and 0.034 μg/l, respectively) was calculated according to SEM technique. These values were included in the range of international EPCs. This study would be useful to establish the ecological standard for the protection of aquatic ecosystem in Korea. PMID:24278601

  17. Acclimation and toxicity of high ammonium concentrations to unicellular algae.

    PubMed

    Collos, Yves; Harrison, Paul J

    2014-03-15

    A literature review on the effects of high ammonium concentrations on the growth of 6 classes of microalgae suggests the following rankings. Mean optimal ammonium concentrations were 7600, 2500, 1400, 340, 260, 100 μM for Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Diatomophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Dinophyceae respectively and their tolerance to high toxic ammonium levels was 39,000, 13,000, 2300, 3600, 2500, 1200 μM respectively. Field ammonium concentrations <100 μM would not likely reduce the growth rate of most microalgae. Chlorophytes were significantly more tolerant to high ammonium than diatoms, prymnesiophytes, dinoflagellates, and raphidophytes. Cyanophytes were significantly more tolerant than dinoflagellates which were the least tolerant. A smaller but more complete data set was used to estimate ammonium EC₅₀ values, and the ranking was: Chlorophyceae>Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Diatomophyceae, and Raphidophyceae. Ammonia toxicity is mainly attributed to NH₃ at pHs >9 and at pHs <8, toxicity is likely associated with the ammonium ion rather than ammonia. PMID:24533997

  18. Determining in situ periphyton community responses to nutrient and atrazine gradients via pigment analysis.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rebecca L; Boutin, Céline; Pick, Frances R

    2015-05-15

    Agrochemicals, including fertilizers and herbicides, are significant contributors of non-point source pollution to surface waters and have the potential to negatively affect periphyton. We characterized periphyton communities using pigment markers to assess the effects of nutrient enrichment and the herbicide atrazine with in situ experimental manipulations and by examining changes in community structure along existing agrochemical gradients. In 2008, the addition of nutrients (20 mg/L nitrate and 1.25 mg/L reactive phosphate), atrazine (20 μg/L) and a combination of both nutrients and atrazine had no significant effect on periphyton biomass or community structure in a stream periphytometer experiment. In 2009, similar experiments with higher concentrations of atrazine (200 μg/L) at two stream sites led to some minor effects. In contrast, at the watershed scale (2010) periphyton biomass (mg/m(2) chlorophyll a) increased significantly along correlated gradients of nitrate and atrazine but no direct effects of reactive phosphate were observed. Across the watershed, the average periphyton community was composed of Bacillariophyceae (60.9%), Chlorophyceae (28.1%), Cryptophyceae (6.9%) and Euglenophyceae (4.1%), with the Bacillariophyceae associated with high turbidity and the Chlorophyceae with nitrate enrichment. Overall, effects of nitrate on periphyton biomass and community structure superseded effects of reactive phosphate and atrazine. PMID:25700361

  19. Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, 1857 larvae in different environments of a Neotropical floodplain: relationships of abiotic variables and phytoplankton with different stages of development.

    PubMed

    Ernandes-Silva, J; Ragonha, F H; Jati, S; Takeda, A M

    2016-02-01

    Limnoperna fortunei Dunker, 1857 is an Asian invasive freshwater bivalve. Although there need to contain their spread, studies about the biology of the larvae are scarce. We correlated the larval stages of L. fortunei with biotic factors such as phytoplankton and main abiotic variables in lotic environments of the Upper Paraná River floodplain. The four samples were taken quarterly during the year 2012. The Principal component analysis (PCA) showed only spatial differences, as did a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). High densities of larvae were recorded in all samples the Paraná River and Baía River only in December, especially those in their initial stage. In the biovolume of Class of algae, Bacillarophyceae showed the highest value, but Chlorophycea who was strongly correlated with the density of D-stage larvae. The large variety of phytoplankton, especially microplankton Chlorophyceae, high values of PO4, NH4 and temperature were positively correlated with high densities of D-stage larvae. We conclude that high temperature, and food availability, indicated by phytoplankton community, favored the reproduction of L. fortunei and enhance the ability of specie dispersion due to the increase in the emission of propagules. Therefore, studies that address the biology of golden mussel larvae should be performed in order to prevent its spread.

  20. Suitability of Phytosterols Alongside Fatty Acids as Chemotaxonomic Biomarkers for Phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Sami J; Hiltunen, Minna; Vuorio, Kristiina; Peltomaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The composition and abundance of phytoplankton is an important factor defining ecological status of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chemotaxonomic markers (e.g., pigments and fatty acids) are needed for monitoring changes in a phytoplankton community and to know the nutritional quality of seston for herbivorous zooplankton. Here we investigated the suitability of sterols along with fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers using multivariate statistics, by analyzing the sterol and fatty acid composition of 10 different phytoplankton classes including altogether 37 strains isolated from freshwater lakes. We were able to detect a total of 47 fatty acids and 29 sterols in our phytoplankton samples, which both differed statistically significantly between phytoplankton classes. Due to the high variation of fatty acid composition among Cyanophyceae, taxonomical differentiation increased when Cyanophyceae were excluded from statistical analysis. Sterol composition was more heterogeneous within class than fatty acids and did not improve separation of phytoplankton classes when used alongside fatty acids. However, we conclude that sterols can provide additional information on the abundance of specific genera within a class which can be generated by using fatty acids. For example, whereas high C16 ω-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) indicates the presence of Chlorophyceae, a simultaneous high amount of ergosterol could specify the presence of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae). Additionally, we found specific 4α-methyl sterols for distinct Dinophyceae genera, suggesting that 4α-methyl sterols can potentially separate freshwater dinoflagellates from each other.

  1. Suitability of Phytosterols Alongside Fatty Acids as Chemotaxonomic Biomarkers for Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Hiltunen, Minna; Vuorio, Kristiina; Peltomaa, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The composition and abundance of phytoplankton is an important factor defining ecological status of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Chemotaxonomic markers (e.g., pigments and fatty acids) are needed for monitoring changes in a phytoplankton community and to know the nutritional quality of seston for herbivorous zooplankton. Here we investigated the suitability of sterols along with fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers using multivariate statistics, by analyzing the sterol and fatty acid composition of 10 different phytoplankton classes including altogether 37 strains isolated from freshwater lakes. We were able to detect a total of 47 fatty acids and 29 sterols in our phytoplankton samples, which both differed statistically significantly between phytoplankton classes. Due to the high variation of fatty acid composition among Cyanophyceae, taxonomical differentiation increased when Cyanophyceae were excluded from statistical analysis. Sterol composition was more heterogeneous within class than fatty acids and did not improve separation of phytoplankton classes when used alongside fatty acids. However, we conclude that sterols can provide additional information on the abundance of specific genera within a class which can be generated by using fatty acids. For example, whereas high C16 ω-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) indicates the presence of Chlorophyceae, a simultaneous high amount of ergosterol could specify the presence of Chlamydomonas spp. (Chlorophyceae). Additionally, we found specific 4α-methyl sterols for distinct Dinophyceae genera, suggesting that 4α-methyl sterols can potentially separate freshwater dinoflagellates from each other. PMID:26973664

  2. Determining in situ periphyton community responses to nutrient and atrazine gradients via pigment analysis.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rebecca L; Boutin, Céline; Pick, Frances R

    2015-05-15

    Agrochemicals, including fertilizers and herbicides, are significant contributors of non-point source pollution to surface waters and have the potential to negatively affect periphyton. We characterized periphyton communities using pigment markers to assess the effects of nutrient enrichment and the herbicide atrazine with in situ experimental manipulations and by examining changes in community structure along existing agrochemical gradients. In 2008, the addition of nutrients (20 mg/L nitrate and 1.25 mg/L reactive phosphate), atrazine (20 μg/L) and a combination of both nutrients and atrazine had no significant effect on periphyton biomass or community structure in a stream periphytometer experiment. In 2009, similar experiments with higher concentrations of atrazine (200 μg/L) at two stream sites led to some minor effects. In contrast, at the watershed scale (2010) periphyton biomass (mg/m(2) chlorophyll a) increased significantly along correlated gradients of nitrate and atrazine but no direct effects of reactive phosphate were observed. Across the watershed, the average periphyton community was composed of Bacillariophyceae (60.9%), Chlorophyceae (28.1%), Cryptophyceae (6.9%) and Euglenophyceae (4.1%), with the Bacillariophyceae associated with high turbidity and the Chlorophyceae with nitrate enrichment. Overall, effects of nitrate on periphyton biomass and community structure superseded effects of reactive phosphate and atrazine.

  3. Repercussions of salinity changes and osmotic stress in marine phytoplankton species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ors, A.; Bartolomé, M. C.; Sánchez-Fortún, S.

    2016-06-01

    The short-term effect of low salinity was studied using laboratory protocols on some coastal phytoplankton species such as chlorophycea Tetraselmis suecica, among diatom the strain Nitzschia N1c1 and dinoflagellates Alexandrium minutum and Prorocentrum lima. All of cultures were exposed to low salinities, and cell growth rate, photosynthetic quantum yield (ΦPSII), and gross photosynthesis (Pg) were analyzed. Growth rate inhibition was similar in all species, and all of them also tolerate short-term exposures to salinities in the range 5-35. There were no significant differences between ΦPSII and Pg endpoints from Tetraselmis suecica and Nitzschia sp., while Alexandrium minutum and Prorocentrum lima displayed a higher affectation rate on Pg than on ΦPSII activity. The influence of low salinity was higher on respiration in T. suecica, while both dinoflagellates had higher net photosynthesis. Nitzschia sp. exhibited similar involvement of the two photosynthetic parameters. Therefore, although the four phytoplankton monocultures studied are able to survive in internal areas of estuaries under low salinity conditions, the photosynthetic activity is more affected than the growth rate in all phytoplankton communities studied except in chlorophycea T. suecica, which has increased tolerance for this salinity decrease.

  4. Comparative effects of the herbicides chlortoluron and mesotrione on freshwater microalgae.

    PubMed

    Moro, Claire Valiente; Bricheux, Genevieve; Portelli, Christophe; Bohatier, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Extensive use of herbicides in agriculture is accompanied by the risk of environmental contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The present study shows the effects of the herbicides chlortoluron and mesotrione on three microalgae species: two chlorophyceae (Pediastrum tetras, Ankistrodesmus fusiformis) and one diatom (Amphora coffeaeformis). The authors calculated the IC50 for one chlorophyceae and the diatom. The order of toxicity (median inhibitory concentration [IC50]) for mesotrione was A. coffeaeformis (13.1 mg/L) > A. fusiformis (56.1 mg/L) and A. fusiformis (0.05 mg/L) > A. coffeaeformis (0.08 mg/L) for chlortoluron. The impact of herbicides applied at 0.2 mg/L was then examined in Erlenmeyer flasks by monitoring for growth, pigment content, and metabolic activity. Algal responses varied widely according to species and herbicide. For example, chlortoluron showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of A. coffeaeformis, whereas mesotrione induced an increase in cellular density in A. fusiformis. Other cellular parameters, such as pigment content in P. tetras, were stimulated by both herbicides. The results obtained confirmed that microalgae cultures are clearly affected by acute and chronic exposition to herbicides. Further monitoring should be carried out in the field to assess the impact of sublethal levels of toxicity and the growth-enhancing effects of mesotrione and chlortoluron on natural algae communities. PMID:22278807

  5. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yecong; Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger R

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to find the robust strains for the centrate cultivation system and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors including light intensity, light-dark cycle, and exogenous CO2 concentration on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal and biodiesel production. The results showed that all 14 algae strains from the genus of Chlorella, Haematococcus, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, and Chloroccum were able to grow on centrate. The highest net biomass accumulation (2.01 g/L) was observed with Chlorella kessleri followed by Chlorella protothecoides (1.31 g/L), and both of them were proved to be capable of mixotrophic growth when cultivated on centrate. Environmental factors had significant effect on algal biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrients removal and biodiesel production. Higher light intensity and exogenous CO2 concentration with longer lighting period promote biomass accumulation, biodiesel production, as well as the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen, while, lower exogenous CO2 concentration promotes phosphorus removal.

  6. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Elliot Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011) and post-impoundment (2012) periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35 microm mesh size and 0.25m2 mouth surface area) from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100 m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%), Chlorophyceae (43%), Cyanophyceae (48.6%) and Euglenophyceae (0.8%) were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%), Chlorophyceae (26.1%) and Cyanophyceae (71.7%) were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/M3) to August (106 cells/m3) in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1237 cels/m3) to August (4 cells/m3). The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean phytoplankton abundance than the wet season during the 22 months of sampling period. The biotic indices of Shannon-Wiener (HI) were

  7. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Elliot Haruna

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011) and post-impoundment (2012) periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35 microm mesh size and 0.25m2 mouth surface area) from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100 m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%), Chlorophyceae (43%), Cyanophyceae (48.6%) and Euglenophyceae (0.8%) were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%), Chlorophyceae (26.1%) and Cyanophyceae (71.7%) were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/M3) to August (106 cells/m3) in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1237 cels/m3) to August (4 cells/m3). The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean phytoplankton abundance than the wet season during the 22 months of sampling period. The biotic indices of Shannon-Wiener (HI) were

  8. Genome sequences of six Phytophthora species associated with forests in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Studholme, D J; McDougal, R L; Sambles, C; Hansen, E; Hardy, G; Grant, M; Ganley, R J; Williams, N M

    2016-03-01

    In New Zealand there has been a long association of Phytophthora diseases in forests, nurseries, remnant plantings and horticultural crops. However, new Phytophthora diseases of trees have recently emerged. Genome sequencing has been performed for 12 Phytophthora isolates, from six species: Phytophthora pluvialis, Phytophthora kernoviae, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora agathidicida, Phytophthora multivora and Phytophthora taxon Totara. These sequences will enable comparative analyses to identify potential virulence strategies and ultimately facilitate better control strategies. This Whole Genome Shotgun data have been deposited in DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession numbers LGTT00000000, LGTU00000000, JPWV00000000, JPWU00000000, LGSK00000000, LGSJ00000000, LGTR00000000, LGTS00000000, LGSM00000000, LGSL00000000, LGSO00000000, and LGSN00000000.

  9. Sediment ingestion of two sympatric shorebird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    Black-bellied Plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) have short bills and primarily peck while foraging whereas Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) have long bills and primarily probe with bills open in sediments. Intestinal digesta were collected from these species at sympatric overwintering sites in southern California near San Diego to relate sediment ingestion to bill length and feeding behavior. Plover digesta contained an estimated 29% sediment, and Willet digesta an estimated 3% sediment. Techniques based on acid insoluble ash and on the elemental markers of Al, Fe, and Ti in digesta provided similar results. High Ca concentrations in Willet digesta and our observations suggested that the willets in our sample fed primarily on molluscs and crustaceans. Sediment ingestion may be species specific, not necessarily linked to bill length or probing behaviors, and may greatly affect a bird?s exposure to environmental contaminants in sediment.

  10. Helminth parasites in six species of shorebirds (Charadrii) from the coast of Belize.

    PubMed

    Canaris, A G; Kinsella, J M

    2001-08-01

    Thirteen species of helminth parasites were recovered from six species of charadriid shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) from Belize: the ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres, the snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, the semipalmated plover, C. semipalmatus, the killdeer, C. vociferus, the white-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis, and the black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola. Cestode species were predominant (N = 8), followed by trematode species (N = 3) and acanthocephala (N = 2). The trematode, Paramaritremopsis solielangi infected four of the six species of hosts. The cestodes, Nadejdolepis litoralis and N. paranitidulans infected three and two host species respectively. Helminth parasite species were contagious (clumped) and not evenly distributed among hosts. Twelve of the 13 species were generalists. The one specialist Microphallus kinsellae was recovered from one C. fuscicollis. Three of the four types of feeding guilds were present and in approximately the same number. All but M. kinsellae have been reported from other species of hosts, mostly from Eurasia and North America.

  11. Shorebird community variations indicative of a general perturbation in the Mont-Saint-Michel bay (France).

    PubMed

    Eybert, Marie-Christine; Geslin, Thomas; Questiau, Sophie; Feunteun, Eric

    2003-08-01

    The Mont-Saint-Michel bay located on the East Atlantic Flyway is the first site in France for wintering shorebirds, with, on average, 53,000 individuals in January. Seven species represent 96% of that community: dunlin (Calidris alpina), knot (Calidris canutus), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), curlew (Numenius arquata), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). The international bird census organised by Wetlands International in mid-January gave us the opportunity to study, for a 23 years period, population variations in the bay. Despite a quite good carrying capacity, we showed that the decreasing proportion of 4 species in the bay relative to the other French populations may indicate a general perturbation of the bay. We discuss the different hypotheses to explain that observation.

  12. Genome sequences of six Phytophthora species associated with forests in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, D.J.; McDougal, R.L.; Sambles, C.; Hansen, E.; Hardy, G.; Grant, M.; Ganley, R.J.; Williams, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand there has been a long association of Phytophthora diseases in forests, nurseries, remnant plantings and horticultural crops. However, new Phytophthora diseases of trees have recently emerged. Genome sequencing has been performed for 12 Phytophthora isolates, from six species: Phytophthora pluvialis, Phytophthora kernoviae, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora agathidicida, Phytophthora multivora and Phytophthora taxon Totara. These sequences will enable comparative analyses to identify potential virulence strategies and ultimately facilitate better control strategies. This Whole Genome Shotgun data have been deposited in DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession numbers LGTT00000000, LGTU00000000, JPWV00000000, JPWU00000000, LGSK00000000, LGSJ00000000, LGTR00000000, LGTS00000000, LGSM00000000, LGSL00000000, LGSO00000000, and LGSN00000000. PMID:26981359

  13. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  14. The concept of the genus Ulothrix (Chlorophyta) strengthened by comparative cytology.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, G M

    1985-01-01

    The revelation of the ultrastructure of the pyrenoid, flagellar apparatus and mitosis/cytokinesis in the green algal genus Ulothrix, in its traditional broad sense, resulted in the assignment of species to three newly defined green algal classes. The largest group consisting of 11 species (including the type species Ulothrix tenuissima) is classified in the Ulvophyceae, the species U. verrucosa and U. crenulata are transferred to the genus Klebsormidium in the Charophyceae while Ulothrix species with pointed apical cells (e.g. U. belkae) appear to belong to the Chlorophyceae. It is shown that cytokinesis in Ulothrix sensu stricto may vary from a strict furrowing mechanism in U. mucosa to a pattern in which the centripetal ingrowth is combined with a cell plate-like structure in U. palusalsa and U. zonata. Based on the growth habit, the type of life history and the ultrastructural features pertaining to cytokinesis and the flagellar apparatus, phylogenetic trends are suggested for the Ulotrichales sensu lato.

  15. Observations on cellular structures of Porphyridium cruentum.

    PubMed

    BRODY, M; VATTER, A E

    1959-03-25

    The cellular structure of Porphyridium cruentum was studied with both light and electron microscope. The photosynthetic plastid in this red alga was found to be structurally similar to that in the Chlorophyceae and higher green plants. The phycobilins, as well as the chlorophyll, seem to be associated with the lamellae of the plastid. The pyrenoid, a region of low lamellar density, contains no tubules, and does not appear to function in synthesis or storage of reserve material. Grains of floridean starch are located in the cytoplasm, outside the plastid. Typical mitochondrial organelles were not observed. The nucleus is eccentric, and contains a nucleolus located on the inner face of the nucleus, nearest the plastid. The schedule for staining the nucleus is given in detail. Other cell structures (sheath, dictyosomes, etc.) are described. Growing cells in light of intensity leads to disruption of the parallel arrangement of the lamellar characteristic of cells grown in moderate light.

  16. N/sub 2/O evolution by green algae. [Chlorella; Scenedesmus; Coelastrum; Chlorococcum

    SciTech Connect

    Weathers, P.J.

    1984-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) is an intermediate in denitrification and a by-product of both nitrification and dissimilatory nitrogen oxide reduction. The extent of the global source and pool of N/sub 2/O is uncertain and especially controversial in aquatic systems. Recognition of new, widespread biological sources of N/sub 2/O affects current theories of the global N/sub 2/O balance. Evidence is presented here that axenic cultures of Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Coelastrum, and Chlorococcum spp. evolve N/sub 2/O when grown on NO/sub 2//sup -/, showing that the Chlorophyceae are a source of N/sub 2/O in aquatic systems. 18 references, 2 tables.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton in a tropical eutrophic river.

    PubMed

    Santana, L M; Moraes, M E B; Silva, D M L; Ferragut, C

    2016-04-19

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental factors determining of the changes in phytoplankton structure in spatial (upper, middle and lower course) and seasonal (dry and rainy period) scales in a eutrophic river (Almada River, northeastern Brazil). In the study period, total accumulated rainfall was below of the historic average, resulting in flow reduction, mainly in rainy period. High orthophosphate concentration was found at the sampling sites. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a increased from upstream to downstream. Geitlerinema splendidum (S1) and Chlamydomonas sp. (X2) were the most abundant species in the upper course and several species of diatoms (D), Euglenophyceae (W1, W2) and Chlorophyceae (X1) in the middle and lower course. The functional groups were found to be characteristic of lotic ecosystem, shallow, with low light availability, rich in organic matter and eutrophic environments. We conclude that phytoplankton community structure was sensitive to change of the river flow and nutrient availability in spatial and seasonal scale in a tropical river.

  18. Morphological stasis of protists in lower cretaceous amber.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, Ana; Wierzchos, Jacek; Gutiérrez, Juan C; Alonso, Jesús; Ascaso, Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Paleomicrobiological studies of terrestrial and freshwater protists are extremely rare in comparison with studies of eukaryotic microfossils from marine ecosystems. Using optical and electron microscopy (SEM-BSE) for hard substrates, we have examined protists trapped in Lower Cretaceous amber from Peñacerrada (Alava, Spain). We present the earliest reasonably confident microfossils of three taxa: Excavata (Euglenozoa), that are similar to the extant genera Euglena and Phacus; Chlorophyceae identified as members of the genus Chlamydomonas, and finally, in the taxon Ciliophora (Chromalveolata), two ciliated protozoa identified as Colpoda (Class Colpodea) and Prorodon (Class Prostomatea). Morphological stasis is evident, and identification based on phenotypic traits indicates the existence of conservative phenotypes persisting over geological time scales.

  19. The GC-Rich Mitochondrial and Plastid Genomes of the Green Alga Coccomyxa Give Insight into the Evolution of Organelle DNA Nucleotide Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David Roy; Burki, Fabien; Yamada, Takashi; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Van Etten, James L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2011-05-13

    Most of the available mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences are biased towards adenine and thymine (AT) over guanine and cytosine (GC). Examples of GC-rich organelle DNAs are limited to a small but eclectic list of species, including certain green algae. Here, to gain insight in the evolution of organelle nucleotide landscape, we present the GC-rich mitochondrial and plastid DNAs from the trebouxiophyte green alga Coccomyxa sp. C-169. We compare these sequences with other GC-rich organelle DNAs and argue that the forces biasing them towards G and C are nonadaptive and linked to the metabolic and/or life history features of this species. The Coccomyxa organelle genomes are also used for phylogenetic analyses, which highlight the complexities in trying to resolve the interrelationships among the core chlorophyte green algae, but ultimately favour a sister relationship between the Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae, with the Trebouxiophyceae branching at the base of the chlorophyte crown.

  20. The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H; Clerck, Olivier De; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i) patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii) Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii) Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv) Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage.

  1. α-Carotene and its derivatives have a sole chirality in phototrophic organisms?

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Shinichi; Murakami, Akio; Mochimaru, Mari; Yokoyama, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in eukaryotic phototrophic organisms can be classified into two groups; β-carotene and its derivatives, and α-carotene and its derivatives. We re-examined distribution of α-carotene and its derivatives among various taxa of aquatic algae (17 classes) and land plants. α-carotene and its derivatives were found from Rhodophyceae (macrophytic type), Cryptophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Chlorarachniophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Charophyceae, and land plants, while they could not be detected from Glaucophyceae, Rhodophyceae (unicellular type), Chryosophyceae, Raphidophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Haptophyceae, and Dinophyceae. We also analyzed the chirality of α-carotene and/or its derivatives, such as lutein and siphonaxanthin, and found all of them had only (6'R)-type, not (6'S)-type.

  2. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-01-01

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences. PMID:26846729

  3. Regular spliceosomal introns are invasive in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: 15 introns in the recently relocated mitochondrial cox2 and cox3 genes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K I; Ohama, T

    2001-01-01

    In the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) and 3 (cox3) genes are missing from the mitochondrial genome. We isolated and sequenced a BAC clone that carries the whole cox3 gene and its corresponding cDNA. Almost the entire cox2 gene and its cDNA were also determined. Comparison of the genomic and the corresponding cDNA sequences revealed that the cox3 gene contains as many as nine spliceosomal introns and that cox2 bears six introns. Putative mitochondria targeting signals were predicted at each N terminal of the cox genes. These spliceosomal introns were typical GT-AG-type introns, which are very common not only in Chlamydomonas nuclear genes but also in diverse eukaryotic taxa. We found no particular distinguishing features in the cox introns. Comparative analysis of these genes with the various mitochondrial genes showed that 8 of the 15 introns were interrupting the conserved mature protein coding segments, while the other 7 introns were located in the N-terminal target peptide regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolutionary position of C. reinhardtii in Chlorophyta was carried out and the existence of the cox2 and cox3 genes in the mitochondrial genome was superimposed in the tree. This analysis clearly shows that these cox genes were relocated during the evolution of Chlorophyceae. It is apparent that long before the estimated period of relocation of these mitochondrial genes, the cytosol had lost the splicing ability for group II introns. Therefore, at least eight introns located in the mature protein coding region cannot be the direct descendant of group II introns. Here, we conclude that the presence of these introns is due to the invasion of spliceosomal introns, which occurred during the evolution of Chlorophyceae. This finding provides concrete evidence supporting the "intron-late" model, which rests largely on the mobility of spliceosomal introns. PMID:11675593

  4. Lineage-specific fragmentation and nuclear relocation of the mitochondrial cox2 gene in chlorophycean green algae (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Salinas, Elizabeth; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Li, Zhongkui; Fucíková, Karolina; Brand, Jerry J; Lewis, Louise A; González-Halphen, Diego

    2012-07-01

    In most eukaryotes the subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (COX2) is encoded in intact mitochondrial genes. Some green algae, however, exhibit split cox2 genes (cox2a and cox2b) encoding two polypeptides (COX2A and COX2B) that form a heterodimeric COX2 subunit. Here, we analyzed the distribution of intact and split cox2 gene sequences in 39 phylogenetically diverse green algae in phylum Chlorophyta obtained from databases (28 sequences from 22 taxa) and from new cox2 data generated in this work (23 sequences from 18 taxa). Our results support previous observations based on a smaller number of taxa, indicating that algae in classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Trebouxiophyceae contain orthodox, intact mitochondrial cox2 genes. In contrast, all of the algae in Chlorophyceae that we examined exhibited split cox2 genes, and could be separated into two groups: one that has a mitochondrion-localized cox2a gene and a nucleus-localized cox2b gene ("Scenedesmus-like"), and another that has both cox2a and cox2b genes in the nucleus ("Chlamydomonas-like"). The location of the split cox2a and cox2b genes was inferred using five different criteria: differences in amino acid sequences, codon usage (mitochondrial vs. nuclear), codon preference (third position frequencies), presence of nucleotide sequences encoding mitochondrial targeting sequences and presence of spliceosomal introns. Distinct green algae could be grouped according to the form of cox2 gene they contain: intact or fragmented, mitochondrion- or nucleus-localized, and intron-containing or intron-less. We present a model describing the events that led to mitochondrial cox2 gene fragmentation and the independent and sequential migration of cox2a and cox2b genes to the nucleus in chlorophycean green algae. We also suggest that the distribution of the different forms of the cox2 gene provides important insights into the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of Chlorophyceae.

  5. Assessment of environmental variables in Cauvery River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Mahadev, J; Srikantswamy, S; Gholami, Siamak; Ahmed, Syed Akheel

    2010-10-01

    This research paper pertains to the variation in water quality with special reference to physicochemical and biological parameters in Cauvery River and its tributaries in India over a period of 1 year. The quality of water in four streams of Cauvery River in Mysore, Mandya and Chamaraja Nagar districts, where many small scale sugar, paper industries and agricultural lands are located were analyzed. Sampling was carried out from Cauvery and its tributaries which were designated as stations 1, 2, 3 & 4 (all towards down streams of Cauvery River). The river water composition is increasingly dominated by PO4, NO3 Cl at stations 3 & 4 compared to stations 1 & 2. Significant spatial variations were observed in water level, transparency, turbidity, colour, DO, BOD, NO3, NO2 and total hardness among the physico-chemical parameters at the study locations. The DO level at stations 3 & 4 was lower than 5.0 mg/L, which is the recommended minimum allowable limit for aquatic life. 30 species of phytoplanktons were identified under five classes: viz, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Desmidaceae. About 20 algal species were recorded at station 1, 16 at station 2,13 species at station 3 and 14 species at station 4. The overall diversity and density of algae at four stations was significantly different. A posterior comparison revealed that stations 3 and 4 are the cause of significant difference. The chlorophyceae members, which dominated the algal community, were found to tolerate the effluent effect at stations land 2. Low algal diversity and negative impact on the biotic and abiotic environment were experienced at stations 3 and 4 throughout the duration of sampling, because of man made activities. PMID:22312799

  6. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton community in a tropical wetland.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Najeeb Ahmad; Wanganeo, Ashwani; Raina, Rajni

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton species composition and seasonal changes were investigated in the Bhoj wetland Bhopal. Taxonomic composition, diversity, and abundance of phytoplankton were studied at nine stations from March 2008 to February 2010, in relation to various physico-chemical factors. Total phytoplankton species composition in the Bhoj wetland was represented by 360 species. Among phytoplankton, diversity belonged to seven groups. Chlorophyceae was the dominant group (48%) followed by Bacillariophyceae (26%), Cyanophyceae (15%), and Euglenophyceae (9%), while Pyrophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Xanthophyceae contributed 2% of the population. Phytoplankton on the basis of seasonal studies recorded 1651 units l(-1) during summer season which was contributed mainly by Chlorophyceae (39.3%), with Spirogyra sp. (14.2%) and Closteriopsis sp. (9.1%) contributing maximum to the total group in the first year, while during the second year of summer period, a total of 2095 units l(-1) was recorded which was contributed mainly by group Pyrophyceae (51%) with the main dominant species represented by Ceratium hirundinella (98.46%). The highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') value (4.27) was recorded. Simpson values are approaching 1, signifying that sites have high relative diversity due to its supporting surrounding components. The trend of variation in evenness values was more or less the same as Shannon diversity index. Thus, the highest diversity indices recoded at all the stations in the present study justify the diverse nature of species inhabiting the different ecological niches in the ecosystem. The very high phosphate and nitrate concentrations in the wetland are indicators of pollution which may be due to the discharge of agricultural and sewage wastes enriched with nutrients as well as the human activities there. Our recommendation is to avoid as far as possible the discharge of sewage and agriculture wastes into the Bhoj wetland. The effects of various physicochemical

  7. Functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed. PMID:24957182

  8. Microalgal lipid droplets: composition, diversity, biogenesis and functions.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh; Beisson, Fred; Peltier, Gilles; Li-Beisson, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    Lipid droplet is the major site of neutral lipid storage in eukaryotic cells, and increasing evidence show its involvement in numerous cellular processes such as lipid homeostasis, signaling, trafficking and inter-organelle communications. Although the biogenesis, structure, and functions of lipid droplets have been well documented for seeds of vascular plants, mammalian adipose tissues, insects and yeasts, relative little is known about lipid droplets in microalgae. Over the past 5 years, the growing interest of microalgae as a platform for biofuel, green chemicals or value-added polyunsaturated fatty acid production has brought algal lipid droplets into spotlight. Studies conducted on the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and other model microalgae such as Haematococcus and Nannochloropsis species have led to the identification of proteins associated with lipid droplets, which include putative structural proteins different from plant oleosins and animal perilipins, as well as candidate proteins for lipid biosynthesis, mobilization, trafficking and homeostasis. Biochemical and microscopy studies have also started to shed light on the role of chloroplasts in the biogenesis of lipid droplets in Chlamydomonas. PMID:25433857

  9. Dietary carotenoids regulate astaxanthin content of copepods and modulate their susceptibility to UV light and copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caramujo, Maria-José; de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Silva, Soraya J; Carman, Kevin R

    2012-05-01

    High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC(50) values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers.

  10. Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Caramujo, Maria-José; de Carvalho, Carla C. C. R.; Silva, Soraya J.; Carman, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC50 values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers. PMID:22822352

  11. Functional ingredients from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Martello, Anna; Rinna, Francesca; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed.

  12. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    fossils more ubiquitously and without mineralization. Microalgae radiated quickly in the Cambrian and Ordovician; however, several morphotypes with features related to the reproductive cycle occur in the Proterozoic, although they are not always recognized as such. The assignment of Proterozoic unicellular microfossils with resistant cell walls to specific eukaryotic groups is tentative. However, we argue that the new interpretations of their functional morphology, combined with cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry, allow their assignment to microalgal classes. Microfossils with advanced ornamentation and ontogenetically formed excystment structures or endocysts, which prove that they are cysts in a complex life cycle with sexual reproduction, are related to the basal lineage of the Chlorophytes and the class Chlorophyceae. A cell wall ultrastructure with a TLS supports the affinity of some spheroidal taxa to the Chlorophytes. The phylogeny of the Chlorophytes shows a sequence of branching nodes from a stem-group of the Viridiplantae that leads to the classes Prasinophyceae and Chlorophyceae, and then the Ulvophyceae. Based on a modern interpretation of the record, the timing of these nodes is deduced to be prior to c. 1650 Ma for the Prasinophyceae, c. 1450 Ma for the Chlorophyceae, and c. 950 Ma for the Ulvophyceae. The origin of the Chlorophytes, and in general the Viridiplantae, predates 1.8 Ga. These ages, based on microfossils, are earlier than the estimates based on molecular clocks.

  13. The emergence of a new chlorophytan system, and Dr. Kornmann's contribution thereto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hoek, C.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    1988-09-01

    In traditional chlorophytan systems the organizational level was the primary character for the distinction of main groups (classes and orders). For instance, in Fott (1971), the flagellate level corresponds with the Volvocales, the coccoid level with the Chlorococcales, the filamentous level with the Ulotrichales, the siphonocladous level with the Siphonocladales, and the siphonous level with the Bryopsidales. The new system presented here is an elaboration and emendation of recently proposed taxonomies and their underlying phylogenetic hypotheses, and it is mainly based on ultrastructural features which have become available over the last 15 years. The following criteria are used for the distinction of classes and orders: (1) architecture of the flagellate cell (flagellate cells are considered as the depositories of primitive characters); (2) type of mitosis-cytokinesis; (3) place of meiosis in the life history and, consequently, the sexual life history type; (4) organizational level and thallus architecture; (5) habitat type (marine versus feshwater and terrestrial); (6) chloroplast type. The following classes are presented: Prasinophyceae, Chlamydophyceae, Ulvophyceae (orders Codiolales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales, Dasycladales), Pleurastrophyceae (?), Chlorophyceae s.s. (orders Cylindrocapsales, Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales), Zygnematophyceae, Trentepohliophyceae, Charophyceae (orders Klebsormidiales, Coleochaetales, Charales). The new system no longer reflects the traditional hypothesis of a stepwise evolutionary progression of organizational levels in which the flagellate level represents the most primitive lineage, the coccoid and sarcinoid levels lineages of intermediate derivation, and the filamentous, siphonocladous and siphonous levels the most derived lineages. Instead, it is now hypothesized that these levels have arisen over and over again in different chlorophytan lineages which are primarily characterized by their type of flagellate cell

  14. A review of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena; Spicer, Greg S

    2016-05-19

    The fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) is comprehensively revised. All of 78 known species, which are grouped into 11 genera, are examined and diagnosed or redescribed. Data on picobiine hosts and distribution are summarized, including new host and locality records. The following new species are described: Charadriineopicobia apricaria sp. nov. ex Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from France, Neopicobia pari sp. nov. ex Periparus venustulus Swinhoe (type host) (Passeriformes: Paridae) from China, Parus major Linnaeus (Paridae) from Macedonia and Finland, and Poecile varius Temminck and Schlegel (Paridae) from Japan, Picobia magellani sp. nov. ex Scytalopus magellanicus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from Colombia, Picobia lonchura sp. nov. ex Lonchura leucogastra (Blyth) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) from Indonesia, Picobia makoli sp. nov. ex Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Lesson) (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from Colombia. The species Picobia polonica Skoracki, Magowski and Dabert, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of C. khulkhaskhani Kivganov and Sharafat, 1995. The following new combinations are proposed: Neopicobia ictericus (Skoracki and Glowska, 2010) comb. nov., Rafapicobia brotogeris (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov., and Rafapicobia ramphastos (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov. Keys to the all picobiine genera and species are presented, along with a check-list of picobiine species and their hosts.

  15. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; de Goeij, Petra; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avianinteractions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebirdhabitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areasat night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. This suggests that nighttime avoidance of nearshore places is a response to increased danger of predation. When mist-netting during autumn 2005 on nearshore intertidal habitats along South Spit, Egegik Bay (Alaska Peninsula), Alaska, we discovered that shorebirds that occurred there in large numbers during daytime low tides and roosted there during daytime high tides (especially Dunlin Calidris alpina, Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola, and Surfbirds Aphriza virgata), were absent at night. Their avoidance of the area correlated with Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus concurrently hunting over the beach and adjacent intertidal habitats. Spotlighting over nearby expansive intertidal mudflats confirmed that the same suite of species continued to forage or roost nearby at night. To bring the story full circle, the morning following one mist-netting effort we found a Short-eared Owl on the beach that had been killed earlier by a Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus. In the owl’s stomach were remains of a freshly devoured Dunlin.

  16. Short-term Effects of Intertidal Macroalgal Blooms on the Macrohabitat Selection and Feeding Behaviour of Wading Birds in the Mondego Estuary (West Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múrias, T.; Cabral, J. A.; Marques, J. C.; Goss-Custard, J. D.

    1996-12-01

    The possible effects of intertidal macroalgal blooms on the feeding distribution and behaviour of the waders in the Mondego Estuary (West Portugal) are discussed in the present paper. The presence of algae over the sediments did not deter the waders absolutely from feeding in a place, but most species did show some tendency to avoid highly eutrophic areas. However, there were no clear signs that the species redistributed themselves within the Estuary as the amount of algae changed, nor did the alternative feeding habitats (the salt pans) seem to be used more when algae were particularly abundant on the mud flats. In one species, bird numbers, rather than the amount of algae present, explained the numbers of birds using the salt pans when the two factors were considered together in a multiple regression analysis. There were no striking differences between algae-free and algae-weeded areas in some aspects of the foraging of two representative species, the scolopacid Dunlin Calidris alpinaand the charadriid Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola. The results suggest either: (1) that the presence of algae did not strongly influence the distribution of the feeding waders, at least in the conditions prevailing during the study; or (2) that most waders were able to adapt to feeding on weeded areas; perhaps through subtle and undetected alterations in their feeding behaviour.

  17. Winter distributions of North American Plovers in the Laguna Madre regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico and Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabee, Todd J.; Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.; Goossen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the distribution and abundance of wintering plovers in the Laguna Madre of Texas and Tamaulipas, surveys were conducted in December 1997 and February 1998, along a 160 km stretch of barrier islands in Mexico and- 40 km of shoreline on South Padre Island, Texas. Altogether, 5,673 individuals, representing six plover species, were recorded during the surveys. Black-bellied Plovers Pluvialis squatarola were the most numerous (3 ,013 individuals) representing 53% of the total number of plovers observed. Numbers of Piping Charadriusm elodu, Snowy C . alexandrinus, Semipalmated C. semipalmatus and Wilson's Plovers C. wilsonia were 739, 1,345, 561, and 13 birds, respectively. Most individuals (97%) of all species except Wilson's Plovers were observed on bayside flats of the barrier islands. Similar numbers of Piping Plovers were recorded at South Padre Island, Texas, and in the Laguna Madre de Tamaulipas. Over 85% of the individuals of each of the other species were found in the more extensively surveyed Mexico portion of Laguna Madre. In Tamaulipas, most plover species were observed more often on algal flats than any other substrate. These results provide evidence of the value of these systems as wintering areas for plover species and indicate the need for more extensive survey efforts to determine temporal and spatial variation in the distribution of these species within the Laguna ecosystem.

  18. Nereidid polychaetes as the major diet of migratory shorebirds on the estuarine tidal flats at Fujimae-higata in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Akiko; Sato, Masanori

    2007-07-01

    The dietary items of five migratory shorebirds, Dunlin (Calidris alpina), Red-necked Stint (C. ruficollis), Grey Plover (Pluvialis squatarola), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), were examined by analyses of fecal droppings during the birds' migration or wintering and by surveys of macrobenthic fauna around their foraging sites on the tidal flats of Fujimae-higata, Nagoya, central Japan. Body parts of nereidid, capitellid, and spionid polychaetes and crustaceans were found in fecal droppings from all of these shorebirds. Two nereidid species (Hediste diadroma and Neanthes succinea) with relatively large body sizes seemed to be the majority dietary items. At one site, H. diadroma was dominant in terms of biomass (40-370 g/m(2)) throughout year except, for less than 1 g/m(2) in March and May (within or just after reproduction of this species). Monthly changes in the occurrence of food items in fecal droppings of C. alpina were examined in 1999 and 2000. Most (85-100%) of the fecal droppings contained nereidid body parts, including Hediste-specific simple chaetae from November to April, whereas only 23% of the droppings contained them in May. Chaetae of capitellid or spionid polychaetes were frequently found from January to April (38-86% of droppings). Crustacean body parts, including amphipod appendages, were frequently found from March to May (86-100% of droppings). The relationship between foraging habits of the shorebirds and the life history of their major prey nereidid species is discussed.

  19. Mercury concentration in the eggs of four Canadian Arctic-breeding shorebirds not predicted based on their population statuses.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Meagan; Robinson, Stacey; Smith, Paul A; Forbes, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury is a toxic form of mercury which persists in food webs for long periods of time and biomagnifies up successive trophic levels. Shorebirds breeding in the Arctic are exposed to methylmercury, derived from both natural and anthropogenic sources, when they ingest their invertebrate prey. Populations of many shorebird species are believed to be declining and one hypothesis for these declines is that they are due to detrimental effects of contaminants, including methylmercury. To test this hypothesis, we assessed mercury contamination in eggs of four Canadian Arctic-breeding shorebird species: black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and white-rumped sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis). Black-bellied plovers and ruddy turnstones are declining in the western hemisphere, whereas white-rumped sandpipers and semipalmated plovers have stable or slightly increasing populations. We found no relationship between egg mercury concentration and population trend for these four shorebird species. Intraspecific variation in mercury concentration was high. Notably, the mercury concentrations were much higher than levels found in a previous study of eggs of the same shorebird species from this same site, suggesting that mercury contamination may be subject to substantial inter-annual variation in the Canadian Arctic food web.

  20. Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoi infection.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Y S; Yoo, J C; Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether avian species are susceptible to infection with Gymnophalloides seoi (a human-infecting intestinal trematode), we exposed 7 species of birds with metacercariae obtained from oysters. The birds were necropsied at days 2, 4, and 6 postinfection (PI). The highest worm recovery at day 6 PI was obtained from the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus; mean = 56.0%), followed by the Mongolian plover (C. mongolus; 49.3%), and the grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola; 32.3%). In contrast, no mature worms were recovered from the great knot (Calidris tenuirostris), dunlin (C. alpina), black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Among the plovers, the worms attained the greatest size at day 6 PI (254.1 x 190.4 microm) in the Kentish plover, with a significantly higher number of eggs in the uterus. The 3 species of plovers are highly susceptible to experimental G. seoi infection, suggesting that they could play a role as definitive hosts for these worms in nature.

  1. Contrast in adaptive mass gains: Eurasian golden plovers store fat before midwinter and protein before prebreeding flight.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Theunis; Jukema, Joop

    2002-06-01

    Before predictable periods of high nutritional demand and little or no intake, vertebrates store fuel mainly composed of energy-dense lipids or energy-poor but protein-rich muscle tissue. Documenting contrasts in fuel composition and storage patterns within species, or even within individuals, would greatly help to elucidate the functional significance of the variety of storage strategies demonstrated in birds. We show here that the 40-50 g mass gain of 200 g in Eurasian golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria) in autumn in The Netherlands consists of fat only, but that the similar gain in body mass in spring consists of proteinaceous tissue (pectoral and other skeletal muscle and possibly skin tissue). That the same golden plovers store energy in autumn and store protein in spring suggests that they face energy deficits in early winter and risk protein deficits in spring, especially perhaps after arrival on the breeding grounds in late April and early May. In autumn and winter their diet consists largely of protein-rich earthworms, but upon arrival on Low Arctic and montane tundras, golden plovers tend to eat berries which are rich in sugars but notably poor in proteins. We therefore propose that the build-up of proteinaceous tissue in spring reflects a strategic storage of a nutritional resource that is likely to be in short supply somewhat later in the year. PMID:12061951

  2. Metal and Trace Element Burdens in Two Shorebird Species at Two Sympatric Wintering Sites in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Hui, C A

    1998-05-01

    In January and November, 1994, ten willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) and ten black-bellied plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) were collected at a south-facing sandy beach at the North Island Naval Air Station (NASNI) and ten willets and three plovers were collected at the Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge (TSNWR), 16 km to the southeast. Concentrations of 19 inorganic analytes were determined in the livers. Differences between sexes in diet or abilities to retain some analytes are indicated because male willets tend to have greater levels of Cd than females and male plovers tend to have greater levels of Fe, Hg, and Mn than females. Concentrations of Hg and Mg in willets decreased from January to November. If this decrease is a part of an annual cycle, then the birds may be acquiring those elements while at NASNI. The differences between sites shows higher levels of As and Se but lower levels of Mn in willets at NASNI while plovers have lower levels of Cu, Mg and Zn at NASNI. There were no correlations between Hg and Se concentrations in the livers of any sample group of birds.

  3. A review of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena; Spicer, Greg S

    2016-01-01

    The fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) is comprehensively revised. All of 78 known species, which are grouped into 11 genera, are examined and diagnosed or redescribed. Data on picobiine hosts and distribution are summarized, including new host and locality records. The following new species are described: Charadriineopicobia apricaria sp. nov. ex Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from France, Neopicobia pari sp. nov. ex Periparus venustulus Swinhoe (type host) (Passeriformes: Paridae) from China, Parus major Linnaeus (Paridae) from Macedonia and Finland, and Poecile varius Temminck and Schlegel (Paridae) from Japan, Picobia magellani sp. nov. ex Scytalopus magellanicus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from Colombia, Picobia lonchura sp. nov. ex Lonchura leucogastra (Blyth) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) from Indonesia, Picobia makoli sp. nov. ex Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Lesson) (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from Colombia. The species Picobia polonica Skoracki, Magowski and Dabert, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of C. khulkhaskhani Kivganov and Sharafat, 1995. The following new combinations are proposed: Neopicobia ictericus (Skoracki and Glowska, 2010) comb. nov., Rafapicobia brotogeris (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov., and Rafapicobia ramphastos (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov. Keys to the all picobiine genera and species are presented, along with a check-list of picobiine species and their hosts. PMID:27395108

  4. Metabolic engineering of Dunaliella salina for production of ketocarotenoids.

    PubMed

    Anila, N; Simon, Daris P; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2016-03-01

    Dunaliella is a commercially important marine alga producing high amount of β-carotene. The use of Dunaliella as a potential transgenic system for the production of recombinant proteins has been recently recognized. The present study reports for the first time the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in Dunaliella salina for ketocarotenoid production. The pathway modification included the introduction of a bkt gene from H. pluvialis encoding β-carotene ketolase (4,4'β-oxygenase) along with chloroplast targeting for the production of ketocarotenoids. The bkt under the control of Dunaliella Rubisco smaller subunit promoter along with its transit peptide sequence was introduced into the alga through standardized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The selected transformants were confirmed using GFP and GUS expression, PCR and southern blot analysis. A notable upregulation of the endogenous hydroxylase level of transformants was observed where the BKT expression was higher in nutrient-limiting conditions. Carotenoid analysis of the transformants through HPLC and MS analysis showed the presence of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with maximum content of 3.5 and 1.9 µg/g DW, respectively. The present study reports the feasibility of using D. salina for the production of ketocarotenoids including astaxanthin.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Dunaliella salina for production of ketocarotenoids.

    PubMed

    Anila, N; Simon, Daris P; Chandrashekar, Arun; Ravishankar, G A; Sarada, R

    2016-03-01

    Dunaliella is a commercially important marine alga producing high amount of β-carotene. The use of Dunaliella as a potential transgenic system for the production of recombinant proteins has been recently recognized. The present study reports for the first time the metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in Dunaliella salina for ketocarotenoid production. The pathway modification included the introduction of a bkt gene from H. pluvialis encoding β-carotene ketolase (4,4'β-oxygenase) along with chloroplast targeting for the production of ketocarotenoids. The bkt under the control of Dunaliella Rubisco smaller subunit promoter along with its transit peptide sequence was introduced into the alga through standardized Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The selected transformants were confirmed using GFP and GUS expression, PCR and southern blot analysis. A notable upregulation of the endogenous hydroxylase level of transformants was observed where the BKT expression was higher in nutrient-limiting conditions. Carotenoid analysis of the transformants through HPLC and MS analysis showed the presence of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin with maximum content of 3.5 and 1.9 µg/g DW, respectively. The present study reports the feasibility of using D. salina for the production of ketocarotenoids including astaxanthin. PMID:26334599

  6. Organochlorines, mercury, and selenium in wintering shorebirds from Washington and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Meyers, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dunlins Caldris alpina, and black-bellied plovers, Pluvialis squatarola, were collected in Washington and California during the winter of 1984-85; long-billed dowitchers, Limnodromus scolopaceus, were collected in California. Pooled breast muscles (by species, location, and date) were analyzed for organochlorines and pooled livers for mercury and selenium. DDE was detected in all eight dunlin, three of five dowitcher, and two of nine plover muscle pools. Estimated DDE concentrations in dunlin carcasses at two sites in California were greater than 3 ppm wet wt, a dietary concentration associated with eggshell thinning and decreased reproductive success in raptors. Detectable concentrations of mercury and selenium were found in all liver pools. Selenium concentrations in plovers from two sites in Washington were elevated (26.9 and 29.9 ppm dry wt), but below concentrations shown to affect reproductive success in black-necked stilts, Himantopus mexicanus. Elevated mercury concentrations in livers of dunlin from Bodega Bay (18.9 ppm dry wt) and Salinas River (16.3 ppm dry wt), California were below levels associated with acute toxicity.

  7. Copper-Induced Membrane Depolarizations Involve the Induction of Mosaic TRP Channels, Which Activate VDCC Leading to Calcium Increases in Ulva compressa

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Melissa; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A.; Moenne, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The marine macroalga Ulva compressa (Chlorophyceae) is a cosmopolitan species, tolerant to heavy metals, in particular to copper. U. compressa was cultivated with 10 μM copper for 12 h and membrane depolarization events were detected. First, seven depolarization events occurred at 4, 8, 12–13, 80, and 86 min, and at 5 and 9 h of copper exposure. Second, bathocuproine sulphonate, a specific copper-chelating compound, was added before incorporating copper to the culture medium. Copper-induced depolarizations were inhibited by bathocuproine at 4, 8, 12–13, 80, and 86 min, but not at 5 and 9 h, indicating that initial events are due to copper ions entry. Third, specific inhibitors of human TRPA1, C4, C5, M8, and V1corresponding to HC030031, ML204, SKF96363, M8B, and capsazepin, respectively, were used to analyze whether copper-induced depolarizations were due to activation of transient receptor potentials (TRPs). Inhibitor effects indicate that the seven depolarizations involved the activation of functional mosaic TRPs that displayed properties similar to human TRPA, C, M, and/or V. Finally, inhibition of copper-induced depolarizations using specific TRP inhibitors suppressed calcium increases at 2, 3, and 12 h due to activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). Thus, copper induces seven depolarization events that involve activation of mosaic TRPs which, in turn, activates VDCC leading to calcium increases at 2, 3, and 12 h in U. compressa. PMID:27379106

  8. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    PubMed

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-09-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae.

  9. Actin phylogeny identifies Mesostigma viride as a flagellate ancestor of the land plants.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, D; Weber, K; An, S S; Berning-Koch, W

    1998-11-01

    Green algae and land plants trace their evolutionary history to a unique common ancestor. This "green lineage" is phylogenetically subdivided into two distinct assemblages, the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. The Chlorophyta includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinopohyceae, whereas the Streptophyta includes the Charophyceae plus the bryophytes, ferns, and all other multicellular land plants (Embryophyta). The Prasinophyceae is believed to contain the earliest divergences within the green lineage. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA sequences identify the prasinophytes as a paraphyletic taxon that diverges at the base of the Chlorophyta. rDNA analyses, however, provide ambiguous results regarding the identity of the flagellate ancestor of the Streptophyta. We have sequenced the actin-encoding cDNAs from Scherffelia dubia (Prasinophyceae), Coleochaete scutata, Spirogyra sp. (Charophyceae), and the single-copy actin gene from Mesostigma viride (Prasinophyceae). Phylogenetic analyses show Mesostigma to be the earliest divergence within the Streptophyta and provide direct evidence for a scaly, biflagellate, unicellular ancestor for this lineage. This result is supported by the existence of two conserved actin-coding region introns (positions 20-3, 152-1), and one intron in the 5'-untranslated region of the actin gene shared by Mesostigma and the embryophytes.

  10. Gut Content Identification of Larvae of the Anopheles gambiae Complex in Western Kenya Using a Barcoding Approach

    PubMed Central

    Garros, C.; Ngungi, N.; Githeko, A.E.; Tuno, N.; Yan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Although larvae feeding and food source are vital to the development, survival and population regulation of African malaria vectors, the prey organisms of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the natural environment have not been well studied. This study used a molecular barcoding approach to investigate the natural diets of Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae in Western Kenya. Gut contents from third- and fourth-instar larvae from natural habitats were dissected and DNA was extracted. The 18S ribosomal DNA gene was amplified, the resulting clones were screened using a RFLP method and non-mosquito clones were sequenced. Homology search and phylogenetic analyses were then conducted using the sequences of non-mosquito clones to identify the putative microorganisms ingested. The phylogenetic analyses clustered ingested microorganisms in four clades, including two clades of green algae (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae Class, Chlamydomonadales and Chlorococcales families), one fungal clade, and one unknown eukaryote clade. In parallel, using the same approach, an analysis of the biodiversity present in the larval habitats was done. This present study demonstrated the feasibility of the barcoding approach to infer the natural diets of Anopheles gambiae larvae. Our analysis suggests that despite the wide range of microorganisms available in natural habitats, mosquito larvae fed on specific groups of algae. The novel tools developed from this study can be used to improve our understanding of the larval ecology of African malaria vectors and to facilitate the development of new mosquito control tools. PMID:21585828

  11. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project. PMID:26054458

  12. The systematics of Zoochlorella revisited employing an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Pröschold, Thomas; Darienko, Tatyana; Silva, Paul C; Reisser, Werner; Krienitz, Lothar

    2011-02-01

    Symbiosis of green algae with protozoa and invertebrates has been studied for more than 100 years. Endosymbiotic green algae are widely distributed in ciliates (e.g. Paramecium, Stentor, Climacostomum, Coleps, Euplotes), heliozoa (e.g. Acanthocystis) and invertebrates (e.g. Hydra, Spongilla), and have traditionally been identified as named or unnamed species of Chlorella Beij. or Zoochlorella K. Brandt or referred to as Chlorella-like algae or zoochlorellae. We studied 17 strains of endosymbionts isolated from various hosts and geographical localities using an integrative approach (nuclear encoded small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA gene sequences including their secondary structures, morphology, physiology and virus sensitivity). Phylogenetic analyses have revealed them to be polyphyletic. The strains examined belong to five independent clades within the Trebouxiophyceae (Choricystis-, Elliptochloris-, Auxenochlorella- and Chlorella-clades) and Chlorophyceae (Scenedesmus-clade). The most studied host organism, Paramecium bursaria, harbours endosymbionts representing at least five different species. On the basis of our results, we propose a taxonomic revision of endosymbiotic 'Chlorella'-like green algae. Zoochlorella conductrix K. Brandt is transferred to Micractinium Fresen. and Zoochlorella parasitica K. Brandt to Choricystis (Skuja) Fott. It was shown that Choricystis minor (Skuja) Fott, the generitype, is a later heterotypic synonym of Choricystis parasitica (K. Brandt) comb. nov. A new species, Chlorella heliozoae, is proposed to accommodate the endosymbiont of Acanthocystis turfacea. PMID:20874732

  13. Ecology of Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of South Assam, North East India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Susmita; Devi, S Sushila

    2014-11-01

    A study was made on the physico-chemical properties of water and phyto and zooplankton communities of Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of South Assam during March to August, 2009. Analyses of water showed acidic to slightly alkaline pH (5.4-7.9) with dissolved oxygen ranging from 4.26 to 11.83 mgl(-1) and total alkalinity from 31.25 to 65 mg l(-1), indicating the productive nature of water. Free CO2 fluctuated from 2.93 to 15.04 mgl(-1). PO4 and NO3 concentration ranged from 0.15 to 1.4 mg l(-1) and 0.06 mg l(-1) to 4.94 mg l(-1), respectively. Conductivity, pH and free CO2 were found higher at the sites surrounded by paddy fields. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters significantly varied between the sites and were found to be influenced by one or more of the following factors viz. rainfall, depth and influx from adjacent paddy field. A total of 30 phytoplankton taxa and 12 zooplankton taxa with qualitative dominance of Chlorophyceae were recorded. The study revealed that water quality of the lake was good for aquaculture. Hence, the lake should be protected and best management practices should be implemented for sustainable production. PMID:25522512

  14. Morphological, Molecular, and Biochemical Characterization of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids-Rich Chlamydomonas sp. KIOST-1 Isolated from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seon-Mi; Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Taeho; Park, Areumi; Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Affan, Md Abu; Shim, Won-Bo; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae hold promise as producers of sustainable biomass for the production of biofuels and other biomaterials. However, the selection of strains with efficient and robust production of desirable resources remains challenging. In this study, we isolated a green microalga from Korea and analyzed its morphological, molecular, and biochemical characteristics. Microscopic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the isolate could be classified into the genus Chlamydomonas, and we designated the isolate Chlamydomonas s p. K IOST -1. Compositions of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate in the microalgal cells were estimated to be 58.8 ± 0.2%, 22.7 ± 1.2%, and 18.5 ± 1.0%, respectively. Similar to other microalgae belonging to Chlorophyceae, the dominant amino acid and monosaccharide in Chlamydomonas sp. KIOST-1 were glutamic acid and glucose. On the other hand, the proportions of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids clearly differed from other species in the genus Chlamydomonas, and monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for a large portion (41.3%) of the total fatty acids in the isolate. Based on these results, Chlamydomonas sp. KIOST-1 has advantageous characteristics for biomass production.

  15. Effects of hydraulic retention time on cultivation of indigenous microalgae as a renewable energy source using secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Yugo; Hidaka, Taira; Tsumori, Jun; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants is suitable media for cultivating microalgae as a renewable energy source, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) control in culture is important to conduct well-planned outdoor indigenous microalgae cultivation with secondary effluent. This study revealed cultivation characteristics under various HRT by continuous 6-month experiments. In addition, effects of HRT on cultivation were determined by a mathematical model that described indigenous microalgae growth. Cultivated biomass mainly consisted of Chlorophyceae and its detritus regardless of HRT, and 5.93-14.8g/m(2)/day of biomass yield was obtained. The cultivated biomass had a stable higher heating value of 16kJ/g. Sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that HRT control had great effects on biomass yield, and 2-3days of HRT were recommended to obtain maximum biomass yield under certain weather conditions (temperature: approximately 12-25°C and solar radiation: approximately 8-19MJ/m(2)/day). PMID:26897418

  16. Interpretation of an index of phytoplankton population composition calculated from Remote Airborne Fluorsensor (RAF) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    The calculation of indices of phytoplankton population composition from chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm excited by narrow band light at 454 and 539 nm is discussed. The ratio of the fluorescence excited by light of these two wavelengths is a function of the distribution of the phytoplankton between two color groups, designated the golden-brown and the green. The golden-brown group consists of those species which have the highly photosynthetically active carotenoid-chlorophyll-a-protein complexes, i.e. members of the classes Bacillariophyceae, diatoms Dinophyceae, dinoflagellates, and some members of the class Prymnesiophyceae. The green color group consists those species of phytoplankton which apparently lack those complexes, i.e. members of the classes Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Xanthophyceae, and a few members of the Prymnesiophyceae. A few species of phytoplankton appear to have intermediate characteristics, and would apparently belong to neither group. Most of these species are members of the class Cryptophyceae. The composition index for this class is examined in detail.

  17. Diversity and Dynamics of Active Small Microbial Eukaryotes in the Anoxic Zone of a Freshwater Meromictic Lake (Pavin, France).

    PubMed

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Hugoni, Mylène; Vellet, Agnès; Debroas, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning and oxygen is considered to be one of the strongest barriers against their local dispersal. However, diversity of microbial eukaryotes in freshwater habitats with oxygen gradients has previously received very little attention. We applied high-throughput sequencing (V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene) in conjunction with quantitative PCR (DNA and RNA) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, to provide an unique spatio-temporal analysis of microbial eukaryotes diversity and potential activity in a meromictic freshwater lake (lake Pavin). This study revealed a high genetic diversity of unicellular eukaryotes in the permanent anoxic zone of lake Pavin and allowed the discrimination of active vs. inactive components. Forty-two percent of the OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) are exclusively present in the monimolimnion, where Alveolata (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae) and Fungi (Dikarya and Chytrids) are the most active phyla and are probably represented by species capable of anaerobic metabolism. Pigmented eukaryotes (Haptophyceae and Chlorophyceae) are also present and active in this zone, which opens up questions regarding their metabolism.

  18. A novel cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Marine microalgae are of major ecologic and emerging economic importance. Biotechnological screening schemes of microalgae for specific traits and laboratory experiments to advance our knowledge on algal biology and evolution strongly benefit from culture collections reflecting a maximum of the natural inter- and intraspecific diversity. However, standard procedures for strain isolation and identification, namely DNA extraction, purification, amplification, sequencing and taxonomic identification still include considerable constraints increasing the time required to establish new cultures. Results In this study, we report a cost effective and high-throughput isolation and identification method for marine microalgae. The throughput was increased by applying strain isolation on plates and taxonomic identification by direct PCR (dPCR) of phylogenetic marker genes in combination with a novel sequencing electropherogram based screening method to assess the taxonomic diversity and identity of the isolated cultures. For validation of the effectiveness of this approach, we isolated and identified a range of unialgal cultures from natural phytoplankton communities sampled in the Arctic Ocean. These cultures include the isolate of a novel marine Chlorophyceae strain among several different diatoms. Conclusions We provide an efficient and effective approach leading from natural phytoplankton communities to isolated and taxonomically identified algal strains in only a few weeks. Validated with sensitive Arctic phytoplankton, this approach overcomes the constraints of standard molecular characterisation and establishment of unialgal cultures. PMID:25114712

  19. The systematics of Zoochlorella revisited employing an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Pröschold, Thomas; Darienko, Tatyana; Silva, Paul C; Reisser, Werner; Krienitz, Lothar

    2011-02-01

    Symbiosis of green algae with protozoa and invertebrates has been studied for more than 100 years. Endosymbiotic green algae are widely distributed in ciliates (e.g. Paramecium, Stentor, Climacostomum, Coleps, Euplotes), heliozoa (e.g. Acanthocystis) and invertebrates (e.g. Hydra, Spongilla), and have traditionally been identified as named or unnamed species of Chlorella Beij. or Zoochlorella K. Brandt or referred to as Chlorella-like algae or zoochlorellae. We studied 17 strains of endosymbionts isolated from various hosts and geographical localities using an integrative approach (nuclear encoded small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA gene sequences including their secondary structures, morphology, physiology and virus sensitivity). Phylogenetic analyses have revealed them to be polyphyletic. The strains examined belong to five independent clades within the Trebouxiophyceae (Choricystis-, Elliptochloris-, Auxenochlorella- and Chlorella-clades) and Chlorophyceae (Scenedesmus-clade). The most studied host organism, Paramecium bursaria, harbours endosymbionts representing at least five different species. On the basis of our results, we propose a taxonomic revision of endosymbiotic 'Chlorella'-like green algae. Zoochlorella conductrix K. Brandt is transferred to Micractinium Fresen. and Zoochlorella parasitica K. Brandt to Choricystis (Skuja) Fott. It was shown that Choricystis minor (Skuja) Fott, the generitype, is a later heterotypic synonym of Choricystis parasitica (K. Brandt) comb. nov. A new species, Chlorella heliozoae, is proposed to accommodate the endosymbiont of Acanthocystis turfacea.

  20. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Fučíková, Karolina; Pažoutová, Marie; Rindi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Sexual reproduction is widespread in eukaryotes and is well documented in chlorophytan green algae. In this lineage, however, the Trebouxiophyceae represent a striking exception: in contrast to its relatives Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae this group appears to be mostly asexual, as fertilization has been rarely observed. Assessments of sexual reproduction in the Trebouxiophyceae have been based on microscopic observation of gametes fusing. New genomic data offer now the opportunity to check for the presence of meiotic genes, which represent an indirect evidence of a sexual life cycle. Using genomic and transcriptomic data for 12 taxa spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the class, we tried to clarify whether genuine asexuality or cryptic sexuality is the most likely case for the numerous putatively asexual trebouxiophytes. On the basis of these data and a bibliographic review, we conclude that the view of trebouxiophytes as primarily asexual is incorrect. In contrast to the limited number of reports of fertilization, meiotic genes were found in all genomes and transcriptomes examined, even in species presumed asexual. In the taxa examined the totality or majority of the genes were present, Helicosporidium and Auxenochlorella being the only partial exceptions (only four genes present). The evidence of sex provided by the meiotic genes is phylogenetically widespread in the class and indicates that sexual reproduction is not associated with any particular morphological or ecological trait. On the basis of the results, we expect that the existence of the meiotic genes will be documented in all trebouxiophycean genomes that will become available in the future. PMID:26986659

  1. Effects of hydraulic retention time on cultivation of indigenous microalgae as a renewable energy source using secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Yugo; Hidaka, Taira; Tsumori, Jun; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants is suitable media for cultivating microalgae as a renewable energy source, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) control in culture is important to conduct well-planned outdoor indigenous microalgae cultivation with secondary effluent. This study revealed cultivation characteristics under various HRT by continuous 6-month experiments. In addition, effects of HRT on cultivation were determined by a mathematical model that described indigenous microalgae growth. Cultivated biomass mainly consisted of Chlorophyceae and its detritus regardless of HRT, and 5.93-14.8g/m(2)/day of biomass yield was obtained. The cultivated biomass had a stable higher heating value of 16kJ/g. Sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that HRT control had great effects on biomass yield, and 2-3days of HRT were recommended to obtain maximum biomass yield under certain weather conditions (temperature: approximately 12-25°C and solar radiation: approximately 8-19MJ/m(2)/day).

  2. The role of seaweed bioactives in the control of digestion: implications for obesity treatments.

    PubMed

    Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D; Houghton, David; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Seaweeds are an underutilised nutritional resource that could not only compliment the current western diet but potentially bring additional health benefits over and above their nutritional value. There are four groups of seaweed algae; green algae (Chlorophyceae), red algae (Rhodophycae), blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Seaweeds are rich in bioactive components including polysaccharides and polyphenols. Polysaccharides content, such as fucoidan, laminarin, as well as alginate is generally high in brown seaweeds which are also a source of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, phlorotannin, stilbenes and lignans. These components have been shown to reduce the activity of digestive enzymes, modulating enzymes such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pepsin and lipase. This review discusses the effect of several of these components on the digestive processes within the gastrointestinal tract; focusing on the effect of alginate on pancreatic lipase activity and its potential health benefits. Concluding that there is evidence to suggest alginate has the potential to be used as an obesity treatment, however, further in vivo research is required and an effective delivery method for alginate must be designed.

  3. Ecology of Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of South Assam, North East India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Susmita; Devi, S Sushila

    2014-11-01

    A study was made on the physico-chemical properties of water and phyto and zooplankton communities of Baskandi anua, an oxbow lake of South Assam during March to August, 2009. Analyses of water showed acidic to slightly alkaline pH (5.4-7.9) with dissolved oxygen ranging from 4.26 to 11.83 mgl(-1) and total alkalinity from 31.25 to 65 mg l(-1), indicating the productive nature of water. Free CO2 fluctuated from 2.93 to 15.04 mgl(-1). PO4 and NO3 concentration ranged from 0.15 to 1.4 mg l(-1) and 0.06 mg l(-1) to 4.94 mg l(-1), respectively. Conductivity, pH and free CO2 were found higher at the sites surrounded by paddy fields. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters significantly varied between the sites and were found to be influenced by one or more of the following factors viz. rainfall, depth and influx from adjacent paddy field. A total of 30 phytoplankton taxa and 12 zooplankton taxa with qualitative dominance of Chlorophyceae were recorded. The study revealed that water quality of the lake was good for aquaculture. Hence, the lake should be protected and best management practices should be implemented for sustainable production.

  4. DNA nucleoside composition and methylation in several species of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, E.E.; Dunahay, T.G.; Brown, L.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Total DNA was isolated from 10 species of microalgae, including representatives of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Monoraphidium minutum), Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella cryptica, Navicula saprophila, Nitzschia pusilla, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), Charophyceae (Stichococcus sp.), Dinophyceae (Crypthecodinium cohnii), and Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis suecica). Control samples of Escherichia coli and calf thymus DNA were also analyzed. The nucleoside base composition of each DNA sample was determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. All samples contained 5-methyldeoxycytidine, although at widely varying levels. In M. minutum, about one-third of the cytidine residues were methylated. Restriction analysis supported this high degree of methylation in M. minutum and suggested that methylation is biased toward 5[prime]-CG dinucleotides. The guanosine + cytosine (GC) contents of the green algae were, with the exception of Stichococcus sp., consistently higher than those of the diatoms. Monoraphidium minutum exhibited an extremely high GC content of 71%. Such a value is rare among eukaryotic organisms and might indicate an unusual codon usage. This work is important for developing strategies for transformation and gene cloning in these algae. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of intracellular P content on phosphate removal in Scenedesmus sp. Experimental study and kinetic expression.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Martínez, A; Serralta, J; Romero, I; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    The present work determines the effect of phosphorus content on phosphate uptake rate in a mixed culture of Chlorophyceae in which the genus Scenedesmus dominates. Phosphate uptake rate was determined in eighteen laboratory batch experiments, with samples taken from a progressively more P-starved culture in which a minimum P content of 0.11% (w/w) was achieved. The results obtained showed that the higher the internal biomass P content, the lower the phosphate removal rate. The highest specific phosphate removal rate was 6.5mgPO4-PgTSS(-1)h(-1). Microalgae with a P content around 1% (w/w) attained 10% of this highest removal rate, whereas those with a P content of 0.6% (w/w) presented 50% of the maximum removal rate. Different kinetic expressions were used to reproduce the experimental data. Best simulation results for the phosphate uptake process were obtained combining Steele equation and Hill function to represent the effect of light and intracellular phosphorus content, respectively.

  6. Comparison of eukaryotic phytobenthic community composition in a polluted river by partial 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dorigo, U; Bérard, A; Humbert, J F

    2002-11-01

    We compared the species composition in phytobenthic communities at different sampling sites in a small French river presenting polluted and unpolluted areas. For each sampling point, the total DNA was extracted and used to construct an 18S rRNA gene clone library after PCR amplification of a ca 400 bp fragment. Phytobenthic community composition was estimated by random sequencing of several clones per library. Most of the sequences corresponded to the Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae groups. By combining phylogenetic and correspondence analyses, we showed that our molecular approach is able to estimate and compare the species composition at different sampling sites in order to assess the environmental impact of xenobiotics on phytobenthic communities. Changes in species composition of these communities were found, but no evident decrease in the diversity. We discuss the significance of these changes with regard to the existing level of pollution and their impact on the functionality of the ecosystem. Our findings suggest that it is now possible to use faster molecular methods (DGGE, ARISA.) to test large numbers of samples in the context of ecotoxicological studies, and thus to assess the impact of pollution in an aquatic ecosystem.

  7. Diversity and Dynamics of Active Small Microbial Eukaryotes in the Anoxic Zone of a Freshwater Meromictic Lake (Pavin, France)

    PubMed Central

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Hugoni, Mylène; Vellet, Agnès; Debroas, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning and oxygen is considered to be one of the strongest barriers against their local dispersal. However, diversity of microbial eukaryotes in freshwater habitats with oxygen gradients has previously received very little attention. We applied high-throughput sequencing (V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene) in conjunction with quantitative PCR (DNA and RNA) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses, to provide an unique spatio-temporal analysis of microbial eukaryotes diversity and potential activity in a meromictic freshwater lake (lake Pavin). This study revealed a high genetic diversity of unicellular eukaryotes in the permanent anoxic zone of lake Pavin and allowed the discrimination of active vs. inactive components. Forty-two percent of the OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) are exclusively present in the monimolimnion, where Alveolata (Ciliophora and Dinophyceae) and Fungi (Dikarya and Chytrids) are the most active phyla and are probably represented by species capable of anaerobic metabolism. Pigmented eukaryotes (Haptophyceae and Chlorophyceae) are also present and active in this zone, which opens up questions regarding their metabolism. PMID:26904006

  8. Temporal Succession of Ancient Phytoplankton Community in Qinghai Lake and Implication for Paleo-environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaoyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Jian; Wu, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan lake sediments in NW China are sensitive recorders of climate change. However, many important plankton members do not leave any microscopic features in sedimentary records. Here we used ancient DNA preserved in Qinghai Lake sediments to reconstruct the temporal succession of plankton communities in the past 18,500 years. Our results showed that seven classes and sixteen genera of phytoplankton in the lake underwent major temporal changes, in correlation with known climatic events. Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae were predominant during the cold periods, whereas Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were abundant during the warm periods. The inferred changes in temperature, nutrients, precipitation, and salinity, as driven by the Westerlies and summer Monsoon strength, likely contributed to these observed temporal changes. Based on these correlations, we propose the phytoplankton index as a proxy to reconstruct the stadial versus interstadial climate change history in Qinghai Lake. This taxon-specific index is free of terrestrial contamination, sensitive to short-term climatic oscillations, and continuous in recording all climatic events in the lake. The validity of this index and its applicability to other lakes is demonstrated by its good correlations with multiple climate records of Qinghai Lake and another lake on the Tibetan Plateau, Kusai Lake.

  9. Temporal Succession of Ancient Phytoplankton Community in Qinghai Lake and Implication for Paleo-environmental Change.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaoyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Jian; Wu, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan lake sediments in NW China are sensitive recorders of climate change. However, many important plankton members do not leave any microscopic features in sedimentary records. Here we used ancient DNA preserved in Qinghai Lake sediments to reconstruct the temporal succession of plankton communities in the past 18,500 years. Our results showed that seven classes and sixteen genera of phytoplankton in the lake underwent major temporal changes, in correlation with known climatic events. Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae were predominant during the cold periods, whereas Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were abundant during the warm periods. The inferred changes in temperature, nutrients, precipitation, and salinity, as driven by the Westerlies and summer Monsoon strength, likely contributed to these observed temporal changes. Based on these correlations, we propose the phytoplankton index as a proxy to reconstruct the stadial versus interstadial climate change history in Qinghai Lake. This taxon-specific index is free of terrestrial contamination, sensitive to short-term climatic oscillations, and continuous in recording all climatic events in the lake. The validity of this index and its applicability to other lakes is demonstrated by its good correlations with multiple climate records of Qinghai Lake and another lake on the Tibetan Plateau, Kusai Lake. PMID:26805936

  10. Temporal Succession of Ancient Phytoplankton Community in Qinghai Lake and Implication for Paleo-environmental Change

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gaoyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Wang, Shang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Jian; Wu, Geng

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan lake sediments in NW China are sensitive recorders of climate change. However, many important plankton members do not leave any microscopic features in sedimentary records. Here we used ancient DNA preserved in Qinghai Lake sediments to reconstruct the temporal succession of plankton communities in the past 18,500 years. Our results showed that seven classes and sixteen genera of phytoplankton in the lake underwent major temporal changes, in correlation with known climatic events. Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae were predominant during the cold periods, whereas Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Cyanophyceae were abundant during the warm periods. The inferred changes in temperature, nutrients, precipitation, and salinity, as driven by the Westerlies and summer Monsoon strength, likely contributed to these observed temporal changes. Based on these correlations, we propose the phytoplankton index as a proxy to reconstruct the stadial versus interstadial climate change history in Qinghai Lake. This taxon-specific index is free of terrestrial contamination, sensitive to short-term climatic oscillations, and continuous in recording all climatic events in the lake. The validity of this index and its applicability to other lakes is demonstrated by its good correlations with multiple climate records of Qinghai Lake and another lake on the Tibetan Plateau, Kusai Lake. PMID:26805936

  11. The evo-devo of multinucleate cells, tissues, and organisms, and an alternative route to multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D; Crawford, David R

    2013-01-01

    Multinucleate cells, tissues, or organisms occur in 60 families of land plants and in five otherwise diverse algal lineages (Rhodophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae). Inspection of a morphospace constructed out of eight developmental processes reveals a large number of possible variants of multinucleate cells and organisms that, with two exceptions, are represented by one or more plant species in one or more clades. Thus, most of these permutations of developmental processes exist in nature. Inspection of the morphospace also shows how the siphonous body plan (a multinucleate cell with the capacity for indeterminate growth in size) can theoretically serve as the direct progenitor of a multicellular organism by a process similar to segregative cell division observed in siphonocladean algae. Using molecular phylogenies of algal clades, different evolutionary scenarios are compared to see how the multicellular condition may have evolved from a multinucleate unicellular progenitor. We also show that the siphonous progenitor of a multicellular organism has previously passed through the alignment-of-fitness phase (in which genetic similarity among cells/nuclei minimizes internal genomic conflict) and the export-of-fitness phase (in which genetically similar cells/nuclei collaborate to achieve a reproductively integrated multicellular organism). All that is theoretically required is the evolutionary acquisition of the capacity to compartmentalize its cytoplasm. PMID:24261447

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton in a tropical eutrophic river.

    PubMed

    Santana, L M; Moraes, M E B; Silva, D M L; Ferragut, C

    2016-04-19

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental factors determining of the changes in phytoplankton structure in spatial (upper, middle and lower course) and seasonal (dry and rainy period) scales in a eutrophic river (Almada River, northeastern Brazil). In the study period, total accumulated rainfall was below of the historic average, resulting in flow reduction, mainly in rainy period. High orthophosphate concentration was found at the sampling sites. Phytoplankton chlorophyll a increased from upstream to downstream. Geitlerinema splendidum (S1) and Chlamydomonas sp. (X2) were the most abundant species in the upper course and several species of diatoms (D), Euglenophyceae (W1, W2) and Chlorophyceae (X1) in the middle and lower course. The functional groups were found to be characteristic of lotic ecosystem, shallow, with low light availability, rich in organic matter and eutrophic environments. We conclude that phytoplankton community structure was sensitive to change of the river flow and nutrient availability in spatial and seasonal scale in a tropical river. PMID:27097084

  13. Phytoplankton assemblage of a small, shallow, tropical African reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-12-01

    I measured physico-chemical properties and phytoplankton in the small, shallow tropical reservoir of Oyun (Offa, Nigeria) between January 2002 and December 2003. I identified 25 phytoplankton genera in three sampling stations. Bacillariophyceae dominated (75.3%), followed by Chlorophyceae (12.2%), Cyanobacteria (11.1%) and Desmidiaceae (0.73%). The high amount of nutrients (e.g. nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and silica) explain phytoplankton heterogeneity (p<0.05). Phytoplankton was abundant during the rainy season, but the transition period had the richest assemblage and abundance. Fluctuations in phytoplankton density were a result of seasonal changes in concentration of nutrients, grazing pressure and reservoir hydrology. The reservoir is eutrophic with excellent water quality and a diverse phytoplankton assemblage: fish production would be high. These conditions resulted from strategies such as watershed best management practices (BMPs) to control eutrophication and sedimentation, and priorities for water usage established through legislation. Additional measures are recommended to prevent oligotrophy, hypereutrophy, excessive phytoplankton bloom, toxic cyanobacteria, and run-off of organic waste and salts. PMID:20073331

  14. On the natural diet of Daphnia laevis in the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais).

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the major food items ingested by adult specimens of Daphnia laevis within the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The gut content was analyzed after addition of sodium hypochlorite and also through the examination of dissected guts under scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Chlorophyceae was the main food item ingested, representing c. 80.5% of the total ingested food. Moreover, Eutetramorus fottii, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum and Oocystis lacustris, the dominant phytoplankton species within the reservoir, were the most frequent cells found in the gut contents. Euglenophyta also represented an important food item accounting for 15% of the ingested material, including mainly Trachelomonas volvocina and Euglena oxyuris, although less abundant in the reservoir (< 10% of total phytoplankton). Blue-green algae occurred at much lower percentages in the guts than in the phytoplankton. A small amount of undigested Microcystis aeruginosa colonies were also found in the gut content of D. laevis. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that, besides phytoplankton cells, a great amount of abiogenic material was also ingested. The amount of this inorganic material increased considerably in the tract (from 15% to 75% of the gut content), when a peak of D. laevis was observed in the reservoir. Our assumption is that the ingestion of this inorganic material can be a strategy used by D. laevis to obtain additional food supply.

  15. Interaction between microalgal species richness and environmental variables in Peringalkuthu Reservoir, Western Ghats, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Nasser, K M Mohamed; Sureshkumar, S

    2013-11-01

    Microalgae are the most diverse group of aquatic organisms and are the primary food source for animals of higher trophic levels in the aquatic food web. Biomonitoring the fresh water habitats in terms of phycological evaluation provide useful information about the pollution status of the water body. The present investigation aimed to delineate the interaction between microalgal species richness and environmental variables in Peringalkuthu Reservoir of Western Ghats, Kerala. Samples were collected during 2009-2011 for the analysis of environmental variables and microalgal community. Ninety four species of microalgae belonged to 42 genera under the classes Chlorophyceae, Desmidiaceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Euglenophycea were recorded from the samples. The dominant groups were desmids followed by diatoms. Factor analysis and multivariate analysis were applied to evaluate the extent of interaction between the microalgal species richness and the environmental variables. Temperature, total alkalinity, BOD, phosphate, silicate and chloride showed positive relationship with the species richness of the microalgae. While pH, total hardness, nitrate, fluoride, calcium and magnesium hinder the microalgal species richness. Elucidation of the interactions between microalgae and various environmental parameters suggested a control over the anthropogenic interventions to the reservoir to check the conversion of the lake oligotrophic to eutrophic condition. PMID:24555328

  16. The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H.; Clerck, Olivier De; Coates, Juliet C.

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i) patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii) Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii) Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv) Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage. PMID:25745427

  17. Different fates of the chloroplast tufA gene following its transfer to the nucleus in green algae.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, S L; Manhart, J R; Palmer, J D

    1990-07-01

    Previous work suggested that the tufA gene, encoding protein synthesis elongation factor Tu, was transferred from the chloroplast to the nucleus within the green algal lineage giving rise to land plants. In this report we investigate the timing and mode of transfer by examining chloroplast and nuclear DNA from the three major classes of green algae, with emphasis on the class Charophyceae, the proposed sister group to land plants. Filter hybridizations reveal a chloroplast tufA gene in all Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae and in some but not all Charophyceae. One charophycean alga, Coleochaete orbicularis, is shown to contain an intact but highly divergent chloroplast tufA gene, whose product is predicted to be non-functional in protein synthesis. We propose that a copy of the tufA gene was functionally transferred from the chloroplast to the nucleus early in the evolution of the Charophyceae, with chloroplast copies of varying function being retained in some but not all of the subsequently diverging lineages. This proposal is supported by the demonstration of multiple tufA-like sequences in Coleochaete nuclear DNA and in nuclear DNA from all other Charophyceae examined.

  18. Phytoplankton abundance and structure as indicator of water quality in the drainage system of the Burullus Lagoon, southern Mediterranean coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Hala Yassin; Gharib, Samiha Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    This study represents the first detailed account of phytoplankton community structure and seasonal succession in eight drain sites and the Brimbal Canal influx into the Burullus Lagoon. The phytoplankton characteristics were studied based on the data collected seasonally over 4 years, from summer 2012 to spring 2016. Various indices such as Palmer's and Shannon's biotic indices were used for the assessment of the water quality of the different drains. There were a total of 194 species belonging to 65 genera and 6 groups: Bacillariophyceae (76 species), Chlorophyceae (59 species), Cyanophyceae (30 species), Euglenophyceae (25 species), Dinophyceae (3 species), and Xanthophyceae (1 species). The phytoplankton community was dominated with diatoms, green algae, and euglenoids such as Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Navicula, Nitzschia, Ankistrodesmus, Chlorella, and Euglena. Maximum and minimum phytoplankton abundance was recorded at the Brimbal Canal and Hooks Drain. Maximum and minimum species diversities (H') were found at the Hooks Drain (2.564) and Burullus Drain (2.055). Species evenness fluctuated between 0.595 (Burullus Drain) and 0.750 (West Burullus Drain). The total score of algal genus pollution index and the algal species pollution index at the different drains showed that Drain 7 and the West Burullus Drain had moderate pollution, and the total score of the other drains were greater than 20 indicating the confirmed high organic pollution. Thus, the present investigation can be considered an attempt to use the phytoplankton community as a bioindicator of organic pollution.

  19. 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov.: considerations on evolutionary history, host range and shift of early divergent rickettsiae.

    PubMed

    Schrallhammer, Martina; Ferrantini, Filippo; Vannini, Claudia; Galati, Stefano; Schweikert, Michael; Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Verni, Franco; Petroni, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    "Neglected Rickettsiaceae" (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts) display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure) of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora); furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales) as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria.

  20. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-01-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae. PMID:10488238

  1. Adaptation of Spirogyra insignis (Chlorophyta) to an extreme natural environment (sulphureous waters) through preselective mutations.

    PubMed

    Flores-Moya, Antonio; Costas, Eduardo; Bañares-España, Elena; García-Villada, Libertad; Altamirano, María; López-Rodas, Victoria

    2005-05-01

    Adaptation of Spirogyra insignis (Chlorophyceae) to growth and survival in an extreme natural environment (sulphureous waters from La Hedionda Spa, S. Spain) was analysed by using an experimental model. Photosynthesis and growth of the alga were inhibited when it was cultured in La Hedionda Spa waters (LHW), but after further incubation for several weeks, the culture survived due to the growth of a variant that was resistant to LHW. A Luria-Delbruck fluctuation analysis was carried out to distinguish between resistant filaments arising from rare spontaneous mutations and resistant filaments arising from other mechanisms of adaptation. It was demonstrated that the resistant filaments arose randomly by rare spontaneous mutations before the addition of LHW (preselective mutations). The rate of spontaneous mutation from sensitivity to resistance was 2.7 x 10(-7) mutants per cell division. Since LHW(resistant) mutants have a diminished growth rate, they are maintained in nonsulphureous natural waters as the result of a balance between new resistants arising from spontaneous mutation and resistants eliminated by natural selection. Thus, recurrence of rare spontaneous preselective mutations ensures the survival of the alga in sulphureous waters.

  2. Influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon on coastal phytoplankton in a mixohaline ecosystem on the southeastern of South America: Río de la Plata estuary.

    PubMed

    Sathicq, María Belén; Bauer, Delia Elena; Gómez, Nora

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the density, diversity, biomass and assemblage composition of the phytoplankton in relation to environmental conditions (physical, chemical, hydrological and meteorological variables), measured under the different scenarios caused by the ENSO phenomenon in the period between 2005 and 2012, in six sampling sites in the tidal freshwater zone of the Río de la Plata estuary, covering almost 100km of coastline. The results revealed changes in the structure of the phytoplankton, such as a significant reduction of diversity, and decreases in biomass and phytoplankton density, particularly during El Niño phases. Cyanobacteria were more abundant in the neutral periods, Chlorophyceae dominated La Niña phase while Bacyllariophyceae dominated El Niño. However, no complete replacement of species between cycles was observed. The results obtained were highly variable due to the inherent natural variability of the Río de la Plata, emphasized by the anthropogenic impact in this area.

  3. Comparative sequence analysis of CP12, a small protein involved in the formation of a Calvin cycle complex in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Groben, René; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Raines, Christine A; Offmann, Bernard; Maberly, Stephen C; Gontero, Brigitte

    2010-03-01

    CP12, a small intrinsically unstructured protein, plays an important role in the regulation of the Calvin cycle by forming a complex with phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). An extensive search in databases revealed 129 protein sequences from, higher plants, mosses and liverworts, different groups of eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. CP12 was identified throughout the Plantae, apart from in the Prasinophyceae. Within the Chromalveolata, two putative CP12 proteins have been found in the genomes of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi, but specific searches in further chromalveolate genomes or EST datasets did not reveal any CP12 sequences in other Prymnesiophyceae, Dinophyceae or Pelagophyceae. A species from the Euglenophyceae within the Excavata also appeared to lack CP12. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clear separation into a number of higher taxonomic clades and among different forms of CP12 in higher plants. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyceae, Rhodophyta and Glaucophyceae, Bryophyta, and the CP12-3 forms in higher plants all form separate clades. The degree of disorder of CP12 was higher in higher plants than in the eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria apart from the green algal class Mesostigmatophyceae, which is ancestral to the streptophytes. This suggests that CP12 has evolved to become more flexible and possibly take on more general roles. Different features of the CP12 sequences in the different taxonomic groups and their potential functions and interactions in the Calvin cycle are discussed.

  4. Phytoplankton abundance and structure as indicator of water quality in the drainage system of the Burullus Lagoon, southern Mediterranean coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Kassas, Hala Yassin; Gharib, Samiha Mahmoud

    2016-09-01

    This study represents the first detailed account of phytoplankton community structure and seasonal succession in eight drain sites and the Brimbal Canal influx into the Burullus Lagoon. The phytoplankton characteristics were studied based on the data collected seasonally over 4 years, from summer 2012 to spring 2016. Various indices such as Palmer's and Shannon's biotic indices were used for the assessment of the water quality of the different drains. There were a total of 194 species belonging to 65 genera and 6 groups: Bacillariophyceae (76 species), Chlorophyceae (59 species), Cyanophyceae (30 species), Euglenophyceae (25 species), Dinophyceae (3 species), and Xanthophyceae (1 species). The phytoplankton community was dominated with diatoms, green algae, and euglenoids such as Cyclotella, Scenedesmus, Navicula, Nitzschia, Ankistrodesmus, Chlorella, and Euglena. Maximum and minimum phytoplankton abundance was recorded at the Brimbal Canal and Hooks Drain. Maximum and minimum species diversities (H') were found at the Hooks Drain (2.564) and Burullus Drain (2.055). Species evenness fluctuated between 0.595 (Burullus Drain) and 0.750 (West Burullus Drain). The total score of algal genus pollution index and the algal species pollution index at the different drains showed that Drain 7 and the West Burullus Drain had moderate pollution, and the total score of the other drains were greater than 20 indicating the confirmed high organic pollution. Thus, the present investigation can be considered an attempt to use the phytoplankton community as a bioindicator of organic pollution. PMID:27553944

  5. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Fučíková, Karolina; Pažoutová, Marie; Rindi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Sexual reproduction is widespread in eukaryotes and is well documented in chlorophytan green algae. In this lineage, however, the Trebouxiophyceae represent a striking exception: in contrast to its relatives Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae this group appears to be mostly asexual, as fertilization has been rarely observed. Assessments of sexual reproduction in the Trebouxiophyceae have been based on microscopic observation of gametes fusing. New genomic data offer now the opportunity to check for the presence of meiotic genes, which represent an indirect evidence of a sexual life cycle. Using genomic and transcriptomic data for 12 taxa spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the class, we tried to clarify whether genuine asexuality or cryptic sexuality is the most likely case for the numerous putatively asexual trebouxiophytes. On the basis of these data and a bibliographic review, we conclude that the view of trebouxiophytes as primarily asexual is incorrect. In contrast to the limited number of reports of fertilization, meiotic genes were found in all genomes and transcriptomes examined, even in species presumed asexual. In the taxa examined the totality or majority of the genes were present, Helicosporidium and Auxenochlorella being the only partial exceptions (only four genes present). The evidence of sex provided by the meiotic genes is phylogenetically widespread in the class and indicates that sexual reproduction is not associated with any particular morphological or ecological trait. On the basis of the results, we expect that the existence of the meiotic genes will be documented in all trebouxiophycean genomes that will become available in the future.

  6. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26880924

  7. [Phytoplankton assemblages in Yangtze River Estuary in the first sluice discharge duration of Three Gorges Dam in late spring].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Li-yong

    2011-04-01

    In June 15-25, 2003, the first sluice discharge duration of the Three Gorges Dam, water samples were taken from a grid of survey stations around the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters to analyze the characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages. In the survey area, the major phytoplankton groups were diatoms and dinoflagellates, and a few species belonging to Chrysophyceae and Chlorophyceae were observed. The cell abundance of the assemblages ranged from 0.2 to 1504.2 cells ml(-1), with an average of 72.7 cells ml(-1), and the dominant species were Skeletonema spp., Prorocentrum dentatum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea. The highest cell abundance was appeared in north diluted waters and southwest inshore waters. The cell abundance was the maximum in mid (10 m) water layer, and the minimum in bottom layer. In diluted waters, Skeletonema spp. was the dominant species, and mainly presented in surface water layer; while in the waters with the diluted water of Yangtze River and the mixed water of Taiwan Warmer Current and Yellow Sea, Prorocentrum dentatum dominated, and mainly distributed in surface and mid water layers.

  8. ‘Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila’ gen. nov., sp. nov.: Considerations on Evolutionary History, Host Range and Shift of Early Divergent Rickettsiae

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Claudia; Galati, Stefano; Schweikert, Michael; Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Verni, Franco; Petroni, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    “Neglected Rickettsiaceae” (i.e. those harboured by non-hematophagous eukaryotic hosts) display greater phylogenetic variability and more widespread dispersal than pathogenic ones; yet, the knowledge about their actual host range and host shift mechanism is scarce. The present work reports the characterization following the full-cycle rRNA approach (SSU rRNA sequence, specific in situ hybridization, and ultrastructure) of a novel rickettsial bacterium, herewith proposed as 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' gen. nov., sp. nov. We found it in association with four different free-living ciliates (Diophrys oligothrix, Euplotes octocarinatus, Paramecium caudatum, and Spirostomum sp., all belonging to Alveolata, Ciliophora); furthermore it was recently observed as intracellular occurring in Carteria cerasiformis and Pleodorina japonica (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the belonging of the candidate new genus to the family Rickettsiaceae (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales) as a sister group of the genus Rickettsia. In situ observations revealed the ability of the candidate new species to colonize either nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments, depending on the host organism. The presence of the same bacterial species within different, evolutionary distant, hosts indicates that 'Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila' recently underwent several distinct host shifts, thus suggesting the existence of horizontal transmission pathways. We consider these findings as indicative of an unexpected spread of rickettsial infections in aquatic communities, possibly by means of trophic interactions, and hence propose a new interpretation of the origin and phylogenetic diversification of rickettsial bacteria. PMID:23977321

  9. Molecular diversity reveals previously undetected air-dispersed protist colonists in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Genitsaris, Savvas; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Christaki, Urania; Monchy, Sebastien; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2014-04-15

    The molecular diversity of air-dispersed protists was examined through the 18S rRNA gene clone library construction in air samples and samples from experimental water containers passively collecting air-dispersed microorganisms, from July 2007 till October 2008 in three different sites of Northern Greece. The majority of the samplings took place in an urban industrialized coastal city (Thessaloniki). In all the samples, a total of 29 unique phylotypes were detected belonging to 10 known major taxonomic groups. The most abundant phylotypes were affiliated to known taxa of Ciliophora and Chlorophyceae, commonly found in various habitats. Additionally, various previously unnoticed and under-studied taxa, such as Bicosoecida, Oomycetes and Labyrinthulomycetes, were detected. These taxa are potentially important in ecological processes, through dispersal and colonization of various habitats. Multivariate statistical analysis associated the most abundant phylotypes with rainfall, suggesting that rain is a favorable means for reposition of air-dispersed protists. This is the first study investigating the molecular diversity of air-dispersed protists, including algae and heterotrophic protists.

  10. Genetic diversity of planktonic eukaryotes in high mountain lakes (Central Pyrenees, Spain).

    PubMed

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2012-09-01

    The genetic diversity of planktonic eukaryotic microorganisms (size range 3-40 µm) inhabiting 11 alpine lakes of the Central Pyrenees (Spain) was analysed by cloning and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The selected lakes covered a wide range of environmental conditions representative of the regional landscape heterogeneity. Overall, we obtained 953 sequences (averaged length 750 bp) that were grouped in 343 representative OTUs (98% identity). The genetic richness was high, and the 18S rRNA gene sequences spread within nine high-rank taxonomic groups and grouped in 26 eukaryal classes. Most of the sequences affiliated with Stramenopiles (> 55% of total sequences, mostly Chrysophyceae), Cryptophyta and Alveolata (15% each). Three groups had relative abundance < 5%, i.e. Opisthokonta (mostly Fungi), Viridiplantae (mostly Chlorophyceae) and Rhizaria (cercomonads). Finally, minor groups were related to Katablepharidophyta, Euglenozoa and Telonemida. The lakes showed a different community structure being pH, and phosphorous and Chl a concentrations the main environmental drivers. The novelty level was high, and a quarter of the retrieved OTUs were notably divergent (< 97% identity) from any previously known sequence, mainly for Rhizaria and Opisthokonta. More than 50% of the sequences affiliated with clusters exclusively formed by uncultured protists. Cryptophyta and Viridiplantae showed the largest number of sequences closely related to cultured counterparts. This work is the first description of the genetic diversity of eukaryotic assemblages in ultraoligotrophic high mountain lakes, and the study unveils alpine environments as an important reservoir of microbial eukaryotic biodiversity.

  11. The mystery of clade X: Orciraptor gen. nov. and Viridiraptor gen. nov. are highly specialised, algivorous amoeboflagellates (Glissomonadida, Cercozoa).

    PubMed

    Hess, Sebastian; Melkonian, Michael

    2013-09-01

    In freshwater ecosystems a vast diversity of elusive protists exists that specifically feed on microalgae. Due to difficulties in isolation and long-term maintenance, most of these are still poorly known. In this study stable, bacteria-free cultures of several limnetic, algivorous amoeboflagellates were investigated by light microscopy and molecular phylogenetic analyses. All strains represent naked, biflagellate cells, either occurring as rigid flagellates or as surface-attached amoebae. They perforate cell walls of certain Zygnematophyceae and Chlorophyceae (Viridiplantae) and phagocytose algal cell contents. Time-lapse microscopy revealed the feeding behaviour, locomotional processes and life histories of the amoeboflagellates. Clear differences in cell morphology and food range specificity led to the description of two new, monotypic genera Orciraptor and Viridiraptor, which occupy similar, but distinct ecological niches in aquatic ecosystems as 'necrophytophagous' and 'parasitoid' protists, respectively. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA sequence data demonstrated that Orciraptor and Viridiraptor belonged to 'clade X' within the order Glissomonadida (Cercozoa, Rhizaria). In conclusion, we established the phenotypic identity of a clade, which until now was exclusively known from environmental sequences, and erect the new family Viridiraptoridae for 'clade X'. Its algivorous members are compared with other glissomonads and nomenclatural, methodological and ecological aspects of these novel 'raptorial' amoeboflagellates are discussed.

  12. The concept of ecological succession applied to phytoplankton over four consecutive years in five ponds featuring a salinity gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemakhem, Hajer; Elloumi, Jannet; Moussa, Mahmoud; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2010-06-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton abundance, biomass and species composition coupled with environmental factors and metazooplankton was studied relatively intensively and over a period of four consecutive years in five ponds featuring a gradient of increasing salinity from near to that of sea water to a nine-fold concentration from 2000 to 2003. The results indicate that the physical characteristics of the water (temperature and salinity) were quite similar over the years. Nutrients, which were concentrated in pond A1, decreased with increases in salt concentration. The composition of the phytoplankton community showed strong seasonality. Diatoms dominated in the first ponds A1, A16 and C2-1, followed by dinoflagellates. Chlorophyceae dominated the phytoplankton community in the hypersaline ponds M2 and TS. Cyanobacteriae were relatively abundant in ponds M2 and TS. The highest phytoplankton density and biomass were found in the ponds with the highest salinity due to the proliferation of Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta: Volvocales). The inter-annual study of phytoplankton succession in the Sfax solar salterns showed slight differences among the years of study due to the stability of the environmental conditions. Phytoplankton communities were permanently primitive, stage 1 - structured as they failed to build complexity because of salt stress which operates for longer and above any other variables. This reduced frequency of disturbance to the existing course of regulation, allowed the community to "mature" from its "primitive" state, rather than experience frequent structural setbacks.

  13. Studies on phytoplankton characteristics in Ayyampattinam coast, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Santhosh; Perumal, P

    2012-05-01

    Physico-chemical variables in the marine environment are subjected to wide spatio-temporal variations. The various physico-chemical parameters viz: temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and nutrients of the environment are the factors which mainly influence the production and successful propagation of planktonic life in the coastal biotopes. The ranges of values of surface water temperature (0 degrees C), salinity (per thousand), pH and dissolved oxygen (ml l(-1)) were: 25.5 - 33.4; 23 - 35; 7.8 - 8.2; 3.6 - 5.2, respectively. The values (microg l(-1)) of nutrients were: nitrate 3.21 - 6.34, nitrite 0.74 - 0.896, phosphate 0.22 and 1.16, silicate 24.85 - 61.92 and ammonia 0.05 - 0.32. The recorded values of primary productivity (mgcm(-3)hr(1)) ranged between 16 - 116 and the chlorophyll "a" varied from 3.74 - 8.52. A total number of 51 species of phytoplankton representing different classes viz: Bacillariophyceae (40); Dinophyceae (8); Chlorophyceae (1) and Cyanophyceae (2) was recorded. Among the four classes, Bacillariophyceae appeared to be the dominant group in respect of total species and cell numbers. The population density of phytoplankton was high during summer season and quite low during monsoon season.

  14. [Phytoplankton assemblage in Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters in winter time].

    PubMed

    He, Qing; Sun, Jun; Luan, Qing-shan; Song, Shu-qun; Shen, Zhi-liang; Wang, Dan

    2007-11-01

    Water samples were collected from Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters in 28th February-10th March, 2005, and the species composition of phytoplankton was analyzed by Utermöhl method. A total of 130 taxa (including 25 uncertain species) which belong to 67 genera of 5 phyla were identified. The phytoplankton community was mainly composed of Bacillariophyta, followed by Dinophyta. There were also a few species belonging to Chrysophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae. The dominant species were Paralia sulcata, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Bleakeleya notata, Coscinodiscus radiatus and Thalassiosira excentrica. The cell abundance of phytoplankton ranged from 0.1 to 90.0 cells x ml(-1), with an average of 10.1 cells x ml(-1). Horizontally, the cell abundance was relatively high in inshore and low in offshore; while vertically, it was high in surface water and decreased slightly with increasing water depth. The cell abundance and chl a concentration of phytoplankton positively correlated with the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate in water, but negatively correlated with water salinity. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index were higher in the center of survey area but lower in northeast part and inshore area.

  15. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  16. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    Satpati, Gour Gopal; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari; Pal, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.

  17. The evo-devo of multinucleate cells, tissues, and organisms, and an alternative route to multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D; Crawford, David R

    2013-01-01

    Multinucleate cells, tissues, or organisms occur in 60 families of land plants and in five otherwise diverse algal lineages (Rhodophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae). Inspection of a morphospace constructed out of eight developmental processes reveals a large number of possible variants of multinucleate cells and organisms that, with two exceptions, are represented by one or more plant species in one or more clades. Thus, most of these permutations of developmental processes exist in nature. Inspection of the morphospace also shows how the siphonous body plan (a multinucleate cell with the capacity for indeterminate growth in size) can theoretically serve as the direct progenitor of a multicellular organism by a process similar to segregative cell division observed in siphonocladean algae. Using molecular phylogenies of algal clades, different evolutionary scenarios are compared to see how the multicellular condition may have evolved from a multinucleate unicellular progenitor. We also show that the siphonous progenitor of a multicellular organism has previously passed through the alignment-of-fitness phase (in which genetic similarity among cells/nuclei minimizes internal genomic conflict) and the export-of-fitness phase (in which genetically similar cells/nuclei collaborate to achieve a reproductively integrated multicellular organism). All that is theoretically required is the evolutionary acquisition of the capacity to compartmentalize its cytoplasm.

  18. Photosynthetic recovery following desiccation of desert green algae (Chlorophyta) and their aquatic relatives.

    PubMed

    Gray, Dennis W; Lewis, Louise A; Cardon, Zoe G

    2007-10-01

    Recent molecular data suggest that desert green algae have evolved from freshwater ancestors at least 14 times in three major classes (Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Charophyceae), offering a unique opportunity to study the adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to life on land in a comparative phylogenetic framework. We examined the photorecovery of phylogenetically matched desert and aquatic algae after desiccation in darkness and under illumination. Desert algae survived desiccation for at least 4 weeks when dried in darkness, and recovered high levels of photosynthetic quantum yield within 1 h of rehydration in darkness. However, when 4 weeks of desiccation was accompanied by illumination, three of six desert taxa lost their ability to recover quantum yield during rehydration in the dark. Aquatic algae, in contrast, recovered very little during dark rehydration following even just 24 h of desiccation. Re-illuminating rehydrated algae produced a nearly complete recovery of quantum yield in all desert and two of five aquatic taxa. These contrasts provide physiological evidence that desert green algae possess mechanisms for photosynthetic recovery after desiccation distinct from those in aquatic relatives, corroborating molecular evidence that they are not happenstance, short-term visitors from aquatic environments. Photosensitivity during desiccation among desert algae further suggests that they may reside in protected microsites within crusts, and species specificity of photosensitivity suggests that disturbances physically disrupting crusts could lead to shifts or losses of taxonomic diversity within these habitats.

  19. Hormone profiles in microalgae: gibberellins and brassinosteroids.

    PubMed

    Stirk, W A; Bálint, P; Tarkowská, D; Novák, O; Strnad, M; Ördög, V; van Staden, J

    2013-09-01

    Endogenous gibberellins and brassinosteroids were quantified in 24 axenic microalgae strains from the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Charophyceae microalgae strains after 4 days in culture. This is the first report of endogenous gibberellins being successfully detected in microalgae. Between 18 and 20 gibberellins were quantified in all strains with concentrations ranging from 342.7 pg mg(-1) DW in Raphidocelis subcapitata MACC 317-4746.1 pg mg(-)(1) DW in Scotiellopsis terrestris MACC 44. Slower growing strains (S. terrestris MACC 44, Gyoerffyana humicola MACC 334, Nautococcus mamillatus MACC 716 and Chlorococcum ellipsoideum MACC 712) exhibited the highest gibberellin contents while lowest levels of gibberellins were found in faster growing strains (R. subcapitata MACC 317 and Coelastrum excentrica MACC 504). In all strains, the active gibberellin detected in the highest concentration was GA6, the predominant intermediates were GA15 and GA53 and the main biosynthetic end products were GA13 and GA51. Gibberellin profiles were similar in all strains except for the presence/absence of GA12 and GA12ald. To date this is the second report of endogenous brassinosteroids in microalgae. Brassinosteroids were detected in all 24 strains with concentrations ranging from 117.3 pg mg(-)(1) DW in R. subcapitata MACC 317-977.8 pg mg(-)(1) DW in Klebsormidium flaccidum MACC 692. Two brassinosteroids, brassinolide and castasterone were determined in all the strains. Generally, brassinolide occurred in higher concentrations than castasterone.

  20. Phytoplankton community dynamics in an intermittently open hypereutrophic coastal lagoon in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton community' dynamics were studied in Salgados coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the effects of excessive organic loads and also physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoon. Salgados is a hypereutrophic intermittently open coastal lagoon, which received freshwater inputs from small rivers and from a wastewater treatment plant. Cyanophyceae dominated the phytoplankton communities most of the time; Bacillariophyceae became the main taxonomic group in winter when the lagoon was closed; Chlorophyceae was the major class in early summer; pico-nano flagellate algae accounted for a high percentage of total phytoplankton during spring. Potentially harmful taxa were observed during most of the sampling periods, forming blooms and accounting for a considerable percentage of total phytoplankton abundance. A strong differentiation among dry and wet seasons could be noticed. The dry season was dominated by Microsystis aeruginosa, Rhodomonas sp., pico-nano flagellate algae, Cyclotella spp. and Planktothrix sp., while the wet season, although still with the presence of Microsystis aeruginosa, was dominated by Dolichospermum spiroides. The best environmental variables explaining stations patterns and based on phytoplankton taxa were days of isolation, pH, and salinity. Temperature, cumulative rain and total phosphorus were also related with species and stations patterns. The high nutrient load in Salgados lagoon promoted the development and persistence of harmful algae blooms. Proper management of coastal lagoons involves not only the control of direct discharges of nutrients, but also of other factors, including water level and communication with the sea.

  1. Response of phytoplankton community to low-dose atrazine exposure combined with phosphorus fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Pannard, Alexandrine; Le Rouzic, Bertrand; Binet, Françoise

    2009-07-01

    The effects of atrazine on a controlled phytoplankton community derived from a natural freshwater wetland exposed to low doses of this photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide were examined. The community was exposed for 7 weeks to doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 microg L(-1) atrazine, combined with changes in nutrient concentration, and the photosynthetic activity, biomass, and community structure were noted during the experiment. Responses of the phytoplankton community were examined in terms of photosynthetic activity, biomass, and community structure. Significant effects of atrazine on the phytoplankton assemblage, in terms of primary production and community structure, were highlighted, even at doses as low as 1 and 0.1 microg L(-1), when associated with phosphorus fluctuations. The most abundant Chlorophyceae decreased in concentration with increasing atrazine dose, whereas cyanobacteria were more tolerant to atrazine, particularly with increased nutrient supply. The subinhibitory doses of atrazine used in the present study confirmed the higher sensitivity of long-term exposure of multispecies assemblages under resource competition. Our study supports the emerging hypothesis that the increasing prevalence of cyanobacterial blooms in European aquatic systems may result from a combination of unbalanced nutrient enrichment and selective pressures from multiple toxicants.

  2. [Phytoplankton assemblages in Yangtze River Estuary in the first sluice discharge duration of Three Gorges Dam in late spring].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Li-yong

    2011-04-01

    In June 15-25, 2003, the first sluice discharge duration of the Three Gorges Dam, water samples were taken from a grid of survey stations around the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent waters to analyze the characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages. In the survey area, the major phytoplankton groups were diatoms and dinoflagellates, and a few species belonging to Chrysophyceae and Chlorophyceae were observed. The cell abundance of the assemblages ranged from 0.2 to 1504.2 cells ml(-1), with an average of 72.7 cells ml(-1), and the dominant species were Skeletonema spp., Prorocentrum dentatum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea. The highest cell abundance was appeared in north diluted waters and southwest inshore waters. The cell abundance was the maximum in mid (10 m) water layer, and the minimum in bottom layer. In diluted waters, Skeletonema spp. was the dominant species, and mainly presented in surface water layer; while in the waters with the diluted water of Yangtze River and the mixed water of Taiwan Warmer Current and Yellow Sea, Prorocentrum dentatum dominated, and mainly distributed in surface and mid water layers. PMID:21774331

  3. Chlorophyta exclusively use the 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway for the biosynthesis of isoprenoids.

    PubMed

    Schwender, J; Gemünden, C; Lichtenthaler, H K

    2001-02-01

    The biosynthesis of the C5 building block of isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP), proceeds in higher plants via two basically different pathways; in the cytosolic compartment sterols are formed via mevalonate (MVA), whereas in the plastids the isoprenoids are formed via the 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway (DOXP/MEP pathway). In the present investigation, we found for the Charophyceae, being close relatives to land plants, and in the original green flagellate Mesostignma virilde the same IPP biosynthesis pattern as in higher plants: sterols are formed via MVA, and the phytol-moiety of chlorophylls via the DOXP/MEP pathway. In contrast, representatives of four classes of the Chlorophyta (Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Prasinophyceae) did not incorporate MVA into sterols or phytol. Instead, they incorporated [1-2H1]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose into phytol and sterols. The results indicate that the entire Chlorophyta lineage, which is well separated from the land plant/Charophyceae lineage, is devoid of the acetate/ MVA pathway and uses the DOXP/MEP pathway not only for plastidic, but also for cytosolic isoprenoid formation.

  4. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  5. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province. PMID:26174956

  6. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs. PMID:27602257

  7. Inventory of montane-nesting birds in Katmai and Lake Clark national parks and preserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service’s Inventory and Monitoring Program, biologists from the U. S. Geological Survey’s Alaska Science Center conducted an inventory of birds in montane regions of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves during 2004–2006. We used a stratified random survey design to allocate samples by ecological subsection. To survey for birds, we conducted counts at 468 points across 29, 10-km x 10-km (6.2-mi x 6.2-mi) sample plots in Katmai and 417 points across 25, 10-km x 10-km sample plots in Lake Clark. We detected 92 and 104 species in Katmai and Lake Clark, respectively, including 40 species of conservation concern. We detected three species not previously recorded in Katmai (Ring-necked Duck [Aythya collaris], Lesser Scaup [Aythya affinis], and White-tailed Ptarmigan [Lagopus leucurus]) and two species not previously recorded in Lake Clark (Northern Flicker [Colaptes auratus ] and Olive-sided Flycatcher [Contopus cooperi]). The most commonly detected species in both parks was Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) and American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) were abundant and widely-distributed as well. We defined sites as low (100–350 m), middle (351–600 m), or high (601–1,620 m) elevation based on the distribution of vegetation cover, and similarly categorized the 34 most-commonly detected species based on the mean elevation of sample points at which they were detected. High elevation (i.e., alpine) sites were characterized by high percent cover of dwarf shrub and bare ground habitat and supported species like Rock Ptarmigan (L. mutus), American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Wandering Tattler (Tringa incana), Surfbird (Aphriza virgata), and Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), all species of conservation concern. This inventory represents the first systematic survey of birds nesting in montane regions of both parks. Results from this inventory can form the foundation of

  8. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province.

  9. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    PubMed Central

    Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs. PMID:27602257

  10. Impacts of man-made landscape features on numbers of estuarine waterbirds at low tide.

    PubMed

    Burton, Niall H K; Armitage, Michael J S; Musgrove, Andrew J; Rehfisch, Mark M

    2002-12-01

    The potential impact of human disturbance on wintering waterbirds using intertidal mudflats was considered by relating their numbers to the presence of nearby footpaths, roads, railroads, and towns. Data were obtained for six English estuaries from the Wetland Bird Survey Low Tide Count scheme. Counts were undertaken monthly from November to February, and data were available for an average of 2.8 years per estuary for the period 1992-1993 to 1999-2000. Count sections and the positions of man-made landscape features were mapped using a GIS. Generalized linear models tested whether bird numbers varied according to the estuary, month, area, whether or not the section bordered water, and the proportion of each section within a specified distance of each landscape feature. In addition, the proximity of sections to the nearest footpath access point was considered. Numbers of six of nine species, northern shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), red knot (Calidris canutus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and common redshank (Tringa totanus), were significantly lower where a footpath was close to a count section, while those of brant (Branta bernicla) were greater. Northern shelduck, black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), dunlin, and black-tailed godwit numbers were reduced close to railroads and those of common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), black-bellied plover, and Eurasian curlew close to roads. Common ringed plover numbers were greater close to towns. The relative distances to which species were affected by footpaths corresponded to published information concerning their flight distances in response to human disturbance. The study provided evidence that sustained disturbance associated with footpaths, roads, and railroads reduced local habitat quality for waterbirds and the carrying capacity of estuaries.

  11. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered.

  12. Vision and touch in relation to foraging and predator detection: insightful contrasts between a plover and a sandpiper.

    PubMed

    Martin, Graham R; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-02-01

    Visual fields were determined in two species of shorebirds (Charadriiformes) whose foraging is guided primarily by different sources of information: red knots (Calidris canutus, tactile foragers) and European golden plovers (Pluvialis apricaria, visual foragers). The visual fields of both species showed features that are found in a wide range of birds whose foraging involves precision pecking or lunging at food items. Surprisingly, red knots did not show comprehensive panoramic vision as found in some other tactile feeders; they have a binocular field surrounding the bill and a substantial blind area behind the head. We argue that this is because knots switch to more visually guided foraging on their breeding grounds. However, this visual field topography leaves them vulnerable to predation, especially when using tactile foraging in non-breeding locations where predation by falcons is an important selection factor. Golden plovers use visually guided foraging throughout the year, and so it is not surprising that they have precision-pecking frontal visual fields. However, they often feed at night and this is associated with relatively large eyes. These are anchored in the skull by a wing of bone extending from the dorsal perimeter of each orbit; a skeletal structure previously unreported in birds and which we have named 'supraorbital aliform bone', Os supraorbitale aliforme. The larger eyes and their associated supraorbital wings result in a wide blind area above the head, which may leave these plovers particularly vulnerable to predation. Thus, in these two shorebirds, we see clear examples of the trade-off between the two key functions of visual fields: (i) the detection of predators remote from the animal and (ii) the control of accurate behaviours, such as the procurement of food items, at close quarters.

  13. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  14. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the Arctic?

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Tieleman, B Irene; Visser, G Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20-22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus; 85-112 g), lesser golden plover (Pluvialis dominicana; 150-156 g), Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica; 205-274 g), and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus; 380 g). We tested two opposing hypotheses: the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, which posits that growth rate in chicks is inversely related to functional maturity of tissues, and the fast growth rate-high metabolism hypothesis, which suggests that rapid growth is possible only with a concomitant increase in either RMR or PMR. We have found no evidence that chicks of shorebirds with fast growth rates have lower RMRs or lower PMRs, as would be predicted by the growth rate-maturity hypothesis, but our data suggested that faster-growing chest muscles resulted in increased thermogenic capacity, consistent with the fast growth-high metabolism hypothesis. The development of homeothermy in smaller species is a consequence primarily of greater metabolic intensities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient between a chick's body and environment that can be maintained in the absence of a net radiative load increased rapidly with body mass during development and was highest in least sandpipers and lowest among godwits. Chicks of smaller species could maintain a greater temperature gradient at a particular body mass because of their higher mass-specific maximum metabolic rates.

  15. An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, N.M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  16. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  17. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  18. Inter-familial relationships of the shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) based on nuclear DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, Per GP; Envall, Ida; Irestedt, Martin; Norman, Janette A

    2003-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic hypotheses of higher-level relationships in the order Charadriiformes based on morphological data, partly disagree with those based on DNA-DNA hybridisation data. So far, these relationships have not been tested by analysis of DNA sequence data. Herein we utilize 1692 bp of aligned, nuclear DNA sequences obtained from 23 charadriiform species, representing 15 families. We also test earlier suggestions that bustards and sandgrouses may be nested with the charadriiforms. The data is analysed with methods based on the parsimony and maximum-likelihood criteria. Results Several novel phylogenetic relationships were recovered and strongly supported by the data, regardless of which method of analysis was employed. These include placing the gulls and allied groups as a sistergroup to the sandpiper-like birds, and not to the plover-like birds. The auks clearly belong to the clade with the gulls and allies, and are not basal to most other charadriiform birds as suggested in analyses of morphological data. Pluvialis, which has been supposed to belong to the plover family (Charadriidae), represents a basal branch that constitutes the sister taxon to a clade with plovers, oystercatchers and avocets. The thick-knees and sheathbills unexpectedly cluster together. Conclusion The DNA sequence data contains a strong phylogenetic signal that results in a well-resolved phylogenetic tree with many strongly supported internodes. Taxonomically it is the most inclusive study of shorebird families that relies on nucleotide sequences. The presented phylogenetic hypothesis provides a solid framework for analyses of macroevolution of ecological, morphological and behavioural adaptations observed within the order Charadriiformes. PMID:12875664

  19. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests

    PubMed Central

    Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter “conspicuous behaviour”), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  20. Is it safe to nest near conspicuous neighbours? Spatial patterns in predation risk associated with the density of American Golden-Plover nests.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Trottier-Paquet, Myriam; Bêty, Joël; Lamarre, Vincent; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is one of the main factors explaining nesting mortality in most bird species. Birds can avoid nest predation or reduce predation pressure by breeding at higher latitude, showing anti-predator behaviour, selecting nest sites protected from predators, and nesting in association with protective species. American Golden-Plovers (Pluvialis dominica) defend their territory by using various warning and distraction behaviours displayed at varying levels of intensity (hereafter "conspicuous behaviour"), as well as more aggressive behaviours such as aerial attacks, but only in some populations. Such antipredator behaviour has the potential to repel predators and thus benefit the neighbouring nests by decreasing their predation risk. Yet, conspicuous behaviour could also attract predators by signalling the presence of a nest. To test for the existence of a protective effect associated with the conspicuous antipredator behaviour of American Golden-Plovers, we studied the influence of proximity to plover nests on predation risk of artificial nests on Igloolik Island (Nunavut, Canada) in July 2014. We predicted that the predation risk of artificial nests would decrease with proximity to and density of plover nests. We monitored 18 plover nests and set 35 artificial nests at 30, 50, 100, 200, and 500 m from seven of those plover nests. We found that the predation risk of artificial nests increases with the density of active plover nests. We also found a significant negative effect of the distance to the nearest active protector nest on predation risk of artificial nests. Understanding how the composition and structure of shorebird communities generate spatial patterns in predation risks represents a key step to better understand the importance of these species of conservation concern in tundra food webs.

  1. Migration stopovers and the conservation of arctic-breeding Calidris sandpipers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance migration, one of the most physically demanding events in the animal kingdom, is well developed in many species of Charadriidae and Scolopacidae. Some shorebirds renowned for their extraordinary long-distance migrations, notably American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa), and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis), travel as many as 15,000 km between southern South American wintering grounds and Canadian Arctic breeding areas. Migration strategies of shorebirds vary in many aspects. There are remarkable accounts of shorebirds, such as northbound Red Knots, that stage a few key sites for 2-3 weeks and lay on extensive body stores, then fly nonstop for distances of [greater than or equal to] 2,500 km (Harrington 2001, Piersma et al. 2005). Less well known are the examples of populations that refuel only briefly at stopover sites, disperse broadly on the landscape, and fly shorter distances between sites (Skagen 1997, Haig et al. 1998, Warnock et al. 1998). This latter pattern applies to many long-distance migrant shorebirds that cross the interior plains of North America during spring and fall migrations. For them, interior wetland complexes provide critical refueling resources along the direct routes between summering and wintering grounds (Skagen et al. 1999). In this issue of The Auk, Krapu et al. (2006) describe patterns and implications of fat deposition by Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilla), White-rumped Sandpipers, and Bairda??s Sandpipers (C. bairdii) refueling during northward migration across the prairies of mid-continental North Americaa?|

  2. Concentrations of phytochelatins and glutathione found in natural assemblages of seaweeds depend on species and metal concentrations of the habitat.

    PubMed

    Pawlik-Skowrońska, Barbara; Pirszel, Jacek; Brown, Murray T

    2007-07-20

    The occurrence of the metal-complexing thiol peptides, phytochelatins (PC) in natural populations of brown, red and green seaweeds (marine macroalgae) was studied. Concentrations of PCs and their precursor glutathione (GSH) were measured in seaweeds collected from locations in south-west England with different levels of contamination by trace metals, to evaluate their role under natural environmental conditions. The non-protein thiols were identified and quantified in seaweed extracts by HPLC and the molecular structures of PCs were confirmed by LC-ESIMS. The capacity for production of PCs of representative seaweeds under Cd and Zn exposure was also assessed, experimentally. The concentrations of metals/metalloids (As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) accumulated by the seaweeds were determined by ICP-MS. For the first time, PCs are reported in native Phaeophyceae (Fucus spp.), Rhodophyceae (Solieria chordalis) and Chlorophyceae (Rhizoclonium tortuosum) but not in thalli of Ulva spp. and Codium fragile (Chlorophyceae). The concentrations of PCs in brown and red seaweeds correlated with the contamination history of sampling sites and total metal burden of thalli. The highest concentrations of metals (5.6-7.1micromolg(-1) DW), PCs (200-240nmolSHg(-1)DW) and GSH (1,550-3,960nmolSHg(-1)DW), and the longest PC chain lengths (PC(2-4)) were found in Fucus spp. collected from the most contaminated site. A combination of PC-production and maintenance of high concentrations of GSH allows Fucus spp. and R. tortuosum (2,000nmolGSHg(-1)DW) to thrive in highly contaminated environments whereas in Ulva spp. high concentrations of GSH (1,000-1,500nmolSHg(-1)DW) together with thick cells walls and a high polysaccharide content appear to be responsible for metal-resistance. The lack of production of PCs in these green macroalgae suggests lower intracellular metal accumulation rather than an inability for synthesizing PCs. The higher concentrations of Cu (approximately 3.4micromolg(-1)DW) found in

  3. Concentrations of phytochelatins and glutathione found in natural assemblages of seaweeds depend on species and metal concentrations of the habitat.

    PubMed

    Pawlik-Skowrońska, Barbara; Pirszel, Jacek; Brown, Murray T

    2007-07-20

    The occurrence of the metal-complexing thiol peptides, phytochelatins (PC) in natural populations of brown, red and green seaweeds (marine macroalgae) was studied. Concentrations of PCs and their precursor glutathione (GSH) were measured in seaweeds collected from locations in south-west England with different levels of contamination by trace metals, to evaluate their role under natural environmental conditions. The non-protein thiols were identified and quantified in seaweed extracts by HPLC and the molecular structures of PCs were confirmed by LC-ESIMS. The capacity for production of PCs of representative seaweeds under Cd and Zn exposure was also assessed, experimentally. The concentrations of metals/metalloids (As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) accumulated by the seaweeds were determined by ICP-MS. For the first time, PCs are reported in native Phaeophyceae (Fucus spp.), Rhodophyceae (Solieria chordalis) and Chlorophyceae (Rhizoclonium tortuosum) but not in thalli of Ulva spp. and Codium fragile (Chlorophyceae). The concentrations of PCs in brown and red seaweeds correlated with the contamination history of sampling sites and total metal burden of thalli. The highest concentrations of metals (5.6-7.1micromolg(-1) DW), PCs (200-240nmolSHg(-1)DW) and GSH (1,550-3,960nmolSHg(-1)DW), and the longest PC chain lengths (PC(2-4)) were found in Fucus spp. collected from the most contaminated site. A combination of PC-production and maintenance of high concentrations of GSH allows Fucus spp. and R. tortuosum (2,000nmolGSHg(-1)DW) to thrive in highly contaminated environments whereas in Ulva spp. high concentrations of GSH (1,000-1,500nmolSHg(-1)DW) together with thick cells walls and a high polysaccharide content appear to be responsible for metal-resistance. The lack of production of PCs in these green macroalgae suggests lower intracellular metal accumulation rather than an inability for synthesizing PCs. The higher concentrations of Cu (approximately 3.4micromolg(-1)DW) found in

  4. The origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins.

    PubMed

    An, S S; Möpps, B; Weber, K; Bhattacharya, D

    1999-02-01

    The Viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the Chlorophyta, which includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; and the Streptophyta, which includes the Charophyceae and all land plants. Within the Streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. Previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex gene families. We address the origin and diversification of land plant actin genes by studying the phylogeny of actins within the green algae, ferns, and fern allies. Partial genomic sequences or cDNAs encoding actin were characterized from Cosmarium botrytis (Zygnematales), Selaginella apoda (Selaginellales), Anemia phyllitidis (Polypodiales), and Psilotum triquetrum (Psilotales). Selaginella contains at least two actin genes. One sequence (Ac2) diverges within a group of fern sequences that also includes the Psilotum Ac1 actin gene and one gymnosperm sequence (Cycas revoluta Cyc3). This clade is positioned outside of the angiosperm actin gene radiation. The second Selaginella sequence (Ac1) is the sister to all remaining land plant actin sequences, although the internal branches in this portion of the tree are very short. Use of complete actin-coding regions in phylogenetic analyses provides support for the separation of angiosperm actins into two classes. N-terminal "signature" sequence analyses support these groupings. One class (VEG) includes actin genes that are often expressed in vegetative structures. The second class (REP) includes actin genes that trace their ancestry within the vegetative actins and contains members that are largely expressed in reproductive structures. Analysis of intron positions within actin genes shows that sequences from both Selaginella and Cosmarium contain the conserved 20-3, 152-1, and 356-3 introns found in many members of the

  5. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: insights into the architecture of ancestral chloroplast genomes.

    PubMed

    Turmel, M; Otis, C; Lemieux, C

    1999-08-31

    Green plants seem to form two sister lineages: Chlorophyta, comprising the green algal classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Chlorophyceae, and Streptophyta, comprising the Charophyceae and land plants. We have determined the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence (200,799 bp) of Nephroselmis olivacea, a member of the class (Prasinophyceae) thought to include descendants of the earliest-diverging green algae. The 127 genes identified in this genome represent the largest gene repertoire among the green algal and land plant cpDNAs completely sequenced to date. Of the Nephroselmis genes, 2 (ycf81 and ftsI, a gene involved in peptidoglycan synthesis) have not been identified in any previously investigated cpDNA; 5 genes [ftsW, rnE, ycf62, rnpB, and trnS(cga)] have been found only in cpDNAs of nongreen algae; and 10 others (ndh genes) have been described only in land plant cpDNAs. Nephroselmis and land plant cpDNAs share the same quadripartite structure-which is characterized by the presence of a large rRNA-encoding inverted repeat and two unequal single-copy regions-and very similar sets of genes in corresponding genomic regions. Given that our phylogenetic analyses place Nephroselmis within the Chlorophyta, these structural characteristics were most likely present in the cpDNA of the common ancestor of chlorophytes and streptophytes. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes indicate that the typical quadripartite architecture and gene-partitioning pattern of land plant cpDNAs are ancient features that may have been derived from the genome of the cyanobacterial progenitor of chloroplasts. Our phylogenetic data also offer insight into the chlorophyte ancestor of euglenophyte chloroplasts.

  6. Exploring occurrence and molecular diversity of betaine lipids across taxonomy of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cañavate, José Pedro; Armada, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael

    2016-04-01

    Betaine lipids (BL) from ten microalgae species of the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista were identified and quantified by HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. Diacylgyceryl-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) was detected in Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species, whereas Tetraselmis suecica was described as the first green algae containing diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-beta-alanine (DGTA). DGTA molecular species where also characterized in Cryptophyceae species as well as in the Bacillariophyceae diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The Mediophyceae diatom Chaetoceros gracilis had no DGTA, but contained diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC). A principal coordinate (PCO) analysis of microalgae species revealed the existence of three main clusters around each BL type. The first PCO axis (43.9% of total variation) grouped Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species and positively correlated with DGTS. The second PCO axis (27.8% of total variation) segregated DGTA from DGCC containing species. Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Chlorodendrophyceae were the more closely associated species to DGTA. Mediophyceae and Dinophyceae species contained DGCC as the only BL. Molecular diversity varied from the simplest DGCC composition in Gyrodinium dorsum to the highest spectrum of ten different molecular species detected for DGTA (Rhodomonas baltica) and DGCC (C. gracilis). The fatty acid profile of DGTS was very dissimilar to that of the whole lipid cell content. DGTS from Nannochloropsis gaditana was highly unsaturated respecting to total lipids, whereas in Picochlorum atomus DGTS unsaturation was nearly one half to that of total lipids. Dissimilarity between DGTA and total lipid fatty acid profile was minimum among all BL and DGTA fatty acid unsaturation was the maximum observed in the study. New DGCC molecular species enriched in 20:5 were described in Mediophyceae diatoms. Multivariate microalgae ordination using BL as descriptors revealed a higher

  7. Microalgae Synthesize Hydrocarbons from Long-Chain Fatty Acids via a Light-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sorigué, Damien; Légeret, Bertrand; Cuiné, Stéphan; Morales, Pablo; Mirabella, Boris; Guédeney, Geneviève; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Jetter, Reinhard; Peltier, Gilles; Beisson, Fred

    2016-08-01

    Microalgae are considered a promising platform for the production of lipid-based biofuels. While oil accumulation pathways are intensively researched, the possible existence of a microalgal pathways converting fatty acids into alka(e)nes has received little attention. Here, we provide evidence that such a pathway occurs in several microalgal species from the green and the red lineages. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae), a C17 alkene, n-heptadecene, was detected in the cell pellet and the headspace of liquid cultures. The Chlamydomonas alkene was identified as 7-heptadecene, an isomer likely formed by decarboxylation of cis-vaccenic acid. Accordingly, incubation of intact Chlamydomonas cells with per-deuterated D31-16:0 (palmitic) acid yielded D31-18:0 (stearic) acid, D29-18:1 (oleic and cis-vaccenic) acids, and D29-heptadecene. These findings showed that loss of the carboxyl group of a C18 monounsaturated fatty acid lead to heptadecene formation. Amount of 7-heptadecene varied with growth phase and temperature and was strictly dependent on light but was not affected by an inhibitor of photosystem II. Cell fractionation showed that approximately 80% of the alkene is localized in the chloroplast. Heptadecane, pentadecane, as well as 7- and 8-heptadecene were detected in Chlorella variabilis NC64A (Trebouxiophyceae) and several Nannochloropsis species (Eustigmatophyceae). In contrast, Ostreococcus tauri (Mamiellophyceae) and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum produced C21 hexaene, without detectable C15-C19 hydrocarbons. Interestingly, no homologs of known hydrocarbon biosynthesis genes were found in the Nannochloropsis, Chlorella, or Chlamydomonas genomes. This work thus demonstrates that microalgae have the ability to convert C16 and C18 fatty acids into alka(e)nes by a new, light-dependent pathway. PMID:27288359

  8. [Cyanobacteria as indicators of organic contamination].

    PubMed

    Peinador, M

    1999-09-01

    In two Costa Rican rivers used as receptors for domestic sewage, treated by primary stabilization ponds, were taken a total of 28 samplings located at the pond exit and at three different sites in each river: 100 m before the ponds discharge, at the discharge and 100 m after the discharge. These sampling were done for a five and a half years including dry and rainy seasons. In each sampling site, samples were collected of five different substrates: stones, submerge and semi submerge vegetation, tree trunks or sticks, water and artificial substrates. For each sample were used two types of artificial cultures, WC and BG110. A total of 55 cyanobacteria species isolations were obtained, belonging to a 26 genera, between these the most common were Phormidium with nine species, Microcystis with five species, Leptolyngbya and Pseudanabaena with four species each and Oscillatoria with three species. More cyanobacteria species were isolated in water substrate and less isolations in tree trunks and submerge vegetation. Konvophoron, Cyanarcus and Pilgeria only were isolate from water samples inoculated in culture media WC and in few opportunities, while three Leptolyngbya species and four Phormidium species were isolated very often. At the stabilization ponds Phormidium sp4 was dominant in 25 of 28 sampling while in the last others were the chlorophycea I. In this study were observed an increase in the frequency of cyanobacteria at the higher contamination places, and a species substitution between different sampling points. There were no biomass studies, therefore is not possible to relate between different cyanobacteria species and some specific types of water quality.

  9. On the selective adsorption of cations in the cell wall of the green alga Valonia utricularis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesseler, H.

    1980-06-01

    The selective adsorption of the cations Na+, K+, Mg++ and Ca++ by the cell wall of the Mediterranean alga Valonia utricularis (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) from sea water of 40 %. S was investigated by extraction of cell-wall preparations, eluted before in 1.1 mol methanol (adjusted to pH 8) with 0.1 n formic acid in a Soxhlet apparatus. Na+ and K+ were determined by flame photometry, Mg++ and Ca++ by complexometric titration with EDTA. From calculation of the dry weight:fresh weight ratios and the chloride determinations in the eluates, the Donnan free-space fraction of the total cell-wall volume was calculated to about 35 %, and the analytical results of the cation concentrations in the extracts expressed as μVal cm-3 DFS. This calculation is based on the assumption that the acidic groups of the noncellulosic matrix material, carrying negative charges by dissociation at the reaction of sea water (ph about 8) are responsible for the adsorption of cations by exhibition of a Donnan effect. The results obtained show clearly that besides the divalent cations Mg++ and Ca++, which according to the physico-chemical laws of the Donnan distribution must be relatively accumulated to the second power of the monovalent ones, potassium is also enriched by selective adsorption, and the K+:Na+ ratio increased significantly compared with that in sea water. This seems to indicate that the strength of attraction between the cations and the negative sites is dependent on the radii of the ions and the state of hydration and/or polarisation of the ions and binding sites.

  10. Essential role of conserved DUF177A protein in plastid 23S rRNA accumulation and plant embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiani; Suzuki, Masaharu; McCarty, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    DUF177 proteins are nearly universally conserved in bacteria and plants except the Chlorophyceae algae. Thus far, duf177 mutants in bacteria have not established a function. In contrast, duf177a mutants have embryo lethal phenotypes in maize and Arabidopsis. In maize inbred W22, duf177a mutant embryos arrest at an early transition stage, whereas the block is suppressed in the B73 inbred background, conditioning an albino seedling phenotype. Background-dependent embryo lethal phenotypes are characteristic of maize plastid gene expression mutants. Consistent with the plastid gene expression hypothesis, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a significant reduction of 23S rRNA in an Escherichia coli duf177 knockout. Plastid 23S rRNA contents of duf177a mutant tissues were also markedly reduced compared with the wild-type, whereas plastid 16S, 5S, and 4.5S rRNA contents were less affected, indicating that DUF177 is specifically required for accumulation of prokaryote-type 23S rRNA. An AtDUF177A–green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene controlled by the native AtDUF177A promoter fully complemented the Arabidopsis atduf177a mutant. Transient expression of AtDUF177A–GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the protein was localized in chloroplasts. The essential role of DUF177A in chloroplast–ribosome formation is reminiscent of IOJAP, another highly conserved ribosome-associated protein, suggesting that key mechanisms controlling ribosome formation in plastids evolved from non-essential pathways for regulation of the prokaryotic ribosome. PMID:27574185

  11. Auxin and cytokinin relationships in 24 microalgal strains(1).

    PubMed

    Stirk, Wendy A; Ördög, Vince; Novák, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Bálint, Péter; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Endogenous auxins and cytokinins were quantitated in 24 axenic microalgal strains from the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae. These strains were in an exponential growth phase, being harvested on day 4. Acutodesmus acuminatus Mosonmagyaróvár Algal Culture Collection-41 (MACC) produced the highest biomass and Chlorococcum ellipsoideum MACC-712 the lowest biomass. The auxins, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-acetamide (IAM) were present in all microalgal strains. No other auxin conjugates were detected. IAA and IAM concentrations varied greatly, ranging from 0.50 to 71.49 nmol IAA · g(-1) DW and 0.18 to 99.83 nmol IAM · g(-1) DW, respectively. In 19 strains, IAA occurred in higher concentrations than IAM. Nineteen cytokinins were identified in the microalgal strains. Total cytokinin concentrations varied, ranging from 0.29 nmol · g(-1) DW in Klebsormidium flaccidum MACC-692 to 21.40 nmol · g(-1) DW in Stigeoclonium nanum MACC-790. The general trend was that cis-zeatin types were the predominant cytokinins; isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins were present in moderate concentrations, while low levels of trans-zeatin-type and very low levels of dihydrozeatin-type cytokinins were detected. Ribotides were generally the main cytokinin conjugate forms present with the cytokinin free bases and ribosides present in similar but moderate levels. The levels of O-glucosides were low. Only one N-glucoside was detected, being present in nine strains in very low concentrations. In 15 strains, the auxin content was 2- to 4-fold higher than the cytokinin content. PMID:27007035

  12. Hormone profiles in microalgae: gibberellins and brassinosteroids.

    PubMed

    Stirk, W A; Bálint, P; Tarkowská, D; Novák, O; Strnad, M; Ördög, V; van Staden, J

    2013-09-01

    Endogenous gibberellins and brassinosteroids were quantified in 24 axenic microalgae strains from the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Charophyceae microalgae strains after 4 days in culture. This is the first report of endogenous gibberellins being successfully detected in microalgae. Between 18 and 20 gibberellins were quantified in all strains with concentrations ranging from 342.7 pg mg(-1) DW in Raphidocelis subcapitata MACC 317-4746.1 pg mg(-)(1) DW in Scotiellopsis terrestris MACC 44. Slower growing strains (S. terrestris MACC 44, Gyoerffyana humicola MACC 334, Nautococcus mamillatus MACC 716 and Chlorococcum ellipsoideum MACC 712) exhibited the highest gibberellin contents while lowest levels of gibberellins were found in faster growing strains (R. subcapitata MACC 317 and Coelastrum excentrica MACC 504). In all strains, the active gibberellin detected in the highest concentration was GA6, the predominant intermediates were GA15 and GA53 and the main biosynthetic end products were GA13 and GA51. Gibberellin profiles were similar in all strains except for the presence/absence of GA12 and GA12ald. To date this is the second report of endogenous brassinosteroids in microalgae. Brassinosteroids were detected in all 24 strains with concentrations ranging from 117.3 pg mg(-)(1) DW in R. subcapitata MACC 317-977.8 pg mg(-)(1) DW in Klebsormidium flaccidum MACC 692. Two brassinosteroids, brassinolide and castasterone were determined in all the strains. Generally, brassinolide occurred in higher concentrations than castasterone. PMID:23811778

  13. Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Environmental Factors around the Chagwi-do off the West Coast of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affan, Abu; Lee, Joon-Baek; Kim, Jun-Teck; Choi, Young-Chan; Kim, Jong-Man; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2007-06-01

    The dynamics of phytoplankton abundance with seasonal variation in physicochemical conditions were investigated monthly at 10 stations around the Chagwi-do off the west coast of Jeju Island, Korea, including inshore, middle shore, and offshore in the marine ranching area from September 2004 to November 2005. Water temperature varied from 12.1 to 28.9°C (average 18.8°C), and salinity from 28.9 to 34.9 psu (average 33.7 psu). The chlorophyll a concentration was 0.02-2.05 µg L1 (average 0.70 µg L1), and the maximum concentration occurred in the bottom layer in April. A total of 294 phytoplankton species belonging to 10 families was identified: 182 Bacillariophyceae, 52 Dinophyceae, 9 Chlorophyceae, 12 Cryptophyceae, 6 Chrysophyceae, 4 Dictyophyceae, 13 Euglenophyceae, 6 Prymnesiophyceae, 5 Prasinophyceae, and 5 Raphidophyceae. The standing crop was 2.21-48.69x104 cells L1 (average 9.23x 104 cells L1), and the maximum occurred in the bottom layer in April. Diatoms were most abundant throughout the year, followed by dinoflagellates and phytoflagellates. A phytoplankton bloom occurred twice: once in spring, peaking in April, and once in autumn, peaking in November. The spring bloom was represented by four Chaetoceros species and Skeletonema costatum; each contributed 10-20% of the total phytoplankton abundance. The autumn bloom comprised dinoflagellates, diatoms, and phytoflagellates, of which dinoflagellates were predominant. Gymnodinium conicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. triestinum each contributed over 10% of the total phytoplankton abundance.

  14. Nutrient ratios and the complex structure of phytoplankton communities in a highly turbid estuary of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Thuoc Van; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Mari, Xavier; Nguyen, Huyen Minh Thi; Pham, Kha Thi; Pham, Thu The; Bouvier, Thierry; Bettarel, Yvan; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvier, Corinne; Rochelle-Newall, Emma

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton diversity and abundance in estuarine systems are controlled by many factors. Salinity, turbidity, and inorganic nutrient concentrations and their respective ratios have all been proposed as principal factors that structure phytoplankton diversity and influence the emergence of potentially toxic species. Although much work has been conducted on temperate estuaries, less is known about how phytoplankton diversity is controlled in tropical, monsoonal systems that are subject to large, seasonal shifts in hydrology and to rapidly changing land use. Here, we present the results of an investigation into the factors controlling phytoplankton species composition and distribution in a tropical, monsoonal estuary (Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam). A total of 245 taxa, 89 genera from six algal divisions were observed. Bacillariophyceae were the most diverse group contributing to 51.4 % of the microalgal assemblage, followed by Dinophyceae (29.8 %), Chlorophyceae (10.2 %), Cyanophyceae (3.7 %), Euglenophyceae (3.7 %) and Dictyochophyceae (1.2 %). The phytoplankton community was structured by inorganic nutrient ratios (DSi:DIP and DIN:DIP) as well as by salinity and turbidity. Evidence of a decrease in phytoplankton diversity concomitant with an increase in abundance and dominance of certain species (e.g., Skeletonema costatum) and the appearance of some potentially toxic species over the last two decades was also found. These changes in phytoplankton diversity are probably due to a combination of land use change resulting in changes in nutrient ratios and concentrations and global change as both rainfall and temperature have increased over the last two decades. It is therefore probable in the future that phytoplankton diversity will continue to change, potentially favoring the emergence of toxic species in this system. PMID:25200992

  15. Evolution of linear mitochondrial DNA in three known lineages of Polytomella.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Roy; Hua, Jimeng; Lee, Robert W

    2010-10-01

    Although DNA sequences of linear mitochondrial genomes are available for a wide variety of species, sequence and conformational data from the extreme ends of these molecules (i.e., the telomeres) are limited. Data on the telomeres is important because it can provide insights into how linear genomes overcome the end-replication problem. This study explores the evolution of linear mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) in the green-algal genus Polytomella (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta), the members of which are non-photosynthetic. Earlier works analyzed the linear and linear-fragmented mitochondrial genomes of Polytomella capuana and Polytomella parva. Here we present the mtDNA sequence for Polytomella strain SAG 63-10 [also known as Polytomella piriformis (Pringsheim 1963)], which is the only known representative of a mostly unexplored Polytomella lineage. We show that the P. piriformis mtDNA is made up of two linear fragments of 13 and 3 kb. The telomeric sequences of the large and small fragments are terminally inverted, and appear to end in vitro with either closed (hairpin-loop) or open (nicked-loop) structures as also shown here for P. parva and shown earlier for P. capuana. The structure of the P. piriformis mtDNA is more similar to that of P. parva, which is also fragmented, than to that of P. capuana, which is contained in a single chromosome. Phylogenetic analyses reveal high substitution rates in the mtDNA of all three Polytomella species relative to other chlamydomonadalean algae. These elevated rates could be the result of a greater number of vegetative cell divisions and/or small population sizes in Polytomella species as compared with other chlamydomonadalean algae. PMID:20574726

  16. Employment of CEPEX enclosures for monitoring toxicity of Hg and Zn on in situ structural and functional characteristics of algal communities of River Ganga in Varanasi, India.

    PubMed

    Rai, L C; Singh, A K; Mallick, N

    1990-10-01

    Effects of Hg and Zn on in situ nitrogen fixation, autotrophic index, pigment diversity, 14CO2 uptake, and change in algal community structure of Ganges water have been studied for the first time using CEPEX chambers in aquatic ecosystem of India. A concentration-dependent decrease in in situ nitrogenase activity of Ganges water with Hg and Zn has been noticed. No ethylene production was observed at 0.8 microgram/ml of Hg. However, an increase in the autotrophic index was observed in CEPEX enclosures treated with Hg and Zn. The AI value was maximum at 0.8 microgram/ml Hg after an incubation of 15 days. An increase in pigment diversity also followed the pattern of AI with the test metals used. Inhibition of 14CO2 uptake of phytoplankton of Ganges water was maximum at 0.8 microgram/ml Hg (79%) followed by Zn (69%). Carbon fixation showed an increase for 1 hr, after which no appreciable change was noticed. Maximum inhibition of algal number was observed at 0.8 microgram/ml Hg followed by 8.0 micrograms/ml of Zn in the CEPEX chamber. Members of Chlorophyceae showed more tolerance than Cyanophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. The filamentous forms were more tolerant to Hg and Zn. In contrast, unicellular forms were more sensitive to Hg. The test of significance (ANOVA) showed that metal-induced variations in pigment diversity, the autotrophic index, and the 14CO2 uptake were highly significant (P less than 0.001).

  17. Variation of phytoplankton assemblages of Kongsfjorden in early autumn 2012: a microscopic and pigment ratio-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Jane T; Tripathy, S C; Sabu, P; Laluraj, C M; Rajan, S

    2016-04-01

    Phytoplankton species distribution and composition were determined by using microscopy and pigment ratios in the Kongsfjorden during early autumn 2012. Variation in sea surface temperature (SST) was minimal and matched well with satellite-derived SST. Nutrients were generally limited. Surface phytoplankton abundance ranged from 0.21 × 10(3) to 10.28 × 10(3) cells L(-1). Phytoplankton abundance decreased with depth and did not show any significant correlation with chlorophyll a (chl a). Column-integrated phytoplankton cell counts (PCC) ranged from 94.3 × 10(6) cells m(-2) (Kf4) to 13.7 × 10(6) cells m(-2) (Kf5), while chl a was lowest at inner part of the fjord (6.3 mg m(-2)) and highest towards the mouth (24.83 mg m(-2)). Biomass from prymnesiophytes and raphidophytes dominated at surface and 10 m, respectively. The contribution of Bacillariophyceae to biomass was low. Generally, heterotrophic dinoflagellates were great in abundance (12.82 %) and ubiquitous in nature and were major contributors to biomass. Various chl pigments (chl b, chl c, phaeopigments (phaeo)) were measured to obtain pigment/chl a ratios to ascertain phytoplankton composition. Phaeo were observed only in inner fjord. Chl b:a ratios and microscopic observations indicated dominance of Chlorophyceae at greater depths than surface. Furthermore, microscopic observations confirmed dominance of chl c containing algae throughout the fjord. The study indicates that pigment ratios can be used as a tool for preliminary identification of major phytoplankton groups. However, under the presence of a large number of heterotrophic dinoflagellates such as Gymnodinium sp. and Gyrodinium sp., pigment signatures need to be supplemented by microscopic observations.

  18. Photosynthetic sensitivity of phytoplankton to commonly used pharmaceuticals and its dependence on cellular phosphorus status.

    PubMed

    Grzesiuk, Malgorzata; Wacker, Alexander; Spijkerman, Elly

    2016-05-01

    Recently pharmaceuticals have become significant environmental pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, that could affect primary producers such as microalgae. Here we analyzed the effect of pharmaceuticals on the photosynthesis of microalgae commonly found in freshwater-two species of Chlorophyceae and a member of the Eustigmatophyceae, via PAM fluorometry. As pharmaceuticals, three medicines often consumed in households were chosen: (i) fluoxetine, an antidepressant, (ii) propranolol, a β-blocker and (iii) ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic medicine. The EC50 for the quantum yield of photosystem II in phytoplankton acclimated to inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-replete and Pi-limited conditions was estimated. Acute toxicity experiments over a 5 h exposure revealed that Nannochloropsis limnetica was the least sensitive to pharmaceuticals in its photosynthetic yield out of all species tested. Although the estimation of sub-lethal effects can be vital in contrast to that of LC50s, the EC50 values in all species and for all medicines were orders of magnitude higher than concentrations found in polluted surface water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was the most sensitive to fluoxetine (EC50 of 1.6 mg L(-1)), and propranolol (EC50 of 3 mg L(-1)). Acutodesmus obliquus was most sensitive to ibuprofen (EC50 of 288 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sensitivity to the pharmaceuticals changed under a Pi-limitation; the green algae became less sensitive to fluoxetine and propranolol. In contrast, Pi-limited algal species were more sensitive to ibuprofen. Our results suggest that the sensitivity of algae to pharmaceuticals is (i) highly compound- and species-specific and (ii) dependent on the cellular P status.

  19. High production of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) in a massive marine phytoplankton culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez-Leiva, L.; Tarifeño, E.; Cornejo, M.; Kiene, R.; Farías, L.

    2010-09-01

    The production of large amounts of algal biomass for different purposes such as aquaculture or biofuels, may cause impacts on the marine environment. One such impact is the production of radiatively active trace gases and aerosols with climate cooling (dimethyl sulfide DMS and its precursor DMSP) and warming (N2O and CH4) effects. Total and dissolved DMSP, N2O and CH4, together with other environmental variables were monitored daily for 46 days within a massive microalgae monoculture of Nannochloris (Chlorophyceae) in an open pond system. The growth of this green microalgae was stimulated by the addition of N- and P-rich salts, resulting in exponential growth (growth phase) during the first 17 days observed by cell abundance (1 × 106 to 4.4 × 106 cell mL-1) and Chl-a levels (from 1.4 to 96 mg Chl-a m-3) followed by a decrease in both Chl-a and cell abundance (senescence phase). Total DMSP (from 6.3 to 142 μmol m-3), dissolved DMSP i.e. 5.8 to 137 μmol m-3 and N2O (from 8 to 600 μmol m-3) abruptly peaked during the senescence phase, whereas CH4 steadily increased between 2 and 10 μmol m-3 during the growth phase. Different ratios between tracers and Chl-a during both phases reveal different biochemical processes involved in the cycling of these gases and tracers. Our results show that despite the consumption of large quantities of CO2 by the massive algal culture, a minor amount of DMS and huge amounts of greenhouse gases were produced, in particular N2O, which has a greater radiative effect per molecule than CO2. These findings have important implications for biogeochemical studies and for environmental management of aquaculture activities.

  20. Long-term adaptive response to high-frequency light signals in the unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Combe, Charlotte; Hartmann, Philipp; Rabouille, Sophie; Talec, Amelie; Bernard, Olivier; Sciandra, Antoine

    2015-06-01

    Productivity of microalgal cultivation processes is tightly related to photosynthetic efficiency, and therefore to light availability at the cell scale. In an agitated, highly turbid suspension,the light signal received by a single phytoplankton cell moving in a dense culture is a succession of flashes. The growth characteristics of microalgae under such dynamic light conditions are thus fundamental information to understand nonlinear properties of the photosynthetic process and to improve cultivation process design and operation. Studies of the long term consequences of dynamic illumination regime on photosynthesis require a very specific experimental set-up where fast varying signals are applied on the long term. In order to investigate the growth response of the unicellular photosynthetic eukaryote Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae) to intermittent light exposure, different light regimes using LEDs with the same average total light dose were applied in continuous cultures. Flashing light with different durations of light flashes (△t of 30 s, 15 s, 2 s and 0.1 s) followed by dark periods of variable length (0.67 ≤ L:D ≤ 2) yielding flash frequencies in the range 0.017-5 Hz, were compared to continuous illumination. Specific growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, lipid productivity and elemental composition were measured on two duplicates for each irradiance condition. The different treatments of intermittent light led to specific growth rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 day(-1) . While photosynthetic efficiency was enhanced with increased flash frequency, no significant differences were observed in the particular carbon and chlorophyll content. Pigment analysis showed that within this range of flash frequency, cells progressively photoacclimated to the average light intensity.

  1. Photosynthetic sensitivity of phytoplankton to commonly used pharmaceuticals and its dependence on cellular phosphorus status.

    PubMed

    Grzesiuk, Malgorzata; Wacker, Alexander; Spijkerman, Elly

    2016-05-01

    Recently pharmaceuticals have become significant environmental pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, that could affect primary producers such as microalgae. Here we analyzed the effect of pharmaceuticals on the photosynthesis of microalgae commonly found in freshwater-two species of Chlorophyceae and a member of the Eustigmatophyceae, via PAM fluorometry. As pharmaceuticals, three medicines often consumed in households were chosen: (i) fluoxetine, an antidepressant, (ii) propranolol, a β-blocker and (iii) ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic medicine. The EC50 for the quantum yield of photosystem II in phytoplankton acclimated to inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-replete and Pi-limited conditions was estimated. Acute toxicity experiments over a 5 h exposure revealed that Nannochloropsis limnetica was the least sensitive to pharmaceuticals in its photosynthetic yield out of all species tested. Although the estimation of sub-lethal effects can be vital in contrast to that of LC50s, the EC50 values in all species and for all medicines were orders of magnitude higher than concentrations found in polluted surface water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was the most sensitive to fluoxetine (EC50 of 1.6 mg L(-1)), and propranolol (EC50 of 3 mg L(-1)). Acutodesmus obliquus was most sensitive to ibuprofen (EC50 of 288 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sensitivity to the pharmaceuticals changed under a Pi-limitation; the green algae became less sensitive to fluoxetine and propranolol. In contrast, Pi-limited algal species were more sensitive to ibuprofen. Our results suggest that the sensitivity of algae to pharmaceuticals is (i) highly compound- and species-specific and (ii) dependent on the cellular P status. PMID:26894612

  2. Evolutionary and Biotechnological Implications of Robust Hydrogenase Activity in Halophilic Strains of Tetraselmis

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Sarah; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Boyd, Eric S.; Brown, Susan L.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Peters, John W.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), relatively few studies have focused on H2 production and hydrogenase adaptations in marine or halophilic algae. Salt water organisms likely offer several advantages for biotechnological H2 production due to the global abundance of salt water, decreased H2 and O2 solubility in saline and hypersaline systems, and the ability of extracellular NaCl levels to influence metabolism. We screened unialgal isolates obtained from hypersaline ecosystems in the southwest United States and identified two distinct halophilic strains of the genus Tetraselmis (GSL1 and QNM1) that exhibit both robust fermentative and photo H2-production activities. The influence of salinity (3.5%, 5.5% and 7.0% w/v NaCl) on H2 production was examined during anoxic acclimation, with the greatest in vivo H2-production rates observed at 7.0% NaCl. These Tetraselmis strains maintain robust hydrogenase activity even after 24 h of anoxic acclimation and show increased hydrogenase activity relative to C. reinhardtii after extended anoxia. Transcriptional analysis of Tetraselmis GSL1 enabled sequencing of the cDNA encoding the FeFe-hydrogenase structural enzyme (HYDA) and its maturation proteins (HYDE, HYDEF and HYDG). In contrast to freshwater Chlorophyceae, the halophilic Tetraselmis GSL1 strain likely encodes a single HYDA and two copies of HYDE, one of which is fused to HYDF. Phylogenetic analyses of HYDA and concatenated HYDA, HYDE, HYDF and HYDG in Tetraselmis GSL1 fill existing knowledge gaps in the evolution of algal hydrogenases and indicate that the algal hydrogenases sequenced to date are derived from a common ancestor. This is consistent with recent hypotheses that suggest fermentative metabolism in the majority of eukaryotes is derived from a common base set of enzymes that emerged early in eukaryotic evolution with subsequent losses in some organisms. PMID

  3. The Bryopsis hypnoides Plastid Genome: Multimeric Forms and Complete Nucleotide Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chao; Wang, Guangce; Niu, Jiangfeng; Pan, Guanghua; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Background Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux is a siphonous green alga, and its extruded protoplasm can aggregate spontaneously in seawater and develop into mature individuals. The chloroplast of B. hypnoides is the biggest organelle in the cell and shows strong autonomy. To better understand this organelle, we sequenced and analyzed the chloroplast genome of this green alga. Principal Findings A total of 111 functional genes, including 69 potential protein-coding genes, 5 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes were identified. The genome size (153,429 bp), arrangement, and inverted-repeat (IR)-lacking structure of the B. hypnoides chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) closely resembles that of Chlorella vulgaris. Furthermore, our cytogenomic investigations using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and southern blotting methods showed that the B. hypnoides cpDNA had multimeric forms, including monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer, and even higher multimers, which is similar to the higher order organization observed previously for higher plant cpDNA. The relative amounts of the four multimeric cpDNA forms were estimated to be about 1, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 based on molecular hybridization analysis. Phylogenetic analyses based on a concatenated alignment of chloroplast protein sequences suggested that B. hypnoides is sister to all Chlorophyceae and this placement received moderate support. Conclusion All of the results suggest that the autonomy of the chloroplasts of B. hypnoides has little to do with the size and gene content of the cpDNA, and the IR-lacking structure of the chloroplasts indirectly demonstrated that the multimeric molecules might result from the random cleavage and fusion of replication intermediates instead of recombinational events. PMID:21339817

  4. A Novel Basal Apparatus Protein of 90 kD (BAp90) from the Flagellate Green Alga Spermatozopsis similis is a Component of the Proximal Plates and Identifies the d-(dexter)Surface of the Basal Body.

    PubMed

    Geimer, S; Lechtreck, K F; Melkonian, M

    1998-05-01

    The flagellar basal apparatus consists of the basal bodies and associated fibrous structures, and represents the organizing center for the microtubular cytoskeleton in many flagellate protists. To identify novel proteins associated with the basal bodies, basal apparatuses from the flagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and purified. A polyclonal antibody raised against a 95kD protein band enriched in purified basal apparatuses was used to screen a cDNA library of S. similis which resulted in the isolation of a full length clone coding for a novel protein of 812 amino acids (85.3kD). Sequence analysis of this clone identified extended a-helical regions and predicted several coiled-coil forming domains interrupted by spacer segments of variable lengths. A polyclonal antibody (anti-BAp90) raised against the bacterially expressed protein recognized a 90kD band (BAp90) in SDS-PAGE of isolated basal apparatuses of S. similis. Immunogold labeling using anti-BAp90 decorated the proximal plates (two striated, triangular fibers which serve as spacers between the basal bodies in their proximal region) and parts of the d-fibers (df) which interconnect the basal bodies with the microtubular d-roots and the striated microtubule-associated fibers (SMAFs). Thus, the 90kD basal apparatus protein of S. similis represents a biochemical landmark for the lateral asymmetry of the basal body identifying its d-(dexter)surface. Cytoskeletal elements containing BAp90 or structurally related proteins may be involved in the organization and/or maintenance of the positional relationship between basal bodies and the cellular cytoskeleton, and hence cell polarity.

  5. Microalgae Synthesize Hydrocarbons from Long-Chain Fatty Acids via a Light-Dependent Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Légeret, Bertrand; Mirabella, Boris; Guédeney, Geneviève; Jetter, Reinhard; Peltier, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are considered a promising platform for the production of lipid-based biofuels. While oil accumulation pathways are intensively researched, the possible existence of a microalgal pathways converting fatty acids into alka(e)nes has received little attention. Here, we provide evidence that such a pathway occurs in several microalgal species from the green and the red lineages. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae), a C17 alkene, n-heptadecene, was detected in the cell pellet and the headspace of liquid cultures. The Chlamydomonas alkene was identified as 7-heptadecene, an isomer likely formed by decarboxylation of cis-vaccenic acid. Accordingly, incubation of intact Chlamydomonas cells with per-deuterated D31-16:0 (palmitic) acid yielded D31-18:0 (stearic) acid, D29-18:1 (oleic and cis-vaccenic) acids, and D29-heptadecene. These findings showed that loss of the carboxyl group of a C18 monounsaturated fatty acid lead to heptadecene formation. Amount of 7-heptadecene varied with growth phase and temperature and was strictly dependent on light but was not affected by an inhibitor of photosystem II. Cell fractionation showed that approximately 80% of the alkene is localized in the chloroplast. Heptadecane, pentadecane, as well as 7- and 8-heptadecene were detected in Chlorella variabilis NC64A (Trebouxiophyceae) and several Nannochloropsis species (Eustigmatophyceae). In contrast, Ostreococcus tauri (Mamiellophyceae) and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum produced C21 hexaene, without detectable C15-C19 hydrocarbons. Interestingly, no homologs of known hydrocarbon biosynthesis genes were found in the Nannochloropsis, Chlorella, or Chlamydomonas genomes. This work thus demonstrates that microalgae have the ability to convert C16 and C18 fatty acids into alka(e)nes by a new, light-dependent pathway. PMID:27288359

  6. Auxin and cytokinin relationships in 24 microalgal strains(1).

    PubMed

    Stirk, Wendy A; Ördög, Vince; Novák, Ondřej; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Bálint, Péter; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    Endogenous auxins and cytokinins were quantitated in 24 axenic microalgal strains from the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae. These strains were in an exponential growth phase, being harvested on day 4. Acutodesmus acuminatus Mosonmagyaróvár Algal Culture Collection-41 (MACC) produced the highest biomass and Chlorococcum ellipsoideum MACC-712 the lowest biomass. The auxins, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-acetamide (IAM) were present in all microalgal strains. No other auxin conjugates were detected. IAA and IAM concentrations varied greatly, ranging from 0.50 to 71.49 nmol IAA · g(-1) DW and 0.18 to 99.83 nmol IAM · g(-1) DW, respectively. In 19 strains, IAA occurred in higher concentrations than IAM. Nineteen cytokinins were identified in the microalgal strains. Total cytokinin concentrations varied, ranging from 0.29 nmol · g(-1) DW in Klebsormidium flaccidum MACC-692 to 21.40 nmol · g(-1) DW in Stigeoclonium nanum MACC-790. The general trend was that cis-zeatin types were the predominant cytokinins; isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins were present in moderate concentrations, while low levels of trans-zeatin-type and very low levels of dihydrozeatin-type cytokinins were detected. Ribotides were generally the main cytokinin conjugate forms present with the cytokinin free bases and ribosides present in similar but moderate levels. The levels of O-glucosides were low. Only one N-glucoside was detected, being present in nine strains in very low concentrations. In 15 strains, the auxin content was 2- to 4-fold higher than the cytokinin content.

  7. Evolutionary and biotechnological implications of robust hydrogenase activity in halophilic strains of Tetraselmis.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Sarah; Jinkerson, Robert E; Boyd, Eric S; Brown, Susan L; Baxter, Bonnie K; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), relatively few studies have focused on H2 production and hydrogenase adaptations in marine or halophilic algae. Salt water organisms likely offer several advantages for biotechnological H2 production due to the global abundance of salt water, decreased H2 and O2 solubility in saline and hypersaline systems, and the ability of extracellular NaCl levels to influence metabolism. We screened unialgal isolates obtained from hypersaline ecosystems in the southwest United States and identified two distinct halophilic strains of the genus Tetraselmis (GSL1 and QNM1) that exhibit both robust fermentative and photo H2-production activities. The influence of salinity (3.5%, 5.5% and 7.0% w/v NaCl) on H2 production was examined during anoxic acclimation, with the greatest in vivo H2-production rates observed at 7.0% NaCl. These Tetraselmis strains maintain robust hydrogenase activity even after 24 h of anoxic acclimation and show increased hydrogenase activity relative to C. reinhardtii after extended anoxia. Transcriptional analysis of Tetraselmis GSL1 enabled sequencing of the cDNA encoding the FeFe-hydrogenase structural enzyme (HYDA) and its maturation proteins (HYDE, HYDEF and HYDG). In contrast to freshwater Chlorophyceae, the halophilic Tetraselmis GSL1 strain likely encodes a single HYDA and two copies of HYDE, one of which is fused to HYDF. Phylogenetic analyses of HYDA and concatenated HYDA, HYDE, HYDF and HYDG in Tetraselmis GSL1 fill existing knowledge gaps in the evolution of algal hydrogenases and indicate that the algal hydrogenases sequenced to date are derived from a common ancestor. This is consistent with recent hypotheses that suggest fermentative metabolism in the majority of eukaryotes is derived from a common base set of enzymes that emerged early in eukaryotic evolution with subsequent losses in some organisms. PMID

  8. Exploring occurrence and molecular diversity of betaine lipids across taxonomy of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cañavate, José Pedro; Armada, Isabel; Ríos, José Luis; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael

    2016-04-01

    Betaine lipids (BL) from ten microalgae species of the kingdoms Plantae and Chromista were identified and quantified by HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS. Diacylgyceryl-N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) was detected in Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species, whereas Tetraselmis suecica was described as the first green algae containing diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-beta-alanine (DGTA). DGTA molecular species where also characterized in Cryptophyceae species as well as in the Bacillariophyceae diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The Mediophyceae diatom Chaetoceros gracilis had no DGTA, but contained diacylglyceryl-carboxyhydroxymethylcholine (DGCC). A principal coordinate (PCO) analysis of microalgae species revealed the existence of three main clusters around each BL type. The first PCO axis (43.9% of total variation) grouped Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Eustigmatophyceae species and positively correlated with DGTS. The second PCO axis (27.8% of total variation) segregated DGTA from DGCC containing species. Cryptophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Chlorodendrophyceae were the more closely associated species to DGTA. Mediophyceae and Dinophyceae species contained DGCC as the only BL. Molecular diversity varied from the simplest DGCC composition in Gyrodinium dorsum to the highest spectrum of ten different molecular species detected for DGTA (Rhodomonas baltica) and DGCC (C. gracilis). The fatty acid profile of DGTS was very dissimilar to that of the whole lipid cell content. DGTS from Nannochloropsis gaditana was highly unsaturated respecting to total lipids, whereas in Picochlorum atomus DGTS unsaturation was nearly one half to that of total lipids. Dissimilarity between DGTA and total lipid fatty acid profile was minimum among all BL and DGTA fatty acid unsaturation was the maximum observed in the study. New DGCC molecular species enriched in 20:5 were described in Mediophyceae diatoms. Multivariate microalgae ordination using BL as descriptors revealed a higher

  9. Distinctive Architecture of the Chloroplast Genome in the Chlorodendrophycean Green Algae Scherffelia dubia and Tetraselmis sp. CCMP 881

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, Monique; de Cambiaire, Jean-Charles; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Chlorodendrophyceae is a small class of green algae belonging to the core Chlorophyta, an assemblage that also comprises the Pedinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae. Here we describe for the first time the chloroplast genomes of chlorodendrophycean algae (Scherffelia dubia, 137,161 bp; Tetraselmis sp. CCMP 881, 100,264 bp). Characterized by a very small single-copy (SSC) region devoid of any gene and an unusually large inverted repeat (IR), the quadripartite structures of the Scherffelia and Tetraselmis genomes are unique among all core chlorophytes examined thus far. The lack of genes in the SSC region is offset by the rich and atypical gene complement of the IR, which includes genes from the SSC and large single-copy regions of prasinophyte and streptophyte chloroplast genomes having retained an ancestral quadripartite structure. Remarkably, seven of the atypical IR-encoded genes have also been observed in the IRs of pedinophycean and trebouxiophycean chloroplast genomes, suggesting that they were already present in the IR of the common ancestor of all core chlorophytes. Considering that the relationships among the main lineages of the core Chlorophyta are still unresolved, we evaluated the impact of including the Chlorodendrophyceae in chloroplast phylogenomic analyses. The trees we inferred using data sets of 79 and 108 genes from 71 chlorophytes indicate that the Chlorodendrophyceae is a deep-diverging lineage of the core Chlorophyta, although the placement of this class relative to the Pedinophyceae remains ambiguous. Interestingly, some of our phylogenomic trees together with our comparative analysis of gene order data support the monophyly of the Trebouxiophyceae, thus offering further evidence that the previously observed affiliation between the Chlorellales and Pedinophyceae is the result of systematic errors in phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:26849226

  10. How well do food distributions predict spatial distributions of shorebirds with different degrees of self-organization?

    PubMed

    Folmer, Eelke O; Olff, Han; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-07-01

    1. Habitat selection models usually assume that the spatial distributions of animals depend positively on the distributions of resources and negatively on interference. However, the presence of conspecifics at a given location also signals safety and the availability of resources. This may induce followers to select contiguous patches and causes animals to cluster. Resource availability, interference and attraction therefore jointly lead to self-organized patterns in foraging animals. 2. We analyse the distribution of foraging shorebirds at landscape level on the basis of a resource-based model to establish, albeit indirectly, the importance of conspecific attraction and interference. 3. At 23 intertidal sites with a mean area of 170 ha spread out over the Dutch Wadden Sea, the spatial distribution of six abundant shorebird species was determined. The location of individuals and groups was mapped using a simple method based on projective geometry, enabling fast mapping of low-tide foraging shorebird distributions. We analysed the suitability of these 23 sites in terms of food availability and travel distances to high tide roosts. 4. We introduce an interference sensitivity scale which maps interference as a function of inter-individual distance. We thus obtain interference-insensitive species, which are only sensitive to interference at short inter-individual distances (and may thus pack densely) and interference-sensitive species which interfere over greater inter-individual distances (and thus form sparse flocks). 5. We found that interference-insensitive species like red knot (Calidris canutus) and dunlins (Calidris alpina) are more clustered than predicted by the spatial distribution of their food resources. This suggests that these species follow each other when selecting foraging patches. In contrast, curlew (Numenius arquata) and grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), known to be sensitive to interference, form sparse flocks. Hence, resource-based models have

  11. Seasonality and daily activity of male and female tabanid flies monitored in a Hungarian hill-country pasture by new polarization traps and traditional canopy traps.

    PubMed

    Herczeg, Tamás; Blahó, Miklós; Száz, Dénes; Kriska, György; Gyurkovszky, Mónika; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2014-11-01

    Blood-sucking female tabanid flies cause serious problems for animals and humans. For the control of tabanids, the knowledge about their seasonality and daily activity is of great importance. Earlier, only traditional traps capturing exclusively female tabanids have been used to survey tabanid activity. The data of such temporal trapping do not reflect correctly the activity of male and female tabanid flies. Our major aim was to monitor the trapping numbers of male and female tabanids during a 3-month summer survey in Hungary. We used (i) conventional canopy traps with liquid traps on the ground beneath the canopy and (ii) L-shaped sticky traps with vertical and horizontal components. Our other goal was to compare the efficiencies of the two components of each trap type used. We observed two greater peaks of the trapping number of tabanids. These peaks started with increased catches of female tabanids captured by the canopy traps and the vertical sticky traps and ended with a dominance of male and female tabanids caught by the liquid traps and the horizontal sticky traps. The swarming periods were interrupted by rainy/cool days, when the number of tabanids decreased drastically. Among the 17 species, six dominated and composed 89.4% of the captured tabanids: Haematopota pluvialis, Tabanus tergestinus, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus maculicornis, Tabanus bovinus and Atylotus loewianus. The number of water-seeking male and female tabanids rose up to 12-13 h and then decreased but had a secondary peak at about 17 h. The stochastic weather change and the communities of different species resulted in large standard deviations of the averaged number of tabanids in the course of a day. The horizontally polarizing (liquid and horizontal sticky) traps captured both male and female specimens and were about three times more efficient than the canopy and vertical sticky traps that caught only females. The results of the horizontal sticky traps corresponded to those of the liquid

  12. Efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) against tabanid flies on horses evaluated in a field test in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Herholz, C; Kopp, C; Wenger, M; Mathis, A; Wägeli, S; Roth, N

    2016-05-15

    pluvialis, but also non-specified arthropods. The design of the present study simulated practical conditions, allowed to quantify the number of tabanids flies and to demonstrate repellency of DEET in horses. PMID:27084474

  13. Holocene environmental changes in northern Lebanon as inferred from a multiproxy study on lacustrine-palustrine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, L.; Hage-Hassan, J.; Gasse, F. A.; Demory, F.; van Campo, E.; Develle, A.; Elias, A.

    2013-12-01

    The reconstruction of the Levantine post-glacial environmental evolution is essential to understand the interactions between variability of regional water cycle, dynamics of the global climate, and cultural evolution. Here, we present an Holocene record from the karstic Yammouneh basin (34.06N-34.09N; 36.0E-36.03E, 1360 m a.s.l.), located on the eastern flank of Mount Lebanon (northern Levant). Two new sedimentary profiles (from 1 gully and 1 trench) complement former data from 2 trenches and 1 core collected in different points of the basin (Daeron et al., 2007; Develle et al., 2009, 2010). A total of 42 AMS 14C dating (partly carbonized wood) provide a solid chronology from the YD to present. Holocene sediments (1.5 to 3.6 m thick) consist of pale lacustrine chalk interrupted by an ash layer and remarkable centimetric beds of ocher to dark brown silty clays used, in addition to 14C ages, as stratigraphical markers. Lacustrine biogenic remains are diversified and abundant (ostracods, gastropods, charophytes, chlorophyceae, plant debris...) all reflecting a freswater, generally shallow waterbody. We analysed the sediment mineralogy, TOM contents, magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence), pollen and calcite oxygen isotope composition derived from ostracod shells. Results reveal the following main features : 1- intervals dominated by authigenic calcite suggest that the major water supply was the karstic springs, which still deliver Ca-rich water and low surface runoff; 2- the lake oxygen isotope composition has been impacted by the source isotope composition throughout the Holocene and by increased inland rainfall during the early Holocene; 3- a decideous oak forest, implying much more soil water availability than today, was developed around the lake from ca. 11.5 to 9.5 kyr (the very bad pollen preservation after 8.3 kyr reflects oxidation or frequent oscillations of the water level); 4- four paleosols evidenced from lithofacies and

  14. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  15. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  16. Development of a PNA Probe for Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Detection of Prorocentrum donghaiense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guofu; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Baoyu; Wang, Guangce; Lu, Douding; Xu, Zhong; Yan, Peishen

    2011-01-01

    Prorocentrum donghaiense is a common but dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, which is widely distributed along the China Sea coast. Development of methods for rapid and precise identification and quantification is prerequisite for early-stage warning and monitoring of blooms due to P. donghaiense. In this study, sequences representing the partial large subunit rDNA (D1–D2), small subunit rDNA and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of P. donghaiense were firstly obtained, and then seven candidate DNA probes were designed for performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests on P. donghaiense. Based on the fluorescent intensity of P. donghaiense cells labeled by the DNA probes, the probe DP0443A displayed the best hybridization performance. Therefore, a PNA probe (PP0443A) analogous to DP0443A was used in the further study. The cells labeled with the PNA probe displayed more intensive green fluorescence than that labeled with its DNA analog. The PNA probe was used to hybridize with thirteen microalgae belonging to five families, i.e., Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Raphidophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae, and showed no visible cross-reaction. Finally, FISH with the probes PP0443A and DP0443A and light microscopy (LM) analysis aiming at enumerating P. donghaiense cells were performed on the field samples. Statistical comparisons of the cell densities (cells/L) of P. donghaiense in the natural samples determined by FISH and LM were performed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparisons of the means. The P. donghaiense cell densities determined by LM and the PNA probe are remarkably higher than (p<0.05) that determined by the DNA probe, while no significant difference is observed between LM and the PNA probe. All results suggest that the PNA probe is more sensitive that its DNA analog, and therefore is promising for the monitoring of harmful algal blooms of P. donghaiense in the future. PMID:22022408

  17. Holocene environmental changes in northern Lebanon as inferred from a multiproxy study on lacustrine-palustrine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Laurence; Jenna, Hage-Hassen; Demory, François; Develle, Anne-Lise; van Campo, Elise; Elias, Ata

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the Levantine post-glacial environmental evolution is essential to understand the interactions between variability of regional water cycle, dynamics of the global climate, and cultural evolution. We present a paleolacustrine record from the karstic Yammouneh basin (34.06N-34.09N; 36.0E-36.03E, 1360 m a.s.l.), located on the eastern flank of Mount Lebanon (northern Levant). Holocene sediments (retrieved from gully and a trenbch) (1.5 to 3.6 m thick) consist of pale lacustrine chalk interrupted by an ash layer and remarkable centimetric beds of ocher to dark brown silty clays used, in addition to 14C ages, as stratigraphical markers. Lacustrine biogenic remains are diversified and abundant (ostracods, gastropods, charophytes, chlorophyceae, plant debris…) all reflecting a freswater, generally shallow waterbody. We analysed the sediment mineralogy and geochemistry, TOM contents, magnetic properties, pollen and calcite oxygen isotope composition derived from ostracod shells. These sequences are compared to former data from 2 trenches and 1 core collected in different points of the basin (Daeron et al., 2007; Develle et al., 2009, 2010). A total of 42 AMS 14C dating (partly carbonized wood) provide a solid chronology from the YD to present. Results reveal the following main features : 1- intervals dominated by authigenic calcite suggest that the major water supply was the karstic springs, which still deliver Ca-rich water and low surface runoff; 2- the lake oxygen isotope composition has been impacted by the source isotope composition throughout the Holocene and by increased inland rainfall during the early Holocene; 3- a decideous oak forest, implying much more soil water availability than today, was developed around the lake from ca. 11.5 to 9.5 kyr (the very bad pollen preservation after 8.3 kyr reflects oxidation or frequent oscillations of the water level); 4- four paleosols evidenced from lithofacies and magnetic properties are identified

  18. Inferring Phytoplankton, Terrestrial Plant and Bacteria Bulk δ¹³C Values from Compound Specific Analyses of Lipids and Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Sami J.; Peltomaa, Elina; Hiltunen, Minna; Jones, Roger I.; Hahn, Martin W.; Biasi, Christina; Brett, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope mixing models in aquatic ecology require δ13C values for food web end members such as phytoplankton and bacteria, however it is rarely possible to measure these directly. Hence there is a critical need for improved methods for estimating the δ13C ratios of phytoplankton, bacteria and terrestrial detritus from within mixed seston. We determined the δ13C values of lipids, phospholipids and biomarker fatty acids and used these to calculate isotopic differences compared to the whole-cell δ13C values for eight phytoplankton classes, five bacterial taxa, and three types of terrestrial organic matter (two trees and one grass). The lipid content was higher amongst the phytoplankton (9.5±4.0%) than bacteria (7.3±0.8%) or terrestrial matter (3.9±1.7%). Our measurements revealed that the δ13C values of lipids followed phylogenetic classification among phytoplankton (78.2% of variance was explained by class), bacteria and terrestrial matter, and there was a strong correlation between the δ13C values of total lipids, phospholipids and individual fatty acids. Amongst the phytoplankton, the isotopic difference between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass averaged -10.7±1.1‰ for Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae, and -6.1±1.7‰ for Cryptophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Diatomophyceae. For heterotrophic bacteria and for type I and type II methane-oxidizing bacteria our results showed a -1.3±1.3‰, -8.0±4.4‰, and -3.4±1.4‰ δ13C difference, respectively, between biomarker fatty acids and bulk biomass. For terrestrial matter the isotopic difference averaged -6.6±1.2‰. Based on these results, the δ13C values of total lipids and biomarker fatty acids can be used to determine the δ13C values of bulk phytoplankton, bacteria or terrestrial matter with ± 1.4‰ uncertainty (i.e., the pooled SD of the isotopic difference for all samples). We conclude that when compound-specific stable isotope analyses become more widely available, the determination of

  19. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glutamine synthetase (GS) is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII) are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from γ-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria) to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae), and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae) and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta) sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB) and eukaryotic (GSIIE) GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the γ-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida). However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting a cytosolic

  20. Dynamics of Sundarban estuarine ecosystem: eutrophication induced threat to mangroves

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sundarbans is the largest chunk of mangrove forest and only tiger mangrove land in the world. Compared to the rich species diversity and uniqueness, very few studies have so far been conducted here, mainly due to its inaccessibility. This study explores water quality, density of biomass, species diversity, phytoplankton abundance and bacterial population of a tidal creek in Sunderban estuary during the post and pre monsoon period of 2008-09. Results Phytoplankton community was observed to be dominated by diatoms (Biacillariophyceae) followed by Pyrrophyceae (Dinoflagellates) and Chlorophyceae. A total of 46 taxa belonging to 6 groups were recorded. Other algal groups were Cyanophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Species diversity was highest in summer (March) and lowest in winter season (November) in all the sample stations indicating its close correlation with ambient temperature. Species evenness was fairly high in all five stations throughout the study period. Present study indicated that dissolved oxygen, nutrients and turbidity are the limiting factors for the phytoplankton biomass. The estuary was in eutrophic condition (Chlorophyll-a ≥10 μg/L) in winter. During the month of May phytoplankton biomass declined and at high salinity level (21.2PSU) new phytoplankton species take over, which are definitely better resilient to the high saline environment. Bio-indicator species like Polykrikos schwartzil, Dinophysis norvegica and Prorocentrum concavum points to moderately polluted water quality of the estuary. Conclusion Eutrophication as well as presence of toxic Dinoflagellates and Cyanophyceae in the tidal creek of Sundarban estuary definitely revealed the deteriorated status of the water quality. The structure and function of the mangrove food web is unique, driven by both marine and terrestrial components. But little attention has been paid so far to the adaptive responses of mangrove biota to the various disturbances, and now our work

  1. Toxic substances in surface waters and sediments--A study to assess the effects of arsenic-contaminated alluvial sediment in Whitewood Creek, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2003-01-01

    Field measurements and bioassay experiments were done to investigate the effects of arsenic and phosphorus interactions on sorption of these solutes by the benthic flora (periphyton and submerged macrophytes) in Whitewood Creek, a stream in western South Dakota. Short-term (24-hour) sorption experiments were used to determine arsenic transport characteristics for algae (first-order rate constants for solute sorption, biomass, and accumulation factors) collected in the creek along a transect beginning upstream from a mine discharge point and downgradient through a 57-kilometer reach. Temporal changes in biomass differed significantly between and within sampling sites. Arsenic concentrations in plant tissue increased with distance downstream, but temporal changes in concentrations in tissues differed considerably from site to site. Cultures of Achnanthes minutissima (Bacillariophyceae) and Stichococcus sp. (Chlorophyceae) were isolated from four sites along a longitudinal concentration gradient of dissolved arsenic within the study reach and were maintained at ambient solute concentrations. Arsenic accumulation factors and sorption-rate constants for these isolates were determined as a function of dissolved arsenate and orthophosphate. Cell surfaces of algal isolates exhibited preferential orthophosphate sorption over arsenate. Initial sorption of both arsenate and orthophosphate followed first-order mass transfer for each culturing condition. Although sorption-rate constants increased slightly with increased dissolved-arsenate concentration, algae, isolated from a site with elevated dissolved arsenic in the stream channel, had a significantly slower rate of arsenic sorption compared with the same species isolated from an uncontaminated site upstream. In diel studies, amplitudes of the pH cycles increased with measured biomass except at a site immediately downstream from water-treatment-plant discharge. Inorganic pentavalent arsenic dominated arsenic speciation at

  2. Expressed sequence tag (EST) profiling in hyper saline shocked Dunaliella salina reveals high expression of protein synthetic apparatus components.

    PubMed

    Alkayal, Fadi; Albion, Rebecca L; Tillett, Richard L; Hathwaik, Leyla T; Lemos, Mark S; Cushman, John C

    2010-11-01

    The unicellular, halotolerant, green alga, Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyceae) has the unique ability to adapt and grow in a wide range of salt conditions from about 0.05 to 5.5M. To better understand the molecular basis of its salinity tolerance, a complementary DNA (cDNA) library was constructed from D. salina cells adapted to 2.5M NaCl, salt-shocked at 3.4M NaCl for 5h, and used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) database. ESTs were obtained for 2831 clones representing 1401 unique transcripts. Putative functions were assigned to 1901 (67.2%) ESTs after comparison with protein databases. An additional 154 (5.4%) ESTs had significant similarity to known sequences whose functions are unclear and 776 (27.4%) had no similarity to known sequences. For those D. salina ESTs for which functional assignments could be made, the largest functional categories included protein synthesis (35.7%), energy (photosynthesis) (21.4%), primary metabolism (13.8%) and protein fate (6.8%). Within the protein synthesis category, the vast majority of ESTs (80.3%) encoded ribosomal proteins representing about 95% of the approximately 82 subunits of the cytosolic ribosome indicating that D. salina invests substantial resources in the production and maintenance of protein synthesis. The increased mRNA expression upon salinity shock was verified for a small set of selected genes by real-time, quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This EST collection also provided important new insights into the genetic underpinnings for the biosynthesis and utilization of glycerol and other osmoprotectants, the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, reactive oxygen-scavenging enzymes, and molecular chaperones (heat shock proteins) not described previously for D. salina. EST discovery also revealed the existence of RNA interference and signaling pathways associated with osmotic stress adaptation. The unknown ESTs described here provide a rich resource for the identification

  3. Phytoplankton variability in relation to some environmental factors in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohamed Z; El-Din, Nihal G Shams; Gharib, Samiha M

    2015-10-01

    Water samples were seasonally collected from 12 stations of the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during autumn of 2012 and winter, spring, and summer of 2013 in order to investigate phytoplankton community structure in relation to some physicochemical parameters. The study area harbored a diversified phytoplankton community (138 species), belonging to 67 genera. Four algal groups were represented and classified as Bacillariophyceae (90 species), Dinophyceae (28 species), Cyanophyceae (16 species), and Chlorophyceae (4 species). The results indicated a relative high occurrence of some species namely.; Pleurotaenium trabecula of green algae; Chaetoceros lorenzianus, Proboscia alata var. gracillima, Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungens of diatoms; Trichodesmium erythraeum and Pseudoanabaena limnetica of cyanophytes. Most of other algal species were fairly distributed at the selected stations of the study area. The total abundance of phytoplankton was relatively low (average of 2989 unit/L) in the eastern coast of Suez Gulf, as compared its western coast and the northern part of the Red Sea. The diversity of phytoplankton species was relatively high (2.35-3.82 nats) with an annual average of 3.22 nats in the present study. The results concluded that most of eastern coast of Suez Gulf is still healthy, relatively unpolluted, and oligotrophic area, which is clearly achieved by the low values of dissolved phosphate (0.025-0.3 μM), nitrate (0.18-1.26 μM), and dissolved ammonium (0.81-5.36 μM). Even if the occurrence of potentially harmful algae species was low, the study area should be monitored continuously. The dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.77 and 8.41 mg/L and pH values between 7.6 and 8.41. The multiple regression analysis showed that the dissolved nitrate and pH values were the most effective factors that controlled the seasonal fluctuations of phytoplankton along the eastern coast of Suez Gulf during 2012-2013.

  4. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Green Algal Lineages: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta

    PubMed Central

    Kapraun, Donald F.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Consensus higher-level molecular phylogenies present a compelling case that an ancient divergence separates eukaryotic green algae into two major monophyletic lineages, Chlorophyta and Streptophyta, and a residuum of green algae, which have been referred to prasinophytes or micromonadophytes. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for less than 1% of the described green algal members of Chlorophyta, which includes multicellular green marine algae and freshwater flagellates (e.g. Chlamydomonas and Volvox). The present investigation summarizes the state of our knowledge and adds substantially to our database of C-values, especially for the streptophyte charophycean lineage which is the sister group of the land plants. A recent list of 2C nuclear DNA contents for isolates and species of green algae is expanded by 72 to 157. Methods The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and red blood cell (chicken erythrocytes) standard were used to estimate 2C values with static microspectrophotometry. Key Results In Chlorophyta, including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Ulvophyceae, 2C DNA estimates range from 0·01 to 5·8 pg. Nuclear DNA content variation trends are noted and discussed for specific problematic taxon pairs, including Ulotrichales–Ulvales, and Cladophorales–Siphonocladales. For Streptophyta, 2C nuclear DNA contents range from 0·2 to 6·4 pg, excluding the highly polyploid Charales and Desmidiales, which have genome sizes of up to 14·8 and 46·8 pg, respectively. Nuclear DNA content data for Streptophyta superimposed on a contemporary molecular phylogeny indicate that early diverging lineages, including some members of Chlorokybales, Coleochaetales and Klebsormidiales, have genomes as small as 0·1–0·5 pg. It is proposed that the streptophyte ancestral nuclear genome common to both the charophyte and the embryophyte lineages can be characterized as 1C = 0·2 pg and 1n = 6

  5. Hydraulic and nutritional feedback controls surface patchiness of biological soil crusts at a post-mining site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Gypser, Stella; Subbotina, Maria; Veste, Maik

    2015-04-01

    In a recultivation area located in Brandenburg, Germany, five types of biocrusts (initial BSC1, developed BSC2 and BSC3, mosses, lichens) and non-crusted mineral substrate were sampled on tertiary sand deposited in 1985-1986 to investigate hydrologic properties of crust patches. It was the aim of the study to demonstrate that (I) two types of BSC with alternative nutritional and hydraulic feedback modes co-exist in one area and that (II) these feedback modes are synergic. The sites to sample were selected by expertise, trying to represent mixed sites dominated by mosses, by lichens, and by visually in the field observable surface properties (colour and crust thickness) for the non-crusted substrate and BSC1 to 3. The non-crusted samples contained minor incrustations of the lichen Placynthiella oligotropha, young leaflets of the moss Ceratodon purpureus, as well as very sparsely present individuals of the green algae Ulothrix spec., Zygogonium spec. and Haematococcus spec. The sample BSC1 was not entirely covered with microphytes, crust patches were smooth, and P. oligotropha was observed to develop on residues of C. purpureus and on unspecified organic detritus. BSC2 covered the surface entirely and was dominated by P. oligotropha and by Zygogonium spec. The sample BSC3 consisted of pad-like patches predominantly growing on organic residues. The moss sample was dominated by C. purpureus and Zygogonium spec. growing between the moss stemlets directly on the mineral surface, the lichen sample was dominated by Cladonia subulata with sparsely scattered individuals of C. purpureus. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that BSC2 was floristically and chemically most similar to the moss crust, whereas BSC3 was floristically and chemically most similar to the lichen crust. Crust biomass was lowest in the non-crusted substrate, increased to the initial BSC1 and peaked in the developed BSC2, BSC3, the lichens and the mosses. Water infiltration was highest on the substrate

  6. Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.

    2003-10-01

    Frequent morning surveys of birds were conducted on 1 km of beach in southern California to investigate shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach. The overall mean abundance (98.6 individuals km -1), estimated biomass (9.6 kg km -1), and species richness (5.5 species km -1) of shorebirds observed were very high for a sandy beach in the temperate zone. Eight species, sanderling ( Calidris alba), semipalmated plover ( Charadrius semipalmatus), marbled godwit ( Limosa fedoa), black-bellied plover ( Pluvialis squatarola), western sandpiper ( Calidris mauri), willet ( Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), surfbird ( Aphriza virgata), and whimbrel ( Numenius phaeopus), occurred in overall mean abundances >1 bird km -1 and accounted for 97% of the abundance and biomass of shorebirds. Sanderlings were the most abundant shorebird every year (64% of individuals and 35% of the biomass). Different species of abundant shorebirds exhibited distinct patterns of use of beach habitat, including fall, spring, and winter peaks in abundance. Temporal variation in shorebird use on seasonal and interannual scales was associated with migration patterns, and also with habitat availability and condition. Seasonal variation in monthly mean abundance and estimated biomass of shorebirds varied over more than an order of magnitude and followed a similar pattern in each year, reaching maxima in the fall or winter (161-280 individuals km -1 and 15.4-23.9 kg km -1) and minima in May or June (3-11 individuals km -1 and 0.8-2.2 kg km -1). A minor peak in shorebird abundance and biomass coinciding with spring migration was observed in April of most years. The number of species of shorebirds observed in individual surveys ranged from 0 to 11 species km -1 and was positively and significantly correlated with abundance. Monthly mean species richness and the total species observed monthly followed similar seasonal patterns, ranging from annual maxima of 7.4-9.1 and 12-17 species km -1 between August and October

  7. A revised circumscription for the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae) with associated nomenclatural adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Penneys, Darin S.; Judd, Walter S.

    2013-01-01

    Penneys & Judd, nom. nov., Blakea induta (Markgr.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea inflata (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea insignis (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea intricata (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea killipii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea lentii (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea longiloba (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea longisepala (Gleason) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea macbrydei (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea maguirei (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea maurofernandeziana (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea mcphersonii (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea modica (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea mortoniana (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea muricata (Lozano) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea pascoensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea pluvialis (Standl.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea sessilifolia (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea setosa (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea standleyi (L.O.Williams) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea stephanochaeta (Naudin) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea steyermarkii (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea suaveolens (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea subbarbata (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea subscabrula (Triana) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea subsessiliflora (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea superba (Naudin) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea tetramera (Almeda) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov., Blakea tetroici (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea toachiensis (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea trianae (Cogn.) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea verrucosa (Wurdack) Penneys & Judd, comb. nov., Blakea watsonii (Cogn.) Penneys & Almeda, comb. nov. PMID:23717192

  8. Microalgal diversity in relation to the physicochemical parameters of some Industrial sites in Mangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jyothi; Krishnakumar, G

    2015-11-01

    This study is undertaken to understand the microalgal species composition, diversity, abundance and their association with the polluted sites of an industrial area. The microalgae and the wastewater samples collected from these sites were preserved and analysed using standard methods. One hundred and eight species of the microalgae, belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceace and Desmidaceae, were identified. Of these, the members of Cyanophyceae formed the dominant flora. It was observed that the family Oscillatoriaceae was the most diverse family. In this family, the most diverse genus was found to be the Oscillatoria, with 13 species. Further, the abundance of Oscillatoria princeps indicated that these species are tolerant to the pollution and therefore considered as the 'marker species' of the habitat. The abundance of the Cyanophyceae in these sites was found to be due to the favourable contents of the oxidizable organic matter and the presence of the nutrients, such as the nitrates and the phosphates, in abundance, with less dissolved oxygen. The lesser percentage of the Bacillariophyceae (14%), and the negligible number of the euglenoids (2%) indicated that the sites were rich in the inorganic pollutants and poor in the organic pollutants. The range of Shannon diversity indices was found between 2.10 and 3.50, while the dominance index was found between 0.03 and 0.14, the species evenness between 0.73 and 0.93 and the Margalef index between 1.8 and 6.3. The diversity indices indicated that there is light to moderate level of pollution in the studied sites, with moderate diversity level. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical parameters identified the four possible groups, which were responsible for the data structure, explaining the 74% of the total variance of the data set. In the PCA performed using all the variables, the first principal component showed the positive correlation with the total

  9. Microalgal diversity in relation to the physicochemical parameters of some Industrial sites in Mangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jyothi; Krishnakumar, G

    2015-11-01

    This study is undertaken to understand the microalgal species composition, diversity, abundance and their association with the polluted sites of an industrial area. The microalgae and the wastewater samples collected from these sites were preserved and analysed using standard methods. One hundred and eight species of the microalgae, belonging to Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Bacillariophyceace and Desmidaceae, were identified. Of these, the members of Cyanophyceae formed the dominant flora. It was observed that the family Oscillatoriaceae was the most diverse family. In this family, the most diverse genus was found to be the Oscillatoria, with 13 species. Further, the abundance of Oscillatoria princeps indicated that these species are tolerant to the pollution and therefore considered as the 'marker species' of the habitat. The abundance of the Cyanophyceae in these sites was found to be due to the favourable contents of the oxidizable organic matter and the presence of the nutrients, such as the nitrates and the phosphates, in abundance, with less dissolved oxygen. The lesser percentage of the Bacillariophyceae (14%), and the negligible number of the euglenoids (2%) indicated that the sites were rich in the inorganic pollutants and poor in the organic pollutants. The range of Shannon diversity indices was found between 2.10 and 3.50, while the dominance index was found between 0.03 and 0.14, the species evenness between 0.73 and 0.93 and the Margalef index between 1.8 and 6.3. The diversity indices indicated that there is light to moderate level of pollution in the studied sites, with moderate diversity level. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the physicochemical parameters identified the four possible groups, which were responsible for the data structure, explaining the 74% of the total variance of the data set. In the PCA performed using all the variables, the first principal component showed the positive correlation with the total

  10. Sources and transfers of particulate organic matter in a tropical reservoir (Petit Saut, French Guiana): a multi-tracers analysis using δ13C, C/N ratio and pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Junet, A.; Abril, G.; Guérin, F.; Billy, I.; de Wit, R.

    2005-08-01

    Carbon cycling and organic matter transfers in the tropical Sinnamary river system (French Guiana), including a mid-stream reservoir (Petit Saut) and its estuary on the Atlantic coast, were studied during the dry season by analyzing the organic carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C-OC), C/N ratios and pigments contents of suspended matter, sediments, sediments traps and epiphytic and epilithic biofilms. In the River upstream as well as in surface sediments at the entrance of the reservoir and at the littoral zone of the reservoir, particulate organic matter (POM) was in majority of terrestrial origin, with a δ13C-C/N signature close to the one of soil and litter collected in the surrounding forest and with high OC/total pigments ratios. High concentrations of Pheopigments a and b in these surface sediments showed that this terrestrial POM, either carried by the river and eolian transport or present in the soil before flooding, undergoes intense degradation. Deeper in the sediment, the δ13C profile showed a decreasing trend with depth typical of what is found in soils, showing that the flooded soil still remains present at the reservoir bottom 10 years after flooding. At the center of the reservoir, POM in the water column, in sediment traps and in surface sediments was in majority of aquatic origin with low C/N and OC/total pigments ratios. In the oxic epilimnion at 3 m depth, Chl a, Chl b and Lutein showed the predominance of Chlorophyceae to the phytoplankton community. At this depth, a C/N ratio of 21 suggests a large contribution of transparent exopolymeric particles to the bulk POM, which, in addition, was 13C-depleted due to a significant contribution of methanotrophic bacteria. At 7 m depth, below the oxicline, high concentrations of BChl d and occasionally BChl c revealed the presence of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, namely Chlorobiaceae. In the sediment traps, Chl a, Chl b, Lutein and BChl c and BChl d confirmed the contribution of plankton to the